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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A scheme for the production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper was investigated. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150 g samples of lignocellulosic feeds was completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. This is a method recommended in the Forage Fiber Handbook. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis. Work is continuing on characterizing the cellulase and cellobiase enzyme systems derived from the YX strain of Thermomonospora.

Not Available

2

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels, for maximizing profits, and for profitable production of each of the three jet fuels from the by-product liquids have been developed. Economic analyses of the designs show that jet fuel can be produced from the by-products, but not economically. However, jet fuel production could be subsidized profitably by processing the phenolic and naphtha streams to cresols, phenols, BTX, and other valuable chemical by-products. Uncertainties in the studies are marketability of the chemical by-products, replacement fuel costs, and viable schemes to process the phenol stream, among others. 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Samples of jet fuel (JP-4, JP-8, JP-8X) produced from the liquid by-products of the gasification of lignite coal from the Great Plains Gasification Plant were analyzed to determine the quantity and type of organo-oxygen compounds present. Results were compared to similar fuel samples produced from petroleum. Large quantities of oxygen compounds were found in the coal-derived liquids and were removed in the refining process. Trace quantities of organo-oxygenate compounds were suspected to be present in the refined fuels. Compounds were identified and quantified as part of an effort to determine the effect of these compounds in fuel instability. Results of the analysis showed trace levels of phenols, naphthols, benzofurans, hexanol, and hydrogenated naphthols were present in levels below 100 ppM. 9 figs., 3 tabs.

Knudson, C.L.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. In addition to the maximum jet fuel schemes, conceptual designs have also been formulated for maximizing profits from refining of the Great Plains by-products. Conceptual processing schemes for profitable production of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X have been developed, as has a maximum profit'' case. All four of these additional cases have now been transferred to Lummus for design and integration studies. Development of these schemes required the use of linear programming technology. This technology includes not only conventional refining processes which have been adapted for use with coal-derived liquids (e.g. hydrotreating, hydrocracking), but also processes which may be uniquely suited to the Great Plains by-products such as cresylic acid extraction, hydordealkylation, and needle coking. 6 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 have also been produced and shipped to the US Air Force for further testing. Lummus-Crest Inc. is now completing a preliminary process design for the profitable production of JP-8 and has made recommendations for a production run to produce larger quantities of JP-8. 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus-Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design in the later phases of the contract. Samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X aviation turbine fuels have been manufactured from the Great Plains tar oil. Larger samples of JP-8 are nearly completed. Specification of a design basis for profitable production of JP-8 is under way. 5 figs., 4 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus Crest have developed seven cases for upgrading by-product liquids from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels, and in several of the cases, saleable chemicals in addition to jet fuels. The analysis shows that the various grades of jet fuel can be produced from the Great Plains tar oil, but not economically. However, the phenolic and naphtha streams do have the potential to significantly increase (on the order of $10--15 million/year) the net revenues at Great Plains by producing chemicals, especially cresylic acid, cresol, and xylenol. The amount of these chemicals, which can be marketed, is a concern, but profits can be generated even when oxygenated chemical sales are limited to 10 percent of the US market. Another concern is that while commercial processes exist to extract phenolic mixtures, these processes have not been demonstrated with the Great Plains phenolic stream. 9 refs., 24 figs., 14 tabs.

Fleming, B.A.; Fox, J.D.; Furlong, M.W.; Masin, J.G.; Sault, L.P.; Tatterson, D.F. (Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (USA). Research and Development Dept.); Fornoff, L.L.; Link, M.A.; Stahlnecker, E.; Torster, K. (Lummus Crest, Inc., Bloomfield, NJ (USA))

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Analytical characterizations of these three by-products indicate the range of products that can be manufactured from each, and potential problems which could be encountered during refining. These characterizations, along with limited experimental data and Amoco's proprietary process models, were used to design conceptual processing schemes for maximizing the production of Grades JP-4, JP-8, and high-density (JP-8X) jet fuels from the by-product liquids. Conceptual designs have been completed and a case for profitable production of JP-8 has been selected for experimental testing and preliminary design in the later phases of the contract. Experimental work to date has shown that the tar oil stream requires substantially more severe processing than the preliminary design estimates indicated. A new design basis is now being tested and samples of JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X are in production, based on that new, more severe processing scheme. Six barrels of tar oil have been hydrotreated according to the first step of the processing scheme and will be used to produce barrel quantities of JP-8. 2 refs., 2 figs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Fuel gas production by microwave plasma in liquid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose to apply plasma in liquid to replace gas-phase plasma because we expect much higher reaction rates for the chemical deposition of plasma in liquid than for chemical vapor deposition. A reactor for producing microwave plasma in a liquid could produce plasma in hydrocarbon liquids and waste oils. Generated gases consist of up to 81% hydrogen by volume. We confirmed that fuel gases such as methane and ethylene can be produced by microwave plasma in liquid.

Nomura, Shinfuku; Toyota, Hiromichi; Tawara, Michinaga; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Kenya [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Ehime University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Matsuyama, Ehime 790-8577 (Japan); Shikoku Industry and Technology Promotion Center, 2-5 Marunouchi, Takamatsu, Kagawa 760-0033 (Japan)

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

10

Production of jet fuel from coal-derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest, under a contract with the United States Department of Energy, are evaluating the process options and economics for upgrading the naphtha, crude phenols, and tar oil by-products from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant to jet fuels and other salable products. Task 1 of the work, in which processes to produce each of the three jet fuels, JP-4, JP-8, and JP-8X, were designed, has been completed. The formal Task 1 report should issue next quarter. Task 2 work was initiated this quarter. In Task 2, process conditions for producing jet fuel from the Great Plains tar oil stream will be verified and samples of each of the three jet fuels will be produced. Experimental work shows that the hydrotreating conditions specified in Task 1 will not convert sufficient aromatics in the tar oil to produce jet fuel. Alternative schemes have been proposed and are being tested in the laboratories at Amoco Research Center. The simplest of these schemes, in which the heavy ends from the hydrotreater are recycled to extinction, was tested and proved infeasible. A second stage, fixed bed hydrotreater will be added to the process along with the expanded bed, first-stage hydrotreater and the hydrocracker specified in the Task 1 design. Future work will include additional experiments to specify the best process configuration and production of samples of each of the three grades of jet fuel. 6 figs., 7 tabs.

Furlong, M.W.; Fox, J.D.; Masin, J.G.; Soderberg, D.J.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

12

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Low Cost High-H2 Syngas Production for Power and Liquid Fuels Gas Technology Institute (GTI) Project Number: FE0011958 Project Description Proof-of-concept of a metal-polymeric...

13

Production of jet fuels from coal derived liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company has conducted bench- and pilot plant-scale experiments to produce jet fuels from the tar oil from the Great Plains Coal Gasification Plant in Beulah, North Dakota. Experiments show that the hydroprocessing conditions recommended in Task 1 are not severe enough to saturate the aromatics in the tar oil to meet jet fuel specifications. Alternatives were investigated. Jet fuel specifications can be achieved when the tar oil is: hydrotreated in an expanded-bed hydrotreater to lower aromatics and heteroatom content; the effluent is then hydrotreated in a second, fixed bed hydrotreater; and, finally, the 550{degree}F boiling fraction from the two hydrotreaters is hydrocracked to extinction. The process was verified by pilot-plant production of 2 barrels of JP-8 turbine fuel, which met all but the flash point specification for JP-8. In addition, small samples of JP-4, JP-8, and high-density fuel were produced as a part of Task 2. 13 figs., 21 tabs.

Furlong, M.; Fox, J.; Masin, J.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Liquid fuels production in Middle Eastern and North African ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

15

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the AEO2006 projections.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

8. Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

8. Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels B. Fuel Ethanol Production and Market Conditions Ethanol is consumed as fuel in the United States primarily as "gasohol"--a blend ...

17

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

18

Liquid Fuel Production from Biomass via High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Hydrogen from electrolysis allows a high utilization of the biomass carbon for syngas production. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-fed biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

Grant L. Hawkes; Michael G. McKellar

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

CO sub 2 sources for microalgae-based liquid fuel production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Researchers in the Aquatic Species Program at the Solar Energy Research Institute are developing species of microalgae that have high percentages of lipids, or oils. These lipids can be extracted and converted to diesel fuel substitutes. Because microalgae need carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a nutrient, optimal microalgae growth occurs in CO{sub 2}-saturated solutions. For this reason, the authors of this study sought to identify possible large-scale sources of CO{sub 2} for microalgae-based liquid fuels production. The authors concluded that several such promising sources exist. 42 refs., 14 figs., 10 tabs.

Feinberg, D.; Karpuk, M.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this program in its third year, as briefly summarized below. (1) Nanoscale iron-based catalysts containing molybdenum, palladium, or nickel and supported on alumina have been developed that are very effective for the dehydrogenation of methane and ethane to produce pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes, a potentially valuable byproduct. Some of the nanotube structures are being investigated as a safe storage medium for hydrogen. Dehydrogenation of higher hydrocarbons, including several liquids that are compatible with vehicular transportation under fuel cell power, is currently under investigation. (2) Operation of Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis under supercritical fluid (SCF) solvent conditions increases liquid fuel yields and improves the selectivity of the process to produce desired products. (3) Small additions ({approx}1%) of organic probe molecules with carbon-carbon triple bonds to the FT reaction markedly shift the molecular weight distribution and increase the oxygenate content of the products. The goal is to develop better technology for producing cleaner burning diesel fuel and other fuels. (4) Several different types of catalyst are under investigation to develop better control of FT fuel product distributions. (5) C1 processes have been developed for producing ethylene and propylene, two high-value products, from methanol. Novel silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) catalysts containing nickel and other metals are used. (6) Binary tungsten-cobalt carbide catalysts have been found to have excellent activities and lifetimes for reforming of methane into synthesis gas using carbon dioxide. This type of catalyst is being further investigated for synthesis gas reactions relevant to the goal of producing hydrogen from coal.

Gerald P. Huffman

2002-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Status of Process Development for Pyrolysis of Biomass for Liquid Fuels and Chemicals Production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Pyrolysis is one of several thermochemical conversion strategies to produce useful fuels from biomass material . The goal of fast pyrolysis is to maximize liquid product yield. Fast pyrolysis is accomplished by the thermal treatment of the biomass in an air-free environment. Very short heat up and cool-down is a requirement for fast pyrolysis. The typical residence time in the pyrolysis reactor is 1 second. In order to accomplish the fast heatup, grinding the biomass to a small particle size in the range of 1 mm is typical and pre-drying of the biomass to less than 10 weight percent moisture is considered the standard. Recovery of the product liquid, called bio-oil, is accomplished by a variety of methods all of which require a quick quench of the product vapor. A definition of fast pyrolysis bio-oil is provided for the CAS # RN 1207435-39-9 recently issued by ChemAbstracts Services.

Elliott, Douglas C.

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

None

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

23

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

24

LIQUID BIO-FUEL PRODUCTION FROM NON-FOOD BIOMASS VIA HIGH TEMPERATURE STEAM ELECTROLYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Bio-Syntrolysis is a hybrid energy process that enables production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), bio-syntrolysis has the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce US dependence on imported oil. Combining hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid transportation fuels via a Fischer-Tropsch process. Conversion of syngas to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier. Based on the gasifier temperature, 94% to 95% of the carbon in the biomass becomes carbon monoxide in the syngas (carbon monoxide and hydrogen). Assuming the thermal efficiency of the power cycle for electricity generation is 50%, (as expected from GEN IV nuclear reactors), the syngas production efficiency ranges from 70% to 73% as the gasifier temperature decreases from 1900 K to 1500 K. Parametric studies of system pressure, biomass moisture content and low temperature alkaline electrolysis are also presented.

G. L. Hawkes; J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

26

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2005-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

27

C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

Gerald P. Huffman

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

28

Biological production of liquid fuels from biomass. Annual report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The production of liquid fuels from renewable resources such as poplar wood and lignocellulosic wastes from a refuse hydropulper were studied. The particular scheme being studied involves the conversion of a cellulosic residue, resulting from a solvent delignified lignocellulosic feed, into either high concentration sugar syrups or into ethyl and/or butyl alcohol. The process is aimed at achieving total raw material utilization and maximization of high value by-product recovery. Specific goals of the investigation are the demonstration of the process technical feasibility and economic practicality and its optimization for maximum economic yield and efficiency. The construction of a pilot apparatus for solvent delignifying 150g samples of lignocellulosic feeds has been completed. Also, an analysis method for characterizing the delignified product has been selected and tested. Delignified samples are now being prepared and tested for their extent of delignification and susceptibility to enzyme hydrolysis.

Pye, E.K.; Humphrey, A.E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

Gerald P. Huffman

2006-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

30

C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

Gerald P. Huffman

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

31

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Liquid Fuels Graphic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

26. World Liquids Supply in three Cases, 2006 and 2030 Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2006-2030 Figure 28. World Liquids Consumption by Sector,...

32

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 6, 1 October-31 December 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; and (5) scale the entire process up to match the output of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results show that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels already have a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential.

Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Liquid fuel reformer development.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Argonne National Laboratory we are developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a clean hydrogen feed for a fuel cell. The process incorporates a partial oxidation/steam reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. We have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a regular diesel fuel. We achieved complete conversion of the feed to products. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 800 C. For the two diesel fuels, higher temperatures, >850 C, were required to approach similar levels of hydrogen in the product stream. At 800 C, hydrogen yield of the low sulfur diesel was 32%, while that of the regular diesel was 52%. Residual products in both cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, ethylene, and methane.

Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

35

Structured catalyst bed and method for conversion of feed materials to chemical products and liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The present invention is a structured monolith reactor and method that provides for controlled Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis. The invention controls mass transport limitations leading to higher CO conversion and lower methane selectivity. Over 95 wt % of the total product liquid hydrocarbons obtained from the monolithic catalyst are in the carbon range of C.sub.5-C.sub.18. The reactor controls readsorption of olefins leading to desired products with a preselected chain length distribution and enhanced overall reaction rate. And, liquid product analysis shows readsorption of olefins is reduced, achieving a narrower FT product distribution.

Wang, Yong (Richland, WA), Liu; Wei (Richland, WA)

2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

36

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 7, January 1-March 31, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The specific goals for the current program are: (1) establish conditions under which substrates other than marine algae may be converted in good yield to organic acids. The primary task in this regard is methane suppression; (2) modify the current 300 liter fixed packed bed batch fermenter to operate in a continuous mode; (3) change from membrane extraction of organic acids to liquid-liquid extraction; (4) optimize the energy balance of the electrolytic oxidation process. The primary task in this regard is to reduce the working potential required for the electrolysis while maintaining an adequate current density; (5) scale the entire process up to match the ouput of the 300 liter fermenter. The accomplishments in this program are on schedule. Experimental results have shown that the electrolysis of organic acids produced by fermentation to liquid hydrocarbon fuels is already operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential and over 10/1 based on the working potential. 2-Bromoethanesulfonic acid, a coenzyme M analogue, has been shown to be an effective methane suppressor, and the program is being rapidly expanded to include biomass substrates other than marine algae. In addition, considerable effort has been directed toward refining the process design and economic analysis presented previously.

Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Wise, D.L.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Syngas production from heavy liquid fuel reforming in inert porous media  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the low H2 density is the movement: the power required to pump hydrogen is around 4.5 times higher than for natural gas per unit of delivered energy [17]. Hydrogen can be stored on-board a vehicle as a compressed gas, as a liquid in cryogenic containers... and the transportation system are mainly based on the combustion of fossil fuels, generally defined as oil, coal and natural gas, as shown in Fig. 1.1. There are several issues to be considered about fossil fuel consumption. First of all, the greenhouse gas emission, due...

Pastore, Andrea

2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

38

Optimal Simultaneous Production of Hydrogen and Liquid Fuels from Glycerol: Integrating the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

fuel production Fischer-Tropsch or methanol synthesis . Moreover, under the reaction conditions hydrocarbons through the Fischer-Tropsch process. To do this, it is necessary to partially oxidize the CH4 production Fischer- Tropsch . Moreover, under the reaction conditions explored, no CO2 was detected, i

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

39

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

on October 24, 2006 Review of Working Group Charter & DOE RD&D Targets for Hydrogen Production from Renewable Liquid Fuels, Arlene Anderson, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies...

40

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Energy ■ Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US ■ Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

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41

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Chapter 2 - Liquid Fuels World liquids consumption increases from 84 million barrels per day in 2005 to 99 million barrels per day in 2030 in the IEO2008 high price case. In the reference case, which reflects a price path that departs significantly from prices prevailing in the first 8 months of 2008, liquids use rises to 113 million barrels per day in 2030. Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 (Million Barrels Oil Equivalent per Day). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

42

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 8, July 1-September 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

It was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation broth by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. A coenzyme M analogue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates. A tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter. A solvent extracter system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter. The electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential. As stated earlier the liquid-liquid extractor system is operating in line with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor. The other components of an integrated continuous system, the continuous feed device and the Kolbe electrolysis cell are operating satisfactorily out of line on a scale compatible with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor. An economic analysis for a 1000 ton per day plant has been performed and has been improved and updated based on additional experimental results. Currently a cost based on utility financing including a reasonable return on investment of $5.48/million Btu is estimated, making the process fully competitive with the most favorable estimates from other processes for producing liquid fuels from renewable resources.

Sanderson, J.E.; Wise, D.L.; Levy, P.F.; Molyneaux, M.S.

1979-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

43

Liquid fuels production from biomass. Progress report No. 8, April 1-June 30, 1979  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current program to convert biomass into liquid hydrocarbon fuels is an extension of the previous program to ferment marine algae to acetic acid. In that study, it was found that marine algae could be converted to higher aliphatic organic acids and that these acids could be readily removed from the fermentation both by membrane or liquid-liquid extraction. It was then proposed to convert these higher organic acids to aliphatic hydrocarbons via Kolbe Electrolysis, which may be used as a diesel fuel. The accompishments in this program for the first year of work are as follows: a coenzyme M anologue, 2-bromoethanesulfonic acid has been shown to be an effective suppressor of methane in nonsterile anaerobic fermentation of cellulosic substrates; a tapered auger device has been designed and built which has been demonstrated on the bench to be effective for adding substrate and removing residue in a continuous manner from a fixed packed bed fermenter; a solvent extracter system using kerosene as the nonaqueous phase has been constructed and is currently in operation in series with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter; although additional work is required to optimize the electrolysis process the electrolytic oxidation of organic acids produced in the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermenter is operating with a favorable energy balance of 6/1 based on the applied potential; the liquid-liquid extractor system is operating in line with 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; the other components of an integrated continuous system, the continuous feed device and the Kolbe electrolysis cell are operating satisfactorily out of line on a scale compatible with the 300 liter fixed packed bed fermentor; and an economic analysis for a 1000 ton per day plant has been performed and has been improved and updated based on additional experimental results.

Sanderson, J.E.; Garcia-Martinez, D.V.; George, G.S.; Dillon, J.J.; Molyneaux, M.S.; Barnard, G.W.; Wise, D.L.

1979-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

44

Recent developments in the production of liquid fuels via catalytic conversion of microalgae: experiments and simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Due to continuing high demand, depletion of non-renewable resources and increasing concerns about climate change, the use of fossil fuel-derived transportation fuels faces relentless challenges both from a world markets and an environmental perspective. The production of renewable transportation fuel from microalgae continues to attract much attention because of its potential for fast growth rates, high oil content, ability to grow in unconventional scenarios, and inherent carbon neutrality. Moreover, the use of microalgae would minimize food versus fuel concerns associated with several biomass strategies, as microalgae do not compete with food crops in the food chain. This paper reviews the progress of recent research on the production of transportation fuels via homogeneous and heterogeneous catalytic conversions of microalgae. This review also describes the development of tools that may allow for a more fundamental understanding of catalyst selection and conversion processes using computational modelling. The catalytic conversion reaction pathways that have been investigated are fully discussed based on both experimental and theoretical approaches. Finally, this work makes several projections for the potential of various thermocatalytic pathways to produce alternative transportation fuels from algae, and identifies key areas where the authors feel that computational modelling should be directed to elucidate key information to optimize the process.

Shi,Fan; Wang, Pin; Duan, Yuhua; Link, Dirk; Morreale, Bryan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

46

liquid fuels | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, other petroleum supply, other non petroleum supply and liquid fuel consumption. Source EIA Date...

47

Production of coal-based fuels and value-added products: coal to liquids using petroleum refinery streams  

SciTech Connect

We are studying several processes that utilize coal, coal-derived materials, or biomass in existing refining facilities. A major emphasis is the production of a coal-based replacement for JP-8 jet fuel. This fuel is very similar to Jet A and jet A-1 in commercial variation, so this work has significant carry-over into the private sector. We have been focusing on three processes that would be retrofitted into a refinery: (1) coal tar/refinery stream blending and hydro-treatment; (2) coal extraction using refinery streams followed by hydro-treatment; and (3) co-coking of coal blended with refinery streams. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Clifford, C.E.B.; Schobert, H.H. [Pennsylvania State University, PA (United States)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 7. GPGP jet-fuels production program. Evaluation of technical uncertainties for producing jet fuels from liquid by-products of the Great Plains gasification plant. Interim report, 2 October 1987-30 September 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In September 1986, the Fuels Branch of the Aero Propulsion Laboratory at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio, began an investigation of the potential of jet-fuel production from the liquid by-product streams produced by the gasification of lignite at the Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota. Funding was provided by the Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) to administer the experimental portion of this effort. This document reports the results of the effort by Burns and Roe Services Corporation/Science Applications International Corporation (BRSC/SAIC) to analyze GPGP operations and develop correlations for the liquid by-products and plant operating factors such as coal feed rate and coal characteristics.

Fraser, M.D.; Rossi, R.J.; Wan, E.I.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Production of liquid fuels and chemicals by microalgae. Final subcontract report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An overall objective of the project was to conceptually determine if simple open pond systems have application for the production of fuels from microalgae. To demonstrate the overall objective, work concentrated on showing the potential microalgal yields that are possible from an open pond system on a sustained basis. Furthermore, problems associated with this experimental system were documented and reported so that future endeavors shall benefit. Finally, operational costs were documented to permit preliminary economic analysis of the system. The major conclusions of this project can be summarized as follows: (1) Using two wildtype species in northern California a yearly average productivity of 15 gm/m/sup 2//day, or 24 tons/acre/yr can be obtained in water with TDS = 4 to 8 ppt. (2) This can probably be increased to 20 to 25 gm/m/sup 2//day or 32 to 40 tons/acre/y in southern California. (3) Productivity can probably be further increased by using competitive strains screened for low respiration rates, tolerances to high levels of dissolved oxygen, broad temperature optima, and resistance to photoinhibition. (4) In systems with randomized, turbulent mixing, productivity is independent of channel velocity at least for productivities up to 25 to 30 gm/m/sup 2//day and velocities from 1 to 30 cm/sec. (5) Storage product induction requires one to three days of growth in batch mode under n-depleted conditions. (6) Critical cost centers include CO/sub 2/ input, harvesting and system capital cost. (7) Media recycling, necessary for water conservation, has no adverse effects, at least in the short term for strains which do not excrete organics, and when the harvesting method is at least moderately effective for all algal forms which may be present. 8 refs., 28 figs., 56 tabs.

Weissman, J.C.; Goebel, R.P.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC LFMM / NEMS overview 2 M. Cole, EIA Advanced Biofuels Workshop August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC * LFMM is a mathematical representation of the U.S. liquid fuels market (motor gasoline, diesel, biofuels, etc.). EIA analysts use LFMM to project motor fuel prices and production approaches through 2040. * LFMM is a cost-minimization linear program (LP). For a given set of fuel demands, LFMM will find the least-cost means of satisfying those demands, subject to various constraints (such as the RFS). * LFMM is part of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which is a computer model of the U.S. energy economy. EIA uses

51

Production of jet fuels from coal-derived liquids. Volume 6. Preliminary analysis of upgrading alternatives for the Great Plains liquid by-production streams. Interim report, March 1987-February 1988  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Amoco and Lummus Crest have developed seven cases for upgrading by-product liquids from the Great Plains Coal Gasification plant to jet fuels, and in several of the cases, saleable chemicals in addition to jet fuels. The analysis shows that the various grades of jet fuel can be produced from the Great Plains tar oil, but not economically. However the phenolic and naptha streams do have the potential to significantly increase (on the order of $10-15 million/year) the net revenues at Great Plains by producing chemicals, especially cresylic acid, cresol, and xylenol. The amount of these chemicals, which can be marketed, is a concern, but profits can be generated even when oxygenated chemical sales are limited to 10% of the U.S. market. Another concern is that while commercial processes exist to extract phenolic mixtures, these processes have not been demonstrated with the Great Plains phenolic stream.

Fleming, B.A.; Fox, J.D.; Furlong, M.W.; Masin, J.G.; Sault, L.P.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief primer on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat, and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. References for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper.

Singh, S.P.N.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Synthetic fuels: production and products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A brief review on synthetic fuels is given. The paper includes brief descriptions of generic conversion technologies that can be used to convert various raw materials such as coal, oil shale, tar sands, peat and biomass into synthetic fuels similar in character to petroleum-derived fuels currently in commerce. Because the subject is vast and the space is limited, references for additional information on synthetic fuel processes and products are also given in the paper. 24 references.

Singh, S.P.

1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Production of liquid fuels with a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent events by OPEC have sharply increased interest in the United States for synfuels, and there are plans for several types of synfuel demonstration plants. The early timing of these plants will probably preclude their use of a nuclear heat source, but their operation will be a necessary step to the eventual integration of a nuclear heat source. The applications using coal liquids that are considered active candidates for nuclear process heat, the reference heat source design, and nuclear and non-nuclear methods for coal liquefaction are described.

Quade, R.N.; Vrable, D.L.; Green, L. Jr.

1979-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The current status and future plans for a project to convert waste cellulosic (biomass) materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels is described. The basic approach is indirect liquefaction, i.e., thermal gasification followed by catalytic liquefaction. The indirect approach results in separation of the oxygen in the biomass feedstock, i.e., oxygenated compounds do not appear in the liquid hydrocarbon fuel product. The process is capable of accepting a wide variety of feedstocks. Potential products include medium quality gas, normal propanol, diesel fuel and/or high octane gasoline. A fluidized bed pyrolysis system is used for gasification. The pyrolyzer can be fluidized with recycle pyrolysis gas, steam or recycle liquefaction system off gas or some combination thereof. Tars are removed in a wet scrubber. Unseparated pyrolysis gases are utilized as feed to a modified Fischer-Tropsch reactor. The liquid condensate from the reactor consists of a normal propanol-water phase and a paraffinic hydrocarbon phase. The reactor can be operated to optimize for either product. The following tasks were specified in the statement of work for the contract period: (1) feedstock studies; (2) gasification system optimization; (3) waste stream characterization; and (4) liquid fuels synthesis. In addition, several equipment improvements were implemented.

Kuester, J.L.

1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Development of geothermally assisted process for production of liquid fuels and chemicals from wheat straw  

SciTech Connect

The effects of variations in autohydrolysis conditions on the production of fermentable sugars from wheat straw are investigated. Both the direct production of sugar from the autohydrolysis of hemicellulose and the subsequent yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose are considered. The principal parameters studied were time, temperature, and water/fiber weight ratio; however, the effects of adding minor amounts of phenol and aluminum sulfate to the autohydrolysis charge were also investigated. A brief study was made of the effects of two major parameters, substrate concentration and enzyme/substrate ratio, on the sugar yield from enzymatic hydrolysis of optimally pretreated straw. The efficiency with which these sugars could be fermented to ethanol was studied. In most cases experiments were carried out using distilled water; however, the effects of direct use of geothermal water were determined for each of the major steps in the process. An appendix to the body of the report describes the results of a preliminary economic evaluation of a plant designed to produce 25 x 10/sup 6/ gallons of ethanol per year from wheat straw using the best process conditions determined in the above work. Also appended are the results from a preliminary investigation of the applicability of autohydrolysis technology to the production of fermentable sugars from corn stover.

Murphy, V.G.; Linden, J.C.; Moreira, A.R.; Lenz, T.G.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

The evaluation of a coal-derived liquid as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The conversion of coal-derived liquids to transportation fuels has been the subject of many studies sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the US Department of Defense. For the most part, these studies evaluated conventional petroleum processes for the production of specification-grade fuels. Recently, however, the interest of these two departments expanded to include the evaluation of alternate fossil fuels as a feedstock for the production of high-density aviation turbine fuel. In this study, we evaluated five processes for their ability to produce intermediates from a coal-derived liquid for the production of high-density turbine fuel. These processes include acid-base extraction to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate and the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, solvent dewaxing to reduce the paraffin (alkane) content of the atmospheric and vacuum gas oils, Attapulgus clay treatment to reduce the heteroatom content of the middle distillate, coking to reduce the distillate range of the vacuum gas oil, and hydrogenation to remove heteroatoms and to saturate aromatic rings in the middle distillate and atmospheric gas oil. The chemical and physical properties that the US Air Force considers critical for the development of high-denisty aviation turbine fuel are specific gravity and net heat of combustion. The target minimum values for these properties are a specific gravity of at least 0.85 and a net heat of combustion of at least 130,000 Btu/gal. In addition, the minimum hydrogen content is 13.0 wt %, the maximum freeze point is {minus}53{degrees}F ({minus}47{degrees}C), the maximum amount of aromatics is about 25 to 30 vol %, and the maximum amount of paraffins is 10 vol %. 13 refs., 20 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Hunter, D.E.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

60

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2008-Liquid Fuels Graphic Data  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid Fuels Liquid Fuels International Energy Outlook 2008 Figure 26. World Liquids Production in the Reference Case, 1990-2030 Figure 26 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2005-2030 Figure 27 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 28. World Liquids Consumption by Sector, 2005-2030 Figure 28 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 29. World Liquids Consumption by Region and Country Group, 2005 and 2030 Figure 29 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure 30. Nominal World Oil Prices in three Cases, 1980-2030 Figure 30 Data. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 2: A Techno-economic Evaluation of the Production of Mixed Alcohols  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). However, biomass is not always available in sufficient quantity at a price compatible with fuels production. Municipal solid waste (MSW) on the other hand is readily available in large quantities in some communities and is considered a partially renewable feedstock. Furthermore, MSW may be available for little or no cost. This report provides a techno-economic analysis of the production of mixed alcohols from MSW and compares it to the costs for a wood based plant. In this analysis, MSW is processed into refuse derived fuel (RDF) and then gasified in a plant co-located with a landfill. The resulting syngas is then catalytically converted to mixed alcohols. At a scale of 2000 metric tons per day of RDF, and using current technology, the minimum ethanol selling price at a 10% rate of return is approximately $1.85/gallon ethanol (early 2008 $). However, favorable economics are dependent upon the toxicity characteristics of the waste streams and that a market exists for the by-product scrap metal recovered from the RDF process.

Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua; Valkenburg, Corinne

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Reimagining liquid transportation fuels : sunshine to petrol.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two of the most daunting problems facing humankind in the twenty-first century are energy security and climate change. This report summarizes work accomplished towards addressing these problems through the execution of a Grand Challenge LDRD project (FY09-11). The vision of Sunshine to Petrol is captured in one deceptively simple chemical equation: Solar Energy + xCO{sub 2} + (x+1)H{sub 2}O {yields} C{sub x}H{sub 2x+2}(liquid fuel) + (1.5x+.5)O{sub 2} Practical implementation of this equation may seem far-fetched, since it effectively describes the use of solar energy to reverse combustion. However, it is also representative of the photosynthetic processes responsible for much of life on earth and, as such, summarizes the biomass approach to fuels production. It is our contention that an alternative approach, one that is not limited by efficiency of photosynthesis and more directly leads to a liquid fuel, is desirable. The development of a process that efficiently, cost effectively, and sustainably reenergizes thermodynamically spent feedstocks to create reactive fuel intermediates would be an unparalleled achievement and is the key challenge that must be surmounted to solve the intertwined problems of accelerating energy demand and climate change. We proposed that the direct thermochemical conversion of CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O to CO and H{sub 2}, which are the universal building blocks for synthetic fuels, serve as the basis for this revolutionary process. To realize this concept, we addressed complex chemical, materials science, and engineering problems associated with thermochemical heat engines and the crucial metal-oxide working-materials deployed therein. By project's end, we had demonstrated solar-driven conversion of CO{sub 2} to CO, a key energetic synthetic fuel intermediate, at 1.7% efficiency.

Johnson, Terry Alan (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Hogan, Roy E., Jr.; McDaniel, Anthony H. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Siegel, Nathan Phillip; Dedrick, Daniel E. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Stechel, Ellen Beth; Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Miller, James Edward; Allendorf, Mark D. (Sandia National Laboratories, Livermore, CA); Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Staiger, Chad Lynn; Chen, Ken Shuang; Ermanoski, Ivan; Kellog, Gary L.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Production Subsidy Prohibition

64

Conversion of olefins to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Linear and/or branched claim C.sub.2 to C.sub.12 olefins are converted to hydrocarbon mixtures suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a catalyst capable of ensuring the production of desirable products with only a relatively minor amount of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst having desirable stability during continuous production operations, comprises a steam stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in aluminum-extracted form. The olefins such as propylene, may be diluted with inerts, such as paraffins or with water, the latter serving to moderate the acidity of the catalyst, or to further moderate the activity of the aluminum-extracted catalyst, so as to increase the effective life of the catalyst.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Synthetic fuel production by indirect coal liquefaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the production of a synthetic crude oil product by direct contact of coal with an appropriate catalyst, with abundant domestic coal resources but lim- ited oil and gas resources, the conversion of coal into liquid in South Africa (for Fischer- Tropsch fuels). Also, the US Department of Energy an- nounced its financial

66

Enhanced conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C[sub 5][sup +] hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising a SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, P.K.; Rabo, J.A.

1985-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

68

Enhanced catalyst for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst system capable of enhancing the selectivity of said conversion to motor fuel range hydrocarbons and the quality of the resulting motor fuel product. The catalyst composition employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component comprising SAPO silicoaluminophosphate, non-zeolitic molecular sieve catalyst.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

Masel, Richard I. (Champaign, IL); Zhu, Yimin (Urbana, IL); Kahn, Zakia (Palatine, IL); Man, Malcolm (Vancouver, CA)

2009-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

70

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Derived Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Derived Fuel Production Facility Loan Guarantees on AddThis.com...

71

U.S. could become the worlds top liquid fuels producer, but how ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Significant increases in U.S. production of crude oil and other liquid fuels and the outlook for further growth have focused attention on the possibility that the ...

72

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production costs, carbon dioxide emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol, biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL) and coal (coal to liquid, or CTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion efficiency, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the preliminary results from the model. For the base cases, CTL and cellulosic ethanol are the least cost fuel options, at $1.60 and $1.71 per gallon, respectively. Base case assumptions do not include tax or other credits. This compares to a $2.35/gallon production cost of gasoline at September, 2007 crude oil prices ($80.57/barrel). On an energy content basis, the CTL is the low cost alternative, at $12.90/MMBtu, compared to $22.47/MMBtu for cellulosic ethanol. In terms of carbon dioxide emissions, a typical vehicle fueled with cellulosic ethanol will release 0.48 tons CO{sub 2} per year, compared to 13.23 tons per year for coal to liquid.

Baker, Arnold Barry; Williams, Ryan (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY); Drennen, Thomas E.; Klotz, Richard (Hobart and William Smith Colleges, Geneva, NY)

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

(ALF) Jump to: navigation, search Name Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Address P.O. Box 76 Place McArthur, Ohio Zip 45651 Sector Biofuels, Renewable Energy, Services Phone number...

74

Process for preparing a liquid fuel composition  

SciTech Connect

A process for preparing a liquid fuel composition which comprises liquefying coal, separating a mixture of phenols from said liquefied coal, converting said phenols to the corresponding mixture of anisoles, subjecting at least a portion of the remainder of said liquefied coal to hydrotreatment, subjecting at least a portion of said hydrotreated liquefied coal to reforming to obtain reformate and then combining at least a portion of said anisoles and at least a portion of said reformate to obtain said liquid fuel composition.

Singerman, Gary M. (Monroeville, PA)

1982-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

75

Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Fuel Ethanol Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether Merchant Plants Captive Plants Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 Oct-13 View History U.S. 27,197 26,722 26,923 26,320 25,564 27,995 1981-2013 East Coast (PADD 1) 628 784 836 842 527 636 2004-2013 Midwest (PADD 2) 25,209 24,689 24,786 24,186 23,810 26,040 2004-2013 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 523 404 487 460 431 473 2004-2013 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 450 432 430 432 415 429 2004-2013 West Coast (PADD 5)

76

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Production Tax Credits The Enterprise Zone Program and the High Quality Jobs Program offer state

77

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Renewable Fuel Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Renewable Fuel Production Facility Tax Credit

78

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Production Assistance  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuels Alternative Fuels Production Assistance to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Production Assistance on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Production Assistance on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Production Assistance on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Production Assistance on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Production Assistance on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuels Production Assistance on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuels Production Assistance The Georgia Division of Energy Resources and the Georgia Environmental

79

POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

Dwyer, O.E.

1958-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

80

Alternative Fuel Production Facility Incentives (Kentucky) | Department of  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Alternative Fuel Production Facility Incentives (Kentucky) Alternative Fuel Production Facility Incentives (Kentucky) Alternative Fuel Production Facility Incentives (Kentucky) < Back Eligibility Commercial Developer Utility Program Info State Kentucky Program Type Corporate Tax Incentive The Kentucky Economic Development and Finance Authority (KEDFA) provides tax incentives to construct, retrofit, or upgrade an alternative fuel production or gasification facility that uses coal or biomass as a feedstock. Beginning Aug. 1, 2010, tax incentives are also available for energy-efficient alternative fuel production facilities and up to five alternative fuel production facilities that use natural gas or natural gas liquids as a feedstock. Energy-efficient alternative fuels are defined as homogeneous fuels that are produced from processes designed to densify

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Tax Incentives to someone by E-mail Production Tax Incentives to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Alternative Fuel Production Tax Incentives The Kentucky Economic Development Finance Authority (KEDFA) provides tax

82

Fuel cell electric power production  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process for generating electricity from a fuel cell includes generating a hydrogen-rich gas as the fuel for the fuel cell by treating a hydrocarbon feed, which may be a normally liquid feed, in an autothermal reformer utilizing a first monolithic catalyst zone having palladium and platinum catalytic components therein and a second, platinum group metal steam reforming catalyst. Air is used as the oxidant in the hydrocarbon reforming zone and a low oxygen to carbon ratio is maintained to control the amount of dilution of the hydrogen-rich gas with nitrogen of the air without sustaining an insupportable amount of carbon deposition on the catalyst. Anode vent gas may be utilized as the fuel to preheat the inlet stream to the reformer. The fuel cell and the reformer are preferably operated at elevated pressures, up to about a pressure of 150 psia for the fuel cell.

Hwang, Herng-Shinn (Livingston, NJ); Heck, Ronald M. (Frenchtown, NJ); Yarrington, Robert M. (Westfield, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Alternative Fuel Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Alternative Fuel Production Property Tax Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

84

Liquid Fuels from Lignins: Annual Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This task was initiated to assess the conversion of lignins into liquid fuels, primarily of lignins relevant to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes. The task was composed of a literature review of this area and an experimental part to obtain pertinent data on the conversion of lignins germane to biomass-to-ethanol conversion processes.

Chum, H. L.; Johnson, D. K.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Gas-to-liquids synthetic fuels for use in fuel cells : reformability, energy density, and infrastructure compatibility.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The fuel cell has many potential applications, from power sources for electric hybrid vehicles to small power plants for commercial buildings. The choice of fuel will be critical to the pace of its commercialization. This paper reviews the various liquid fuels being considered as an alternative to direct hydrogen gas for the fuel cell application, presents calculations of the hydrogen and carbon dioxide yields from autothermal reforming of candidate liquid fuels, and reports the product gas composition measured from the autothermal reforming of a synthetic fuel in a micro-reactor. The hydrogen yield for a synthetic paraffin fuel produced by a cobalt-based Fischer-Tropsch process was found to be similar to that of retail gasoline. The advantages of the synthetic fuel are that it contains no contaminants that would poison the fuel cell catalyst, is relatively benign to the environment, and could be transported in the existing fuel distribution system.

Ahmed, S.; Kopasz, J. P.; Russell, B. J.; Tomlinson, H. L.

1999-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

86

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Based Fuel Production Wage  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Based Based Fuel Production Wage and Salary Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Based Fuel Production Wage and Salary Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Based Fuel Production Wage and Salary Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Based Fuel Production Wage and Salary Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Based Fuel Production Wage and Salary Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Based Fuel Production Wage and Salary Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculturally-Based Fuel Production Wage and Salary Tax Credit on AddThis.com...

87

Fuel pins with both target and fuel pellets in an isotope-production reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target pellets are placed in close contact with fissile fuel pellets in order to increase the tritium production rate.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

88

Technical and Economic Evaluation of Macroalgae Cultivation for Fuel Production (Draft)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The potential of macroalgae as sources of renewable liquid and gaseous fuels is evaluated. A series of options for production of macroalgae feedstock is considered. Because of their high carbohydrate content, the fuel products for which macroalgae are most suitable are methane and ethanol. Fuel product costs were compared with projected fuel costs in the year 1995.

Feinberg, D. A.; Hock, S. M.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Costs of electronuclear fuel production  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) proposes to study the electronuclear fuel producer (EFP) as a means of producing fissile fuel to generate electricity. The main advantage of the EFP is that it may reduce the risks of nuclear proliferation by breeding /sup 233/U from thorium, thereby avoiding plutonium separation. A report on the costs of electronuclear fuel production based upon two designs considered by LASL is presented. The findings indicate that the EFP design variations considered are not likely to result in electricity generation costs as low as the uranium fuel cycle used in the US today. At current estimates of annual fuel output (500 kg /sup 233/U per EFP), the costs of electricity generation using fuel produced by the EFP are more than three times higher than generating costs using the traditional fuel cycle. Sensitivity analysis indicates that electronuclear fuel production would become cost competitive with the traditional uranium fuel cycle when U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ (yellowcake) prices approach $1000 per pound.

Flaim, T.; Loose, V.

1978-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1981  

SciTech Connect

The Bartlesville Energy Technology Center's research activities are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction which is subdivided into resource assessment and production; liquid processing which includes characterization of liquids from petroleum, coal, shale and other alternate sources, thermodynamics and process technology; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Not Available

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical status report, April 1--June 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Previous work at MIT indicates that essentially stoichiometric, rather than catalytic, reactions with alkaline earth metal oxides offer technical and economic promise as an innovative approach to upgrading natural gas to premium products such as liquid hydrocarbon fuels and chemicals. In this approach, methane would be reacted with relatively low cost and recyclable alkaline earth metal oxides, such as CaO and MgO, at high temperatures (>1500{degrees}C) to achieve very high (i.e. approaching 100%) gas conversions to H{sub 2}, CO and the corresponding alkaline earth metal carbides. These carbides exist stably in solid form at dry ambient conditions and show promise for energy storage and long distance transport. The overall objective of the proposed research is to develop new scientific and engineering knowledge bases for further assessment of the approach by performing laboratory-scale experiments and thermodynamic and thermochemical kinetics calculations. Work on this project will be performed according to two tasks. Under Task 1 (Industrial Chemistry), a laboratory-scale electric arc discharge plasma reactor is being constructed and will be used to assess the technical feasibility of producing Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3} from MgO and methane, and to identify the operating conditions of interest for the commercial production of Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3} and/or CaC{sub 2} from MgO and/or CaO and methane. Under Task 2 (Mechanistic Foundations), preliminary thermodynamic calculations were performed for the Ca-C-H-O and Mg-C-H-O systems using the Chemkin program. A scoping run with CaO in an electrical screen heater reactor under reduced methane pressure was also conducted. No appreciable quantity of acetylene was detected upon hydrolysis of the solid residue. This can be attributed to the very small quantity of methane at the very low pressure coupled with inadequate contacting of whatever methane was present with the CaO powder.

Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Enhanced catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Catalysts for conversion of syngas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Synthesis gas comprising carbon monoxide and hydrogen is converted to C.sub.5.sup.+ hydrocarbons suitable for use as liquid motor fuels by contact with a dual catalyst composition capable of ensuring the production of only relatively minor amounts of heavy products boiling beyond the diesel oil range. The catalyst composition, having desirable stability during continuous production operation, employs a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, together with a co-catalyst/support component. The latter component is a steam-stabilized zeolite Y catalyst of hydrophobic character, desirably in acid-extracted form.

Rabo, Jule A. (Armonk, NY); Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

96

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Incentive The Mississippi Department of Agriculture and Commerce (Department) provides incentive payments to qualified ethanol and biodiesel producers

97

Barriers to a biofuels transition in the U.S. liquid fuels sector.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Demand for liquid fuels (i.e., petroleum products) has burdened the U.S. with major challenges, including national security and economic concerns stemming from rising petroleum imports; (more)

O'Donnell, Michael Joseph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

EIA - Appendix G-Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2008 Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 19 complete) Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Five Cases Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

99

Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel from a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products, removing at least some coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. The process provides a useful method of mass producing these products from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands. 1 fig.

Shang, Jer Yu.

1989-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

100

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Alternative Fuel Production Facility Incentives (Kentucky) |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

or biomass as a feedstock. Beginning Aug. 1, 2010, tax incentives are also available for energy-efficient alternative fuel production facilities and up to five alternative fuel...

103

Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes an additive for liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition, particularly diesel fuels. The additive composition is the reaction product of polyalkenyl-substituted succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles. It also finds use in lubricant compositions.

Blain, D.A.; Cardis, A.B.; McGonigle, S.S.

1990-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

104

Lubricant and fuel compositions containing reaction products of polyalkenyl succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Disclosed in an additive for liquid hydrocarbon fuel composition, particularly diesel fuels. The additive composition is the reaction product of polyalkenyl-substituted succinimides, aldehydes, and triazoles. It also finds use in lubricant compositions.

Blain, D.A.; Cardis, A.B.; McGonigle, S.S.

1990-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

105

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The carbonate fuel cell promises highly efficient, cost-effective and environmentally superior power generation from pipeline natural gas, coal gas, biogas, and other gaseous and liquid fuels. FuelCell Energy, Inc. has been engaged in the development of this unique technology, focusing on the development of the Direct Fuel Cell (DFC{reg_sign}). The DFC{reg_sign} design incorporates the unique internal reforming feature which allows utilization of a hydrocarbon fuel directly in the fuel cell without requiring any external reforming reactor and associated heat exchange equipment. This approach upgrades waste heat to chemical energy and thereby contributes to a higher overall conversion efficiency of fuel energy to electricity with low levels of environmental emissions. Among the internal reforming options, FuelCell Energy has selected the Indirect Internal Reforming (IIR)--Direct Internal Reforming (DIR) combination as its baseline design. The IIR-DIR combination allows reforming control (and thus cooling) over the entire cell area. This results in uniform cell temperature. In the IIR-DIR stack, a reforming unit (RU) is placed in between a group of fuel cells. The hydrocarbon fuel is first fed into the RU where it is reformed partially to hydrogen and carbon monoxide fuel using heat produced by the fuel cell electrochemical reactions. The reformed gases are then fed to the DIR chamber, where the residual fuel is reformed simultaneously with the electrochemical fuel cell reactions. FuelCell Energy plans to offer commercial DFC power plants in various sizes, focusing on the subMW as well as the MW-scale units. The plan is to offer standardized, packaged DFC power plants operating on natural gas or other hydrocarbon-containing fuels for commercial sale. The power plant design will include a diesel fuel processing option to allow dual fuel applications. These power plants, which can be shop-fabricated and sited near the user, are ideally suited for distributed power generation, industrial cogeneration, marine applications and uninterrupted power for military bases. FuelCell Energy operated a 1.8 MW plant at a utility site in 1996-97, the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in North America. This proof-of-concept power plant demonstrated high efficiency, low emissions, reactive power control, and unattended operation capabilities. Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the full-size power plant; FuelCell Energy launched the Product Design Improvement (PDI) program sponsored by government and the private-sector cost-share. The PDI efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program was initiated in December 1994. Year 2000 program accomplishments are discussed in this report.

H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Genetically Modified Bacteria for Fuel Production: Development of Rhodobacteria as a Versatile Platform for Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: Penn State is genetically engineering bacteria called Rhodobacter to use electricity or electrically generated hydrogen to convert carbon dioxide into liquid fuels. Penn State is taking genes from oil-producing algae called Botryococcus braunii and putting them into Rhodobacter to produce hydrocarbon molecules, which closely resemble gasoline. Penn State is developing engineered tanks to support microbial fuel production and determining the most economical way to feed the electricity or hydrogen to the bacteria, including using renewable sources of power like solar energy.

None

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting - November 2007 to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 on...

108

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels ...  

Catalytic conversion of cellulose to liquid hydrocarbon fuels by progressive removal of oxygen to facilitate separation processes and achieve high selectivities

109

Liquid Fuels from CO2, Water, and Solar Energy  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Energy Technologies and Carbon Dioxide Management. Presentation Title, Liquid Fuels from CO2, Water, and Solar Energy. Author(s), Aldo...

110

Selective Removal of Thiophene from Liquid Fuels over Nickel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Selective Removal of Thiophene from Liquid Fuels over Nickel -Based Nanocrystalline Zinc Oxide. Author(s), Mohammad Rafiqul Islam, Jewel...

111

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

112

Producing liquid fuels from coal: prospects and policy issues  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increase in world oil prices since 2003 has prompted renewed interest in producing and using liquid fuels from unconventional resources, such as biomass, oil shale, and coal. This book focuses on issues and options associated with establishing a commercial coal-to-liquids (CTL) industry within the United States. It describes the technical status, costs, and performance of methods that are available for producing liquids from coal; the key energy and environmental policy issues associated with CTL development; the impediments to early commercial experience; and the efficacy of alternative federal incentives in promoting early commercial experience. Because coal is not the only near-term option for meeting liquid-fuel needs, this book also briefly reviews the benefits and limitations of other approaches, including the development of oil shale resources, the further development of biomass resources, and increasing dependence on imported petroleum. A companion document provides a detailed description of incentive packages that the federal government could offer to encourage private-sector investors to pursue early CTL production experience while reducing the probability of bad outcomes and limiting the costs that might be required to motivate those investors. (See Rand Technical Report TR586, Camm, Bartis, and Bushman, 2008.) 114 refs., 2 figs., 16 tabs., 3 apps.

James T. Bartis; Frank Camm; David S. Ortiz

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Long-term Outlook for Oil and Other Liquid Fuels  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Biofuels, natural gas liquids, and crude oil production are key sources of increased domestic liquids supply. Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2011. Gulf of Mexico.

114

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production to Production to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production on AddThis.com... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Blends Specifications Production & Distribution Feedstocks Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Ethanol Production and Distribution Ethanol is a domestically produced alternative fuel that's most commonly made from corn. It can also be made from cellulosic feedstocks, such as

115

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Grants The Biofuels Production Incentive Grant Program provides grants to producers of advanced biofuels, specifically fuels derived from any

116

EIA - Appendix G-Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (2006-2035) Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (2006-2035) International Energy Outlook 2010 Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Productions in Three Cases Tables (2006-2035) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 15 complete) Appendix G. Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (2006-2035). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Appendix G. Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (2006-2035). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

117

EIA - Appendix G-Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) Projections of Liquid Fuels and Other Petroleum Production in Five Cases Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2009 Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Productions in Three Cases Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 15 complete) Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (1990-2030). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Projections of Petroleum and Other Liquids Production in Three Cases Tables (1990-2030). Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

118

Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report investigated the potential of using municipal solid waste (MSW) to make synthesis gas (syngas) suitable for production of liquid fuels. Issues examined include: MSW physical and chemical properties affecting its suitability as a gasifier feedstock and for liquid fuels synthesis expected process scale required for favorable economics the availability of MSW in quantities sufficient to meet process scale requirements the state-of-the-art of MSW gasification technology.

Valkenburg, Corinne; Walton, Christie W.; Thompson, Becky L.; Gerber, Mark A.; Jones, Susanne B.; Stevens, Don J.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

The Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR) for Producing Hydrogen to Manufacture Liquid Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Conventional world oil production is expected to peak within a decade. Shortfalls in production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) from conventional oil sources are expected to be offset by increased production of fuels from heavy oils and tar sands that are primarily located in the Western Hemisphere (Canada, Venezuela, the United States, and Mexico). Simultaneously, there is a renewed interest in liquid fuels from biomass, such as alcohol; but, biomass production requires fertilizer. Massive quantities of hydrogen (H2) are required (1) to convert heavy oils and tar sands to liquid fuels and (2) to produce fertilizer for production of biomass that can be converted to liquid fuels. If these liquid fuels are to be used while simultaneously minimizing greenhouse emissions, nonfossil methods for the production of H2 are required. Nuclear energy can be used to produce H2. The most efficient methods to produce H2 from nuclear energy involve thermochemical cycles in which high-temperature heat (700 to 850 C) and water are converted to H2 and oxygen. The peak nuclear reactor fuel and coolant temperatures must be significantly higher than the chemical process temperatures to transport heat from the reactor core to an intermediate heat transfer loop and from the intermediate heat transfer loop to the chemical plant. The reactor temperatures required for H2 production are at the limits of practical engineering materials. A new high-temperature reactor concept is being developed for H2 and electricity production: the Advanced High-Temperature Reactor (AHTR). The fuel is a graphite-matrix, coated-particle fuel, the same type that is used in modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (MHTGRs). The coolant is a clean molten fluoride salt with a boiling point near 1400 C. The use of a liquid coolant, rather than helium, reduces peak reactor fuel and coolant temperatures 100 to 200 C relative to those of a MHTGR. Liquids are better heat transfer fluids than gases and thus reduce three temperature losses in the system associated with (1) heat transfer from the fuel to the reactor coolant, (2) temperature rise across the reactor core, and (3) heat transfer across the heat exchangers between the reactor and H2 production plant. Lowering the peak reactor temperatures and thus reducing the high-temperature materials requirements may make the AHTR the enabling technology for low-cost nuclear hydrogen production.

Forsberg, C.W.; Peterson, P.F.; Ott, L.

2004-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

120

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production Tax to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Tax A private biodiesel producer that produces less than 5,000 gallons of biodiesel annually is subject to the annual state motor fuel tax. The

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Incentive The Ethanol Production Incentive provides qualified ethanol producers with quarterly payments based on production volume during times when ethanol

122

Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Issues submit Los Alamos scientists advance biomass fuel production Adapting biomass waste molecules for energy production May 1, 2013 Lab research can yield energy from...

123

AEO2011: Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition Dataset Summary Description This dataset comes from the Energy Information Administration (EIA), and is part of the 2011 Annual Energy Outlook Report (AEO2011). This dataset is table 11, and contains only the reference case. The dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, other petroleum supply, other non petroleum supply and liquid fuel consumption. Source EIA Date Released April 26th, 2011 (3 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords 2011 AEO disposition EIA liquid fuels Supply Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon AEO2011: Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition- Reference Case (xls, 117 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Peer Reviewed Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

124

Indirect thermal liquefaction process for producing liquid fuels from biomass  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A progress report on an indirect liquefaction process to convert biomass type materials to quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels by gasification followed by catalytic liquid fuels synthesis has been presented. A wide variety of feedstocks can be processed through the gasification system to a gas with a heating value of 500 + Btu/SCF. Some feedstocks are more attractive than others with regard to producing a high olefin content. This appears to be related to hydrocarbon content of the material. The H/sub 2//CO ratio can be manipulated over a wide range in the gasification system with steam addition. Some feedstocks require the aid of a water-gas shift catalyst while others appear to exhibit an auto-catalytic effect to achieve the conversion. H/sub 2/S content (beyond the gasification system wet scrubber) is negligible for the feedstocks surveyed. The water gas shift reaction appears to be enhanced with an increase in pyrolysis reactor temperature over the range of 1300 to 1700/sup 0/F. Reactor temperature in the Fischer-Tropsch step is a significant factor with regard to manipulating product composition analysis. The optimum temperature however will probably correspond to maximum conversion to liquid hydrocarbons in the C/sub 5/ - C/sub 17/ range. Continuing research includes integrated system performance assessment, alternative feedstock characterization (through gasification) and factor studies for gasification (e.g., catalyst usage, alternate heat transfer media, steam usage, recycle effects, residence time study) and liquefaction (e.g., improved catalysts, catalyst activity characterization).

Kuester, J.L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Incentive Montana-based ethanol producers are eligible for a tax incentive of $0.20 per gallon of ethanol produced solely from Montana agricultural products or

126

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Incentive A qualified Kansas biodiesel producer is eligible for a production incentive of $0.30 per gallon of biodiesel sold. The incentive is payable

127

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Incentive Ethanol producers may qualify for an income tax credit equal to 30% of production facility nameplate capacity between 500,000 and 15 million

128

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Incentive Qualified ethanol and biodiesel producers are eligible for production incentives on a per gallon basis. To be eligible for the incentive, the

129

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Incentive Qualified ethanol producers are eligible for a production incentive payable from the Kansas Qualified Agricultural Ethyl Alcohol Producer Fund. An

130

Liquid Fuel From Renewable Electricity and Bacteria: Electro-Autotrophic Synthesis of Higher Alcohols  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: UCLA is utilizing renewable electricity to power direct liquid fuel production in genetically engineered Ralstonia eutropha bacteria. UCLA is using renewable electricity to convert carbon dioxide into formic acid, a liquid soluble compound that delivers both carbon and energy to the bacteria. The bacteriaare genetically engineered to convert the formic acid into liquid fuelin this case alcohols such as butanol. The electricity required for the process can be generated from sunlight, wind, or other renewable energy sources. In fact, UCLAs electricity-to-fuel system could be a more efficient way to utilize these renewable energy sources considering the energy density of liquid fuel is much higher than the energy density of other renewable energy storage options, such as batteries.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Promotion  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Promotion to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Promotion on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Promotion on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Promotion on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Promotion on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Promotion on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Promotion on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Promotion The state legislature supports the Federal "25 x 25" initiative, under which 25% of the total energy consumed in the United States by 2025 would

132

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Credit County governments are eligible to receive waste reduction credits for using yard clippings, clean wood waste, or paper waste as feedstock for the

133

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Incentive The Missouri Department of Agriculture manages the Missouri Ethanol Producer Incentive Fund (Fund), which provides monthly grants to qualified

134

Natural gas liquids consumption, production, and reserves  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Natural gas liquids are condensates that occur during production and liquids recovered during processing, and they are classified as lease condensate or natural gas plant liquids (NGPL). There has been a decline in total domestic production, but an increase in ethane and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) during the past decade. Statistical tables illustrate trends in the production of NGPLs and liquefied refinery gases (LRG), imports and exports, and marketing and sales. World production data show that, while the US now produces close to 41% of world output, the production trends in other areas are increasing as ours decline. 10 tables. (DCK)

Sala, D.

1983-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

135

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center for the quarter ending March 1982 are summarized. Major research areas are: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: EOR data base - major new industry tool; properties of crude oils available via telephone hookup; alternative fuels data bank stresses transportation. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Fuel Cell Technologies Program: Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source-hydrogen stores and delivers energy in a usable form, but it must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds. Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources including fossil fuels, such as coal (preferentially with carbon sequestration), natural gas, and biomass or using nuclear energy and renewable energy sources, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and hydroelectric power to split water. This great potential for diversity of supply is an important reason why hydrogen is such a promising energy carrier. Hydrogen can be produced at large central plants, semi-centrally, or in small distributed units located at or very near the point of use, such as at refueling stations or stationary power

137

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1980  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities at BETC during the past quarter are summarized in this document. Major research areas include: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (resource assessment and enhanced production); processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization; and product integration and technology transfer.

Not Available

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim).  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Alternative Liquid Fuels Simulation Model (AltSim) is a high-level dynamic simulation model which calculates and compares the production and end use costs, greenhouse gas emissions, and energy balances of several alternative liquid transportation fuels. These fuels include: corn ethanol, cellulosic ethanol from various feedstocks (switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees), biodiesel, and diesels derived from natural gas (gas to liquid, or GTL), coal (coal to liquid, or CTL), and coal with biomass (CBTL). AltSim allows for comprehensive sensitivity analyses on capital costs, operation and maintenance costs, renewable and fossil fuel feedstock costs, feedstock conversion ratio, financial assumptions, tax credits, CO{sub 2} taxes, and plant capacity factor. This paper summarizes the structure and methodology of AltSim, presents results, and provides a detailed sensitivity analysis. The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 sets a goal for the increased use of biofuels in the U.S., ultimately reaching 36 billion gallons by 2022. AltSim's base case assumes EPA projected feedstock costs in 2022 (EPA, 2009). For the base case assumptions, AltSim estimates per gallon production costs for the five ethanol feedstocks (corn, switchgrass, corn stover, forest residue, and farmed trees) of $1.86, $2.32, $2.45, $1.52, and $1.91, respectively. The projected production cost of biodiesel is $1.81/gallon. The estimates for CTL without biomass range from $1.36 to $2.22. With biomass, the estimated costs increase, ranging from $2.19 per gallon for the CTL option with 8% biomass to $2.79 per gallon for the CTL option with 30% biomass and carbon capture and sequestration. AltSim compares the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) associated with both the production and consumption of the various fuels. EISA allows fuels emitting 20% less greenhouse gases (GHG) than conventional gasoline and diesels to qualify as renewable fuels. This allows several of the CBTL options to be included under the EISA mandate. The estimated GHG emissions associated with the production of gasoline and diesel are 19.80 and 18.40 kg of CO{sub 2} equivalent per MMBtu (kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu), respectively (NETL, 2008). The estimated emissions are significantly higher for several alternatives: ethanol from corn (70.6), GTL (51.9), and CTL without biomass or sequestration (123-161). Projected emissions for several other alternatives are lower; integrating biomass and sequestration in the CTL processes can even result in negative net emissions. For example, CTL with 30% biomass and 91.5% sequestration has estimated production emissions of -38 kgCO{sub 2}e/MMBtu. AltSim also estimates the projected well-to-wheel, or lifecycle, emissions from consuming each of the various fuels. Vehicles fueled with conventional diesel or gasoline and driven 12,500 miles per year emit 5.72-5.93 tons of CO{sub 2} equivalents per year (tCO{sub 2}e/yr). Those emissions are significantly higher for vehicles fueled with 100% ethanol from corn (8.03 tCO{sub 2}e/yr) or diesel from CTL without sequestration (10.86 to 12.85 tCO{sub 2}/yr). Emissions could be significantly lower for vehicles fueled with diesel from CBTL with various shares of biomass. For example, for CTL with 30% biomass and carbon sequestration, emissions would be 2.21 tCO{sub 2}e per year, or just 39% of the emissions for a vehicle fueled with conventional diesel. While the results presented above provide very specific estimates for each option, AltSim's true potential is as a tool for educating policy makers and for exploring 'what if?' type questions. For example, AltSim allows one to consider the affect of various levels of carbon taxes on the production cost estimates, as well as increased costs to the end user on an annual basis. Other sections of AltSim allow the user to understand the implications of various polices in terms of costs to the government or land use requirements. AltSim's structure allows the end user to explore each of these alternatives and understand the sensitivities implications a

Williams, Ryan; Baker, Arnold Barry; Drennen, Thomas E.

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Crop production without fossil fuel.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With diminishing fossil fuel reserves and concerns about global warming, the agricultural sector needs to reduce its use of fossil fuels. The objective of this (more)

Ahlgren, Serina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

EIA - AEO2010 - Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits Annual Energy Outlook 2010 with Projections to 2035 Liquid fuels taxes and tax credits This section provides a review of the treatment of Federal fuels taxes and tax credits in AEO2010. Excise taxes on highway fuel The treatment of Federal highway fuel taxes remains unchanged from the previous year’s AEO. Gasoline is taxed at 18.4 cents per gallon, diesel fuel at 24.4 cents per gallon, and jet fuel at 4.4 cents per gallon, consistent with current laws and regulations. Consistent with Federal budgeting procedures, which dictate that excise taxes dedicated to a trust fund, if expiring, are assumed to be extended at current rates, these taxes are maintained at their present levels, without adjustment for inflation, throughout the projection [9]. State fuel taxes are calculated on the basis of a volume-weighted average for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuels. The State fuel taxes were updated as of July 2009 [10] and are held constant in real terms over the projection period, consistent with historical experience.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels per Day)

142

Fuel bioethanol production from whey permeate.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this thesis was to evaluate the feasibility for the production of fuel bioethanol from whey permeate. The identification of the limiting factors (more)

Glutz, Franois-Nicolas de

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

144

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

145

Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

146

Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

147

Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

148

Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

149

Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

150

Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

151

Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

152

Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

153

Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

154

West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2...

155

Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3...

156

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Alternate Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal and CoalBiomass to Liquids Alternate Hydrogen Production In the Alternate Production technology pathway, clean syngas from coal is converted to high-hydrogen-content liquid...

157

Liquid-fueled SOFC power sources for transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Traditionally, fuel cells have been developed for space or stationary terrestrial applications. As the first commercial 200-kW systems were being introduced by ONSI and Fuji Electric, the potentially much larger, but also more challenging, application in transportation was beginning to be addressed. As a result, fuel cell-powered buses have been designed and built, and R&D programs for fuel cell-powered passenger cars have been initiated. The engineering challenge of eventually replacing the internal combustion engine in buses, trucks, and passenger cars with fuel cell systems is to achieve much higher power densities and much lower costs than obtainable in systems designed for stationary applications. At present, the leading fuel cell candidate for transportation applications is, without question, the polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC). Offering ambient temperature start-up and the potential for a relatively high power density, the polymer technology has attracted the interest of automotive manufacturers worldwide. But the difficulties of fuel handling for the PEFC have led to a growing interest in exploring the prospects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) operating on liquid fuels for transportation applications. Solid oxide fuel cells are much more compatible with liquid fuels (methanol or other hydrocarbons) and are potentially capable of power densities high enough for vehicular use. Two SOFC options for such use are discussed in this report.

Myles, K.M.; Doshi, R.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Webinar  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Tasios Melis, UC Berkeley 24-Jan-2011 1 UCB-Melis 2 CO 2 H 2 O Photosynthesis Photons H 2 HC O 2 , Biomass Feedstock and products...

159

Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

by reforming bio-liquids such as sugars, ethanol, or bio-oils or through gasification or pyrolysis of biomass feedstocks. In the near term, distributed hydrogen production...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Assemblies with both target and fuel pins in an isotope-production reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for producing tritium in a fast breeder reactor cooled with liquid metal. Lithium target material is placed in pins adjacent to fuel pins in order to increase the tritium production rate.

Cawley, W.E.; Omberg, R.P.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

162

AGING EFFECTS ON THE PROPERTIES OF IMIDAZOLIUM, QUATERNARY AMMONIUM, PYRIDINIUM AND PYRROLIDINIUM-BASED IONIC LIQUIDS USED IN FUEL AND ENERGY PRODUCTION  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ionic liquids are often cited for their excellent thermal stability, a key property for their use as solvents and in the chemical processing of biofuels. However, there has been little supporting data on the long term aging effect of temperature on these materials. Imizadolium, quaternary ammonium, pyridinium, and pyrrolidnium-based ionic liquids with the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide and bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide anions were aged for 2520 hours (15 weeks) at 200?C in air to determine the effects of an oxidizing environment on their chemical structure and thermal stability over time. It was found that the minor changes in the cation chemistry could greatly affect the properties of the ILs over time.

Fox, E.

2013-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

163

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 1  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

164

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 4  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

165

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 3  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

166

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 5  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

167

EVALUATION OF COAL-DERIVED LIQUIDS AS BOILER FUELS Volume 2  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid fuels indicated that these fuels are suitable for use in utility boilers. These fuels, exhibiting acceptable emissions and performance, would require only minimal fuel system modifications.

1985-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

168

EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood 50: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin EA-1850: Flambeau River BioFuels, Inc. Proposed Wood Biomass-to-Liquid Fuel Biorefinery, Park Falls, Wisconsin Summary NOTE: This EA has been cancelled. This EA will evaluate the environmental impacts of a proposal to provide federal funding to Flambeau River Biofuels (FRB) to construct and operate a biomass-to-liquid biorefinery in Park Falls, Wisconsin, on property currently used by Flambeau Rivers Paper, LLC (FRP) for a pulp and paper mill and Johnson Timber Corporation's (JTC) Summit Lake Yard for timber storage. This project would design a biorefinery which would produce up to 1,150 barrels per day (bpd) of clean syncrude. The biorefinery would also supply

169

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Facility Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center:...

170

Oxidation Protection of Uranium Nitride Fuel using Liquid Phase Sintering  

SciTech Connect

Two methods are proposed to increase the oxidation resistance of uranium nitride (UN) nuclear fuel. These paths are: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U3Si2) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with various compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering or Liquid Phase Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance. The advantages (high thermal conductivity, very high melting point, and high density) of nitride fuel have long been recognized. The sodium cooled BR-10 reactor in Russia operated for 18 years on uranium nitride fuel (UN was used as the driver fuel for two core loads). However, the potential advantages (large power up-grade, increased cycle lengths, possible high burn-ups) as a Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel are offset by uranium nitride's extremely low oxidation resistance (UN powders oxidize in air and UN pellets decompose in hot water). Innovative research is proposed to solve this problem and thereby provide an accident tolerant LWR fuel that would resist water leaks and high temperature steam oxidation/spalling during an accident. It is proposed that we investigate two methods to increase the oxidation resistance of UN: (1) Addition of USi{sub x} (e.g. U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}) to UN nitride powder, followed by liquid phase sintering, and (2) 'alloying' UN nitride with compounds (followed by densification via Spark Plasma Sintering) that will greatly increase oxidation resistance.

Dr. Paul A. Lessing

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Small-scale alcohol fuel production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This is the final report of a project to demonstrate the feasibility of small-scale alcohol fuel production. A list of equipment and costs incurred in contracting the still are included. No experimental results are presented. (DMC)

Evans, J.; McQueary, J.

1983-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

172

Improving Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production -...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Improving Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production January 24, 2011 Webinar Q&A Q: How do you induce hypoxic photosynthesis? I imagine you N-stress, to accumulate starch...

173

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

Kuester, James L. (Scottsdale, AZ)

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

174

Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

Kuester, J.L.

1987-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

175

Catalytic reforming of liquid fuels: Deactivation of catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The catalytic reforming of logistic fuels (e.g., diesel) to provide hydrogen-rich gas for various fuel cells is inevitably accompanied by deactivation. This deactivation can be caused by various mechanisms, such as carbon deposition, sintering, and sulfur poisoning. In general, these mechanisms are, not independente.g., carbon deposition may affect sulfur poisoning. However, they are typically studied in separate experiments, with relatively little work reported on their interaction at conditions typical of liquid fuel reforming. Recent work at the U.S. Dept. of Energy/NETL and Louisiana State University has shown progress in understanding the interaction of these deactivation processes, and catalysts designed to minimize them.

Spivey, J.J.; Haynes, D.J.; Berry, D.A.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Gardner, T.H.

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

177

Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Production Production (Million Barrels) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 View History U.S. 629 650 667 714 745 784 1979-2011 Alabama 3 2 7 5 6 6 1979-2011 Alaska 14 13 13 13 11 11 1979-2011 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 California 11 11 11 11 10 10 1979-2011 Coastal Region Onshore 1 1 1 1 1 1 1979-2011 Los Angeles Basin Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 San Joaquin Basin Onshore 10 10 10 10 9 9 1979-2011 State Offshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Colorado 26 27 38 48 58 63 1979-2011 Florida 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2011 Kansas 18 18 18 16 16 16 1979-2011 Kentucky 3 3 3 4 5 4 1979-2011 Louisiana

178

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Fuel Production  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Fuel Production / Quality to someone by E-mail Fuel Production / Quality to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Fuel Production / Quality on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Fuel Production / Quality on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Fuel Production / Quality on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Fuel Production / Quality on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Fuel Production / Quality on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Iowa Laws and Incentives for Fuel Production / Quality on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

179

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Facility Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Facility Grants The Renewable Fuels Development Program provides grants for the

180

Combustion characteristics of alternative liquid fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Biodiesel Syn-oil Syn-gas Biochemicals Biogas Global biofuels production 4 1.2.1 Global biofuels production Biofuels can broadly be categorised into two groups. The first group is termed as the first generation biofuels which refers... Biodiesel Syn-oil Syn-gas Biochemicals Biogas Global biofuels production 4 1.2.1 Global biofuels production Biofuels can broadly be categorised into two groups. The first group is termed as the first generation biofuels which refers...

Chong, Cheng Tung

2011-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Optical Diagnostics and Direct Injection of Liquid Fuel Sprays  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The research described here addresses the problem of a paucity of high quality data on the full field structure of high pressure liquid fuel sprays for gasoline direct injection, GDI, engines. The paper describes the application of phase Doppler anemometry, ... Keywords: GDI, PDA, laser sheet, spray, visualisation

G. K. Hargrave; G. Wigley; J. Allen; A. Bacon

1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2007-Liquids Production Projections  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) Liquids Production Projection Tables (1990-2030) International Energy Outlook 2007 Liquids Production Projections Tables (1990-2030) Formats Data Table Titles (1 to 19 complete) Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Liquids Production Projections Tables. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G1 World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G1. World Total Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Table G2 World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case Table G2. World Conventional Liquids Production by Region and Country, Reference Case. Need help, contact the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800.

183

HIGH ENERGY LIQUID FUELS FROM PLANTS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The heptane extract of Euphorbia lathyris has a low oxygen content and a heat valve of 42 MJ/kg which is comparable to that of crude oil (44 MJ/kg). These qualities indicate a potential for use as fuel or chemical feedstock material. Therefore we have investigated the chemical composition of this fraction in some detail. Since the amoun of the methanol fraction is quite substantial we have also identified the major components of this fraction.

Nemethy, E. K.; Otvos, J. W.; Calvin, M.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin EA-1811: NewPage Corporation Wood Biomass to Liquid Fuel, Wisconsin Rapids, Wisconsin Summary This...

186

Integrated production of fuel gas and oxygenated organic compounds from synthesis gas  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygenated organic liquid product and a fuel gas are produced from a portion of synthesis gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and sulfur-containing compounds in a integrated feed treatment and catalytic reaction system. To prevent catalyst poisoning, the sulfur-containing compounds in the reactor feed are absorbed in a liquid comprising the reactor product, and the resulting sulfur-containing liquid is regenerated by stripping with untreated synthesis gas from the reactor. Stripping offgas is combined with the remaining synthesis gas to provide a fuel gas product. A portion of the regenerated liquid is used as makeup to the absorber and the remainder is withdrawn as a liquid product. The method is particularly useful for integration with a combined cycle coal gasification system utilizing a gas turbine for electric power generation.

Moore, Robert B. (Allentown, PA); Hegarty, William P. (State College, PA); Studer, David W. (Wescosville, PA); Tirados, Edward J. (Easton, PA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

EIA - 2010 International Energy Outlook - Liquid Fuels  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

creates further uncertainty for future investment in CTL. With ongoing improvement in oil shale technology, commercial production starts in 2023 and increases rapidly to 1.7...

188

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production and Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Propane Production and Distribution on AddThis.com... More in this section... Propane Basics Production & Distribution Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Propane Production and Distribution

189

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production and Distribution  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Production and Distribution on AddThis.com... More in this section... Natural Gas Basics Production & Distribution Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives Natural Gas Production and Distribution

190

Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The methane plasma stabilization problem was resolved with the reconfiguration of the DC power supply to give a higher open circuit voltage to enable operation of the arc at higher voltage levels and with the installation of a solenoid around the plasma reactor to magnetically rotate the are. Cathode tip erosion problems were encountered with the 1/4-inch graphite and tungsten tips which necessitated a redesign of the plasma reactor. The new plasma reactor consists of an enlarged 3/4-inch O.D. graphite tip to reduce current density and a 1-inch I.D. graphite anode. Products from MgO/CH{sub 4} scoping runs in the redesigned reactor under conditions of excess MgO gave strong indications that a breakthrough has finally been achieved i.e. that synthesis of magnesium carbides from MgO and methane in the arc discharge reactor has been demonstrated. Significant quantities of hydrocarbons, primarily C{sub 3}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2}, were detected in the headspace above hydrolyzed solid samples by GC analysis. In one run, solids glowed upon exposure to the atmosphere, strongly suggesting carbide reaction with moisture in the air, exothermically forming acetylenes which ignited instantaneously in the presence of oxygen and elevated temperatures arising from localized heat-up of the specimens.

Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Pride, J.D.; Howard, J.B.; Tester, J.W.; Peters, W.A.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various option will be performed as experimental data become available. The project is of two year's duration and contains three major tasks: Project Management Plan, Pilot Plant Modification, and Comparison of Preliminary Data With Los Alamos Model: We will determine if the kinetic model developed by Los Alamos National Laboratory can be used to guide our experimental effort. Other subtasks under Task 3 include: Pressure/Temperature/Reaction Time Effects; Study of Different Injection Systems: Different schemes for introducing and mixing reactants before or within the reactor will be evaluated theoretically and/or experimentally; Study of Different Quench Systems; Effect of Reactor Geometry; Effect of Reactor Recycle; and Enhanced-Yield Catalyst Study. 5 refs., 12 figs., 4 tabs.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to metal carbides for production of liquid fuels and chemicals. Quarterly technical status report, January 1--March 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Work on this project will be performed according to two tasks: Task 1, Industrial Chemistry and Applied Kinetics of Light Hydrocarbon Gas Conversion to Metal Carbides H{sub 2} and CO. We are building a laboratory-scale electric are discharge reactor, in which to assess the technical feasibility of producing Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3}, H{sub 2}, and CO from methane and MgO. We will also do experimental runs with CaO as well as mixtures of CaO and MgO and measure conversions of methane, CaO and/or MgO, and yields of Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3}, and/or CaC{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and CO to identify the operating conditions of interest for implementing these reactions on a commercial scale. Reaction conditions and parameters will be chosen based on the previous work at MIT with CaO and CH, and on results of thermodynamic and thermochemical kinetics calculations. Task 2: Mechanistic Foundations-For Convertings Light Hydrocarbon Gases to Metal Carbides-H{sub 2} and CO. We will evaluate the technical feasibility of carrying out methane reactions with CaO and MgO by thermal (e.g. 1500--2000{degrees}C) rather than under plasma conditions by performing experiments with the use of electrical screen heaters, heated tubular reactors, or other suitable apparatus. Extents and global rates of methane conversion, and yields as well as global production rates of CaC{sub 2}, Mg{sub 2}C{sub 3}, H{sub 2} and CO will be measured upon subjecting mixtures of methane and CaO and/or MgO to high temperatures and controlled residence times. We will conduct hypothesis-testing of possible mechanistic pathways with selected experiments and perform reaction modeling to better understand the underlying chemical and physical processes that could influence process scale-up possibilities.

Diaz, A.F.; Modestino, A.J.; Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.A.

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Alcohol fuel production training program. Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of the project was to offer instruction in the small scale production of ethanol, which can be added to gasoline by about 10%. The course was designed to help farmers in particular to make ethanol to extend fuel use. This project has four objectives. They are: (1) design an alcohol fuel production course with appropriate equipment for hands-on training; (2) offer at least three training sessions on alcohol fuel production in Cumberland County each year of the project; (3) work with the Governor's Task Force on Gasohol to disseminate the necessary information on alcohol production to the public; (4) identify, in consultation with the New Jersey Department of Energy and Agriculture, other training sites in the state and offer at least three training sessions outside of Cumberland County during the second year of the project. As of March 31, 1982, Cumberland County College completed all activities and objectives outlined in its Appropriate Technology project ''Alcohol Fuel Production.'' Given the six month extension requested to accommodate farmers in other parts of the state and the growing season, this project was completed within the stated time schedule. Although the response for the course was high in the beginning of 1981, the increased supply of low cost fuels at the end of the year probably accounts for the decline in the public's willingness to take a course of this nature.

Burke, J.

1982-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

194

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where the fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Equipment Tax Exemption

196

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Production & Distribution Research & Development Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives

197

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Distribution on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biodiesel Basics Blends Production & Distribution Specifications Related Links Benefits & Considerations Stations Vehicles Laws & Incentives

198

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Investment Tax Credit

199

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Hydrogen Production and Retail Requirements

200

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Property Tax Exemption

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Investment Tax Credits

202

CO{sub 2} mitigation and fuel production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol as an alternative transportation fuel appears to be an effective intermediate agent, for reducing CO{sub 2} from the utility power and the transportation sectors. On the utilization side, methanol as a liquid fuel fits in well with the current infrastructure for storage and delivery to the automotive sector with better efficiency. On the production side, CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel plants together with natural gas and biomass can be used as feedstocks for methanol synthesis with reduced CO{sub 2}. Over the past several years, processes have emerged which have varying degrees of CO{sub 2} emission reduction depending on the feedstocks used for methanol synthesis process. This paper reviews the methanol processes from the point of view of production efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions reduction. The processes include: (1) the Hydrocarb Process which primarily utilizes coal and natural gas and stores carbon, and (2) the Hynol Process which utilizes biomass (including carbonaceous wastes, municipal solid waste (MSW)) or coal and natural gas, and (3) the Carnol Process which utilizes natural gas and CO{sub 2} recovered from fossil fuel fired powered plant stacks, especially coal fired plants. The Carnol System consists of power generation, methanol production and methanol utilization as an automotive fuel. The efficiency and CO{sub 2} emissions for the entire system are compared to the conventional system of petroleum derived automotive fuel (gasoline) and coal fired power generation plants. CO{sub 2} reduction by as much as 56% and 77% can be achieved when methanol is used in internal combustion and fuel cell automotive vehicles, respectively.

Steinberg, M.

1997-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Reserves, Estimated Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Reserves, Estimated Production (Million Barrels) U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Reserves, Estimated Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

204

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit MSN YYYYMM Value Column Order Description Unit FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu FFPRBUS Total Fossil Fuels Production Quadrillion Btu

205

Enzymantic Conversion of Coal to Liquid Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The work in this project focused on the conversion of bituminous coal to liquid hydrocarbons. The major steps in this process include mechanical pretreatment, chemical pretreatment, and finally solubilization and conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbons. Two different types of mechanical pretreatment were considered for the process: hammer mill grinding and jet mill grinding. After research and experimentation, it was decided to use jet mill grinding, which allows for coal to be ground down to particle sizes of 5 {mu}m or less. A Fluid Energy Model 0101 JET-O-MIZER-630 size reduction mill was purchased for this purpose. This machine was completed and final testing was performed on the machine at the Fluid Energy facilities in Telford, PA. The test results from the machine show that it can indeed perform to the required specifications and is able to grind coal down to a mean particle size that is ideal for experimentation. Solubilization and conversion experiments were performed on various pretreated coal samples using 3 different approaches: (1) enzymatic - using extracellular Laccase and Manganese Peroxidase (MnP), (2) chemical - using Ammonium Tartrate and Manganese Peroxidase, and (3) enzymatic - using the live organisms Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Spectral analysis was used to determine how effective each of these methods were in decomposing bituminous coal. After analysis of the results and other considerations, such as cost and environmental impacts, it was determined that the enzymatic approaches, as opposed to the chemical approaches using chelators, were more effective in decomposing coal. The results from the laccase/MnP experiments and Phanerochaete chrysosporium experiments are presented and compared in this final report. Spectra from both enzymatic methods show absorption peaks in the 240nm to 300nm region. These peaks correspond to aromatic intermediates formed when breaking down the coal structure. The peaks then decrease in absorbance over time, corresponding to the consumption of aromatic intermediates as they undergo ring cleavage. The results show that this process happens within 1 hour when using extracellular enzymes, but takes several days when using live organisms. In addition, live organisms require specific culture conditions, control of contaminants and fungicides in order to effectively produce extracellular enzymes that degrade coal. Therefore, when comparing the two enzymatic methods, results show that the process of using extracellular lignin degrading enzymes, such as laccase and manganese peroxidase, appears to be a more efficient method of decomposing bituminous coal.

Richard Troiano

2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

206

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The ongoing program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) for stationary power plant applications. The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations or in distributed locations near the customer, including hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FuelCell Energy has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented Direct FuelCell technology, where the fuel is directly fed to fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating, and air conditioning. Several FCE sub-megawatt power plants are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the reporting period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance of plant equipment designs is discussed in this report. FCE's DFC products development has been carried out under a joint public-private effort with DOE being the major contributor. Current funding is primarily under a Cooperative Agreement with DOE.

H. C. Maru; M. Farooque

2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

207

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production and Distribution  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production and Distribution Contracts on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

208

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Environmental  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Facility Environmental Assessment Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Environmental Assessment Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Environmental Assessment Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Environmental Assessment Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Environmental Assessment Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Environmental Assessment Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Environmental Assessment Exemption on AddThis.com...

209

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol and Biobutanol Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol and Biobutanol Production Incentive

210

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Equipment Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State

211

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Sustainable Biofuels Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Sustainable Biofuels Production Practices

212

Catalytic oxidative pyrolysis of liquid fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The oxidative pyrolysis of n-heptane was investigated with metal oxides Cr/sub 2/O/sub 3/, MnO/sub 2/, Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, NiO, Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, and CuO supported on alumina. Metallic content of the catalyst weight varied from 0.1 to 2.0% with catalytic activity reaching a maximum when the metal content was 1%. The most active catalysts were Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/, MnO/sub 2/, and NiO. Pyrolysis of cyclohexane and toluene was also studied with Co/sub 3/O/sub 4/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ as catalyst. Hydrocarbon stability and coke formation increase with increase of hydrocarbon condensation in the series paraffin < naphthalene < aromatic hydrocarbons. Pyrolysis of the various hydrocarbons at 800/sup 0/C yielded a gas that has an octane number of 90 to 93, and the process was shown to be adaptable to pyrolysis of various commercial fractions such as benzines A-72 and A-76, petroleum fractions, and liquid paraffins to produce gas of about the same octane. (BLM)

Antonova, V.M.; Gorlov, E.G.; Paushkin, Ya.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol ...  

Liquid phase low temperature method for production of methanol from synthesis gas and catalyst formulations therefor United States Patent

214

H2 Production and Fuel Cells  

SciTech Connect

The world demand for energy and the need for protecting our environment can be achieved by increasing energy efficiency and by developing clean energy sources. Among the alternative fuels, hydrogen is receiving a lot of attention around the world. In this chapter, recent applications of oxide nanostructures in H2 production and fuel cell technology are summarized. We cover in detail catalytic studies for hydrogen production via the water gas shift reaction over ceria-based nanosystems. These studies illustrate the importance of understanding the fundamental conditions necessary for optimal operation of the catalysts.

Wang, Xianqin; Rodriguez, Jose A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Enhanced catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The conversion of synthesis gas to liquid molar fuels by means of a cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalyst composition is enhanced by the addition of molybdenum, tungsten or a combination thereof as an additional component of said composition. The presence of the additive component increases the olefinic content of the hydrocarbon products produced. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Bio-Fuel Production Assisted with High Temperature Steam Electrolysis  

SciTech Connect

Two hybrid energy processes that enable production of synthetic liquid fuels that are compatible with the existing conventional liquid transportation fuels infrastructure are presented. Using biomass as a renewable carbon source, and supplemental hydrogen from high-temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), these two hybrid energy processes have the potential to provide a significant alternative petroleum source that could reduce dependence on imported oil. The first process discusses a hydropyrolysis unit with hydrogen addition from HTSE. Non-food biomass is pyrolyzed and converted to pyrolysis oil. The pyrolysis oil is upgraded with hydrogen addition from HTSE. This addition of hydrogen deoxygenates the pyrolysis oil and increases the pH to a tolerable level for transportation. The final product is synthetic crude that could then be transported to a refinery and input into the already used transportation fuel infrastructure. The second process discusses a process named Bio-Syntrolysis. The Bio-Syntrolysis process combines hydrogen from HTSE with CO from an oxygen-blown biomass gasifier that yields syngas to be used as a feedstock for synthesis of liquid synthetic crude. Conversion of syngas to liquid synthetic crude, using a biomass-based carbon source, expands the application of renewable energy beyond the grid to include transportation fuels. It can also contribute to grid stability associated with non-dispatchable power generation. The use of supplemental hydrogen from HTSE enables greater than 90% utilization of the biomass carbon content which is about 2.5 times higher than carbon utilization associated with traditional cellulosic ethanol production. If the electrical power source needed for HTSE is based on nuclear or renewable energy, the process is carbon neutral. INL has demonstrated improved biomass processing prior to gasification. Recyclable biomass in the form of crop residue or energy crops would serve as the feedstock for this process. A process model of syngas production using high temperature electrolysis and biomass gasification is presented. Process heat from the biomass gasifier is used to heat steam for the hydrogen production via the high temperature steam electrolysis process. Oxygen produced form the electrolysis process is used to control the oxidation rate in the oxygen-blown biomass gasifier.

Grant Hawkes; James O'Brien; Michael McKellar

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program efforts are focused on technology and system optimization for cost reduction, commercial design development, and prototype system field trials. The program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size field test to the commercial design. FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE) is in the later stage of the multiyear program for development and verification of carbonate fuel cell based power plants supported by DOE/NETL with additional funding from DOD/DARPA and the FuelCell Energy team. FCE has scaled up the technology to full-size and developed DFC{reg_sign} stack and balance-of-plant (BOP) equipment technology to meet product requirements, and acquired high rate manufacturing capabilities to reduce cost. FCE has designed submegawatt (DFC300A) and megawatt (DFC1500 and DFC3000) class fuel cell products for commercialization of its DFC{reg_sign} technology. A significant progress was made during the reporting period. The reforming unit design was optimized using a three-dimensional stack simulation model. Thermal and flow uniformities of the oxidant-In flow in the stack module were improved using computational fluid dynamics based flow simulation model. The manufacturing capacity was increased. The submegawatt stack module overall cost was reduced by {approx}30% on a per kW basis. An integrated deoxidizer-prereformer design was tested successfully at submegawatt scale using fuels simulating digester gas, coal bed methane gas and peak shave (natural) gas.

H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Catalyst for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Table 18. Natural gas plant liquids proved reserves and production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

: Natural gas plant liquids proved reserves and production, 2009 - 2011 (excludes Lease Condensate) million barrels Reserves Production State and Subdivision 2009 2010 2011 2009...

220

Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Hydrogen Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on AddThis.com... Publications Program Publications Technical Publications Educational Publications Newsletter Program Presentations Multimedia Conferences & Meetings

222

Available Alternative Fuel School Bus Products--2004  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This 4-page Clean Cities fact sheet provides a list of the currently available (and soon to be available) model year 2004 alternative fuel school bus and school bus engine products. It includes information from Blue Bird Corporation, Collins Bus Corporation, Corbeil Bus, Ford Motor Company, General Motors Corporation, Thomas Built Buses, Inc., Clean Air Partners, Cummins Westport, and Deere & Company.

Not Available

2004-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Production of high density fuel through low temperature devolatilization of fossil fuels with hydrogen and iron oxides  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for producing high-energy high-density fuels and valuable co-products from fossil fuel sources which comprises the low temperature devolatilization of a fossil fuel such as coal in a moving fluid-bed reactor at a temperature of about 450-650C in the presence of hydrogen and iron oxides. The method is advantageous in that high quality liquid fuels are obtained in addition to valuable co-products such as elemental iron, elemental sulfur and carbon black, and the process is carried out efficiently with a large number of recyclable steps. In addition, the hydropyrolysis of the present invention can produce a highly reactive low-sulfur char which is convertible into a slurry fuel. 1 fig.

Khan, M.R.

1990-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

224

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrolysis Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings to someone by E-mail Share Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings on Facebook Tweet about Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings on Twitter Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings on Google Bookmark Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings on Delicious Rank Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings on Digg Find More places to share Fuel Cell Technologies Office:

225

MOLTEN CARBONATE FUEL CELL PRODUCT DESIGN IMPROVEMENT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The program was designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from full-size proof-of-concept field test to the commercial design. DOE has been funding Direct FuelCell{reg_sign} (DFC{reg_sign}) development at FuelCell Energy, Inc. (FCE, formerly Energy Research Corporation) from an early state of development for stationary power plant applications. The current program efforts were focused on technology and system development, and cost reduction, leading to commercial design development and prototype system field trials. FCE, in Danbury, CT, is a world-recognized leader for the development and commercialization of high efficiency fuel cells that can generate clean electricity at power stations, or at distributed locations near the customers such as hospitals, schools, universities, hotels and other commercial and industrial applications. FCE has designed three different fuel cell power plant models (DFC300A, DFC1500 and DFC3000). FCE's power plants are based on its patented DFC{reg_sign} technology, where a hydrocarbon fuel is directly fed to the fuel cell and hydrogen is generated internally. These power plants offer significant advantages compared to the existing power generation technologies--higher fuel efficiency, significantly lower emissions, quieter operation, flexible siting and permitting requirements, scalability and potentially lower operating costs. Also, the exhaust heat by-product can be used for cogeneration applications such as high-pressure steam, district heating and air conditioning. Several sub-MW power plants based on the DFC design are currently operating in Europe, Japan and the US. Several one-megawatt power plant design was verified by operation on natural gas at FCE. This plant is currently installed at a customer site in King County, WA under another US government program and is currently in operation. Because hydrogen is generated directly within the fuel cell module from readily available fuels such as natural gas and waste water treatment gas, DFC power plants are ready today and do not require the creation of a hydrogen infrastructure. Product improvement progress made during the program period in the areas of technology, manufacturing processes, cost reduction and balance-of-plant equipment designs is discussed in this report.

H.C. Maru; M. Farooque

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Production Production Photo of hydrogen researcher. Hydrogen can be produced using diverse, domestic resources including fossil fuels, such as natural gas and coal (with carbon sequestration); nuclear; biomass; and other renewable energy technologies, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro-electric power. The overall challenge to hydrogen production is cost reduction. For cost-competitive transportation, a key driver for energy independence, hydrogen must be comparable to conventional fuels and technologies on a per-mile basis in order to succeed in the commercial marketplace. Learn more about DOE's hydrogen cost goal and the analysis used in projecting the future cost of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy supports the research and development of a wide range of technologies to produce hydrogen economically and in environmentally friendly ways.

227

Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion layers by Aimy Ming Jii Bazylak Bachelor means, without the permission of the author. #12;ii Liquid water transport in fuel cell gas diffusion State University) Abstract Liquid water management has a major impact on the performance and durability

Victoria, University of

228

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Nano Sensor Networks for Tailored Operation of Highly Efficient Gas-To-Liquid Fuels Catalysts Eisa Engineering at University of New South Wales. #12;1 Introduction Gas-to-liquid (GTL) compounds are clean fuels for converting natural gas to the liquid hydrocarbons [1]. However, the reaction is a complex network of many

New South Wales, University of

229

Production of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Burning by Fuel Type, 1860...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions Historical Global Estimates Production of CO2 from Fossil Fuel Burning by Fuel Type, 1860-1982 (NDP-006) DOI: 10.3334CDIACffe.ndp006 image Data image...

230

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal.

Robben, Franklin A. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Superheated fuel injection for combustion of liquid-solid slurries  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and device are claimed for obtaining, upon injection, flash evaporation of a liquid in a slurry fuel to aid in ignition and combustion. The device is particularly beneficial for use of coal-water slurry fuels in internal combustion engines such as diesel engines and gas turbines, and in external combustion devices such as boilers and furnaces. The slurry fuel is heated under pressure to near critical temperature in an injector accumulator, where the pressure is sufficiently high to prevent boiling. After injection into a combustion chamber, the water temperature will be well above boiling point at a reduced pressure in the combustion chamber, and flash boiling will preferentially take place at solid-liquid surfaces, resulting in the shattering of water droplets and the subsequent separation of the water from coal particles. This prevents the agglomeration of the coal particles during the subsequent ignition and combustion process, and reduces the energy required to evaporate the water and to heat the coal particles to ignition temperature. The overall effect will be to accelerate the ignition and combustion rates, and to reduce the size of the ash particles formed from the coal. 2 figs., 2 tabs.

Robben, F.A.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

232

Americas are an important market for liquid fuels and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natura ...

233

Bioethanol Fuel Production Concept Study: Topline Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DOE is in the process of developing technologies for converting plant matter other than feed stock, e.g., corn stover, into biofuels. The goal of this research project was to determine what the farming community thinks of ethanol as a fuel source, and specifically what they think of bioethanol produced from corn stover. This project also assessed the image of the DOE and the biofuels program and determined the perceived barriers to ethanol-from-stover production.

Marketing Horizons, Inc.

2001-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

234

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 ...

235

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; ...

236

No loss fueling station for liquid natural gas vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This patent describes a no loss fueling station for delivery of liquid natural gas (LNG) to a use device such as a motor vehicle. It comprises: a pressure building tank holding a quantity of LNG and gas head; means for delivering LNG to the pressure building tank; means for selectively building the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for selectively reducing the pressure in the pressure building tank; means for controlling the pressure building and pressure reducing means to maintain a desired pressure in the pressure building tank without venting natural gas to the atmosphere; and means for delivering the LNG from the pressure building tank to the use device.

Cieslukowski, R.E.

1992-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

237

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Tax Credit Qualified biodiesel and green diesel producers are eligible for a tax credit of $0.01 per gallon of biodiesel or green diesel fuels produced.

238

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell - CellTech Power  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell-CellTech Power Background Direct carbon solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) offer a theoretical efficiency advantage over traditional SOFCs operating on gasified carbon (syngas). CellTech Power LLC (CellTech) has been developing a liquid tin anode (LTA) SOFC that can directly convert carbonaceous fuels including coal into electricity without gasification. One of the most significant impediments

239

Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Product Design Improvement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This annual report provides results of Energy Research Corporation`s technical approach to performing the program `Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC) Product Design Improvement` covered under the DOE-ERC Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-95MC31184. This work is supported by DOE/METC and DOD/DARPA as well as ERC Team funds. The objective of the DOE-sponsored program is to advance the direct carbonate fuel cell technology to a level suitable for commercial entry for civilian applications. The overall objective of the DOD/DARPA initiative is to adapt the civilian 2 MW-Class fuel cell power plant for dual fuel DOD applications. This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the power plant demonstration status to the commercial entry early production unit design stage. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of these overall program goals are: (1) Provide environmental information to support DOE evaluation with respect to the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), (2) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (3) Establish design for multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (4) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (5) Acquire capabilities to support developmental testing of 0370 stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness of the power plant for commercial entry.

NONE

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

State-of-the-art processes for manufacturing synthetic liquid fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processes for manufacturing synthetic liquid fuels on the basis of the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis from alternative feedstock (natural gas, coal, biomass of various origins, etc.) are surveyed. State-of-the-art technology, companies that offer such processes, and the quality of products in comparison with their oil analogs, as well as economic features of the processes, are considered.

A.Y. Krylova; E.A. Kozyukov [NGK ITERA, Moscow (Russian Federation)

2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1982  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress accomplished for the quarter ending December 1982 is reported for the following research areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (technology assessment, gas research, oil research); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Activities and progress are reported in: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction (enhanced recovery of oil and gas), processing (of petroleum and alternate fuels), utilization (transportation and energy conversion), and systems integration. BETC publications and finances are listed in appendices. (DLC)

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

AEO2011: Liquid Fuels Supply and Disposition

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, other petroleum supply, other non petroleum supply and liquid fuel consumption.
...

244

Liquid-hydrogen-fueled-vehicle tests. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program for the development of a baseline liquid-hydrogen fueled vehicle and a liquid-hydrogen-refueling system was completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on September 30, 1981. This program involved the cooperative efforts of the Laboratory (funded by the US Department of Energy), the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the State of New Mexico through the New Mexico Energy Institute (NMEI). The results of the program provide a reference point from which future progress and improvements in liquid-hydrogen on-board storage and refueling capabilities may be measured. The NMEI provided the program a 1979 Buick Century 4-door sedan with 3.8-L (231-in./sup 3/) displacement turbocharged V6 engine and automatic transmission. The DFVLR provided an on-board liquid-hydrogen storage tank and a refueling station. The DFVLR tank, and the engine modifications for operation on hydrogen rather than gasoline, represented readily available, state-of-the-art capabilities when the program began in March 1979. The original tank provided by the DFVLR was replaced with a larger capacity tank, which was fabricated using more advanced cryogenic engineering technology. The vehicle was refueled at least 60 times with liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and the semiautomatic refueling station designed and built by the DFVLR. At the end of program, the engine had been operated for 133 h and the car driven for 3540 km (2200 miles) on hydrogen without any major difficulties. The vehicle obtained 2.4 km/L (5.7 miles/gal) of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L (21 miles/gal) of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis for driving in the high-altitude Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Albuquerque areas. Without refueling, the car had a range of about 274 km (170 miles) with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km (225 miles) with the second tank.

Stewart, W.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Liquid-hydrogen-fueled-vehicle tests. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program for the development of a baseline liquid-hydrogen fueled vehicle and a liquid-hydrogen-refueling system was completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on September 30, 1981. This program involved the cooperative efforts of the Laboratory (fundd by the US Department of Energy), the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the State of New Mexico through the New Mexico Energy Institute (NMEI). The results of the program provide a reference point from which future progress and improvements in liquid-hydrogen on-board storage and refueling capabilities may be measured. The NMEI provided the program a 1979 Buick Century 4-door sedan with 3.8-L (231-in./sup 3/) displacement turbocharged V6 engine and automatic transmission. The DFVLR provided an on-board liquid-hydrogen storage tank and a refueling station. The DFVLR tank, and the engine modifications for operation on hydrogen rather than gasoline, represented readily available, state-of-the-art capabilities when the program began in March 1979. The original tank provided by the DFVLR was replaced with a larger capacity tank, which was fabricated using more advanced cryogenic engineering technology. The vehicle was refueled at least 60 times with liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and the semiautomatic refueling station designed and built by the DFVLR. At the end of program, the engine had been operated for 133 h and the car driven for 3540 km (2200 miles) on hydrogen without any major difficulties. The vehicle obtained 2.4 km/L (5.7 miles/gal) of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L (21 miles/gal) of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis for driving in the high-altitude Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Albuquerque areas. Without refueling, the car had a range of about 274 km (170 miles) with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km (225 miles) with the second tank.

Stewart, W.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Tax Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Tax Credit An ethanol facility is eligible for a credit of $0.075 per gallon of ethanol, before denaturing, for new production for up to 36 consecutive

247

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Production Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit Companies that invest in the development of a biofuel production facility

248

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Fee  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Facility Fee to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Fee on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Fee on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Fee on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Fee on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Fee on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Fee on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Facility Fee The cost to submit an air quality permit application for an ethanol production plant is $1,000. An annual renewal fee is also required for the

249

Synergistic routes to liquid fuel for a petroleum-deprived future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When compared with biomass gasification/Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, hydropyrolysis/hydrodeoxygenation (HDO)-based processes have a potential to achieve high biomass carbon conversion to liquid fuel with much lower amounts of supplementary H{sub 2}. On the basis of this observation, we suggest a Hydrogen Bio-oil (H{sub 2}Bioil) process using fast hydropyrolysis/HDO that has a potential to produce nearly double the amount of liquid fuel when compared with the existing biofuel processes while requiring only modest quantities of supplementary H{sub 2}. The optimal operating mode for the H{sub 2}Bioil process is suggested to be in an entrained bed mode in presence of H{sub 2} with gas phase HDO of hydropyrolyzed vapors. A remarkable result due to reduced need for the supplementary H{sub 2} is that it provides synergistic integration of the H(2)Bioil process with a coal gasification power plant or a small scale steam natural gas (NG) reformer leading to a dramatic increase in the liquid fuel production from biomass and coal or NG. Here, hot synthesis gas (T>500{sup o}C) from a coal gasifier or methane reformer supplies H{sub 2}/CO for hydropyrolysis and deoxygenation as well as heat for the process. This result is exciting, because it presents us with an option to build integrated H{sub 2}Bioil processes sooner rather than later when the cost effective H{sub 2}, becomes available from a carbon-free energy source such as solar or nuclear. The H{sub 2}Bioil process and its integrated version with a small scale NG reformer have strong potential to be attractive on a small scale while being more efficient than any current biomass to liquid fuel process in operation.

Agrawal, R.; Singh, N.R. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States). School of Chemical Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

250

Renewable hydrogen production for fossil fuel processing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this mission-oriented research program is the production of renewable hydrogen for fossil fuel processing. This program will build upon promising results that have been obtained in the Chemical Technology Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory on the utilization of intact microalgae for photosynthetic water splitting. In this process, specially adapted algae are used to perform the light-activated cleavage of water into its elemental constituents, molecular hydrogen and oxygen. The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of their hydrogen-producing capability. These are: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the original development of an evacuated photobiological reactor for real-world engineering applications; (6) the potential for using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. The significance of each of these points in the context of a practical system for hydrogen production is discussed. This program will be enhanced by collaborative research between Oak Ridge National Laboratory and senior faculty members at Duke University, the University of Chicago, and Iowa State University. The special contribution that these organizations and faculty members will make is access to strains and mutants of unicellular algae that will potentially have useful properties for hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting.

Greenbaum, E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

,"North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

252

,"Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Tennessee Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2012...

253

,"U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Bcf)",1,"Monthly","92013" ,"Release...

254

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE ORIGIN OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS PRODUCTION  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Form Approved XXXXXX XXXX ANNUAL REPORT OF THE ORIGIN OF NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS PRODUCTION FORM EIA-64A . REPORT YEAR 2012 . This report is . mandatory

255

,"New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

256

,"Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

257

,"Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

258

,"Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

259

,"West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (MMcf)",1,"Annual",2012 ,"Release...

260

Figure 51. World production of liquids from biomass, coal ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Title: Figure 51. World production of liquids from biomass, coal, and natural gas in three cases, 2011 and 2040 (million barrels per day) Subject

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production from Greater than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

262

Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Espey, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Production Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Production Facility Tax Credit A taxpayer who processes biodiesel, ethanol, or gasoline blends consisting

264

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Tax Ethanol Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Tax Credit Qualified ethanol producers are eligible for an income tax credit of $1.00 per gallon of corn- or cellulosic-based ethanol that meets ASTM

265

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Deduction  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Tax Deduction to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Deduction on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Deduction on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Deduction on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Deduction on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Deduction on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Deduction on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Tax Deduction The cost of purchasing qualified biomass feedstocks to be processed into

266

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Production Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Facility Tax Credit A taxpayer that constructs and places into service a commercial facility

267

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Tax Credit A certified commercial biofuel producer is eligible for an income tax credit of $0.05 per gasoline gallon equivalent of biofuel produced for use

268

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuels Production Tax Exemption Qualifying buildings, equipment, and land used in the manufacturing of

269

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuel Production Tax Biofuel Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Production Tax Credit Biofuel producers in New York State may qualify for a state tax credit of $0.15 per gallon of biodiesel (B100) or ethanol produced after the

270

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Tax Ethanol Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Ethanol Production Tax Credit An ethanol producer located in Indiana is entitled to a credit of $0.125 per gallon of ethanol produced, including cellulosic ethanol. The Indiana

271

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production and Blending Tax Credit

272

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Production Facility Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Facility Tax Credit Businesses and individuals are eligible for a tax credit of up to 15% of

273

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Production Facility Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biofuel Production Facility Tax Exemption Any newly constructed or expanded biomass-to-energy facility is exempt from

274

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Tax Credit A biodiesel facility may receive a credit of $0.075 per gallon of biodiesel

275

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biodiesel Production Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Excise Tax Credit A biodiesel producer that produces at least 100,000 gallons of biodiesel

276

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Production Production Tax Credit to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Tax Credit on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Biodiesel Production Tax Credit A biodiesel producer located in Indiana may receive a credit of $1.00 per gallon of biodiesel produced and used in biodiesel blends. The Indiana

277

Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references  

SciTech Connect

The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

1982-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

278

Microalgae as a source of liquid fuels. Final technical report. [200 references  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The economics of liquid-fuels production from microalgae was evaluated. A detailed review of published economic analyses of microalgae biomass production revealed wide variations in the published costs, which ranged from several dollars per pound for existing commercial health-food production in the Far East, to less than .05/lb costs projected for microalgae biomass for fuel conversion. As little design information or specific cost data has been published, a credible cost estimate required the conceptual engineering design and cost estimating of microalgae to liquid-fuels processes. Two systems were analyzed, shallow (2 to 3'') covered ponds and deeper (1 ft) open ponds. Only the latter was selected for an in-depth analysis due to the many technical shortcomings of the former approach. Based on the cost analysis of a very simple and low cost process, the most optimistic costs extrapolated were about $60/barrel. These were based on many optimistic assumptions. Additional, more detailed, engieering and cost analyses would be useful. However, the major emphasis in future work in this area should be on demonstrating the basic premises on which this design was based: high productivity and oil content of microalgae strains that can dominate in open ponds and which can be harvested by a simple bioflocculation process. Several specific basic research needs were identified: (1) Fundamentals of species selection and control in open pond systems. Effects of environmental variables on species dominance is of particular interest. (2) Mechanisms of algae bioflocculation. (3) Photosynthetic pathways and efficiency under conditions of high lipid production. (4) Effects of non-steady state operating conditions, particularly pH (CO/sub 2/ availability), on productivity. 18 figures, 47 tables.

Benemann, J.R.; Goebel, R.P.; Weissman, J.C.; Augenstein, D.C.

1982-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

279

Integration Strategy for DB-MHR TRISO Fuel production in conjunction with MOX Fuel production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

One of the nuclear power options for the future involves the evolution of gas cooled reactors to support the likely high temperature operations needed for commercial scale hydrogen production. One such proposed option is to use a Gas Turbine Modular Helium Reactor fueled with uranium based TRISO (coated particle) fuel. It has also been suggested that such a MHR could be operated in a ''Deep Burn'' manner fueled with TRISO fuel produced from recycle spent nuclear fuel. This concept known as a DBMHR must withstand significant development and fuel fabrication cost to be economically viable. The purpose of this report is to consider and propose a strategy where synergy with a parallel MOX fuel to LWR program provides economic or other advantage for either or both programs. A strategy involving three phases has been envisioned with potential for economic benefit relative to a stand-alone TRISO/DBMHR program. Such a strategy and related timing will ultimately be driven by economics, but is offered here for consideration of value to the total AFCI program. Phase I Near-term. Conventional spent fuel aqueous processing, MOX fuel fabrication, and use of present and future LWR/ALWR's with objective of a ''Continuous Recycle'' mode of fuel cycle management. Phase II Intermediate. Augmentation of LWR/ALWR industry with MHR deployment as justified by hydrogen economy and/or electrical demand. Phase III Long-term. Introduction of DBMHR's to offer alternative method for transuranic destruction and associated repository benefits, in addition to Phase II benefits. The basic philosophy of this strategy appears sound. However, the details of the technology plans and economic evaluations should receive additional detail and evaluation in the next fiscal year as funding can support.

MCGUIRE, DAVID

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

280

Tritium production using highly enriched fuel  

SciTech Connect

Preliminary studies utilizing the MOFDA code have been made for tritium production at the K reactors using 33 and 35 grams per foot oralloy (93.5% U-235) in aluminum in conjunction with standard K5N and K5E fuel elements, respectively. For this report, it was assumed that all tritium would be produced in discrete charges of LiAl target elements. It is intended that the study will be extended at some later time to include LiAl splines. The analysis includes the effect of coolant loss on reactivity for hot-or-cold and green-or-exposed conditions for several oralloy loading fractions.

Miller, R.L.

1967-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Photocatalytic semiconductor clusters for fuel production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

High quality crystalline, monodisperse nanometer-size semiconductor clusters were successfully grown using an inverse micellar synthesis process and their optical and structural properties were studied. Among the materials studied were PbS, FeS{sub 2}, MoS{sub 2}, CdS and related compounds. The results demonstrated strong electronic quantum confinement effects and broad tailorability of the bandgaps with decreasing cluster size, features that are important for the potential use of these materials as photocatalysts for solar fuel production and solar detoxification. The highlights of the work are included in an Executive Summary.

Wilcoxon, J.P.; Bliss, D.E.; Martin, J.E. [and others

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Alternative Fuels Data Center: On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

On-Farm Biofuel On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type On-Farm Biofuel Production Grants The Governor's Office of Agricultural Policy provides grants through the

283

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Biofuels Production Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biofuels Production Land Use Allowance and Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search

284

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Cellulosic Ethanol Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Cellulosic Ethanol Production Financing The Kansas Development Finance Authority may issue revenue bonds to cover

285

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol Production Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax Exemption to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax Exemption on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax Exemption on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax Exemption on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax Exemption on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax Exemption on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Production Facility Property Tax Exemption on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

286

Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

287

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

288

Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Louisiana--North Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

289

Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

290

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

291

Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

292

Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production ...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

293

Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

294

Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Florida Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

295

Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Montana Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

296

North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

297

Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

298

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

299

Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Utah Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

300

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Reserves Based Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Domestic supply of liquid fuels projected to increase, resulting ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

302

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1979  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The in-house results at Bartlesville Energy Technology Center on the liquid fossil fuel cycle are presented. The cycle covers extraction, processing, utilization, and environmental technology of the liquid fuels derived from petroleum, heavy oils, tar sands, oil shale, and coal.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

ULTRA-CLEAN FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Syntroleum plant is mechanically complete and currently undergoing start-up. The fuel production and demonstration plan is near completion. The study on the impact of small footprint plant (SFP) fuel on engine performance is about half-completed. Cold start testing has been completed. Preparations have been completed for testing the fuel in diesel electric generators in Alaska. Preparations are in progress for testing the fuel in bus fleets at Denali National Park and the Washington Metropolitan Transit Authority. The experiments and analyses conducted during this project show that Fischer-Tropsch (FT) gas-to-liquid diesel fuel can easily be used in a diesel engine with little to no modifications. Additionally, based on the results and discussion presented, further improvements in performance and emissions can be realized by configuring the engine to take advantage of FT diesel fuel's properties. The FT fuel also shows excellent cold start properties and enabled the engine tested to start at more the ten degrees than traditional fuels would allow. This plant produced through this project will produce large amounts of FT fuel. This will allow the fuel to be tested extensively, in current, prototype, and advanced diesel engines. The fuel may also contribute to the nation's energy security. The military has expressed interest in testing the fuel in aircraft and ground vehicles.

Steve Bergin

2003-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

304

Effect of directed port air flow on liquid fuel transport in a port fuel injected spark ignition engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With highly efficient modem catalysts, startup HC emissions have become a significant portion of the trip total. Liquid fuel is a major source of HC emissions during the cold start and fast idle period. Thus the control ...

Scaringe, Robert J. (Robert Joseph)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity Release Date: May 20, 2013 | Next Release Date: May 2014 Previous Issues Year: 2013 2012 2011 Go Notice: Changes to Petroleum Supply Survey Forms for 2013 This is the third release of U.S. Energy Information Administration data on fuel ethanol production capacity. EIA first reported fuel ethanol production capacities as of January 1, 2011 on November 29, 2011. This new report contains production capacity data for all operating U.S. fuel ethanol production plants as of January 1, 2013. U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2013 PAD District Number of Plants 2013 Nameplate Capacity 2012 Nameplate Capacity (MMgal/year) (mb/d) (MMgal/year) (mb/d) PADD 1 4 360 23 316 21

306

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Zero Emission Vehicle Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Production Requirements on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

307

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Payments  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Payments to someone by E-mail Payments to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Payments on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Payments on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Payments on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Payments on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Payments on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Payments on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type Advanced Biofuel Production Payments Through the Bioenergy Program for Advanced Biofuels (Section 9005),

308

Alternative Fuels Data Center: License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

License Exemptions for License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production for Personal Use to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production for Personal Use on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production for Personal Use on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production for Personal Use on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production for Personal Use on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production for Personal Use on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: License Exemptions for Biodiesel Production for Personal Use on AddThis.com...

309

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Ethanol and Hydrogen Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility Permits to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility Permits on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility Permits on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility Permits on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility Permits on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility Permits on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol and Hydrogen Production Facility Permits on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

310

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Agriculture and Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production Grants to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production Grants on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production Grants on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production Grants on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production Grants on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production Grants on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Agriculture and Forestry Biofuel Production Grants on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

311

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Supply of Petroleum Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Supply of Petroleum Products for Blending with Biofuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal

312

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Amoco Oil Company is investigating the direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels via partial oxidation. This report describes work completed in the first quarter of the two-year project (first quarter FY 1990). Task 1 of the work, preparation of the Project Management Plan, has been completed. Work was started and progress made on three other tasks during this quarter: Task 2. Modification of an existing Amoco pilot plant to handle the conditions of this project. Minor modifications were made to increase the maximum operating pressure to 1500 psig. Other more extensive modifications are being designed, including addition of an oxygen compressor and recycle system. Task 3.1. Evaluation of a Los Alamos National Laboratory methane oxidation kinetic model for suitability in guiding the experimental portions of this project. Task 3.2. Process variable (e.g. temperature, pressure, residence time) studies to determine optimal partial oxidation conditions. 1 fig.

Foral, M.J.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Synthetic Fuel Center construction and alternative test fuels production: Final report, 7 June 1982 to 7 September 1985  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Synthetic Fuel Center has been established by the Department of Energy as part of the Alternative Fuels Utilization Program. The main function is to provide test fuels in 5-gallon to 500-gallon quantities for research projects on utilization of alternative fuels. In the three-year report period, 26 fuels were prepared for 11 projects. Quantities ranged from 50 to 200 gallons of each fuel; the total production was 2490 gallons. Starting materials for processing or blending included two shale oils, two shale-derived naphthas, and two coal-derived middle distillates. A hydrogenation pilot plant was installed for processing synthetic feedstocks from oil shale and coal. Moderate severity upgrading of shale oil is reported, and the unit is capable of intermediate to high severity conversion of shale oil and coal liquids. Catalytic reforming of shale-derived naphthas at low pressure raised the octane of these paraffinic materials from less than 50 to above 90 Research Octane Number. Processing capabilities include distillation, adsorption, filtration, and centrifuging. Storage tanks from 500-gallon to 10,000-gallon capacity were installed. These are connected through piping and a manifold to the processing unit and other tanks for storage or blending. Fuel blending to target properties or compositions was a major activity. Complete characterizations were made of all feedstocks and products.

Sefer, N.R.; Erwin, J.; Russell, J.A.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Decarbonized Fuel Production Facility, A Technical Strategy for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The U.S. electricity market is undergoing a transformation driven by changes such as deregulation of power generation, more stringent environmental regulations, climate change concerns, and other market forces. With these changes come new players such as merchant power plants. The industry is also counting on new gas-fired generation to meet demand. Environmental initiatives concerning PM 2.5, air toxics, mercury control, and CO2 reduction could adversely impact the economic viability of coal. The future use of coal to produce electricity is uncertain and possibly in peril unless we recognize that in the coming decades, the traditional means of how energy (both electricity and fuel) is generated, transported, and utilized will likely be very different from what it is today. In this paper, we describe a technical strategy for the coal industry that can help assure coals competitiveness during the next century as electricity markets evolve and are reshaped by these changes. Recently, the U.S. Department of Energy unveiled a new concept, Vision 21 a futuristic way of combining high-efficiency power technologies with advanced coal processing technologies and environmental controls to create a near-zero discharge, multi-product energy complex. This paper presents a Page 1conceptualization of a Vision 21 plant that focuses on production of hydrogen from coal. It will show how the concept can help assure that coal can remain competitive with natural gas as a fuel for baseload electricity generation for existing and new power plants. It can also provide a feedstock for chemical and liquid fuels production, even if emissions of carbon dioxide must be controlled. This paper presents hydrogen delivery scenarios for the power sector that provide the basis for the projected economic and technical performance objectives.

Joseph S. Badin; Michael R. Delallo; Michael G. Klett; Michael D. Rutkowski; Jerome R. Temchin

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day of high-Btu Natural Gas from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation fuel jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions, thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report discusses the suitability of the tar oil stream. 5 refs., 20 figs., 15 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

Grants and Loan Guarantees to someone by E-mail Grants and Loan Guarantees to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Advanced Biofuel Production Grants and Loan Guarantees on AddThis.com... More in this section... Federal State Advanced Search All Laws & Incentives Sorted by Type

317

Conversion of MixAlco Process Sludge to Liquid Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

About 8 tons of dry undigested solid waste is generated by the MixAlco process for every 40 tons of food residue waste fed into the process. This MixAlco process produces liquid fuels and the sludge generated can be further converted into synthesis gas using the process of pyrolysis. The hydrogen component of the product synthesis gas may be separated by pressure swing adsorption and used in the hydrogenation of ketones into fuels and chemicals. The synthesis gas may also be catalytically converted into liquid fuels via the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis process. The auger-type pyrolyzer was operated at a temperature between 630-770 degrees C and at feed rates in the range of 280-374 g/minute. The response surface statistical method was used to obtain the highest syngas composition of 43.9 +/- 3.36 v % H2/33.3 +/- 3.29 v % CO at 740 degrees C. The CH4 concentration was 20.3 +/- 2.99 v %. For every ton of sludge pyrolyzed, 5,990 g H2 (719.3 MJ), 65,000 g CO (660 MJ) and 21,170 g CH4 (1055.4 MJ) were projected to be produced at optimum condition. At all temperatures, the sum of the energies of the products was greater than the electrical energy needed to sustain the process, making it energy neutral. To generate internal H2 for the MixAlco process, a method was developed to efficiently separate H2 using pressure swing adsorption (PSA) from the synthesis gas, with activated carbon and molecular sieve 5A as adsorbents. The H2 can be used to hydrogenate ketones generated from the MixAlco process to more liquid fuels. Breakthrough curves, cycle mass balances and cycle bed productivities (CBP) were used to determine the maximum hydrogen CBP using different adsorbent amounts at a synthesis gas feed rate of 10 standard lpm and pressure of 118 atm. A 99.9 % H2 purity was obtained. After a maximum CBP of 66 % was obtained further increases in % recovery led to a decrease in CBP. The synthesis gas can also be catalytically converted into liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) process. A Co-SiO2/Mo-Pd-Pt-ZSM-5 catalyst with a metal-metal-acid functionality was synthesized with the aim of increasing the selectivity of JP-8 (C10-C17) fuel range. The specific surface areas of the two catalysts were characterized using the BET technique. The electron probe microanalyzer (with WDS and EDS capabilities) was then used to confirm the presence of the applied metals Co, Mo, Pd and Pt on the respective supports. In addition to the gasoline (C4-C12) also produced, the synthesis gas H2:CO ratio was also adjusted to 1.90 for optimum cobalt performance in an enhanced FTS process. At 10 atm (150 psig) and 250 degrees C, the conventional FTS catalyst Co-SiO2 produced fuels rich in hydrocarbons within the gasoline carbon number range. At the same conditions the Co-SiO2-Mo-Pd-Pt/HZSM-5 catalyst increased the selectivity of JP-8. When Co-SiO2/Mo-Pd-Pt-HZSM-5 was used at 13.6 atm (200 psig) and 250 degrees C, a further increase in the selectivity of JP-8 and to some extent diesel was observed. The relative amounts of olefins and n-paraffins decreased with the products distribution shifting more towards the production of isomers.

Teiseh, Eliasu 1973-

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

LIQUID NATURAL GAS (LNG): AN ALTERNATIVE FUEL FROM LANDFILL GAS (LFG) AND WASTEWATER DIGESTER GAS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This Research and Development Subcontract sought to find economic, technical and policy links between methane recovery at landfill and wastewater treatment sites in New York and Maryland, and ways to use that methane as an alternative fuel--compressed natural gas (CNG) or liquid natural gas (LNG) -- in centrally fueled Alternative Fueled Vehicles (AFVs).

VANDOR,D.

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Production of 35S for a Liquid Semiconductor Betavoltaic  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The specific energy density from radioactive decay is five to six orders of magnitude greater than the specific energy density in conventional chemical battery and fuel cell technologies. We are currently investigating the use of liquid semiconductor based betavoltaics as a way to directly convert the energy of radioactive decay into electrical power and potentially avoid the radiation damage that occurs in solid state semiconductor devices due to non-ionizing energy loss. Sulfur-35 was selected as the isotope for the liquid semiconductor demonstrations because it can be produced in high specific activity and it is chemically compatible with known liquid semiconductor media.

Meier, David E.; Garnov, A. Y.; Robertson, J. D.; Kwon, J. W.; Wacharasindhu, T.

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12002: H2 Production...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record Record : 12002 Date: February 22, 2012 Title: H2 Production Status & Threshold Costs Plot 2006-2011 Originator: Eric Miller and Sarah...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Mimicking Photosynthesis for Production of Solar Fuels | U.S...  

Office of Science (SC) Website

Science Highlights 2012 Mimicking Photosynthesis for Production of Solar Fuels Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of...

322

Solid woodbased fuels in energy production in Finland.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Political incentives often have a central role in bioenergy production. Influence of these incentives is expected to increase, because conventional fossil fuels are draining and (more)

Mkel, Matti.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Biodesulfurization of mild gasification liquid products. Final technical report, 1 September, 1992--31 August, 1993  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The mild gasification of coal, as being developed at IGT and elsewhere, is a promising new technology that can convert coal to multiple products: gas, solid, and liquids. Mild gasification liquids can be used as feedstock to make transportation fuels and chemicals. However, the sulfur content and aromaticity of mild gasification liquids limits their usefulness and biodesulfurization can potentially decrease both sulfur content and aromaticity. The objective of this project is to investigate and feasibility of using biodesulfurization to upgrade the quality of mild gasification liquids. During this project, it was shown that the middle distillate (360--440 F) fraction of liquids derived from the mild gasification of coal, and unfractionated liquids can be biodesulfurized. Moreover, it was demonstrated that lysed cell preparations and freeze-dried cells can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids. The importance of the finding that freeze-dried biocatalysts can be used to biodesulfurize mild coal gasification liquids is that freeze-dried cells can be produced at one location, stored indefinitely, and then shipped (at reduced weight, volume, and cost) to another location for coal biodesulfurization. Moreover, freeze-dried biocatalysts can be added directly to mild coal gasification liquids with only minimal additions of water so that reactor volumes can be minimized.

Kilbane, J.J. II [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

324

New Fuel Cycle and Fuel Management Options in Heavy Liquid Metal-Cooled Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Technical Paper / Advances in Nuclear Fuel Management - Fuel Management of Reactors Other Than Light Water Reactors

Ehud Greenspan; Pavel Hejzlar; Hiroshi Sekimoto; Georgy Toshinsky; David Wade

325

Molten carbonate fuel cell product design improvement  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drawing on the manufacture, field test, and post-test experience of the sixteen Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) stacks, ERC is finalizing the next generation commercial entry product design. The second generation cells are 50% larger in area, 40% lighter on equal geometric area basis, and 30% thinner than the earlier design. These improvements have resulted in doubling of the full-height stack power. A low-cost and high-strength matrix has also been developed for improving product ruggedness. The low-cost advanced cell design incorporating these improvements has been refined through six short stack tests. Power production per cell of two times the SCDP maximum power operation, over ten thermal cycles, and overall operating flexibility with respect to load and thermal changes have been demonstrated in these short stack tests. An internally insulated stack enclosure has been designed and fabricated to eliminate the need for an inert gas environment during operation. ERC has acquired the capability for testing 400kW full-height direct fuel ceil (DFC) stack and balance-of-plant equipment. With the readiness of the power plant test facility, the cell package design, and the stack module, full-height stack testing has begun. The first full- height stack incorporating the post-SCDP second generation design was completed. The stack reached a power level of 253 kW, setting a world record for the highest power production from the advanced fuel cell system. Excellent performance uniformity at this power level affirmed manufacturing reproducibility of the components at the factory. This unoptimized small size test has achieved pipeline natural gas to DC electricity conversion efficiency of 47% (based on lower heating value - LHV) including the parasitic power consumed by the BOP equipment; that should translate to more than 50% efficiency in commercial operation, before employing cogeneration. The power plant system also operated smoothly. With the success of this test confirming the full-height stack basic design and with the completion of SCDP stacks post-test feedback, manufacture of the full-height stack representing the commercial prototype design has been completed and system demonstration is planned to start in the first quarter of 1999. These developments as well as manufacturing advances are discussed in this report.

P. Voyentzie; T. Leo; A. Kush; L. Christner; G. Carlson; C. Yuh

1998-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

326

Subtask 2.6 - Assessment of Alternative Fuels on CO2 Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Many coal-based electric generating units use alternative fuels, and this effort assessed the impact of alternative fuels on CO{sub 2} production and other emissions and also assessed the potential impact of changes in emission regulations under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for facilities utilizing alternative fuels that may be categorized as wastes. Information was assembled from publicly available U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information Administration databases that included alternative fuel use for 2004 and 2005. Alternative fuel types were categorized along with information on usage by coal-based electric, number of facilities utilizing each fuel type, and the heating value of solid, liquid, and gaseous alternative fuels. The sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, and carbon dioxide emissions associated with alternative fuels and primary fuels were also evaluated. Carbon dioxide emissions are also associated with the transport of all fuels. A calculation of carbon dioxide emissions associated with the transport of biomass-based fuels that are typically accessed on a regional basis was made. A review of CAA emission regulations for coal-based electric generating facilities from Section 112 (1) and Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators was performed with consideration for a potential regulatory change from Section 112 (1) regulation to Section 129 (2). Increased emission controls would be expected to be required if coal-based electric generating facilities using alternative fuels would be recategorized under CAA Section 129 (2) for solid waste incinerators, and if this change were made, it is anticipated that coal-fired electric generating facilities might reduce the use of alternative fuels. Conclusions included information on the use profile for alternative fuels and the impacts to emissions as well as the impact of potential application of emission regulations for solid waste incinerators to electric generating facilities using alternative fuels.

Debra Pflughoeft-Hassett; Darren Naasz

2009-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

327

Feasibility of producing jet fuel from GPGP (Great Plains Gasification Plant) by-products  

SciTech Connect

The Great Plains Gasification Plant (GPGP) in Beulah, North Dakota, is in close proximity to several Air Force bases along our northern tier. This plant is producing over 137 million cubic feet per day high-Btu SNG from North Dakota lignite. In addition, the plant generates three liquid streams, naphtha, crude phenol, and tar oil. The naphtha may be directly marketable because of its low boiling point and high aromatic content. The other two streams, totalling about 4300 barrels per day, are available as potential sources of aviation jet fuel for the Air Force. The overall objective of this project is to assess the technical and economic feasibility of producing aviation turbine fuel from the by-product streams of GPGP. These streams, as well as fractions thereof, will be characterized and subsequently processed over a wide range of process conditions. The resulting turbine fuel products will be analyzed to determine their chemical and physical characteristics as compared to petroleum-based fuels to meet the military specification requirements. A second objective is to assess the conversion of the by-product streams into a new, higher-density aviation fuel. Since no performance specifications currently exist for a high-density jet fuel, reaction products and intermediates will only be characterized to indicate the feasibility of producing such a fuel. This report describes results on feedstock characterization. 6 figs., 5 tabs.

Willson, W.G.; Knudson, C.L.; Rindt, J.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Liquid Fuels Market Model of the National Energy Modeling ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The outside battery-limit (OSBL) costs include the cost of cooling water, steam and electric power generation and distribution, fuel oil and fuel gas ...

329

The Czech National R&D Program of Nuclear Incineration of PWR Spent Fuel in a Transmuter with Liquid Fuel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The principle drawbacks of any kind of solid nuclear fuel are listed and briefly analysed in the first part of the paper. On the basis of this analysis, the liquid fuel concept and its benefits are introduced and briefly described in the following parts of the paper allowing to develop new reactor systems for nuclear incineration of spent fuel from conventional reactors and a new clean source of energy. As one of the first realistic attempts to utilise the advantages of liquid fuel, the reactor/blanket system with molten fluoride salts in the role of fuel and coolant simultaneously, as incorporated in the accelerator-driven transmutation technology (ADTT) being proposed in [1], has been proposed for a deeper, both theoretical and experimental studies in [2]. There will be a preliminary design concept of an experimental assembly LA-0 briefly introduced in the paper which is under preparation in the Czech Republic for such a project [3]. 1

M. Hron

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Defossiling Fuel: How Synthetic Biology Can Transform Biofuel Production David F. Savage , Jeffrey through natural intermediates to final molecule is long, and biofuel production is perhaps the ultimate engineering, economic, political, and environmental realities. Are biofuels sustainable? Consider U

331

Production of biocomponent containing jet fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent demands for low aromatic content jet fuels have shown significant increase in the last 20 years. This was generated by the growing of aviation. Further than quality requirements were more aggravated in front of jet fuels. This was generated by ... Keywords: aromatic content, biocomponent, crystallization point, jet fuel, kerosene, vegetable oil

Z. Eller; P. Solymosi; T. Kasza; Z. Varga; J. Hancsk

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production from Less than 200 Meters Deep (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1...

333

Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

(Million Barrels) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

334

Fuel Production Fuel producers operate refineries and power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and if to enter the hydrogen market and how to respond to an increasing demand for electricity from PHEVs and BEVs for vehicle and fuel. Consumers have two goals: firstly, to keep their cars and secondly to own the best

California at Davis, University of

335

NETL: C&CBTL -Laboratory Scale Liquids Production and Assessment...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

fuel production system using coal containing different percentages of biomass such as corn stover and switchgrass at a rate of two liters per day. Altex Coal Biomass to Drop-In...

336

ULTRACLEAN FUELS PRODUCTION AND UTILIZATION FOR THE TWENTY-FIRST CENTURY: ADVANCES TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORTATION FUELS  

SciTech Connect

Ultraclean fuels production has become increasingly important as a method to help decrease emissions and allow the introduction of alternative feed stocks for transportation fuels. Established methods, such as Fischer-Tropsch, have seen a resurgence of interest as natural gas prices drop and existing petroleum resources require more intensive clean-up and purification to meet stringent environmental standards. This review covers some of the advances in deep desulfurization, synthesis gas conversion into fuels and feed stocks that were presented at the 245th American Chemical Society Spring Annual Meeting in New Orleans, LA in the Division of Energy and Fuels symposium on "Ultraclean Fuels Production and Utilization".

Fox, E.

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

337

Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law (Tennessee) | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law (Tennessee) Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law (Tennessee) Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law (Tennessee) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Fuel Distributor General Public/Consumer Industrial Installer/Contractor Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Retail Supplier Rural Electric Cooperative Transportation Utility Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Fees Rebate Program Siting and Permitting Provider Tennessee Department of Revenue The Petroleum Products and Alternative Fuels Tax Law is relevant to all natural gas and/or biofuel projects. Compressed Natural Gas CNG, petroleum product and/or alternative dealers must apply for and obtain a permit from the Tennessee Department of Revenue. The permit authorizes the dealer to collect and remit taxes on CNG delivered to motor vehicles by means of a

338

REFORMING OF LIQUID HYDROCARBONS IN A NOVEL HYDROGEN-SELECTIVE MEMBRANE-BASED FUEL PROCESSOR  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We propose to develop an inorganic metal-metal composite membrane to study reforming of liquid hydrocarbons and methanol by equilibrium shift in membrane-reactor configuration, viewed as fuel processor. Based on our current understanding and experience in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane, we propose to further develop this membrane to a Pd and Pd-Ag alloy membrane on microporous stainless steel support to provide structural reliability from distortion due to thermal cycling. Because of the metal-metal composite structure, we believe that the associated end-seal problem in the Pd-ceramic composite membrane in tubular configuration would not be an issue at all. We plan to test this membrane as membrane-reactor-separator for reforming liquid hydrocarbons and methanol for simultaneous production and separation of high-purity hydrogen for PEM fuel cell applications. To improve the robustness of the membrane film and deep penetration into the pores, we have used osmotic pressure field in the electroless plating process. Using this novel method, we deposited thin Pd-film on the inside of microporous stainless steel tube and the deposited film appears to robust and defect free. Work is in progress to evaluate the hydrogen perm-selectivity of the Pd-stainless steel membrane.

Shamsuddin Ilias

2003-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

339

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Southern Research Institute Project Number: FE0010231 Project Description Fischer-Tropsch (FT) process converts a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, called syngas, into liquid hydrocarbons. It is a leading technology for converting syngas derived from gasification of coal and coal-biomass mixtures to hydrocarbons in coal to liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes. However, conventional FTS catalysts produce undesirable waxes (C21+) that need to be upgraded to liquids (C5-C20) by hydrotreating. This adds significantly to the cost of FTS. The objectives of this project are (i) to demonstrate potential for CBTL cost reduction by maximizing the production of C5-C20 hydrocarbon liquids using a selective FTS catalyst and (ii) to evaluate the impacts of the addition of biomass to coal on product characteristics, carbon foot print, and economics.

340

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on September 24-25, 2013, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop featured 29 participants representing academia, government, and national laboratories with expertise in the relevant fields. The objective of the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop was to share information and identify issues, barriers, and research and development needs for biological hydrogen production to enable hydrogen production that meets cost goals. Proceedings 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Final Report Presentations Introductory Session Fuel Cell Technologies Office Overview, Sara Dillich, DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

The design of a microfabricated air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this dissertation, the microfabricated electrode (MFE) concept was applied to the design of an air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells. The catalyst layer of the electrode is envisioned to be fabricated by using ...

Pierre, Fritz, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Half of U.S. liquid fuels net imports in 2010 came from the ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Based on data from the Petroleum Supply Monthly, half of all U.S. net imports (imports minus exports) of liquid fuels in 2010 came from the Americas (North America ...

343

Ethanol Production for Automotive Fuel Usage  

SciTech Connect

The conceptual design of the 20 million gallon per year anhydrous ethanol facility a t Raft River has been completed. The corresponding geothermal gathering, extraction and reinjection systems to supply the process heating requirement were also completed. The ethanol facility operating on sugar beets, potatoes and wheat will share common fermentation and product recovery equipment. The geothermal fluid requirement will be approximately 6,000 gpm. It is anticipated that this flow will be supplied by 9 supply wells spaced at no closer than 1/4 mile in order to prevent mutual interferences. The geothermal fluid will be flashed in three stages to supply process steam at 250 F, 225 F and 205 F for various process needs. Steam condensate plus liquid remaining after the third flash will all be reinjected through 9 reinjection wells. The capital cost estimated for this ethanol plant employing all three feedstocks is $64 million. If only a single feedstock were used (for the same 20 mm gal/yr plant) the capital costs are estimated at $51.6 million, $43.1 million and $40. 5 million for sugar beets, potatoes and wheat respectively. The estimated capital cost for the geothermal system is $18 million.

Lindemuth, T.E.; Stenzel, R.A.; Yim, Y.J.; Yu, J.

1980-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

344

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics Current Technology R&D Activities Quick Links Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Fuel Cells Technology Validation Manufacturing Codes & Standards Education Systems...

345

Measurements of Cloud Nuclei in the Effluents from Launches of Liquid- and Solid-Fueled Rockets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Airborne measurements of cloud nuclei [cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and ice nuclei (IN)] were made in the stabilized ground clouds resulting from the launches of a liquid-fueled ATLAS/Centaur rocket and a solid-fueled TITAN III rocket. ...

Edward E. Hindman; Lawrence F. Radke; Mark W. Eltgroth

1982-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 121 116 93 1970's 79 55 70 71 75 68 61 45 64 49 1980's 41 29 40 55 61 145 234 318 272 254 1990's 300 395 604 513 513 582 603 734 732 879 2000's 586 691 566 647 634 700 794 859 1,008 1,295 2010's 4,578 8,931 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Pennsylvania Natural Gas Plant Processing

347

HTGR-INTEGRATED COAL TO LIQUIDS PRODUCTION ANALYSIS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of the DOEs Idaho National Laboratory (INL) nuclear energy development mission, the INL is leading a program to develop and design a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR), which has been selected as the base design for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant. Because an HTGR operates at a higher temperature, it can provide higher temperature process heat, more closely matched to chemical process temperatures, than a conventional light water reactor. Integrating HTGRs into conventional industrial processes would increase U.S. energy security and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), particularly CO2. This paper focuses on the integration of HTGRs into a coal to liquids (CTL) process, for the production of synthetic diesel fuel, naphtha, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The plant models for the CTL processes were developed using Aspen Plus. The models were constructed with plant production capacity set at 50,000 barrels per day of liquid products. Analysis of the conventional CTL case indicated a potential need for hydrogen supplementation from high temperature steam electrolysis (HTSE), with heat and power supplied by the HTGR. By supplementing the process with an external hydrogen source, the need to shift the syngas using conventional water-gas shift reactors was eliminated. HTGR electrical power generation efficiency was set at 40%, a reactor size of 600 MWth was specified, and it was assumed that heat in the form of hot helium could be delivered at a maximum temperature of 700C to the processes. Results from the Aspen Plus model were used to perform a preliminary economic analysis and a life cycle emissions assessment. The following conclusions were drawn when evaluating the nuclear assisted CTL process against the conventional process: 11 HTGRs (600 MWth each) are required to support production of a 50,000 barrel per day CTL facility. When compared to conventional CTL production, nuclear integration decreases coal consumption by 66% using electrolysis and nuclear power as the hydrogen source. In addition, nuclear integration decreases CO2 emissions by 84% if sequestration is assumed and 96% without sequestration, when compared to conventional CTL. The preliminary economic assessment indicates that the incorporation of 11 HTGRs and the associated HTSEs impacts the expected return on investment, when compared to conventional CTL with or without sequestration. However, in a carbon constrained scenario, where CO2 emissions are taxed and sequestration is not an option, a reasonable CO2 tax would equate the economics of the nuclear assisted CTL case with the conventional CTL case. The economic results are preliminary, as they do not include economies of scale for multiple HTGRs and are based on an uncertain reactor cost estimate. Refinement of the HTGR cost estimate is currently underway. To reduce well to wheel (WTW) GHG emissions below baseline (U.S. crude mix) or imported crude derived diesel, integration of an HTGR is necessary. WTW GHG emissions decrease 8% below baseline crude with nuclear assisted CTL. Even with CO2 sequestration, conventional CTL WTW GHG emissions are 24% higher than baseline crude emissions. Current efforts are underway to investigate the incorporation of nuclear integrated steam methane reforming for the production of hydrogen, in place of HTSE. This will likely reduce the number of HTGRs required for the process.

Anastasia M Gandrik; Rick A Wood

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Liquid-fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1982  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports for the quarter ending September 1982 are presented for the following major tasks: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum, coal liquids, thermodynamics, process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Feature articles for this quarter are: new laboratory enhances BETC capability in mass spectrometry; and BETC tests on diesel particulate extracts indicate potential health risks. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H[sub 2] and CO, usually containing CO[sub 2]) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. (Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology)

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Status and future opportunities for conversion of synthesis gas to liquid energy fuels: Final report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The manufacture of liquid energy fuels from syngas (a mixture of H{sub 2} and CO, usually containing CO{sub 2}) is of growing importance and enormous potential because: (1) Abundant US supplies of coal, gas, and biomass can be used to provide the needed syngas. (2) The liquid fuels produced, oxygenates or hydrocarbons, can help lessen environmental pollution. Indeed, oxygenates are required to a significant extent by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. (3) Such liquid synfuels make possible high engine efficiencies because they have high octane or cetane ratings. (4) There is new, significantly improved technology for converting syngas to liquid fuels and promising opportunities for further improvements. This is the subject of this report. The purpose of this report is to provide an account and evaluative assessment of advances in the technology for producing liquid energy fuels from syngas and to suggest opportunities for future research deemed promising for practical processes. Much of the improved technology for selective synthesis of desired fuels from syngas has resulted from advances in catalytic chemistry. However, novel process engineering has been particularly important recently, utilizing known catalysts in new configurations to create new catalytic processes. This report is an update of the 1988 study Catalysts for Fuels from Syngas: New Directions for Research (Mills 1988), which is included as Appendix A. Technology for manufacture of syngas is not part of this study. The manufacture of liquid synfuels is capital intensive. Thus, in evaluating advances in fuels technology, focus is on the potential for improved economics, particularly on lowering plant investment costs. A second important criteria is the potential for environmental benefits. The discussion is concerned with two types of hydrocarbon fuels and three types of oxygenate fuels that can be synthesized from syngas. Seven alternative reaction pathways are involved.

Mills, G. [Delaware Univ., Newark, DE (United States). Center for Catalytic Science and Technology

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Elucidating through-plane liquid water profile in a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In this paper, a numerical model incorporating micro-porous layers (MPLs) is presented for simulating water transport within the gas diffusion layers (GDLs) and MPLs as well as across their interfaces in a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell. One-dimensional analysis is conducted to investigate the impacts of MPL and GDL properties on the liquid-water profile across the anode GDL-MPL and cathode MPL-GDL regions. Furthermore, two-dimensional numerical simulations that take MPLs into account are also carried out to elucidate liquid water transport, particularly through-plane liquid-water profile in a PEM fuel cell. Results from case studies are presented.

Wang, Yun (University of California, Irvine, CA); Chen, Ken Shuang

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Production Incentive  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

This incentive is available through June 30, 2013, and funding must be appropriated each year. (Reference Tennessee Code 67-3-103 and 67-3-423) Fuels & Vehicles Biodiesel...

353

Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility  

SciTech Connect

For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

2011-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

354

Modeling CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers for effects of thorium-based fuels  

SciTech Connect

We use the DRAGON code to model the CANDU-6 liquid zone controllers and evaluate the effects of thorium-based fuels on their incremental cross sections and reactivity worth. We optimize both the numerical quadrature and spatial discretization for 2D cell models in order to provide accurate fuel properties for 3D liquid zone controller supercell models. We propose a low computer cost parameterized pseudo-exact 3D cluster geometries modeling approach that avoids tracking issues on small external surfaces. This methodology provides consistent incremental cross sections and reactivity worths when the thickness of the buffer region is reduced. When compared with an approximate annular geometry representation of the fuel and coolant region, we observe that the cluster description of fuel bundles in the supercell models does not increase considerably the precision of the results while increasing substantially the CPU time. In addition, this comparison shows that it is imperative to finely describe the liquid zone controller geometry since it has a strong impact of the incremental cross sections. This paper also shows that liquid zone controller reactivity worth is greatly decreased in presence of thorium-based fuels compared to the reference natural uranium fuel, since the fission and the fast to thermal scattering incremental cross sections are higher for the new fuels. (authors)

St-Aubin, E.; Marleau, G. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, P.O. Box 6079, stn. Centre Ville, Montreal, QC H3C 3A7 (Canada)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 11 for thrid quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

356

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 15 fourth quarter FY 1990  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

357

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 23 for second quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

358

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Quarterly technical status report No. 19 for first quarter FY 1991  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to investigate the direct conversion of light gaseous hydrocarbons, such as those produced during Fischer-Tropsch synthesis or as a product of gasification, to liquid transportation fuels via a partial oxidation process. The process will be tested in an existing pilot plant to obtain credible mass balances. Specific objectives to be met include determination of optimal process conditions, investigation of various processing options (e.g. feed injection, product quench, and recycle systems), and evaluation of an enhanced yield thermal/catalytic system. Economic evaluation of the various options will be performed as experimental data become available.

Foral, M.J.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

359

Proceedings of the alcohol fuel production and utilization conference  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conference was held to provide farmers, businesses, industries, and specialty groups with the best available information on current and projected activities related to the production and utilization of biomass for alcohol fuels. All aspects of the alcohol fuel production and utilization process were discussed. From biomass sources, through conversion processes to end-use products and applications were topics discussed by numerous experts. Other experts took this basic information and put it together into total systems. Speakers presented overviews on alcohol fuel related activities on state, regional, and national levels. Finally, commercialization incentives, funding sources, environmental considerations, research developments, safety considerations, and regulatory requirements were discussed as factors which must be addressed when considering the production and utilization of alcohol fuels. Separate abstracts have been prepared for items within the scope of the Energy Data Base.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

U.S. Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Nameplate Fuel Ethanol Plant Production Capacity as of January 1, 2013 PAD District: Number of Plants: 2013 Nameplate Capacity: 2012 Nameplate Capacity

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Production of fossil fuel from federal and Indian lands fell ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales of fossil fuels from production on federal and Indian lands in fiscal year (FY) 2012 dropped 4% from FY 2011, according to data from the Department of the ...

362

Accelerator-Driven Transmutation Of Spent Fuel Elements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Fuel Elements An apparatus and method is described for transmuting higher actinides, plutonium and selected fission products in a liquid-fuel subcritical assembly. Available for...

363

Methanol production from biomass and natural gas as transportation fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two processes are examined for production of methanol. They are assessed against the essential requirements of a future alternative fuel for road transport: that it (1) is producible in amounts comparable to the 19 EJ of motor fuel annually consumed in the US, (2) minimizes emissions of criteria pollutants, (3) reduces greenhouse gas emissions from production and use, (4) is cost-competitive with petroleum fuel, and (5) is compatible with the emerging vehicle technologies, especially those powdered by fuel cells. The methanol yield, production cost, and potential for reduction of overall fuel-cycle CO{sub 2} emissions were evaluated and compared to those of reformulated gasoline. The results show that a process utilizing natural gas and biomass as cofeedstocks can meet the five requirements more effectively than individual processes utilizing those feedstocks separately. When end-use efficiencies are accounted for, the cost per vehicle mile traveled would be less than that of gasoline used in current vehicles. CO{sub 2} emissions from the vehicle fleet would be reduced 66% by methanol used in fuel cell vehicles and 8--36% in flexible-fuel or dedicated-methanol vehicles during the transition period. Methanol produced from natural gas and biomass, together in one process, and used in fuel cell vehicles would leverage petroleum displacement by a factor of about 5 and achieve twice the overall CO{sub 2} emission reduction obtainable from the use of biomass alone.

Borgwardt, R.H. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Characterization and utilization of hydrotreated products produced from the Whiterocks (Utah) tar sand bitumen-derived liquid  

SciTech Connect

The bitumen-derived liquid produced in a 4-inch diameter fluidized-bed reactor from the mined and crushed ore from the Whiterocks tar sand deposit has been hydrotreated in a fixed-bed reactor. The purpose was to determine the extent of upgrading as a function of process operating variable. A sulfided nickel-molybendum on alumina hydrodenitrogenation catalyst was used in all experiments. Moderately severe operating conditions were employed; that is, high reaction temperature (617--680 K) high reactor pressure (11.0--17.1 MPa) and low liquid feed rate (0.18--0.77 HSV); to achieve the desired reduction in heteroatom content. Detailed chemical structures of the bitumen-derived liquid feedstock and the hydrotreated total liquid products were determined by high resolution gas chromatography - mass spectrometry analyses. The compounds identified in the native bitumen included isoprenoids; bicyclic, tricycle, and tetracyclic terpenoids; steranes; hopanes; and perhydro-{beta}-carotenes. In addition, normal and branched alkanes and alkenes and partially dehydrogenated hydroaromatics were identified in the bitumen-derived liquid. The dominant pyrolysis reactions were: (1) the dealkylation of long alkyl side chains to form {alpha} - and isoolefins; and (2) the cleavage of alkyl chains linking aromatic and hydroaromatic clusters. Olefinic bonds were not observed in the hydrotreated product and monoaromatic hydrocarbons were the predominant aromatic species. The properties of the jet fuel fractions from the hydrotreated products met most of the jet fuel specifications. The cetane indices indicated these fractions would be suitable for use as diesel fuels.

Tsai, C.H.; Longstaff, D.C.; Deo, M.D.; Hanson, F.V.; Oblad, A.G.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

365

DEVELOPMENT OF METHODOLOGY AND FIELD DEPLOYABLE SAMPLING TOOLS FOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL INTERROGATION IN LIQUID STORAGE  

SciTech Connect

This project developed methodology and field deployable tools (test kits) to analyze the chemical and microbiological condition of the fuel storage medium and determine the oxide thickness on the spent fuel basin materials. The overall objective of this project was to determine the amount of time fuel has spent in a storage basin to determine if the operation of the reactor and storage basin is consistent with safeguard declarations or expectations. This project developed and validated forensic tools that can be used to predict the age and condition of spent nuclear fuels stored in liquid basins based on key physical, chemical and microbiological basin characteristics. Key parameters were identified based on a literature review, the parameters were used to design test cells for corrosion analyses, tools were purchased to analyze the key parameters, and these were used to characterize an active spent fuel basin, the Savannah River Site (SRS) L-Area basin. The key parameters identified in the literature review included chloride concentration, conductivity, and total organic carbon level. Focus was also placed on aluminum based cladding because of their application to weapons production. The literature review was helpful in identifying important parameters, but relationships between these parameters and corrosion rates were not available. Bench scale test systems were designed, operated, harvested, and analyzed to determine corrosion relationships between water parameters and water conditions, chemistry and microbiological conditions. The data from the bench scale system indicated that corrosion rates were dependent on total organic carbon levels and chloride concentrations. The highest corrosion rates were observed in test cells amended with sediment, a large microbial inoculum and an organic carbon source. A complete characterization test kit was field tested to characterize the SRS L-Area spent fuel basin. The sampling kit consisted of a TOC analyzer, a YSI multiprobe, and a thickness probe. The tools were field tested to determine their ease of use, reliability, and determine the quality of data that each tool could provide. Characterization was done over a two day period in June 2011, and confirmed that the L Area basin is a well operated facility with low corrosion potential.

Berry, T.; Milliken, C.; Martinez-Rodriguez, M.; Hathcock, D.; Heitkamp, M.

2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

366

DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen Storage Hydrogen Manufacturing Fuel Cells Applications/Technology Validation Safety Codes and Standards Education Basic Research Systems Analysis Systems Integration U.S. Department of Energy Search help Home > Hydrogen Production Printable Version Hydrogen Production Hydrogen can be produced from diverse domestic feedstocks using a variety of process technologies. Hydrogen-containing compounds such as fossil fuels, biomass or even water can be a source of hydrogen. Thermochemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from biomass and from fossil fuels such as coal, natural gas and petroleum. Power generated from sunlight, wind and nuclear sources can be used to produce hydrogen electrolytically. Sunlight alone can also drive photolytic production of

367

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented for the following major areas of investigation: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (resource assessment, enhanced recovery); liquid processing (characterization of petroleum and synthetic crude, thermodynamics; process technology); utilization; project integration and technology transfer. Highlights for this period in research studies are listed as those in extraction research and processing and thermodynamics research. Searches for microorganisms that will be useful in enhanced oil recovery have produced two promising leads. At Oklahoma State University, bacteria of the genus Clostridia have been found which can live in a brine solution as found in most petroleum reservoirs. These bacteria produce carbon dioxide, acetic acid, alcohols, and ketones as metabolic products. At the University of Georgia, a culture of bacteria has been found which will reduce the viscosity of a 10/sup 0/ API gravity oil by 95 percent. The analysis of heavy oils requires differentiation of sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen-containing compounds from hydrocarbons. The most effective way to do this is with a high-resolution mass spectrometer that can distinguish between compounds having molecular weights only a fractional unit apart. These molecular weights are calculated from the computer acquired time-moments of the various ions in a mass spectrum. Thus, the accuracy of results reflects, in part, the numerical methods used in data processing. Consequently, the effect of the mathematical functions on the accuracy of mass measurement is being determined.

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Fuel Property, Emission Test, and Operability Results from a Fleet of Class 6 Vehicles Operating on Gas-to-Liquid Fuel and Catalyzed Diesel Particle Filters  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A fleet of six 2001 International Class 6 trucks operating in southern California was selected for an operability and emissions study using gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuel and catalyzed diesel particle filters (CDPF). Three vehicles were fueled with CARB specification diesel fuel and no emission control devices (current technology), and three vehicles were fueled with GTL fuel and retrofit with Johnson Matthey's CCRT diesel particulate filter. No engine modifications were made.

Alleman, T. L.; Eudy, L.; Miyasato, M.; Oshinuga, A.; Allison, S.; Corcoran, T.; Chatterjee, S.; Jacobs, T.; Cherrillo, R. A.; Clark, R.; Virrels, I.; Nine, R.; Wayne, S.; Lansing, R.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Advanced Fuels Synthesis  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Fuels Synthesis Advanced Fuels Synthesis Coal and Coal/Biomass to Liquids Advanced Fuels Synthesis The Advanced Fuels Synthesis Key Technology is focused on catalyst and reactor optimization for producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal/biomass mixtures, supports the development and demonstration of advanced separation technologies, and sponsors research on novel technologies to convert coal/biomass to liquid fuels. Active projects within the program portfolio include the following: Fischer-Tropsch fuels synthesis Small Scale Coal Biomass Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer Tropsch Catalyst Small Scale Pilot Plant for the Gasification of Coal and Coal/Biomass Blends and Conversion of Derived Syngas to Liquid Fuels Via Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis Coal Fuels Alliance: Design and Construction of Early Lead Mini Fischer-Tropsch Refinery

370

FISCHER-TROPSCH FUELS PRODUCTION AND DEMONSTRATION PROJECT  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This project has two primary purposes: (1) Build a small-footprint (SFP) fuel production plant to prove the feasibility of this relatively transportable technology on an intermediate scale (i.e. between laboratory-bench and commercial capacity) and produce as much as 150,000 gallons of hydrogen-saturated Fischer-Tropsch (FT) diesel fuel; and (2) Use the virtually sulfur-free fuel produced to demonstrate (over a period of at least six months) that it can not only be used in existing diesel engines, but that it also can enable significantly increased effectiveness and life of the next-generation exhaust-after-treatment emission control systems that are currently under development and that will be required for future diesel engines. Furthermore, a well-to-wheels economic analysis will be performed to characterize the overall costs and benefits that would be associated with the actual commercial production, distribution and use of such FT diesel fuel made by the process under consideration, from the currently underutilized (or entirely un-used) energy resources targeted, primarily natural gas that is stranded, sub-quality, off-shore, etc. During the first year of the project, which is the subject of this report, there have been two significant areas of progress: (1) Most of the preparatory work required to build the SFP fuel-production plant has been completed, and (2) Relationships have been established, and necessary project coordination has been started, with the half dozen project-partner organizations that will have a role in the fuel demonstration and evaluation phase of the project. Additional project tasks directly related to the State of Alaska have also been added to the project. These include: A study of underutilized potential Alaska energy resources that could contribute to domestic diesel and distillate fuel production by providing input energy for future commercial-size SFP fuel production plants; Demonstration of the use of the product fuel in a heavy-duty diesel vehicle during the Alaska winter; a comparative study of the cold-starting characteristics of FT and conventional diesel fuel; and demonstration of the use of the fuel to generate electricity for rural Alaskan villages using both a diesel generator set, and a reformer-equipped fuel cell.

Stephen P. Bergin

2003-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

371

Environmental impacts of the production and utilization of carbonaceous fuels: a brief overview  

SciTech Connect

The projected increased future use of fossil fuels over the next several decades will intensify many of the current environmental concerns. These concerns include the following: contamination of water resources; consequences of various solid and liquid waste disposal alternatives; atmospheric input of organic emissions, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, particulates, smog forming products, and associated acid rains; increased global atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations; and, spills of crude and synthetic oils and their refined products. The development of oil shale, coal, tar sands, and enhanced oil recovery (EOR) resources will have regional impacts related to the distribution of the resources.

Stuermer, D.H.; Tompkins, M.A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Fusion-Fission Hybrid for Fissile Fuel Production without Processing  

SciTech Connect

Two scenarios are typically envisioned for thorium fuel cycles: 'open' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th and fission of {sup 233}U in situ without reprocessing or 'closed' cycles based on irradiation of {sup 232}Th followed by reprocessing, and recycling of {sup 233}U either in situ or in critical fission reactors. This study evaluates a third option based on the possibility of breeding fissile material in a fusion-fission hybrid reactor and burning the same fuel in a critical reactor without any reprocessing or reconditioning. This fuel cycle requires the hybrid and the critical reactor to use the same fuel form. TRISO particles embedded in carbon pebbles were selected as the preferred form of fuel and an inertial laser fusion system featuring a subcritical blanket was combined with critical pebble bed reactors, either gas-cooled or liquid-salt-cooled. The hybrid reactor was modeled based on the earlier, hybrid version of the LLNL Laser Inertial Fusion Energy (LIFE1) system, whereas the critical reactors were modeled according to the Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (PBMR) and the Pebble Bed Advanced High Temperature Reactor (PB-AHTR) design. An extensive neutronic analysis was carried out for both the hybrid and the fission reactors in order to track the fuel composition at each stage of the fuel cycle and ultimately determine the plant support ratio, which has been defined as the ratio between the thermal power generated in fission reactors and the fusion power required to breed the fissile fuel burnt in these fission reactors. It was found that the maximum attainable plant support ratio for a thorium fuel cycle that employs neither enrichment nor reprocessing is about 2. This requires tuning the neutron energy towards high energy for breeding and towards thermal energy for burning. A high fuel loading in the pebbles allows a faster spectrum in the hybrid blanket; mixing dummy carbon pebbles with fuel pebbles enables a softer spectrum in the critical reactors. This combination consumes about 20% of the thorium initially loaded in the hybrid reactor ({approx}200 GWd/tHM), partially during hybrid operation, but mostly during operation in the critical reactor. The plant support ratio is low compared to the one attainable using continuous fuel chemical reprocessing, which can yield a plant support ratio of about 20, but the resulting fuel cycle offers better proliferation resistance as fissile material is never separated from the other fuel components.

Fratoni, M; Moir, R W; Kramer, K J; Latkowski, J F; Meier, W R; Powers, J J

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

373

Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

374

Formulation and evaluation of highway transportation fuels from shale and coal oils: project identification and evaluation of optimized alternative fuels. Second annual report, March 20, 1980-March 19, 1981. [Broadcut fuel mixtures of petroleum, shale, and coal products  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Project work is reported for the formulation and testing of diesel and broadcut fuels containing components from petroleum, shale oil, and coal liquids. Formulation of most of the fuels was based on refinery modeling studies in the first year of the project. Product blends were prepared with a variety of compositions for use in this project and to distribute to other, similar research programs. Engine testing was conducted in a single-cylinder CLR engine over a range of loads and speeds. Relative performance and emissions were determined in comparison with typical petroleum diesel fuel. With the eight diesel fuels tested, it was found that well refined shale oil products show only minor differences in engine performance and emissions which are related to differences in boiling range. A less refined coal distillate can be used at low concentrations with normal engine performance and increased emissions of particulates and hydrocarbons. Higher concentrations of coal distillate degrade both performance and emissions. Broadcut fuels were tested in the same engine with variable results. All fuels showed increased fuel consumption and hydrocarbon emissions. The increase was greater with higher naphtha content or lower cetane number of the blends. Particulates and nitrogen oxides were high for blends with high 90% distillation temperatures. Operation may have been improved by modifying fuel injection. Cetane and distillation specifications may be advisable for future blends. Additional multi-cylinder and durability testing is planned using diesel fuels and broadcut fuels. Nine gasolines are scheduled for testing in the next phase of the project.

Sefer, N.R.; Russell, J.A.

1981-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-Cycle Assessment of Selected Bioethanol Production Pathways in the United States ANL/ESD/06-7 by M. Wu, M. Wang ................................................................................ 6 2 Simplified Process Flow Diagram of Biochemical Conversion of Corn Stover to Ethanol with Steam

Argonne National Laboratory

376

Beef production options and requirements for fossil fuel  

SciTech Connect

A large percentage of the feed resources used in beef production cannot be used by man or most other animals. These noncompetitive feeds could be used in different ways to increase beef production, but fossil fuel consumption by the beef industry would not be greatly reduced.

Ward, G.M.; Knox, P.L.; Hobson, B.W.

1977-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

377

EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable transportation energy capable system. The prime energy for this project comes from an agreement with a wind turbine operator.

Garabedian, Harold T.

2008-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

378

PRODUCTION OF NEW BIOMASS/WASTE-CONTAINING SOLID FUELS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

CQ Inc. and its team members (ALSTOM Power Inc., Bliss Industries, McFadden Machine Company, and industry advisors from coal-burning utilities, equipment manufacturers, and the pellet fuels industry) addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that includes both moisture reduction and pelletization or agglomeration for necessary fuel density and ease of handling. Further, this method of fuel production must be applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provide environmental benefits compared with coal. Notable accomplishments from the work performed in Phase I of this project include the development of three standard fuel formulations from mixtures of coal fines, biomass, and waste materials that can be used in existing boilers, evaluation of these composite fuels to determine their applicability to the major combustor types, development of preliminary designs and economic projections for commercial facilities producing up to 200,000 tons per year of biomass/waste-containing fuels, and the development of dewatering technologies to reduce the moisture content of high-moisture biomass and waste materials during the pelletization process.

David J. Akers; Glenn A. Shirey; Zalman Zitron; Charles Q. Maney

2001-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

379

Fuel Cell Technologies Office: Hydrogen Production  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

nuclear; biomass; and other renewable energy technologies, such as wind, solar, geothermal, and hydro-electric power. The overall challenge to hydrogen production is cost...

380

Hydrogen & Fuel Cells - Hydrogen - Hydrogen Production  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Center Working With Argonne Contact TTRDC Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen Production Argonne researchers are studying thermochemical cycles to determine their potential...

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381

Proceedings: Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A conference on the Impacts of Fuel Quality on Power Production highlighted the challenges facing power producers using such established power technologies as fluidized bed, sub-critical boilers, and incinerations as well as emerging technologies such as Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC), Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC), super- and ultrasuper-critical boilers, and oxy-fuel systems. Presentations reported industry experience in the United States and Europe with an emphasis on minim...

2007-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

382

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. Promoted metal oxide catalysts were tested. Several of these exhibited similar high ethylene to ethane ratios and low carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide ratios observed for the NaCl/{alpha}-alumina catalyst system reported earlier. Research on catalysts containing potentially activated metals began with testing of metal molecular sieves. Silver catalysts were shown to be promising as low temperature catalysts. Perovskites were tested as potential methane coupling catalysts. A layered perovskite (K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10}) gave the highest C{sub 2} yield. Work continued on the economic evaluation of a hypothetical process converting methane to ethylene. An engineering model of the methane coupling system has been prepared. 47 refs., 17 figs., 57 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.

1989-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

383

Catalyst and feedstock effects in the thermochemical conversion of biomass to liquid transportation fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The thermochemical conversion of biomass feedstocks to liquid transportation fuels can be accomplished by three processes, namely gasification, high-pressure liquefaction, and pyrolysis. In this study, the pyrolysis option is selected which is followed by the catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors to aromatic and olefinic hydrocarbons (PYROCAT process). The aromatics constitute a high-octane gasoline blend, while the olefins can be utilized as feedstocks for various chemicals. The PYROCAT process has been studied in a laboratory-scale fixed-bed catalytic reactor. Consecutive biomass samples were pyrolyzed rapidly in steam at 550{degree}C and atmospheric pressure, and then the pyrolysis vapors were passed over a zeolite catalyst. The catalytic upgrading products were monitored in real-time using molecular-beam mass-spectrometry (MBMS). The yields of major products were estimated from mass-spectral data. Several zeolite catalysts were screened in the upgrading process and promising catalysts with high yields were identified. Feedstocks studied included: the woody biomass species aspen (Populus tremuloides), basswood (Tilia americana), and willow (Salix alba); the three isolated components of wood lignin, xylan and cellulose; and the herbaceous species bagasse (Saccharum spp. hybrid), wheat straw (Triticum aestivum), and Sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata). 17 refs.

Rejai, B.; Agblevor, F.A.; Evans, R.J.; Wang, D.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 1,127 971 1,334 1970's 1,270 1,217 1,058 878 679 567 520 367 485 1,146 1980's 553 830 831 633 618 458 463 437 811 380 1990's 445 511 416 395 425 377 340 300 495 5,462 2000's 11,377 15,454 16,477 11,430 13,697 14,308 14,662 13,097 10,846 18,354 2010's 18,405 11,221 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

385

Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,499 3,667 3,475 1970's 3,235 2,563 1,197 1,118 952 899 823 674 883 1,308 1980's 1,351 1,327 1,287 1,258 1,200 1,141 1,318 1,275 1,061 849 1990's 800 290 413 507 553 488 479 554 451 431 2000's 377 408 395 320 254 231 212 162 139 168 2010's 213 268 424 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent

386

SUPPORTING INFORMATION to Large-Scale Gasification-Based Co-Production of Fuels and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

started production from coal syngas as vehicle fuel (Dry, 2002). Subsequently a coal-to-fuels program (derived by natural gas F-T conversion) are now beginning to be blended with conventional diesel fuels resurgence of interest in F-T fuels from gasified coal. Coal-based FT fuel production was commercialized

387

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the no cost extension period of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts for a third round of testing, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Hydrotreating and hydrogenation of the product has been completed, and due to removal of material before processing, yield of the jet fuel fraction has decreased relative to an increase in the gasoline fraction. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. Emission testing indicates that the coal derived material has more trace metals related to coal than petroleum, as seen in previous runs. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. The co-coking of the runs with the new coal have begun, with the coke yield similar to previous runs, but the gas yield is lower and the liquid yield is higher. Characterization of the products continues. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2007-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

388

Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

High Conversion of Coal to Transportation Fuels for the Future With Low HC Gas Production  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An announced objective of the Department of Energy in funding this work, and other current research in coal liquefaction, is to produce a synthetic crude from coal at a cost lower than $30.00 per barrel (Task A). A second objective, reflecting a recent change in direction in the synthetic fuels effort of DOE, is to produce a fuel which is low in aromatics, yet of sufficiently high octane number for use in the gasoline- burning transportation vehicles of today. To meet this second objective, research was proposed, and funding awarded, for conversion of the highly-aromatic liquid product from coal conversion to a product high in isoparaffins, which compounds in the gasoline range exhibit a high octane number (Task B).

Alex G. Oblad; Wendell H. Wiser

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Liquid Metal Bond for Improved Heat Transfer in LWR Fuel Rods  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A liquid metal (LM) consisting of 1/3 weight fraction each of Pb, Sn, and Bi has been proposed as the bonding substance in the pellet-cladding gap in place of He. The LM bond eliminates the large AT over the pre-closure gap which is characteristic of helium-bonded fuel elements. Because the LM does not wet either UO2 or Zircaloy, simply loading fuel pellets into a cladding tube containing LM at atmospheric pressure leaves unfilled regions (voids) in the bond. The HEATING 7.3 heat transfer code indicates that these void spaces lead to local fuel hot spots.

Donald Olander

2005-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

391

Chemically authentic surrogate mixture model for the thermophysical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We developed a surrogate mixture model to represent the physical properties of a coal-derived liquid fuel using only information obtained from a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the fuel and a recently developed 'advanced distillation curve'. We then predicted the density, speed of sound, and viscosity of the fuel and compared them to limited experimental data. The surrogate contains five components (n-propylcyclohexane, trans-decalin, {alpha}-methyldecalin, bicyclohexane, and n-hexadecane), yet comparisons to limited experimental data demonstrate that the model is able to represent the density, sound speed, and viscosity to within 1, 4, and 5%, respectively. 102 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

M.L. Huber; E.W. Lemmon; V. Diky; B.L. Smith; T.J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

2008-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

392

Liquid fossil-fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1982  

SciTech Connect

This report primarily covers in-house oil, gas, and synfuel research and lists the contracted research. The report is broken into the following areas: liquid fossil fuel cycle, extraction, processing, utilization, and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. (DLC)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 5,150 5,428 4,707 1970's 4,490 3,592 3,199 2,969 2,571 2,404 2,421 2,257 2,394 2,986 1980's 3,677 5,008 5,602 7,171 7,860 8,420 6,956 7,859 6,945 6,133 1990's 6,444 6,342 6,055 5,924 5,671 5,327 4,937 5,076 5,481 5,804 2000's 6,021 6,168 5,996 5,818 6,233 6,858 7,254 7,438 7,878 10,140 2010's 11,381 14,182 26,156 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 1/7/2014

394

Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 115,177 140,290 179,117 1970's 193,209 195,072 197,967 206,833 194,329 189,541 172,584 166,392 161,511 165,515 1980's 142,171 142,423 128,858 124,193 132,501 117,736 115,604 124,890 120,092 121,425 1990's 119,405 129,154 132,656 130,336 128,583 146,048 139,841 150,008 144,609 164,794 2000's 164,908 152,862 152,724 124,955 133,434 103,381 105,236 110,745 94,785 95,359 2010's 102,448 95,630 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

395

Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 3,351 3,244 2,705 1970's 2,330 2,013 1,912 1,581 1,921 2,879 6,665 11,494 14,641 15,686 1980's 15,933 14,540 14,182 13,537 12,829 11,129 11,644 10,876 10,483 9,886 1990's 8,317 8,103 8,093 7,012 6,371 6,328 6,399 6,147 5,938 5,945 2000's 5,322 4,502 4,230 3,838 4,199 3,708 3,277 3,094 3,921 2,334 2010's 2,943 2,465 2,480 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013

396

California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 34,803 32,639 30,334 1970's 29,901 27,585 24,156 17,498 17,201 15,221 14,125 13,567 13,288 10,720 1980's 8,583 7,278 14,113 14,943 15,442 16,973 16,203 15,002 14,892 13,376 1990's 12,424 11,786 12,385 12,053 11,250 11,509 12,169 11,600 10,242 10,762 2000's 11,063 11,060 12,982 13,971 14,061 13,748 14,056 13,521 13,972 13,722 2010's 13,244 12,095 12,755 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

397

Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 11,500 8,573 8,579 1970's 6,574 6,133 6,063 5,441 5,557 5,454 5,231 4,764 6,192 3,923 1980's 6,845 5,638 6,854 6,213 6,516 6,334 4,466 2,003 2,142 1,444 1990's 1,899 2,181 2,342 2,252 2,024 2,303 2,385 2,404 2,263 2,287 2000's 1,416 1,558 1,836 1,463 2,413 1,716 2,252 1,957 2,401 3,270 2010's 4,576 4,684 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014

398

New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 46,149 48,635 50,484 1970's 52,647 53,810 54,157 55,782 54,986 56,109 61,778 72,484 77,653 62,107 1980's 59,457 60,544 56,857 56,304 58,580 53,953 51,295 65,156 63,355 61,594 1990's 66,626 70,463 75,520 83,193 86,607 85,668 108,341 109,046 106,665 107,850 2000's 110,411 108,958 110,036 111,292 105,412 101,064 99,971 96,250 92,579 94,840 2010's 91,963 90,291 84,562 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

399

Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 4,126 4,546 4,058 1970's 3,405 4,152 4,114 4,674 6,210 9,620 11,944 13,507 13,094 12,606 1980's 12,651 13,427 12,962 11,314 10,771 11,913 10,441 10,195 11,589 13,340 1990's 13,178 15,822 18,149 18,658 19,612 25,225 23,362 28,851 24,365 26,423 2000's 29,105 29,195 31,952 33,650 35,821 34,782 36,317 38,180 53,590 67,607 2010's 82,637 90,801 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

400

Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 236 1970's 225 281 243 199 501 694 661 933 1,967 4,845 1980's 4,371 4,484 4,727 4,709 5,123 5,236 4,836 4,887 4,774 5,022 1990's 4,939 4,997 5,490 5,589 5,647 5,273 5,361 4,637 4,263 18,079 2000's 24,086 13,754 14,826 11,293 15,133 13,759 21,065 19,831 17,222 17,232 2010's 19,059 17,271 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 12/12/2013 Next Release Date: 1/7/2014 Referring Pages:

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production, Gaseous Equivalent (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 433,684 457,117 447,325 1970's 466,016 448,288 470,105 466,143 448,993 435,571 428,635 421,110 393,819 352,650 1980's 350,312 345,262 356,406 375,849 393,873 383,719 384,693 364,477 357,756 343,233 1990's 342,186 353,737 374,126 385,063 381,020 381,712 398,442 391,174 388,011 372,566 2000's 380,535 355,860 360,535 332,405 360,110 355,589 373,350 387,349 401,503 424,042 2010's 433,622 481,308 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data.

402

Fuel-cycle assessment of selected bioethanol production.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A large amount of corn stover is available in the U.S. corn belt for the potential production of cellulosic bioethanol when the production technology becomes commercially ready. In fact, because corn stover is already available, it could serve as a starting point for producing cellulosic ethanol as a transportation fuel to help reduce the nation's demand for petroleum oil. Using the data available on the collection and transportation of corn stover and on the production of cellulosic ethanol, we have added the corn stover-to-ethanol pathway in the GREET model, a fuel-cycle model developed at Argonne National Laboratory. We then analyzed the life-cycle energy use and emission impacts of corn stover-derived fuel ethanol for use as E85 in flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs). The analysis included fertilizer manufacturing, corn farming, farming machinery manufacturing, stover collection and transportation, ethanol production, ethanol transportation, and ethanol use in light-duty vehicles (LDVs). Energy consumption of petroleum oil and fossil energy, emissions of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide [CO{sub 2}], nitrous oxide [N{sub 2}O], and methane [CH{sub 4}]), and emissions of criteria pollutants (carbon monoxide [CO], volatile organic compounds [VOCs], nitrogen oxide [NO{sub x}], sulfur oxide [SO{sub x}], and particulate matter with diameters smaller than 10 micrometers [PM{sub 10}]) during the fuel cycle were estimated. Scenarios of ethanol from corn grain, corn stover, and other cellulosic feedstocks were then compared with petroleum reformulated gasoline (RFG). Results showed that FFVs fueled with corn stover ethanol blends offer substantial energy savings (94-95%) relative to those fueled with RFG. For each Btu of corn stover ethanol produced and used, 0.09 Btu of fossil fuel is required. The cellulosic ethanol pathway avoids 86-89% of greenhouse gas emissions. Unlike the life cycle of corn grain-based ethanol, in which the ethanol plant consumes most of the fossil fuel, farming consumes most of the fossil fuel in the life cycle of corn stover-based ethanol.

Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Hong, H.; Energy Systems

2007-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Liquid Fuel From Microbial Communities: Electroalcoholgenesis: Bioelectrochemical Reduction of CO2 to Butanol  

SciTech Connect

Electrofuels Project: MUSC is developing an engineered system to create liquid fuels from communities of interdependent microorganisms. MUSC is first pumping carbon dioxide (CO2) and renewable sources of electricity into a battery-like cell. A community of microorganisms uses the electricity to convert the CO2 into hydrogen. That hydrogen is then consumed by another community of microorganisms living in the same system. These new microorganisms convert the hydrogen into acetate, which in turn feed yet another community of microorganisms. This last community of microorganisms uses the acetate to produce a liquid biofuel called butanol. Similar interdependent microbial communities can be found in some natural environments, but theyve never been coupled together in an engineered cell to produce liquid fuels. MUSC is working to triple the amount of butanol that can be produced in its system and to reduce the overall cost of the process.

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels  

Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center (EERE)

xTL Fuels to someone xTL Fuels to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: xTL Fuels on AddThis.com... More in this section... Biobutanol Drop-In Biofuels Methanol P-Series Renewable Natural Gas xTL Fuels xTL Fuels Synthetic liquid transportation fuels, collectively known as xTL fuels, are produced through specialized conversion processes. These production methods, including the Fischer-Tropsch process, produce fuels from carbon-based feedstocks, such as biomass, coal, or natural gas, and can

405

Group combustion of liquid fuel in laminar spray jet  

SciTech Connect

The present study examines the global configuration, detailed structure, and combustion characteristic of sprays under various firing conditions represented by various principal parameters including group combustion number, fuel-air mass ratio, Reynolds number, and spray angle. A system of conservation equations of spray flames in an axisymmetric configuration is solved by a finite-difference method for n-Butylbenzen (C/sub 10/H/sub 14/). An extensive spray sensitivity study reveals remarkable insight into the group flame structure which can be adopted as a basic engineering criteria for spray flame classification. It can be used to develop practical guides for the design of atomizers and burners. Highlights of the study are described in the following. There are three principal spray group combustion modes that may occur independently in a spray burner. These combustion modes are external, internal and critical group combustion modes, according to the relative magnitude of the length of the flame and the spray jet. The external group flame, located outside the spray jet is deemed to be the principal combustion configuration of practical spray flame. Predicted spray structure of the external flame is found to be in good agreement with the experimental observations. In particular, axial and radial distributions of major spray variables, droplet size, number density of droplet, concentration of fuel and oxidizer, velocities, and temperature, together with the flame contour and jet boundary are in qualitative agreement with the laboratory scale kerosene spray flame reported by Onuma and coworkers (1974, 1976). The existence of an air deficient fuel rich combustible mixture in the spray core is expected to provoke significant thermal decomposition of the hydrocarbon and also facilitate the formation of soot and particles.

Kim, H.Y.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

NONE

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

Tao, Thomas

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

408

NETL: Coal & Coal Biomass to Liquids - Hydrogen and Clean Fuels...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Strategies Central Hydrogen Production Coal Supply Regions CLICK ON IMAGE TO SEE LARGER VIEW Coal is a plentiful domestic resource, and is available in several major regions of the...

409

Plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive as an ecologically beneficial component for liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A plant for producing an oxygen-containing additive for liquid motor fuels comprises an anaerobic fermentation vessel, a gasholder, a system for removal of sulphuretted hydrogen, and a hotwell. The plant further comprises an aerobic fermentation vessel, a device for liquid substance pumping, a device for liquid aeration with an oxygen-containing gas, a removal system of solid mass residue after fermentation, a gas distribution device; a device for heavy gases utilization; a device for ammonia adsorption by water; a liquid-gas mixer; a cavity mixer, a system that serves superficial active and dispersant matters and a cooler; all of these being connected to each other by pipelines. The technical result being the implementation of a process for producing an oxygen containing additive, which after being added to liquid motor fuels, provides an ecologically beneficial component for motor fuels by ensuring the stability of composition fuel properties during long-term storage.

Siryk, Yury Paul; Balytski, Ivan Peter; Korolyov, Volodymyr George; Klishyn, Olexiy Nick; Lnianiy, Vitaly Nick; Lyakh, Yury Alex; Rogulin, Victor Valery

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report  

SciTech Connect

This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

Tao, Thomas

2012-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

411

H2 PRODUCTION AND FUEL CELLS.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Oxide nanosystems play a key role as components of catalysts used for the production of H{sub 2} via the steam reforming or the partial oxidation of hydrocarbons, and for the water-gas shift reaction. The behavior seen for Cu-ceria and Au-ceria WGS catalysts indicates that the oxide is much more than a simple support. The special chemical properties of the oxide nanoparticles (defect rich, high mobility of oxygen) favor interactions with the reactants or other catalyst components. More in-situ characterization and mechanistic studies are necessary for the optimization of these nanocatalysts. The use of oxide nanomaterials for the fabrication of PEMFCs and SOFCs can lead to devices with a high practical impact. One objective is to build electrodes with low cost conducting oxide nanoarrays. The electron and oxygen-ion conducting capabilities of many oxides improve when going from the bulk to the nanoscale. Furthermore, one can get a more homogeneous surface morphology and an increase of the effective reaction area. Much more fundamental and practical research needs to be done in this area.

WANG, X.; RODRIGUEZ, J.A.

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

412

Ultra-Clean Diesel Fuel: U.S. Production and Distribution Capability  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Diesel engines have potential for use in a large number of future vehicles in the US. However, to achieve this potential, proponents of diesel engine technologies must solve diesel's pollution problems, including objectionable levels of emissions of particulates and oxides of nitrogen. To meet emissions reduction goals, diesel fuel quality improvements could enable diesel engines with advanced aftertreatment systems to achieve the necessary emissions performance. The diesel fuel would most likely have to be reformulated to be as clean as low sulfur gasoline. This report examines the small- and large-market extremes for introduction of ultra-clean diesel fuel in the US and concludes that petroleum refinery and distribution systems could produce adequate low sulfur blendstocks to satisfy small markets for low sulfur (30 parts per million) light duty diesel fuel, and deliver that fuel to retail consumers with only modest changes. Initially, there could be poor economic returns on under-utilized infrastructure investments. Subsequent growth in the diesel fuel market could be inconsistent with U.S. refinery configurations and economics. As diesel fuel volumes grow, the manufacturing cost may increase, depending upon how hydrodesulfurization technologies develop, whether significantly greater volumes of the diesel pool have to be desulfurized, to what degree other properties like aromatic levels have to be changed, and whether competitive fuel production technologies become economic. Low sulfur (10 parts per million) and low aromatics (10 volume percent) diesel fuel for the total market could require desulfurization, dearomatization, and hydrogen production investments amounting to a third of current refinery market value. The refinery capital cost component alone would be 3 cents per gallon of diesel fuel. Outside of refineries, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) plant investment cost would be 3 to 6 cents per gallon. With total projected investments of $11.8 billion (6 to 9 cents per gallon) for the U.S. Gulf Coast alone, financing, engineering, and construction and material availability are major issues that must be addressed, for both refinery and GTL investments.

Hadder, G.R.

2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

413

Production of metal waste forms from spent fuel treatment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Treatment of spent nuclear fuel at Argonne National Laboratory consists of a pyroprocessing scheme in which the development of suitable waste forms is being advanced. Of the two waste forms being proposed, metal and mineral, the production of the metal waste form utilizes induction melting to stabilize the waste product. Alloying of metallic nuclear materials by induction melting has long been an Argonne strength and thus, the transition to metallic waste processing seems compatible. A test program is being initiated to coalesce the production of the metal waste forms with current induction melting capabilities.

Westphal, B.R.; Keiser, D.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Laug, D.V.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Natural Gas Plant Field Production: Natural Gas Liquids  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Product: Natural Gas Liquids Pentanes Plus Liquefied Petroleum Gases Ethane Propane Normal Butane Isobutane Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Product Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 74,056 76,732 74,938 79,040 82,376 81,196 1981-2013 PADD 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1981-2013 East Coast 1993-2008 Appalachian No. 1 1,525 1,439 2,394 2,918 2,821 2,687 1993-2013 PADD 2 12,892 13,208 13,331 13,524 15,204 15,230 1981-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 1,975 1,690 2,171 1,877 2,630 2,746 1993-2013

415

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress accomplished during the quarter ending September 1981 is reported under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel cycle; extraction (reservoir characterization and evaluation, recovery projects, reservoir access, extraction technology, recovery processes and process implementation); liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, and process technology); utilization (energy conversion - adaptive engineering, combustion systems assessment, and heat engines/heat recovery); and project integration and technology transfer. Special reports include: air drilling research; fluid injection in reservoirs; target reservoirs in Permian Basin suitable for CO/sub 2/ flooding; heavy oil technology; and the fate of used motor oil/results of a survey.

Linville, B. (ed.)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Effect of methanol crossover in a liquid-feed polymer-electrolyte direct methanol fuel cell  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of a liquid-feed direct methanol fuel cell employing a proton-exchange membrane electrolyte with Pt-Ru/C as anode and Pt/C as cathode is reported. The fuel cell can deliver a power density of ca. 0.2 W/cm{sup 2} at 95 C, sufficient to suggest that the stack construction is well worthwhile. Methanol crossover across the polymer electrolyte at concentrations beyond 2 M methanol affects the performance of the cell which appreciates with increasing operating temperature.

Ravikumar, M.K.; Shukla, A.K. [Indiana Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit

1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Direct conversion of methane to C sub 2 's and liquid fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are to discover and evaluate novel catalytic systems for the conversion of methane or by-product light hydrocarbon gases either indirectly (through intermediate light gases rich in C{sub 2}'s) or directly to liquid hydrocarbon fuels, and to evaluate, from an engineering perspective, different conceptualized schemes. The approach is to carry out catalyst testing on several specific classes of potential catalysts for the conversion of methane selectively to C{sub 2} products. The behavior of alkaline earth/metal oxide/halide catalysts containing strontium was found to be different from the behavior of catalysts containing barium. Two approaches were pursued to avoid the heterogeneous/homogeneous mechanism in order to achieve higher C{sub 2} selectivity/methane conversion combinations. One approach was to eliminate or minimize the typical gas phase combustion chemistry and make more of the reaction occur on the surface of the catalyst by using silver. Another approach was to change the gas phase chemistry to depart from the typical combustion reaction network by using vapor-phase catalysts. The layered perovskite K{sub 2}La{sub 2}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 10} was further studied. Modifications of process and catalyst variables for LaCaMnCoO{sub 6} catalysts resulted in catalysts with superior performance. Results obtained with a literature catalyst Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Pr{sub 6}O{sub 11} were better than those obtained with NaCO{sub 3}/Pr-Ce oxide or Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Ag-Pr-Ce oxide. 52 refs., 15 figs., 9 tabs.

Warren, B.K.; Campbell, K.D.; Matherne, J.L.; Kinkade, N.E.

1990-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

418

Imported LNG (liquid natural gas) as an alternative fuel  

SciTech Connect

Imports of liquefied natural gas (LNG) first arrived in the United States in 1972 at the rate of one billion cubic feet (Bcf) per year. By 1979, they had reached 252 Bcf/year. However, as US as demand declined and domestic deliverability grew, inflexible LNG prices led to the complete collapse of trade during the 1980s. In 1987, all four US import terminals were idle and no LNG was imported. The situation bean to change with renegotiation of Distrigas' contract to import LNG from Algeria's Sonatrach. In 1988, the company imported 19 Bcf of gas to its Everett, Massachusetts terminal, with greater volumes in 1989. Panhandle Eastern has also renegotiated its Algerian supply contract and reactivated the company's Trunkline LNG terminal at Lake Charles, Louisiana. It received its first cargo in December 1989. Moves are also being made to bring the other two US import terminals, at Cove Point, Maryland and Elba Island, Georgia, back into service. On the supply side too, there are major new developments. Not only is Algeria seeking to expand its existing exports, but new LNG projects in Nigeria, Norway and Venezuela in particular are aimed at the US market. The purpose of this report is to describe the current status and potential development of LNG imports to the US with a view to identifying those circumstances in which an electric utility might consider LNG as an alternate back-up fuel to distillate or residual oil, in gas-fired generating facilities. 9 figs., 10 tabs.

Kelly, M. (Jensen Associates, Inc., Boston, MA (USA))

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

U.S. Oxygenate Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Oxygenate Plant Production of Fuel Ethanol (Thousand Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 ... Fuel Ethanol Oxygenate Production;

420

Refinery Integration of By-Products from Coal-Derived Jet Fuels  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the accomplishments toward project goals during the second six months of the third year of the project to assess the properties and performance of coal based products. These products are in the gasoline, diesel and fuel oil range and result from coal based jet fuel production from an Air Force funded program. Specific areas of progress include generation of coal based material that has been fractionated into the desired refinery cuts and examination of carbon material, the use of a research gasoline engine to test coal-based gasoline, and modification of diesel engines for use in evaluating diesel produced in the project. At the pilot scale, the hydrotreating process was modified to separate the heavy components from the LCO and RCO fractions before hydrotreating in order to improve the performance of the catalysts in further processing. Characterization of the gasoline fuel indicates a dominance of single ring alkylcycloalkanes that have a low octane rating; however, blends containing these compounds do not have a negative effect upon gasoline when blended in refinery gasoline streams. Characterization of the diesel fuel indicates a dominance of 3-ring aromatics that have a low cetane value; however, these compounds do not have a negative effect upon diesel when blended in refinery diesel streams. Both gasoline and diesel continue to be tested for combustion performance. The desulfurization of sulfur containing components of coal and petroleum is being studied so that effective conversion of blended coal and petroleum streams can be efficiently converted to useful refinery products. Activated carbons have proven useful to remove the heavy sulfur components, and unsupported Ni/Mo and Ni/Co catalysts have been very effective for hydrodesulfurization. Equipment is now in place to begin fuel oil evaluations to assess the quality of coal based fuel oil. Combustion and characterization of the latest fuel oil (the high temperature fraction of RCO from the latest modification) indicates that the fraction is heavier than a No. 6 fuel oil. Combustion efficiency on our research boiler is {approx}63% for the heavy RCO fraction, lower than the combustion performance for previous co-coking fuel oils and No. 6 fuel oil. An additional coal has been procured and is being processed for the next series of delayed co-coking runs. Work continues on characterization of liquids and solids from co-coking of hydrotreated decant oils; liquid yields include more saturated and hydro- aromatics, while the coke quality varies depending on the conditions used. Pitch material is being generated from the heavy fraction of co-coking. Investigation of coal extraction as a method to produce RCO continues; the reactor modifications to filter the products hot and to do multi-stage extraction improve extraction yields from {approx}50 % to {approx}70%. Carbon characterization of co-cokes for use as various carbon artifacts continues.

Caroline E. Burgess Clifford; Andre' Boehman; Chunshan Song; Bruce Miller; Gareth Mitchell

2006-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid fuel production" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Operating experience with a liquid-hydrogen fueled Buick and refueling system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An investigation of liquid-hydrogen storage and refueling systems for vehicular applications was made in a recently completed project. The vehicle used in the project was a 1979 Buick Century sedan with a 3.8-L displacement turbocharged V6 engine and an automatic transmission. The vehicle had a fuel economy for driving in the high altitude Los Alamos area that was equivalent to 2.4 km/L of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis. About 22% less energy was required using hydrogen rather than gasoline to go a given distance based on the Environmental Protection Agency estimate of 7.2 km/L of gasoline for this vehicle. At the end of the project the engine had been operated for 138 h and the car driven 3633 km during the 17 months that the vehicle was operated on hydrogen . Two types of onboard liquid-hydrogen storage tanks were tested in the vehicle: the first was an aluminum Dewar with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 110 L; the second was a Dewar with an aluminum outer vessel, two copper vapor-cooled thermal radiation shields, and a stainless steel inner vessel with a liquid-hydrogen capacity of 155 L. The Buick had an unrefueled range of about 274 km with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km with the second. The Buick was fueled at least 65 times involving a minimum of 8.1 kL of liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and a semiautomatic refueling station. A refueling time of nine minutes was achieved, and liquid hydrogen losses during refueling were measured. The project has demonstrated that liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle, and its refueling, can be accomplished over an extended period without any major difficulties; nevertheless, appropriate testing is still needed to quantitatively address the question of safety for liquid-hydrogen storage onboard a vehicle.

Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Table 3a. International Crude Oil and Liquid Fuels Production ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Inventory Net Withdrawals (million barrels per day) U.S. (50 States) .....-0.31-0.34-0.11 0.13: 0.15 -0.27-0.03; 0.37-0.11-0.40-0.11 0.43 -0.15; 0.06-0.05; Other ...

423

Catalyst and process for converting synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The addition of an inert metal component, such as gold, silver or copper, to a Fischer-Tropsch catalyst comprising cobalt enables said catalyst to convert synthesis gas to liquid motor fuels at about 240.degree.-370.degree. C. with advantageously reduced selectivity of said cobalt for methane in said conversion. The catalyst composition can advantageously include a support component, such as a molecular sieve, co-catalyst/support component or a combination of such support components.

Coughlin, Peter K. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Liquid fossil fuel technology. Quarterly technical progress rport, April-June 1983  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Highlights of research activities for the quarter ending June 1983 are summarized under the following headings: liquid fossil fuel; extraction; processing; utilization; and project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are listed. Titles of featured articles are: (1) chemical flooding field test produces 975,000 barrels of oil; (2) chemicals boost recovery in steam-drive tests; (3) North Dakota carbon dioxide minitest successful; (4) carbon dioxide EOR reports issued; and (5) BETC slated for new management and new name. (ATT)

Linville, B. (ed.)

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Energy Perspectives: For most fuel sources, domestic ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

More than three-quarters of this energy production came from nonrenewable fossil fuels: coal, natural gas, crude oil, and natural gas plant liquids.

426

Hydroprocessing of heavy oils for the production of fuel-cell quality fuels. Final technical report, September 30, 1977-September 30, 1978  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Progress is reported on a program to establish whether heavy oils such as No. 4 or No. 6 fuel oil can be hydrogasified or hydrotreated to produce a steam-reforming feed suitable for use in an integrated fuel cell power generation facility. Hydrogasification data show that methane is the major gas product, along with a certain amount of coke formation. The liquid product was similar to the feed oil indicating that the oil did not fully enter the reaction. The hydrotreating apparatus was fully tested and proved to be operational. A trial run on No. 4 fuel oil using a Ni/MoO/sub 3/ hydrodesulfurization finishing catalyst showed very good sulfur removal to the gas phase, along with substantial reduction of specific gravity in the liquid product over the feed oil. Whereas the coke formation during hydrogasification is a clear disadvantage, further testing is required of the hydrotreating catalysts to determine quantitatively how efficient the sulfur removal can be and how amenable steam reforming the hydrotreated oil will be.

Jarvi, G.A.; Camara, E.H.; Marianowski, L.G.; Lee, A.L.; Vasil, D.R.; Oberle, R.D.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Assessment of Co-Production of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an update of EPRI TR-1004066 ("Assessment of Technical Innovations for the Co-Production of Transportation Fuels and Electricity", August 2001). The need for this update became evident as a result of technology, economic and market developments over the past five years. A key driver has been the escalation of natural gas prices, which results in increased competitiveness of coal-fired plant options.

2007-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

428

Evaluation of Fuel Clad Corrosion Product Deposits and Circulating Corrosion Products in Pressurized Water Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Many pressurized water reactors (PWRs) have experienced negative consequences resulting from build-up of corrosion product deposits (crud) on fuel cladding. The negative consequences include unplanned shifts in core power (axial offset anomaly, or AOA), fuel cladding failure, anomalous shutdown chemistry, and elevated ex-core radiation fields. These problems have grown more common as PWRs have moved toward higher 235U enrichments and higher duty cores needed for extended cycle operation. This report expl...

2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

429

Local government energy management: liquid petroleum gas (LPG) as a motor vehicle fuel  

SciTech Connect

The retrofit or conversion of automotive engines to operate on liquid petroleum gas (LPG) or propane fuel is one of many potentially cost-effective strategies for reducing a local government's annual fleet operating and maintenance costs. The cost effectiveness of an LPG conversion decision is highly dependent on the initial conversion cost, vehicle type, current and projected fuel costs, vehicle fuel economy (miles per gallon), and yearly average mileage. A series of plots have been developed which indicate simple paybacks for the conversion of several vehicle types (passenger car, small and standard pickups, and two and three ton trucks) over a wide range of fuel economies and annual usage patterns. A simple payback of less than three years can be achieved for vehicles with poor fuel economy and high annual use. The figures provided in this report may be used by fleet management personnel as a screening tool to identify those passenger cars, small or standard pickups, or light duty trucks which are candidates for LPG conversion. In addition to examining the benefits of an LPG conversion, local governments should also consider the competing energy management strategies of downsizing, and the acquisition of fuel efficient, diesel powered vehicles.

McCoy, G.A.; Kerstetter, J.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Liquid natural gas as a transportation fuel in the heavy trucking industry. Final technical report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report encompasses the second year of a proposed three year project with emphasis focused on fundamental research issues in Use of Liquid Natural Gas as a Transportation Fuel in the Heavy Trucking Industry. These issues may be categorized as (1) direct diesel replacement with LNG fuel, and (2) long term storage/utilization of LNG vent gases produced by tank storage and fueling/handling operation. The results of this work are expected to enhance utilization of LNG as a transportation fuel. The paper discusses the following topics: (A) Fueling Delivery to the Engine, Engine Considerations, and Emissions: (1) Atomization and/or vaporization of LNG for direct injection diesel-type natural gas engines; (2) Fundamentals of direct replacement of diesel fuel by LNG in simulated combustion; (3) Distribution of nitric oxide and emissions formation from natural gas injection; and (B) Short and long term storage: (1) Modification by partial direct conversion of natural gas composition for improved storage characteristics; (2) LNG vent gas adsorption and recovery using activate carbon and modified adsorbents; (3) LNG storage at moderate conditions.

Sutton, W.H.

1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

431

An investigation of synthetic fuel production via chemical looping  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels with a reduced greenhouse gas emissions profile would ease the transition to a carbon-neutral energy sector with the transportation industry being the immediate beneficiary followed by the power industry. Revolutionary solutions in transportation, such as electricity and hydrogen, depend on the deployment of carbon capture and storage technologies and/or renewable energy systems. Additionally, high oil prices may increase the development of unconventional sources, such as tar sands, that have a higher emissions profile. One process that is gaining interest is a system for producing reduced carbon fuels though chemical looping technologies. An investigation of the implications of such a process using methane and carbon dioxide that is reformed to yield methanol has been done. An important aspect of the investigation is the use of off-the-shelf technologies to achieve the results. The ability of the process to yield reduced emissions fuels depends on the source for the feed and process heat. For the range of conditions considered, the emissions profile of methanol produced in this method varies from 0.475 to 1.645 moles carbon dioxide per mole methanol. The thermal load can be provided by methane, coal or carbon neutral (biogas). The upper bound can be lowered to 0.750 by applying CCS and/or using nonfossil heat sources for the reforming. The process provides an initial pathway to incorporate CO{sub 2} into fuels independent of electrolytic hydrogen or developments in other sectors of the economy. 22 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Frank Zeman; Marco Castaldi [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States). Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z