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1

Analysis and design of a solar-powered liquid-desiccant air conditioner for use in hot and humid climates  

SciTech Connect

An experimental and theoretical investigation of the feasibility of a solar-powered liquid-desiccant air conditioner, for use in hot and humid climates, was carried out at the Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Florida. The proposed liquid desiccant system used nonadiabatic contactors, packed with finned-tube coils, for both moist air dehumidification and liquid-desiccant regeneration. A theoretical model was developed to analyze the complex phenomena of simultaneous heat and mass transfer in nonadiabatic contactors, as well as the continuous interaction between the dehumidification and regeneration processes. A computer code was written to assist in the analysis of the dehumidification and regeneration processes separately and coupled, for continuous operation. It was used to investigate the interaction between the different controlling parameters and their effects on the overall performance of the desiccant system. A fully solar-powered liquid-desiccant air-conditioner, with three tons of capacity was designed and optimized including economical criteria. The overall coefficient of performance (COP) of the optimized system was determined to be 0.312.

Chebbah, A.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Liquid Desiccant Drying of Thermoreversibly Gelcast Bodies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Liquid Desiccant Drying of Thermoreversibly Gelcast Bodies. Author(s), Noah O Shanti, Katherine T Faber. On-Site Speaker (Planned), Noah ...

3

A Preliminary Evaluation of Alternative Liquid Desiccants for a Hybrid Desiccant Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of a preliminary investigation at The University of Texas at Austin of alternative liquid desiccants for use in a hybrid desiccant air-conditioning system in which a desiccant is circulated between the evaporator and the condenser of a vapor-compression air conditioner. The liquid desiccants studied were lithium chloride, lithium bromide, calcium chloride, and triethylene glycol. Each candidate desiccant was subjected to a screening process which weighed the merits of the desiccant in terms of selected characteristics. The best liquid desiccant for the anticipated application was found to be calcium chloride.

Studak, J. W.; Peterson, J. L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Analysis of Hybrid Liquid Desiccant Technologies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dehumidification technology is being investigated for potential savings in building air conditioning systems. The potential for savings lies in separating the sensible and latent cooling loads to more efficiently address the combined conditioning needs of the space. Two DuCool liquid desiccant systemsDuTreat and DuHandlingwere tested in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Knoxville, Tennessee psychrometric chambers. The DuCool uses an internal vapor compression system to regenerate a liquid desi...

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

5

New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner October 4, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for liquid desiccant air conditioners (LDACs) within the Federal sector. Benefits Liquid desiccant air conditioners deeply dry air using natural gas, solar energy, waste heat, bio-fuel, or other fossil fuels to drive the system. By providing mostly latent cooling, the LDAC controls indoor humidity without overcooling and reheating. This unit is supplemented by an electric chiller or DX air conditioner that sensibly cools the building's recirculation air. The liquid desiccant is a concentrated salt solution that directly absorbs moisture. Application LDACs are applicable in hospital, office, prison, school, and service

6

Retrofitting of Conditioning Systems for Existing Small Commercial Buildings - Analysis and Design of Liquid Desiccant - Vapor Compression Hybrid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The combination of several concepts of new energy technologies may make it possible to reduce the energy needs for thermal comfort, especially cooling and dehumidification, in small sized, single-story commercial buildings. The potentials and limitations of retrofit technology for these characteristic structures have been the focus of the experience gained through the design and installation of a system adapted to a building constructed in the early 1960's. The existing split package air conditioning system was combined with a desiccant air-conditioning unit with a waste heat and solar heat reclaim component. While this retrofit system is feasible, a number of questions remain to be considered regarding the design, installation and operation of the total system. This paper focuses on the practical applications of such a hybrid system - both architectural/construction issues and the mechanical components/system considerations.

Arnas, O. A.; McQueen, T. M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Performance analysis of hybrid liquid desiccant solar cooling system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis investigates the coefficient of performance (COP) of a hybrid liquid desiccant solar cooling system. This hybrid cooling system includes three sections: 1) conventional… (more)

Zhou, Zhipeng (Joe Zoe)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Using liquid desiccant as a regenerable filter for capturing and deactivating contaminants  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method, and systems for implementing such method, for purifying and conditioning air of weaponized contaminants. The method includes wetting a filter packing media with a salt-based liquid desiccant, such as water with a high concentration of lithium chloride. Air is passed through the wetted filter packing media and the contaminants in are captured with the liquid desiccant while the liquid desiccant dehumidifies the air. The captured contaminants are then deactivated in the liquid desiccant, which may include heating the liquid desiccant. The liquid desiccant is regenerated by applying heat to the liquid desiccant and then removing moisture. The method includes repeating the wetting with the regenerated liquid desiccant which provides a regenerable filtering process that captures and deactivates contaminants on an ongoing basis while also conditioning the air. The method may include filtration effectiveness enhancement by electrostatic or inertial means.

Slayzak, Steven J. (Denver, CO); Anderson, Ren S. (Broomfield, CO); Judkoff, Ronald D. (Golden, CO); Blake, Daniel M. (Golden, CO); Vinzant, Todd B. (Golden, CO); Ryan, Joseph P. (Golden, CO)

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

9

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Experimental study of the heat and mass transfer in a packed bed liquid desiccant air dehumidifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have the ability to provide efficient humidity and temperature control while reducing the electrical energy requirement for air conditioning as compared to a conventional system. Naturally, the desiccant air dehumidification process greatly influences the overall performance of the desiccant system. Therefore, the effects of variables such as air and desiccant flow rates, air temperature and humidity, desiccant temperature and concentration, and the area available for heat and mass transfer are of great interest. Due to the complexity of the dehumidification process, theoretical modeling relies heavily upon experimental studies. However, a limited number of experimental studies are reported in the literature. This paper presents results from a detailed experimental investigation of the heat and mass transfer between a liquid desiccant (triethylene glycol) and air in a packed bed absorption tower using high liquid flow rates. A high performance packing that combines good heat and mass transfer characteristics with low pressure drop is used. The rate of dehumidification, as well as the effectiveness of the dehumidification process are assessed based on the variables listed above. Good agreement is shown to exist between the experimental findings and predictions from finite difference modeling. In addition, a comparison between the findings in the present study and findings previously reported in the literature is made. The results obtained from this study make it possible to characterize the important variables which impact the system design.

Oeberg, V.; Goswami, D.Y. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Heat and mass transfer in packed bed liquid desiccant regenerators -- An experimental investigation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid desiccant cooling can provide control of temperature and humidity, while at the same time lowering the electrical energy requirement for air conditioning. Since the largest energy requirement associated with desiccant cooling is low temperature heat for desiccant regeneration, the regeneration process greatly influences the overall system performance. Therefore, the effects of variables such as air and desiccant flow rates, air temperature and humidity, desiccant temperature and concentration, and the area available for heat and mass transfer on the regeneration process are of great interest. Due to the complexity of the regeneration process, which involves simultaneous heat and mass transfer, theoretical modeling must be verified by experimental studies. However, a limited number of experimental studies are reported in the literature. This paper presents results from a detailed experimental investigation of the heat and mass transfer between a liquid desiccant (triethylene glycol) and air in a packed bed regenerator using high liquid flow rates. To regenerate the desiccant, it is heated to temperatures readily obtainable from flat-plate solar collectors. A high performance packing that combines good heat and mass transfer characteristics with low pressure drop is used. The rate of water evaporation, as well as the effectiveness of the regeneration process is assessed based on the variables listed above. Good agreement is shown to exist between the experimental findings and predictions from finite difference modeling. In addition, the findings in the present study are compared to findings previously reported in the literature. Also, the results presented here characterize the important variables that impact the system design.

Martin, V.; Goswami, D.Y.

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Analysis of a Flat-Plate, Liquid-Desiccant, Dehumidifier and Regenerator.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A numerical model for isothermal and non-isothermal flat-plate liquid-desiccant dehumidifiers and regenerators was developed and implemented. The two-dimensional model takes into account the desiccant, water… (more)

Mesquita, Lucio Cesar De Souza

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Design for a gas chromatograph for characterizing desiccant material  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

To characterize solar desiccant cooling materials, a gas chromatograph has been designed. The chromatograph can record breakthrough curves and equilibrium data under widely varying conditions so that the rates and heats of sorption may be determined. This information may then be used in analyzing models for the construction of desiccant cooling systems which use solar heating for the drying cycle. The effects of desiccant geometry upon bed packing are minimal. However, the effects of desiccant geometry upon the pressure differential across the bed and upon the rate controlling processes may be strong, and these must be investigated thoroughly. Ranges for flow rates and for control of the physical parameters have been selected to encompass those that may be encountered in practical systems. A list of equipment and materials of construction is presented together with a brief description of the operation of the equipment.

Pitts, R.; Czanderna, A.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Experimental performance verification of a coil-type liquid desiccant system at part-load operation  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study was conducted to compare the predicted performance of a commercially available coil type liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification system with the experimental results at part-load conditions. A mathematical model was used to predict the performance of coil type liquid desiccant system. This model was based mostly on the manufacturer's catalog data. The coil type system used in the experimental study was a system manufactured in the US. The system is commercially available as 200-10 KXCb, 10-row deep conditioner unit with a design air flow rate of 1180 1/s(2500 scfm). For regeneration of the solution, a packed type 3.0-P regenerator unit with a design air flow rate of 448.4 1/s(950 scfm) was used.

Khan, A.Y. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico)); Ball, H.D. (Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Design and testing a solar cooling system employing liquid desiccants: Dehumidifier experiments in Colorado State University Solar House II: Final report, 1986--1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A nominal 3-ton (10.5-kW) lithium bromide, open-cycle desiccant cooling system has been designed, installed, and operated. This experimental system dehumidifies ambient air in a packed bed utilizing an aqueous solution of lithium bromide. The absorbent solution is distributed by spray nozzles and flows countercurrent to the air. The dilute solution exiting the dehumidifier is concentrated in a packed bed regenerator by solar heated air. The strong solution is cooled by two heat exchangers before reentering the dehumidifier. Provisions to simulate conditions of high ambient humidity and temperature have been made. Experiments on the dehumidifier operating in a decoupled mode (without countercurrent regenerator operation) have been carried out. Cooling capacities in the range of 1.0--4.0 refrigeration tons have been achieved, depending upon the operating conditions. The effect of different independent variables on the capacity of the dehumidifier has been studied. An empirical equation correlating the variables have been obtained by statistical analysis of the data. The equation obtained indicates that the capacity of the dehumidifier depends strongly on the solution concentration, solution flow rate, air inlet temperature and the air humidity. Two other variables studied, the solution inlet temperature and the air flow rate, did not affect the cooling capacity greatly. The dependence of condensation rate on each of the variables is analyzed. 22 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Lenz, T.G.; Loef, G.O.G.; Patnaik, S.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Photovoltaic-electrodialysis regeneration method for liquid desiccant cooling system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid desiccant cooling system (LDCS) is an (a novel) air-conditioning system with good energy saving potential. Regenerator is the power centre for LDCS. Currently, the regeneration process is always fuelled by thermal energy. Nevertheless, this regeneration pattern has some disadvantages in that its performance will become poor when the surrounding atmosphere is of high humidity, and the heat provided for regeneration will be unfavourable to the following dehumidification process. To ameliorate that, a new regeneration method is proposed in this paper: a membrane regenerator is employed to regenerate the liquid desiccant in an electrodialysis way; while solar photovoltaic generator is adopted to supply electric power for this process. Analysis has been made about this new regeneration method and the result reveals: this new manner achieves good stability with the immunity against the adverse impact from the outside high humidity; its performance is much higher than that of the thermal regeneration manner while putting aside the low efficiency of the photovoltaic system. Besides, purified water can be obtained in company with the regeneration process. (author)

Li, Xiu-Wei [College of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhang, Xiao-Song [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China)

2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Facility design for cyclic testing of advanced solid desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The development of high performance components is required to reach the goal of desiccant cooling system cost-competitiveness with conventional vapor compensation air conditioning systems. SERI has designed a laminar flow, parallel passage dehumidifier that has this potential. The goal of SERI's desiccant cooling research program is to fully characterize experimentally the performance of the parallel passage dehumidifier under a wide range of operating conditions, investigate improvements in design, and verify existing models of dehumidifier performance against experimental results. This report documents the design of the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility for performing the above testing. With slight modifications, the testing can be used for testing other desiccant cooling system components. The dehumidifier processes and the parameters and variables needed to control and characterize its performance are presented. The physical layout of the test loop and instrumentation for monitoring the operating conditions and dehumidifer performance and the controls for maintaining the operating conditions are specified. The computerized data acquisition system conversion equations and an error analysis of measurement variables are also presented.

Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.; Zangrando, F.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Thermally Activated Desiccant Technology for Heat Recovery and Comfort  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling is an important part of the diverse portfolio of Thermally Activated Technologies (TAT) designed for conversion of heat for the purpose of indoor air quality control. Thermally activated desiccant cooling incorporates a desiccant material that undergoes a cyclic process involving direct dehumidification of moist air and thermal regeneration. Desiccants fall into two categories: liquid and solid desiccants. Regardless of the type, solid or liquid, the governing principles of desiccant dehumidification systems are the same. In the dehumidification process, the vapor pressure of the moist air is higher than that of the desiccant, leading to transfer of moisture from the air to the desiccant material. By heating the desiccant, the vapor pressure differential is reversed in the regeneration process that drives the moisture from the desiccant. Figure 1 illustrates a rotary solid-desiccant dehumidifier. A burner or a thermally compatible source of waste heat can provide the required heat for regeneration.

Jalalzadeh, A. A.

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

Ko, Suk M. (Huntsville, AL); Grodzka, Philomena G. (Huntsville, AL); McCormick, Paul O. (Athens, AL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying  

SciTech Connect

Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create maintenance problems nor will it significantly increase operating expenses. An energy balance on the boiler showed that heat loss through the insulated jacket was 10%. This value is much higher than the 2% to 5% that is typical of most boilers and indicates a need to better insulate the unit. With insulation that brings jacket losses down to 5%, a 1?-effect regenerator that uses this boiler as its high-temperature stage will have a gas-based COP of 1.05. The estimated cost to manufacture a 300-lb/h, 1?-effect regenerator at 500 units per year is $17,140. Unfortunately, the very high cost for natural gas that now prevails in the U.S. makes it very difficult for a gas-fired LDAC to compete against an electric vapor-compression air conditioner in HVAC applications. However, there are important industrial markets that need very dry air where the high price of natural gas will encourage the sale of a LDAC with the 1?-effect regenerator since in these markets it competes against less efficient gas-fired desiccant technologies. A manufacturer of industrial dehumidification equipment is now negotiating a sales agreement with us that would include the 1?-effect regenerator.

Andrew Lowenstein

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

22

Analysis of various designs of a desiccant wheel for improving the performance using a mathematical model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A mathematical model for predicting the performance of a desiccant wheel with various wheel designs has been used by considering heat and mass transfer for both moist air and the desiccant material. The model shows good agreement with experimental data. An experimental setup was fabricated using an evacuated tube solar air collector with a desiccant wheel. The hot air needed for regeneration is produced by the evacuated tube solar air collector

Avadhesh Yadav; V. K. Bajpai

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Performance characteristics of open-flow liquid desiccant solar collector/regenerator for solar cooling applications. Part 2. System simulation and performance measurements. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research focussed on the performance and system simulation of an open-flow liquid desiccant solar collector/regenerator.

Wood, B.D.; Siebe, D.A.; Applebaum, M.A.; Novak, K.S.; Ballew, L.M.

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Solar liquid-desiccant air-conditioning system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A design for a closed, diurnal, intermittent absorption chiller for passive solar air-conditioning using liquid sorbents has been constructed and tested. LiBr-H/sub 2/O will not work with this design because of its low vapor pressure at the temperature available. The approach has possibilities using the 2 LiBr-ZrBr-CH/sub 3/OH or H/sub 2/O-NH/sub 3/ sorbent refrigerant pairs. The use of H/sub 2/O-NH/sub 3/ appears to be the better candidate because of the lower solution viscosity and less cycle weight, through tank volumes and collector requirements are similar. Further study of other refrigerant pairs such as S-Thiocyanate-ammonia is indicated, however, the difficulties encountered in construction and low potential coefficient of performance, and thus large collection area needed, makes commercialization of such a system doubtful in the foreseeable future.

Not Available

25

Liquid-desiccant systems for cooling/drying applications  

SciTech Connect

Thermally-driven desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as economically competitive alternatives to vapor-compression cooling systems. A differential formulation is used to model the commercial Kathabar System to describe the heat and mass transfer for a control volume in both the conditioner and the generator. These differential equations depend on parameters, depending on the flow rate of the fluids (water, air and solution), the physical properties of these fluids, the geometry of the transfer surfaces and the heat and mass transfer coefficients. The flat-plate solar collector does not give a satisfactory results if it is used to heat the generator outlet water, because the water coming out from the generator is at about 80 C which is too high to be heated again by a flat-plate collector. The air coming from the conditioner is used for drying corn. The use of the Kathabar System for drying applications is infeasible. The Kathabar system mathematical model was modified by running the conditioner adiabatically. The governing equations became 4 first-order partial differential equations instead of 6 equations. The same numerical scheme is used to solve these equations. The air coming from the new system conditioner is used for drying corn.

Mahmoud, K.G.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Experimental Investigation on the Operation Performance of a Liquid Desiccant Air-conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A large share of energy consumption is taken by an air-conditioning system. It worsens the electricity load of the power network. Therefore, more and more scholars are paying attention to research on new types of air-conditioning systems that are energy- saving and environment-friendly. A liquid desiccant air conditioning system is among them, as it has a tremendous ability for power storage and low requirements for heat resources. Heat with low temperatures, such as excess heat, waste heat, and solar power, is suitable for the liquid desiccant air-conditioning system. The feasibility and economical efficiency of the system are studied in this experimental research. The result shows that when the temperature of the regeneration is about 80?, the thermodynamic coefficient of the system is about 0.6, and the supply air temperature of the air-conditioning system remains stable at 21?, the air-conditioning system can meet human comfort levels.

Liu, J.; Wang, J.; Wu, Z.; Gu, W.; Zhang, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Simulation and study of thermal performance of liquid desiccant cooling cycle configurations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Five configurations of a 3-ton liquid desiccant cooling cycle were simulated and analyzed on a digital computer. Algebraic equations were developed for the dry bulbtemperatures and humidity ratios at different locations in the systems and solved using a finite difference scheme. The simulations were done at steady state and standard ASHRAE indoor and outdoor conditions. The study compared thermal performance of these five system configurations consisting of a direct evaporative cooler, indirect evaporative cooler(s), liquid desiccant packed dehumidifying tower, and air-to-air heat exchanger. Constant effectiveness of 0.85 and 0.9 were assumed for the direct evaporative cooler and air-to-air heat exchanger respectively. The performance of these five cycles is judged by the thermal Coefficient of Performance (COP). The Sensible Heat Ratio (SHR) is used to quantify the ratio of sensible cooling provided to the total cooling done (sensible plus latent).

Dhir, Rajesh

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system. DEVAP uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less

29

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings. View the entire Lab Breakthrough playlist. What are the key facts? Recent materials advances and liquid desiccant advances to design the compact and cost-effective DEVAP system.

30

Passive features for a liquid desiccant air conditioner  

SciTech Connect

A conceptual development program with the ultimate objective of substantially reducing or eliminating the parasitic power requirement for liquid sorbent air conditioning systems is described. Operational tests conducted on small prototypes have shown that some of the pumps can be replaced with other apparatus requiring no electrical energy. Experimental work has also shown that some electric utility dependent pumps might be replaced by solar powered pumps thus making the system more passive in nature.

Francis, C.E.; Beavers, D.R.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

Kozubal, E.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A Zero Carryover A Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications Preprint A. Lowenstein AIL Research, Inc. S. Slayzak and E. Kozubal National Renewable Energy Laboratory To be presented at ASME International Solar Energy Conference (ISEC2006) Denver, Colorado July 8-13, 2006 Conference Paper NREL/CP-550-39798 July 2006 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Midwest Research Institute (MRI), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-99GO10337. Accordingly, the US Government and MRI retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes. This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States government.

34

Overview of Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling Systems and Materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper has presented a review of the thermodynamics of three desiccant cooling cycles: the ventilation cycle, the recirculation cycle, and the Dunkle cycle. For the ventilation cycle the qualitative effects of changes in the effectiveness of individual components were analyzed. There are two possible paths to improved dehumidifier performance: changing the design of dehumidifiers using currently available desiccants so as to increase effectiveness without increasing parasitic losses, or developing new desiccants specifically tailored for solar cooling applications. The later part of this paper has considered the second option. A list of desirable desiccant properties was defined, properties of currently used solid and liquid desiccants were compared to this list, and a hypothetical desiccant type that would give improved system performance was discussed.

Collier, R.; Arnold, F.; Barlow, R.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Efficiency of a liquid desiccant dehumidification system regenerated by using solar collectors/regenerators with photovoltaic fans  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A hybrid solar dehumidification air-conditioning system was used to study the absorption of water vapor from moist air by contacting the air with aqueous solutions that contained from 90 to 94% triethylene glycol (TEG). For the packings of 2-inch polypropylene Jaeger Tri-Packs, which have a surface-to-volume ratio of 157 m{sup 2}/m{sup 3} (48 ft{sup 2}/ft{sup 3}), the efficiency of dehumidification can reach 93.3%. The environmental air was introduced into the dehumidifier cocurrently flowing with the liquid desiccant, and the liquid desiccant was sprayed on the top of the packing material. The air-to-liquid mass flow ratio was controlled in a range of 0.46 to 1.36. As the moisture was absorbed from air by the TEG solution, the solution was diluted. The regeneration of the solution was carried out in 20-piece (38.8 m{sup 2}) basin-type solar collectors/regenerators whose regeneration coefficients of performance are above 0.2. Air generated by photovoltaic fans was blown into the solar collectors/regenerators and carried away the water vapor from the evaporation of the aqueous desiccant solution. On the basis of the experimental results, the system performance is acceptable for most applications.

Tsair-Wang Chung; Wei-Yih Wu; Wen-Jih Yan; Ching-Lin Huang [Industrial Technology Research Institute, Taiwan (China)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

High performance solar desiccant cooling system: performance evaluations and research recommendations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an assessment of the current status of solar desiccant cooling and makes recommendations for continued research to develop high performance systems competitive with conventional cooling systems. Solid desiccant, liquid desiccant, and hybrid systems combining desiccant dehumidifiers with vapor compressor units are considered. Currently, all desiccant systems fall somewhat short of being competitive with conventional systems. Hybrid systems appear to have the greatest potential in the short term. Solid systems are close to meeting performance goals. Development of high performance solid desiccant dehumidifiers based on parallel passage designs should be pursued. Liquid system collector/generators and efficient absorbers should receive attention. Model development is also indicated. Continued development by hybrid systems is directly tied to the above work.

Schlepp, D.R.; Schultz, K.J.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

The Experimentation System Design and Experimental Study of the Air-Conditioning by Desiccant Type Using Solar Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Using a special solar air heater to gain heat power for regenerating an adsorption desiccant wheel made by composite silica gel, a desiccant air-conditioning experimentation system was designed and manufactured. Combining the advantage of measure and control by “PLC” and the software of “Kingview”, the whole year's operating results of this system was tested and analysed. The results indicate this system can keep the indoor air temperature range at 26±2°C and the relative humidity range being 50-70% under the low electricity cost on the whole year in the south of China region when the special solar air heater can offer flux air heating up to 60°C. In this paper some ideas are offered in order to facilitate the availability for air-conditioning using low grade energy, for example, solar energy and surplus or waste heat energy in the industrial process.

Zhuo, X.; Ding, J.; Yang, X.; Chen, S.; Yang, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Desiccant Cooling Systems - A Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems have been investigated extensively during the past decade as alternatives to electrically driven vapor compression systems because regeneration temperatures of the desiccant - about 160°F, can be achieved using natural gas or by solar systems. Comfort is achieved by reducing the moisture content of air by a solid or liquid desiccant and then reducing the temperature in an evaporative cooler (direct or indirect). Another system is one where the dehumidifier removes enough moisture to meet the latent portion of the load while the sensible portion is met by a vapor compression cooling system; desiccant regeneration is achieved by using the heat rejected from the condenser together with other thermal sources. At present, residential desiccant cooling systems are in actual operation but are more costly than vapor compression systems, resulting in relatively long payback periods. Component efficiencies need to be improved, particularly the efficiency of the dehumidifier.

Kettleborough, C. F.; Ullah, M. R.; Waugaman, D. G.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Callow, Diane Schafer (Albuquerque, NM)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Solar Desiccant Laboratory experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The first validation attempts with experimental data on SERI's in-house absorption computer model are reported. The SERI Desiccant Test Loop design is shown. Some experimental runs were made to extend the validation over a wide range of inlet (temperature/humidity) conditions. (MHR)

Kutscher, C.F.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A review of desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes recent published design advances that have been made in desiccant cooling systems. In desiccant cooling cycles, the desiccant reduces the humidity of the air by removing moisture from the air. Then the temperature is reduced by other components such as heat exchangers, evaporative coolers, or conventional cooling coils. The main advantage that desiccant cooling systems offer is the capability of using low-grade thermal energy. Desiccant cooling systems for residential and commercial applications are now being used to reduce energy-operating costs. However, the initial costs are comparatively high. The focus of research for the past decade has been to develop desiccant systems with a high coefficient of performance. Recent studies have emphasized computer modeling and hybrid systems that combine desiccant dehumidifiers with conventional systems.

Waugaman, D.G.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Field Demonstration of Active Desiccant Modules Designed to Integrate with Standard Unitary Rooftop Package Equipment - Final Report: Phase 3  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the investigation of two active desiccant module (ADM) pilot site installations initiated in 2001. Both pilot installations were retrofits at existing facilities served by conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems that had encountered frequent humidity control, indoor air quality (IAQ), and other operational problems. Each installation involved combining a SEMCO, Inc., ADM (as described in Fischer and Sand 2002) with a standard packaged rooftop unit built by the Trane Company. A direct digital control (DDC) system integral to the ADM performed the dual function of controlling the ADM/rooftop combination and facilitating data collection, trending, and remote performance monitoring. The first installation involved providing preconditioned outdoor air to replace air exhausted from the large kitchen hood and bathrooms of a Hooters restaurant located in Rome, Georgia. This facility had previously added an additional rooftop unit in an attempt to achieve occupant comfort without success. The second involved conditioning the outdoor air delivered to each room of a wing of the Mountain Creek Inn at the Callaway Gardens resort. This hotel, designed in the ''motor lodge'' format with each room opening to the outdoors, is located in southwest Georgia. Controlling the space humidity always presented a serious challenge. Uncomfortable conditions and musty odors had caused many guests to request to move to other areas within the resort. This is the first field demonstration performed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory where significant energy savings, operating cost savings, and dramatically improved indoor environmental conditions can all be claimed as the results of a retrofit desiccant equipment field installation. The ADM/rooftop combination installed at the restaurant resulted in a reduction of about 34% in the electricity used by the building's air-conditioning system. This represents a reduction of approximately 15% in overall electrical energy consumption and a 12.5-kW reduction in peak demand. The cost of gas used for regeneration of the desiccant wheel over this period of time is estimated to be only $740, using a gas cost of $0.50 per therm--the summer rate in 2001. The estimated net savings is $5400 annually, resulting in a 1-2 year payback. It is likely that similar energy/cost savings were realized at the Callaway Gardens hotel. In this installation, however, a central plant supplied the chilled water serving fan coil units in the hotel wing retrofitted with the ADM, so it was not metered separately. Consequently, the owner could not provide actual energy consumption data specific to the facility. The energy and operating cost savings at both sites are directly attributable to higher cooling-season thermostat settings and decreased conventional system run times. These field installations were selected as an immediate and appropriate response to correct indoor humidity and fresh air ventilation problems being experienced by building occupants and owners, so no rigorous baseline-building vs. test-building energy use/operating cost savings results can be presented. The report presents several simulated comparisons between the ADM/roof HVAC approach and other equipment combinations, where both desiccant and conventional systems are modeled to provide comparable fresh air ventilation rates and indoor humidity levels. The results obtained from these simulations demonstrate convincingly the energy and operating cost savings obtainable with this hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression technology, verifying those actually seen at the pilot installations. The ADM approach is less expensive than conventional alternatives providing similar performance and indoor air quality and provides a very favorable payback (1 year or so) compared with oversized rooftop units that cannot be operated effectively with the necessary high outdoor air percentages.

Fischer, J

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Desiccant dehumidification analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant dehumidification has been given increasing interest in the air conditioning industry. Compared with conventional vapor compression air conditioning systems, desiccant dehumidification saves energy by separating ...

Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Analysis of the seasonal performance of hybrid desiccant cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A simulation model for the liquid desiccant component of a hybrid system was developed. An analysis of experimental test data was conducted. The liquid desiccant component was examined and the sensitivity of its seasonal performance to changes in principal component variables was identified. Seasonal simulations were performed on different operation modes of a hybrid liquid desiccant cooling system. The results were analyzed in terms of estimated operational costs and compared to the equivalent cost estimation of a conventional cooling system. The study showed that the investigated liquid desiccant configuration usually will not lower the costs of operation. A suggestion of an improved system is made.

Sick, F.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Solar air conditioning system using desiccant wheel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electrical energy consumption in Malaysia has increased sharply in the past few years. Modern energy efficient technologies are desperately needed for the national energy policy. In this paper, a new design of desiccant cooling is being developed ... Keywords: air-conditioning, desiccant cooling, solar thermal energy, solid desiccant

Arfidian Rachman; Sohif Mat; Taib Iskandar; M. Yahya; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility  

SciTech Connect

The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Desiccant contamination in desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the results of a desiccant contamination experiment and the impact of the obtained silica gel degradation data on the performance of a desiccant cooling system. A test apparatus was used to thermally cycle several desiccant samples and expose them to ambient'' humid air or contaminated'' humid air. The source of contamination was cigarette smoke. The exposed desiccant samples were removed after 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 months of exposure and their moisture capacities were measured. The silica get samples thermally cycled with ambient air showed a 5% to 30% to 70% of their moisture capacity. Using the obtained degradation data in a system, the impact of desiccant degradation on the performance of a desiccant cooling cycle was estimated. Depending on the degree of desiccant degradation, the decrease in thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity of the system was 10% to 35%. It was found that the COP and the cooling capacity of a system after desiccant degradation can be improved by increasing the rotational speed of the dehumidifier. This indicates that a simple engineering solution may exist to alleviate some type of degradations. 9 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

Pesaran, A.A.

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Numerical investigation of transient heat and mass transfer in a parallel-flow liquid-desiccant absorber  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

model for heat and mass transfer processes in internallyof coupled heat and mass transfer processes in liquidHeat and mass transfer in liquid des- iccant air-conditioning process

Diaz, Gerardo

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Solar Desiccant Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Solar Desiccant Cooling Solar Desiccant Cooling Speaker(s): Paul Bourdoukan Date: December 6, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Ashok Gadgil The development of HVAC systems is a real challenge regarding its environmental impact. An innovative technique operating only by means of water and solar energy, is desiccant cooling. The principle is evaporative cooling with the introduction of a dehumidification unit, the desiccant wheel to control the humidity levels. The regeneration of the desiccant wheel requires a preheated airstream. A solar installation is a very interesting option for providing the preheated airstream. In France, at the University of La Rochelle, and at the National Institute of Solar Energy (INES), the investigation of the solar desiccant cooling technique has been

53

Active Humidity Control Through Gas-Fired Desiccant Humidity Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

High equipment first cost and high operating costs, if electricity is used to drive such a system, have prohibited the application of active humidity control equipment in comfort conditioning in the past. Instead, passive techniques have been applied. A comparison of passive capacity control methods to control humidity shows that only the combined face and bypass and variable air volume system shows improved performance with respect to space humidity control, dew point depression, and response to perturbations. A gas-fired desiccant humidity pump will provide economical humidity control in existing and new construction using VAV or constant volume air distribution systems. The humidity pump is designed as a packaged make-up air module. It is coupled to new or existing conventional air-conditioning system via a duct. It consists of a triple integrated heat-exchanger combining (liquid) desiccant dehumidification with indirect evaporative cooling, a brine interchanger, and a gas-fired brine heater to regenerate the desiccant. Field experiments of two humidity pumps on existing commercial buildings have been initiated. Each system dehumidifies 5000 scfm of make-up air to meet all the latent loads, which is then fed to conventional, electric-driven HVAC equipment which meet all the sensible loads.

Novosel, D.; Griffiths, W. C.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Advanced desiccant materials research  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The long-range goal of this task is to understand the role of surface phenomena in desiccant cooling materials. The background information includes a brief introduction to desiccant cooling systems (DCS) and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The purpose, background, rationale, and long-term technical approach for studying advanced desiccant materials are then treated. Experimental methods for measuring water vapor sorption by desiccants are described, and the rationale is then given for choosing a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) for measuring sorption isotherms, rates, and cyclic stability. Background information is given about the QCM, including the quartz crystal resonator itself, the support structure for the quartz crystal, and the advantages and limitations of a QCM. The apparatus assembled and placed into operation during CY 1985 is described. The functions of the principal components of the equipment, i.e., the QCM, vacuum system, pressure gauges, residual gas analyzer, constant temperature bath, and data acquisition system, are described as they relate to the water vapor sorption measurements now under way. The criteria for narrowing the potential candidates as advanced desiccant materials for the initial studies are given. Also given is a list of 20 principal candidate materials identified based on the criteria and data available in the literature.

Czanderna, A.W.; Thomas, T.M.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Investigation of manganese dioxide as an improved solid desiccant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the preparation of a series of manganese oxides and an analysis of their sorptive, structural, and surface characteristics as low-energetic desiccants for passive dehumidification and active desiccant cooling systems. A cusped Type III isotherm for the adsorption of water is reported for the first time. The data are interpreted as evidence of a first-order phase change from a two-dimensional gas to a liquid film in the first reversibly adsorbed layer. It appears that the water adsorption characteristics of MnO/sub 2/ compared to standard desiccants which exhibit Type II isotherms are due at least in part to differences in the physical topography and electronic properties of the desiccant substrates: MnO/sub 2/ is a p-type semiconductor with essentially-flat, monoenergetic surface structures, while standard desiccants like silica gel are electronic insulators with irregular, heteroenergetic surfaces.

Fraioli, A.V.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Performance of cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A cross-cooled silica gel desiccant dehumidifier model was designed, built and tested. The performance of the unit was studied as a function of inlet process stream dew point, process stream and cooling stream flowrates and regeneration stream temperature and dew point. The tests were also simulated by a computer program and were compared to the experimental results.

Mei, V.C.; Lavan, Z.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Improvements in solid desiccant cooling  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The DINC (Direct-Indirect Evaporative Cooling) cycle was proposed in 1986 by Texas A and M researchers. The idea was to combine the benefits of direct and indirect evaporative cooling with desiccant dehumidifying using a rotating solid silica-gel dehumidifier. Recent parametric studies completed for the Texas Energy Research in Applications Program have developed a computer design for a nominal 3-ton system that would minimize the energy consumption (both thermal and electric) while maintaining a sensible heat ratio of 75% or less. That optimum design for the original 1986 DINC cycle was modified to improve its energy efficiency. The modifications described in this paper were: (1) staging the desiccant regeneration air and (2) recirculation of the primary air to the secondary side of the indirect evaporative cooling. Computer simulations were run to study the effect of the modifications on the performance of the system. American Refrigeration Institute (AIR) standard conditions (Ambient air at 35C, 40% R.H. and Room air at 26.7C, 50% R.H.) were used for all the modifications. Results were also compared to the familiar Pennington (ventilation) cycle. The study indicated that recirculating the indirect evaporative cooler air only degenerated the performance. However, staging a portion of the regeneration air could improve the thermal coefficient of Performance by 25% over the non-staged DINC cycle. Compared to a similar staged-regeneration Pennington cycle it is a 16% improvement in thermal COP and the sensible heat ratio was 70%.

Waugaman, D.; Kini, A.; Kettleborough, C.F. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station (United States))

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Testing and design of solar cooling systems employing liquid dessicants  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An open cycle liquid desiccant cooling system with cooling capacity of 3 tons (10.5 kW) a subject of research at Colorado State University. The system comprises two main units: the dehumidifier and the regenerator. Lithium bromide is the desiccant solution that dehumidifies the air stream during a counter-current, liquid-gas contacting in the packed tower. The regenerator concentrates the lithium bromide solution during a similar gas-liquid contacting using solar heated air with the only difference being that the direction of heat and mass transfer are reversed in this unit. The earlier studies conducted on the dehumidifier revealed significant departures from an energy balance closure. An attempt has been made to provide a realistic energy balance closure to the dehumidifier side. This has resulted in substantial re-calibration of the major instruments involved. Performance data of the entire system with the regenerator and dehumidifier operated in coupled mode have been presented. An optimization scheme to predict operating conditions suited for best performance of the two units, for varying ambient temperature and humidity to the dehumidifier, has been devised. 15 refs., 20 figs., 8 tabs.

Lenz, T.; Loef, G.O.G.; Flaherty, M.; Misra, S.; Patnaik, S.

1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier. Third technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program is aimed at the development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier featuring a rotary bed of granular silica gel and a rotary regenerator. Design, fabrication, performance, commercialization studies, and test stand development are described in detail. (WHK)

Gunderson, M.E.

1979-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

60

Composite desiccant structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorn Woods, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Composite desiccant structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This patent discloses a composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

Fraioli, A.V.; Schertz, W.W.

1984-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

62

Analysis of advanced solar hybrid desiccant cooling systems for buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes an assessment of the energy savings possible from developing hybrid desiccant/vapor-compression air conditioning systems. Recent advances in dehumidifier design for solar desiccant cooling systems have resulted in a dehumidifier with a low pressure drop and high efficiency in heat and mass transfer. A recent study on hybrid desiccant/vapor compression systems showed a 30%-80% savings in resource energy when compared with the best conventional systems with vapor compression. A system consisting of a dehumidifier with vapor compression subsystems in series was found to be the simplest and best overall performer.

Schlepp, D.; Schultz, K.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Desiccant degradation in desiccant cooling systems: A system study  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors predict the impact of desiccant degradation on the performance of an open-cycle desiccant cooling system in ventilation mode using the degradation data on silica gel obtained from a previous study. The degradation data were based on thermal cycling desiccant samples and exposing them to ambient or contaminated air. Depending on the degree of desiccant degradation, the decrease in the thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and the cooling capacity of the system for low-temperature regeneration was 10 percent to 35 percent. The 35 percent loss occurred based on the worst-case desiccant degradation scenario. Under more realistic conditions the loss in system performance is expected to be lower.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Underground-desiccant cooling system  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Underground-Desiccant Cooling System relies on the successful coordination of various components. The central feature of the system is a bed of silica gel which will absorb moisture from house air until the gel has become saturated. When this point has been reached, the silica gel must be regenerated by passing hot air through it. For this project, the hot air is produced by air-type solar collectors mounted on the roof and connected with the main air-handling system by means of ducts attached to the outside of the house. As the air is dehumidified its temperature is raised somewhat by the change of state. The dried but somewhat heated air, after leaving the silica gel bed, passes through a rock bin storage area and then past a water coil chiller before being circulated through the house by means of the previously existing ductwork. The cooling medium for both the rock bin and the chiller coil is water which circulates through underground pipes buried beneath the back yard at a depth of about 10 to 12 ft. When the silica gel is being regenerated by the solar collectors, house air bypasses the desiccant bed but still passes through the rock bin and the chiller coil and is cooled continuously. The system is designed for maximum flexibility so that full use can be made of the solar collectors. Ducting is arranged so that the collectors provide heat for the house in the winter and there is also a hot-water capability year-round.

Finney, O.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Impact of desiccant degradation on desiccant cooling system performance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The performance of open-cycle desiccant cooling systems depends on several factors, some of which can change beyond manufacturers' specifications. For example, the desiccant sorption process may degrade with time on exposure to airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. Desiccant degradation can reduce the performance of a dehumidifier and thus the performance of desiccant cooling systems. Using computer simulations and recent experimental data on silica gel, the impact of degradation was evaluated. Hypothetical degradations of desiccants with Type 1 moderate isotherms were also simulated. Depending on the degree and type of desiccant degradation, the decrease in thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and cooling capacity of the system was 10% to 35%. The 35% loss in system performance occurs when desiccant degradation is considered worst case. The simulations showed that the COP, and to a lesser degree the cooling capacity of these degraded systems, could be improved by increasing the rotational speed of the dehumidifier. It is shown that easy engineering solutions might be available for some types of degradations. 9 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Experimental Results on Advanced Rotary Desiccant Dehumidifiers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has developed the Cyclic Test Facility (CTF) to develop and validate analytical methods for evaluating and predicting the performance of advanced rotary dehumidifiers. This paper describes the CTF, the dehumidifiers tested at the CTF, and the analytical methods used. The results reported provide an engineering data base and a design tool for evaluating rotary dehumidifiers for desiccant cooling applications.

Barathan, D.; Parsons, J. M.; MaClaine-Cross, I.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Experimental results on advanced rotary desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) has developed the Cyclic Test Facility (CTF) to develop and validate analytical methods for evaluating and predicting the performance of advanced rotary dehumidifiers. This paper describes the CTF, the dehumidifiers tested at the CTF, and the analytical methods used. The results reported provide an engineering data base and a design tool for evaluating rotary dehumidifiers for desiccant cooling applications.

Bharathan, D.; Parsons, J.; Maclaine-cross, I.

1986-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Desiccant degradation in desiccant cooling systems: An experimental study  

SciTech Connect

The authors conducted experiments to quantify the effects of thermal cycling and exposure to contamination on solid desiccant materials that may be used in desiccant cooling systems. The source of contamination was cigarette smoke, which is considered one of the worst pollutants in building cooling applications. The authors exposed five different solid desiccants to ``ambient`` and ``contaminated`` humid air: silica gel, activated alumina, activated carbon, molecular sieves, and lithium chloride. They obtained the moisture capacity of samples as a function of exposure time. Compared to virgin desiccant samples, the capacity loss caused by thermal cycling with humid ambient air was 10 percent to 30 percent for all desiccants. The capacity loss because of combined effect of thermal cycling with ``smoke-filled`` humid air was between 30 percent to 70 percent. The higher losses occurred after four months of experiment time, which is equivalent to four to eight years of field operation. Using a system model and smoke degradation data on silica gel, the authors predicted that, for low-temperature regeneration, the loss in performance of a ventilation-cycle desiccant cooling system would be between 10 percent to 35 percent, in about eight years, with higher value under worst conditions.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Review of Desiccant Dehumidification Technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the I990s.

Pesaran, A. A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

On the use of the parabolic concentration profile assumption for a rotary desiccant dehumidifier  

SciTech Connect

The current work describes a model for a desiccant dehumidifier which uses a parabolic concentration profile assumption to model the diffusion resistance inside the desiccant particle. The relative merits of the parabolic concentration profile model compared with widely utilized rotary desiccant wheel models are discussed. The periodic steady-state parabolic concentration profile model developed is efficient and can accommodate a variety of materials. These features make it an excellent tool for design studies requiring repetitive desiccant wheel simulations. A quartic concentration profile assumption was also investigated which yielded a 2.8 percent average improvement in prediction error over the parabolic model.

Chant, E.E. [Univ. of Turabo, Gurabo (Puerto Rico); Jeter, S.M. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States). George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Design Integration of Liquid Surface Divertors  

SciTech Connect

The US Enabling Technology Program in fusion is investigating the use of free flowing liquid surfaces facing the plasma. We have been studying the issues in integrating a liquid surface divertor into a configuration based upon an advanced tokamak, specifically the ARIES-RS configuration. The simplest form of such a divertor is to extend the flow of the liquid first wall into the divertor and thereby avoid introducing additional fluid streams. In this case, one can modify the flow above the divertor to enhance thermal mixing. For divertors with flowing liquid metals (or other electrically conductive fluids) MHD (magneto-hydrodynamics) effects are a major concern and can produce forces that redirect flow and suppress turbulence. An evaluation of Flibe (a molten salt) as a working fluid was done to assess a case in which the MHD forces could be largely neglected. Initial studies indicate that, for a tokamak with high power density, an integrated Flibe first wall and divertor does not seem workable. We have continued work with molten salts and replaced Flibe with Flinabe, a mixture of lithium and sodium fluorides, that has some potential because of its lower melting temperature. Sn and Sn-Li have also been considered, and the initial evaluations on heat removal with minimal plasma contamination show promise, although the complicated 3-D MHD flows cannot yet be fully modeled. Particle pumping in these design concepts is accomplished by conventional means (ports and pumps). However, trapping of hydrogen in these flowing liquids seems plausible and novel concepts for entrapping helium are also being studied.

Nygren, R E; Cowgill, D F; Ulrickson, M A; Nelson, B E; Fogarty, P J; Rognlien, T D; Rensink, M E; Hassanein, A; Smolentsev, S S; Kotschenreuther, M

2003-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

72

Application of Desiccant Drying in Plastic Molding  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccants are materials that have an affinity, after heating, for water vapor. Desiccant materials have long been applied in industrial processes requiring low humidity environments. A gas-fired desiccant system improved the productivity of one blowmolding process by reducing the number of defects and allowing an increase in line speed. The environmental impact of the operation improved because electrical usage did not increase incrementally and CFC usage did not change. A comparison of the efficiency of desiccant and refrigeration dehumidification is presented.

Brown, M.; Connors, G.; Moore, D.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

New Adsorbent Materials for Desiccant Cooling  

dehumidification systems. ... as having superior performance to the primary commercial ... The majority of desiccant dehumidification systems used for ...

74

Preliminary study of the potential for performance improvements in solar desiccant cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The basic operation of the desiccant cooling system is reviewed, and a preliminary evaluation of the potential for improving desiccant cooling system performance to COPs of 1.0 to 1.2 is performed. A second-law thermodynamic system analysis was carried out, demonstrating that present desiccant systems only achieve 10% to 15% of theoretical maximum performance and that a large potential for improvement exists. Computer simulations have been used to study the effects of improving desiccant properties and increasing the effectiveness of some components of the system. Results have shown that modification of desiccant properties can only produce a limited (10%) increase in COP. Larger increases can be achieved by increasing the effectiveness of the sensible heat exchanger. However, this study indicates that the key to obtaining higher COPs is in the design of the dehumidifier. One design that shows promise is the parallel passage dehumidifier.

Schlepp, D.R.; Barlow, R.

1981-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Advances in open-cycle solid desiccant cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Of the solar cooling options available open cycle solid desiccant cooling looks very promising. A brief review of the experimental and analytical efforts to date shows that within the last 10 years thermal performance has doubled. Research centers have been developed to explore new materials and geometry options and to improve and validate mathematical models that can be used by design engineers to develop new product lines. Typical results from the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Desiccant Cooling Research Program are shown. Innovative ideas for new cycles and spinoff benefits provide incentives to continue research in this promising field.

Penney, T.R.; Maclaine-cross, I.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

High-performance dehumidifier for solar desiccant cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An advanced-design, one-tenth-scale dehumidifier for use in residential solar desiccant-cooling systems has been built and tested. The new dehumidifier was designed using a parallel-passage geometry, where air flows through channels formed by walls coated with fine-ground silica gel desiccant. This concept has a high heat and mass transfer effectiveness and promises to double the coefficient of performance of the desiccant cooling system to 1.1 kW cooling output/kW thermal input. The parallel-passage design was found to have very low pressure drop, typically 20 Pa (.08 in. water) at design conditions. The low fan power required to drive such low pressure drop components indicates that electrical COP's in the range of 8.0 to 8.2 kW cooling output/kW electrical input are possible. Results presented include parametric studies of the effect of conditions such as temperature and humidity and design parameters such as desiccant particle size and channel spacing on dehumidifier performance.

Schlepp, D.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) Design Status and Plans  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) Design Status and Plans Office of Science H. W. Kugel, PPPL Design Status and Plans (Kugel) 2July 28, 2008 Motivation for NSTX Lithium Research · NSTX research with solid lithium is aimed initially towards using liquid lithium to control density, edge collisionality

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

78

Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Analysis of solar desiccant systems and concepts  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new approach to modeling desiccant systems has been developed. Computer programs for predicting the performance silica gel beds in single-blow situations and in cyclically operating desiccant cooling systems have been written (DESSIM). The single-blow model has been validated and shows excellent agreement with experimental data from SERI's desiccant test lab. Experimental data published by Koh are shown along with the corresponding prediction using DESSIM.

Barlow, R.

1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Polymers as Advanced Materials for Desiccant Applications: 1987  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce net cooling.

Czanderna, A. W.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Qualitative Reliability Issues for Solid and Liquid Wall Fusion Designs  

SciTech Connect

This report is an initial effort to identify issues affecting reliability and availability of solid and liquid wall designs for magnetic fusion power plant designs. A qualitative approach has been used to identify the possible failure modes of major system components and their effects on the systems. A general set of design attributes known to affect the service reliability has been examined for the overview solid and liquid wall designs, and some specific features of good first wall design have been discussed and applied to these designs as well. The two generalized designs compare well in regard to these design attributes. The strengths and weaknesses of each design approach are seen in the comparison of specific features.

Cadwallader, L.C.

2001-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

82

Qualitative Reliability Issues for Solid and Liquid Wall Fusion Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report is an initial effort to identify issues affecting reliability and availability of solid and liquid wall designs for magnetic fusion power plant designs. A qualitative approach has been used to identify the possible failure modes of major system components and their effects on the systems. A general set of design attributes known to affect the service reliability has been examined for the overview solid and liquid wall designs, and some specific features of good first wall design have been discussed and applied to these designs as well. The two generalized designs compare well in regard to these design attributes. The strengths and weaknesses of each design approach are seen in the comparison of specific features.

Cadwallader, Lee Charles

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Performance and safety design of the advanced liquid metal reactor  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Liquid Metal Reactor (ALMR) program led by General Electric is developing, under U.S. Department of Energy sponsorship, a conceptual design for an advanced sodium-cooled liquid metal reactor plant. This design is intended to improve the already excellent level of plant safety achieved by the nuclear power industry while at the same time providing significant reductions in plant construction and operating costs. In this paper, the plant design and performance are reviewed, with emphasis on the ALMR's unique passive design safety features and its capability to utilize as fuel the actinides in LWR spent fuel.

Berglund, R.C.; Magee, P.M.; Boardman, C.E.; Gyorey, G.L. (General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States). Advanced Nuclear Technology)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Development of an Energy Efficient Desiccant Dehumidifier : Final Report.  

SciTech Connect

Humidity control in space conditioning has received a good deal of attention in the past twenty or so years. Perhaps the most familiar application is the use of humidifiers in the winter months. Of equal concern is the use of air conditions and dehumidifiers in the summer months. High humidity levels in summer months require lower coil temperatures in order to achieve human comfort levels, and may result in significant product and property damage if humidity levels are not controlled at appropriate level. This study addresses the solid desiccant dehumidifier using IR heaters as an energy efficient desiccant dehumidifier (EEDD). The study is divided into two phases; Phase 1 -- Application assessment; and Phase 2: Prototype design, manufacture, and testing. Phase 1 addresses the total electrical energy usage by all possible applications of the EEDD and evaluates the energy performance of the EEDD in terms of its percentage energy savings compared to the conventional vapor compression cooling and also with the state-of-the-art desiccant dehumidifiers. During Phase 2, a functional EEDD prototype unit was designed and manufactured. The work of Phase 2 was divided into four tasks: Task 1, conceptual design; Task 2, mechanical (blueprint) design; Task 3, manufacture and factory testing; and Task 4, performance testing. 17 refs., 21 figs., 30 tabs.

Relwani, Suresh M.; Moschandreas, Demetrios J.

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchanger design parameters  

SciTech Connect

Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchangers prevent scale accumulation on heat transfer surfaces and reduce the required heat transfer surface when scaling fluids, such as geothermal water, are used as the primary or working fluid. Liquid-fluidized-bed heat exchangers, principles of operation, and design parameters are described. Horizontal and vertical assemblies are discussed, including problems encountered with both designs. Bed-side heat transfer coefficients are given for limited cases, and a correlation is provided for calculating heat transfer coefficients for horizontal assemblies. A design example for a 60 kW/sub (e)/ (60 kW/sub (electric)/ preheater is included.

Allen, C.A.; Grimmett, E.S.

1978-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs Design anD evaluation of ionic liquiDs as novel absorbents Background There is growing concern among climate scientists that the buildup of greenhouse gases (GHG), particularly carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), in the atmosphere is affecting the global climate in ways that could have serious consequences. One approach to reducing GHG emissions is to scrub CO 2 from the flue gas of power plants and sequester it in geologic formations. Although it is technically feasible to remove CO 2 from flue gas, current processes are too expensive. New, less expensive processes are needed. This project is investigating the feasibility of using a novel class of compounds - ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology

88

Experiments on sorption hysteresis of desiccant materials  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Solid desiccant cooling systems take advantage of solar energy for air conditioning. The process involves passing air through a desiccant bed for drying and subsequent evaporative cooling to provide the air conditioning. The desiccant is then regenerated with hot air provided by a gas burner or solar collectors. This performance is limited by the capacity of the desiccant, its sorption properties, and the long-term stability of the desiccant material under cyclic operation conditions. Therefore, we have developed a versatile test facility to measure the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions, under different geometrical configurations, and under a broad range of process air stream conditions, characteristic of desiccant dehumidifer operation. We identified a dependence of the sorption processes on air velocity and the test cell aspect ratio and the dynamic hysteresis between adsorption and desorption processes. These experiments were geared to provide data on the dynamic performance of silica gel in a parallel-passage configuration to prepare for tests with a rotary dehumidifier that will be conducted at SERI in late FY 1984. We also recommend improving the accuracy of the isotopic perturbation technique.

Pesaran, A.; Zangrando, F.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Facilities for testing desiccant materials and geometries of dehumidifiers for solar-regenerated desiccant cooling systems  

SciTech Connect

Four experimental test facilities for characterizing the performance of solid desiccant materials and dehumidifier matrices which have the potential to be used in solar-regenerated desiccant cooling systems are reviewed. The water equilibrium capacity and sorption rates of desiccant materials, depending on their form, can be either measured with a quartz crystal microbalance or a desiccant sorption test facility. Pressure drop, heat- and mass-transfer rates and transient equilibrium dehumidification capacity of a dehumidifier matrices are measured in a desiccant heat and mass transfer test facility. The performance and steady state dehumidification capabilities of prototype dehumidifier components under realistic conditions are measured in a desiccant cyclic test facility. The description of the test apparatus, experimental procedure, measurement errors, and typical results for the four test facilities are presented here. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report summarizes a research and development program that produced a stand-alone active desiccant module (ADM) that can be easily integrated with new or existing packaged cooling equipment. The program also produced a fully integrated hybrid system, combining the active desiccant section with a conventional direct expansion air-conditioning unit, that resulted in a compact, low-cost, energy-efficient end product. Based upon the results of this investigation, both systems were determined to be highly viable products for commercialization. Major challenges--including wheel development, compact packaging, regeneration burner development, control optimization, and low-cost design--were all successfully addressed by the final prototypes produced and tested as part of this program. Extensive laboratory testing was completed in the SEMCO laboratory for each of the two ADM system approaches. This testing confirmed the performance of the ADM systems to be attractive compared with that of alternate approaches currently used to precondition outdoor air, where a return air path is not readily available for passive desiccant recovery or where first cost is the primary design criterion. Photographs, schematics, and performance maps are provided for the ADM systems that were developed; and many of the control advantages are discussed. Based upon the positive results of this research and development program, field tests are under way for fully instrumented pilot installations of ADM systems in both a hotel/motel and a restaurant.

Fischer, J

2002-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

91

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Evolution of the Standard Helium Liquefier and Refrigerator Range designed by Air Liquide DTA, France

Crispel, S; Caillaud, A; Delcayre, F; Grabie, V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system  

SciTech Connect

An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

93

A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system  

SciTech Connect

An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Analysis of a Fabric/Desiccant Window Cavity Dehumidifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of an exploratory study of a fabric/desiccant window cavity dehumidifier system for possible use in commercial buildings. The objective was to evaluate fabrics commonly used in buildings, and system concepts that employ these fabrics, which can be used to dehumidify room air. We developed a first-order energy/mass balance model to determine the performance of a window cavity dehumidifier that uses silica gel encapsulated in a fabric matrix rotating on a belt alternately through dehumidification and regeneration chambers; the modeling effort was supplemented by environmental chamber measurements of the moisture absorption characteristics of 16 fabric/desiccant combinations. We ran the model for a typical office building module, for outside air design conditions characteristic of the most difficult humidity regime in Texas. Two flow configurations, outside air and return air, were evaluated to determine the capability of such a system to dehumidify the air streams under consideration. Issues addressed included the physical limitations on the amount of desiccant that can be included in this configuration and the degree of dehumidification achievable.

Hunn, B. D.; Grasso, M. M.; Vadlamani, V.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuumcompatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.

R. Ellis, R. Kaita, H. Kugel, G. Paluzzi, M. Viola and R. Nygren

2009-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

96

Advanced Open-Cycle Desiccant Cooling System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of staged regeneration as means of improving the desiccant cooling system performance is the subject of investigation in this study. In the staged regeneration, the regeneration section of desiccant dehumidifier is divided into two parts and only the latter fraction is subjected to the desorption air stream which has been heated to the desired regeneration temperature. In the present work, the mathematical model describing the heat and mass transfer processes that occur during sorption of moisture in the desiccnnt dehumidifier includes both the gas-side (film) and solid-side resistances for heat and mass transports. The moisture diffusion in the desiccant material is expressed by gas-phase diffusion and surface diffusion. Effects of several parameters on the performance of desiccant cooling system with staged regeneration are investigated and the results of present model are compared with those of the lumped-resistance model. Results of this study show that coefficient of perfomnnce of the desiccant cooling system can be substantially improved by using the staged regeneration concept. There is an optimum stage fraction and optimum cycle time for given system parmeters and operating conditions. The results also indicate that the cooling system performance is higher than that predicted by the lumped-resistance model.

Ko, Y. J.; Charoensupaya, D.; Lavan, Z.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Parametric Analysis of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System using...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Parametric Analysis of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System using the SimSPARK Environment Title Parametric Analysis of a Solar Desiccant Cooling System using the SimSPARK Environment...

98

Schools resolve IAQ/humidity problems with desiccant preconditioning  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article describes how desiccant-based total energy recovery systems were retrofitted to the mechanical systems at Willis Foreman Elementary and Spirit Creek Middle Schools to decouple the outdoor air latent load from the existing 3-ton packaged rooftop HVAC units. The resulting hybrid system maintains 50 to 52 percent relative humidity in the space while continuously providing 15 cfm per student of outdoor air to the facility (a three-fold increase of the original 5 cfm per student design) and does so in a very energy-efficient manner.

Smith, J.C. [James C. Smith and Associates, Augusta, GA (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Desiccant-Based Combined Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and designers to consider HAVC system designs that can meet ASHRAE 62 and control space humidity. Previously

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

100

Modeling of solid-side mass transfer in desiccant particle beds  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A model is proposed for heat and mass transfer in a packed bed of desiccant particles and accounts for both Knudsen and surface diffusion within the particles. Using the model, predictions are made for the response of thin beds of silica gel particles to a step change in air inlet conditions compared to mental results. The predictions are found to be satisfactory and, in general, superior to those of pseudogas-side controlled models commonly used for the design of desiccant dehumidifiers for solar air conditioning application.

Pesaran, A.A.; Mills, A.F.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Experiments on sorption characteristics of solid desiccant materials for solar desiccant cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A test facility for measuring the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions as well as equilibrium conditions, those experienced during desiccant dehumidifier operation, was constructed and tested. The theory of perturbation chromatography was initially used to measure the equilibrium properties of a desiccant/water-vapor system for the first time. Silica gel, molecular sieve, and gamma-manganese dioxide were tested. The equilibrium capacity estimated by the perturbation chromatography was lower than those available in literature, which suggests that perturbation chromatography may not be applicable to desiccant/water-vapor systems. The perturbation chromatography was replaced with a gravimetric technique, and satisfactory results were obtained for a water-vapor/molecular-sieve system.

Pesaran, A.A.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems (DCSs) that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. Background information includes an introduction to DCSs and the role of the desiccant as a system component. The water vapor sorption performance criteria used for screening the modified polymers prepared include the water sorption capacity from 5% to 80% relative humidity (R.H.), isotherm shape, and rate of adsorption and desorption. Measurements are presented for the sorption performance of modified polymeric advanced desiccant materials with the quartz crystal microbalance. Isotherms of polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) taken over a 5-month period show that the material has a dramatic loss in capacity and that the isotherm shape is time dependent. The adsorption and desorption kinetics for PSSA and all the ionic salts of it studied are easily fast enough for commercial DCS applications with a wheel rotation speed of 6 min per revolution. Future activities for the project are addressed, and a 5-year summary of the project is included as Appendix A. 34 refs., 20 figs., 3 tabs.

Czanderna, A.W.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

Pesaran, A.A. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Wipke, K. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

A liquid helium cryogenic system design for the GEM magnet  

SciTech Connect

The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Gammas, Electrons, Muons (GEM) magnet is a large superconducting solenoid with a total mass of 1.05 {times} 10{sup 6} kg and a stored energy of 2.5 G. A cryogenic system to cool and to maintain the GEM magnet to liquid helium temperature is described. The system is designed to operate effectively under a variety of operating conditions, including cooldown/warm-up, steady state operations, and quench. Primary cooling during steady-state operation is based on natural circulation thermosiphon flow through cooling tubes in the solenoid support bobbin. Additional cooling loops are included for lead and joint cooling and conductor stabilization. A helium refrigerator/liquefier rated at 2 kill and 20 g/s will be specified to meet the refrigeration requirements. Cooldown of the magnet from 300 K to liquid nitrogen temperatures is accomplished using a counterflow helium-to-liquid-nitrogen heat exchanger independent of the helium refrigerator. The system incorporates provisions for maintenance access during accelerator beam operation.

Deis, G.; Warren, R.P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Richied, D.E.; Martovetsky, N.N.; Krupczak, J.J.; Sidi-Yekhlef, A.; Pace, J.R.; Collins, C.A. [Superconducting Super Collider Lab., Dallas, TX (United States)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Designing nanostructured heterogeneous catalysts to exploit pulsing in gas-liquid packed bed reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

41 Designing nanostructured heterogeneous catalysts to exploit pulsing in gas-liquid packed bed nanostructured catalysts for gas-liquid reactions, which have a system of macro pores designed to take advantage in volume of gas-liquid packed bed reactors (a.k.a. "trickle" beds) by an order of magnitude or more because

McCready, Mark J.

106

Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

A review of desiccant dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect

This paper overviews applications of desiccant technology for dehumidifying commercial and institutional buildings. Because of various market, policy, and regulatory factors, this technology is especially attractive for dehumidification applications in the 1990s. After briefly reviewing the principle of operation, the authors present three case studies-for supermarkets, a hotel, and an office building. The authors also discuss recent advances and ongoing research and development activities.

Pesaran, A.A.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Heat and mass transfer analysis of a desiccant dehumidifier matrix  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the SERI Single-Blow Test Facility's design, fabrication, and testing for characterizing desiccant dehumidifiers for solar cooling applications. The first test article, a silica-gel parallel-plate dehumidifier with highly uniform passages, was designed and fabricated. Transient heat and mass transfer data and pressure drop data across the dehumidifier were obtained. Available heat and mass transfer models were extended to the parallel-place geometry, and the experimental data were compared with model predictions. Pressure drop measurements were also compared with model predictions of the fully developed laminar flow theory. The comparisons between the lumped-capacitance model and the experimental data were satisfactory. The pressure drop data compared satisfactorily with the theory (within 15%). A solid-side resistance model that is more detailed and does not assume symmetrical diffusion in particles was recommended for performance. This study has increased our understanding of the heat and mass transfer in silica gel parallel-plate dehumidifiers.

Pesaran, A.A.

1986-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

Desiccant dehumidification and cooling systems assessment and analysis  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this report is to provide a preliminary analysis of the principles, sensitivities, and potential for national energy savings of desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems. The report is divided into four sections. Section I deals with the maximum theoretical performance of ideal desiccant cooling systems. Section II looks at the performance effects of non-ideal behavior of system components. Section III examines the effects of outdoor air properties on desiccant cooling system performance. Section IV analyzes the applicability of desiccant cooling systems to reduce primary energy requirements for providing space conditioning in buildings. A basic desiccation process performs no useful work (cooling). That is, a desiccant material drying air is close to an isenthalpic process. Latent energy is merely converted to sensible energy. Only when heat exchange is applied to the desiccated air is any cooling accomplished. This characteristic is generic to all desiccant cycles and critical to understanding their operation. The analyses of Section I show that desiccant cooling cycles can theoretically achieve extremely high thermal CoP`s (>2). The general conclusion from Section II is that ventilation air processing is the most viable application for the solid desiccant equipment analyzed. The results from the seasonal simulations performed in Section III indicate that, generally, the seasonal performance of the desiccant system does not change significantly from that predicted for outdoor conditions. Results from Section IV show that all of the candidate desiccant systems can save energy relative to standard vapor-compression systems. The largest energy savings are achieved by the enthalpy exchange devise.

Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering, Reno, NV (United States)

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Desiccant cooling and dehumidification opportunities for buildings workshop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology is gaining acceptance as an option for air-conditioning buildings. Over the last few years, significant advances have been made in desiccant cooling and dehumidification in the private and public sectors. market penetration of desiccant systems in the past has been limited to unique applications. This workshop was an open forum for discussing these unique and potential applications. Workshop participants discussed the state of the art of desiccant materials, components, systems, and applications, both theoretically and experimentally. This document is a compilation of the papers presented in the workshop sessions.

Penney, T.R. (comp.)

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

system comprises a desiccant wheel containing Lithium Chloride in tandem with a rotating heat exchanger and two humidifiers on both supply and return air. The required...

113

Design and Evaluation of Ionic Liquids as Novel Absorbents  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

- ionic liquids - for the capture of CO 2 from the flue gas from coal and natural gas-fired power plants. The success of ionic liquids technology will be based on...

114

Sensor and numerical simulator evaluation for porous medium desiccation and rewetting at the intermediate laboratory scale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil desiccation, in conjunction with surface infiltration control, is considered at the Hanford Site as a potential technology to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. An intermediate-scale experiment was conducted to test the response of a series of instruments to desiccation and subsequent rewetting of porous media. The instruments include thermistors, thermocouple psychrometers, dual-probe heat pulse sensors, heat dissipation units, and humidity probes. The experiment was simulated with the multifluid flow simulator STOMP, using independently obtained hydraulic and thermal porous medium properties. All instrument types used for this experiment were able to indicate when the desiccation front passed a certain location. In most cases the changes were sharp, indicating rapid changes in moisture content, water potential, or humidity. However, a response to the changing conditions was recorded only when the drying front was very close to a sensor. Of the tested instruments, only the heat dissipation unit and humidity probes were able to detect rewetting. The numerical simulation results reasonably match the experimental data, indicating that the simulator captures the pertinent gas flow and transport processes related to desiccation and rewetting and may be useful in the design and analysis of field tests.

Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Truex, Michael J.

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

An assessment of desiccant cooling and dehumidification technology  

SciTech Connect

Desiccant systems are heat-actuated cooling and dehumidification technology. With the recent advances in this technology, desiccant systems can now achieve a primary energy coefficient of performance (COP) between 1.3 and 1.5, with potential to go to 1.7 and higher. It is becoming one of the most promising alternatives to conventional cooling systems. Two important and well-known advantages of desiccant cooling systems are that they are CFC free and they can reduce the electricity peak load. Another important but lesser-known advantage of desiccant technology is its potential for energy conservation. The energy impact study in this report indicated that a possible 13% energy saving in residential cooling and 8% in commercial cooling is possible. Great energy saving potential also exists in the industrial sector if industrial waste heat can be used for desiccant regeneration. The latest study on desiccant-integrated building heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems indicated that the initial cost for the conventional cooling equipment was greatly reduced by using desiccant technology because of downsized compressors, fans, and ductworks. This cost reduction was more than enough to offset the cost of desiccant equipment. Besides, the system operation cost was also reduced. All these indicate that desiccant systems are also cost effective. This study provides an updated state-of-the-art assessment forsiccant technology in the field of desiccant materials, systems, computer models, and theoretical analyses. From this information the technology options were derived and the future research and development needs were identified. Because desiccant technology has already been applied in the commercial building sector with very encouraging results, it is expected that future market breakthroughs will probably start in this sector. A market analysis for the commercial building application is therefore included.

Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lavan, Z. [Illinois Inst. of Tech., Chicago, IL (United States); Collier, R.K. Jr. [Collier Engineering Services, Merritt Island, FL (United States); Meckler, G. [Gershon Meckler Associates, P.C., Herndon, VA (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Performance comparison of absorption and desiccant solar cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cooling systems are required to operate over a wide range of outdoor and load conditions; however, the performance of solar cooling components is often specified and compared at a typical design point such as ARI conditions. A method is presented to directly compare the performance of different desiccant and absorption cooling systems by using psychrometric analysis of air distribution cycles under a range of outdoor conditions that systems encounter over a year. Using analysis of cooling load distributions for a small commercial office building in Miami and Phoenix a seasonal COP is calculated for each system. The heat input can be provided by solar or by an auxiliary heat source, such as natural gas.

Warren, M.L.; Wahlig, M.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

A desiccant dehumidifier for electric vehicle heating  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Vehicle heating requires a substantial amount of energy. Engines in conventional cars produce enough waste heat to provide comfort heating and defogging/defrosting, even under very extreme conditions. Electric vehicles (EVs), however, generate little waste heat. Using battery energy for heating may consume a substantial fraction of the energy storage capacity, reducing the vehicle range, which is one of the most important parameters in determining EV acceptability. Water vapor generated by the vehicle passengers is in large part responsible for the high heating loads existing in vehicles. In cold climates, the generation of water vapor inside the car may result in water condensation on the windows, diminishing visibility. Two strategies are commonly used to avoid condensation on windows: windows are kept warm, and a large amount of ambient air is introduced in the vehicle. Either strategy results in a substantial heating load. These strategies are often used in combination, and a trade-off exists between them. If window temperature is decreased, ventilation rate has to be increased. Reducing the ventilation rate requires an increase of the temperature of the windows to prevent condensation. An alternative solution is a desiccant dehumidifier, which adsorbs water vapor generated by the passengers. Window temperatures and ventilation rates can then be reduced, resulting in a substantially lower heating load. This paper explores the dehumidifier heating concept. The first part shows the energy savings that could be obtained by using this technology. The second part specifies the required characteristics and dimensions of the system. The results indicate that the desiccant system can reduce the steady-state heating load by 60% or more under typical conditions. The reduction in heating load is such that waste heat may be enough to provide the required heating under most ambient conditions. Desiccant system dimensions and weight appear reasonable for packaging in an EV.

Aceves, S.M.; Smith, J.R.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Advanced Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification Program  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The use of dessicant materials for cooling and dehumidification is an effective, economical, environmentally safe method for meeting indoor air quality standards established by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). To maximize the technology's potential for reducing energy consumption and improving indoor air quality, DOE established the Advanced Desiccant Cooling and Dehumidification Program. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partners with industry to support and educate industry users, as well as to support technology transfer and benchmark current performance.

Slayzak, S.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

119

Uncertainties in Liquid Metal Fusion Blanket Design Windows  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid-Metal Blankets and Magnetohydrodynamic Effects / Proceedings of the Seveth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Reno, Nevada, June 15–19, 1986)

James K. Garner; Mohamed A. Abdou

120

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Modeling and Simulation of a Solar Assisted Desiccant Cooling System Speaker(s): Chadi Maalouf Date: December 2, 2004 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Peng Xu Increased living standards and high occupants comfort demands lead to a growth in air conditioning market. This results in high energy consumption and high CO2 emissions. For these reasons, the solar desiccant cooling system is proposed as an alternative to traditional air conditioning systems. This system comprises a desiccant wheel containing Lithium Chloride in tandem with a rotating heat exchanger and two humidifiers on both supply and return air. The required regeneration temperature for the desiccant wheel varies between 40oC and 70oC which makes possible the use

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Development of a solar-desiccant dehumidifier. Phase II second technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar desiccant air conditioner (SODAC) system and its operation are described, including the characteristics of the major components, the performance at design conditions, and the control schemes for optimum operation in various climates. The system uses granular silica gel as a desiccant. It may operate in either a recirculated mode (no air exchange between the outside and the conditioned space) or a ventilated mode (air exchanged between outside and conditioned space). The test data in the ventilated mode at design flow rates are presented. Data include outdoor and indoor inlet wet and dry bulb temperatures, indoor outlet dry and wet bulb temperatures, capacity, coefficient of performance, air flow rates, hot water temperature, and solar heat used. The effects of indoor, outdoor, and hot water temperatures on the capacity and coefficient of performance are shown graphically, and the recirculated and ventilated modes, performances are compared. (LEW)

Rousseau, J.

1981-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

122

Development of a solar-desiccant dehumidifier. Phase II. Final summary report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The solar desiccant air conditioner (SODAC), its operation, characteristics of the major components, performance at design conditions, and the control schemes for optimum operation in various climates are described for both recirculated and ventilated configurations, with greater emphasis on the recirculated configuration. The development testing and the determination of the SODAC performance in both configurations over the entire range of interfacing parameters are reported. (LEW)

Rousseau, J.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?  

SciTech Connect

Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

124

Desiccant-Based Combined Systems: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Development and Testing Final Report- Phase 4  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a research and development (R&D) program to design and optimize an active desiccant-vapor compression hybrid rooftop system. The primary objective was to combine the strengths of both technologies to produce a compact, high-performing, energy-efficient system that could accommodate any percentage of outdoor air and deliver essentially any required combination of temperature and humidity, or sensible heat ratio (SHR). In doing so, such a product would address the significant challenges imposed on the performance capabilities of conventional packaged rooftop equipment by standards 62 and 90.1 of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers. The body of work completed as part of this program built upon previous R&D efforts supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and summarized by the Phase 3b report ''Active Desiccant Dehumidification Module Integration with Rooftop Packaged HVAC Units'' (Fischer and Sand 2002), in addition to Fischer, Hallstrom, and Sand 2000; Fischer 2000; and Fischer and Sand 2004. All initial design objectives established for this development program were successfully achieved. The performance flexibility desired was accomplished by a down-sized active desiccant wheel that processes only a portion of the supply airflow, which is pre-conditioned by a novel vapor compression cycle. Variable-speed compressors are used to deliver the capacity control required by a system handling a high percentage of outdoor air. An integrated direct digital control system allows for control capabilities not generally offered by conventional packaged rooftop systems. A 3000-cfm prototype system was constructed and tested in the SEMCO engineering test laboratory in Columbia, MO, and was found to operate in an energy-efficient fashion relative to more conventional systems. Most important, the system offered the capability to independently control the supply air temperature and humidity content to provide individual sensible and latent loads required by an occupied space without over-cooling and reheating air. The product was developed using a housing construction similar to that of a conventional packaged rooftop unit. The resulting integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) is similar in size to a currently available conventional rooftop unit sized to provide an equivalent total cooling capacity. Unlike a conventional rooftop unit, the IADR can be operated as a dedicated outdoor air system processing 100% outdoor air, as well as a total conditioning system capable of handling any ratio of return air to outdoor air. As part of this R&D program, a detailed investigation compared the first cost and operating cost of the IADR with costs for a conventional packaged approach for an office building located in Jefferson City, MO. The results of this comparison suggest that the IADR approach, once commercialized, could be cost-competitive with existing technology--exhibiting a one-year to two-year payback period--while simultaneously offering improved humidity control, indoor air quality, and energy efficiency.

Fischer, J

2005-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

125

Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications, 1988  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents work to identify a next-generation, low-cost material with which solar energy or heat from another low-cost energy source can be used for regenerating the water vapor sorption activity of the desiccant. The objective of the work is to determine how the desired sorption performance of advanced desiccant materials can be predicted by understanding the role of the material modifications and material surfaces. The work concentrates on solid materials to be used for desiccant cooling systems and which process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. The work involved preparing modifications of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt, synthesizing a hydrogel, and evaluating the sorption performances of these and similar commercially available polymeric materials; all materials were studied for their potential application in solid commercial desiccant cooling systems. Background information is also provided on desiccant cooling systems and the role of a desiccant material within such a system, and it includes the use of polymers as desiccant materials. 31 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

Czanderna, A.W.; Neidlinger, H.H.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Regeneration characteristics of adsorbent in the integrated desiccant/collector  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a solar desiccant system using an adsorbent in an integrated desiccant/solar collector that uses direct solar energy as a heat source for efficient regeneration of the adsorbent. The objective of this study is to investigate an integrated desiccant/collector in which the adsorbent absorbs solar radiation fully and is heated for regeneration. Another objective is to obtain the regeneration characteristics in the equipment proposed by both experiments and simulations. Throughout this study, silica gel is used as the adsorbent.

Saito, Y. (Osaka Inst. of Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

The design of a microfabricated air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this dissertation, the microfabricated electrode (MFE) concept was applied to the design of an air electrode for liquid electrolyte fuel cells. The catalyst layer of the electrode is envisioned to be fabricated by using ...

Pierre, Fritz, 1977-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Hydraulic conductivity of desiccated geosynthetic clay liners  

SciTech Connect

Large-scale tests were performed to determine the effect of a cycle of wetting and drying on the hydraulic conductivity of several geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs). The GCLs were covered with 0.6 m of pea gravel and permeated with water. After steady seepage had developed, the water was drained away, and the GCL was desiccated by circulating heated air through the overlying gravel. The drying caused severe cracking in the bentonite component of the GCLs. The GCLs were again permeated with water. As the cracked bentonite hydrated and swelled, the hydraulic conductivity slowly decreased from an initially high value. The long-term, steady value of hydraulic conductivity after the wetting and drying cycle was found to be essentially the same as the value for the undesiccated GCL. It is concluded that GCLs possess the ability to self-heal after a cycle of wetting and drying, which is important for applications in which there may be alternate wetting and drying of a hydraulic barrier (e.g. within a landfill final cover).

Boardman, B.T. [CH2M Hill, Oakland, CA (United States); Daniel, D.E. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor plant maintenance and equipment design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper provides a summary of maintenance equipment considerations and actual plant handling experiences from operation of a sodium-cooled reactor, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Equipment areas relating to design, repair techniques, in-cell handling, logistics and facility services are discussed. Plant design must make provisions for handling and replacement of components within containment or allow for transport to an ex-containment area for repair. The modular cask assemblies and transporter systems developed for FFTF can service major plant components as well as smaller units. The plant and equipment designs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant have been patterned after successful FFTF equipment.

Swannack, D.L.

1982-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

130

A liquid crystal tunable filter based shortwave infrared spectral imaging system: Design and integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the methodology to design and integrate a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) based shortwave infrared (SWIR) spectral imaging system. The system consisted of an LCTF-based SWIR spectral imager, an illumination unit, a frame grabber, ... Keywords: Food quality and safety, Hyperspectral imaging, LCTF, Nondestructive inspection, SWIR, System design

Weilin Wang; Changying Li; Ernest W. Tollner; Glen C. Rains; Ronald D. Gitaitis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Design of a 2400MW liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 2400MWth liquid-salt cooled flexible conversion ratio reactor was designed, utilizing the ternary chloride salt NaCl-KCl-MgCI2 (30%-20%-50%) as coolant. The reference design uses a wire-wrapped, hex lattice core, and is ...

Petroski, Robert C

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

The Effects of Desiccation and Climatic Change on the Hydrology of the Aral Sea  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Anthropogenic desiccation of the Aral Sea between 1960 and the mid-1990s resulted in a substantial modification of the land surface that changed air temperature in the surrounding region. During the desiccation interval, the net annual rate of ...

Eric E. Small; Filippo Giorgi; Lisa Cirbus Sloan; Steven Hostetler

2001-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Performance predictions of silica-gel desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The analysis of a cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifier using silica gel in the form of sheets is described. This unit is the principal component of solar powered desiccant air conditioning system. The mathematical model has first been formulated describing the dynamics of the dehumidifier. The model leads to a system of nonlinear coupled heat and mass transfer equations for the sorption processes and linear heat transfer equations for the purging processes. The model accounts for the gas film resistance and for the moisture diffusion in the desiccant. The governing equations are solved by a finite difference scheme to obtain periodic steady state solutions. The accuracy of the theoretical predictions is ascertained by comparing them with the experimental results. The performance of the dehumidifier, for a chosen set of initial conditions and dehumidifier parameters, has also been given.

Mathiprakasam, B.; Lavan, Z.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Experimental investigation of a solar desiccant cooling installation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling is a technique based on evaporative cooling and air dehumidification using desiccant regenerated by thermal energy. It is particularly interesting when it is driven by waste or solar heat making this technique environmentally friendly. In this paper, an experimental investigation is carried on a desiccant air handling unit powered by vacuum-tube solar collectors. First, the components are studied under various operating conditions. Then overall performance of the installation is evaluated over a day for a moderately humid climate with regeneration solely by solar energy. In these conditions the overall efficiency of the solar installation is 0.55 while the thermodynamic coefficient of performance is 0.45 and the performance indicator based on the electrical consumption is 4.5. Finally, the impact of outside and regeneration conditions on the performance indicators is studied. (author)

Bourdoukan, P.; Wurtz, E. [LOCIE Laboratoire Optimisation de la Conception et Ingenierie de l'Environnement, Campus Scientifique Universite de Savoie, 73376 Le Bourget du Lac (France); Joubert, P. [LEPTIAB Laboratoire d'Etude des Phenomenes de Transfert et de l'Instantaneite Agro-Industrie et Batiment Pole Sciences et Technologies, Universite La Rochelle, Avenue Marillac 17000 La Rochelle (France)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

135

Design of a Solar Thermal Powered Cooling System.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Abstract The main objective of the thesis was to design a mechanical structure for a desiccant evaporative cooling, to apply solar thermal powered air conditioning… (more)

Hurri, Olli

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perceived air quality increases when relative humidity is decreased till about 30% in the range of comfort temperature. In the present scenario, humidity is considered as a pollutant. Hence, a controlled environment not only at low temperature but also at low humidity is desired for many applications such as archives, data centers, etc. Either a separate dehumidifier or a precision air conditioning (AC) system needs to be employed for such an application. In fact, the latter forms a reheat AC system which happens to be energy inefficient. In view of this, a vapor compression window air conditioner is investigated with a superimposed liquid desiccant loop harnessing the advantages of both the compression system (high COP) and desiccant system (low humidity). Operation of such a novel system is explained, elucidating the operational feasibility. The results presented consider the characteristics of such a system with respect to changes in the evaporator inlet air temperature and humidity. The change in the specific humidity of air is compared for vapor compression system and the direct contact hybrid system for different values of inlet air temperature.

Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Dehumidification and simultaneous removal of selected pollutants from indoor air by a desiccant wheel using a 1M type desiccant  

SciTech Connect

Solid-desiccant dehumidifiers are increasingly becoming an integral part of desiccant based air-conditioning systems because of their effective handling of latent heat loads compared to conventional vapor compression units. In these units, either a silica gel or a molecular sieve is used for dehumidification of air. Both of them have the capability to co-adsorb various chemical pollutants during dehumidification of air. However, the shape of the isotherm for water vapor on these materials is not favorable for desiccant cooling applications. A mixture (1M desiccant) containing a silica gel, a molecular sieve, and a hydrophobic molecular sieve that was coated on an aluminum foil was studied for its capability for simultaneous removal of moisture and some selected pollutants from air. Experimental data were obtained in a fixed bed adsorber that simulated the operation of a rotary desiccant wheel. Air to be dehumidified and cleaned and the hot regeneration air were cycled in a specific time interval through this bed. The shape of the water isotherm on 1M desiccant was found to be in between that of silica gel and molecular sieve 13{times}, but its uptake capacity was significantly lower than that of either silica gel or molecular sieve. A flow rate of about 100 L/min that provided a face velocity of about 132 cm/s was used in the adsorption step. The flow rate during regeneration was about 50 L/min. The temperature of the inlet air was about 23 C and its relative humidity was varied between 20% and 80%. The concentrations of pollutants were as follows; carbon dioxide: 1050 and 2300 ppm; toluene: 32 ppm; 1,1,1-trichloroethane: 172 ppm, and formaldehyde: 0.35 ppm. A complete breakthrough of all the pollutants was observed during an adsorption cycle.

Popescu, M.; Ghosh, T.K. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Performance investigation on a novel two-stage solar driven rotary desiccant cooling system using composite desiccant materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this study, a two-stage solar driven rotary desiccant cooling (TSRDC) system with novel configuration and newly developed silica gel-haloid composite desiccant is proposed aiming to reduce regeneration temperature and to achieve high energy performance. Simulated results show that there also exists an optimal rotation speed for TSRDC system. Compared with one-stage system, it is found that for the similar supply air state, the required regeneration temperature of TSRDC system is lower and for the same regeneration temperature, the cooling capacity of TSRDC is bigger. (author)

Ge, T.S.; Li, Y.; Dai, Y.J.; Wang, R.Z. [Institute of Refrigeration and Cryogenics, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier. Second technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

Research and development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier featuring a rotary bed of granular silica gel and a rotary regenerator for air conditioning is described. The results of the system optimization studies are presented. The studies involved an extensive investigation of the energy saving potential and economic viability of the solar desiccant dehumidifier in different locations in the United States. Conventional electric vapor compression, and solar absorption and Rankine systems also were investigated for comparison. In general, it was found that the solar desiccant equipment, either by itself or in a hybrid system with an electric vapor compression air conditioner, is economically viable for all three locations considered. Substantial energy savings can be effected as well. Seal tests done at AiResearch to develop practical dynamic air seals are described. Leakage and friction tests were performed on a variety of material combinations and configurations. Dacron felt and silicone rubber were found to give an acceptable combination of leakage, friction, and cost characteristics. As part of the commercialization studies for the desiccant equipment, a questionnaire was sent to residential air conditioning equipment distributors. The results of the questionnaire are presented. The specifications and drawings for the 1.5-ton prototype are included. (WHK)

Gunderson, M.E.; Hwang, K.C.; Railing, S.M.; Rousseau, J.

1978-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

140

Energymaster Desiccant System Application to Light Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Desiccant cooling systems offer unique advantages over conventional equipment in certain applications. AskCorp's Energymaster unit has been applied in several commercial situations where these advantages are most significant. The magnitude of operating cost savings and improved control is greatest in humid climates where both ambient enthalpy levels and space latent loads are highest.

Blanpied, M. C.; Coellner, J. A.; Macintosh, D. S.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Solar powered desiccant air conditioning system. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar-powered desiccant air conditioning system using silica gel has been developed, and modifications to the existing unit and additional testing are proposed to demonstrate the feasibility of the unit. Conversion from a rotating bed to a fixed bed of silica gel is proposed. Some general plans for commercialization are briefly discussed. (LEW)

Not Available

1981-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

142

Use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant cooling  

SciTech Connect

The use of unglazed transpired solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are less expensive than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, we studied the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. We found that the thermal coefficient of performance of the cooling system with unglazed collectors was lower than that of the cooling system with glazed collectors because the former system did not use the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. Although the area required for the unglazed collector array was 70% more than that required for the glazed collector array in a 10.56 kW (3 ton) solar cooling system, the cost of the unglazed array was 45% less than the cost of the glazed array. The simple payback period of the unglazed collector was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when replacing an equivalent gas-fired air heater. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors seems to make economic sense relative to use of glazed conventional collectors, some practical considerations may limit their use for desiccant regeneration.

Pesaran, A.A.; Wipke, K.B. (National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States))

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Energy and economic performance analysis of an open cycle solar desiccant dehumidification air-conditioning system for application in Hong Kong  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this article, a transient simulation model and the EnergyPlus were used to study the energy performance and economical feasibility for integrating a solar liquid desiccant dehumidification system with a conventional vapor compression air-conditioning system for the weather condition of Hong Kong. The vapor compression system capacity in the solar assisted air-conditioning system can be reduced to 19 kW from original 28 kW of a conventional air-conditioning system as a case study due to the solar desiccant cooling. The economical performance of the solar desiccant dehumidification system is compared with that of the conventional air-conditioning system. The results show that the energy saving potentials due to incorporation of the solar desiccant dehumidification system in a traditional air-conditioning system is significant for the hot wet weather in Hong Kong due to higher COP resulted from higher supply chilled water temperature from chiller plants. The annual operation energy savings for the hybrid system is 6760 kWh and the payback period of the hybrid system is around 7 years. The study shows that the solar assisted air-conditioning is a viable technology for utilizations in subtropical areas. (author)

Li, Yutong; Lu, Lin; Yang, Hongxing [Renewable Energy Research Group (RERG), Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

144

Safety aspects of the US advanced LMR (liquid metal reactor) design  

SciTech Connect

The cornerstones of the United States Advanced Liquid Metal Cooled Reactor (ALMR) program sponsored by the Department of Energy are: the plant design program at General Electric based on the PRISM (Power Reactor Innovative Small Module) concept, and the Integral Fast Reactor program (IFR) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The goal of the US program is to produce a standard, commercial ALMR, including the associated fuel cycle. This paper discusses the US regulatory framework for design of an ALMR, safety aspects of the IFR program at ANL, the IFR fuel cycle and actinide recycle, and the ALMR plant design program at GE. 6 refs., 5 figs.

Pedersen, D.R.; Gyorey, G.L.; Marchaterre, J.F.; Rosen, S. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (USA); Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); USDOE Assistant Secretary for Nuclear Energy, Washington, DC (USA))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

PRISM; The plant design concept for the U. S. advanced liquid metal reactor program  

SciTech Connect

The US program for development of an advanced liquid metal reactor (ALMR) is proceeding into a new phase of focused design development. This new phase started at the beginning of 1989; its objective is to complete the conceptual design of the US ALMR, with supporting key feature tests, sufficiently to enter a more detailed design phase and subsequent construction of a prototype reactor plant. A project goal is to demonstrate by actual performance of the reactor its passive, inherent safety features and thereby provide the technical basis for certification of the design by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). This paper reports on the PRISM (power reactor inherently safe module) reactor concept which in combination with the IFR (integral fast reactor) metal fuel cycle being developed by Argonne National Laboratory, was selected by DOE in 1988 as the reference design for the US ALMR program.

Berglund, R.C.; Tippets, F.E. (GE Nuclear Energy, Advance Nuclear Technology, San Jose, CA (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Dynamic performance of packed-bed dehumidifiers: experimental results from the SERI desiccant test loop  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Discussed are the design and construction of a desiccant test loop and results of tests with a silica-gel-packed bed. The test loop consists of two centrifugal fans, two duct heaters, a steam humidifier, 24.4m (80 ft) of 30-cm (12-in.) circular duct, instrumentation, and a test section. The loop is capable of testing adsorption and desorption modes at flow rates up to 0.340 kg/s (600 scfm) and at regeneration temperatures up to 120/sup 0/C (248/sup 0/F). Tests of a 74-cm(29-in.)-diameter, 3.2-cm(1.25-in.)-thick silica gel bed indicated that mass transfer occurs more readily in the adsorption direction than in the desorption direction. Pressure drop data indicated that the resistance of each of the two screens that hold the silica gel in place was equivalent to 2.5-cm(1-in.) of silica gel due to plugging. Results of the tests were also used to validate a SERI desiccant computer model, DESSIM.

Kutscher, C F; Barlow, R S

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Field Evaluation of Desiccant-Integrated HVAC Systems: A Review of Case Studies in Multiple Commercial/Institutional Building Types  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An independent field research effort co-funded by the Gas Research Institute and The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge National Laboratory is documenting the performance and energy usage characteristics of active desiccant-integrated HVAC systems at a variety of commercial and institutional facilities. The tests comprise the instrumentation and one-year-plus monitoring of two or more nearly identical sites, one serving as the test site and the others as base-case or control sites. While the research program is ongoing, work completed in two market sectors, retail and lodging, indicates that there are significant comfort control, energy usage and equipment efficiency benefits to be derived from integrating desiccant units into HVAC system design to handle latent and sensible loads independently. In some cases, installed first costs associated with including desiccant units may be lower if the HVAC system is optimized to take advantage of reduced conventional cooling equipment requirements and downsized ductwork In most cases, lower energy consumption and/or reduced energy costs may provide reasonable payback of first cost premiums.

Yborra, S. C.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Physical barriers formed from gelling liquids: 1. numerical design of laboratory and field experiments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The emplacement of liquids under controlled viscosity conditions is investigated by means of numerical simulations. Design calculations are performed for a laboratory experiment on a decimeter scale, and a field experiment on a meter scale. The purpose of the laboratory experiment is to study the behavior of multiple gout plumes when injected in a porous medium. The calculations for the field trial aim at designing a grout injection test from a vertical well in order to create a grout plume of a significant extent in the subsurface.

Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Pruess, K.; Persoff, P.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is expected that Tc-99 and nitrate will remain with the water residual that is not removed, or remain as a salt bound to the soil particles. In addition, the SDPT will be conducted at lower extraction velocities to preclude pore water entrainment and thus, the extracted air effluent should be free of the contaminant residual present in the targeted moist zone. However, to conservatively bound the planned activity for potential radionuclide air emissions, it is assumed, hypothetically, that the Tc-99 does not remain in the zone of interest, but that it instead travels with the evaporated moisture to the extraction well and to the test equipment at the land surface. Thus, a release potential would exist from the planned point source (powered exhaust) for Tc-99 in the extracted moist air. In this hypothetical bounding case there would also be a potential for very minor fugitive emissions to occur due to nitrogen injection into the soil. The maximum value for Tc-99, measured in the contaminated moist zone, is used in calculating the release potential described in Section 2.3. The desiccation mechanism will be evaporation. Nitrate is neither a criteria pollutant nor a toxic air pollutant. It would remain nitrate as a salt adhered to sand and silt grains or as nitrate dissolved in the pore water. Nitrogen, an inert gas, will be injected into the ground during the test. Tracer gasses will also be injected near the beginning, middle, and the end of the test. The tracer gasses are sulfur hexafluoride, trichlorofluoromethane, and difluoromethane.

BENECKE MW

2010-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

150

Performance of a cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifier prototype  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The cross-cooled dehumidifier prototype was constructed in the form of a cube with a side dimension of 0.6 m. The cross-cooling was achieved by passing air through rectangular channels perpendicular to process channels which are lined with desiccant sheets consisting of 9..mu..m Syloid 63/sup TM/ silica gel held in a Teflon web. The process for the manufacture of the silica gel sheets was developed at the Illinois Institute of Technology. The dehumidifier prototype was installed in a test system that simulated the performance of a cross-cooled desiccant cooling system and monitored the performance of the prototype. The dehumidifier prototype was operated over a wide range of operating conditions which would be typically encountered in the field installation of such a system. Variables measured were the moisture cycled, cooling capacity, total cooling capacity and coefficient of performance.

Worek, W.M.; Lavan, Z.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Desiccant grain applied to the storage of solar drying potential  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sorption storage of solar heat using a layer of wheat as the desiccant was analyzed by means of a deep-bed model. Intended to be applied to solar-assisted in-storage drying of agricultural bulk materials, the probability of the persistence of unfavorable weather periods was quantified statistically for Potsdam for the month of August, as an example. Simulation results demonstrate that a relative humidity of the drying air of 65% can be maintained day and night for weeks without combustion of fossil fuels. Using a simple strategy of control, periods with insufficient solar radiation can be bridged over. The desiccant grain is not endangered by mold growth as a matter of principle. Simple solar air heaters can be used to avoid economic losses due to overdrying and to reduce the danger of decay to a minimum even at unfavorable climatic conditions.

Ziegler, T.; Richter, I.G.; Pecenka, R.

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Test and Evaluation of a Hybrid Desiccant Dehumidifier  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Dehumidification technology is being investigated for potential savings in building air conditioning systems. The potential for savings lies in separating the sensible and the latent cooling loads to more efficiently address the combined conditioning needs of the space. The Munters DryCool HD combined desiccant/vapor compression system was tested in the EPRI Knoxville psychrometric chambers. The system was tested in the laboratory for a host of indoor and outdoor conditions. The system provides cooling a...

2011-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

153

Testing of a solar powered cooling system using cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A solar powered desiccant cooling system using two fixed bed silica gel dehumidifiers has been designed, built and is being tested. The dehumidifiers, 0.6 x 0.6 x 0.6 m each, are constructed of 80 channels lined with 64 m/sup 2/ of 1.5 mm thick silica gel sheets. The bed is cooled by air flowing in an equal number of perpendicular channels. Both sets of channels are two mm wide, the dehumidifiers undergo adsorption, preheating, desorption and precooling in a cyclic fashion. The cooling capacity of the experimental system is one ton at ARI design conditions. The system has a high cooling capacity, high COP, low parasitic power consumption and requires low regeneration temperatures.

Monnier, J.B.; Worek, W.M.; Lavan, Z.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Method and composition for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and a composition are provided for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles. A low density molded desiccant article may be made as a syntactic foam by blending a thermosetting resin, microspheres and molecular sieve desiccant powder, molding and curing. Such articles have densities of 0.2-0.9 g/cc, moisture capacities of 1-12% by weight, and can serve as light weight structural supports.

Lula, James W. (Bonner Springs, KS); Schicker, James R. (Lee' s Summit, MO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Combustion-Turbine Design Guidelines Based on Deposition-Corrosion Considerations, Volume 2: Coal-Derived Liquid Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Middle-distillate coal liquids test out as acceptable gas turbine fuels in terms of deposition and corrosion. Solid-liquid slurries would also be acceptable if turbine cleaning techniques were fully used.This series of tests provided design and operating guidelines that would minimize ash deposition and turbine corrosion.

1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Analytical investigation of the desiccant enhanced nocturnal radiation cooling concept. Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A new concept in desiccant cooling called desiccant enhanced nocturnal radiation is proposed. The concept employs the roof of a typical residential building to act as a heat dissipator for the energy of sorption produced by a desiccant bed during a nightly adsorption cycle. During the day ambient air and solar radiation absorbed by the roof are used to regenerate the desiccant. The residence is assumed to contain the necessary thermal and moisture storage capacity to take advantage of the daily cycle. This report presents results of an analytical investigation of the adsorption and desorption cycles of the proposed concept using detailed finite element and boundary element modeling techniques.

Fairey, P.; Kerestecioglu, A.; Vieira, R.

1986-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

157

Design Issues for the Superconducting Magnet that Goes Around the Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3) the size of the heat exchanger around the liquid hydrogendo not require a large heat exchanger to get the heat out ofMICE hydrogen absorber heat exchanger was designed to remove

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

I TVI7M * -TOE. ^ / Desiccant Dehumidification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Office Building ........... 60 Figure 8.3 - Sensible and Latent Loads for a Fast Food Restaurant Peak Loads: Medium Office Building .................... 63 Figure 8.6 - Design Peak Loads: Fast Food Load-SHR Profile for Miami Residence ................. 68 Figure 8.10 - Monthly Load-SHR Profile

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

159

BWRVIP-53-A: BWR Vessel and lnternals Project, Standby Liquid Control Line Repair Design Criteria  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Boiling Water Reactor Vessel and Internals Project (BWRVIP), formed in June, 1994, is an association of utilities focused exclusively on BWR vessel and internals issues. This BWRVIP report documents criteria which can be used to design a repair for the standby liquid control (SLC) line in a BWR. A previous version of this report was published as BWRVIP-53 (TR-108716). This report (BWRVIP-53- A) incorporates changes proposed by the BWRVIP in response to U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Request...

2005-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

160

Design, construction and testing of a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this study was to design, construct, and test a liquid-heating flat-plate solar collector. From the literature search, information was gathered concerning the basic components of the collector, the different processes and materials that can be used in the construction of these components, and their advantages and disadvantages. The literature search also revealed a method used to measure the performance of the collector in terms of efficiency and heat output. Design considerations were then listed for each of the major components as well as the collector as a single unit. Then, each component was designed, taking into consideration the final assembly of the completed unit. Detailed designs were required for the absorber plate and the box and frame assembly because of their complexity in construction and assembly. Once the components were designed, the construction details were arranged in a logical sequence, again considering the final assembly of the unit. The collector was then carefully constructed and assembled following the design details. After the solar collector was assembled completely, tests were made, data were obtained and recorded, and a collector performance curve was developed.

Tuttle, R E

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier. Phase II. Technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The effort reported is a continuation of the development testing of the 1.5-ton solar desiccant air conditioner (SODAC) and is concerned with determination of the SODAC performance in the recirculated and ventilated mode configuration. Test data in the recirculated mode are presented. As originally conceived, the SODAC features two-speed indoor and outdoor fans to permit more efficient operation at reduced capacity. In both full-flow and half-flow cases, the experimental data are compared to computer predictions. The system and its operation are described, as are the system test facility and procedures. The system description includes the characteristics of the major components, the performance at design conditions, and the control schemes for optimum operation in various climates. (LEW)

Rousseau, J.

1981-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

162

Design features of the radioactive Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter system  

SciTech Connect

During 1983, the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE), undertook a program with the principal objective of testing the Liquid-Fed Ceramic Melter (LFCM) process in actual radioactive operations. This activity, termed the Radioactive LFCM (RLFCM) Operations is being conducted in existing shielded hot-cell facilities in B-Cell of the 324 Building, 300 Area, located at Hanford, Washington. This report summarizes the design features of the RLFCM system. These features include: a waste preparation and feed system which uses pulse-agitated waste preparation tanks for waste slurry agitation and an air displacement slurry pump for transferring waste slurries to the LFCM; a waste vitrification system (LFCM) - the design features, design approach, and reasoning for the design of the LFCM are described; a canister-handling turntable for positioning canisters underneath the RLFCM discharge port; a gamma source positioning and detection system for monitoring the glass fill level of the product canisters; and a primary off-gas treatment system for removing the majority of the radionuclide contamination from the RLFCM off gas. 8 refs., 48 figs., 6 tabs.

Holton, L.K. Jr. (comp.)

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Dynamic performance characterization of bound, porous silica gel desiccant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Drying of air with silica gel is a well established procedure. However, for the specific use of silica gel in a novel desiccant air conditioning system, which continually cools the silica gel and utilizes solar energy for silica gel regeneration, conventional packed bed devices are not suitable. For this system to operate effectively the silica gel must not rise in its temperature or its capacity will be greatly diminished. Dynamic dehumidificatuion performance was investigted for a silica gel desiccant fabricated in bound, porous paper-like sheets. Sheets of various thickness (0.7 to 3 mm) were fabricated and tested under several dynamic flow conditions in a flat rectangular channel apparatus. During each experiment conditions of inlet moisture, air flowrate, and sheet temperature were maintained constant. Comparisons were also made with conventional silica gel pellets and with other forms of bound silica gel. The sheets show superior utilization of silica gel in short times (30 minutes or less). Tests were also made to examine the sheet structure in order to explore the effect of temperature on the porous structure, and to obtain pore size distributions.

Onischak, M.; Gidaspow, D.; Perkari, S.; Sasaki, T.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Simulations and economic analyses of desiccant cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The progress to date in the development and analysis of computer simulations of solar-powered desiccant cooling using an axial-flow disc-type dehumidifier wheel, solar-powered space heating, and electrically driven, standard vapor-compression air-conditioning systems for residential use is documented. Computer simulations for both solar and conventional heating and cooling systems were performed for 12-month heating and cooling seasons. Annual thermal performance and the resulting life cycle costs for both types of systems were analyzed and compared. The heating/cooling season simulations were run for five U.S. cities representing a wide range of climatic conditions and insolation. With the informaion resulting from these simulations, the optimum air-conditioning system was chosen to maximize the conservation of fossil fuels and minimize operating costs. Because of the increasing use of residential air conditioning employing electrically driven vapor-compression coolers, the five locations were studied to determine if it would be beneficial (in terms of both economics and fossil fuel displacement) to displace fossil-fuel-powered vapor-compression coolers and natural gas space heaters with solar-powered heating and desiccant cooling systems.

Shelpuk, B. C.; Hooker, D. W.; Jorgensen, G. J.; Bingham, C. E.

1979-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier. Volume 1. Summary. Volume 2. Detailed technical information. Technical progress report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research and development work aimed at the development of a solar desiccant dehumidifier is described in detail. The system features a rotary bed of granular silica gel and a rotary regenerator. The dehumidifier can be used for air conditioning through adiabatic saturation of the process airstream. Detailed technical information is presented in the appendices: (A) management, (B) review of the literature: state-of-the-art survey and SERI meeting, (C) review of the literature: adsorbent survey, (D) design requirements and evaluation criteria, (E) design requirements and evaluation criteria, single-family house model, (F) design requirements and evaluation criteria, economic model, (G) design requirements and evaluation criteria: conventional system models for comparison, (H) candidate cooling subsystems, (I) subsystem computer model, (J) subsystem performance map, and (K) subsystem preliminary design. (WHK)

Gunderson, M.E.; Hwang, K.C.; Railing, S.M.

1978-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

166

Experimental and design experience with passive safety features of liquid metal reactors  

SciTech Connect

Liquid metal cooled reactors (LMRs) have already been demonstrated to be robust machines. Many reactor designers now believe that it is possible to include in this technology sufficient passive safety that LMRs would be able to survive loss of flow, loss of heat sink, and transient overpower events, even if the plant protective system fails completely and do so without damage to the core. Early whole-core testing in Rapsodie, EBR-II. and FFTF indicate such designs may be possible. The operational safety testing program in EBR-II is demonstrating benign response of the reactor to a full range of controls failures. But additional testing is needed if transient core structural response under major accident conditions is to be properly understood. The proposed international Phase IIB passive safety tests in FFTF, being designed with a particular emphasis on providing, data to understand core bowing extremes, and further tests planned in EBR-II with processed IFR fuel should provide a substantial and unique database for validating the computer codes being used to simulate postulated accident conditions.

Lucoff, D.M.; Waltar, A.E. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Sackett, J.I. [Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Salvatores, M. [CEA, 75 - Paris (France); Aizawa, K. [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Design of a high-pressure circulating pump for viscous liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design of a reciprocating dual action piston pump capable of circulating viscous fluids at pressures of up to 34 MPa (5000 psi) and temperatures up to 80 ? ° C is described. The piston of this pump is driven by a pair of solenoids energized alternatively by a 12 V direct current power supply controlled by an electronic controller facilitating continuously adjustable flow rates. The body of this seal-less pump is constructed using off-the-shelf parts eliminating the need for custom made parts. Both the electronic controller and the pump can be assembled relatively easily. Pump performance has been evaluated at room temperature ( 22 ? ° C ) and atmospheric pressure using liquids with low and moderately high viscosities

Bernhard Seifried; Feral Temelli

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Field-Scale Assessment of Desiccation Implementation for Deep Vadose Zone Contaminants  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desiccation of the vadose zone has the potential to reduce the flux of contaminants to underlying groundwater by removing moisture and decreasing the aqueous-phase permeability of the desiccated zone. However, data to evaluate implementation of desiccation are needed to enable consideration of desiccation as a potential remedy. Implementation of desiccation was field tested by injecting dry nitrogen gas to a target treatment zone and monitoring the spatial and temporal progress of the drying process. Aqueous waste discharges to disposal cribs approximately 50 years ago distributed water and contaminants, including primarily technetium-99 and nitrate, within the 100-m deep vadose zone at the test site. A field test location was selected adjacent to one of the former disposal cribs. The test was conducted in a contaminated portion of the vadose zone dominated by fine sands with lenses of silt material. Desiccation reduced volumetric moisture content to as low as 0.01. The lateral and vertical distribution of drying from the injection well was influenced by the subsurface heterogeneity. However, over time, desiccation occurred in the initially wetter, lower permeability lenses.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.; Johnson, Christian D.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65[degree]C to 160[degree]C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Study of parameters affecting the performance of solar desiccant cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The performance of a solar desiccant cooling system depends on the performance of its components, particularly the desiccant dehumidifier and solar collectors. The desiccant dehumidifier performance is affected by the properties of the desiccant, particularly the shape of the isotherm and the regeneration temperature. The performance of a solar collector, as one would expect, depends on its operating temperature, which is very close to the desiccant regeneration temperature. The purpose of this study was to identify the desiccant isotherm shape (characterized by separation factor) that would result in the optimum performance - based on thermal coefficient of performance and cooling capacity - of a desiccant cooling cycle operating in ventilation mode. Different regeneration temperatures ranging from 65{degree}C to 160{degree}C were investigated to identify the corresponding optimum isotherm shape at each. Thermal COP dictates the required area of the solar collectors, and the cooling capacity is an indication of the size and cost of the cooling equipment. Staged and no-staged regeneration methods were studied.

Pesaran, A.A.; Hoo, E.A.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Analysis and development of a solar energy regenerated desiccant crop drying facility: Phase I. Final report, July 1976--April 1977  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The results of a study to verify the technical feasibility of the regenerated desiccant crop drying concept, characterize its performance, investigate design requirements, and define a pilot facility for further evaluating the operational and energy-conservative characteristics of the drying system are documented. The pilot facility defined in this study will be a use R and D tool of sufficient size to permit a meaningful evaluation of the system and to provide the necessary criteria for development of full-scale systems. The principal finding of the study is that the regenerated desiccant crop drying concept is technically feasible and has the capability to achieve a drying efficiency of approximately twice that of conventional crop drying systems. When using a fossil fuel energy source, energy savings will be approximately 40 to 50%. With solar energy input, the total fossil fuel savings could be 70 to 90%. The economic feasibility of the system appears promising. As with other new energy conserving systems that are presently capital-intensive, the economic viability of the system will be dependent on future capital cost reductions, on the future price of fossil fuels, and on the specific application of the system. Regarding system applications, it was concluded that the regenerated desiccant drying system, with or without the use of solar energy, will be economically best suited for a large central processing application, where it can receive a maximum amount of use and will benefit from economy-of-scale cost considerations. The basic study recommendations are: (1) additional R and D activities should be conducted to identify and evaluate means for achieving system cost reductions, and (2) the Mobile Pilot Facility program should be initiated.

Ko, S.M.; Merrifield, D.V.; Fletcher, J.W.

1977-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Optimizing the performance of desiccant beds for solar-regenerated cooling  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Detailed computer simulations as well as a simplified psychrometric analysis are used to determine the increase in cooling system performance that can be realized through the use of nonhomogeneous or staged desiccant beds. A staged bed of four hypothetical desiccants is shown to give a 10% higher cooling capacity than a silica gel bed of the same thickness. Alternatively, the same cooling capacity is produced by a staged bed 37% thinner than the silica gel bed. These effects could be employed to reduce the parasitic power requirements of desiccant cooling systems.

Barlow, R.; Collier, K.

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site  

SciTech Connect

The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

2011-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

174

Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this five-year project (October, 1997--September, 2002) is to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project will be executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) will focus on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase will include the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crudes conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

Mohan, Ram S.; Shoham, Ovadia

1999-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

175

Design and Development of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone Compact Separators for Three-Phase Flow  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this five-year project (October 1997--September 2002) was to expand the current research activities of Tulsa University Separation Technology Projects (TUSTP) to multiphase oil/water/gas separation. This project was executed in two phases. Phase I (1997--2000) focused on the investigations of the complex multiphase hydrodynamic flow behavior in a three-phase Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone (GLCC) Separator. The activities of this phase included the development of a mechanistic model, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulator, and detailed experimentation on the three-phase GLCC. The experimental and CFD simulation results will be suitably integrated with the mechanistic model. In Phase II (2000--2002), the developed GLCC separator will be tested under high pressure and real crude conditions. This is crucial for validating the GLCC design for field application and facilitating easy and rapid technology deployment. Design criteria for industrial applications will be developed based on these results and will be incorporated into the mechanistic model by TUSTP.

Mohan, R.S.; Shoham, O.

2001-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

176

Development of a laminar flow desiccant bed for solar air conditioning application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Mass transfer in silica gel beds of different configurations is reviewed in connection with use in the Solar-Desiccant-Evaporative Cooling System. A laminar flow, coated-sheet concept is proposed since it ensures a low pressure drop and minimal solid side mass transfer resistance. A preliminary bed design gives 1/3 the pressure drop of a previous packed particle bed design and a large reduction in volume and silica gel inventory. The construction of a packing module and test rig is described, and test results reported for a particle size of 0.12 mm (60 to 200 mesh) with a passage width of about 1.5 mm. In order to compare theory and experiment, an existing code, NUMINT, which solves the partial differential equations governing heat and mass transfer in silica gel beds, was revised to include the effects of substrate heat capacity, and non-adiabatic operation. Comparisons between theory and experiment were found to be generally satisfactory, though it was found that specification of the bed initial water content for adsorption tests presented some difficulties. The effect of solid side mass transfer resistance was found to be small, which suggests that an optimum design may incorporate a larger particle size. Topics for further work are suggested.

Kim, S.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

Overview of developing programs in solar desiccant cooling for residential buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An overview is provided of the ongoing work in desiccant cooling under the national solar heating and cooling research program. Open cycle adsorption and absorption systems are examined. The different dehumidifier bed configurations are the distinguishing features of these systems. The basic operating principles of each dehumidifier concept are explained along with some discussion of their comparative features. Performance predictions developed by SERI for a solar desiccant solar system employing an axial-flow desiccant wheel dehumidifier are presented. In terms of life-cycle cost and displaced fossil-fuel energy, the results indicate that it should be beneficial to use solar desiccant coolers in residential applications. Although no prototype testing of any of these concepts is currently underway, test results are expected and will be reported within one year.

Not Available

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes results of a pilot test of soil desiccation conducted as part of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test program. The report is written in CERCLA treatabilty test report format.

Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Johnson, Christian D.; Greenwood, William J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Soil Desiccation for Vadose Zone Remediation: Report for Fiscal Year 2007  

SciTech Connect

Apart from source excavation, the options available for the remediation of vadose zone metal and radionuclide contaminants beyond the practical excavation depth (0 to 15 m) are quite limited. Of the available technologies, very few are applicable to the deep vadose zone with the top-ranked candidate being soil desiccation. An expert panel review of the work on infiltration control and supplemental technologies identified a number of knowledge gaps that would need to be overcome before soil desiccation could be deployed. The report documents some of the research conducted in the last year to fill these knowledge gaps. This work included 1) performing intermediate-scale laboratory flow cell experiments to demonstrate the desiccation process, 2) implementing a scalable version of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases–Water-Air-Energy (STOMP-WAE), and 3) performing numerical experiments to identify the factors controlling the performance of a desiccation system.

Ward, Andy L.; Oostrom, Mart; Bacon, Diana H.

2008-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

180

Method and composition for molding low-density desiccant syntactic-foam articles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

These and other objects of the invention are achieved by a process for molding to size a desiccant syntactic foam article having a density of 0.2 to 0.9 g/cc and a moisture capacity of 1 to 12% by weight, comprising the steps of: charging a mold with a powdery mixture of an activated desiccant, microspheres and a thermosetting resin, the amount of the desiccant being sufficient to provide the required moisture capacity, and the amounts of the microspheres and resin being such that the microspheres/desiccant volume fraction exceeds the packing factor by an amount sufficient to substantially avoid shrinkage without causing excessively high molding pressures; covering the mold and heating the covered mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to melt the resin; and tightly closing the mold and heating the closed mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to cure the resin, and removing the resultant desiccant syntactic foam article from the mold. In a composition of matter aspect, the present invention provides desiccant syntactic foam articles, and a composition of matter for use in molding the same.

Not Available

1981-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Research and development needs for desiccant cooling technology 1992--1997. (Supplement to the NREL report, Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment)  

SciTech Connect

This report is a supplement to Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment (NREL/TP-254-4147, DE93000013). In this supplement document we have described a detailed program assuming sufficient funding to implement the R&D activities needed. Desiccant dehumidification is a mature technology for industrial applications, and in recent years the technology has been used for air conditioning a number of institutional and commercial buildings. Our proposal is based on argumentative discussions at various national meetings with leaders of the technology. The goal is the penetration of the broad air conditioning market. This work is funded by the Buildings technology Office of the US Department of Energy.

Pesaran, A.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Laboratory And Field Investigations To Address Erosion, Volume Change And Desiccation Cracking Of Compost Amended Expansive Subsoils.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Puppala, Anand Desiccations cracks are formed during drying process of fine grained cohesive soils in summer and these cracks often appear on unpaved subgrades due… (more)

Intharasombat, Napat

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

SOIL DESICCATION TECHNIQUES STRATEGIES FOR IMMOBILIZATION OF DEEP VADOSE CONTAMINANTS AT THE HANFORD CENTRAL PLATEAU  

SciTech Connect

Deep vadose zone contamination poses some of the most difficult remediation challenges for the protection of groundwater at the Hanford Site where processes and technologies are being developed and tested for use in the on-going effort to remediate mobile contamination in the deep vadose zone, the area deep beneath the surface. Historically, contaminants were discharged to the soil along with significant amounts of water, which continues to drive contaminants deeper in the vadose zone toward groundwater. Soil desiccation is a potential in situ remedial technology well suited for the arid conditions and the thick vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Desiccation techniques could reduce the advance of contaminants by removing the pore water to slow the rate of contaminants movement toward groundwater. Desiccation technologies have the potential to halt or slow the advance of contaminants in unsaturated systems, as well as aid in reduction of contaminants from these same areas. Besides reducing the water flux, desiccation also establishes capillary breaks that would require extensive rewetting to resume pore water transport. More importantly, these techniques have widespread application, whether the need is to isolate radio nuclides or address chemical contaminant issues. Three different desiccation techniques are currently being studied at Hanford.

BENECKE MW; CHRONISTER GB; TRUEX MJ

2012-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

185

Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

NONE

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

186

Improving Gas-Fired Heat Pump Capacity and Performance by Adding a Desiccant Dehumidification Subsystem  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper examines the merits of coupling a desiccant dehumidification subsystem to a gas-engine- driven vapor compression air conditioner. A system is identified that uses a rotary, silica gel, parallel-plate dehumidifier. Dehumidifier data and analysis are based on recent tests. The dehumidification subsystem processes the fresh air portion and handles the latent portion of the load. Adding the desiccant subsystem increases the gas-based coefficient of performance 40% and increases the cooling capacity 50%. Increased initial manufacturing costs are estimated at around $500/ton ($142/kW) for volume production. This cost Level is expected to reduce the total initial cost per ton compared to a system without the desiccant subsystem.

Parsons, B. K.; Pesaran, A. A.; Bharathan, D.; Shelpuk, B. C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Performance predictions of silica-gel desiccant dehumidifiers. Technical report No. 3  

SciTech Connect

The analysis of a cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifier using silica gel in the form of sheets is described. This unit is the principal component of solar powered desiccant air conditioning system. The mathematical model has first been formulated describing the dynamics of the dehumidifier. The model leads to a system of nonlinear coupled heat and mass transfer equations for the sorption processes and linear heat transfer equations for the purging processes. The model accounts for the gas film resistance and for the moisture diffusion in the desiccant. The governing equations are solved by a finite difference scheme to obtain periodic steady state solutions. The accuracy of the theoretical predictions is ascertained by comparing them with the experimental results. The performance of the dehumidifier, for a chosen set of initial conditions and dehumidifier parameters, has also been given.

Mathiprakasam, B.; Lavan, Z.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Contract No. EG-77-C-01-4042OPTIMIZING 'l%E PERFORWANCE OF DESICCANT BEDS FOB SOLAR RJXENEXATED COOLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Lavan and Lunde have recognized this problem and have advocated nonadiabatic drying of the air; Lavan (4) investigating a crosscooled desiccant bed, and Lunde (5> propos-Ing a series of desiccant beds and heat exchangers. The purpose in both concepts is to keep the temperature of the silica gel low during adsorption so that the moisture capacity remains high. 1.

Kirk Collier; Robert Barlow; Kirk Collier

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Solar-MEC development program. Project 9103 third quarter progress report, March 1--May 31, 1978. [Desiccant wheel and regenerative heat exchange wheel performance  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

During the third quarter of the Solar-MEC program, work continued on developing the computer model simulating the desiccant wheel behavior (Task 1) and assessing the performance of the regenerative heat exchange wheel (Task 3). This report specifically presents the results obtained using the computer model as an analytical tool to evaluate design and operating conditions to optimize the wheel's performance. It also contains evaluations of two different available heat transfer matrixes: the currently used aluminum honeycomb and a new product, a potentially less-expensive, corrugated aluminum material. The mathematical modeling and diagnostic evaluations and ways of improving the component and machine performance were identified and are described for both tasks.

Wurm, J.; Weil, S.A.; Zawacki, T.S.; Kinast, J.A.; Macriss, R.A.

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Espey, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid loading in producing gas wells is the inability of the produced gas to remove produced liquids from the wellbore. A review of existing flow loops worldwide revealed that specialized areas of research such as liquid loading in gas wells are still lacking dedicated test facilities. This project presents the design of a new dedicated facility to be located at the TowerLab at the Richardson building with adequate operating conditions to reproduce the flow regimes encountered prior to and after the onset of liquid loading in gas wells. The facility consists of a compressed air system, pipelines for air and water, a pressure vessel containing glass beads, an injection manifold, and flow control and monitoring devices. Our results show that three compressors working in parallel is the most technical and economic configuration for the TowerLab based on the overall costs provided by the supplier, the footprint but most importantly the flexibility. The design of the pressure vessel required a cylindrical body with top and bottom welded-flat head covers with multiple openings to minimize its weight. The pipelines connecting major equipment and injection manifold located at the pressure vessel were selected based on the superficial velocities for air and water. These values also showed the need for independent injection using two manifolds instead of commingling flow through a tee joint. The use of digital pressure gauges with an accuracy of 0.05 to 25% and coriolis or vortex meters to measure air flowrate is also suggested. For the water line, installation of turbine meters results in the most economic approach.

Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Desiccant solar air conditioning in tropical climates: II-field testing in Guadeloupe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of the experimental investigation of a solar desiccant air conditioning device exposed to the sun in Guadeloupe to test that adaptability of a silicagel compact bed, the most simple technology, in a tropical climate. It has been shown that it is possible to make use of solar flat plate collectors with a balancing water tank, to produce heat for the regeneration of a solid desiccant as silicagel, with solar energy. Second, the compact bed system proposed gives the foreseen cooling power, but considerable losses appear, particularly in the sorption process, which is not close enough to the reversible adiabatic one.

Dupont, M.; Celestine, B.; Beghin, B. (Solar Energy Lab., Pointe-a-Pitre (Guadeloupe))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Research and development needs for desiccant cooling technology 1992--1997  

SciTech Connect

This report is a supplement to Desiccant Cooling: State-of-the-Art Assessment (NREL/TP-254-4147, DE93000013). In this supplement document we have described a detailed program assuming sufficient funding to implement the R D activities needed. Desiccant dehumidification is a mature technology for industrial applications, and in recent years the technology has been used for air conditioning a number of institutional and commercial buildings. Our proposal is based on argumentative discussions at various national meetings with leaders of the technology. The goal is the penetration of the broad air conditioning market. This work is funded by the Buildings technology Office of the US Department of Energy.

Pesaran, A.A.

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The U.S. liquid petroleum pipeline industry is large, diverse, and vital to the nation's economy. Comprised of approximately 200,000 miles of pipe in all fifty states, liquid petroleum pipelines carried more than 40 million barrels per day, or 4 trillion barrel-miles, of crude oil and refined products during 2001. That represents about 17% of all freight transported in the United States, yet the cost of doing so amounted to only 2% of the nation's freight bill. Approximately 66% of domestic petroleum transport (by ton-mile) occurs by pipeline, with marine movements accounting for 28% and rail and truck transport making up the balance. In 2004, the movement of crude petroleum by domestic federally regulated pipelines amounted to 599.6 billion tonmiles, while that of petroleum products amounted to 315.9 billion ton-miles (AOPL 2006). As an illustration of the low cost of pipeline transportation, the cost to move a barrel of gasoline from Houston, Texas, to New York Harbor is only 3 cents per gallon, which is a small fraction of the cost of gasoline to consumers. Pipelines may be small or large, up to 48 inches in diameter. Nearly all of the mainline pipe is buried, but other pipeline components such as pump stations are above ground. Some lines are as short as a mile, while others may extend 1,000 miles or more. Some are very simple, connecting a single source to a single destination, while others are very complex, having many sources, destinations, and interconnections. Many pipelines cross one or more state boundaries (interstate), while some are located within a single state (intrastate), and still others operate on the Outer Continental Shelf and may or may not extend into one or more states. U.S. pipelines are located in coastal plains, deserts, Arctic tundra, mountains, and more than a mile beneath the water's surface of the Gulf of Mexico (Rabinow 2004; AOPL 2006). The network of crude oil pipelines in the United States is extensive. There are approximately 55,000 miles of crude oil trunk lines (usually 8 to 24 inches in diameter) in the United States that connect regional markets. The United States also has an estimated 30,000 to 40,000 miles of small gathering lines (usually 2 to 6 inches in diameter) located primarily in Texas, Oklahoma, Louisiana, and Wyoming, with small systems in a number of other oil producing states. These small lines gather the oil from many wells, both onshore and offshore, and connect to larger trunk lines measuring 8 to 24 inches in diameter. There are approximately 95,000 miles of refined products pipelines nationwide. Refined products pipelines are found in almost every state in the United States, with the exception of some New England states. These refined product pipelines vary in size from relatively small, 8- to 12-inch-diameter lines, to up to 42 inches in diameter. The overview of pipeline design, installation, and operation provided in the following sections is only a cursory treatment. Readers interested in more detailed discussions are invited to consult the myriad engineering publications available that provide such details. The two primary publications on which the following discussions are based are: Oil and Gas Pipeline Fundamentals (Kennedy 1993) and the Pipeline Rules of Thumb Handbook (McAllister 2002). Both are recommended references for additional reading for those requiring additional details. Websites maintained by various pipeline operators also can provide much useful information, as well as links to other sources of information. In particular, the website maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy's Energy Information Administration (EIA) (http://www.eia.doe.gov) is recommended. An excellent bibliography on pipeline standards and practices, including special considerations for pipelines in Arctic climates, has been published jointly by librarians for the Alyeska Pipeline Service Company (operators of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline System [TAPS]) and the Geophysical Institute/International Arctic Research Center, both located in Fairbanks (Barboza and Trebelhorn 2001)

Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Breathing liquid oxygen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

question is interesting though because it would be desirable to breath liquid instead of gas under certain conditions. Special liquids are being designed to carry dissolved...

196

Technique for compressing light intensity ranges utilizing a specifically designed liquid crystal notch filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten metal in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. To accomplish this, the assembly utilizes the combination of interference filter and a liquid crystal notch filter. The latter which preferably includes a cholesteric liquid crystal arrangement is configured to pass light at all wavelengths, except a relatively narrow wavelength band which defines the filter's notch, and includes means for causing the notch to vary to at least a limited extent with the intensity of light at its light incidence surface.

Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Performance improvement of Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone separator using different design for tangential inlet  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The concept of compact separation is attractive in a number of operating environments. These include offshore and arctic operations, where both space and weight are at a premium, and downhole processing where space is very limited. Compact separators often rely on centrifugal forces to enhance the separation process and are therefore highly dependent on inlet geometry. This paper investigates expanding the operational envelope of a compact Gas-Liquid Cylindrical Cyclone separator through the use of a novel inlet, which can be easily altered to respond to changing well conditions. To demonstrate the importance of inlet geometry, historical production from the Gloyd-Mitchell zone of the Rodessa Field in Louisiana was examined over a 40-month period. As in most oil field production, there were significant changes in the water cut and GOR. This field data clearly shows that a compact separator equipped with single inlet geometry is not capable of performing effectively over the wide range of conditions exhibited in a typical oil field. This thesis considers the hydrodynamics of the separator inlet. Three different inlet geometries were investigated through the use of a changeable inlet sleeve. New experimental data were acquired utilizing a 7.62-cm I.D compact separator, which was 3.0 m in height. The effect of inlet geometry on separator performance was investigated over a wide range of flow conditions. Fluid viscosities from 1-12 cp and the effect of fluid level within the separator were also examined. The results indicate that the operational envelope for liquid carry-over and gas carry-under can be expanded by more that 300% by altering the inlet to respond to changing field conditions. A new model is proposed to define the operational envelope. This approximate method is simple to calculate, and offers a good approximation for the operability area for gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone compact separator. This study shows that efficient operability of the gas-liquid cylindrical cyclone is obtained when tangential acceleration of the incoming gas-liquid mixture is 50 to100 times the acceleration of gravity (50-100 G's).

Barbuceanu, Nicolae

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Nuclear Systems. Tech. rep. Argonne National Laboratory,experiment. Tech. rep. Argonne National Laboratory, 1958. [and Core Design. Tech. rep. Argonne National Labo- ratory.

Qvist, Staffan Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Theoretical and experimental analysis of desiccant wheel performance for low humidity drying system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The drying process is influenced by three main factors temperature, flow rate and humidity, resulting in the drying process of hot air required in accordance with the character of materials with low humidity, so it can speed up the drying process. Malaysia ... Keywords: desiccant wheel, temperature and humidity, water evaporation

Tri Suyono; Sohif Mat; Muhammad Yahya; Muhd. Hafiz Ruslan; Azami Zaharim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Cryptic species within the cosmopolitan desiccation-tolerant moss Grimmia laevigata  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cryptic species within the cosmopolitan desiccation-tolerant moss Grimmia laevigata Catherine C cosmopolitan range. This presents an evolutionary puz- zle, the solution to which lies in understanding phylogeography The broad and, in some cases, cosmopolitan distribution of many moss species suggests

Thompson, John N.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 1; Model description  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation-mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in this paper.

Warren, M.L. (ASI Controls, San Ramon, CA (US)); Wahlig, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Applied Science Div.)

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine`s helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Design, fabrication and testing of a 15-kW gas-fired liquid-metal evaporator  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development and testing of a compact heat- pipe heat exchanger that is designed to transfer thermal energy from hot combustion gases to the heater tubes of a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine. In this system, sodium evaporates from a surface that is heated by a stream of hot gases and the liquid metal then condenses on the heater tubes of a Stirling engine where energy is transferred to the engine's helium working fluid. Recent tests on a prototype unit illustrated that a compact (8 cm {times} 13 cm {times} 16 cm) sodium evaporator can routinely transfer 15-kW{sub t} of energy at an operating vapor temperature of 760{degrees}C. Four of these prototype units will eventually be used to power a 25-kW{sub e} Stirling engine system. Design details and test results from the prototype unit are presented in this paper.

Adkins, D.R.; Rawlinson, K.S.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Sorption and desorption characteristics of a packed bed of clay-CaCl{sub 2} desiccant particles  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Desiccants can be used in conjunction with solar energy to provide a viable alternative to traditional air conditioning techniques. A desiccant consisting of clay and calcium chloride was developed and tested using multiple sorption and desorption cycles. During sorption, inlet air temperatures from 23 to 36 C with corresponding relative humidities of 42-66% were tested. Additionally, superficial air velocities from 0.17 to 0.85 m/s were tested. During desorption, inlet air temperatures from 50 to 57 C and superficial air velocities of approximately 0.30 and 0.60 m/s were tested. A regression equation was determined for the mass of water sorbed by the clay-CaCl2 desiccant with a R{sup 2} value of 0.917. The desorption data was regressed to an exponential function and significant k-values were determined. An equation for pressure drop through the desiccant was determined and compared to existing models. The desiccant was found to perform well during the repeated test cycles though small masses of desiccant were lost due to surface disintegration of the desiccant spheres. (author)

Tretiak, C.S.; Abdallah, N. Ben [Department of Process Engineering and Applied Science, Dalhousie University, P.O. Box 1000, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Feasibility of a solar panel-powered liquid desiccant cooling system for greenhouses.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??To investigate the technical feasibility of a novel cooling system for commercial greenhouses, knowledge of the state of the art in greenhouse cooling is required.… (more)

Lychnos, Georgios

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

A model for a variable-volume, density-stratified, liquid desiccant storage tank.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??University of Minnesota M.S. thesis. August 2012. Major: Mechanical Engineering. Advisor: Dr. Jane H. Davidson. 1 computer file (PDF); xiv, 164 pages, appendices A-E. A… (more)

Mallinak, Jason

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

CONFIGURATION AND FIELD TESTING OF A LIQUID DESICCANT DEHUMIDIFICATION SYSTEM FOR GREENHOUSE APPLICATIONS.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC), the Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Association (OGVG), and Queen’s University’s Solar Calorimetry Laboratory (SCL) are undertaking a joint project to… (more)

SEEMANN, SEAN

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

Assessment of dehumidifier geometries for desiccant cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Five dehumidifier designs are evaluated in this report - three from existing prototype cooling systems (from AiResearch, IGT, and IIT) and two (from UCLA and SERI) that have not yet been tested in a complete cooling system. The basic principles of heat and mass regenerators and the requirements of the solar cooling application have been combined to generate a list of desirable characteristics for dehumidifiers. The five designs are described and compared quantitatively; compared characteristics are related directly to the list of desirable characteristics. System performance is considered as well as isolated dehumidifier parameters. Preliminary simulations indicate that a system using the SERI dehumidifier design could achieve a design-point COP greater than unity without causing significant increases in parasitic power, system size, or system cost, compared with existing prototypes. Because of the high potential of the wound-ribbon design, it is recommended that a research program be carried out to fully characterize this type of dehumidifier.

Barlow, R.S.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Cryogenic design of the liquid helium experiment ``critical dynamics in microgravity``  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although many well controlled experiments have been conducted to measure the static properties of systems near criticality, few experiments have explored the transport properties in systems driven far away from equilibrium as a phase transition occurs. The cryogenic design of an experiment to study the dynamic aspect of critical phenomena is reported here. Measurements of the thermal gradient across the superfluid (He II) -- normal fluid (He I) interface in helium under microgravity conditions will be performed as a heat flux holds the system away from equilibrium. New technologies are under development for this experiment, which is in the definition phase for a space shuttle flight.

Moeur, W.A. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Adriaans, M.J.; Boyd, S.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Strayer, D.M. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Duncan, R.V. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States)]|[Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Comparison of the performance of open cycle air conditioners utilizing rotary desiccant dehumidifiers  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper presents the results of an investigation of open cycle cooling systems using rotary desiccant dehumidifiers. Three systems, the ventilation, recirculation, and Dunkle cycles have been modeled. The performance of these systems coupled with an air-based solar system has been determined using TRNSYS simulations of system operation in four representative US climates. The system COP, fraction of the total cooling load met by the desiccant system, and fraction of the thermal energy provided by solar energy are compared. An assessment of the effect of climate and system parameters on the relative performance of the three system configurations is made. It is shown that in order to meet residential loads of 7 to 11 kW with a COP on the order of unity, systems with high effectiveness must be employed. These systems were also found to perform well when operated solely with a solar thermal input.

Jurinak, J.J.; Beckman, W.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Analysis and comparison of active solar desiccant and absorption cooling systems. Part 2; Annual simulation results  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A comparative analysis has been performed to compare the cooling and dehumidification performance of future ventilation mode desiccant systems, proposed advanced absorption systems, and conventional vapor compression systems. A common framework has been developed for direct comparison of these different cooling technologies; this method is described in a companion paper. This paper presents the application of this method to annual simulations of cooling system performance in five cities.

Warren, M.L. (ASI Controls, San Ramon, CA (US)); Wahlig, M. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA). Applied Science Div.)

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry gas injection, is a potentially robust vadose zone remediation process to limit contaminant transport through the vadose zone. A series of four intermediate-scale flow cell experiments was conducted in homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous porous medium systems to investigate the effects of heterogeneity on desiccation of unsaturated porous media. The permeability ratios of porous medium layers ranged from about five to almost two orders of magnitude. The insulated flow cell was equipped with twenty humidity and temperature sensors and a dual-energy gamma system was used to determine water saturations at various times. The multiphase code STOMP was used to simulate the desiccation process. Results show that injected dry gas flowed predominantly in the higher permeability layer and delayed water removal from the lower permeability material. For the configurations tested, water vapor diffusion from the lower to the higher permeability zone was considerable over the duration of the experiments, resulting in much larger relative humidity values of the outgoing air than based on permeability ratios alone. Acceptable numerical matches with the experimental data were obtained when an extension of the saturation-capillary pressure relation below the residual water saturation was used. The agreements between numerical and experimental results suggest that the correct physics are implemented in the simulator and that the thermal and hydraulic properties of the porous media, flow cell wall and insulation materials were properly represented.

Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Dane, Jacob H.; Truex, Michael J.

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Printed on recycled paperPERFORMANCE OF A COMBINED SOLAR DESICCANT FILTRATION AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A solar desiccant filtration system and conventional system were compared by simulating their performance over a cooling season using TRNSYS and Typic,aI Meteorological Year (TMY) weather data for a r,a.nge of system p‘arameters. The desiccant dehumidifier was modeled as a heat ‘and m,ass exe hanger with moisture and temperature effectivenesses based on the equilibrium intersection point. The activated carbon filter was modeled as a reduction of required ventilation tlow rate to m,aintain acceptable contamirmnt levels in the space. Several locations were investigated. The desiccant isotherm shape was varied from a moderate Brunauer Type I to silica gel (line,%) and the solar collector a-ea wxs varied from 0 to 4,000 ft2 to see its effect on the savings per season. The isotherm shape ‘and location had little effect on the resulting savings. The savings were between $2,800 and!S4,800 per season depending on the amount of collector carea. 1.

S. M. Burley; M. E. Arden; R. Campbell-howe; B. Wilkins-crowder; T. B. Jekel; J. W. Mitchell; S. A. Klein; W. A. Beckman

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics  

SciTech Connect

A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

Adams, S.R.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the second half year (April 1, 2001-September 30, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

216

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the first half year (October 1, 2000-March 31, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

2001-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

217

Field Test and Performance Verification: Integrated Active Desiccant Rooftop Hybrid System Installed in a School - Final Report: Phase 4A  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a field verification pilot site investigation that involved the installation of a hybrid integrated active desiccant/vapor-compression rooftop heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) unit at an elementary school in the Atlanta Georgia area. For years, the school had experienced serious humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) problems that had resulted in occupant complaints and microbial (mold) remediation. The outdoor air louvers of the original HVAC units had been closed in an attempt to improve humidity control within the space. The existing vapor compression variable air volume system was replaced by the integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) system that was described in detail in an Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) report published in 2004 (Fischer and Sand 2004). The IADR system and all space conditions have been monitored remotely for more than a year. The hybrid system was able to maintain both the space temperature and humidity as desired while delivering the outdoor air ventilation rate required by American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers Standard 62. The performance level of the IADR unit and the overall system energy efficiency was measured and found to be very high. A comprehensive IAQ investigation was completed by the Georgia Tech Research Institute before and after the system retrofit. Before-and-after data resulting from this investigation confirmed a significant improvement in IAQ, humidity control, and occupant comfort. These observations were reported by building occupants and are echoed in a letter to ORNL from the school district energy manager. The IADR system was easily retrofitted in place of the original rooftop system using a custom curb adapter. All work was completed in-house by the school's maintenance staff over one weekend. A subsequent cost analysis completed for the school district by the design engineer of record concluded that the IADR system being investigated was actually less expensive to install than other less-efficient options, most of which were unable to deliver the required ventilation while maintaining the desired space humidity levels.

Fischer, J

2005-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

218

Experimental study of the performance of a laminar flow silica gel desiccant packing suitable for solar air conditioning application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An experimental study of the performance of a low pressure drop silica gel desiccant packing has been carried out. The packing is in the form of narrow passages lined with a single layer of small silica gel particles. A near optimum particle size of 0.25 mm, and a range of passage widths of 1.46 to 3.75 mm were chosen based on the predictions of a computer simulation model. A test chamber was constructed with sufficient thermal insulation to allow close to adiabatic conditions for the 12 cm x 12 cm cross section of packing. Step change adsorption and desorption tests were performed for various plate spacings, air flow rates, air inlet conditions, and gel initial water contents. Air outlet moisture content and temperature, as well as pressure drop were measured. The experimental results were compared with predictions of the computer simulation model: This model is based on gas side controlled heat and mass transfer, with the small solid side mass transfer resistance incorporated in a crude manner, and heat transfer into the packing handled as a lumped thermal capacitance. Reasonable agreement was obtained between theoretical prediction and experiment. The match was found to improve with increased passage width. The discrepancies are chiefly attributed to an excessive air bypass, and to inaccurate accounting for heat transfer from the sides of the unit. Use of the computer code for prototype scale design purposes is recommended.

Biswas, P.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

Schultz, K.J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Simple predictive model for performance of desiccant beds for solar dehumidification  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model is outlined for the absorption/desorption process that can be used to predict the performance of desiccant beds for solar regenerated dehumidification of passively cooled buildings. Instead of solving a set of coupled differential equations, the model uses simple algebraic equations for steady-state heat and mass exchangers. A comparison of computer predictions and experimental data demonstrate the validity and accuracy of the model. The physics of the adsorption process is discussed in terms of two psychrometric process lines, and planned research efforts at SERI are described.

Barlow, R.S.

1981-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Gas-fired desiccant dehumidification system field evaluation in a quick-service restaurant. Final report, October 1989  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes the results of a field evaluation of state-of-art desiccant dehumidification equipment in Houston, TX. The evaluation demonstrated that comfort control in a quick-service restaurant could be improved dramatically. However, available gas-fired desiccant dehumidification equipment is too expensive, inefficient, and unreliable to be considered for wide application in the restaurant industry. Results of a technical and economic analysis of four HVAC options in four U.S. cities indicated that improved comfort control could be achieved with only a modest increase in operating costs with an advanced system. This, coupled with the economic benefits achieved through lower indoor humidity such as improved crew performance and reduced maintenance costs, could justify the introduction of an advanced, integrated, HVAC system using desiccant technology which has an installed cost similar to current equipment.

Koopman, R.N.; Marciniak, T.J.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Design Issues for the Superconducting Magnet that Goes Around the Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the absorber body and pipes and the heat conduction down theheat transfer into the absorber to about 19 kW. The absorber vent pipeheat transfer into the liquid hydrogen to about 54 kW. The vent pipes

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

Liquid Calcium Chloride Solar Storage: Concept and Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous calcium chloride has a number of potential advantages as a compact and long-term solar storage medium compared to sensibly heated water. The combination of sensible and chemical binding energy of the liquid desiccant provides higher energy densities and lower thermal losses, as well as a temperature lift during discharge via an absorption heat pump. Calcium chloride is an excellent choice among desiccant materials because it is relatively inexpensive, non-toxic, and environmentally safe. This paper provides an overview of its application for solar storage and presents a novel concept for storing the liquid desiccant in a single storage vessel. The storage system uses an internal heat exchanger to add and discharge thermal energy and to help manage the mass, momentum, and energy transfer in the tank. The feasibility of the proposed concept is demonstrated via a computational fluid dynamic study of heat and mass transfer in the system over a range of Rayleigh, Lewis, Prandtl, and buoyancy ratio numbers expected in practice.

Quinnell, J. A.; Davidson, J. H.; Burch, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Indoor Humidity Analysis of an Integrated Radiant Cooling and Desiccant Ventilation System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiant cooling is credited with improving energy efficiency and enhancing the comfort level as an alternative method of space cooling in mild and dry climates, according to recent research. Since radiant cooling panels lack the capability to remove latent heat, they normally are used in conjunction with an independent ventilation system, which is capable of decoupling the space sensible and latent loads. Condensation concerns limit the application of radiant cooling. This paper studies the dehumidification processes of solid desiccant systems and investigates the factors that affect the humidity levels of a radiantly cooled space. Hourly indoor humidity is simulated at eight different operating conditions in a radiantly cooled test-bed office. The simulation results show that infiltration and ventilation flow rates are the main factors affecting indoor humidity level and energy consumption in a radiantly cooled space with relatively constant occupancy. It is found that condensation is hard to control in a leaky office operated with the required ventilation rate. Slightly pressurizing the space is recommended for radiant cooling. The energy consumption simulation shows that a passive desiccant wheel can recover about 50% of the ventilation load.

Gong, X.; Claridge, D. E.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization...

226

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

SciTech Connect

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, and liquid water path. The instrument consists of photodiode sensors positioned beneath two narrow metal bands that occult the sun by moving alternately from horizon to horizon. Measurements from the narrowband 415-nm channel were used to demonstrate a retrieval of the cloud properties of interest. With the proven operation of the relatively inexpensive TCRSR instrument, its usefulness for retrieving aerosol properties under cloud-free skies and for ship-based observations is discussed.

Bartholomew M. J.; Reynolds, R. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Min, Q.; Edwards, R.; Smith, S.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Experimental studies of heat and mass exchange in parallel-passage rotary desiccant dehumidifiers for solar cooling applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents results of work done to experimentally characterize the performance of rotary desiccant dehumidifiers and to develop and validate analytical methods for evaluating their performance in air-conditioning systems. A facility, the Cyclic Test Facility, and a test-and-analysis procedure were developed to evaluate the performance of the rotary dehumidifiers. Experiments were performed to develop a basic understanding of the simultaneous heat- and mass-transfer processes in the dehumidifiers. Two test articles were tested under cyclic operation to characterize their performance. Detailed accounts of the Cyclic Test Facility, its hardware and instrumentation, the two test articles, and data reduction and analysis methods are provided. The data provide an engineering data base for evaluating rotary desiccant dehumidifiers for cooling applications. 46 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

Bharathan, D.; Parsons, J.M.; Maclaine-cross, I.L.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Performance of a glazed open flow liquid desiccant solar collector for both summer cooling and winter heating: Final report  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report documents the work performed under DOE Contract ACO3-82SF11658, entitled, ''A Research Study to Determine the Heat and Mass Transfer Characteristics of an Open Flow Solar Collector for Both Summer Cooling and Winter Heating.'' Data and computer simulation results are shown for a glazed, open flow collector used for reconcentrating a lithium chloride solution and for thermal energy collection. A comparison of the glazed collector with an unglazed collector from a previous study is also presented.

McCormick, P.O.; Brown, S.R.; Tucker, S.P.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

[en] ANALYSIS OF CHARACTERISTICS AND PERFORMANCE OF PARALLEL-PLATE SOLAR REGENERATOR FOR LIQUID DESICCANT IN AIR CONDITIONING.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??[pt] A determinação dos coeficientes convectivos de troca de massa em regeneração (retirada de água) de desumidificante líquido (trietileno glicol), para posterior utilização em condicionamento… (more)

DAVID ZYLBERSZTAJN

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Design of a Multithreaded Barnes-Hut Algorithm for Multicore Clusters Technical Report Junchao Zhang and Babak Behzad Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign {jczhang, bbehza2}@illinois.edu Marc Snir Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and MCS Division, Argonne National Laboratory snir@anl.gov Abstract We describe in this paper an implementation of the Barnes-Hut al- gorithm on multicore clusters. Based on a partitioned global ad- dress space (PGAS) library, the design integrates intranode mul- tithreading and internode one-sided communication, exemplifying a PGAS + X programming style. Within a node, the computation is decomposed into tasks (subtasks), and multitasking is used to hide network latency. We study the tradeoffs between locality in private caches and locality in shared caches

231

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid-liquid extraction is the separation of one or more components of a liquid solution by contact with a second immiscible liquid called the solvent. If the components in the original liquid solution distribute themselves differently between the two liquid phases, separation will result. This is the principle upon which separation by liquid-liquid extraction is based, and there are a number of important applications of this concept in industrial processes. This paper will review the basic concepts and applications as well as present future directions for the liquid-liquid extraction process.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Energy manager design for microgrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

equipment, absorption and adsorption cooling, desiccantabsorption chillers and desiccant dehumidifiers that use heat to reduce electrical cooling

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Liquid metal thermal electric converter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

Abbin, Joseph P. (Albuquerque, NM); Andraka, Charles E. (Albuquerque, NM); Lukens, Laurance L. (Albuquerque, NM); Moreno, James B. (Albuquerque, NM)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Design and economics of a lignite-to-SNG (substitute natural gas) facility using Lurgi gasifiers with in-line conversion of by-product liquids to methane. Topical report (Final), December 1985-November 1986  

SciTech Connect

A first-pass conceptual design and screening cost estimate was prepared for a hypothetical plant to convert lignite to methane using Lurgi dry-bottom gasifiers and employing a black box reactor to convert by-product liquids in the gas phase to methane. Results were compared to those from conventional and modified Lurgi-plant designs. The in-line conversion plant can potentially reduce the cost of gas from a Lurgi plant by about 20%. Due to reduced capital investment, over $200 million could be invested in the reactor before the cost of gas from the in-line conversion plant is as high as that of a Lurgi plant.

Smelser, S.C.

1986-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

None

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Analysis of the adsorption process and of desiccant cooling systems: a pseudo- steady-state model for coupled heat and mass transfer. [DESSIM, DESSIM2, DESSIM4  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A computer model to simulate the adiabatic adsorption/desorption process is documented. Developed to predict the performance of desiccant cooling systems, the model has been validated through comparison with experimental data for single-blow adsorption and desorption. A literature review on adsorption analysis, detailed discussions of the adsorption process, and an initial assessment of the potential for performance improvement through advanced component development are included.

Barlow, R.S.

1982-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

liquefies them. Cryogenic liquids are kept in the liquid state at very low temperatures. Cryogenic liquids are liquid nitrogen, liquid argon and liquid helium. The different cryogens become liquids under different. In addition, when they vaporize the liquids expand to enormous volumes. For example, liquid nitrogen

238

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen Previous Video (Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Pennies) Shattering Pennies Liquid Nitrogen Cooled...

239

A new Diffractometer for Studies of Liquid-Liquid Interfaces  

SciTech Connect

We have designed a novel, dedicated diffractometer for surface x-ray scattering studies of liquid-liquid and liquid-gas interfaces for the PETRA III High Resolution Diffraction Beamline. Using a double crystal beam-tilter in Bragg geometry this new instrument enables reflectivity and grazing incidence diffraction investigations without moving the sample, which is mechanically decoupled from the rest of the diffractometer. This design minimizes external excitation of surface vibrations, a key prerequisite for studies of liquid interfaces. The instrument operates over the energy range 6.4 keV to 30 keV, the higher energy range being optimal for penetration through liquid sample environments. Vertical momentum transfer up to q{sub z} 2.5 A{sup -1} and lateral q{sub ||} up to 4 A{sup -1}will be available.

Murphy, B. M.; Greve, M.; Runge, B.; Koops, C. T.; Elsen, A.; Stettner, J.; Magnussen, O. M. [IEAP, Christian-Albrechts-Universitaet zu Kiel, D-24098 Kiel (Germany); Seeck, O. H. [PETRA III at DESY, Notkestr. 85, D-22603 Hamburg (Germany)

2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

240

Cromer Cycle Air Conditioner: A Unique Air-Conditioner Desiccant Cycle to Enhance Dehumidification and Save Energy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Cromer cycle uses a desiccant to move moisture from the saturated air leaving an air conditioning (AC) cooling coil to the air returning to the AC unit from the conditioned space. This has the thermodynamic effect of reducing the overall energy consumption of the AC unit and also has the side benefit of dramatically increasing the moisture removal capacity of the AC coil. Simulations, engineering analysis and laboratory tests have confirmed the technical feasibility of the thermodynamics of the cycle. This work reports on a test at ARI conditions (95 deg. F outside, 80 deg F, 51% RH inside). The test unit (10 year old, 5 ton Bryant Air Conditioner) without the Cromer cycle, averaged an EER of 7.93 at a latent ratio of 26.2 % (SHR = 0.738). With the Cromer cycle added, the same unit averaged a total cooling EER of 11.82 with a water removal latent ratio of 53.4% (SHR= 0.466). The measured 16.4% reduction in energy use and 47.9 improvement in EER is significant for the tests at the 95% confidence level. This technology represents a major improvement in energy performance for the control of humidity conditions.

Cromer, C. J.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Liquid ventilation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For 350 million years, fish have breathed liquid through gills. Mammals evolved lungs to breathe air. Rarely, circumstances can occur when a mammal needs to `turn back the clock' to breathe through a special liquid medium. This is particularly true if surface tension at the air-liquid interface of the lung is increased, as in acute lung injury. In this condition, surface tension increases because the pulmonary surfactant system is damaged, causing alveolar collapse, atelectasis, increased right-to-left shunt and hypoxaemia. 69 The aims of treatment are: (i) to offset increased forces causing lung collapse by applying mechanical ventilation with PEEP; (ii) to decrease alveolar surface tension with exogenous surfactant; (iii) to eliminate the air-liquid interface by filling the lung with a fluid in

U. Kaisers; K. P. Kelly; T. Busch

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Design of a Shadowband Spectral Radiometer for the Retrieval of Thin Cloud Optical Depth, Liquid Water Path, and the Effective Radius  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The design and operation of a Thin-Cloud Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (TCRSR) described here was used to measure the radiative intensity of the solar aureole and enable the simultaneous retrieval of cloud optical depth, drop effective radius, ...

M. J. Bartholomew; R. M. Reynolds; A. M. Vogelmann; Q. Min; R. Edwards; S. Smith

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Radiation-induced changes in the cuticular hydrocarbons of the granary weevil and their relationship to desiccation and adult mortality  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Radiation from the nuclear waste products, such as Cesium-137, offers a scope and could be used for large scale disinfestation of grain. It is known that 0.15 to 0.20 kGy dose of gamma radiation is sufficient to kill insects in grain and grain products. However, the mode of action (in terms of lethal effects) is not understood. The purpose of this project, therefore, is to study the ways in which gamma radiation causes death in the granary weevil. Sitophilus granarius (L.) is a major and cosmopolitan pest of stored grain all over the world. Radiation damage, in particular the specific effects on the physiology of the insects exposed to radiation has been elucidated. In stored grain insects, conservation of water is a critical factor for their survival. Epicuticular hydrocarbons play an important role in water proofing. The laboratory rearing of the granary weevil was standardized so that large numbers of weevils of known ages could be produced for experimentation. Stock cultures were maintained at 27 {plus minus} 2{degree}C and 65 {plus minus} 5% R.H. Tests with various age groups (adults) and different doses of gamma radiation indicate that lethal effects are both age and dose related. Younger weevils, in general, survive for a longer period after irradiation compared to older weevils. Complete mortality results within about two weeks after exposure to gamma radiation at dose of 0.15 kGy or above. Data on wet and dry weights of the weevils kept at different (low, medium and higher) levels of humidity after irradiation indicate that gamma radiation induces greater water loss leading to desiccation and early death. Low humidity environment (17% R.H.) greatly accelerates lethal effects.

Sriharan, S. (Selma Univ., AL (USA). Div. of Natural and Applied Sciences)

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of primary energy saving than conventional systems fed by vapour compression chillers and coupled with PV cells. All SAC systems present good figures for primary energy consumption. The best performances are seen in systems with integrated heat pumps and small solar collector areas. The economics of these SAC systems at current equipment costs and energy prices are acceptable. They become more interesting in the case of public incentives of up to 30% of the investment cost (Simple Payback Time from 5 to 10 years) and doubled energy prices. (author)

Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina [Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Palermo (Italy)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

America's Next Top Energy Innovator Challenge | Department of...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way...

246

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way...

247

Umpqua Energy, Inc. | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way...

248

Wear reduction systems liquid piston ring  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of the program was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of achieving an acceptable wear rate for the cylinder liner, piston, and piston rings in a coal/water-slurry-fueled engine that utilized the concept of a liquid piston ring above the conventional piston rings and to identify technical barriers and required research and development. The study included analytical modeling of the system, a bench study of the fluid motion in the liquid piston ring, and a single-cylinder test rig for wear comparison. A system analysis made on the different variations of the liquid supply system showed the desirability of the once-through version from the standpoint of system simplicity. The dynamics of the liquid ring were modeled to determine the important design parameters that influence the pressure fluctuation in the liquid ring during a complete engine cycle and the integrity of the liquid ring. This analysis indicated the importance of controlling heat transfer to the liquid ring through piston and liner to avoid boiling the liquid. A conceptual piston design for minimizing heat transfer is presented in this report. Results showed that the liquid piston ring effectively reduced the solid particles on the wall by scrubbing, especially in the case where a surfactant was added to the water. The wear rates were reduced by a factor of 2 with the liquid ring. However, leakage of the contaminated liquid ring material past the top ring limited the effectiveness of the liquid ring concept. 8 refs., 33 figs., 1 tab.

Raymond, R.J.; Chen, T.N.; DiNanno, L.

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? With its all-liquid design, this battery is much more efficient than today's rechargeable batteries, which use 80-90% of the space to hold

251

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Liquid electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

Ekechukwu, A.A.

1994-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

253

Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Liquid convective diodes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid convective diodes are analyzed by experiments and theory. The experiments include flow visualization and temperature measurements. The dynamic behavior of a diode is analyzed and explained. Performance of three diodes of different designs that were installed in a test cell this past winter showed an average 50% thermal efficiency over a three-month period. If only the performance of the most efficient diode among the three is considered, it is expected that this figure may be increased to 60% or possibly 65% with some design improvements. A simple analytical model, which was developed earlier, is discussed. A comparison of reservoir temperatures from one of the test cell diodes with predicted temperatures from the model showed excellent agreement. The good agreement indicates that the model contains the elements that are necessary to accurately predict site-specific diode performance.

Jones, G.F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

The Fundamentals of Gas Bubbling into Liquid Metals  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, The Fundamentals of Gas Bubbling into Liquid Metals ... Engineering and Human Resource Development: Design as a Common Language ... Tundish Process Performance Improvement: Some Indian Case Studies.

256

Glossary Term - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Lepton Previous Term (Lepton) Glossary Main Index Next Term (Mercury) Mercury Liquid Nitrogen Liquid nitrogen boils in a frying pan on a desk. The liquid state of the element...

257

Liquid foams of graphene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Ice Cream If you have access to liquid nitrogen and the proper safety equipment and training, try this in place of your normal cryogenics demonstration Download...

259

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Oxygen vs. Liquid Nitrogen - Liquid Oxygen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Paramagnetism) Paramagnetism Liquid Oxygen and Fire! What happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: And this is a test tube of liquid nitrogen! Steve: And this is a test tube of liquid oxygen! Joanna: Let's see what happens when nitrogen and oxygen are exposed to fire. Steve: Fire?! Joanna: Yeah! Steve: Really?! Joanna: Why not! Steve: Okay! Joanna: As nitrogen boils, it changes into nitrogen gas. Because it's so cold, it's denser than the air in the room. The test tube fills up with

260

Petroleum fuel facilities. design manual 22. Final design criteria  

SciTech Connect

Design criteria are presented for use by qualified engineers in designing liquid fueling and dispensing facilities. Included are basic requirements for the design of piping systems, pumps, heaters, and controls; the design of receiving, dispensing, and storage facilities; ballast treatment and sludge removal; corrosion and fire protection; and environmental requirements.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Vapor--liquid equilibria of nitrogen, methane, ethane, and propane binary mixtures at LNG temperatures from total pressure measurements. [For use in design of equipment for storage and handling of LNG  

SciTech Connect

Vapor-liquid equilibrium data have been measured on four binary mixtures relative to the calculation of phase equilibria at temperatures of liquid natural gas. Measurements at -260/sup 0/F were made by a total pressure method for mixtures of nitrogen-methane, nitrogen-ethane, methane-ethane, and methane-propane. Interaction coefficients were derived for the P-V-T, Inc. Mark V computer program. Good agreement is found with literature data where comparisons can be made.

Wilson, G.M.

1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Design of the VLPC Cryostats  

SciTech Connect

A short profile (40 cm), long length (2.50 m) rectangular helium cryostat has been designed, built and tested for maintaining electronic chips at a stable 9.0 Kelvin temperature. Heat load, and thermal stresses were major design considerations. The distance from room temperature to liquid nitrogen intercept temperature is only 8 centimeters. Liquid nitrogen temperature to liquid helium temperature occurs in 13 centimeters. An alloy known as Invar, 36% Nickel, balance Iron, was used to fabricate the vessel walls and liquid nitrogen heat intercept tubing because of it's low coefficient of thermal expansion. The cryostat accepts fifty-one, 3.5 cm x 42.5 cm devices that extend 26.7 cm into the cryostat. Tight clearance fits to the liquid nitrogen and liquid helium intercepts are maintained. Gaseous helium is used within the cryostat for heat transfer.

Rucinski, Russell A.

2001-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

264

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

266

Seismic Design of Reinforced Concrete Mat Foundations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... While the temporary stability and support of the ... aggregate with liquid nitrogen or embedding pipes to circulate ... “LRFD bridge design specifications ...

2012-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

267

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

5. Natural Gas Liquids Statistics Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves U.S. natural gas liquids proved reserves decreased 7 percent to 7,459 million ...

268

Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

Ishimoto, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Liquid cooling for 3D-ICs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper investigated micro-channel based liquid cooling in 3D-ICs. Specifically, the structure of 3D-IC with micro-channels, and its thermal/hydrodynamic modeling are studied. Also, the design challenges of micro-channel heat sinks in 3D-IC are summarized. Keywords: microchannel heat sink, liquid cooling, 3D-IC, thermal modeling, hydrodynamic modeling

Bing Shi; Ankur Srivastava

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Arabidopsis AtSerpin1, Crystal Structure and in Vivo Interaction with Its Target Protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In animals, protease inhibitors of the serpin family are associated with many physiological processes, including blood coagulation and innate immunity. Serpins feature a reactive center loop (RCL), which displays a protease target sequence as a bait. RCL cleavage results in an irreversible, covalent serpin-protease complex. AtSerpin1 is an Arabidopsis protease inhibitor that is expressed ubiquitously throughout the plant. The x-ray crystal structure of recombinant AtSerpin1 in its native stressed conformation was determined at 2.2 {angstrom}. The electrostatic surface potential below the RCL was found to be highly positive, whereas the breach region critical for RCL insertion is an unusually open structure. AtSerpin1 accumulates in plants as a full-length and a cleaved form. Fractionation of seedling extracts by nonreducing SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of an additional slower migrating complex that was absent when leaves were treated with the specific cysteine protease inhibitor l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido (4-guanidino)butane. Significantly, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21) was the major protease labeled with the l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido (4-guanidino)butane derivative DCG-04 in wild type extracts but not in extracts of mutant plants constitutively overexpressing AtSerpin1, indicating competition. Fractionation by nonreducing SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with RD21-specific antibody revealed that the protease accumulated both as a free enzyme and in a complex with AtSerpin1. Importantly, both RD21 and AtSerpin1 knock-out mutants lacked the serpin-protease complex. The results establish that the major Arabidopsis plant serpin interacts with RD21. This is the first report of the structure and in vivo interaction of a plant serpin with its target protease.

Lampl, Nardy; Budai-Hadrian, Ofra; Davydov, Olga; Joss, Tom V.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Curmi, Paul M.G.; Roberts, Thomas H.; Fluhr, Robert (WIS-I); (Macquarie); (New South)

2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

271

REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

Unknown

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

273

Gas scrubbing liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Liquid level detection  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses a method. It is for detecting presence of a liquid level at a first predetermined point along the depth of a borehole.

Fryer, C.D.; Stie, K.E.; Wedel, M.W.; Stamper, K.R.

1990-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

275

RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

Batzer, T.H.

1962-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

276

Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

None

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Current status of the liquid lithium target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

cycle Flexible tubes Oil pump Heat exchanger Oil chamber Inside the lab Outside the lab #12;Elect irradiations), Internal Report DSM/DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay (Dec 2003) 10 #12;Liquid lithium loop EM pump loop Water direction #12;15 Be Trap Heat Exchanger Cross Section Design to remove ~12 kW Lithium tank #12;Oil

McDonald, Kirk

278

Aging of SRC liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The viscosity of SRC?LL liquid increases when subjected to accelerated aging by bubbling oxygen in the presence of copper strip at 62°C. Precipitates are formed and can be separated from the aged liquid by Soxhlet extraction with pentane. A 30?70 blend of SRC?I with SRC?LL was subjected to oxygen aging in the absence of copper

T. Hara; L. Jones; K. C. Tewari; N. C. Li

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

INEEL Liquid Effluent Inventory  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The INEEL contractors and their associated facilities are required to identify all liquid effluent discharges that may impact the environment at the INEEL. This liquid effluent information is then placed in the Liquid Effluent Inventory (LEI) database, which is maintained by the INEEL prime contractor. The purpose of the LEI is to identify and maintain a current listing of all liquid effluent discharge points and to identify which discharges are subject to federal, state, or local permitting or reporting requirements and DOE order requirements. Initial characterization, which represents most of the INEEL liquid effluents, has been performed, and additional characterization may be required in the future to meet regulations. LEI information is made available to persons responsible for or concerned with INEEL compliance with liquid effluent permitting or reporting requirements, such as the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System, Wastewater Land Application, Storm Water Pollution Prevention, Spill Prevention Control and Countermeasures, and Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment. The State of Idaho Environmental Oversight and Monitoring Program also needs the information for tracking liquid effluent discharges at the INEEL. The information provides a baseline from which future liquid discharges can be identified, characterized, and regulated, if appropriate. The review covered new and removed buildings/structures, buildings/structures which most likely had new, relocated, or removed LEI discharge points, and at least 10% of the remaining discharge points.

Major, C.A.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Synthesis of ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Radioactive Liquid Processing Guidelines  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report presents guidance for utility liquid radwaste processing program managers. The document is a summation of utility and vendor processing experience, and is intended for use as a tool to enhance liquid radwaste processing programs. Utilization of this information will result in optimized system performance, and a reduction in waste volumes and program costs.

2005-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

282

Liquid heat capacity lasers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Ultrafast photo-acoustic spectroscopy of super-cooled liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Picosecond laser ultrasonic techniques for acoustic wave generation and detection were adapted to probe longitudinal and transverse acoustic waves in liquids at gigahertz frequencies. The experimental effort was designed ...

Klieber, Christoph

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Icing Wind Tunnel Tests on the CSIRO Liquid Water Probe  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wet wind tunnel tests have been Performed on several versions of the CSIRO probe designed for the airborne measurement of liquid water content. Four different controller units and 17 different Probe sensors (including half-size and shielded ...

W. D. King; J. E. Dye; D. Baumgardner; J. W. Strapp; D. Huffman

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Reading Comprehension - Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Nitrogen Liquid Nitrogen Nitrogen is the most common substance in Earth's _________ crust oceans atmosphere trees . In the Earth's atmosphere, nitrogen is a gas. The particles of a gas move very quickly. They run around and bounce into everyone and everything. The hotter a gas is, the _________ slower faster hotter colder the particles move. When a gas is _________ cooled warmed heated compressed , its particles slow down. If a gas is cooled enough, it can change from a gas to a liquid. For nitrogen, this happens at a very _________ strange warm low high temperature. If you want to change nitrogen from a gas to a liquid, you have to bring its temperature down to 77 Kelvin. That's 321 degrees below zero _________ Kelvin Celsius Centigrade Fahrenheit ! Liquid nitrogen looks like water, but it acts very differently. It

286

Liquid Fuels Market Module  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Liquid Fuels Market Module Liquid Fuels Market Module This page inTenTionally lefT blank 145 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 Liquid Fuels Market Module The NEMS Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) projects petroleum product prices and sources of supply for meeting petroleum product demand. The sources of supply include crude oil (both domestic and imported), petroleum product imports, unfinished oil imports, other refinery inputs (including alcohols, ethers, esters, corn, biomass, and coal), natural gas plant liquids production, and refinery processing gain. In addition, the LFMM projects capacity expansion and fuel consumption at domestic refineries. The LFMM contains a linear programming (LP) representation of U.S. petroleum refining

287

Hydrotreating of coal-derived liquids  

SciTech Connect

The objective of Sandia`s refining of coal-derived liquids project is to determine the relationship between hydrotreating conditions and Product characteristics. The coal-derived liquids used in this work were produced In HTI`s first proof-of-concept run using Illinois No. 8 coal. Samples of the whole coal liquid product, distillate fractions of this liquid, and Criterion HDN-60 catalyst were obtained from Southwest Research Inc. Hydrotreating experiments were performed using a continuous operation, unattended, microflow reactor system. A factorial experimental design with three variables (temperature, (310{degrees}C to 388{degrees}C), liquid hourly space velocity (1 to 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat)), pressure (500 to 1000 psig H{sub 2}) is being used in this project. Sulfur and nitrogen contents of the hydrotreated products were monitored during the hydrotreating experiments to ensure that activity was lined out at each set of reaction conditions. Results of hydrotreating the whole coal liquid showed that nitrogen values in the products ranged from 549 ppM at 320{degrees}C, 3 g/h/cm{sup 3}(cat), 500 psig H{sub 2} to <15 ppM at 400{degrees}C, 1 g/h/ cm{sup 3}(cat), 1000 psig H{sub 2}.

Stohl, F.V.; Lott, S.E.; Diegert, K.V.; Goodnow, D.C.; Oelfke, J.B.

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Liquid sampling system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

Larson, L.L.

1984-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

290

Liquid Cryogen Absorber for MICE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connected to the cooler and condenser through a liquid feedmixed with liquid) to a condenser attached to the coolervacuum failure. Tube to Condenser Magnet Coil Magnet Mandrel

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Energy Recovery By Direct Contact Gas-Liquid Heat Exchange  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy from hot gas discharge streams can be recovered by transfer directly to a coolant liquid in one of several available gas-liquid contacting devices. The design of the device is central to the theme of this paper, and experimental work has verified that the analogy between heat transfer and mass transfer can be used for design purposes. This enables the large amount of available mass transfer data for spray, packed and tray columns to be used for heat transfer calculations. Additional information is provided on flow arrangements for integrating direct contact exchangers into systems for recovering the energy transferred to the liquid.

Fair, J. R.; Bravo, J. L.

1988-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Safety Aspects of the E158 Liquid Hydrogen Target System  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The E158 experiment, currently underway at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) scatters a high power 45 GeV polarized electron beam off a large liquid hydrogen target. The total volume of liquid hydrogen in the target is 55 liters, which, if detonated, could produce an explosive yield corresponding to more than 10 kg of TNT. This paper describes the requirements, design and performance of the E158 hydrogen target safety system. The methodology of the design and the safety review process is also described. The experience with the E158 target may be valuable for other sizable liquid hydrogen target systems.

Weisend, John G.

2002-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

293

The Bevatron liquid nitrogen circulation system  

SciTech Connect

A nitrogen liquefier and computer controlled valving system have been added to the Bevatron cryoliner vacuum system to cut operating costs by reducing liquid nitrogen consumption. The computer and interface electronic systems, which control the temperatures of twenty-eight liquid nitrogen circuits, have been chosen and designed to operate in the Bevatron's pulsating magnetic field. The nitrogen exhaust is routed back to a liquefier, of about five kilowatt capacity, liquefied, and rerouted through the cooling circuits. A description of the system and operating results are presented.

Hunt, D.; Stover, G.

1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Rayleigh Scattering in Rare Gas Liquids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Rayleigh scattering length has been calculated for rare-gas liquids in the ultraviolet for the frequencies at which they luminesce. The calculations are based on the measured dielectric constants in the gas phase, except in the case of xenon for which measurements are available in the liquid. The scattering length mayplace constraints on the design of some large-scale detectors, using uv luminescence, being proposed to observe solar neutrinos and dark matter. Rayleigh scattering in mixtures of rare-gas mixtures is also discussed.

G. M. Seidel; R. E. Lanou; W. Yao

2001-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

295

Electrically Deformable Liquid Marbles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid marbles, which are droplets coated with a hydrophobic powder, were exposed to a uniform electric field. It was established that a threshold value of the electric field, 15 cgse, should be surmounted for deformation of liquid marbles. The shape of the marbles was described as a prolate spheroid. The semi-quantitative theory describing deformation of liquid marbles in a uniform electric field is presented. The scaling law relating the radius of the contact area of the marble to the applied electric field shows a satisfactory agreement with the experimental data.

Edward Bormashenko; Roman Pogreb; Tamir Stein; Gene Whyman; Marcelo Schiffer; Doron Aurbach

2011-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

296

Liquid metal electric pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

1992-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

297

Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas  

SciTech Connect

A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

298

Liquid level controller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

1975-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

299

Liquidity facilities and signaling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

Arregui, Nicolás

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Nonconventional Liquid Fuels  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the AEO2006 projections.

Information Center

2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Natural-gas liquids  

SciTech Connect

Casinghead gasoline or natural gasoline, now more suitably known as natural-gas liquids (NGL), was a nuisance when first found, but was developed into a major and profitable commodity. This part of the petroleum industry began at about the turn of the century, and more than 60 yr later the petroleum industry recovers approx. one million bbl of natural-gas liquids a day from 30 billion cu ft of natural gas processed in more than 600 gasoline plants. Although casinghead gasoline first was used for automobile fuel, natural-gas liquids now are used for fuel, industrial solvents, aviation blending stock, synthetic rubber, and many other petrochemical uses. Production from the individual plants is shipped by tank car, tank truck, pipeline, and tankers all over the world. Most of the natural-gas liquids come from wet natural gas which contains a considerable quantity of vapor, ranging from 0.5 to 6 gal/Mcf, and some particularly rich gases contain even more which can be liquefied. Nonassociated gas is generally clean, with a comparatively small quantity of gasoline, 0.1 to 0.5 gas/Mcf. The natural-gas liquids branch of the industry is build around the condensation of vapors in natural gas. Natural-gas liquids are processed either by the compression method or by adsorption processes.

Blackstock, W.B.; McCullough, G.W.; McCutchan, R.C.

1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

Dwyer, O.E.

1958-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

303

Liquid Hydrogen Target Experience at SLAC  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Liquid hydrogen targets have played a vital role in the physics program at SLAC for the past 40 years. These targets have ranged from small ''beer can'' targets to the 1.5 m long E158 target that was capable of absorbing up to 800 W without any significant density changes. Successful use of these targets has required the development of thin wall designs, liquid hydrogen pumps, remote positioning and alignment systems, safety systems, control and data acquisition systems, cryogenic cooling circuits and heat exchangers. Detailed operating procedures have been created to ensure safety and operational reliability. This paper surveys the evolution of liquid hydrogen targets at SLAC and discusses advances in several of the enabling technologies that made these targets possible.

Weisend, J.G.; Boyce, R.; Candia, A.; Kaminskas, W.; Mark, J.; Racine, M.; St. Lorant, S.; Weber, T.; /SLAC; Arnold, R.; Bosted, P.; /Massachusetts U., Amherst; Carr, R.; Gao, J.; Jones, C.E.; McKeown, R.; /Caltech

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

304

High-Temperature-Turbine Technology Program: Phase II. Technology test and support studies. Design and development of the liquid-fueled high-temperature combustor for the Turbine Spool Technology Rig  

SciTech Connect

The concept selected by Curtiss-Wright for this DOE sponsored High Temperature Turbine Technology (HTTT) Program utilizes transpiration air-cooling of the turbine subsystem airfoils. With moderate quantities of cooling air, this method of cooling has been demonstrated to be effective in a 2600 to 3000/sup 0/F gas stream. Test results show that transpiration air-cooling also protects turbine components from the aggressive environment produced by the combustion of coal-derived fuels. A new single-stage, high work transpiration air-cooled turbine has been designed and fabricated for evaluation in a rotating test vehicle designated the Turbine Spool Technology Rig (TSTR). The design and development of the annular combustor for the TSTR are described. Some pertinent design characteristics of the combustor are: fuel, Jet A; inlet temperature, 525/sup 0/F; inlet pressure, 7.5 Atm; temperature rise, 2475/sup 0/F; efficiency, 98.5%; exit temperature pattern, 0.25; and exit mass flow, 92.7 pps. The development program was conducted on a 60/sup 0/ sector of the full-round annular combustor. Most design goals were achieved, with the exception of the peak gas exit temperature and local metal temperatures at the rear of the inner liner, both of which were higher than the design values. Subsequent turbine vane cascade testing established the need to reduce both the peak gas temperature (for optimum vane cooling) and the inner liner metal temperature (for combustor durability). Further development of the 60/sup 0/ combustor sector achieved the required temperature reductions and the final configuration was incorporated in the TSTR full-annular burner.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Performance Evaluation of Advanced LLW Liquid Processing Technology: Boiling Water Reactor Liquid Processing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides condensed information on boiling water reactor (BWR) membrane based liquid radwaste processing systems. The report presents specific details of the technology, including design, configuration, and performance. This information provides nuclear plant personnel with data useful in evaluating the merits of applying advanced processes at their plant.

2001-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

306

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

Haaland, Carsten M. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Dry Ice vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse! Previous Video (Egg + Liquid Nitrogen + Time-lapse!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water!) Liquid Nitrogen Cooled Dry Ice in Water! Dry Ice vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Dry ice is cold. Liquid nitrogen is cold, too. What happens when the two are mixed together? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Have you ever wondered what happens when you mix dry ice and liquid nitrogen? Steve: Well, we just happen to have a chunk of dry ice left over from when we filmed 'How to Make a Cloud Chamber,' and here at Jefferson Lab, liquid nitrogen flows like water, so we're going to find out!

309

NREL: Technology Transfer - NREL's Industry Growth Forum  

... to 7AC Technologies, Inc., a Massachusetts company that is commercializing a novel membrane-based liquid desiccant HVAC system.

310

Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility: Environmental Information Document  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is an integral function of the LANL mission: to assure U.S. military deterrence capability through nuclear weapons technology. As part of this mission, LANL conducts nuclear materials research and development (R&D) activities. These activities generate radioactive liquid waste that must be handled in a manner to ensure protection of workers, the public, and the environment. Radioactive liquid waste currently generated at LANL is treated at the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF), located at Technical Area (TA)-50. The RLWTF is 30 years old and nearing the end of its useful design life. The facility was designed at a time when environmental requirements, as well as more effective treatment technologies, were not inherent in engineering design criteria. The evolution of engineering design criteria has resulted in the older technology becoming less effective in treating radioactive liquid wastestreams in accordance with current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) and Department of Energy (DOE) regulatory requirements. Therefore, to support ongoing R&D programs pertinent to its mission, LANL is in need of capabilities to efficiently treat radioactive liquid waste onsite or to transport the waste off site for treatment and/or disposal. The purpose of the EID is to provide the technical baseline information for subsequent preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the RLWTF. This EID addresses the proposed action and alternatives for meeting the purpose and need for agency action.

Haagenstad, H.T.; Gonzales, G.; Suazo, I.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Performance characteristics of open-flow liquid desiccant solar collector/regenerator for solar cooling applications. Part I: two dimensional analysis of heat and mass transfer for open flow over rough inclined surfaces  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This work presents an analytical approach to simulate the combined heat and mass transfer on the interface between wetted collector surface and ambient air. Emphasis was placed on the development of a mathematical model of turbulent natural convection on an inclined rough plate. The effect of surface velocity is also considered. The systems of partial differential equations governing fluid motion, heat and mass transfer along an inclined flat plate were formulated in terms of vorticity transport and stream function equations. One-equation model of turbulence was used to compute the turbulent viscosity. The length scale used in this model was expressed algebraically in terms of the mixing length. A length scale modified function was derived to take into account the bouyancy effects on turbulence. The effect of surface roughness was taken into a account by introducing a characteristic roughness length. A computational technique was developed to solve the resulting elliptic partial differential equations. This technique involved an 'inflow-outflow' scheme to determine the free boundary conditions at the leading and trailing edges of the inclined plate. The validity of this computational technique was tested and confirmed by some testing problems. Among these are (1) laminar natural convection on an inclined isothermal plate (2) turbulent natural convection on a vertical isothermal plate and (3) turbulent natural convection on an inclined constant heat flux flat plate.

Not Available

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Meta-design: design for designers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One fundamental challenge for the design of the interactive systems of the future is to invent and design environments and cultures in which humans can express themselves and engage in personally meaningful activities. Unfortunately, a large number of ... Keywords: consumer and designer mindsets, designing “out of the box”, domain-oriented design environments, evolutionary growth, impact of new media on design, open evolvable systems, open source, reseeding model, seeding, underdesigned systems

Gerhard Fischer; Eric Scharff

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Woodmont Enterprises LLC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

314

Iowa Powder Atomization Technologies, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

315

Integrated Dynamic Electron Solutions, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

316

Element One, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

317

SynchroPET LLC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

318

Teknikem, A Division of RockinBoat LLC | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

319

Umpqua Energy, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

320

US e-Chromic | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

SH Coatings LP | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

322

Vorbeck Materials Corp. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

323

Page not found | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

41 - 2250 of 31,917 results. 41 - 2250 of 31,917 results. Page 7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. http://energy.gov/americas-next-top-energy-innovator/7ac-technologies-inc

324

TrakLok Corporation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

325

California Lithium Battery, Inc. | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

7AC Technologies, Inc. 7AC Technologies, Inc. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 498 likes 7AC Technologies, based in Woburn, Massachusetts, is developing Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems for Commercial and Industrial buildings using technology from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for drying and cooling the air and a heat-driven regenerator. The liquid desiccant design allows for the utilization of solar or waste heat sources, paving the way for net-zero energy retrofits to existing buildings with costs comparable to conventional HVAC. Learn More Borla Performance Industries, Inc. Oak Ridge National Laboratory

326

Intermolecular Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Dynamics, Interactions and Solvation in Ionic Liquids Edward W. Castner, Jr., James F. Wishart, and Hideaki Shirota Acc. Chem. Res. 40, 1217-1227 (2007). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Ionic liquids can simultaneously assume multiple solvent roles, because they are strongly polar and polarizable solvents and binary solutions and frequently contain very hydrophobic components. When the cation and anion functional groups are tuned appropriately, ionic liquids can be used as designer solvents for a broad range of applications. In this Account, we discuss our spectroscopic studies on the intermolecular interactions, dynamics, solvation, transport, and friction in ionic liquids, as compared with information obtained from macroscopic experiments including viscometry

327

The Feasibility Analysis of a New Air-Conditioning System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a new modular solar refrigeration and liquid desiccant air conditioning system composed by adsorption refrigeration system, liquid desiccant system and roof cold radiation. The feasibility and beneficial of this new system are analyzed ... Keywords: liquid desiccant, modular solar refrigeration, new air conditioning system, roof cold radiation, technical and economic feasibility analysis

Jinggang Wang; Meixia Du; Xiaoxia Gao; Jin Zhao; Zhenjiang Yin; Yi Man

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! Previous Video (Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Freeze the Rainbow! Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! What happens when the world's most beloved cryogenic liquid meets one of the most common household appliances? Find out when we try to microwave liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: A little while ago we received an email from Star of the Sea Catholic School in Virginia Beach, Virginia, asking what happens when you place liquid nitrogen in a microwave. Well, I just happen to have some liquid nitrogen! Steve: And I just happen to have a microwave!

329

Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development - Nuclear Engineering Division  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

> Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development > Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Capabilities Nuclear Systems Modeling and Design Analysis Reactor Physics and Fuel Cycle Analysis Nuclear Data Program Advanced Reactor Development Overview Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Generation IV Nuclear Waste Form and Repository Performance Modeling Nuclear Energy Systems Design and Development Other Capabilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Advanced Reactor Development and Technology Heavy Liquid Metal Reactor Development Bookmark and Share STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge STAR-LM: Simplified, Modular, Small Reactor Featuring Flow-thru Fuel Cartridge. Click on image to view larger image. Argonne has traditionally been the foremost institute in the US for

330

Positive design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article is focused on the changes needed in design to create positive solutions for all involved in design processes. It draws upon the rich discussion and discourse from a conference focused on positive design involving managers, designers, and ...

Jurgen Faust

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium amy accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRe computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities.

Jeppson, D.W.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Safety of liquid hydrogen in air transportation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Safety is an important consideration in the use of hydrogen in air transportation. The use of cryogenic hydrogen involves the hazards arising from low temperatures as well as those of combustibles. An understanding of safety-related properties and their consequences is necessary for safe design and operation. Here we discuss hydrogen properties and their effect upon airline operation. Several safety problems require additional experimental work before they can be sufficiently understood. To maintain the good safety record associated with the previous use of liquid hydrogen requires a continuing safety engineering effort including planning, design, construction of equipment, and continuous training of personnel.

Edeskuty, F.J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

ELECTRONS IN NONPOLAR LIQUIDS.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Excess electrons can be introduced into liquids by absorption of high energy radiation, by photoionization, or by photoinjection from metal surfaces. The electron's chemical and physical properties can then be measured, but this requires that the electrons remain free. That is, the liquid must be sufficiently free of electron attaching impurities for these studies. The drift mobility as well as other transport properties of the electron are discussed here as well as electron reactions, free-ion yields and energy levels, Ionization processes typically produce electrons with excess kinetic energy. In liquids during thermalization, where this excess energy is lost to bath molecules, the electrons travel some distance from their geminate positive ions. In general the electrons at this point are still within the coulombic field of their geminate ions and a large fraction of the electrons recombine. However, some electrons escape recombination and the yield that escapes to become free electrons and ions is termed G{sub fi}. Reported values of G{sub fi} for molecular liquids range from 0.05 to 1.1 per 100 eV of energy absorbed. The reasons for this 20-fold range of yields are discussed here.

HOLROYD,R.A.

2002-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Properties of Liquid Plutonium  

SciTech Connect

Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

Freibert, Franz J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mitchell, Jeremy N. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Schwartz, Daniel S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Saleh, Tarik A. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

335

Liquid metal hydrogen barriers  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Hydrogen barriers which comprise liquid metals in which the solubility of hydrogen is low and which have good thermal conductivities at operating temperatures of interest. Such barriers are useful in nuclear fuel elements containing a metal hydride moderator which has a substantial hydrogen dissociation pressure at reactor operating temperatures.

Grover, George M. (Los Alamos, NM); Frank, Thurman G. (Los Alamos, NM); Keddy, Edward S. (Los Alamos, NM)

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

A Xenon Condenser with a Remote Liquid Storage Vessel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the design and operation of a system for xenon liquefaction in which the condenser is separated from the liquid storage vessel. The condenser is cooled by a pulse tube cryocooler, while the vessel is cooled only by the liquid xenon itself. This arrangement facilitates liquid particle detector research by allowing easy access to the upper and lower flanges of the vessel. We find that an external xenon gas pump is useful for increasing the rate at which cooling power is delivered to the vessel, and we present measurements of the power and efficiency of the apparatus.

Slutsky, S; Breuer, H; Dobi, A; Hall, C; Langford, T; Leonard, D; Kaufman, L J; Strickland, V; Voskanian, N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

A Xenon Condenser with a Remote Liquid Storage Vessel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe the design and operation of a system for xenon liquefaction in which the condenser is separated from the liquid storage vessel. The condenser is cooled by a pulse tube cryocooler, while the vessel is cooled only by the liquid xenon itself. This arrangement facilitates liquid particle detector research by allowing easy access to the upper and lower flanges of the vessel. We find that an external xenon gas pump is useful for increasing the rate at which cooling power is delivered to the vessel, and we present measurements of the power and efficiency of the apparatus.

S. Slutsky; Y. -R. Yen; H. Breuer; A. Dobi; C. Hall; T. Langford; D. S. Leonard; L. J. Kaufman; V. Strickland; N. Voskanian

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

338

Energy Basics: Solar Liquid Heating  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EERE: Energy Basics Solar Liquid Heating Solar liquid heating systems use a collector with a heat transfer or "working" fluid such as water, antifreeze (usually non-toxic propylene...

339

Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

Chaiko; David J. (Naperville, IL)

2007-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

340

High temperature liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Freeze Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Pennies! Shattering Pennies! Previous Video (Shattering Pennies!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave!) Liquid Nitrogen in a Microwave! Let's Freeze Liquid Nitrogen! By removing the hottest molecules, we're able to freeze liquid nitrogen! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Today, we're going to freeze liquid nitrogen! Joanna and Steve: Yeah! Joanna: The obvious way to do this is to put the liquid nitrogen into something colder. Something that we have lots of around here! Something like... liquid helium! Steve: Yes! Joanna: Yeah, but we're not going to do that. Instead, we're going to freeze the nitrogen by removing the hottest molecules!

342

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Ion Distributions Near a Liquid-Liquid Interface Researchers from the University of Illinois at Chicago; Northern Illinois University; the University of California, Santa Cruz; and ChemMatCARS (sector 15 at the APS) used x-ray reflectivity from ion distributions at the liquid-liquid interface to provide strong evidence that the interfacial structure of a liquid alters the ion distributions near a charged interface, contrary to earlier theories about ions at charged surfaces. Coulomb's Law describes the interaction between two, otherwise isolated, point charges. If many charges are present in the region between these two charges, the net interaction between them is modified. This is commonly found in real systems, such as a plasma gas of electrons and ionized

343

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freeze the Rainbow! Freeze the Rainbow! Previous Video (Freeze the Rainbow!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!) Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze! What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol? [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: What happens when the freezing power of liquid nitrogen... Steve: ...meets the antifreezing power of ethylene glycol! Joanna: While a mix of 70 percent ethylene glycol and 30 percent water doesn't freeze until 60 degrees below zero, it's still no match for liquid nitrogen. At 321 degrees below zero, liquid nitrogen easily freezes

344

Liquid Metal Processing and Casting 2013  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Ceramic, Slag and Refractory Reactions with Liquid Metals - Refining, Evaporation and Gas/Metal Reactions - Fundamentals of Reactions involving Liquid ...

345

Available Technologies: Sugar Extraction and Ionic Liquid ...  

APPLICATIONS OF TECHNOLOGY: Biomass pretreatment for biofuel production; Recovery of products using biphasic liquid-liquid extraction; Recovery and ...

346

Liquid fossil fuel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Progress reports are presented under the following headings: (1) extraction (technology assessment, oil research, gas research); (2) liquid processing (characterization, thermodynamics, processing technology); (3) utilization (energy conservation); and (4) project integration and technology transfer. BETC publications are also listed. Some of the highlights for this period are: the Bartlesville Energy Technology Center was converted into NIPER, the National Institute for Petroleum and Energy Research on October 1, 1983; modelling of enthalpies, heat capacities and volumes of aqueous surfactant solutions began using a mass action model; a series of experiments were run on upgrading by hydrogenation SRC-II coal liquid at different degrees of severity and the products have been analyzed; heavy crude oil extracts were separated into fraction with high performance liquid chromatography by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory and the mass spectra and electron spin resonance were determin ed; and particulates from exhaust gases of diesel engines using fire fuel types are being collected and will be analyzed by chemical methods and results will be compared with those obtained by biological assay. (ATT)

Not Available

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Nonradiological Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program FY 1991, annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 12 liquid effluent streams from fiscal year 1987 through fiscal year 1991 are presented with emphasis on fiscal year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991) activities.

Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.; Einerson, J.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Nonradiological Liquid Effluent Monitoring Program FY 1991, annual report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 12 liquid effluent streams from fiscal year 1987 through fiscal year 1991 are presented with emphasis on fiscal year 1991 (October 1990 through September 1991) activities.

Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.; Einerson, J.J.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

The mathematical modeling of a Tuned Liquid Damper  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The goal of this research is the simplification of the mathematical modeling process of a Tuned Liquid Damper. In an environment of increasingly flexible and lightly damped structures, the suppression of structural vibrations is an important topic. The use of secondary mass systems (generally mass and liquid dampers) to control the displacements and accelerations in one or more vibration modes of the structure is a viable and popular solution. The development of a mathematical model to successfully model the response of a Tuned Liquid Damper will encourage its more frequent use in building systems. Using a simplified mathematical model, the secondary liquid system can be effectively 'linked' to the primary structural system model in specific locations, as necessary. The model is derived from conventional dynamic theories and fluid fundamentals to present an approximate solution for the response forces generated by a rectangular liquid tank subjected to an arbitrary excitation. The mathematical model is shown to generate stable solutions which correlate well with the results of extensive experimental work. The mathematical Tuned Liquid Damper model developed in this study is based on existing theoretical descriptions of wave action in a tank, and is calibrated and tested with data from a laboratory investigation. This laboratory study used a relatively massive (approximately 1000 pound) dynamic system consisting of two rigid masses, associated springs and dampers, and the attached Tuned Liquid Damper. Considerable effort has been directed towards the development of system identification methods for the structural model, as well as for the Tuned Liquid Damper. Mathematical parametric studies have then been used to further refine the mathematical model and to predict the effectiveness of the Tuned Liquid Damper for structures and excitations not tested in the laboratory. Finally, preliminary designs have been developed for hypothetical deployment of Tuned Liquid Dampers in two real high-rise buildings.

Tokarczyk, Bryan Lee

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Open-cycle chemical heat pump and energy storage system. Final report of Research Program, June 1982-September 1983  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A liquid desiccant heat pump that can heat, cool, humidify, and dehumidify, as well as heat domestic water, has been designed, developed, and tested over a six-year period. Successful operation of the machine demonstrated that a heating cycle utilizing the heat of sorption of a desiccant solution could be added to a desiccant cooling system, thus creating an open-cycle liquid desiccant heat pump. The liquid system was shown to possess a unique capability: the ability to store energy, not as sensible heat but as chemical potential energy, in an uninsulated storage tank with a volume that is an order of magnitude smaller than the insulated volumes needed for water or rock bed storage systems. The spent absorbent solution was reconcentrated in a roof-top solar-collector/reconcentrator. Additionally, it was shown that a packed-column could also act as the reconcentrator; for this operation, the desiccant solution was heated by flat-plate solar collectors, by off-peak electricity, and by waste heat from a vapor compressor.

Robison, H.I.

1983-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Let's Pour Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Shattering Flowers! Shattering Flowers! Previous Video (Shattering Flowers!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Giant Koosh Ball!) Giant Koosh Ball! Let's Pour Liquid Nitrogen on the Floor! Liquid nitrogen?! On the floor?! Who's going to clean that mess up?! See what really happens when one of the world's most beloved cryogenic liquids comes into contact with a room temperature floor. [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: From time to time, we spill a little liquid nitrogen! The reaction we sometimes get is.... Shannon: Did they just pour LIQUID NITROGEN on the FLOOR?!?! Joanna: Yes. Yes we did. Steve: One thing people seem to have a problem with is the mess that liquid

352

Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in Taylor Flows with complex liquids.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Universitá di Pisa Facoltá di Ingegneria Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Chimica Industriale e Scienza dei Materiali Relazione di tirocinio in Ingegneria Chimica Gas-liquid hydrodynamics in… (more)

ALBERINI, FEDERICO

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Radiation Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquids Liquids James F. Wishart, Alison M. Funston, and Tomasz Szreder in "Molten Salts XIV" Mantz, R. A., et al., Eds.; The Electrochemical Society, Pennington, NJ, (2006) pp. 802-813. [Information about the volume (look just above this link)] Abstract: Ionic liquids have potentially important applications in nuclear fuel and waste processing, energy production, improving the efficiency and safety of industrial chemical processes, and pollution prevention. Successful use of ionic liquids in radiation-filled environments will require an understanding of ionic liquid radiation chemistry. For example, characterizing the primary steps of ionic liquid radiolysis will reveal radiolytic degradation pathways and suggest ways to prevent them or mitigate their effects on the properties of the material

354

"Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System"  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Self Cooled Recirculating Liquid Metal Plasma Facing Wall System" Inventor ..--.. Richard P. Majeski Disclosed is a design for a fully axisymmetric, fast flowing liquid lithium plasma facing "wall" or surface which, in its present form, is intended for implementation in a tokamak. The design employs JxB forces to form a free-surface flow along a guide wall at the outer boundary of the plasma. The implementation of the disclosure design includes a system for recirculating the liquid metal within the volume of the toroidal field coils using inductive pumping, an approach wich allows independent energizing of the wall-forming and recirculating pumping systems, cooling of the recirculating liquid using fluid heat exchange with a molten salt,

355

Comminution employing liquid nitrogen pretreatments  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project is to develop a methodology that will lead to the establishment of an effective, efficient technique for ultrafine grinding of coal. We believe that the key to successful coal grinding is strongly dependent upon the change of the brittleness of coal under a freezing temperature pretreatment. Furthermore, a cryogenic grinding process may provide the basis for the development of advanced technologies involving the separation of the pyritic minerals from coal. Specific objectives of the program are to: determine the effect of low temperature pretreatments on the microfracture development along the coal/pyrite interface and on the fracture resistance (brittleness) of coal. Specifically, we intend to examine the effect of direct contact of coal with liquid nitrogen, dry ice, and dry-iced acetone. Also, we intend to study pyrite liberation as a result of these treatments; determine the fracture resistance of coal under different low temperature pretreatments; determine the relationships between the fracture resistance of coal and the effectiveness of a grinding process; determine the effect of the frozen coal grinding on the pyrite liberation; evaluate factors which might effect process design, scale-up, and economics; and make a first pass economic assessment of the process. 15 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

Yen, S.C. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Civil Engineering and Mechanics); Hippo, E.J. (Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Energy Processes)

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Passive tuned liquid damper for structural control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the last two decades, structural control concepts have received considerable attention for the design of large civil structures. Particular attention has been paid in Tuned Liquid Damper(TLD) in this thesis. Extensive experiment have been performed. Effectiveness of TLD under harmonic and random excitation has been investigated. TLD damping has been assessed by various ways. Some optimal design parameters has been surveyed. TLD control mechanism has been studied by curve fitting technique in time domain and Laplace domain. Experimental results confirmed that TLD is effective to control the structural vibration when the TLD parameters are properly designed. Interaction of TLD with SDOF model has been simulated. The use of a transfer function to describe the slosh force of the liquid upon the tank motion to simulate the interaction has been proposed. The simulated values compare fairly well with experimental data. Also based on the transfer function method, the interaction of TLD with a building has been simulated. Large reduction in building response to earthquake has been observed.

Li, Jianxun

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

Teitel, R.J.

1959-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

358

Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

Pemsler, J. Paul (Lexington, MA); Dempsey, Michael D. (Revere, MA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Physical Properties of Liquid Precursors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... a carrier gas through the liquid held in ... of decomposition products, dissolved gases, and other ... measure thermal stability, a gas chromatograph/mass ...

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

360

Liquid-in-Glass Thermometers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... for fineness and uniformity of graduation; for cleanliness of the liquid and the capillary bore; for freedom from moisture, gas bubbles, and cracks in ...

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

liquid fuels | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

dataset uses million barrels per day. The data is broken down into crude oil, other petroleum supply, other non petroleum supply and liquid fuel consumption. Source EIA Date...

362

HYDROCARBON LIQUID FLOW CALIBRATION SERVICE ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... and is the cross correlation coefficient ... a NIST Hydrocarbon Liquid Flow Calibration Facility ... FED2004-56790, 2004 Heat Transfer/Fluids Engineering ...

2012-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

363

Design Window for Liquid Metal-Cooled Limiters  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Impurity Control / Proceedings of the Seveth Topical Meeting on the Technology of Fusion Energy (Reno, Nevada, June 15–19, 1986)

A. Majid; M. Abdou

364

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen and Fire!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Antifreeze! Antifreeze! Previous Video (Liquid Nitrogen and Antifreeze!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery!) Liquid Nitrogen and the Tea Kettle Mystery! Liquid Nitrogen and Fire! A burning candle is placed in a container of liquid nitrogen! Filmed in front of a live studio audience. Well, they were live when we started... [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Steve: Now, then. I'm a little bit afraid to ask this next question because I think I already know the answer, but is anyone in here feeling a little... dangerous? You're willing to take a chance? Because I am willing to do an experiment they haven't let me do since 'The Incident.' Now, because of the danger, I cannot have a volunteer. I must do this on my

365

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Cells vs. Liquid  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Superconductors! Superconductors! Previous Video (Superconductors!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Liquid Oxygen and Fire!) Liquid Oxygen and Fire! Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen! Let's say you've carelessly dunked your hand into a vat of liquid nitrogen and let it freeze solid. Every movie you've seen where this happens tells you that your hand will shatter like fine china should you bump it into something. If you're extremely careful, will your hand be okay once it thaws out? We'll explore this issue, using flower and onion cells rather than our hands! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: By now, we all know what happens when you place a flower in liquid

366

Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

Gillett, James E. (Greensburg, PA); Garner, Daniel C. (Murrysville, PA); Wineman, Arthur L. (Greensburg, PA); Robey, Robert M. (North Huntingdon, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Javascript Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

From the Publisher:JavaScript Design shows designers how to create interactive JavaScript applications for the Web. It provides detailed descriptions of:JavaScript structures, statements and objectsUsing JavaScript to create different ...

Bill B. Sanders

2001-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Americas are an important market for liquid fuels and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natura ...

369

Petroleum & Other Liquids - Analysis & Projections - U.S ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. ...

370

Liquid-permeable electrode  

SciTech Connect

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, G.R.

1980-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

371

Liquid-permeable electrode  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Supported liquid membrane system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A cell apparatus for a supported liquid membrane including opposing faceplates, each having a spirally configured groove, an inlet groove at a first end of the spirally configured groove, and an outlet groove at the other end of the spirally configured groove, within the opposing faces of the faceplates, a microporous membrane situated between the grooved faces of the faceplates, said microporous membrane containing an extractant mixture selective for a predetermined chemical species within the pores of said membrane, means for aligning the grooves of the faceplates in an directly opposing configuration with the porous membrane being situated therebetween, such that the aligned grooves form a pair of directly opposing channels, separate feed solution and stripping solution compartments connected to respective channels between the faceplates and the membrane, separate pumping means for passing feed solution and stripping solution through the channels is provided.

Takigawa, D.Y.; Bush, H. Jr.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

373

Experimental design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Maximizing data information requires careful selection, termed design, of the points at which data are observed. Experimental design is reviewed here for broad classes of data collection and analysis problems, including: fractioning techniques ... Keywords: Key Design Issues in Data Mining, Science and Technology, Statistical Fundamentals

J. P. Morgan; Xinwei Deng

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Kesanli, Banu (Mersin, TR); Neal, John S. (Knoxville, TN)

2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

375

A Microfabricated Planar Electrospray Array Ionic Liquid Ion Source With Integrated Extractor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports the design, fabrication, and experimental characterization of a fully microfabricated planar array of externally fed electrospray emitters that produces heavy molecular ions from the ionic liquids ...

Gassend, Blaise

376

Preparation and purification of ionic liquids and precursors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Substantially pure ionic liquids and ionic liquid precursors were prepared. The substantially pure ionic liquid precursors were used to prepare substantially pure ionic liquids.

Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ)

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

377

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Gas Plant Production of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases (Thousand Barrels per Day)

378

U.S. Exports of Natural Gas Liquids and Liquid Refinery Gases ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Exports; Natural Gas Plant Liquids and Liquefied Refinery Gases Supply and Disposition;

379

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

Katti, Kattesh V. (Columbia, MO); Volkert, Wynn A. (Columbia, MO); Singh, Prahlad (Columbia, MO); Ketring, Alan R. (Columbia, MO)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Method for treating liquid wastes  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

1995-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

382

Designing Creativity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Is it possible to design for creativity? This is one of the most important research questions in AI and Design. This paper raises the question whether automated software agent design can be creative. Not only is the artefact dynamic in the sense that it adapts to its environment, it is also autonomous: an agent decides on its own when to be modified and by whom. An agent's functionality may evolve beyond the expectations of its designers and/or users resulting in very new, unique artefacts. Is this type of design creative? Is the process creative? The result? 1.

Frances M. T. Brazier; Niek J. E. Wijngaards

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A rotating suspended liquid film as an electric generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have observed that a rotating liquid film generates electricity when a large external electric field is applied in the plane of the film. In our experiment suspended liquid film (soap film) is formed on a circular frame positioned horizontally on a rotating motor. This devise is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply external electric field in X-direction.The produced electric energy is piked up by two brushes in Y-direction of the suspended liquid film. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this letter we report that the same system can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to an electric energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed in very small scales like micro scales applicable in lab on a chip. The device is comparable to commercial DC ele...

Amjadi, Ahmad; Namin, Reza Montazeri

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Accommodation of liquid metal by cavity liners  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Present liquid metal breeder reactor cell liner designs appear adequate to contain postulated leakages of lithium-lead alloy in an air or steam atmosphere and to contain lithium when inert atmospheres are present. If an air or steam atmosphere may be present in a cavity where lithium may accumulate under postulated accident conditions, then consideration of stainless steel liners and further testing is recommended. Lithium testing of faulted liners should also be considered. SOFIRE II and WATRE computer codes may be useful in establishing liner design requirements and in determining water release from concrete behind the liners (potential hydrogen production) for postulated leakages to steel-lined concrete cavities. 1 ref., 10 figs.

Jeppson, D.W.

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems. Project status report, March--November 1992  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program includes six tasks, including (1) a project measuring the performance of unique solar system components, (2) a project to develop a methodology for determining annual performance ratings of solar domestic hot water systems, (3) a project that will identify, analyze, design, build, and experimentally evaluate SDHW systems incorporating advanced concepts and components, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform TRNSYS simulations to determine potential energy savings for desiccant cooling systems, especially in humid climates, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described.

Not Available

1993-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

386

Colorado State University program for developing, testing, evaluating and optimizing solar heating and cooling systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This program includes six tasks, including (1) a project measuring the performance of unique solar system components, (2) a project to develop a methodology for determining annual performance ratings of solar domestic hot water systems, (3) a project that will identify, analyze, design, build, and experimentally evaluate SDHW systems incorporating advanced concepts and components, (4) a liquid desiccant cooling system development project, (5) a project that will perform TRNSYS simulations to determine potential energy savings for desiccant cooling systems, especially in humid climates, and (6) a management task. The objectives and progress in each task are described.

Not Available

1993-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

387

Future radioactive liquid waste streams study  

SciTech Connect

This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

Rey, A.S.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

The logic behind thick, liquid-walled, fusion concepts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It may be possible to surround the region where fusion reactions are taking place with a neutronically thick liquid blanket which has penetrations that allow only a few tenths of a percent of the neutrons to leak out. Even these neutrons can be attenuated by adding an accurately placed liquid or solid near the target to shadow-shield the beam ports from line-of-sight neutrons. The logic of such designs are discussed and their evolution is described with examples applied to both magnetic and inertial fusion (HYLIFE-II). These designs with liquid protection are self healing when exposed to pulsed loading and have a number of advantages-over the usual designs with solid first walls. For example, the liquid-protected solid components will last the life of the plant, and therefore the capacity factor is estimated to be approximately 10% higher than for the non-liquid-walled blankets, because no blanket replacement shutdowns are required. The component replacement, operations, and maintenance costs might be half the usual value because no blanket change-out costs or accompanying facilities are required. These combined savings might lower the cost of electricity by 20%. Nuclear-grade construction should not be needed, largely because the liquid attenuates neutrons and results in less activation of materials. Upon decommissioning, the reactor materials should qualify for disposal by shallow burial even when constructed of ordinary 304 stainless steel. The need for a high-intensity 14-MeV neutron test facility to develop first-wall materials is avoided or greatly reduced, saving billions of development dollars. Flowing molten Li, the molten salt Flibe (Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4}), and molten Li{sub l7}Pb{sub 83} have been considered. An advantage of molten salt is that it will not burn and has a low tritium solubility and therefore low tritium inventory.

Moir, R.W.

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Superconductors...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Main Index Next Video (Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen) Cells vs. Liquid Nitrogen Superconductors What happens when a magnet is placed on a superconductor? Play the video to find...

390

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

"Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the...

391

A Liquid-Hydrogen Cerenkov Counter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

^•BsêS A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t • > f «lf ,«f X'i£ Si -tel A LIQUID-HYDROGEN CERENKOV COUNTER t V« Berkeley,

Zipi, T.F.; Chamberlain, Owen; Kadyk, John A.; York, Carl M.

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Faidas, Homer (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Instant Liquid Nitrogen  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Freezing Balloons! Freezing Balloons! Previous Video (Freezing Balloons!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Shattering Flowers!) Shattering Flowers! Instant Liquid Nitrogen Balloon Party! Need a bunch of balloons blown-up quickly? Liquid nitrogen to the rescue! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: We've been making videos for a while now and we've learned that people like balloons and liquid nitrogen! Steve: So... Here you go! Balloon: Crackling... Balloon: Pop! Joanna: Ooh! Balloon: Pop! Balloon: Pop! Steve: If you'd like to know the science of what's going on behind this, please one of our first videos, "Liquid Nitrogen Experiments: The Balloon."

394

Haze Formation and Behavior in Liquid-Liquid Extraction Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous haze formation and behavior was studied in the liquid-liquid system tri-n-butyl phosphate in odorless kerosene and 3M nitric acid with uranyl nitrate and cesium nitrate representing the major solute and an impurity, respectively. A pulsed column, mixer-settler and centrifugal contactor were chosen to investigate the effect of different turbulence characteristics on the manifestation of haze since these contactors exhibit distinct mixing phenomena. The dispersive processes of drop coalescence and breakage, and water precipitation in the organic phase were observed to lead to the formation of haze drops of {approx}1 um in diameter. The interaction between the haze and primary drops of the dispersion was critical to the separation efficiency of the liquid-liquid extraction equipment. Conditions of high power input and spatially homogeneous mixing enabled the haze drops to become rapidly assimilated within the dispersion to maximize the scrub performance and separation efficiency of the equipment.

Arm, Stuart T.; Jenkins, J. A.

2006-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

395

THE LIQUID METAL LINEAR GENERATOR  

SciTech Connect

In the utilization of nuclear heat energy, liquid metal could be used in a vapor cycle to propel a column of liquid metal in a jet pump or injector where electrical energy could be extracted by means of a MHD arrangement. The recirculating system is being studied as a means of increasing the efficiency. Results are described briefly for a preliminary run made using steam and water; the efficiency of conversion of steam kinetic energy to liquid kinetic energy was approximates 20%. The possible causes of the low efficiency and some of the methods for decreasing hydraulic losses are outlined. (D.L.C.)

Sowa, E.S.

1963-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

396

Controlled release liquid dosage formulation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

Benton, Ben F. (Centerburg, OH); Gardner, David L. (Bellville, OH)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

1998-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

398

Hydrophobic ionic liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

Koch, Victor R. (Lincoln, MA); Nanjundiah, Chenniah (Lynn, MA); Carlin, Richard T. (Nashua, NH)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Essays on liquidity and information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This dissertation studies the interaction of liquidity and incomplete or asymmetric information. In Chapter 1, I study a dynamic economy with illiquidity due to adverse selection in financial markets. Investment is undertaken ...

Kurlat, Pablo (Pablo Daniel)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research Ionic liquids are experiencing explosive growth in many areas of research and practical applications. They present a wide range of complex physical and chemical behaviors, including ambient vapor pressures ranging from UHV to weakly volatile, a substantial variety of distinct condensed phases, including multiple crystal isomorphs, glasses, amorphous plastic and liquid crystal phases, deep supercooling, and interesting dynamical and transport phenomena. Experiments and simulations have shown that their intrinsic self-organization at the nanoscale is responsible for several of these properties. The symposium will assemble an international array of speakers to discuss ionic liquids in the context of their heterogeneous environments, solvation, dynamics and transport, interfacial properties,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Design Specifications  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Design Specifications Services Overview ECS Audio/Video Conferencing Fasterdata IPv6 Network Network Performance Tools (perfSONAR) ESnet OID Registry PGP Key Service Virtual Circuits (OSCARS) OSCARS Case Study Documentation User Manual FAQ Design Specifications Functional Specifications Notifications Publications Authorization Policy Default Attributes Message Security Clients For Developers Interfaces Links Hardware Requirements DOE Grids Service Transition Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside the US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside the US) 1 510-486-7600 (Globally) 1 510-486-7607 (Globally) Report Network Problems: trouble@es.net Provide Web Site Feedback: info@es.net Design Specifications OSCARS Reservation Manager - Design Specifications Year 3 Update (DRAFT) David Robertson, Chin Guok

402

Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows  

SciTech Connect

Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

403

Performance of solar heating and cooling systems: Solid desiccant cooling/fresh air heating with evacuated-tube collectors in CSU Solar House I  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In keeping with the national energy policy goal of fostering an adequate supply of energy at a reasonable cost, the United States Department of Energy (DOE) supports a variety of programs to promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system. The mission of the DOE Solar Buildings Research and Development Program is to support this goal, by providing for the development of solar technology alternatives for the buildings sector. It is the goal of the Program to establish a proven technology base to allow industry to develop solar products and designs for buildings that are economically competitive and can contribute significantly to building energy supplies nationally. Toward this end, the program sponsors research activities related to increasing the efficiency, reducing the cost, and improving the long-term durability of passive and active solar systems for building water and space heating, cooling, and daylighting applications. These activities are conducted in four major areas: Advanced Passive Solar Materials Research, Collector Technology Research, Cooling Systems Research, and Systems Analysis and Applications Research.

Loef, G.O.G.; Beba, S.; Cler, G.; Birdsong, M.; McLay, B.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

SRS - Programs - Liquid Waste Disposition  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquid Waste Disposition Liquid Waste Disposition This includes both the solidification of highly radioactive liquid wastes stored in SRS's tank farms and disposal of liquid low-level waste generated as a by-product of the separations process and tank farm operations. This low-level waste is treated in the Effluent Treatment Facility. High-activity liquid waste is generated at SRS as by-products from the processing of nuclear materials for national defense, research and medical programs. The waste, totaling about 36 million gallons, is currently stored in 49 underground carbon-steel waste tanks grouped into two "tank farms" at SRS. While the waste is stored in the tanks, it separates into two parts: a sludge that settles on the bottom of the tank, and a liquid supernate that resides on top of the sludge. The waste is reduced to about 30 percent of its original volume by evaporation. The condensed evaporator "overheads" are transferred to the Effluent Treatment Project for final cleanup prior to release to the environment. As the concentrate cools a portion of it crystallizes forming solid saltcake. The concentrated supernate and saltcake are less mobile and therefore less likely to escape to the environment in the event of a tank crack or leak.

405

Seal design alternatives study  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results from a study of various sealing alternatives for the WIPP sealing system. Overall, the sealing system has the purpose of reducing to the extent possible the potential for fluids (either gas or liquid) from entering or leaving the repository. The sealing system is divided into three subsystems: drift and panel seals within the repository horizon, shaft seals in each of the four shafts, and borehole seals. Alternatives to the baseline configuration for the WIPP seal system design included evaluating different geometries and schedules for seal component installations and the use of different materials for seal components. Order-of-magnitude costs for the various alternatives were prepared as part of the study. Firm recommendations are not presented, but the advantages and disadvantages of the alternatives are discussed. Technical information deficiencies are identified and studies are outlined which can provide required information.

Van Sambeek, L.L. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (US); Luo, D.D.; Lin, M.S.; Ostrowski, W.; Oyenuga, D. [Parsons Brinckerhoff Quade & Douglas, Inc., San Francisco, CA (US)

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Thermal hydraulic design of a salt-cooled highly efficient environmentally friendly reactor  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A 1 OOOMWth liquid-salt cooled thermal spectrum reactor was designed with a long fuel cycle, and high core exit temperature. These features are desirable in a reactor designed to provide process heat applications such as ...

Whitman, Joshua (Joshua J.)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Thick Liquid-Walled Spheromak Magnetic Fusion Power Plant  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

We assume a spheromak configuration can be made and sustained by a steady gun current, which injects particles, current and magnetic field, i.e., helicity injection. The equilibrium is calculated with an MHD equilibrium code, where an average beta of 10% is found. The toroidal current of 40 MA is sustained by an injection current of 100 kA (125 MW of gun power). The flux linking the gun is 1/1000th that of the flux in the spheromak. The geometry allows a flow of liquid, either molten salt, (flibe-Li{sub 2}BeF{sub 4} or flinabe-LiNaBeF{sub 4}) or liquid metal such as SnLi which protects most of the walls and structures from neutron damage. The free surface between the liquid and the burning plasma is heated by bremsstrahlung and optical radiation and neutrons from the plasma. The temperature of the free surface of the liquid is calculated and then the evaporation rate is estimated. The impurity concentration in the burning plasma is estimated and limited to a 20% reduction in the fusion power. For a high radiating edge plasma, the divertor power density of 460 MW/m{sup 2} is handled by high-speed (20 m/s), liquid jets. For low radiating edge plasmas, the divertor-power density of 1860 MW/m{sup 2} is too high to handle for flibe but possibly acceptable for SnLi with jets of 100 m/s flow speed. Calculations show the tritium breeding is adequate with enriched Li and appropriate design of the walls not covered by flowing liquid 15% of the total. We have come up with a number of problem areas needing further study to make the design self consistent and workable.

Moir, R W; Bulmer, R H; Fowler, T K; Youssef, M Z

2002-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

408

Commercialization of Coal-to-Liquids Technology  

SciTech Connect

The report provides an overview of the current status of coal-to-liquids (CTL) commercialization efforts, including an analysis of efforts to develop and implement large-scale, commercial coal-to-liquids projects to create transportation fuels. Topics covered include: an overview of the history of coal usage and the current market for coal; a detailed description of what coal-to-liquids technology is; the history of coal-to-liquids development and commercial application; an analysis of the key business factors that are driving the increased interest in coal-to-liquids; an analysis of the issues and challenges that are hindering the commercialization of coal-to-liquids technology; a review of available coal-to-liquids technology; a discussion of the economic drivers of coal-to-liquids project success; profiles of key coal-to-liquids developers; and profiles of key coal-to-liquids projects under development.

NONE

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

409

A rotating suspended liquid film as an electric generator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have observed that a rotating liquid film generates electricity when a large external electric field is applied in the plane of the film. In our experiment suspended liquid film (soap film) is formed on a circular frame positioned horizontally on a rotating motor. This devise is located at the center of two capacitor-like vertical plates to apply external electric field in X-direction.The produced electric energy is piked up by two brushes in Y-direction of the suspended liquid film. We previously reported that a liquid film in an external electric field rotates when an electric current passes through it, naming it the liquid film motor (LFM). In this letter we report that the same system can be used as an electric generator, converting the rotating mechanical energy to an electric energy. The liquid film electric generator (LFEG) is in stark contrast to the LFM, both of which could be designed in very small scales like micro scales applicable in lab on a chip. The device is comparable to commercial DC electric motors or DC electric generators. but there is a significant difference in their working principle; in a DC electric motor or generator the Lorence force is the driving force, while in an LFEG the Coulomb force is the deriving force. So in despite to usual electric generators, this generator does not use a magnetic field and is purely electrical, which brings a similarity to bio mechanisms. We have investigated the characteristics of such a generator experimentally. This investigation sheds light on the physics of Electrohydrodynamics on liquid films.

Ahmad Amjadi; Sadegh Feiz; Reza Montazeri Namin

2013-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

410

A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The overall objective of this work is to demonstrate conversion of coal to produce at least 70% by weight of the coal as liquids, with ratios of liquids to gases in excess of 10/1, resulting in low hydrogen consumption and a significant reduction in the cost of producing hydrocarbon liquid fuels from coal. Utilizing a small continuous-flow reactor designed and constructed for this research, the maximum possible ratio of liquids to gases will be defined, operating at short residence times of a few seconds, at the same time converting more than 70% of the carbon in the coal to liquids. The practical ability to attain coal particle center-line temperatures of 500 {degree}C in one second or less, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow, will also be demonstrated. Particle heat-up rates for a few selected system pressures and particle sizes will be determined. Catalysts will be screened and selected for sufficient activity and selectivity. Particle heat-up rates for small coal particles slurried in a super-critical hydrocarbon-type fluid will be examined, using hot hydrogen gas in turbulent flow as the heat transfer medium.

Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Engitectural Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Traditionally, Architecture and Engineering have been disciplines practiced exclusive of one another's input and collaboration. This seemingly awkward custom is due in part to tradition and to the two distinct perspectives each discipline has concerning the function of a building and it's many components. In the past, collaboration on a project generally occurred out of necessity, and can usually be attributed to a system and design integration problems. In most instances, these issues are related to the mechanical systems of building, and in a hot and humid climate the issues are magnified. Therefore, this paper will discuss the concepts and merits of a new design process called: Engitectural Design. Engitectural Design is the concept of blending the many design and aesthetic concerns of architecture with the more technical aspects of engineering, especially in the area of mechanical HVAC systems. The use of this new design procedure will reduce, if not eliminate, current problems with clearances, mechanical room size and optimal area selection. Merely incorporating the mechanical needs of a building during the schematic phase will reduce communication problems that cause the above mentioned problems, and thus optimize the system. This paper will address the mutual concerns of both professions as it pertains to materials, lighting, surface finishes, passive and active solar and the use of landscaping, focusing on the benefits of mutual agreement in a hot and humid climate. To be successful, the collaboration must begin in pre-design and continue through project completion. During initial implementation of Engitectural Design, a fm can expect each phase of a project to take longer than usual. Lack of established relationships, poor communication and professional territorial rights will exist in the beginning. However, over time a fm can expect a time reduction due to fewer revisions and the elimination of duplicated work. As it pertains to today's more advanced HVAC systems, this new cooperation and understanding of the needs within disciplines will yield a more effective and efficient operating unit for today's hot and humid environment.

Gagliardi, D. R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Liquid membrane purification of biogas  

SciTech Connect

Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. (Stevens Inst. of Tech., Hoboken, NJ (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric compositions  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric (LCP) compositions of matter. LCP backbones are combined with liquid crystalline (LC) side chains in a manner which maximizes molecular ordering through interdigitation of the side chains, thereby yielding materials which are predicted to have superior mechanical properties over existing LCPs. The theoretical design of LCPs having such characteristics includes consideration of the spacing distance between side chains along the backbone, the need for rigid sections in the backbone and in the side chains, the degree of polymerization, the length of the side chains, the regularity of the spacing of the side chains along the backbone, the interdigitation of side chains in sub-molecular strips, the packing of the side chains on one or two sides of the backbone to which they are attached, the symmetry of the side chains, the points of attachment of the side chains to the backbone, the flexibility and size of the chemical group connecting each side chain to the backbone, the effect of semiflexible sections in the backbone and the side chains, and the choice of types of dipolar and/or hydrogen bonding forces in the backbones and the side chains for easy alignment.

Dowell, Flonnie (Los Alamos, NM)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

415

Hydrodynamic effect in a tank containing two liquids  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquid Metal Reactor (LMR) research based on the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept is currently underway at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). One of the key features in the IFR concept is the closed fissile self-sufficient fuel cycle using pyrometallurgical processing and injection-casting to refabricate recycled fuels (Burris et al. 1987). The pyrometallurgical process is carried out primarily in a tank called the electrorefiner which contains two liquids with different mass densities. This tank should be properly designed to survive the earthquake to which it may be subjected; therefore, it is important to understand the hydrodynamic seduced in the tank during the seismic event in order to compute the corresponding stresses accurately. This paper deals with the hydrodynamic response of the electrorefiner to a given design earthquake. Both analytical and numerical (FEM) methods are employed in the analysis. The tank is assumed to be rigid, and the response is considered to be linear.

Tang, Y.

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

A Liquid Metal Flume for Free Surface Magnetohydrodynamic Experiments  

SciTech Connect

We present an experiment designed to study magnetohydrodynamic effects in free-surface channel flow. The wide aspect ratio channel (the width to height ratio is about 15) is completely enclosed in an inert atmosphere to prevent oxidization of the liquid metal. A custom-designed pump reduces entrainment of oxygen, which was found to be a problem with standard centrifugal and gear pumps. Laser Doppler Velocimetry experiments characterize velocity profiles of the flow. Various flow constraints mitigate secondary circulation and end effects on the flow. Measurements of the wave propagation characteristics in the liquid metal demonstrate the surfactant effect of surface oxides and the damping of fluctuations by a cross-channel magnetic field.

Nornberg, M.D.; Ji, H.; Peterson, J.L.; Rhoads, J.R.

2008-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

417

A High Power Liquid Hydrogen Target for Parity Violation Experiments  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Parity-violating electron scattering measurements on hydrogen and deuterium, such as those underway at the Bates and CEBAF laboratories, require luminosities exceeding 10{sup 38} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, resulting in large beam power deposition into cryogenic liquid. Such targets must be able to absorb 500 watts or more with minimal change in target density. A 40 cm long liquid hydrogen target, designed to absorb 500 watts of beam power without boiling, has been developed for the SAMPLE experiment at Bates. In recent tests with 40 {micro}A of incident beam, no evidence was seen for density fluctuations in the target, at a sensitivity level of better than 1%. A summary of the target design and operational experience will be presented.

Mark, John W.

2003-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

418

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the Physical Properties of Ionic Liquids Consisting of the 1-Butyl-3-Methylimidazolium Cation with Various Anions and the Bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide Anion with Various Cations Hui Jin, Bernie O'Hare, Jing Dong, Sergei Arzhantsev, Gary A. Baker, James F. Wishart, Alan J. Benesi, and Mark Maroncelli J. Phys. Chem. B 112, 81-92 (2008). [Find paper at ACS Publications] Abstract: Physical properties of 4 room-temperature ionic liquids consisting of the 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cation with various perfluorinated anions and the bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Tf2N-) anion with 12 pyrrolidinium-, ammonium-, and hydroxyl-containing cations are reported. Electronic structure methods are used to calculate properties related to the size, shape, and dipole moment of individual ions. Experimental measurements of

419

Development of a Very Dense Liquid Cooled Compute Platform  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype very energy efficient high density compute platform with 100% pumped refrigerant liquid cooling using commodity components and high volume manufacturing techniques. Testing at SLAC has indicated that we achieved a DCIE of 0.93 against our original goal of 0.85. This number includes both cooling and power supply and was achieved employing some of the highest wattage processors available.

Hughes, Phillip N.; Lipp, Robert J.

2013-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

420

Enantioselective Liquid-Liquid Extraction Centrifugal Contactor Separators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to determine the effective wetted area and local liquid holdup for an air-water contactor containing structured communication errors. 2.3. Air-Water Contactor. The air-water column used for the imaging studies, shown and the other for vapor flow into the contactor. The column base is simply clamped to the turntable. Four

Groningen, Rijksuniversiteit

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers  

SciTech Connect

A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on the gas-diffusion layer surfaces are investigated experimentally to improve the understating of water transport through and removal from gas-diffusion layers. An experiment using a sliding-angle measurement is designed and used to quantify and directly measure the adhesion force for liquid-water droplets, and to understand the droplets? growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layers.

Das, Prodip K.; Grippin, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Newly Generated Liquid Waste Processing Alternatives Study, Volume 1  

SciTech Connect

This report identifies and evaluates three options for treating newly generated liquid waste at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center of the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory. The three options are: (a) treat the waste using processing facilities designed for treating sodium-bearing waste, (b) treat the waste using subcontractor-supplied mobile systems, or (c) treat the waste using a special facility designed and constructed for that purpose. In studying these options, engineers concluded that the best approach is to store the newly generated liquid waste until a sodium-bearing waste treatment facility is available and then to co-process the stored inventory of the newly generated waste with the sodium-bearing waste. After the sodium-bearing waste facility completes its mission, two paths are available. The newly generated liquid waste could be treated using the subcontractor-supplied system or the sodium-bearing waste facility or a portion of it. The final decision depends on the design of the sodium-bearing waste treatment facility, which will be completed in coming years.

Landman, William Henry; Bates, Steven Odum; Bonnema, Bruce Edward; Palmer, Stanley Leland; Podgorney, Anna Kristine; Walsh, Stephanie

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Space design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Space stations, Moon bases and Mars bases are artificial habitats intended to support human life in extreme conditions. Their purpose is to pursue human progress and to gain knowledge and experience of the environment surrounding our planet. This research ... Keywords: Human factors, Interior design, Space habitability, Sustainability, Vision

Irene Lia Schlacht; Henrik Birke

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Fabrication and characterization of fibers with built-in liquid crystal channels and electrodes for transverse incident-light modulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report on an all-in-fiber liquid crystal (LC) structure designed for the modulation of light incident transverse to the fiber axis. A hollow cavity flanked by viscous conductors is introduced into a polymer matrix, and ...

Wei, Lei

425

Petroleum & Other Liquids - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

426

EIA - International Energy Outlook 2009-Liquid Fuels Graphic...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

26. World Liquids Supply in three Cases, 2006 and 2030 Figure 27. World Production of Unconventional Liquid Fuels, 2006-2030 Figure 28. World Liquids Consumption by Sector,...

427

Petroleum & Other Liquids - Pub - U.S. Energy Information ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

428

Petroleum & Other Liquids - U.S. Energy Information Administration ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

429

Domestic supply of liquid fuels projected to increase, resulting ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

430

Liquid fuels production in Middle Eastern and North African ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum & Other Liquids. Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas

431

Moving Character Observation of Bubble Rising in Vertical Gas?Liquid Two?Phase Flow  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The study of bubble motion in water is a basic subject in gas?liquid two?phase flow research. A suit of visualized experimental device was designed and set up. Bubble rising in stagnant liquid in a vertical translucent rectangular tank was studied using the high?speed video system combined with digital image process methods. Several bubble parameters were calculated base on the processed images. Bubble track

H. Y. Wang; F. Dong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Coupling atomistic and continuum hydrodynamics through a mesoscopic model: application to liquid water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have conducted a triple-scale simulation of liquid water by concurrently coupling atomistic, mesoscopic, and continuum models of the liquid. The presented triple-scale hydrodynamic solver for molecular liquids enables the insertion of large molecules into the atomistic domain through a mesoscopic region. We show that the triple-scale scheme is robust against the details of the mesoscopic model owing to the conservation of linear momentum by the adaptive resolution forces. Our multiscale approach is designed for molecular simulations of open domains with relatively large molecules, either in the grand canonical ensemble or under non-equilibrium conditions.

Rafael Delgado-Buscalioni; Kurt Kremer; Matej Praprotnik

2009-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

433

Physical Chemistry of Ionic Liquids Symposium Schedule  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) (Tentative Schedule, locations and times to be determined) Sunday Morning Structure and Heterogeneity of Ionic Liquids I. James Wishart and Edward Castner Introductory Remarks Andre Pinkert Hydroxyamine ionic liquids and their properties Thomas Strassner TAAILs - Tunable Aryl-Alkyl Ionic Liquids: A new generation of ionic liquids Laura Sprunger Grubbs Thermodynamic Properties of New Generation Ionic Liquids Christopher Hardacre Prediction methods for physical properties of ionic liquids BREAK Patricia Hunt What happens when you functionalise an ionic liquid with a "silicone" side chain? Edward L Quitevis Effect of cation symmetry and nanoscale segregation on the morphology, physical properties, and low-frequency vibrational dynamics of 1,3-dialkylimidazolium cation ionic liquids

434

Limit order markets, liquidity, and price impact  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this thesis, I explore various aspects of market liquidity and analyze its effect on asset prices. First, in a model of a limit order market I explain how to define liquidity and derive a price impact function. Second, ...

Rosu, Ioanid, 1970-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Essays in macroeconomics : liquidity and taxation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This thesis consists of three independent chapters on the Macroeconomics of Liquidity and Taxation. The first chapter studies how concerns about future funding difficulties and liquidity dry ups influence investment ...

Iachan, Felipe Saraiva

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch employing flashlamps. 2 figs.

Christophorou, L.; Faidas, H.

1989-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

437

Nucleation and Characteristics of Liquid Nitrogen  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes experiments on a refrigerating catalyst?liquid nitrogen (LN)?in different cloud chambers and their results. The nucleation threshold temperature of liquid nitrogen is 0°C, and when the temperature less than ?2°C, the ice ...

Cao Xuecheng; Wang Weimin

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;MUSHROOM WASTE MANAGEMENT PROJECT LIQUID WASTE MANAGEMENT PHASE I: AUDIT OF CURRENT PRACTICE The Mushroom Waste Management Project (MWMP) was initiated by Environment Canada, the BC Ministry of solid and liquid wastes generated at mushroom producing facilities. Environmental guidelines

439

Spin liquids, exotic phases and phase transitions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Spin liquid, or featureless Mott-Insulator, is a theoretical state of matter firstly motivated from study on High-Tc superconductor. The most striking property of spin liquids is that they do not break any physical symmetry, ...

Ran, Ying

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Radiological Issues for the Thin Liquid Walls of ARIES-IFE Study  

SciTech Connect

Heavy ion beam driven inertial fusion energy (IFE) power plants employ liquid wall materials to protect the structure against the energetic x-rays, ions, and debris emitted from the target following each shot. The objective of this assessment is to identify the radiological issues of the candidate liquid wall materials (Pb, LiPb, Sn, and Flibe) using the ARIES-IFE radiation chamber environment. The issues to be addressed include the radioactivity level and liquid waste minimization for waste management. Specifically, the liquids are evaluated with regard to the Class C limitation for waste disposal, a top-level requirement for all ARIES power plant designs. Two extreme cases were analyzed; the worst case is separation of the liquid wall material (highest radiation exposure) and the breeder (lowest radiation exposure), and the best case is the mixing of the two liquid streams. Both tangential and porous wall injection schemes were examined. Pb and LiPb are more radioactive than Sn and Flibe. For the liquid breeder system, the porous wall injection scheme with mixed liquid flows results in the lowest waste disposal rating and smallest waste stream achieved in our study.

El-Guebaly, L. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Wilson, P. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Henderson, D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison (United States); Waganer, L. [Boeing Company (United States); Raffray, R. [University of California-San Diego (United States)

2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "liquid desiccant design" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Dynamic Measurement of Hydraulic Parameters Under Liquid ...  

Search PNNL. PNNL Home; About; Research; Publications; Jobs; News; Contacts; Dynamic Measurement of Hydraulic Parameters Under Liquid Unsaturated Flow ...

442

Measuring Devices: Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquid ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Liquefied Petroleum Gas Liquid-Measuring Devices. Intro about it. EPOs, Field Manual, Training Materials & Presentaions, Newsletter Articles, Other ...

2010-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

443

Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum Foams  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ESP Dust Recovery Process Test Works, Plant Trial, Commissioning, Operations and Metallurgical Performance · Expansion and Collapse of Liquid Aluminum ...

444

Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

M. Armand, “Room temperature molten salts as lithium batteryZ. Suarez, “Ionic liquid (molten salt) phase organometallic

Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz, John; Newman, John

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Method for enhanced atomization of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

Thompson, Richard E. (27121 Puerta del Oro, Mission Viejo, CA 92691); White, Jerome R. (44755 Wyandotte, Hemet, CA 92544)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids  

SciTech Connect

Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

447

Frostbite Theater - Liquid Nitrogen Experiments - Liquid Nitrogen Show!  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Insulators! Insulators! Previous Video (Insulators!) Frostbite Theater Main Index Next Video (Superconductors!) Superconductors! Liquid Nitrogen Show! All of your favorite liquid nitrogen experiments all in one place! Flowers! Balloons! Racquetballs! Nothing is safe! Just sit back, relax, and enjoy the show! [ Show Transcript ] Announcer: Frostbite Theater presents... Cold Cuts! No baloney! Joanna and Steve: Just science! Joanna: Hi! I'm Joanna! Steve: And I'm Steve! Joanna: Usually, every couple years, Jefferson Lab hosts an Open House. This is the one time the public and come and tour our accelerator and end stations. Steve: During the 2010 Open House, our cameraman snuck into one of the ongoing cryo shows that are held throughout the day. He missed half of it. So if you want to see the entire thing, check our website to see when the

448

Ideas for future liquid Argon detectors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We outline a strategy for future experiments on neutrino and astroparticle physics based on the use, at different detector mass scales (100 ton and 100 kton), of the liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr TPC) technique. The LAr TPC technology has great potentials for both cases with large degree of interplay between the two applications and a strong synergy. The ICARUS R&D programme has demonstrated that the technology is mature and that one can built a large ($\\sim$ 1 kton) LAr TPC. We believe that one can conceive and design a very large mass LAr TPC with a mass of 100 kton by employing a monolithic technology based on the use of industrial, large volume cryogenic tankers developed by the petro-chemical industry. We show a potential implementation of a large LAr TPC detector. Such a detector would be an ideal match for a Superbeam, Betabeam or Neutrino Factory, covering a broad physics program that could include the detection of atmospheric, solar and supernova neutrinos, and search for proton decays, in addition to the rich accelerator neutrino physics program. In parallel, physics is calling for another application of the LAr TPC technique at the level of 100 ton mass, for low energy neutrino physics and for use as a near station setup in future long baseline neutrino facilities. We present here the main physics objectives and outline the conceptual design of such a detector.

A. Ereditato; A. Rubbia

2004-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

449

Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

450

Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity.

Alvarez, Joseph L. (Idaho Falls, ID); Watson, Lloyd D. (Rigby, ID)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and Environmental Katzer #12;CHARGE TO THE ALTF PANEL · Evaluate technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid for liquid fuels produced from coal or biomass. · Evaluate environmental, economic, policy, and social

452

Commercialization of coal to liquids technology  

SciTech Connect

After an overview of the coal market, technologies for producing liquids from coal are outlined. Commercialisation of coal-to-liquid fuels, the economics of coal-to-liquids development and the role of the government are discussed. Profiles of 8 key players and the profiles of 14 projects are finally given. 17 figs., 8 tabs.

NONE

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

Dakin, James T. (Schenectady, NY)

1982-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

454

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, Desikan (Lakewood, CO)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

Bharathan, D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Liquid-hydrogen-fueled-vehicle tests. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program for the development of a baseline liquid-hydrogen fueled vehicle and a liquid-hydrogen-refueling system was completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on September 30, 1981. This program involved the cooperative efforts of the Laboratory (funded by the US Department of Energy), the Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt (DFVLR) of the Federal Republic of Germany, and the State of New Mexico through the New Mexico Energy Institute (NMEI). The results of the program provide a reference point from which future progress and improvements in liquid-hydrogen on-board storage and refueling capabilities may be measured. The NMEI provided the program a 1979 Buick Century 4-door sedan with 3.8-L (231-in./sup 3/) displacement turbocharged V6 engine and automatic transmission. The DFVLR provided an on-board liquid-hydrogen storage tank and a refueling station. The DFVLR tank, and the engine modifications for operation on hydrogen rather than gasoline, represented readily available, state-of-the-art capabilities when the program began in March 1979. The original tank provided by the DFVLR was replaced with a larger capacity tank, which was fabricated using more advanced cryogenic engineering technology. The vehicle was refueled at least 60 times with liquid hydrogen using various liquid-hydrogen storage Dewars at Los Alamos and the semiautomatic refueling station designed and built by the DFVLR. At the end of program, the engine had been operated for 133 h and the car driven for 3540 km (2200 miles) on hydrogen without any major difficulties. The vehicle obtained 2.4 km/L (5.7 miles/gal) of liquid hydrogen or 8.9 km/L (21 miles/gal) of gasoline on an equivalent energy basis for driving in the high-altitude Los Alamos, Santa Fe, and Albuquerque areas. Without refueling, the car had a range of about 274 km (170 miles) with the first liquid-hydrogen tank and about 362 km (225 miles) with the second tank.

Stewart, W.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Liquid-hydrogen-fueled-vehicle tests. Executive summary  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A program for the development of a baseline liquid-hydrogen fueled vehicle and a liquid-hydrogen-refueling system was completed at the Los Alamos National Laboratory on September 30, 1981. This program involved the cooperative efforts of the Laboratory (fundd by