National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquid desiccant design

  1. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.; Lowenstein, A.

    2014-09-01

    Cooling loads must be dramatically reduced when designing net-zero energy buildings or other highly efficient facilities. Advances in this area have focused primarily on reducing a building's sensible cooling loads by improving the envelope, integrating properly sized daylighting systems, adding exterior solar shading devices, and reducing internal heat gains. As sensible loads decrease, however, latent loads remain relatively constant, and thus become a greater fraction of the overall cooling requirement in highly efficient building designs, particularly in humid climates. This shift toward latent cooling is a challenge for heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems. Traditional systems typically dehumidify by first overcooling air below the dew-point temperature and then reheating it to an appropriate supply temperature, which requires an excessive amount of energy. Another dehumidification strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove water from air more efficiently; however, these systems are large and increase fan energy consumption due to the increased airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors. A third dehumidification strategy involves high flow liquid desiccant systems. These systems require a high maintenance separator to protect the air distribution system from corrosive desiccant droplet carryover and so are more commonly used in industrial applications and rarely in commercial buildings. Both solid desiccant systems and most high-flow liquid desiccant systems (if not internally cooled) add sensible energy which must later be removed to the air stream during dehumidification, through the release of sensible heat during the sorption process.

  2. Using liquid desiccant as a regenerable filter for capturing and deactivating contaminants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Slayzak, Steven J.; Anderson, Ren S.; Judkoff, Ronald D.; Blake, Daniel M.; Vinzant, Todd B.; Ryan, Joseph P.

    2007-12-11

    A method, and systems for implementing such method, for purifying and conditioning air of weaponized contaminants. The method includes wetting a filter packing media with a salt-based liquid desiccant, such as water with a high concentration of lithium chloride. Air is passed through the wetted filter packing media and the contaminants in are captured with the liquid desiccant while the liquid desiccant dehumidifies the air. The captured contaminants are then deactivated in the liquid desiccant, which may include heating the liquid desiccant. The liquid desiccant is regenerated by applying heat to the liquid desiccant and then removing moisture. The method includes repeating the wetting with the regenerated liquid desiccant which provides a regenerable filtering process that captures and deactivates contaminants on an ongoing basis while also conditioning the air. The method may include filtration effectiveness enhancement by electrostatic or inertial means.

  3. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning: Parametric Analysis and Design; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-10-01

    This paper presents a parametric analysis using a numerical model of a new concept in desiccant and evaporative air conditioning. The concept consists of two stages: a liquid desiccant dehumidifier and a dew-point evaporative cooler. Each stage consists of stacked air channel pairs separated by a plastic sheet. In the first stage, a liquid desiccant film removes moisture from the process (supply-side) air through a membrane. An evaporatively-cooled exhaust airstream on the other side of the plastic sheet cools the desiccant. The second-stage indirect evaporative cooler sensibly cools the dried process air. We analyze the tradeoff between device size and energy efficiency. This tradeoff depends strongly on process air channel thicknesses, the ratio of first-stage to second-stage area, and the second-stage exhaust air flow rate. A sensitivity analysis reiterates the importance of the process air boundary layers and suggests a need for increasing airside heat and mass transfer enhancements.

  4. Analysis of a solar space cooling system using liquid desiccants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gandhidasan, P. )

    1990-12-01

    For tropical countries, solar space cooling is an attractive proposition. Dehumidification of air in hot, humid climates is almost as important as cooling. Removal of moisture from the air is much easier to achieve than cooling the air. The proposed cooling system operates on the ventilation mode. The ambient air is dehumidified using liquid desiccants followed by adiabatic evaporative cooling. The desiccant soon becomes saturated with the water extracted from the air and can be regenerated by using solar energy. For this system, a simple expression is derived in this paper to predict the amount of heat removed from the space to be conditioned in terms of known initial parameters through a simplified vapor pressure correlation and effectiveness of the dehumidifier and the heat exchanger. The effect of ambient air conditions, solution concentration, the cooling water temperature and the effectiveness of the dehumidifier and the heat exchanger on the performance of the cooling system are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Energy-efficient regenerative liquid desiccant drying process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ko, Suk M.; Grodzka, Philomena G.; McCormick, Paul O.

    1980-01-01

    This invention relates to the use of desiccants in conjunction with an open oop drying cycle and a closed loop drying cycle to reclaim the energy expended in vaporizing moisture in harvested crops. In the closed loop cycle, the drying air is brought into contact with a desiccant after it exits the crop drying bin. Water vapor in the moist air is absorbed by the desiccant, thus reducing the relative humidity of the air. The air is then heated by the used desiccant and returned to the crop bin. During the open loop drying cycle the used desiccant is heated (either fossil or solar energy heat sources may be used) and regenerated at high temperature, driving water vapor from the desiccant. This water vapor is condensed and used to preheat the dilute (wet) desiccant before heat is added from the external source (fossil or solar). The latent heat of vaporization of the moisture removed from the desiccant is reclaimed in this manner. The sensible heat of the regenerated desiccant is utilized in the open loop drying cycle. Also, closed cycle operation implies that no net energy is expended in heating drying air.

  6. High Efficiency Liquid-Desiccant Regenerator for Air Conditioning and Industrial Drying

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrew Lowenstein

    2005-12-19

    Over 2 quads of fossil fuels are used each year for moisture removal. This includes industrial and agricultural processes where feedstocks and final products must be dried, as well as comfort conditioning of indoor spaces where the control of humidity is essential to maintaining healthy, productive and comfortable working conditions. Desiccants, materials that have a high affinity for water vapor, can greatly reduce energy use for both drying and dehumidification. An opportunity exists to greatly improve the competitiveness of advanced liquid-desiccant systems by increasing the efficiency of their regenerators. It is common practice within the chemical process industry to use multiple stage boilers to improve the efficiency of thermal separation processes. The energy needed to regenerate a liquid desiccant, which is a thermal separation process, can also be reduced by using a multiple stage boiler. In this project, a two-stage regenerator was developed in which the first stage is a boiler and the second stage is a scavenging-air regenerator. The only energy input to this regenerator is the natural gas that fires the boiler. The steam produced in the boiler provides the thermal energy to run the second-stage scavenging-air regenerator. This two-stage regenerator is referred to as a 1?-effect regenerator. A model of the high-temperature stage of a 1?-effect regenerator for liquid desiccants was designed, built and successfully tested. At nominal operating conditions (i.e., 2.35 gpm of 36% lithium chloride solution, 307,000 Btu/h firing rate), the boiler removed 153 lb/h of water from the desiccant at a gas-based efficiency of 52.9 % (which corresponds to a COP of 0.95 when a scavenging-air regenerator is added). The steam leaving the boiler, when condensed, had a solids concentration of less than 10 ppm. This low level of solids in the condensate places an upper bound of about 6 lb per year for desiccant loss from the regenerator. This low loss will not create

  7. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioning: General Guidance and Site Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Deru, M.; Clark, J.

    2014-09-01

    Dehumidification or latent cooling in buildings is an area of growing interest that has been identified as needing more research and improved technologies for higher performance. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems typically expend excessive energy by using overcool-and-reheat strategies to dehumidify buildings. These systems first overcool ventilation air to remove moisture and then reheat the air to meet comfort requirements. Another common strategy incorporates solid desiccant rotors that remove moisture from the air more efficiently; however, these systems increase fan energy consumption because of the high airside pressure drop of solid desiccant rotors and can add heat of absorption to the ventilation air. Alternatively, liquid desiccant air-conditioning (LDAC) technology provides an innovative dehumidification solution that: (1) eliminates the need for overcooling and reheating from traditional cooling systems; and (2) avoids the increased fan energy and air heating from solid desiccant rotor systems.

  8. Design of a test facility for gas-fired desiccant-based air conditioning systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A.A.; Steele, W.G.; Hodge, B.K.

    1996-12-31

    The design of a facility for testing desiccant-based air conditioning systems is presented. The determination of the performance parameters of desiccant systems is discussed including moisture removal capacity, latent and total cooling capacities, and efficiency indexes. The appropriate procedures and key measurements for determining these parameters are identified using uncertainty analysis.

  9. Indirect evaporative cooler using membrane-contained, liquid desiccant for dehumidification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozubal, Eric Joseph; Slayzak, Steven Joseph

    2014-07-08

    An indirect evaporative cooler for cooling inlet supply air from a first temperature to a second, lower temperature using a stream of liquid coolant and a stream of exhaust or purge air. The cooler includes a first flow channel for inlet supply air and a second flow channel adjacent the first for exhaust air. The first and second flow channels are defined in part by sheets of a membrane permeable to water vapor such that mass is transferred as a vapor through the membrane from the inlet supply air to a contained liquid desiccant for dehumidification and also to the exhaust air as heat is transferred from the inlet supply air to the liquid coolant. A separation wall divides the liquid desiccant and the coolant but allows heat to be transferred from the supply air to the coolant which releases water vapor to the counter or cross flowing exhaust air.

  10. Low-Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flow Liquid Desiccant Air-Conditioning: Demonstrated Performance and Cost Implications Eric Kozubal, Lesley Herrmann, and Michael Deru National Renewable Energy Laboratory Jordan Clark University of Texas, Austin Andy Lowenstein AIL Research Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-60695 September 2014 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory

  11. Solar-Powered, Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Low-Electricity Humidity Control: Report and Summary Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dean, J.; Kozubal, E.; Herrmann, L.; Miller, J.; Lowenstein, A.; Barker, G.; Slayzak, S.

    2012-11-01

    The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the capabilities of a new high-performance, liquid-desiccant dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) to enhance cooling efficiency and comfort in humid climates while substantially reducing electric peak demand at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB), which is 12 miles east of Panama City, Florida.

  12. Seminar 14 - Desiccant Enhanced Air Conditioning: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.

    2013-02-01

    This presentation explains how liquid desiccant based coupled with an indirect evaporative cooler can efficiently produce cool, dry air, and how a liquid desiccant membrane air conditioner can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification without the carryover problems of previous generations of liquid desiccant systems. It provides an overview to a liquid desiccant DX air conditioner that can efficiently provide cooling and dehumidification to high latent loads without the need for reheat, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems can outperform vapor compression based air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates, explains how liquid desiccant cooling and dehumidification systems work, and describes a refrigerant free liquid desiccant based cooling system.

  13. Zero Energy Communities with Central Solar Plants using Liquid Desiccants and Local Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burch, J.; Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.; Boranian, A.

    2012-08-01

    The zero energy community considered here consists of tens to tens-of-thousands of residences coupled to a central solar plant that produces all the community's electrical and thermal needs. A distribution network carries fluids to meet the heating and cooling loads. Large central solar systems can significantly reduce cost of energy vs. single family systems, and they enable economical seasonal heat storage. However, the thermal distribution system is costly. Conventional district heating/cooling systems use a water/glycol solution to deliver sensible energy. Piping is sized to meet the peak instantaneous load. A new district system introduced here differs in two key ways: (i) it continuously distributes a hot liquid desiccant (LD) solution to LD-based heating and cooling equipment in each home; and (ii) it uses central and local storage of both LD and heat to reduce flow rates to meet average loads. Results for piping sizes in conventional and LD thermal communities show that the LD zero energy community reduces distribution piping diameters meeting heating loads by {approx}5X and meeting cooling loads by {approx}8X for cooling, depending on climate.

  14. Open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier and hybrid solar/electric absorption refrigeration system. Annual report, January 1993--December 1993. Calendar year 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nimmo, B.G.; Thornbloom, M.D.

    1995-04-01

    This annual report presents work performed during calendar year 1993 by the Florida Solar Energy Center under contract to the US Department of Energy. Two distinctively different solar powered indoor climate control systems were analyzed: the open cycle liquid desiccant dehumidifier, and an improved efficiency absorption system which may be fired by flat plate solar collectors. Both tasks represent new directions relative to prior FSEC research in Solar Cooling and Dehumidification.

  15. Method and apparatus for extracting water from air using a desiccant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry L.; Callow, Diane Schafer

    2003-01-01

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for extracting liquid water from moist air using minimal energy input. The method can be considered as four phases: (1) adsorbing water from air into a desiccant, (2) isolating the water-laden desiccant from the air source, (3) desorbing water as vapor from the desiccant into a chamber, and (4) isolating the desiccant from the chamber, and compressing the vapor in the chamber to form liquid condensate. The liquid condensate can be removed for use. Careful design of the dead volumes and pressure balances can minimize the energy required. The dried air can be exchanged for fresh moist air and the process repeated. An apparatus comprises a first chamber in fluid communication with a desiccant, and having ports to intake moist air and exhaust dried air. The apparatus also comprises a second chamber in fluid communication with the desiccant. The second chamber allows variable internal pressure, and has a port for removal of liquid condensate. Each chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with the desiccant. The first chamber can be configured to be isolated or in communication with a course of moist air. Various arrangements of valves, pistons, and chambers are described.

  16. Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and system developers with information on appropriate applications, basic system design and sizing principles, and cost and performance of desiccant systems alone and as part of ...

  17. Desiccant contamination research: Report on the desiccant contamination test facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Bingham, C.E.

    1991-07-01

    The activity in the cooling systems research involves research on high performance dehumidifiers and chillers that can operate efficiently with the variable thermal outputs and delivery temperatures associated with solar collectors. It also includes work on advanced passive cooling techniques. This report describes the work conducted to improve the durability of solid desiccant dehumidifiers by investigating the causes of degradation of desiccant materials from airborne contaminants and thermal cycling. The performance of a dehumidifier strongly depends on the physical properties and durability of the desiccant material. To make durable and reliable dehumidifiers, an understanding is needed of how and to what degree the performance of a dehumidifier is affected by desiccant degradation. This report, an account of work under Cooling Systems Research, documents the efforts to design and fabricate a test facility to investigate desiccant contamination based on industry and academia recommendations. It also discusses the experimental techniques needed for obtaining high-quality data and presents plans for next year. Researchers of the Mechanical and Industrial Technology Division performed this work at the Solar Energy Research Institute in FY 1988 for DOE's Office of Solar Heat Technologies. 7 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Distributed Energy Technology Characterization (Desiccant Technologies), January 2004

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Desiccant technology and applications, and designing them for utilization of available thermal energy in a combined heat and power (CHP) system.

  19. Design, Installation, and Field Verification of Integrated Active Desiccant Hybrid Rooftop Systems Combined with a Natural Gas Driven Cogeneration Package, 2008

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Report summary of a research/demonstration project involving a custom 230 kW cogeneration package with four integrated active desiccant rooftop (IADR) systems

  20. Liquid Observation Well (LOW) Functional Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, B.

    1995-01-04

    This document presents the Functional Design Criteria for installing Liquid Observation Wells (LOWS) into single-shell tanks containing either ferrocyanide or organic waste. The LOWs will be designed to accommodate the deployment of gamma, neutron, and electromagnetic induction probes and to interface with the existing tank structure and environment.

  1. Composite desiccant structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, Anthony V. (Hawthorn Woods, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

  2. Composite desiccant structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fraioli, A.V.; Schertz, W.W.

    1984-06-06

    This patent discloses a composite formed of small desiccant particles retained in a dark matrix composed of a porous binder containing a transition metal oxide with pores to provide moisture transport with respect to the particles, and metallic fibers to remove the heat of condensation during dehumidification and provide heat for the removal of moisture during regeneration. The moisture absorbing properties of the composite may be regenerated by exposure of the dark matrix to solar radiation with dehumidification occurring at night.

  3. Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning Lab Breakthrough: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning May 29, 2012 - 5:22pm Addthis This breakthrough combines desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90 percent less electricity and up to 80 percent less total energy than traditional air conditioning. This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air

  4. Advances in open-cycle solid desiccant cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, T R; Maclaine-cross, I

    1985-05-01

    Of the solar cooling options available open cycle solid desiccant cooling looks very promising. A brief review of the experimental and analytical efforts to date shows that within the last 10 years thermal performance has doubled. Research centers have been developed to explore new materials and geometry options and to improve and validate mathematical models that can be used by design engineers to develop new product lines. Typical results from the Solar Energy Research Institute's (SERI) Desiccant Cooling Research Program are shown. Innovative ideas for new cycles and spinoff benefits provide incentives to continue research in this promising field.

  5. Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air-Conditioning (DEVap): Evaluation of a New Concept in Ultra Efficient Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Burch, J.; Boranian, A.; Merrigan, T.

    2011-01-01

    NREL has developed the novel concept of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVap) with the objective of combining the benefits of liquid desiccant and evaporative cooling technologies into an innovative 'cooling core.' Liquid desiccant technologies have extraordinary dehumidification potential, but require an efficient cooling sink. DEVap's thermodynamic potential overcomes many shortcomings of standard refrigeration-based direct expansion cooling. DEVap decouples cooling and dehumidification performance, which results in independent temperature and humidity control. The energy input is largely switched away from electricity to low-grade thermal energy that can be sourced from fuels such as natural gas, waste heat, solar, or biofuels.

  6. Need for desiccant in containers exposed to atmospheric conditions for long periods of time

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mead, K.E.

    1981-11-01

    Current component and system designs are required to perform satisfactorily up to 25 years. A maximum leak rate of 1 x 10/sup -6/ cc(STP) helium/sec-atm is a frequent requirement for component containers. Calculations show that undesiccated component containers continuously exposed to 50% relative humidity at 20/sup 0/C and having an internal free volume of less than 300 cc and the above leak rate will allow the internal dew point to rise enough for potential liquid condensation in less than four years. For the same vapor pressure differential, the moisture permeation rate through one linear inch of silicone o-ring is 750 times as fast as moisture enters a welded container whose leak rate is 1 x 10/sup -6/ cc(STP) helium/sec-atm. For ethylene propylene o-ring material this ratio is about 13. These values correspond to the ratios of the quantities of desiccant required to maintain an acceptable dew point temperature when the moisture capacity of the free volume is not included. Charts are provided for estimating the amount of desiccant required for helium leak tested containers and for containers sealed with elastomeric o-rings.

  7. Desiccant-Based Preconditioning Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, J.

    2001-01-11

    A number of important conclusions can be drawn as a result of this broad, first-phase market evaluation. The more important conclusions include the following: (1) A very significant market opportunity will exist for specialized outdoor air-handling units (SOAHUs) as more construction and renovation projects are designed to incorporate the recommendations made by the ASHRAE 62-1989 standard. Based on this investigation, the total potential market is currently $725,000,000 annually (see Table 6, Sect. 3). Based on the market evaluations completed, it is estimated that approximately $398,000,000 (55%) of this total market could be served by DBC systems if they were made cost-effective through mass production. Approximately $306,000,000 (42%) of the total can be served by a non-regenerated, desiccant-based total recovery approach, based on the information provided by this investigation. Approximately $92,000,000 (13%) can be served by a regenerated desiccant-based cooling approach (see Table 7, Sect. 3). (2) A projection of the market selling price of various desiccant-based SOAHU systems was prepared using prices provided by Trane for central-station, air-handling modules currently manufactured. The wheel-component pricing was added to these components by SEMCO. This resulted in projected pricing for these systems that is significantly less than that currently offered by custom suppliers (see Table 4, Sect. 2). Estimated payback periods for all SOAHU approaches were quite short when compared with conventional over-cooling and reheat systems. Actual paybacks may vary significantly depending on site-specific considerations. (3) In comparing cost vs benefit of each SOAHU approach, it is critical that the total system design be evaluated. For example, the cost premium of a DBC system is very significant when compared to a conventional air handling system, yet the reduced chiller, boiler, cooling tower, and other expense often equals or exceeds this premium, resulting in a

  8. Polymers as Advanced Materials for Desiccant Applications: 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czanderna, A. W.

    1988-12-01

    This research is concerned with solid materials used as desiccants for desiccant cooling systems that process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce net cooling.

  9. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozubal, E.; Woods, J.; Judkoff, R.

    2012-04-01

    This report documents the design of a desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP AC) prototype and the testing to prove its performance. Previous numerical modeling and building energy simulations indicate a DEVAP AC can save significant energy compared to a conventional vapor compression AC (Kozubal et al. 2011). The purposes of this research were to build DEVAP prototypes, test them to validate the numerical model, and identify potential commercialization barriers.

  10. Experiments on sorption hysteresis of desiccant materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.; Zangrando, F.

    1984-08-01

    Solid desiccant cooling systems take advantage of solar energy for air conditioning. The process involves passing air through a desiccant bed for drying and subsequent evaporative cooling to provide the air conditioning. The desiccant is then regenerated with hot air provided by a gas burner or solar collectors. This performance is limited by the capacity of the desiccant, its sorption properties, and the long-term stability of the desiccant material under cyclic operation conditions. Therefore, we have developed a versatile test facility to measure the sorption properties of candidate solid desiccant materials under dynamic conditions, under different geometrical configurations, and under a broad range of process air stream conditions, characteristic of desiccant dehumidifer operation. We identified a dependence of the sorption processes on air velocity and the test cell aspect ratio and the dynamic hysteresis between adsorption and desorption processes. These experiments were geared to provide data on the dynamic performance of silica gel in a parallel-passage configuration to prepare for tests with a rotary dehumidifier that will be conducted at SERI in late FY 1984. We also recommend improving the accuracy of the isotopic perturbation technique.

  11. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-12-31

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  12. A desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine industrial cogeneration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Karvelas, D.E.; Teotia, A.P.S.

    1993-01-01

    An integrated desiccant/steam-injected gas-turbine system was evaluated as an industrial cogenerator for the production of electricity and dry, heated air for product drying applications. The desiccant can be regenerated using the heated, compressed air leaving the compressor. The wet stream leaves the regenerator at a lower temperature than when it entered the desiccant regenerator, but with little loss of energy. The wet stream returns to the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine system after preheating by exchanging heat with the turbine exhaust strewn. Therefore, the desiccant is regenerated virtually energy-free. In the proposed system, the moisture-laden air exiting the desiccant is introduced into the combustion chamber of the gas-turbine power system. This paper discusses various possible design configurations, the impact of increased moisture content on the combustion process, the pressure drop across the desiccant regenerator, and the impact of these factors on the overall performance of the integrated system. A preliminary economic analysis including estimated potential energy savings when the system is used in several drying applications, and equipment and operating costs are also presented.

  13. Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Ellis, R. Kaita, H. Kugel, G. Paluzzi, M. Viola and R. Nygren

    2009-02-19

    The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuumcompatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.

  14. Breakthrough Video: Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) invented a breakthrough technology that improves air conditioning in a novel way—with heat. NREL combined desiccant materials, which remove moisture from the air using heat, and advanced evaporative technologies to develop a cooling unit that uses 90% less electricity and up to 80% less total energy than traditional air conditioning (AC). This solution, called the desiccant enhanced evaporative air conditioner (DEVAP), also controls humidity more effectively to improve the comfort of people in buildings.

  15. Desiccant cooling using unglazed transpired solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A A; Wipke, K

    1992-05-01

    The use of unglazed solar collectors for desiccant regeneration in a solid desiccant cooling cycle was investigated because these collectors are lower in cost than conventional glazed flat-plate collectors. Using computer models, the performance of a desiccant cooling ventilation cycle integrated with either unglazed transpired collectors or conventional glazed flat-plate collectors was obtained. We found that the thermal performance of the unglazed system was lower than the thermal performance of the glazed system because the unglazed system could not take advantage of the heat of adsorption released during the dehumidification process. For a 3-ton cooling system, although the area required for the unglazed collector was 69% more than that required for the glazed collector, the cost of the unglazed collector array was 44% less than the cost of the glazed collector array. The simple payback period of the unglazed system was half of the payback period of the glazed collector when compared to an equivalent gas-fired system. Although the use of unglazed transpired collectors makes economic sense, some practical considerations may limit their use in desiccant regeneration. 8 refs.

  16. Design analyses of self-cooled liquid metal blankets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.

    1986-12-01

    A trade-off study of liquid metal self-cooled blankets was carried out to define the performance of these blankets and to determine the potential to operate at the maximum possible values of the performance parameters. The main parameters considered during the course of the study were the tritium breeding ratio (TBR), the blanket energy multiplication factor, the energy fraction lost to the shield, the lithium-6 enrichment in the breeder material, the total blanket thickness, the reflector material selection, and the compositions of the different blanket zones. Also, a study was carried out to assess the impact of different reactor design choices on the reactor performance parameters. The design choices include the impurity control system (limiter or divertor), the material choice for the limiter, the elimination of tritium breeding from the inboard section of tokamak reactors, and the coolant choice for the nonbreeding inboard blanket. In addition, tritium breeding benchmark calculations were performed using different transport codes and nuclear data libraries. The importance of the TBR in the blanket design motivated the benchmark calculations.

  17. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R&D) program history (focusing on DOE`s funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R&D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory`s unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  18. Desiccant cooling: State-of-the-art assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pesaran, A.A.; Penney, T.R.; Czanderna, A.W.

    1992-10-01

    The objectives of this document are to present an overview of the work accomplished to date on desiccant cooling to provide assessment of the state of the art of desiccant cooling technology in the field of desiccant material dehumidifier components, desiccant systems, and models. The report also discusses the factors that affect the widespread acceptance of desiccant cooling technology. This report is organized as follows. First, a basic description and historical overview of desiccant cooling technology is provided. Then, the recent research and development (R D) program history (focusing on DOE's funded efforts) is discussed. The status of the technology elements (materials, components, systems) is discussed in detail and a preliminary study on the energy impact of desiccant technology is presented. R D needs for advancing the technology in the market are identified. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's unique desiccant test facilities and their typical outputs are described briefly. Finally, the results of a comprehensive literature search on desiccant cooling are presented in a bibliography. The bibliography contains approximately 900 citations on desiccant cooling.

  19. Desiccant-based dehumidification system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, John C.

    2004-06-22

    The present invention provides an apparatus for dehumidifying air supplied to an enclosed space by an air conditioning unit. The apparatus includes a partition separating the interior of the housing into a supply portion and a regeneration portion. The supply portion has an inlet for receiving supply air from the air conditioning unit and an outlet for supplying air to the enclosed space. A regeneration fan creates the regeneration air stream. The apparatus includes an active desiccant wheel positioned such that a portion of the wheel extends into the supply portion and a portion of the wheel extends into the regeneration portion, so that the wheel can rotate through the supply air stream and the regeneration air stream to dehumidify the supply air stream. A heater warms the regeneration air stream as necessary to regenerate the desiccant wheel. The invention also comprises a hybrid system that combines air conditioning and dehumidifying components into a single integrated unit.

  20. Desiccant Cooling Poised for Entry into Mainstream Markets

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Market projections include retrofits of existing buildings as well as new construction. Desiccant cooling systems use materials such as titanium silica gel to remove moisture from ...

  1. Sensor and numerical simulator evaluation for porous medium desiccation and rewetting at the intermediate laboratory scale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-02-01

    Soil desiccation, in conjunction with surface infiltration control, is considered at the Hanford Site as a potential technology to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. An intermediate-scale experiment was conducted to test the response of a series of instruments to desiccation and subsequent rewetting of porous media. The instruments include thermistors, thermocouple psychrometers, dual-probe heat pulse sensors, heat dissipation units, and humidity probes. The experiment was simulated with the multifluid flow simulator STOMP, using independently obtained hydraulic and thermal porous medium properties. All instrument types used for this experiment were able to indicate when the desiccation front passed a certain location. In most cases the changes were sharp, indicating rapid changes in moisture content, water potential, or humidity. However, a response to the changing conditions was recorded only when the drying front was very close to a sensor. Of the tested instruments, only the heat dissipation unit and humidity probes were able to detect rewetting. The numerical simulation results reasonably match the experimental data, indicating that the simulator captures the pertinent gas flow and transport processes related to desiccation and rewetting and may be useful in the design and analysis of field tests.

  2. Can Ionic Liquids Be Used As Templating Agents For Controlled Design of Uranium-Containing Nanomaterials?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Visser, A.; Bridges, N.; Tosten, M.

    2013-04-09

    Nanostructured uranium oxides have been prepared in ionic liquids as templating agents. Using the ionic liquids as reaction media for inorganic nanomaterials takes advantage of the pre-organized structure of the ionic liquids which in turn controls the morphology of the inorganic nanomaterials. Variation of ionic liquid cation structure was investigated to determine the impact on the uranium oxide morphologies. For two ionic liquid cations, increasing the alkyl chain length increases the aspect ratio of the resulting nanostructured oxides. Understanding the resulting metal oxide morphologies could enhance fuel stability and design.

  3. Moving Advanced Desiccant Materials into Mainstream Non-CFC Cooling Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J. R.; Grossman, T.; Rice, C. K.; Fairchild, P. D.; Gross, I. L.

    2004-12-30

    Desiccant dehumidification technology is emerging as a technically viable alternative for comfort conditioning in many commercial and institutional buildings. Attempts to improve the indoor air quality of buildings has resulted in increasingly stringent guidelines for occupant outdoor air ventilation rates. Additionally, revised building heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) design criteria based on regional peak dew point data highlight the important of the latent (moisture removal) building load relative to the sensible (temperature) building load.

  4. Design and testing of a thermal liquid level sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levin, A.E.; Schneider, A.; Harris, J.D.; Pfeifer, H.; Croft, W.D.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid level detection is of extreme importance in nuclear reactor systems. In the event of a loss of coolant, plant operators should be able to ascertain quickly whether there is danger of the core becoming uncovered. 3 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2014

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Christian D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2014-09-01

    Over decades of operation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have released nearly 2 trillion L (450 billion gal.) of liquid into the vadose zone at the Hanford Site. Much of this discharge of liquid waste into the vadose zone occurred in the Central Plateau, a 200 km2 (75 mi2) area that includes approximately 800 waste sites. Some of the inorganic and radionuclide contaminants in the deep vadose zone at the Hanford Site are at depths below the limit of direct exposure pathways, but may need to be remediated to protect groundwater. The Tri-Party Agencies (DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology) established Milestone M 015 50, which directed DOE to submit a treatability test plan for remediation of technetium-99 (Tc-99) and uranium in the deep vadose zone. These contaminants are mobile in the subsurface environment and have been detected at high concentrations deep in the vadose zone, and at some locations have reached groundwater. Testing technologies for remediating Tc-99 and uranium will also provide information relevant for remediating other contaminants in the vadose zone. A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the DOE test plan published in March 2008 to meet Milestone M 015 50. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 3 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  6. Polymers as advanced materials for desiccant applications, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Czanderna, A.W.; Neidlinger, H.H.

    1990-09-01

    This report documents work to identify a next-generation, low-cost material with which solar energy or heat from another low-cost energy source can be used for regenerating the water vapor sorption activity of the desiccant. The objective of the work is to determine how the desired sorption performance of advanced desiccant materials can be predicted by understanding the role of the material modifications and material surfaces. The work concentrates on solid materials to be used for desiccant cooling systems and which process water vapor in an atmosphere to produce cooling. The work involved preparing modifications of polystyrene sulfonic acid sodium salt, synthesizing a hydrogel, and evaluating the sorption performances of these and similar commercially available polymeric materials; all materials were studied for their potential application in solid commercial desiccant cooling systems. Background information is also provided on desiccant cooling systems and the role of a desiccant material within such a system, and it includes the use of polymers as desiccant materials. 31 refs., 16 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... less expensive, but they supply thermal energy at a lower temperature: ... they will deliver between 50% and 60% of the incident solar radiation as hot water at 180F (82C). ...

  8. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1987-07-14

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile. 11 figs.

  9. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Stephen D.; Cerqua, Kathleen A.

    1987-01-01

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile.

  10. Advanced Development and Market Penetration of Desiccant-Based Air-Conditioning Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E A; Sand, J R; Linkous, R L; Baskin, E; Mason, D

    1998-01-01

    Desiccant Air Conditioning Systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building.

  11. Optical Design Considerations for Efficient Light Collection from Liquid Scintillation Counters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counters measure charged particle-emitting radioactive isotopes and are used for environmental studies, nuclear chemistry, and life science. Alpha and beta emissions arising from the material under study interact with the scintillation cocktail to produce light. The prototypical liquid scintillation counter employs low-level photon-counting detectors to measure the arrival of the scintillation light produced as a result of the dissolved material under study interacting with the scintillation cocktail. For reliable operation the counting instrument must convey the scintillation light to the detectors efficiently and predictably. Current best practices employ the use of two or more detectors for coincidence processing to discriminate true scintillation events from background events due to instrumental effects such as photomultiplier tube dark rates, tube flashing, or other light emission not generated in the scintillation cocktail vial. In low background liquid scintillation counters additional attention is paid to shielding the scintillation cocktail from naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM) present in the laboratory and within the instruments construction materials. Low background design is generally at odds with optimal light collection. This study presents the evolution of a light collection design for liquid scintillation counting in a low background shield. The basic approach to achieve both good light collection and a low background measurement is described. The baseline signals arising from the scintillation vial are modeled and methods to efficiently collect scintillation light are presented as part of the development of a customized low-background, high sensitivity liquid scintillation counting system.

  12. Moving Advanced Desiccant Materials into Mainstream Non-CFC Cooling Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J R; Grossman, G; Rice, C K; Fairchild, P D; Gross, I L

    1994-01-01

    Desiccant air-conditioning systems can be used as alternatives for conventional air-conditioning equipment in any commercial or residential building. Recent breakthroughs in desiccant materials technology and the creation of new markets by Indoor Air Quality issues make desiccant-based air-conditioning equipment practical for many space-conditioning applications.

  13. Design, Installation, and Field Verification of Integrated Active...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cogeneration Package, 2008 Design, Installation, and Field Verification of Integrated Active Desiccant Hybrid Rooftop Systems Combined with a Natural Gas Driven Cogeneration ...

  14. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Johnson, Christian D.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2013-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the deep vadose zone treatability test program. Desiccation technology relies on removal of water from a portion of the subsurface such that the resultant low moisture conditions inhibit downward movement of water and dissolved contaminants. Previously, a field test report (Truex et al. 2012a) was prepared describing the active desiccation portion of the test and initial post-desiccation monitoring data. Additional monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and is reported herein along with interpretation with respect to desiccation performance. This is an interim report including about 2 years of post-desiccation monitoring data.

  15. Functional design criteria for project W-252, phase II liquid effluent treatment and disposal. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1995-05-01

    This document is the Functional Design Criteria for Project W-252. Project W-252 provides the scope to provide BAT/AKART (best available technology...) to 200 Liquid Effluent Phase II streams (B-Plant). This revision (Rev. 2) incorporates a major descoping of the project. The descoping was done to reflect a combination of budget cutting measures allowed by a less stringent regulatory posture toward the Phase II streams

  16. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau. Interim Post-Desiccation Monitoring Results, Fiscal Year 2015

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Oostrom, Martinus; Johnson, Christian D.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Clayton, Ray E.; Chronister, Glen B.

    2015-09-01

    A field test of desiccation is being conducted as an element of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Program. The active desiccation portion of the test has been completed. Monitoring data have been collected at the field test site during the post-desiccation period and are reported herein. This is an interim data summary report that includes about 4 years of post-desiccation monitoring data. The DOE field test plan proscribes a total of 5 years of post-desiccation monitoring.

  17. Desiccant-Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioning. Parametric Analysis and Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, J.; Kozubal, E.

    2012-08-04

    Presented at the Second International Conference on Building Energy and Environment (COBEE2012); Boulder, Colorado; August 1-4-, 2012

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Bent-Core Mesogen-Jacketed Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen,X.; Tenneti, K.; Li, C.; Bai, Y.; Zhou, R.; Wan, X.; Fan, X.; Zhou, Q.

    2006-01-01

    We report the design, synthesis, and characterization of a series of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers with bent-core liquid crystals (BCLCs). For the first time, BCLC mesogens were directly side-attached to the polymer backbone and bent-core mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers (BMJLCPs) were achieved. Both three-ring and five-ring mesogens were employed. The n-alkoxy substituent lengths for the three-ring and five-ring BMJLCPs were controlled as n = 1-5 and n = 6-16, respectively. Various characterization techniques such as differential scanning calorimetry, wide-angle X-ray diffraction, and polarized light microscopy were used to study their mesomorphic phase behavior. The monomers of five-ring BMJLCPs with relatively long tails showed mesophase behavior. Columnar liquid crystalline phase was observed in both three-ring and five-ring BMJLCPs. Columnar rectangular ({phi}{sub R}) phase was observed in the three-ring system. In the five-ring BMJLCPs, relatively short-tail homologues possess {phi}{sub R} phase, while columnar hexagonal phase was observed in the long-tail samples. The differences in the phase structures were attributed to the 'softness' of the macromolecular BMJLCP column surface.

  19. STANDARDS CONTROLLING AIR EMISSIONS FOR THE SOIL DESICCATION PILOT TEST

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BENECKE MW

    2010-09-08

    This air emissions document supports implementation of the Treatability Test Plan for Soil Desiccation as outlined in the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau (DOE/RL-2007-56). Treatability testing supports evaluation of remedial technologies for technetium-99 (Tc-99) contamination in the vadose zone at sites such as the BC Cribs and Trenches. Soil desiccation has been selected as the first technology for testing because it has been recommended as a promising technology in previous Hanford Site technology evaluations and because testing of soil desiccation will provide useful information to enhance evaluation of other technologies, in particular gas-phase remediation technologies. A soil desiccation pilot test (SDPT) will evaluate the desiccation process (e.g., how the targeted interval is dried) and the long-term performance for mitigation of contaminant transport. The SDPT will dry out a moist zone contaminated by Tc-99 and nitrate that has been detected at Well 299-E13-62 (Borehole C5923). This air emissions document applies to the activities to be completed to conduct the SDPT in the 200-BC-1 operable unit located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site. Well 299-E13-62 is planned to be used as an injection well. This well is located between and approximately equidistant from cribs 216-B-16, 216-B-17, 216-B-18. and 216-B-19. Nitrogen gas will be pumped at approximately 300 ft{sup 3}/min into the 299-EI3-62 injection well, located approximately 12 m (39 ft) away from extraction well 299-EI3-65. The soil gas extraction rate will be approximately 150 ft{sup 3}/min. The SDPT will be conducted continuously over a period of approximately six months. The purpose of the test is to evaluate soil desiccation as a potential remedy for protecting groundwater. A conceptual depiction is provided in Figure 1. The soil desiccation process will physically dry, or evaporate, some of the water from the moist zone of interest. As such, it is

  20. Design of a reconfigurable liquid hydrogen fuel tank for use in the Genii unmanned aerial vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam, Patrick; Leachman, Jacob

    2014-01-29

    Long endurance flight, on the order of days, is a leading flight performance characteristic for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). Liquid hydrogen (LH2) is well suited to providing multi-day flight times with a specific energy 2.8 times that of conventional kerosene based fuels. However, no such system of LH2 storage, delivery, and use is currently available for commercial UAVs. In this paper, we develop a light weight LH2 dewar for integration and testing in the proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell powered, student designed and constructed, Genii UAV. The fuel tank design is general for scaling to suit various UAV platforms. A cylindrical vacuum-jacketed design with removable end caps was chosen to incorporate various fuel level gauging, pressurizing, and slosh mitigation systems. Heat and mechanical loadings were modeled to compare with experimental results. Mass performance of the fuel tank is characterized by the fraction of liquid hydrogen to full tank mass, and the insulation performance was characterized by effective thermal conductivity and boil-off rate.

  1. Method and composition for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lula, James W.; Schicker, James R.

    1984-01-01

    A method and a composition are provided for molding low density desiccant syntactic foam articles. A low density molded desiccant article may be made as a syntactic foam by blending a thermosetting resin, microspheres and molecular sieve desiccant powder, molding and curing. Such articles have densities of 0.2-0.9 g/cc, moisture capacities of 1-12% by weight, and can serve as light weight structural supports.

  2. Functional design criteria for Project W-252, Phase II Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatch, C.E.

    1994-11-10

    This document provides the functional design criteria required for the Phase 2 Liquid Effluent Treatment and Disposal Project, Project W-252. Project W-252 shall provide new facilities and existing facility modifications required to implement Best Available Technology/All Known, Available, and Reasonable Methods of Prevention, Control, and Treatment (BAT/AKART) for the 200 East Phase II Liquid Effluent Streams. The project will also provide a 200 East Area Phase II Effluent Collection System (PTECS) for connection to a disposal system for relevant effluent streams to which BAT/AKART has been applied. Liquid wastestreams generated in the 200 East Area are currently discharged to the soil column. Included in these wastestreams are cooling water, steam condensate, raw water, and sanitary wastewaters. It is the policy of the DOE that the use of soil columns to treat and retain radionuclides and nonradioactive contaminants be discontinued at the earliest practical time in favor of wastewater treatment and waste minimization. In 1989, the DOE entered into an interagency agreement with Ecology and EPA. This agreement is referred to as the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (Tri-Party Agreement). Project W-252 is one of the projects required to achieve the milestones set forth in the Tri-Party Agreement. One of the milestones requires BAT/AKART implementation for Phase II streams by October 1997. This Functional Design Criteria (FDC) document provides the technical baseline required to initiate Project W-252 to meet the Tri-Party Agreement milestone for the application of BAT/AKART to the Phase II effluents.

  3. Challenges and design solutions of the liquid hydrogen circuit at the European Spallation Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallimore, S.; Nilsson, P.; Sabbagh, P.; Takibayev, A.; Weisend II, J. G.; Beßler, Y.; Klaus, M.

    2014-01-29

    The European Spallation Source (ESS), Lund, Sweden will be a 5MW long-pulse neutron spallation research facility and will enable new opportunities for researchers in the fields of life sciences, energy, environmental technology, cultural heritage and fundamental physics. Neutrons are produced by accelerating a high-energy proton beam into a rotating helium-cooled tungsten target. These neutrons pass through moderators to reduce their energy to an appropriate range (< 5 meV for cold neutrons); two of which will use liquid hydrogen at 17 K as the moderating and cooling medium. There are several technical challenges to overcome in the design of a robust system that will operate under such conditions, not least the 20 kW of deposited heat. These challenges and the associated design solutions will be detailed in this paper.

  4. Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Development and Analysis of Desiccant Enhanced Evaporative Air Conditioner Prototype Eric Kozubal, Jason Woods, and Ron Judkoff Technical Report NREL/TP-5500-54755 April 2012 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy, operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC. National Renewable Energy Laboratory 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden, Colorado 80401 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308

  5. Design and Testing of a Liquid Nitrous Oxide and Ethanol Fueled Rocket Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Youngblood, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    A small-scale, bi-propellant, liquid fueled rocket engine and supporting test infrastructure were designed and constructed at the Energetic Materials Research and Testing Center (EMRTC). This facility was used to evaluate liquid nitrous oxide and ethanol as potential rocket propellants. Thrust and pressure measurements along with high-speed digital imaging of the rocket exhaust plume were made. This experimental data was used for validation of a computational model developed of the rocket engine tested. The developed computational model was utilized to analyze rocket engine performance across a range of operating pressures, fuel-oxidizer mixture ratios, and outlet nozzle configurations. A comparative study of the modeling of a liquid rocket engine was performed using NASA CEA and Cantera, an opensource equilibrium code capable of being interfaced with MATLAB. One goal of this modeling was to demonstrate the ability of Cantera to accurately model the basic chemical equilibrium, thermodynamics, and transport properties for varied fuel and oxidizer operating conditions. Once validated for basic equilibrium, an expanded MATLAB code, referencing Cantera, was advanced beyond CEAs capabilities to predict rocket engine performance as a function of supplied propellant flow rate and rocket engine nozzle dimensions. Cantera was found to comparable favorably to CEA for making equilibrium calculations, supporting its use as an alternative to CEA. The developed rocket engine performs as predicted, demonstrating the developedMATLAB rocket engine model was successful in predicting real world rocket engine performance. Finally, nitrous oxide and ethanol were shown to perform well as rocket propellants, with specific impulses experimentally recorded in the range of 250 to 260 seconds.

  6. Laboratory and Modeling Evaluations in Support of Field Testing for Desiccation at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Strickland, Christopher E.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Tartakovsky, Guzel D.; Ward, Anderson L.

    2011-02-23

    The Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test Plan for the Hanford Central Plateau includes testing of the desiccation technology as a potential technology to be used in conjunction with surface infiltration control to limit the flux of technetium and other contaminants in the vadose zone to the groundwater. Laboratory and modeling efforts were conducted to investigate technical uncertainties related to the desiccation process and its impact on contaminant transport. This information is intended to support planning, operation, and interpretation of a field test for desiccation in the Hanford Central Plateau.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Soil Desiccation for Vadose Zone Remediation: Report for Fiscal Year 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, Andy L.; Oostrom, Mart; Bacon, Diana H.

    2008-02-04

    Apart from source excavation, the options available for the remediation of vadose zone metal and radionuclide contaminants beyond the practical excavation depth (0 to 15 m) are quite limited. Of the available technologies, very few are applicable to the deep vadose zone with the top-ranked candidate being soil desiccation. An expert panel review of the work on infiltration control and supplemental technologies identified a number of knowledge gaps that would need to be overcome before soil desiccation could be deployed. The report documents some of the research conducted in the last year to fill these knowledge gaps. This work included 1) performing intermediate-scale laboratory flow cell experiments to demonstrate the desiccation process, 2) implementing a scalable version of Subsurface Transport Over Multiple Phases–Water-Air-Energy (STOMP-WAE), and 3) performing numerical experiments to identify the factors controlling the performance of a desiccation system.

  8. Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test for the Hanford Central Plateau: Soil Desiccation Pilot Test Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Strickland, Christopher E.; Johnson, Timothy C.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Johnson, Christian D.; Greenwood, William J.; Ward, Anderson L.; Clayton, Ray E.; Lindberg, Michael J.; Peterson, John E.; Hubbard, Susan; Chronister, Glen B.; Benecke, Mark W.

    2012-05-01

    This report describes results of a pilot test of soil desiccation conducted as part of the Deep Vadose Zone Treatability Test program. The report is written in CERCLA treatabilty test report format.

  9. Method and composition for molding low-density desiccant syntactic-foam articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-12-07

    These and other objects of the invention are achieved by a process for molding to size a desiccant syntactic foam article having a density of 0.2 to 0.9 g/cc and a moisture capacity of 1 to 12% by weight, comprising the steps of: charging a mold with a powdery mixture of an activated desiccant, microspheres and a thermosetting resin, the amount of the desiccant being sufficient to provide the required moisture capacity, and the amounts of the microspheres and resin being such that the microspheres/desiccant volume fraction exceeds the packing factor by an amount sufficient to substantially avoid shrinkage without causing excessively high molding pressures; covering the mold and heating the covered mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to melt the resin; and tightly closing the mold and heating the closed mold to a temperature and for an amount of time sufficient to cure the resin, and removing the resultant desiccant syntactic foam article from the mold. In a composition of matter aspect, the present invention provides desiccant syntactic foam articles, and a composition of matter for use in molding the same.

  10. Overview of the design, construction, and operation of interstate liquid petroleum pipelines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pharris, T. C.; Kolpa, R. L.

    2008-01-31

    /International Arctic Research Center, both located in Fairbanks (Barboza and Trebelhorn 2001), available electronically at http://www.gi.alaska.edu/services/library/pipeline.html codes. The Association of Oil Pipe Lines (AOPL) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) jointly provide an overview covering the life cycle of design, construction, operations, maintenance, economic regulation, and deactivation of liquid pipelines (AOPL/API 2007).

  11. Refining and end use study of coal liquids. Topical report: Petroleum Refinery; Linear Programming Model; and Design Basis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-03-01

    A model was developed for use in the Bechtel PIMS (Process Industry Modeling System) linear programming software to simulate a generic Midwest (PADD II) petroleum refinery of the future. This ``petroleum-only`` version of the model establishes the size and complexity of the refinery after the year 2000 and prior to the introduction of coal liquids. It should be noted that no assumption has been made on when a plant can be built to produce coal liquids except that it will be after the year 2000. The year 2000 was chosen because it is the latest year where fuel property and emission standards have been set by the Environmental Protection Agency. It assumes the refinery has been modified to accept crudes that are heavier in gravity and higher in sulfur than today`s average crude mix. In addition, the refinery has also been modified to produce a product slate of transportation fuels of the future (i.e. 40% reformulated gasolines). This model will be used as a basis for determining the optimum scheme for processing coal liquids in a petroleum refinery. This report summarizes the design basis for this ``petroleum only`` LP refinery model. A report detailing the refinery configuration when coal liquids are processed will be provided at a later date.

  12. Advanced conceptual design report. Phase II. Liquid effluent treatment and disposal Project W-252

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-01-31

    This Advanced Conceptual Design Report (ACDR) provides a documented review and analysis of the Conceptual Design Report (CDR), WHC-SD-W252-CDR-001, June 30, 1993. The ACDR provides further design evaluation of the major design approaches and uncertainties identified in the original CDR. The ACDR will provide a firmer basis for the both the design approach and the associated planning for the performance of the Definitive Design phase of the project.

  13. Performance Assessment of a Desiccant Cooling System in a CHP Application with an IC Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. A.; Slayzak, S.; Judkoff, R.; Schaffhauser, T.; DeBlasio, R.

    2005-04-01

    Performance of a desiccant cooling system was evaluated in the context of combined heat and power (CHP). The baseline system incorporated a desiccant dehumidifier, a heat exchanger, an indirect evaporative cooler, and a direct evaporative cooler. The desiccant unit was regenerated through heat recovery from a gas-fired reciprocating internal combustion engine. The system offered sufficient sensible and latent cooling capacities for a wide range of climatic conditions, while allowing influx of outside air in excess of what is typically required for commercial buildings. Energy and water efficiencies of the desiccant cooling system were also evaluated and compared with those of a conventional system. The results of parametric assessments revealed the importance of using a heat exchanger for concurrent desiccant post cooling and regeneration air preheating. These functions resulted in enhancement of both the cooling performance and the thermal efficiency, which are essential for fuel utilization improvement. Two approaches for mixing of the return air and outside air were examined, and their impact on the system cooling performance and thermal efficiency was demonstrated. The scope of the parametric analyses also encompassed the impact of improving the indirect evaporative cooling effectiveness on the overall cooling system performance.

  14. Technique for compressing light intensity ranges utilizing a specifically designed liquid crystal notch filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten metal in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. To accomplish this, the assembly utilizes the combination of interference filter and a liquid crystal notch filter. The latter which preferably includes a cholesteric liquid crystal arrangement is configured to pass light at all wavelengths, except a relatively narrow wavelength band which defines the filter's notch, and includes means for causing the notch to vary to at least a limited extent with the intensity of light at its light incidence surface.

  15. Hollow fiber-supported designer ionic liquid sponges for post-combustion CO2 scrubbing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, JS; Hillesheim, PC; Huang, DK; Lively, RP; Oh, KH; Dai, S; Koros, WJ

    2012-11-30

    A proof of concept study for a new type of carbon capture system is considered for post-combustion CO2 capture based on porous hollow fiber sorbents with ionic liquids sorbed in the cell walls of the fiber. This study proves that delicate morphological features in the open-celled porous wall can be maintained during the infusion process. Mixtures of task specific ionic liquid (i.e. [BMIM][Tf2N]) and superbase (i.e. DBU) were loaded into polyamide-imide (PAI) fibers by a so-called two-step non-solvent infusion protocol. In the protocol, methanol carries ionic liquids into the pore cell walls of hollow fibers and then hexane carries superbase to create an efficient CO2 sorbent. Our ionic liquid/superbase impregnation technique overcomes a serious increase in mass transfer resistance upon reaction with CO2, thereby allowing its large scale utilization for post-combustion CO2 capture. The investigation on the effect of different pore former additives (different molecular weights of polyvinylpyrrolidone, lithium nitrate, and their mixtures) suggested that a large molecular weight of PVP (M-w; 1300k) including dope composition produces highly interconnected open cell pore structures of PAI hollow fibers. Lastly, a lumen side barrier layer was successfully formed on the bore side of neat PAI fibers by using a mixture of Neoprene (R) with crosslinking agents (TSR-633) via a post-treatment process. The lumen layer will enable heat removal from the fiber sorbents during their application in rapid thermal swing cycling processes. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Performance predictions of silica-gel desiccant dehumidifiers. Technical report No. 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathiprakasam, B.; Lavan, Z.

    1980-01-01

    The analysis of a cross-cooled desiccant dehumidifier using silica gel in the form of sheets is described. This unit is the principal component of solar powered desiccant air conditioning system. The mathematical model has first been formulated describing the dynamics of the dehumidifier. The model leads to a system of nonlinear coupled heat and mass transfer equations for the sorption processes and linear heat transfer equations for the purging processes. The model accounts for the gas film resistance and for the moisture diffusion in the desiccant. The governing equations are solved by a finite difference scheme to obtain periodic steady state solutions. The accuracy of the theoretical predictions is ascertained by comparing them with the experimental results. The performance of the dehumidifier, for a chosen set of initial conditions and dehumidifier parameters, has also been given.

  17. Effects of temperature on desiccant catalysis of refrigerant and lubricant decomposition. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rohatgi, N.D.T.

    1998-06-01

    Accelerated aging at high temperatures (149 C) for short aging times (28 days) is effective in screening the compatibility of different materials in refrigeration systems. However, in actual applications temperatures are usually lower and operating times much longer. Therefore plots to allow for interpolation or extrapolation of experimental data to actual operating conditions are needed. In the current study, aging of refrigerant/lubricant/desiccant/metal systems was conducted at five different temperatures, and for each temperature at four different aging times. The data collected from this study provided plots relating refrigerant or lubricant decomposition to aging time, aging temperature, and type of desiccant, which can be used for interpolation or extrapolation.

  18. Low-level liquid radioactive waste treatment at Murmansk, Russia: Technical design and review of facility upgrade and expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.S.; Diamante, J.M.; Duffey, R.B.

    1996-07-01

    The governments of Norway and the US have committed their mutual cooperation and support the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to expand and upgrade the Low-Level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLRW) treatment system located at the facilities of the Russian company RTP Atomflot, in Murmansk, Russia. RTP Atomflot provides support services to the Russian icebreaker fleet operated by the MSCo. The objective is to enable Russia to permanently cease disposing of this waste in Arctic waters. The proposed modifications will increase the facility`s capacity from 1,200 m{sup 3} per year to 5,000 m{sup 3} per year, will permit the facility to process high-salt wastes from the Russian Navy`s Northern fleet, and will improve the stabilization and interim storage of the processed wastes. The three countries set up a cooperative review of the evolving design information, conducted by a joint US and Norwegian technical team from April through December, 1995. To ensure that US and Norwegian funds produce a final facility which will meet the objectives, this report documents the design as described by Atomflot and the Russian business organization, ASPECT, both in design documents and orally. During the detailed review process, many questions were generated, and many design details developed which are outlined here. The design is based on the adsorption of radionuclides on selected inorganic resins, and desalination and concentration using electromembranes. The US/Norwegian technical team reviewed the available information and recommended that the construction commence; they also recommended that a monitoring program for facility performance be instituted.

  19. Design of the reactor vessel inspection robot for the advanced liquid metal reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spelt, P.F.; Crane, C.; Feng, L.; Abidi, M.; Tosunoglu, S.

    1994-06-01

    A consortium of four universities and Oak Ridge National Laboratory designed a prototype wall-crawling robot to perform weld inspection in an advanced nuclear reactor. The restrictions of the inspection environment presented major challenges to the team. These challenges were met in the prototype, which has been tested in a mock non-hostile environment and shown to perform as expected, as detailed in this report.

  20. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  1. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

    2001-10-30

    This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the second half year (April 1, 2001-September 30, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

  2. DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF GAS-LIQUID CYLINDRICAL CYCLONE COMPACT SEPARATORS FOR THREE-PHASE FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ram S. Mohan; Dr. Ovadia Shoham

    2001-04-30

    This report presents a brief overview of the activities and tasks accomplished during the first half year (October 1, 2000-March 31, 2001) of the fourth project year budget period (October 1, 2000-September 30, 2001). An executive summary is presented initially followed by the tasks of the current budget period. Then, detailed description of the experimental and modeling investigations are presented. Subsequently, the technical and scientific results of the activities of this project period are presented with some discussions. The findings of this investigation are summarized in the ''Conclusions'' section followed by relevant references. The fourth project year activities are divided into three main parts, which are carried out in parallel. The first part is continuation of the experimental program that includes a study of the oil/water two-phase behavior at high pressures and control system development for the three-phase GLCC{copyright}. This investigation will be eventually extended for three-phase flow. The second part consists of the development of a simplified mechanistic model incorporating the experimental results and behavior of dispersion of oil in water and water in oil. This will provide an insight into the hydrodynamic flow behavior and serve as the design tool for the industry. Although useful for sizing GLCC{copyright} for proven applications, the mechanistic model will not provide detailed hydrodynamic flow behavior information needed to screen new geometric variations or to study the effect of fluid property variations. Therefore, in the third part, the more rigorous approach of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) will be utilized. Multidimensional multiphase flow simulation at high pressures and for real crude conditions will provide much greater depth into the understanding of the physical phenomena and the mathematical analysis of three-phase GLCC{copyright} design and performance.

  3. Status report on an engineering design study of hermetic liquid argon calorimetry for the SSC (Superconducting Super Collider)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.; Davis, M.; DiGiacomo, N.J.; Easom, B.; Gordon, H.; Hupp, J.; Killian, K.; Kroon, P.; Lajczok, M.; Marx, M. . Astronautics Group; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO . Astronautics Group; Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY; Martin Marietta Aerospace, Denver, CO . Astronautics Group; State Un

    1989-01-01

    There is general recognition that engineering issues are critical to the viability of liquid argon calorimetry (LAC) at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). We have undertaken to quantitatively address these issues and, if possible, perform a preliminary design of a proof of principle'' LAC for SSC. To establish LAC as viable at SSC, we must demonstrate that the physics performance of the device is acceptable, despite the presence of dead material due to vessels and support structure. Our approach involves the construction, by a team of physicists and engineers, of one three dimensional model of the LAC system, built as a hierarchy of components and structures, from which we directly perform interferences checks, mechanical, thermal and magnetic analyses, particle tracking, hermeticity evaluation, physics simulation and assembly. This study, begun in February 1989 as part of the SSC generic detector R and D program, was immediately preceded by a workshop at which engineering details of existing and planned LAC systems were thoroughly examined. We describe below the status of our work, beginning with short descriptions of the tools used, the study requirements and LAC configuration baseline. We then detail the LAC design as it presently stands, including assembly considerations, and conclude with a quantitative assessment of the LAC hermeticity. 19 refs., 12 figs.

  4. Effects of Porous Medium Heterogeneity on Vadose Zone Desiccation: Intermediate-scale Laboratory Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Martinus; Freedman, Vicky L.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Dane, Jacob H.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-11-01

    Soil desiccation (drying), involving water evaporation induced by dry gas injection, is a potentially robust vadose zone remediation process to limit contaminant transport through the vadose zone. A series of four intermediate-scale flow cell experiments was conducted in homogeneous and simple layered heterogeneous porous medium systems to investigate the effects of heterogeneity on desiccation of unsaturated porous media. The permeability ratios of porous medium layers ranged from about five to almost two orders of magnitude. The insulated flow cell was equipped with twenty humidity and temperature sensors and a dual-energy gamma system was used to determine water saturations at various times. The multiphase code STOMP was used to simulate the desiccation process. Results show that injected dry gas flowed predominantly in the higher permeability layer and delayed water removal from the lower permeability material. For the configurations tested, water vapor diffusion from the lower to the higher permeability zone was considerable over the duration of the experiments, resulting in much larger relative humidity values of the outgoing air than based on permeability ratios alone. Acceptable numerical matches with the experimental data were obtained when an extension of the saturation-capillary pressure relation below the residual water saturation was used. The agreements between numerical and experimental results suggest that the correct physics are implemented in the simulator and that the thermal and hydraulic properties of the porous media, flow cell wall and insulation materials were properly represented.

  5. SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. Status report. Preliminary data on the performance of a rotary parallel-passage silica-gel dehumidifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schultz, K.J.

    1986-04-01

    This report describes the SERI Desiccant Cooling Test Facility. The facility can test bench-scale rotary dehumidifiers over a wide range of controlled conditions. We constructed and installed in the test loop a prototype parallel-passage rotary dehumidifier that has spirally wound polyester tape coated with silica gel. The initial tests gave satisfactory results indicating that approximately 90% of the silica gel was active and the overall Lewis number of the wheel was near unity. The facility has several minor difficulties including an inability to control humidity satisfactorily and nonuniform and highly turbulent inlet velocities. To completely validate the facility requires a range of dehumidifier designs. Several choices are available including constructing a second parallel-passage dehumidifier with the passage spacing more uniform.

  6. Short torch design for direct liquid sample introduction using conventional and micro-nebulizers for plasma spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Montaser, Akbar; Westphal, Craig S.; Kahen, Kaveh; Rutkowski, William F.

    2008-01-08

    An apparatus and method for providing direct liquid sample introduction using a nebulizer are provided. The apparatus and method include a short torch having an inner tube and an outer tube, and an elongated adapter having a cavity for receiving the nebulizer and positioning a nozzle tip of the nebulizer a predetermined distance from a tip of the outer tube of the short torch. The predetermined distance is preferably about 2-5 mm.

  7. Experimental data and analysis to support the design of an ion-exchange process for the treatment of Hanford tank waste supernatant liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurath, D.E.; Bray, L.A.; Brooks, K.P.; Brown, G.N.; Bryan, S.A.; Carlson, C.D.; Carson, K.J.; DesChane, J.R.; Elovich, R.J.; Kim, A.Y.

    1994-12-01

    Hanford`s 177 underground storage tanks contain a mixture of sludge, salt cake, and alkaline supernatant liquids. Disposal options for these wastes are high-level waste (HLW) glass for disposal in a repository or low-level waste (LLW) glass for onsite disposal. Systems-engineering studies show that economic and environmental considerations preclude disposal of these wastes without further treatment. Difficulties inherent in transportation and disposal of relatively large volumes of HLW make it impossible to vitrify all of the tank waste as HLW. Potential environmental impacts make direct disposal of all of the tank waste as LLW glass unacceptable. Although the pretreatment and disposal requirements are still being defined, most pretreatment scenarios include retrieval of the aqueous liquids, dissolution of the salt cakes, and washing of the sludges to remove soluble components. Most of the cesium is expected to be in the aqueous liquids, which are the focus of this report on cesium removal by ion exchange. The main objectives of the ion-exchange process are removing cesium from the bulk of the tank waste (i.e., decontamination) and concentrating the separated cesium for vitrification. Because exact requirements for removal of {sup 137}Cs have not yet been defined, a range of removal requirements will be considered. This study addresses requirements to achieve {sup 137}Cs levels in LLW glass between (1) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Class C (10 CFR 61) limit of 4600 Ci/m{sup 3} and (2) 1/10th of the NRC Class A limit of 1 Ci/m{sup 3} i.e., 0.1/m{sup 3}. The required degrees of separation of cesium from other waste components is a complex function involving interactions between the design of the vitrification process, waste form considerations, and other HLW stream components that are to be vitrified.

  8. Design and construction of coal/biomass to liquids (CBTL) process development unit (PDU) at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (CAER)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Placido, Andrew; Liu, Kunlei; Challman, Don; Andrews, Rodney; Jacques, David

    2015-10-30

    This report describes a first phase of a project to design, construct and commission an integrated coal/biomass-to-liquids facility at a capacity of 1 bbl. /day at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER) – specifically for construction of the building and upstream process units for feed handling, gasification, and gas cleaning, conditioning and compression. The deliverables from the operation of this pilot plant [when fully equipped with the downstream process units] will be firstly the liquid FT products and finished fuels which are of interest to UK-CAER’s academic, government and industrial research partners. The facility will produce research quantities of FT liquids and finished fuels for subsequent Fuel Quality Testing, Performance and Acceptability. Moreover, the facility is expected to be employed for a range of research and investigations related to: Feed Preparation, Characteristics and Quality; Coal and Biomass Gasification; Gas Clean-up/ Conditioning; Gas Conversion by FT Synthesis; Product Work-up and Refining; Systems Analysis and Integration; and Scale-up and Demonstration. Environmental Considerations - particularly how to manage and reduce carbon dioxide emissions from CBTL facilities and from use of the fuels - will be a primary research objectives. Such a facility has required significant lead time for environmental review, architectural/building construction, and EPC services. UK, with DOE support, has advanced the facility in several important ways. These include: a formal EA/FONSI, and permits and approvals; construction of a building; selection of a range of technologies and vendors; and completion of the upstream process units. The results of this project are the FEED and detailed engineering studies, the alternate configurations and the as-built plant - its equipment and capabilities for future research and demonstration and its adaptability for re-purposing to meet other needs. These are described in

  9. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffmann, A.A.; Parsons, P.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, {sup 60}Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock.

  10. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  11. Imaging Liquids Using Microfluidic Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiao-Ying; Liu, Bingwen; Yang, Li

    2013-05-10

    Chemistry occurring in the liquid and liquid surface is important in many applications. Chemical imaging of liquids using vacuum based analytical techniques is challenging due to the difficulty in working with liquids with high volatility. Recent development in microfluidics enabled and increased our capabilities to study liquid in situ using surface sensitive techniques such as electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Due to its small size, low cost, and flexibility in design, liquid cells based on microfluidics have been increasingly used in studying and imaging complex phenomena involving liquids. This paper presents a review of microfluidic cells that were developed to adapt to electron microscopes and various spectrometers for in situ chemical analysis and imaging of liquids. The following topics will be covered including cell designs, fabrication techniques, unique technical features for vacuum compatible cells, and imaging with electron microscopy and spectroscopy. Challenges are summarized and recommendations for future development priority are proposed.

  12. Liquid metal thermal electric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid metal thermal electric converter which converts heat energy to electrical energy. The design of the liquid metal thermal electric converter incorporates a unique configuration which directs the metal fluid pressure to the outside of the tube which results in the structural loads in the tube to be compressive. A liquid metal thermal electric converter refluxing boiler with series connection of tubes and a multiple cell liquid metal thermal electric converter are also provided.

  13. Electrical Detector for Liquid Lithium Leaks Around Demountable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrical Detector for Liquid Lithium Leaks Around Demountable Pipe Joints This system is designed to detect leaks of liquid lithium from around demountable pipe joints. ...

  14. LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, J.D.

    1957-12-31

    This patent relates to liquid-liquid extraction columns having a means for pulsing the liquid in the column to give it an oscillatory up and down movement, and consists of a packed column, an inlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase located in the direct communication with the liquid in the lower part of said column, an inlet pipe for the continuous liquid phase and an outlet pipe for the dispersed liquid phase located in direct communication with the liquid in the upper part of said column, a tube having one end communicating with liquid in the lower part of said column and having its upper end located above the level of said outlet pipe for the dispersed phase, and a piston and cylinder connected to the upper end of said tube for applying a pulsating pneumatic pressure to the surface of the liquid in said tube so that said surface rises and falls in said tube.

  15. High-Surface-Area CO2 Sponge: High Performance CO2 Scrubbing Based on Hollow Fiber-Supported Designer Ionic Liquid Sponges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    IMPACCT Project: The team from ORNL and Georgia Tech is developing a new technology that will act like a sponge, integrating a new, alcohol-based ionic liquid into hollow fibers (magnified image, right) to capture CO2 from the exhaust produced by coal-fired power plants. Ionic liquids, or salts that exist in liquid form, are promising materials for carbon capture and storage, but their tendency to thicken when combined with CO2 limits their efficiency and poses a challenge for their development as a cost-effective alternative to current-generation solutions. Adding alcohol to the mix limits this tendency to thicken in the presence of CO2 but can also make the liquid more likely to evaporate, which would add significantly to the cost of CO2 capture. To solve this problem, ORNL is developing new classes of ionic liquids with high capacity for absorbing CO2. ORNL’s sponge would reduce the cost associated with the energy that would need to be diverted from power plants to capture CO2 and release it for storage.

  16. LIQUID TARGET

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martin, M.D.; Salsig, W.W. Jr.

    1959-01-13

    A liquid handling apparatus is presented for a liquid material which is to be irradiated. The apparatus consists essentially of a reservoir for the liquid, a target element, a drain tank and a drain lock chamber. The target is in the form of a looped tube, the upper end of which is adapted to be disposed in a beam of atomic particles. The lower end of the target tube is in communication with the liquid in the reservoir and a means is provided to continuously circulate the liquid material to be irradiated through the target tube. Means to heat the reservoir tank is provided in the event that a metal is to be used as the target material. The apparatus is provided with suitable valves and shielding to provide maximum safety in operation.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL LIQUID METAL FUEL REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Happell, J.J.; Thomas, G.R.; Denise, R.P.; Bunts, J.L. Jr.

    1962-01-23

    A liquid metal fuel nuclear fission reactor is designed in which the fissionable material is dissolved or suspended in a liquid metal moderator and coolant. The liquid suspension flows into a chamber in which a critical amount of fissionable material is obtained. The fluid leaves the chamber and the heat of fission is extracted for power or other utilization. The improvement is in the support arrangement for a segrnented graphite core to permit dif ferential thermal expansion, effective sealing between main and blanket liquid metal flows, and avoidance of excessive stress development in the graphite segments. (AEC)

  18. Analysis of the adsorption process and of desiccant cooling systems: a pseudo- steady-state model for coupled heat and mass transfer. [DESSIM, DESSIM2, DESSIM4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barlow, R.S.

    1982-12-01

    A computer model to simulate the adiabatic adsorption/desorption process is documented. Developed to predict the performance of desiccant cooling systems, the model has been validated through comparison with experimental data for single-blow adsorption and desorption. A literature review on adsorption analysis, detailed discussions of the adsorption process, and an initial assessment of the potential for performance improvement through advanced component development are included.

  19. Liquid metal thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Migliori, A.; Wheatley, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    We are studying a liquid metal thermoacoustic engine both theoretically and experimentally. This type of engine promises to produce large quantities of electrical energy from heat at modest efficiency with no moving parts. A sound wave is usually thought of as consisting of pressure oscillations, but always attendant to the pressure oscillation are temperature oscillations. The combination produces a rich variety of ''thermoacoustic'' effects. These effects are usually so small that they are never noticed in everyday life; nevertheless under the right circumstances they can be harnessed to produce powerful heat engines, heat pumps, and refrigerators. In our liquid metal thermoacoustic engine, heat flow from a high temperature source to a low temperature sink generates a high-amplitude standing acoustic wave in liquid sodium. This acoustic power is converted to electric power by a simple magnetohydrodynamic effect at the acoustic oscillation frequency. We have developed a detailed thermoacoustic theory applicable to this engine, and find that a reasonably designed liquid sodium engine operating between 700/sup 0/C and 100/sup 0/C should generate about 60 W/cm/sup 2/ of acoustic power at about 1/3 of Carnot's efficiency. Construction of a 3000 W-thermal laboratory model engine has just been completed, and we have exciting preliminary experimental results as of the time of preparation of this manuscript showing, basically, that the engine works. We have also designed and built a 1 kHz liquid sodium magnetohydrodynamic generator and have extensive measurements on it. It is now very well characterized both experimentally and theoretically. The first generator of its kind, it already converts acoustic power to electric power with 40% efficiency. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A.

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  1. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  2. Energy and economic assessment of desiccant cooling systems coupled with single glazed air and hybrid PV/thermal solar collectors for applications in hot and humid climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beccali, Marco; Finocchiaro, Pietro; Nocke, Bettina

    2009-10-15

    This paper presents a detailed analysis of the energy and economic performance of desiccant cooling systems (DEC) equipped with both single glazed standard air and hybrid photovoltaic/thermal (PV/t) collectors for applications in hot and humid climates. The use of 'solar cogeneration' by means of PV/t hybrid collectors enables the simultaneous production of electricity and heat, which can be directly used by desiccant air handling units, thereby making it possible to achieve very energy savings. The present work shows the results of detailed simulations conducted for a set of desiccant cooling systems operating without any heat storage. System performance was investigated through hourly simulations for different systems and load combinations. Three configurations of DEC systems were considered: standard DEC, DEC with an integrated heat pump and DEC with an enthalpy wheel. Two kinds of building occupations were considered: office and lecture room. Moreover, three configurations of solar-assisted air handling units (AHU) equipped with desiccant wheels were considered and compared with standard AHUs, focusing on achievable primary energy savings. The relationship between the solar collector's area and the specific primary energy consumption for different system configurations and building occupation patterns is described. For both occupation patterns, sensitivity analysis on system performance was performed for different solar collector areas. Also, this work presents an economic assessment of the systems. The cost of conserved energy and the payback time were calculated, with and without public incentives for solar cooling systems. It is worth noting that the use of photovoltaics, and thus the exploitation of related available incentives in many European countries, could positively influence the spread of solar air cooling technologies (SAC). An outcome of this work is that SAC systems equipped with PV/t collectors are shown to have better performance in terms of

  3. Conversion of cellulosic wastes to liquid hydrocarbon fuels: Vol. 6, The modeling and design of a staged indirect liquefaction reactor: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuester, J.L.

    1986-11-01

    A staged reactor was designed to convert biomass to useful fuels. The reactor consists of three stages. The first stage is a concentric combustor/pyrolyzer system where the biomass is gasified in a fluidized bed at high temperatures in the absence of oxygen. The second stage is a cyclonic scrubber where particulates and condensable materials are removed from the gas stream while the gas is cooled. In the final stage the gas undergoes a Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in a fluidized bed or slurry reactor. Mathematical models of the system were developed and used to create computer programs that would predict the behavior of the bed. The models were based on fundamental phenomena and were used to predict key dimensions of the staged reactor system. A transparent plastic, full-scale, cold flow reactor simulator was built using the models' predictions. The simulator was used to refine the models and determine the operating characteristics of the reactor. The design was determined to be workable and potentially useful. The reactor was, however, difficult to operate and would require extensive automated control systems.

  4. Documenting the Effectiveness of Cosorption of Airborne Contaminants by a Field-Installed Active Desiccant System: Final Report - Phase 2D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, J

    2003-01-23

    The final report for Phase 1 of this research effort (ORNL/SUB/94-SV004/1) concluded that a significant market opportunity would exist for active desiccant systems if it could be demonstrated that they can remove a significant proportion of common airborne contaminants while simultaneously performing the primary function of dehumidifying a stream of outdoor air or recirculated building air. If the engineering community begins to follow the intent of ASHRAE Standard 62, now part of all major building codes, the outdoor air in many major cities may need to be pre-cleaned before it is introduced into occupied spaces. Common air contaminant cosorption capability would provide a solution to three important aspects of the ASHRAE 62-89 standard that have yet to be effectively addressed by heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment manufacturers: (1) The ASHRAE standard defines acceptable outdoor air quality. If the outdoor air contains unacceptable levels of certain common outdoor air contaminants (e.g., sulfur dioxide, ozone), then the standard requires that these contaminants be removed from the outdoor air stream to reach compliance with the acceptable outdoor air quality guidelines. (2) Some engineers prefer to apply a filtration or prescriptive approach rather than a ventilation approach to solving indoor air quality problems. The ASHRAE standard recognizes this approach provided that the filtration technology exists to remove the gaseous contaminants encountered. The performance of current gaseous filtration technologies is not well documented, and they can be costly to maintain because the life of the filter is limited and the cost is high. Moreover, it is not easy to determine when the filters need changing. In such applications, an additional advantage provided by the active desiccant system would be that the same piece of equipment could control space humidity and provide filtration, even during unoccupied periods, if the active desiccant system

  5. REDISTRIBUTOR FOR LIQUID-LIQUID EXTRACTION COLUMNS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradley, J.G.

    1957-10-29

    An improved baffle plate construction to intimately mix immiscible liquid solvents for solvent extraction processes in a liquid-liquid pulse column is described. To prevent the light and heavy liquids from forming separate continuous homogeneous vertical channels through sections of the column, a baffle having radially placed rectangular louvers with deflection plates opening upon alternate sides of the baffle is placed in the column, normal to the axis. This improvement substantially completely reduces strippiig losses due to poor mixing.

  6. Liquid metal cooled divertor for ARIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muraviev, E. [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol`zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow (Russian Federation). Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

    1995-01-01

    A liquid metal, Ga-cooled divertor design was completed for the double null ARIES-II divertor design. The design analysis indicated a surface heat flux removal capability of up to 15 MW/m{sup 2}, and its relative easy maintenance. Design issues of configuration, thermal hydraulics, thermal stresses, liquid metal loop and safety effects were evaluated. For coolant flow control, it was found that it is necessary to use some part of the blanket cooling ducts for the draining of liquid metal from the top divertor. In order to minimize the inventory of Ga, it was recommended that the liquid metal loop equipment should be located as close to the torus as possible. More detailed analysis of transient conditions especially under accident conditions was identified as an issue that will need to be addressed.

  7. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  8. Gas/liquid sampler for closed canisters in KW Basin - test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitkoff, C.C.

    1995-01-23

    Test report for the gas/liquid sampler designed and developed for sampling closed canisters in the KW Basin.

  9. Liquid-Liquid Extraction Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jack D. Law; Terry A. Todd

    2008-12-01

    Solvent extraction processing has demonstrated the ability to achieve high decontamination factors for uranium and plutonium while operating at high throughputs. Historical application of solvent extraction contacting equipment implies that for the HA cycle (primary separation of uranium and plutonium from fission products) the equipment of choice is pulse columns. This is likely due to relatively short residence times (as compared to mixer-settlers) and the ability of the columns to tolerate solids in the feed. Savannah River successfully operated the F-Canyon with centrifugal contactors in the HA cycle (which have shorter residence times than columns). All three contactors have been successfully deployed in uranium and plutonium purification cycles. Over the past 20 years, there has been significant development of centrifugal contactor designs and they have become very common for research and development applications. New reprocessing plants are being planned in Russia and China and the United States has done preliminary design studies on future reprocessing plants. The choice of contactors for all of these facilities is yet to be determined.

  10. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P.

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  11. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  12. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  13. Enforcement Policy Statement: Commercial HVAC Equipment Issued...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Liquid desiccant system, desiccant wheels. Indoor or Outdoor Fan Motor with Variable Frequency Drive (VFD). A device connected electrically between the equipment's power supply ...

  14. Renewable liquid reflection grating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2003-10-07

    A renewable liquid reflection grating. Electrodes are operatively connected to a conducting liquid in an arrangement that produces a reflection grating and driven by a current with a resonance frequency. In another embodiment, the electrodes create the grating by a resonant electrostatic force acting on a dielectric liquid.

  15. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O.

    1987-01-01

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  16. Liquid-hydrogen-fueled passenger aircraft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-03-11

    This Chinese translation discusses the idea that passenger aircraft will eventually use liquid-hydrogen fuel. There is a large reserve of hydrogen and hydrogen poses no danger to the environment. Hydrogen has high calorific value, high specific heat, low density, and low temperature. Aircraft will have to have liquid fuel tanks to carry the hydrogen and will have to be partially redesigned. Lockheed and NASA have considered such designs. A problem remains in the planning--the high cost of large extraction of liquid hydrogen.

  17. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E.; Bolton, Richard D.

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  18. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  19. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M.

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  20. Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis of Liquid Fuels The proposed research project seeks to exploit the unique size-, composition-, and surface-tunable...

  1. LIQUID CYCLONE CONTACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whatley, M.E.; Woods, W.M.

    1962-09-01

    This invention relates to liquid-liquid extraction systems. The invention, an improved hydroclone system, comprises a series of serially connected, axially aligned hydroclones, each of which is provided with an axially aligned overflow chamber. The chambers are so arranged that rotational motion of a fluid being passed through the system is not lost in passing from chamber to chamber; consequently, this system is highly efficient in contacting and separating two immiscible liquids. (AEC)

  2. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J.; Lowrie, Robert S.; Sease, John D.

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  3. HV in Noble Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in Noble Liquids 8 Nov 2013 High Voltage Tests for MicroBooNE Byron Lundberg Fermilab presenting for the Collaboration & Task Force 4 1 Friday, November 8, 13 HV in Noble Liquids MicroBooNE Experiment  A liquid argon time projection chamber (LAr TPC) containing 170 tons of liquid argon, and located on the Booster Neutrino Beamline.  MiniBooNE  MicroBooNE 8,#256#wires;#U,V,Y#planes;#3#mm#spacing# 32#PMTs#for#fast#light#collec?ons# @ L A r T F 2 Friday, November 8, 13 HV in Noble

  4. RENEWABLE LIQUID GETTERING PUMP

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.

    1962-08-21

    A method and structure were developed for pumping gases by simple absorption into a liquid gettering material. The invention comprises means ror continuously pumping a liquid getterrng material from a reservoir to the top of a generally vertical surface disposed in a vacuum pumping chamber to receive gaseous and other particles in the liquid gettering material which continuously flows downward over the vertical suiface. Means are provided for continuous removal, degassing, and return of a portion of the liquid gettering material from the reservoir connected with collectrng means at the base of the generally vertical plate. (AEC)

  5. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M.; Hinz, William R.

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  6. Mixing in a liquid metal electrode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, DH; Sadoway, DR

    2014-05-01

    Fluid mixing has first-order importance for many engineering problems in mass transport, including design and optimization of liquid-phase energy storage devices. Liquid metal batteries are currently being commercialized as a promising and economically viable technology for large-scale energy storage on worldwide electrical grids. But because these batteries are entirely liquid, fluid flow and instabilities may affect battery robustness and performance. Here we present estimates of flow magnitude and ultrasound measurements of the flow in a realistic liquid metal electrode. We find that flow does substantially affect mass transport by altering the electrode mixing time. Above a critical electrical current density, the convective flow organizes and gains speed, which promotes transport and would yield improved battery efficiency. (C) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC.

  7. REFINING AND END USE STUDY OF COAL LIQUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-01-01

    This document summarizes all of the work conducted as part of the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. There were several distinct objectives set, as the study developed over time: (1) Demonstration of a Refinery Accepting Coal Liquids; (2) Emissions Screening of Indirect Diesel; (3) Biomass Gasification F-T Modeling; and (4) Updated Gas to Liquids (GTL) Baseline Design/Economic Study.

  8. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  9. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

    1985-01-29

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

  10. Precision liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Field, Michael E.; Sullivan, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

  11. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  12. Synthesis of ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

    2011-11-01

    Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

  13. Liquid heat capacity lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Scheibner, Karl F.; Ault, Earl R.

    2007-05-01

    The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

  14. Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    This report summarizes revisions to the design basis for the linear programing refining model that is being used in the Refining and End Use Study of Coal Liquids. This revision primarily reflects the addition of data for the upgrading of direct coal liquids.

  15. Arabidopsis AtSerpin1, Crystal Structure and in Vivo Interaction with Its Target Protease RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lampl, Nardy; Budai-Hadrian, Ofra; Davydov, Olga; Joss, Tom V.; Harrop, Stephen J.; Curmi, Paul M.G.; Roberts, Thomas H.; Fluhr, Robert

    2010-05-25

    In animals, protease inhibitors of the serpin family are associated with many physiological processes, including blood coagulation and innate immunity. Serpins feature a reactive center loop (RCL), which displays a protease target sequence as a bait. RCL cleavage results in an irreversible, covalent serpin-protease complex. AtSerpin1 is an Arabidopsis protease inhibitor that is expressed ubiquitously throughout the plant. The x-ray crystal structure of recombinant AtSerpin1 in its native stressed conformation was determined at 2.2 {angstrom}. The electrostatic surface potential below the RCL was found to be highly positive, whereas the breach region critical for RCL insertion is an unusually open structure. AtSerpin1 accumulates in plants as a full-length and a cleaved form. Fractionation of seedling extracts by nonreducing SDS-PAGE revealed the presence of an additional slower migrating complex that was absent when leaves were treated with the specific cysteine protease inhibitor l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido (4-guanidino)butane. Significantly, RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION-21 (RD21) was the major protease labeled with the l-trans-epoxysuccinyl-l-leucylamido (4-guanidino)butane derivative DCG-04 in wild type extracts but not in extracts of mutant plants constitutively overexpressing AtSerpin1, indicating competition. Fractionation by nonreducing SDS-PAGE followed by immunoblotting with RD21-specific antibody revealed that the protease accumulated both as a free enzyme and in a complex with AtSerpin1. Importantly, both RD21 and AtSerpin1 knock-out mutants lacked the serpin-protease complex. The results establish that the major Arabidopsis plant serpin interacts with RD21. This is the first report of the structure and in vivo interaction of a plant serpin with its target protease.

  16. Renewable liquid reflecting zone plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toor, Arthur; Ryutov, Dmitri D.

    2003-12-09

    A renewable liquid reflecting zone plate. Electrodes are operatively connected to a dielectric liquid in a circular or other arrangement to produce a reflecting zone plate. A system for renewing the liquid uses a penetrable substrate.

  17. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, L.L.

    1984-09-17

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

  18. Liquid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Larson, Loren L.

    1987-01-01

    A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

  19. Universally oriented renewable liquid mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Toor, Arthur

    2004-07-20

    A universally oriented liquid mirror. A liquid and a penetrable unit are operatively connected to provide a mirror that can be universally oriented.

  20. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

    1992-01-14

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

  1. Liquid-level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Not Available

    1981-01-29

    Aliquid level sensor is described which has a pair of upright conductors spaced by an insulator defining a first high resistance path between the conductors. An electrically conductive path is interposed between the upright conductors at a discrete location at which liquid level is to be measured. It includes a liquid accessible gap of a dimension such that the electrical resistance across the conductor when the gap is filled with the liquid is detectably less than when the gap is emptied. The conductor might also be physically altered by temperature changes to serve also as an indicator of elevated temperature.

  2. Liquid metal electric pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Joseph P.; Andraka, Charles E.; Lukens, Laurance L.; Moreno, James B.

    1992-01-01

    An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other.

  3. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

    1984-02-14

    A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

  4. Liquid level controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mangus, J.D.; Redding, A.H.

    1975-07-15

    A system for maintaining two distinct sodium levels within the shell of a heat exchanger having a plurality of J-shaped modular tube bundles each enclosed in a separate shell which extends from a common base portion. A lower liquid level is maintained in the base portion and an upper liquid level is maintained in the shell enwrapping the long stem of the J-shaped tube bundles by utilizing standpipes with a notch at the lower end which decreases in open area the distance from the end of the stand pipe increases and a supply of inert gas fed at a constant rate to produce liquid levels, which will remain generally constant as the flow of liquid through the vessel varies. (auth)

  5. Liquid blocking check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, John T.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  6. The miniCLEAN single-phase noble liquid dark mater experiment...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    which observes scintillation light from a 150kg fiducial mass liquid argon target. This detector design strategy emphasizes scalability to target masses of order 10 tons or more. ...

  7. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.

    2004-07-13

    The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  8. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  9. The CAPTAIN liquid argon neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qiuguang [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors – a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5–5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energy regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.

  10. The CAPTAIN liquid argon neutrino experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2015-01-01

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors – a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5–5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energy regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.

  11. The CAPTAIN liquid argon neutrino experiment

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Qiuguang

    2015-01-01

    The CAPTAIN liquid argon experiment is designed to make measurements of scientific importance to long-baseline neutrino physics and physics topics that will be explored by large underground detectors. The experiment employs two detectors – a primary detector with approximately 10-ton of liquid argon that will be deployed at different facilities for physics measurements and a prototype detector with 2-ton of liquid argon for configuration testing. The physics programs for CAPTAIN include measuring neutron interactions at Los Alamos Neutron Science Center, measuring neutrino interactions in medium energy regime (1.5–5 GeV) at Fermilab's NuMI beam, and measuring neutrino interactions in low energymore » regime (< 50 MeV) at stopped pion sources for supernova neutrino studies.« less

  12. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1997-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  13. Double-duct liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haaland, Carsten M.

    1995-01-01

    An internal combustion, liquid metal (LM) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) engine and an alternating current (AC) magnetohydrodynamic generator, are used in combination to provide useful AC electric energy output. The engine design has-four pistons and a double duct configuration, with each duct containing sodium potassium liquid metal confined between free pistons located at either end of the duct. The liquid metal is forced to flow back and forth in the duct by the movement of the pistons, which are alternatively driven by an internal combustion process. In the MHD generator, the two LM-MHD ducts pass in close proximity through a Hartmann duct with output transformer. AC power is produced by operating the engine with the liquid metal in the two generator ducts always flowing in counter directions. The amount of liquid metal maintained in the ducts may be varied. This provides a variable stroke length for the pistons. The engine/generator provides variable AC power at variable frequencies that correspond to the power demands of the vehicular propulsion. Also the engine should maintain nearly constant efficiency throughout the range of power usage. Automobiles and trucks could be powered by the invention, with no transmission or power converter devices being required.

  14. Liquid metal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pennell, William E.

    1982-01-01

    The liquid metal pump comprises floating seal rings and attachment of the pump diffuser to the pump bowl for isolating structural deflections from the pump shaft bearings. The seal rings also eliminate precision machining on large assemblies by eliminating the need for a close tolerance fit between the mounting surfaces of the pump and the seals. The liquid metal pump also comprises a shaft support structure that is isolated from the pump housing for better preservation of alignment of shaft bearings. The shaft support structure also allows for complete removal of pump internals for inspection and repair.

  15. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  16. Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid mixtures and solid/liquid | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing Facility spectroscopy of liquid mixtures and solid/liquid PI Name: Giulia Galli PI Email: gagalli@ucdavis.edu Institution: University of California, Davis Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 15,000,000 Year: 2011 Research Domain: Materials Science We propose to use first principle molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using semi-local and hybrid functionals to compute vibrational properties of liquid mixtures and liquid/solid interfaces, with the goal of

  17. Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

  18. Australian liquids-handling system cuts surges to LPG plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, G.; Stenner, T.D. )

    1990-08-06

    This paper reports how a pipeline liquids-handling facility recently commissioned allows gas production to be quickly ramped up to meet customer demand. Its design eliminates trouble-some liquid surges which had hampered plant operations. The pipeline-loop system, located at the Wallumbilla LPG processing plant, Queensland, was built for 60 of the cost of an equivalently sized conventional slug catcher. Its control system enables automatic, unattended handling of liquid surges and pigging slugs from the 102-km Silver Springs to Wallumbilla two-phase pipeline. Because of this system's simple hydraulics, normal slug-catcher piping design problems are eliminated. Safety is improved because the potentially hazardous condensate liquid is contained in a buried pipeline.

  19. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko; David J.

    2007-05-08

    The present invention provides barrier films having reduced gas permeability for use in packaging and coating applications. The barrier films comprise an anisotropic liquid crystalline composite layer formed from phyllosilicate-polymer compositions. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while remaining transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles in the liquid crystalline composite, barrier films comprising liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

  20. High temperature liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tokarz, Richard D. (West Richland, WA)

    1983-01-01

    A length of metal sheathed metal oxide cable is perforated to permit liquid access to the insulation about a pair of conductors spaced close to one another. Changes in resistance across the conductors will be a function of liquid level, since the wetted insulation will have greater electrical conductivity than that of the dry insulation above the liquid elevation.

  1. Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Helium Pumping Wall for a Liquid Lithium Tokamak Richard Majeski This invention is designed to be a subsystem of a device, a tokamak with walls or plasma facing components of liquid lithium. This approach to constructing the lithium-bearing walls of the tokamak allows the wall to fulfill a necessary function -- helium pumping - for which a complex structure was formerly required. The primary novel feature of the invention is that a permeable wall is used to

  2. RHIC The Perfect Liquid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01

    Evidence to date suggests that gold-gold collisions the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are indeed creating a new state of hot, dense matter, but one quite different and even more remarkable than had been predicted. Instead of behaving like a gas of free quarks and gluons, as was expected, the matter created in RHIC's heavy ion collisions appears to be more like a "perfect" liquid.

  3. Liquid film target impingement scrubber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDowell, William J.; Coleman, Charles F.

    1977-03-15

    An improved liquid film impingement scrubber is provided wherein particulates suspended in a gas are removed by jetting the particle-containing gas onto a relatively small thin liquid layer impingement target surface. The impingement target is in the form of a porous material which allows a suitable contacting liquid from a pressurized chamber to exude therethrough to form a thin liquid film target surface. The gas-supported particles collected by impingement of the gas on the target are continuously removed and flushed from the system by the liquid flow through each of a number of pores in the target.

  4. Liquid class predictor for liquid handling of complex mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Seglke, Brent W.; Lekin, Timothy P.

    2008-12-09

    A method of establishing liquid classes of complex mixtures for liquid handling equipment. The mixtures are composed of components and the equipment has equipment parameters. The first step comprises preparing a response curve for the components. The next step comprises using the response curve to prepare a response indicator for the mixtures. The next step comprises deriving a model that relates the components and the mixtures to establish the liquid classes.

  5. Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid mixtures and solid/liquid interfaces |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Molecular orbital representation of the electronic states in the first solvation shell in water. The inset shows different contributions (total, inter- and intra-molecular) to the IR stretching band of liquid water. Vibrational spectroscopy of liquid mixtures and solid/liquid interfaces PI Name: Giulia Galli PI Email: gagalli@ucdavis.edu Institution: University of California, Davis Allocation Program: INCITE Allocation Hours at ALCF: 1 Million Year: 2010

  6. Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for multifunctional, antifouling surfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-10-14

    Life creates some of its most robust, extreme surface materials not from solids but from liquids: a purely liquid interface, stabilized by underlying nanotexture, makes carnivorous plant leaves ultraslippery, the eye optically perfect and dirt-resistant, our knees lubricated and pressure-tolerant, and insect feet reversibly adhesive and shape-adaptive. Novel liquid surfaces based on this idea have recently been shown to display unprecedented omniphobic, self-healing, anti-ice, antifouling, optical, and adaptive properties. In this Perspective, we present a framework and a path forward for developing and designing such liquid surfaces into sophisticated, versatile multifunctional materials. Drawing on concepts from solid materials design andmore » fluid dynamics, we outline how the continuous dynamics, responsiveness, and multiscale patternability of a liquid surface layer can be harnessed to create a wide range of unique, active interfacial functions-able to operate in harsh, changing environments-not achievable with static solids. We discuss how, in partnership with the underlying substrate, the liquid surface can be programmed to adaptively and reversibly reconfigure from a defect-free, molecularly smooth, transparent interface through a range of finely tuned liquid topographies in response to environmental stimuli. In conclusion, with nearly unlimited design possibilities and unmatched interfacial properties, liquid materials-as long-term stable interfaces yet in their fully liquid state-may potentially transform surface design everywhere from medicine to architecture to energy infrastructure.« less

  7. Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for multifunctional, antifouling surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

    2013-10-14

    Life creates some of its most robust, extreme surface materials not from solids but from liquids: a purely liquid interface, stabilized by underlying nanotexture, makes carnivorous plant leaves ultraslippery, the eye optically perfect and dirt-resistant, our knees lubricated and pressure-tolerant, and insect feet reversibly adhesive and shape-adaptive. Novel liquid surfaces based on this idea have recently been shown to display unprecedented omniphobic, self-healing, anti-ice, antifouling, optical, and adaptive properties. In this Perspective, we present a framework and a path forward for developing and designing such liquid surfaces into sophisticated, versatile multifunctional materials. Drawing on concepts from solid materials design and fluid dynamics, we outline how the continuous dynamics, responsiveness, and multiscale patternability of a liquid surface layer can be harnessed to create a wide range of unique, active interfacial functions-able to operate in harsh, changing environments-not achievable with static solids. We discuss how, in partnership with the underlying substrate, the liquid surface can be programmed to adaptively and reversibly reconfigure from a defect-free, molecularly smooth, transparent interface through a range of finely tuned liquid topographies in response to environmental stimuli. In conclusion, with nearly unlimited design possibilities and unmatched interfacial properties, liquid materials-as long-term stable interfaces yet in their fully liquid state-may potentially transform surface design everywhere from medicine to architecture to energy infrastructure.

  8. Nonradiological liquid effluent monitoring program. 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.A.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.; Meachum, T.R.

    1993-08-01

    A monitoring program for nonradioactive parameters and pollutants in liquid effluents was initiated in October 1985 for facilities operated by EG&G Idaho, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Program design and implementation are discussed in this report. Design and methodologies for sampling, analysis, and data management are also discussed. Monitoring results for 28 liquid effluent streams from (October 1991 through December 1992) are presented with emphasis on calendar year 1992 activities. All parameter measurements and concentrations were below the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act toxic characteristics limits.

  9. Portable liquid collection electrostatic precipitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Duane C.; DeGange, John J.; Halverson, Justin E.

    2005-10-18

    A portable liquid collection electrostatic collection precipitator for analyzing air is provided which is a relatively small, self-contained device. The device has a tubular collection electrode, a reservoir for a liquid, and a pump. The pump pumps the liquid into the collection electrode such that the liquid flows down the exterior of the collection electrode and is recirculated to the reservoir. An air intake is provided such that air to be analyzed flows through an ionization section to ionize analytes in the air, and then flows near the collection electrode where ionized analytes are collected. A portable power source is connected to the air intake and the collection electrode. Ionizable constituents in the air are ionized, attracted to the collection electrode, and precipitated in the liquid. The precipitator may also have an analyzer for the liquid and may have a transceiver allowing remote operation and data collection.

  10. Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electron Bubbles in Liquid Helium and Quantum Mechanics Humphrey J. Maris Brown University September 16, 2015 4:00 p.m. An electron entering liquid helium forces open a cavity referred to as an electron bubble. These objects have been studied in many past experiments and appear to be well understood. However, experiments have revealed that in addition to these normal electron bubbles there are other negatively charged objects in liquid helium. Despite much effort the structure of these so-called

  11. LIQUID METAL COMPOSITIONS CONTAINING URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teitel, R.J.

    1959-04-21

    Liquid metal compositions containing a solid uranium compound dispersed therein is described. Uranium combines with tin to form the intermetallic compound USn/sub 3/. It has been found that this compound may be incorporated into a liquid bath containing bismuth and lead-bismuth components, if a relatively small percentage of tin is also included in the bath. The composition has a low thermal neutron cross section which makes it suitable for use in a liquid metal fueled nuclear reactor.

  12. Liquid monobenzoxazine based resin system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tietze, Roger; Nguyen, Yen-Loan; Bryant, Mark

    2014-10-07

    The present invention provides a liquid resin system including a liquid monobenzoxazine monomer and a non-glycidyl epoxy compound, wherein the weight ratio of the monobenzoxazine monomer to the non-glycidyl epoxy compound is in a range of about 25:75 to about 60:40. The liquid resin system exhibits a low viscosity and exceptional stability over an extended period of time making its use in a variety of composite manufacturing methods highly advantageous.

  13. Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-05-04

    The Cloud Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool (SEET) is a user driven Graphical User Interface (GUI) that estimates cloud supercooled liquid water (SLW) content in terms of vertical column and total mass from Moderate resolution Imaging Supercooled liquid water Estimation Tool Spectroradiometer (MODIS) spatially derived cloud products and realistic vertical cloud parameterizations that are user defined. It also contains functions for post-processing of the resulting data in tabular and graphical form.

  14. Supported liquid membrane electrochemical separators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pemsler, J. Paul; Dempsey, Michael D.

    1986-01-01

    Supported liquid membrane separators improve the flexibility, efficiency and service life of electrochemical cells for a variety of applications. In the field of electrochemical storage, an alkaline secondary battery with improved service life is described in which a supported liquid membrane is interposed between the positive and negative electrodes. The supported liquid membranes of this invention can be used in energy production and storage systems, electrosynthesis systems, and in systems for the electrowinning and electrorefining of metals.

  15. Process for preparing liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oden, Laurance L.; Turner, Paul C.; O'Connor, William K.; Hansen, Jeffrey S.

    1997-01-01

    A process for preparing radioactive and other hazardous liquid wastes for treatment by the method of vitrification or melting is provided for.

  16. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons. August 1, 2013 Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels...

  17. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C.; Hoyt, Andrea E.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  18. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  19. Liquid-permeable electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folser, George R.

    1980-01-01

    Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

  20. Method of foaming a liquid metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Albert K.; Johnson, Carl E.

    1980-01-01

    The addition of a small quantity of barium to liquid metal NaK or sodium has been found to promote foam formation and improve bubble retention in the liquid metal. A stable liquid metal foam will provide a more homogeneous liquid metal flow through the channel of a two-phase liquid metal MHD power generator to improve operating efficiency.

  1. The TPX Cryostat Conceptual Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ravenscroft, D.; Posey, A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Brown, T.

    1993-10-06

    The TPX (Tokamak Physics Experiment) will be the first tokamak to employ both superconducting TF (toroidal field) and PF (poloidal field) magnets. Consequently, the entire device is located within an evacuated cryostat to provide the necessary thermal barrier between the ambient temperature test cell and the magnets that are cooled by supercritical liquid helium at 5{degrees}K. This paper describes the cryostat design requirements, design concepts, and the cryostat fabrication and installation.

  2. Lithium-loaded liquid scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Kesanli, Banu; Neal, John S.

    2012-05-15

    The invention is directed to a liquid scintillating composition containing (i) one or more non-polar organic solvents; (ii) (lithium-6)-containing nanoparticles having a size of up to 10 nm and surface-capped by hydrophobic molecules; and (iii) one or more fluorophores. The invention is also directed to a liquid scintillator containing the above composition.

  3. Taylor Instability of Incompressible Liquids

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Fermi, E.; von Neumann, J.

    1955-11-01

    A discussion is presented in simplified form of the problem of the growth of an initial ripple on the surface of an incompressible liquid in the presence of an acceleration, g, directed from the outside into the liquid. The model is that of a heavy liquid occupying at t = 0 the half space above the plane z = 0, and a rectangular wave profile is assumed. The theory is found to represent correctly one feature of experimental results, namely the fact that the half wave of the heavy liquid into the vacuum becomes rapidly narrower while the half wave pushing into the heavy liquid becomes more and more blunt. The theory fails to account for the experimental results according to which the front of the wave pushing into the heavy liquid moves with constant velocity. The case of instability at the boundary of 2 fluids of different densities is also explored. Similar results are obtained except that the acceleration of the heavy liquid into the light liquid is reduced.

  4. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, Thomas E. (Fairfax, VA); Powell, James R. (Shoreham, NY); Lenard, Roger (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting rgy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  5. Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

    1984-12-10

    A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

  6. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, K.V.; Volkert, W.A.; Singh, P.; Ketring, A.R.

    1995-12-26

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering {sup 99}Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of {sup 99}Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester {sup 99}Tc from those liquids. 6 figs.

  7. Method for treating liquid wastes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katti, Kattesh V.; Volkert, Wynn A.; Singh, Prahlad; Ketring, Alan R.

    1995-01-01

    The method of treating liquid waste in a media is accomplished by exposing the media to phosphinimines and sequestering .sup.99 Tc from the media by the phosphinimine (PN) functionalities. The system for treating the liquid waste in the media includes extraction of .sup.99 TcO.sub.4.sup.- from aqueous solutions into organic solvents or mixed organic/polar media, extraction of .sup.99 Tc from solutions on a solid matrix by using a container containing PN functionalities on solid matrices including an inlet and outlet for allowing flow of media through an immobilized phosphinimine ligand system contained within the container. Also, insoluble suspensions of phosphinimine functionalities on solid matrices in liquid solutions or present on supported liquid membranes (SLM) can be used to sequester .sup.99 Tc from those liquids.

  8. Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) Final Hazard Category Determination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    HUTH, L.L.

    2001-06-06

    The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility was designed to store 242-A Evaporator process condensate and other liquid waste streams for treatment at the 200 East Area Effluent Treatment Facility. The Liquid Effluent Retention Facility has been previously classified as a Category 3 Nonreactor Nuclear Facility. As defined in Hazard Categorization and Accident Analysis Techniques for Compliance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports (DOE 1992, DOE 1997), Category 3 Nuclear Facilities have the potential for significant localized (radiological) consequences. However, based on current facility design, operations, and radioactive constituent concentrations, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility does not have the potential for significant localized (radiological) consequences and is categorized as a Radiological Facility. This report documents the final hazard categorization process performed in accordance with DOE Order 5480.23, Nuclear Safety Analysis Reports. This report describes the current configuration and operations of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility. Also included is a preliminary hazard categorization, which is based on current and proposed radioactive and hazardous material inventories, a preliminary hazards and accident analysis, and a final hazard category determination. The results of the hazards and accident analysis, based on the current configuration and operations of the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility and the current and proposed radioactive and hazardous material inventories, demonstrate that the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility does not have the potential for significant localized (radiological) consequences. Based on the final hazard category analysis, the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility is a Radiological Facility. The final hazard category determination is based on a comparative evaluation of the consequence basis for the Category 3 threshold quantities to the calculated consequences for credible releases The basis for

  9. Preparation and purification of ionic liquids and precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Warner, Benjamin P.; McCleskey, T. Mark; Agrawal, Anoop

    2010-07-27

    Substantially pure ionic liquids and ionic liquid precursors were prepared. The substantially pure ionic liquid precursors were used to prepare substantially pure ionic liquids.

  10. Wetted foam liquid fuel ICF target experiments

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Olson, R. E.; Leeper, R. J.; Yi, S. A.; Kline, J. L.; Zylstra, A. B.; Peterson, R. R.; Shah, R.; Braun, T.; Biener, J.; Kozioziemski, B. J.; et al

    2016-05-01

    Here, we are developing a new NIF experimental platform that employs wetted foam liquid fuel layer ICF capsules. We will use the liquid fuel layer capsules in a NIF sub-scale experimental campaign to explore the relationship between hot spot convergence ratio (CR) and the predictability of hot spot formation. DT liquid layer ICF capsules allow for flexibility in hot spot CR via the adjustment of the initial cryogenic capsule temperature and, hence, DT vapor density. Our hypothesis is that the predictive capability of hot spot formation is robust and 1D-like for a relatively low CR hot spot (CR~15), but willmore » become less reliable as hot spot CR is increased to CR>20. Simulations indicate that backing off on hot spot CR is an excellent way to reduce capsule instability growth and to improve robustness to low-mode x-ray flux asymmetries. In the initial experiments, we will test our hypothesis by measuring hot spot size, neutron yield, ion temperature, and burn width to infer hot spot pressure and compare to predictions for implosions with hot spot CR's in the range of 12 to 25. Larger scale experiments are also being designed, and we will advance from sub-scale to full-scale NIF experiments to determine if 1D-like behavior at low CR is retained as the scale-size is increased. The long-term objective is to develop a liquid fuel layer ICF capsule platform with robust thermonuclear burn, modest CR, and significant α-heating with burn propagation.« less

  11. Steam generator for liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillett, James E.; Garner, Daniel C.; Wineman, Arthur L.; Robey, Robert M.

    1985-01-01

    Improvements in the design of internal components of J-shaped steam generators for liquid metal fast breeder reactors. Complex design improvements have been made to the internals of J-shaped steam generators which improvements are intended to reduce tube vibration, tube jamming, flow problems in the upper portion of the steam generator, manufacturing complexities in tube spacer attachments, thermal stripping potentials and difficulties in the weld fabrication of certain components.

  12. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  13. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Gabe V.; Carlson, Nancy M.; Donaldson, Alan D.

    1991-01-01

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid.

  14. Molecular Design of Low Viscosity Ionic Liquid for High Performance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weatherize » Moisture Control Moisture Control Controlling moisture can make your home more energy-efficient, less costly to heat and cool, more comfortable, and prevent mold growth. Controlling moisture can make your home more energy-efficient, less costly to heat and cool, more comfortable, and prevent mold growth. Properly controlling moisture in your home will improve the effectiveness of your air sealing and insulation efforts, and these efforts in turn will help control moisture. The best

  15. WASTE TREATMENT PLANT (WTP) LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATABILITY EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2004-10-18

    A forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be produced by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP) was provided by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI 2004). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of Tank Farm waste through the end-of-mission for the WTP. The WTP forecast is provided in the Appendices. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Both facilities are located in the 200 East Area and are operated by Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) for the US. Department of Energy (DOE). The treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERF/ETF was evaluated. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERF/ETF treatability envelope (Aromi 1997), which provides information on the items which determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERF/ETF. The format of the evaluation corresponds directly to the outline of the treatability envelope document. Except where noted, the maximum annual average concentrations over the range of the 27 year forecast was evaluated against the treatability envelope. This is an acceptable approach because the volume capacity in the LERF Basin will equalize the minimum and maximum peaks. Background information on the LERF/ETF design basis is provided in the treatability envelope document.

  16. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Carlin, Richard T.

    1998-01-01

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas: ##STR1## wherein R.sub.1, R.sub.2, R.sub.3, R.sub.4, R.sub.5, and R.sub.6 are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F--, Cl--, CF.sub.3 --, SF.sub.5 --, CF.sub.3 S--, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 CHS-- or (CF.sub.3).sub.3 CS--; and X.sup.- is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 .ANG..sup.3.

  17. Hydrophobic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koch, V.R.; Nanjundiah, C.; Carlin, R.T.

    1998-10-27

    Ionic liquids having improved properties for application in non-aqueous batteries, electrochemical capacitors, electroplating, catalysis and chemical separations are disclosed. Exemplary compounds have one of the following formulas shown in a diagram wherein R{sub 1}, R{sub 2}, R{sub 3}, R{sub 4}, R{sub 5}, and R{sub 6} are either H; F; separate alkyl groups of from 1 to 4 carbon atoms, respectively, or joined together to constitute a unitary alkylene radical of from 2 to 4 carbon atoms forming a ring structure converging on N; or separate phenyl groups; and wherein the alkyl groups, alkylene radicals or phenyl groups may be substituted with electron withdrawing groups, preferably F-, Cl-, CF{sub 3}-, SF{sub 5}-, CF{sub 3}S-, (CF{sub 3}){sub 2}CHS- or (CF{sub 3}){sub 3}CS-; and X{sup {minus}} is a non-Lewis acid-containing polyatomic anion having a van der Waals volume exceeding 100 {angstrom}{sup 3}. 4 figs.

  18. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... organic base catalysts for arene hydrogenation and the hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  20. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. ... Task 2, organic base-catalyzed arene hydrogenation and hydrotreating of the coal liquids. ...

  1. Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Faidas, Homer

    1990-01-01

    This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

  2. LiquidMaize LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name: LiquidMaize, LLC Place: Denver, Colorado Zip: 80237 Product: LiquidMaize is an ethanol development and management company that builds, owns, and operates ethanol plants...

  3. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may lead to a twisting force that can modify the equilibrium state usually observed in liquid crystals, resulting...

  4. Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Energy Jump to: navigation, search Logo: Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy Name: Air Liquide Hydrogen Energy Address: 6, Rue Cognacq-Jay Place: Paris, France Zip: 75321 Sector:...

  5. "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Radiative Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor" Inventor..-- Masayuki Ono The invention utilizes liquid lithium as a radiative material. The radiative process greatly reduces the ...

  6. Synthesis of Ionic Liquids - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of Ionic Liquids Ionic Liquids for Chemical Separation Processes Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Chemical ...

  7. Liquid Transportation Fuels from Coal and Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid Tr anspor tation Fuels from Coal and Biomass Technological Status, Costs, and ... technologies for converting biomass and coal to liquid fuels that are deployable by ...

  8. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  9. Short-Term Energy Outlook Model Documentation: Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids Supply and Demand

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The hydrocarbon gas liquids (ethane, propane, butanes, and natural gasoline) module of the Short-Term Energy Outlook (STEO) model is designed to provide forecasts of U.S. production, consumption, refinery inputs, net imports, and inventories.

  10. Controlled release liquid dosage formulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benton, Ben F.; Gardner, David L.

    1989-01-01

    A liquid dual coated dosage formulation sustained release pharmaceutic having substantial shelf life prior to ingestion is disclosed. A dual coating is applied over controlled release cores to form dosage forms and the coatings comprise fats melting at less than approximately 101.degree. F. overcoated with cellulose acetate phthalate or zein. The dual coated dosage forms are dispersed in a sugar based acidic liquid carrier such as high fructose corn syrup and display a shelf life of up to approximately at least 45 days while still retaining their release profiles following ingestion. Cellulose acetate phthalate coated dosage form cores can in addition be dispersed in aqueous liquids of pH <5.

  11. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This drop-down provides the most current six months and six years of data for the table below. For complete history do one of the following: Click on a cell value in the table for the history of an individual data series. Click on the "Download All History" link for all data series shown in the table. Close Window

    Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls During the 1940s and 1950s, untreated radioactive liquids were discharged to Pueblo and

  12. Vibrational Spectroscopy of Liquid Mixtures and Solid/Liquid Interfaces |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Simulations were carried out with the Qbox code Square modulus ( blue surface) of the highest occupied orbital (HOMO) of a chloride anion (green sphere) in liquid water (oxygen and hydrogen atoms are represented by red and white spheres, respectively), as obtained with ab initio molecular dynamics simulations using hybrid functionals. The relative positions of the anion HOMO and the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM) of liquid

  13. Strings of liquid beads for gas-liquid contact operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hattori, Kenji; Ishikawa, Mitsukuni; Mori, Y.H. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-12-01

    Energy recovery from hot gases exhausted from power plants, garbage incineration facilities, and many industrial processes has been growing due to demands for saving the primary-energy consumption. A novel device for gas-liquid contact operations is proposed to feed a liquid onto wires (or threads) hanging down in a gas stream is proposed. The liquid disintegrates into beads strung on each wire at regular intervals; if the wire is moderately wettable, a thin film forms to sheathe the wire, thereby interconnecting the beads. Since the beads fall down slowly, which possibly renews the film flowing down even more slowly, a sufficient gas-liquid contact time is available even in a contactor with considerably limited height. An approximate calculation method is developed for predicting the variation in the temperature effectiveness for the liquid (the fractional approach of the liquid exit temperature to the gas inlet temperature) with the falling distance, assuming an applicability of strings-of-beads contactors to thermal energy recovery from hot gas streams.

  14. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power

  15. Shock compression of liquid hydrazine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, B.O.; Chavez, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    Liquid hydrazine (N{sub 2}H{sub 4}) is a propellant used by the Air Force and NASA for aerospace propulsion and power systems. Because the propellant modules that contain the hydrazine can be subject to debris impacts during their use, the shock states that can occur in the hydrazine need to be characterized to safely predict its response. Several shock compression experiments have been conducted in an attempt to investigate the detonability of liquid hydrazine; however, the experiments results disagree. Therefore, in this study, we reproduced each experiment numerically to evaluate in detail the shock wave profiles generated in the liquid hydrazine. This paper presents the results of each numerical simulation and compares the results to those obtained in experiment. We also present the methodology of our approach, which includes chemical kinetic experiments, chemical equilibrium calculations, and characterization of the equation of state of liquid hydrazine.

  16. Fluorescent optical liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A liquid level sensor comprising a transparent waveguide containing fluorescent material that is excited by light of a first wavelength and emits at a second, longer wavelength. The upper end of the waveguide is connected to a light source at the first wavelength through a beveled portion of the waveguide such that the input light is totally internally reflected within the waveguide above an air/liquid interface in a tank but is transmitted into the liquid below this interface. Light is emitted from the fluorescent material only in those portions of the waveguide that are above the air/liquid interface, to be collected at the upper end of the waveguide by a detector that is sensitive only to the second wavelength. As the interface moves down in the tank, the signal strength from the detector will increase.

  17. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshida, M.; Green, Michael A.; Kuno, Y.; Lau, Wing

    2010-05-30

    Liquid hydrogen absorbers for the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) have been developed, and the first absorber has been tested at KEK. In the preliminary test at KEK we have successfully filled the absorber with {approx}2 liters of liquid hydrogen. The measured hydrogen condensation speed was 2.5 liters/day at 1.0 bar. No hydrogen leakage to vacuum was found between 300 K and 20 K. The MICE experiment includes three AFC (absorber focusing coil) modules, each containing a 21 liter liquid hydrogen absorber made of aluminum. The AFC module has safety windows to separate its vacuum from that of neighboring modules. Liquid hydrogen is supplied from a cryocooler with cooling power 1.5 W at 4.2 K. The first absorber will be assembled in the AFC module and installed in MICE at RAL.

  18. LIQUID ARGON CRYOGENICS AT FERMILAB Ben Carls Fermilab

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LIQUID ARGON CRYOGENICS AT FERMILAB Ben Carls Fermilab 1 LAr Work at Fermilab 2 2007 2008 2010 2013 100% R&D 100% Physics Materials/ Electronics Test Stand LAPD ArgoNeuT * Cryostat - 150'' ID x 40 ft long x 7/16'' thick; weighs about 70,000 lbs - Full Vacuum - 30 psig - About 35,000 gal. Liquid Argon - Insulated by 16'' Closed Cell Spray on Polyurethane - Supported by 2 High Density (12- 15 pcf) Polyurethane Saddles - Ribbed design Heat load calcs performed by Glenn Morgan Cryostat at DZero

  19. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water content

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    content ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water content The concentration (mass/vol) of liquid water droplets in a cloud. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded

  20. Liquid-blocking check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrill, J.T.

    1982-09-27

    A liquid blocking check valve useful particularly in a pneumatic system utilizing a pressurized liquid fill chamber. The valve includes a floatable ball disposed within a housing defining a chamber. The housing is provided with an inlet aperture disposed in the top of said chamber, and an outlet aperture disposed in the bottom of said chamber in an offset relation to said inlet aperture and in communication with a cutaway side wall section of said housing.

  1. Waterflooding injectate design systems and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brady, Patrick V.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2014-08-19

    A method of designing an injectate to be used in a waterflooding operation is disclosed. One aspect includes specifying data representative of chemical characteristics of a liquid hydrocarbon, a connate, and a reservoir rock, of a subterranean reservoir. Charged species at an interface of the liquid hydrocarbon are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. Charged species at an interface of the reservoir rock are determined based on the specified data by evaluating at least one chemical reaction. An extent of surface complexation between the charged species at the interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock is determined by evaluating at least one surface complexation reaction. The injectate is designed and is operable to decrease the extent of surface complexation between the charged species at interfaces of the liquid hydrocarbon and the reservoir rock. Other methods, apparatus, and systems are disclosed.

  2. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Osborne, M.G.; Terpstra, R.L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled. 6 figs.

  3. Atomizer with liquid spray quenching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E.; Osborne, Matthew G.; Terpstra, Robert L.

    1998-04-14

    Method and apparatus for making metallic powder particles wherein a metallic melt is atomized by a rotating disk or other atomizer at an atomizing location in a manner to form molten droplets moving in a direction away from said atomizing location. The atomized droplets pass through a series of thin liquid quenching sheets disposed in succession about the atomizing location with each successive quenching sheet being at an increasing distance from the atomizing location. The atomized droplets are incrementally cooled and optionally passivated as they pass through the series of liquid quenching sheets without distorting the atomized droplets from their generally spherical shape. The atomized, cooled droplets can be received in a chamber having a collection wall disposed outwardly of the series of liquid quenching sheets. A liquid quenchant can be flowed proximate the chamber wall to carry the cooled atomized droplets to a collection chamber where atomized powder particles and the liquid quenchant are separated such that the liquid quenchant can be recycled.

  4. Integrated two-cylinder liquid piston Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Ning; Rickard, Robert; Pluckter, Kevin; Sulchek, Todd

    2014-10-06

    Heat engines utilizing the Stirling cycle may run on low temperature differentials with the capacity to function at high efficiency due to their near-reversible operation. However, current approaches to building Stirling engines are laborious and costly. Typically the components are assembled by hand and additional components require a corresponding increase in manufacturing complexity, akin to electronics before the integrated circuit. We present a simple and integrated approach to fabricating Stirling engines with precisely designed cylinders. We utilize computer aided design and one-step, planar machining to form all components of the engine. The engine utilizes liquid pistons and displacers to harness useful work from heat absorption and rejection. As a proof of principle of the integrated design, a two-cylinder engine is produced and characterized and liquid pumping is demonstrated.

  5. Examination of Liquid Fluoride Salt Heat Transfer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoder Jr, Graydon L

    2014-01-01

    The need for high efficiency power conversion and energy transport systems is increasing as world energy use continues to increase, petroleum supplies decrease, and global warming concerns become more prevalent. There are few heat transport fluids capable of operating above about 600oC that do not require operation at extremely high pressures. Liquid fluoride salts are an exception to that limitation. Fluoride salts have very high boiling points, can operate at high temperatures and low pressures and have very good heat transfer properties. They have been proposed as coolants for next generation fission reactor systems, as coolants for fusion reactor blankets, and as thermal storage media for solar power systems. In each case, these salts are used to either extract or deliver heat through heat exchange equipment, and in order to design this equipment, liquid salt heat transfer must be predicted. This paper discusses the heat transfer characteristics of liquid fluoride salts. Historically, heat transfer in fluoride salts has been assumed to be consistent with that of conventional fluids (air, water, etc.), and correlations used for predicting heat transfer performance of all fluoride salts have been the same or similar to those used for water conventional fluids an, water, etc). A review of existing liquid salt heat transfer data is presented, summarized, and evaluated on a consistent basis. Less than 10 experimental data sets have been found in the literature, with varying degrees of experimental detail and measured parameters provided. The data has been digitized and a limited database has been assembled and compared to existing heat transfer correlations. Results vary as well, with some data sets following traditional correlations; in others the comparisons are less conclusive. This is especially the case for less common salt/materials combinations, and suggests that additional heat transfer data may be needed when using specific salt eutectics in heat transfer

  6. Liquid membrane purification of biogas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumdar, S.; Guha, A.K.; Lee, Y.T.; Papadopoulos, T.; Khare, S. . Dept. of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering)

    1991-03-01

    Conventional gas purification technologies are highly energy intensive. They are not suitable for economic removal of CO{sub 2} from methane obtained in biogas due to the small scale of gas production. Membrane separation techniques on the other hand are ideally suited for low gas production rate applications due to their modular nature. Although liquid membranes possess a high species permeability and selectivity, they have not been used for industrial applications due to the problems of membrane stability, membrane flooding and poor operational flexibility, etc. A new hollow-fiber-contained liquid membrane (HFCLM) technique has been developed recently. This technique overcomes the shortcomings of the traditional immobilized liquid membrane technology. A new technique uses two sets of hydrophobic, microporous hollow fine fibers, packed tightly in a permeator shell. The inter-fiber space is filled with an aqueous liquid acting as the membrane. The feed gas mixture is separated by selective permeation of a species through the liquid from one fiber set to the other. The second fiber set carries a sweep stream, gas or liquid, or simply the permeated gas stream. The objectives (which were met) of the present investigation were as follows. To study the selective removal of CO{sub 2} from a model biogas mixture containing 40% CO{sub 2} (the rest being N{sub 2} or CH{sub 4}) using a HFCLM permeator under various operating modes that include sweep gas, sweep liquid, vacuum and conventional permeation; to develop a mathematical model for each mode of operation; to build a large-scale purification loop and large-scale permeators for model biogas separation and to show stable performance over a period of one month.

  7. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind Print Liquid crystals have many versatile applications but are best known for the liquid-crystal displays that drive the billion-dollar smartphone and flat-screen industries. Chirality, the absence of inversion symmetry, plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may lead to a twisting force that can modify the equilibrium state usually observed in liquid crystals, resulting in

  8. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind Print Liquid crystals have many versatile applications but are best known for the liquid-crystal displays that drive the billion-dollar smartphone and flat-screen industries. Chirality, the absence of inversion symmetry, plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may lead to a twisting force that can modify the equilibrium state usually observed in liquid crystals, resulting in

  9. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind Print Liquid crystals have many versatile applications but are best known for the liquid-crystal displays that drive the billion-dollar smartphone and flat-screen industries. Chirality, the absence of inversion symmetry, plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may lead to a twisting force that can modify the equilibrium state usually observed in liquid crystals, resulting in

  10. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind Print Wednesday, 09 December 2015 00:00 Liquid crystals have many versatile applications but are best known for the liquid-crystal displays that drive the billion-dollar smartphone and flat-screen industries. Chirality, the absence of inversion symmetry, plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may lead to a twisting force that can

  11. Nanophosphor composite scintillator with a liquid matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKigney, Edward Allen; Burrell, Anthony Keiran; Bennett, Bryan L.; Cooke, David Wayne; Ott, Kevin Curtis; Bacrania, Minesh Kantilal; Del Sesto, Rico Emilio; Gilbertson, Robert David; Muenchausen, Ross Edward; McCleskey, Thomas Mark

    2010-03-16

    An improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid comprises nanophosphor particles in a liquid matrix. The nanophosphor particles are optionally surface modified with an organic ligand. The surface modified nanophosphor particle is essentially surface charge neutral, thereby preventing agglomeration of the nanophosphor particles during dispersion in a liquid scintillator matrix. The improved nanophosphor scintillator liquid may be used in any conventional liquid scintillator application, including in a radiation detector.

  12. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind Print Liquid crystals have many versatile applications but are best known for the liquid-crystal displays that drive the billion-dollar smartphone and flat-screen industries. Chirality, the absence of inversion symmetry, plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may lead to a twisting force that can modify the equilibrium state usually observed in liquid crystals, resulting in

  13. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Delivery » Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen is most commonly transported and delivered as a liquid when high-volume transport is needed in the absence of pipelines. To liquefy hydrogen it must be cooled to cryogenic temperatures through a liquefaction process. Trucks transporting liquid hydrogen are referred to as liquid tankers. Liquefaction Gaseous hydrogen is liquefied by cooling it to below -253°C (-423°F). Once hydrogen is liquefied it can be stored at

  14. A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid A Liquid Layer Solution for the Grid September 15, 2011 - 2:47pm Addthis The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for any solid separator. The Liquid Metal Battery is comprised of liquid metal electrodes and a liquid electrolyte of differing densities, which allows the liquids to separate and stratify without the need for

  15. Thermal energy storage with liquid-liquid systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santana, E.A.; Stiel, L.I.

    1989-03-01

    The use of liquid-liquid mixtures for heat and cool storage applications has been investigated. Suitable mixtures exhibit large changes in the heat of mixing above and below the critical solution temperature of the system. Analytical procedures have been utilized to determine potential energy storage capabilities of systems with upper or lower critical solution temperatures. It has been found that aqueous systems with lower critical solution temperatures in a suitable range can result in large increases in the effective heat capacity in the critical region. For cool storage with a system of this type, the cooling process results in a transformation from two liquid phases to a single phase. Heats of mixing have been measured with a flow calorimeter system for a number of potential mixtures, and the results are summarized.

  16. Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid Calculator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-02-19

    Non-Aqueous Phase Liquid or "NPAL" is a term that most environmental professionals are familiar with because NAPL has been recognized in the literature as a significant source of groundwater contamination. There are two types of NAPL: DNAPL and LNAPL. DNAPL is a ‘dense’ non-aqueous phase liquid. In this context, dense means having a density greater than water (1.0 kg/L). Trichloroethylene (TCE) and tetrachioroethylene (PCE) are examples of DNAPL compounds. A compound that is heaver thanmore » water means this type of NAPL will sink in an aquifer. Conversely, LNAPL is a ‘light’ non-aqueous phase liquid with a density less than water, and will float on top of the aquifer. Examples of LNAPL’s are benzene and toluene. LNAPL or DNAPL often manifest as a complex, multi-component mixture of organic compounds that can occur in environmental media. Complex multi-component mixtures distributed in soil pore-air, pore-water, soil particles and in free phase complicate residual saturation of single and multi component NAPL compounds in soil samples. The model output also includes estimates of the NAPL mass and volume and other physical and chemical properties that may be useful for characterization, modeling, and remedial system design and operation. The discovery of NAPL in the aquifer usually leads to a focused characterization for possible sources of NAPL in the vadose zone using a variety of innovative technologies and characterization methods. Often, the analytical data will indicated the presence of NAPL, yet, the NAPL will go unrecognized. Failure to recognize the NAPL can be attributed to the complicated processes of inter-media transfer or a general lack of knowledge about the physical characteristics of complex organic mixtures in environmental samples.« less

  17. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, Edward G.; Winefordner, James D.; Jurgensen, Arthur R.

    1983-01-01

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprising a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focussing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof.

  18. Liquid-phase chromatography detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Voigtman, E.G.; Winefordner, J.D.; Jurgensen, A.R.

    1983-11-08

    A liquid-phase chromatography detector comprises a flow cell having an inlet tubular conduit for receiving a liquid chromatographic effluent and discharging it as a flowing columnar stream onto a vertically adjustable receiving surface spaced apart from and located vertically below and in close proximity to the discharge end of the tubular conduit; a receiver adapted to receive liquid overflowing from the receiving surface; an exit conduit for continuously removing liquid from the receiver; a light source for focusing fluorescence-producing light pulses on the flowing columnar stream as it passes from the outlet of the conduit to the receiving surface and a fluorescence detector to detect the produced fluorescence; a source of light pulse for producing acoustic waves in the columnar stream as it passes from the conduit outlet to the receiving surface; and a piezoelectric transducer adapted to detect those waves; and a source of bias voltage applied to the inlet tubular conduit and adapted to produce ionization of the liquid flowing through the flow cell so as to produce photocurrents therein and an electrical system to detect and record the photocurrents. This system is useful in separating and detecting individual chemical compounds from mixtures thereof. 5 figs.

  19. Physicochemical properties and toxicities of hydrophobicpiperidinium and pyrrolidinium ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kumar, R. Anand; Lee,Jong-Min; Kerr, John; Newman, John; Prausnitz, John M.

    2007-06-25

    Some properties are reported for hydrophobic ionic liquids (IL) containing 1-methyl-1-propyl pyrrolidinium [MPPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl pyrrolidinium [MBPyrro]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-propyl piperidinium [MPPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-butyl piperidinium [MBPip]{sup +}, 1-methyl-1-octylpyrrolidinium [MOPyrro]{sup +} and 1-methyl-1-octylpiperidinium [MOPip]{sup +} cations. These liquids provide new alternatives to pyridinium and imidazolium ILs. High thermal stability of an ionic liquid increases safety in applications like rechargeable lithium-ion batteries and other electrochemical devices. Thermal properties, ionic conductivities, viscosities, and mutual solubilities with water are reported. In addition, toxicities of selected ionic liquids have been measured using a human cancer cell-line. The ILs studied here are sparingly soluble in water but hygroscopic. We show some structure-property relationships that may help to design green solvents for specific applications. While ionic liquids are claimed to be environmentally-benign solvents, as yet few data have been published to support these claims.

  20. Heavy liquid metals: Research programs at PSI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takeda, Y.

    1996-06-01

    The author describes work at PSI on thermohydraulics, thermal shock, and material tests for mechnical properties. In the presentation, the focus is on two main programs. (1) SINQ LBE target: The phase II study program for SINQ is planned. A new LBE loop is being constructed. The study has the following three objectives: (a) Pump study - design work on an electromagnetic pump to be integrated into the target. (b) Heat pipe performance test - the use of heat pipes as an additional component of the target cooling system is being considered, and it may be a way to futher decouple the liquid metal and water coolant loops. (c) Mixed convection experiment - in order to find an optimal configuration of the additional flow guide for window cooling, mixed convection around the window is to be studied. The experiment will be started using water and then with LBE. (2) ESS Mercury target: For ESS target study, the following experimental studies are planned, some of which are exampled by trial experiments. (a) Flow around the window: Flow mapping around the hemi-cylindrical window will be made for optimising the flow channels and structures, (b) Geometry optimisation for minimizing a recirculation zone behind the edge of the flow separator, (c) Flow induced vibration and buckling problem for a optimised structure of the flow separator and (d) Gas-liquid two-phase flow will be studied by starting to establish the new experimental method of measuring various kinds of two-phase flow characteristics.

  1. Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowell, Flonnie

    1993-01-01

    Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric (LCP) compositions of matter. LCP backbones are combined with liquid crystalline (LC) side chains in a manner which maximizes molecular ordering through interdigitation of the side chains, thereby yielding materials which are predicted to have superior mechanical properties over existing LCPs. The theoretical design of LCPs having such characteristics includes consideration of the spacing distance between side chains along the backbone, the need for rigid sections in the backbone and in the side chains, the degree of polymerization, the length of the side chains, the regularity of the spacing of the side chains along the backbone, the interdigitation of side chains in sub-molecular strips, the packing of the side chains on one or two sides of the backbone to which they are attached, the symmetry of the side chains, the points of attachment of the side chains to the backbone, the flexibility and size of the chemical group connecting each side chain to the backbone, the effect of semiflexible sections in the backbone and the side chains, and the choice of types of dipolar and/or hydrogen bonding forces in the backbones and the side chains for easy alignment.

  2. Bioprocessing of a stored mixed liquid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfram, J.H.; Rogers, R.D.; Finney, R.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development and results of a demonstration for a continuous bioprocess for mixed waste treatment. A key element of the process is an unique microbial strain which tolerates high levels of aromatic solvents and surfactants. This microorganism is the biocatalysis of the continuous flow system designed for the processing of stored liquid scintillation wastes. During the past year a process demonstration has been conducted on commercial formulation of liquid scintillation cocktails (LSC). Based on data obtained from this demonstration, the Ohio EPA granted the Mound Applied Technologies Lab a treatability permit allowing the limited processing of actual mixed waste. Since August 1994, the system has been successfully processing stored, {open_quotes}hot{close_quotes} LSC waste. The initial LSC waste fed into the system contained 11% pseudocumene and detectable quantities of plutonium. Another treated waste stream contained pseudocumene and tritium. Data from this initial work shows that the hazardous organic solvent, and pseudocumene have been removed due to processing, leaving the aqueous low level radioactive waste. Results to date have shown that living cells are not affected by the dissolved plutonium and that 95% of the plutonium was sorbed to the biomass. This paper discusses the bioprocess, rates of processing, effluent, and the implications of bioprocessing for mixed waste management.

  3. Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dowell, F.

    1993-12-07

    Strong liquid-crystalline polymeric (LCP) compositions of matter are described. LCP backbones are combined with liquid crystalline (LC) side chains in a manner which maximizes molecular ordering through interdigitation of the side chains, thereby yielding materials which are predicted to have superior mechanical properties over existing LCPs. The theoretical design of LCPs having such characteristics includes consideration of the spacing distance between side chains along the backbone, the need for rigid sections in the backbone and in the side chains, the degree of polymerization, the length of the side chains, the regularity of the spacing of the side chains along the backbone, the interdigitation of side chains in sub-molecular strips, the packing of the side chains on one or two sides of the backbone to which they are attached, the symmetry of the side chains, the points of attachment of the side chains to the backbone, the flexibility and size of the chemical group connecting each side chain to the backbone, the effect of semiflexible sections in the backbone and the side chains, and the choice of types of dipolar and/or hydrogen bonding forces in the backbones and the side chains for easy alignment. 27 figures.

  4. Vertical tube liquid pollutant separators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynch, W.M.

    1982-06-08

    A plurality of elongated hollow, circular, foraminous substantially vertical tubes contiguously stacked transversely to the direction flowing liquid such as waste water containing foreign matter, I.E., settable solids and free oil, in a coalescer-separator apparatus provide a filter body providing for significant surface area contact by the liquid on both inside and outside surfaces of the tubes to entrap the foreign matter but defining substantially vertical passages permitting the entrapped foreign matter to be gravity separated with the lighter matter coalescing and floating upwardly and the heavier matter settling downwardly so that substantially clarified effluent flows from the apparatus. The stacked tube filter body is contained within an insulated closed container of a sufficient capacity, and the arrays of holes in the tube walls are coordinated with respect to the intended volumetric capacity of the apparatus, so that turbulence in the liquid flowing through the filter body is minimized.

  5. Ventura_E_liquids.pdf

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Liquids Reserve Class No 2004 Proved Liquids Reserves 0.1 - 10 Mbbl 10.1 - 100 Mbbl 100.1 - 1,000 Mbbl 1,000.1 - 10,000 Mbbl > 10,000 Mbbl Study Area Outline 0 4 8 2 6 Miles ± The mapped oil and gas field boundary outlines were created by the Reserves and Production Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration pursuant to studies required by Section 604 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act Amendments of 2000 (P.L. 106-469). The boundaries are not informed by

  6. ARM - Measurement - Liquid water path

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    path ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Liquid water path A measure of the weight of the liquid water droplets in the atmosphere above a unit surface area on the earth, given in units of kg m-2. Categories Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument

  7. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, S.

    1980-10-07

    The vault of a liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is lined with thermal insulation. The insulation is in two layers, a first layer cladding the vault surface is of solid ceramic material while a second layer cladding the first layer is of fibrous or metallic material. In the event of a breach of the vessel leakage of liquid metal is absorbed by the second layer providing a conduction path to the first layer thereby enhancing heat loss to the concrete of the vault and maintaining the internal temperature at a safe limit.

  8. Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Won Sik; Grandy, Andrew; Boroski, Andrew; Krajtl, Lubomir; Johnson, Terry

    2015-09-30

    For effective burning of hazardous transuranic (TRU) elements of used nuclear fuel, a transformational advanced reactor concept named SLFFR (Stationary Liquid Fuel Fast Reactor) was proposed based on stationary molten metallic fuel. The fuel enters the reactor vessel in a solid form, and then it is heated to molten temperature in a small melting heater. The fuel is contained within a closed, thick container with penetrating coolant channels, and thus it is not mixed with coolant nor flow through the primary heat transfer circuit. The makeup fuel is semi- continuously added to the system, and thus a very small excess reactivity is required. Gaseous fission products are also removed continuously, and a fraction of the fuel is periodically drawn off from the fuel container to a processing facility where non-gaseous mixed fission products and other impurities are removed and then the cleaned fuel is recycled into the fuel container. A reference core design and a preliminary plant system design of a 1000 MWt TRU- burning SLFFR concept were developed using TRU-Ce-Co fuel, Ta-10W fuel container, and sodium coolant. Conservative design approaches were adopted to stay within the current material performance database. Detailed neutronics and thermal-fluidic analyses were performed to develop a reference core design. Region-dependent 33-group cross sections were generated based on the ENDF/B-VII.0 data using the MC2-3 code. Core and fuel cycle analyses were performed in theta-r-z geometries using the DIF3D and REBUS-3 codes. Reactivity coefficients and kinetics parameters were calculated using the VARI3D perturbation theory code. Thermo-fluidic analyses were performed using the ANSYS FLUENT computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code. Figure 0.1 shows a schematic radial layout of the reference 1000 MWt SLFFR core, and Table 0.1 summarizes the main design parameters of SLFFR-1000 loop plant. The fuel container is a 2.5 cm thick cylinder with an inner radius of 87.5 cm. The fuel

  9. Method of measuring a liquid pool volume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, G.V.; Carlson, N.M.; Donaldson, A.D.

    1991-03-19

    A method of measuring a molten metal liquid pool volume and in particular molten titanium liquid pools is disclosed, including the steps of (a) generating an ultrasonic wave at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, (b) shining a light on the surface of a molten metal liquid pool, (c) detecting a change in the frequency of light, (d) detecting an ultrasonic wave echo at the surface of the molten metal liquid pool, and (e) computing the volume of the molten metal liquid. 3 figures.

  10. Liquid-film electron stripper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gavin, Basil F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved liquid-film electron stripper particularly for high intensity heavy ion beams which produces constant regenerated, stable, free-standing liquid films having an adjustable thickness between 0.3 to 0.05 microns. The improved electron stripper is basically composed of at least one high speed, rotating disc with a very sharp, precision-like, ground edge on one said of the disc's periphery and with a highly polished, flat, radial surface adjacent the sharp edge. A fine stream of liquid, such as oil, impinges at a 90.degree. angle adjacent the disc's sharp outer edge. Film terminators, located at a selected distance from the disc perimeter are positioned approximately perpendicular to the film. The terminators support, shape, and stretch the film and are arranged to assist in the prevention of liquid droplet formation by directing the collected film to a reservoir below without breaking or interfering with the film. One embodiment utilizes two rotating discs and associated terminators, with the discs rotating so as to form films in opposite directions, and with the second disc being located down beam-line relative to the first disc.

  11. Development of a Very Dense Liquid Cooled Compute Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Phillip N.; Lipp, Robert J.

    2013-12-10

    The objective of this project was to design and develop a prototype very energy efficient high density compute platform with 100% pumped refrigerant liquid cooling using commodity components and high volume manufacturing techniques. Testing at SLAC has indicated that we achieved a DCIE of 0.93 against our original goal of 0.85. This number includes both cooling and power supply and was achieved employing some of the highest wattage processors available.

  12. Detachment of Liquid-Water Droplets from Gas-Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Prodip K.; Grippin, Adam; Weber, Adam Z.

    2011-07-01

    A critical issue for optimal water management in proton-exchange-membrane fuel cells at lower temperatures is the removal of liquid water from the cell. This pathway is intimately linked with the phenomena of liquid-water droplet removal from surface of the gas-diffusion layer and into the flow channel. Thus, a good understanding of liquid-water transport and droplet growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layer is critical. In this study, liquid-water droplet growth and detachment on the gas-diffusion layer surfaces are investigated experimentally to improve the understating of water transport through and removal from gas-diffusion layers. An experiment using a sliding-angle measurement is designed and used to quantify and directly measure the adhesion force for liquid-water droplets, and to understand the droplets? growth and detachment from the gas-diffusion layers.

  13. 207-A retention basins system design description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wahlquist, R.A.

    1994-09-29

    The 242-A Evaporator is a waste treatment facility designed to reduce liquid waste volumes currently stored in the Hanford Area double shell Waste Storage Tanks. The evaporator uses evaporative concentration to achieve this volume reduction, returning the concentrated slurry to the double-shell tanks for storage. The process effluent is transferred to various retention/treatment facilities for eventual release to the environment. The process utilizes an evaporator vessel and various supporting systems for heating, evaporating, and condensing low-heat-generating liquid waste produced it the Hanford Site. The process reduces the total volume of the liquid waste requiring storage in a double shell tank, making it more manageable for current storage as well as for future treatment and disposal. The main components of the 242-A Evaporator are the Reboiler, Vapor-Liquid Separator, Recirculation Pump and Pump Loop, Slurry System, Condenser System, Steam Jet Vacuum System, Condensate Collection Tank, and Ion Exchange System.

  14. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Million Barrels) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Proved Reserves ... Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 New Mexico Natural Gas Liquids Proved ...

  15. Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Liquid Fuels (ALF) Jump to: navigation, search Name: Alternative Liquid Fuels (ALF) Address: P.O. Box 76 Place: McArthur, Ohio Zip: 45651 Sector: Biofuels, Renewable Energy,...

  16. Waste Treatment Plant Liquid Effluent Treatability Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUECK, K.J.

    2001-06-07

    Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI) provided a forecast of the radioactive, dangerous liquid effluents expected to be generated by the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The forecast represents the liquid effluents generated from the processing of 25 distinct batches of tank waste through the WTP. The WTP liquid effluents will be stored, treated, and disposed of in the Liquid Effluent Retention Facility (LERF) and the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). Fluor Hanford, Inc. (FH) evaluated the treatability of the WTP liquid effluents in the LERFIETF. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the forecast to the LERFIETF treatability envelope, which provides information on the items that determine if a liquid effluent is acceptable for receipt and treatment at the LERFIETF. The WTP liquid effluent forecast is outside the current LERFlETF treatability envelope. There are several concerns that must be addressed before the WTP liquid effluents can be accepted at the LERFIETF.

  17. Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Coal-Biomass to Liquids Turning coal into liquid fuels like gasoline, diesel and jet fuel, with biomass to reduce carbon dioxide emissions, is the main goal of the Coal and ...

  18. Method for enhanced atomization of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Richard E.; White, Jerome R.

    1993-01-01

    In a process for atomizing a slurry or liquid process stream in which a slurry or liquid is passed through a nozzle to provide a primary atomized process stream, an improvement which comprises subjecting the liquid or slurry process stream to microwave energy as the liquid or slurry process stream exits the nozzle, wherein sufficient microwave heating is provided to flash vaporize the primary atomized process stream.

  19. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  20. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Joseph L.; Watson, Lloyd D.

    1990-01-01

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity.

  1. Liquid cooled counter flow turbine bucket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dakin, James T.

    1982-09-21

    Means and a method are provided whereby liquid coolant flows radially outward through coolant passages in a liquid cooled turbine bucket under the influence of centrifugal force while in contact with countercurrently flowing coolant vapor such that liquid is entrained in the flow of vapor resulting in an increase in the wetted cooling area of the individual passages.

  2. Apparatus and method for spraying liquid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, J.L.; Watson, L.D.

    1988-01-21

    A method for spraying liquids involving a flow of gas which shears the liquid. A flow of gas is introduced in a converging-diverging nozzle where it meets and shears the liquid into small particles which are of a size and uniformity which can be controlled through adjustment of pressures and gas velocity. 5 figs.

  3. Definitive design report: Design report project W-025, Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Land Disposal Facility NON-DRAG-OFF. Revision 1, Volume 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roscha, V.

    1994-11-29

    The purpose of this report is to describe the definitive design of the Radioactive Mixed Waste (RMW) Non-Drag-Off disposal facility, Project W-025. This report presents a n of the major landfill design features and a discussion of how each of the criteria is addressed in the design. The appendices include laboratory test results, design drawings, and individual analyses that were conducted in support of the design. Revision 1 of this document incorporates design changes resulting from an increase in the required operating life of the W-025 landfill from 2 to 20 years. The rationale for these design changes is described in Golder Associates Inc. 1991a. These changes include (1) adding a 1.5-foot-thick layer of compacted admix directory-under the primary FML on the floor of the landfill to mitigate the effects of possible stress cracking in the primary flexible membrane liner (FML), and (2) increasing the operations layer thickness from two to three feet over the entire landfill area, to provide additional protection for the secondary admix layer against mechanical damage and the effects of freezing and desiccation. The design of the W-025 Landfill has also been modified in response to the results of the EPA Method 9090 chemical compatibility testing program (Golder Associates Inc. 1991b and 1991c), which was completed after the original design was prepared. This program consisted of testing geosynthetic materials and soil/bentonite admix with synthetic leachate having the composition expected during the life of the W-025 Landfill., The results of this program indicated that the polyester geotextile originally specified for the landfill might be susceptible to deterioration. On this basis, polypropylene geotextiles were substituted as a more chemically-resistant alternative. In addition, the percentage of bentonite in the admix was increased to provide sufficiently low permeability to the expected leachate.

  4. High pressure liquid level monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bean, Vern E.; Long, Frederick G.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid level monitor for tracking the level of a coal slurry in a high-pressure vessel including a toroidal-shaped float with magnetically permeable bands thereon disposed within the vessel, two pairs of magnetic field generators and detectors disposed outside the vessel adjacent the top and bottom thereof and magnetically coupled to the magnetically permeable bands on the float, and signal processing circuitry for combining signals from the top and bottom detectors for generating a monotonically increasing analog control signal which is a function of liquid level. The control signal may be utilized to operate high-pressure control valves associated with processes in which the high-pressure vessel is used.

  5. Catalyst for hydrotreating carbonaceous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berg, Lloyd; McCandless, Frank P.; Ramer, Ronald J.

    1982-01-01

    A catalyst for denitrogenating and desulfurating carbonaceous liquid such as solvent refined coal includes catalytic metal oxides impregnated within a porous base of mostly alumina with relatively large pore diameters, surface area and pore volume. The base material includes pore volumes of 0.7-0.85 ml/g, surface areas of 200-350 m.sup.2 /g and pore diameters of 85-200 Angstroms. The catalytic metals impregnated into these base materials include the oxides of Group VI metals, molybdenum and tungsten, and the oxides of Group VIII metals, nickel and cobalt, in various combinations. These catalysts and bases in combination have effectively promoted the removal of chemically combined sulfur and nitrogen within a continuous flowing mixture of carbonaceous liquid and hydrogen gas.

  6. Reversible Acid Gas Capture Using CO2-Binding Organic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heldebrant, David J.; Koech, Phillip K.; Yonker, Clement R.; Rainbolt, James E.; Zheng, Feng

    2010-08-31

    Acid gas scrubbing technology is predominantly aqueous alkanolamine based. Of the acid gases, CO2, H2S and SO2 have been shown to be reversible, however there are serious disadvantages with corrosion and high regeneration costs. The primary scrubbing system composed of monoethanolamine is limited to 30% by weight because of the highly corrosive solution. This gravimetric limitation limits the CO2 volumetric (?108 g/L) and gravimetric capacity (?7 wt%) of the system. Furthermore the scrubbing system has a large energy penalty from pumping and heating the excess water required to dissolve the MEA bicarbonate salt. Considering the high specific heat of water (4 j/g-1K-1), low capacities and the high corrosion we set out to design a fully organic solvent that can chemically bind all acid gases i.e. CO2 as reversible alkylcarbonate ionic liquids or analogues thereof. Having a liquid acid gas carrier improves process economics because there is no need for excess solvent to pump and to heat. We have demonstrated illustrated in Figure 1, that CO2-binding organic liquids (CO2BOLs) have a high CO2 solubility paired with a much lower specific heat (<1.5 J/g-1K-1) than aqueous systems. CO2BOLs are a subsection of a larger class of materials known as Binding Organic Liquids (BOLs). Our BOLs have been shown to reversibly bind and release COS, CS2, and SO2, which we denote COSBOLS, CS2BOLs and SO2BOLs. Our BOLs are highly tunable and can be designed for post or pre-combustion gas capture. The design and testing of the next generation zwitterionic CO2BOLs and SO2BOLs are presented.

  7. Thermoluminescence dosimetry measurements of brachytherapy sources in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tailor, Ramesh; Tolani, Naresh; Ibbott, Geoffrey S.

    2008-09-15

    Radiation therapy dose measurements are customarily performed in liquid water. The characterization of brachytherapy sources is, however, generally based on measurements made with thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs), for which contact with water may lead to erroneous readings. Consequently, most dosimetry parameters reported in the literature have been based on measurements in water-equivalent plastics, such as Solid Water. These previous reports employed a correction factor to transfer the dose measurements from a plastic phantom to liquid water. The correction factor most often was based on Monte Carlo calculations. The process of measuring in a water-equivalent plastic phantom whose exact composition may be different from published specifications, then correcting the results to a water medium leads to increased uncertainty in the results. A system has been designed to enable measurements with TLDs in liquid water. This system, which includes jigs to support water-tight capsules of lithium fluoride in configurations suitable for measuring several dosimetric parameters, was used to determine the correction factor from water-equivalent plastic to water. Measurements of several {sup 125}I and {sup 131}Cs prostate brachytherapy sources in liquid water and in a Solid Water phantom demonstrated a correction factor of 1.039{+-}0.005 at 1 cm distance. These measurements are in good agreement with a published value of this correction factor for an {sup 125}I source.

  8. Membrane Treatment of Liquid Salt Bearing Radioactive Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dmitriev, S. A.; Adamovich, D. V.; Demkin, V. I.; Timofeev, E. M.

    2003-02-25

    The main fields of introduction and application of membrane methods for preliminary treatment and processing salt liquid radioactive waste (SLRW) can be nuclear power stations (NPP) and enterprises on atomic submarines (AS) utilization. Unlike the earlier developed technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste decontamination and concentrating this report presents the new enhanced membrane technology for the liquid salt bearing radioactive waste processing based on the state-of-the-art membrane unit design, namely, the filtering units equipped with the metal-ceramic membranes of ''TruMem'' brand, as well as the electrodialysis and electroosmosis concentrators. Application of the above mentioned units in conjunction with the pulse pole changer will allow the marked increase of the radioactive waste concentrating factor and the significant reduction of the waste volume intended for conversion into monolith and disposal. Besides, the application of the electrodialysis units loaded with an ion exchange material at the end polishing stage of the radioactive waste decontamination process will allow the reagent-free radioactive waste treatment that meets the standards set for the release of the decontaminated liquid radioactive waste effluents into the natural reservoirs of fish-farming value.

  9. Generation and characterization of gas bubbles in liquid metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eckert, S.; Gerbeth, G.; Witke, W.

    1996-06-01

    There is an ongoing research performed in the RCR on local transport phenomena in turbulent liquid metal (LM) duct flows exposed to external magnetic fields. In this context so-called MHD flow phenomena can be observed, which are unknown in usual hydraulic engineering. The field of interest covers also the influence of magnetic fields on the behaviour of liquid metal - gas mixtures. Profound knowledge on these LMMHD two-phase flow plays an important role in a variety of technological applications, in particular, in the design of Liquid-Metal MHD generators or for several metallurgical processes employing gas-stirred reactors. However, the highly empirical nature of two-phase flow analysis gives little hope for the prediction of MHD two-phase flows without extensive experimental data. A summary is given about the authors research activities focussing on two directions: (a) Momentum transfer between gas and liquid metal in a bubbly flow regime to investigate the influence of the external magnetic field on the velocity slip ration S (b) Peculiarities of the MHD turbulence to use small gas bubbles as local tracers in order to study the turbulent mass transfer.

  10. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, Desikan

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a superheated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  11. Method and apparatus for flash evaporation of liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bharathan, D.

    1984-01-01

    A vertical tube flash evaporator for introducing a super-heated liquid into a flash evaporation chamber includes a vertical inlet tube with a flared diffuser portion at its upper outlet end. A plurality of annular screens are positioned in axially spaced-apart relation to each other around the periphery of the vertical tube and below the diffuser portion thereof. The screens are preferably curved upward in a cup-shaped configuration. These flash evaporators are shown in an ocean thermal energy conversion unit designed for generating electric power from differential temperature gradients in ocean water. The method of use of the flash evaporators of this invention includes flowing liquid upwardly through the vertical tube into the diffuser where initial expansion and boiling occurs quite violently and explosively. Unvaporized liquid sheets and drops collide with each other to enhance surface renewal and evaporation properties, and liquid flowing over the outlet end of the diffuser falls onto the curved screens for further surface renewal and evaporation.

  12. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  13. Cold Electronics for Giant Liquid Argon Time Projection Chambers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeka, V.; De Geronimo, G.; Chen, H.; Deptuch, G.; De Geronimo, G.; Lanni, F.; Li, S.; Nambiar, N.; Rescia, S.; Thorn, C.; Yarema, R.; Yu, B.

    2011-07-25

    The choice between cold and warm electronics (inside or outside the cryostat) in very large LAr TPCs (>5-10 ktons) is not an electronics issue, but it is rather a major cryostat design issue. This is because the location of the signal processing electronics has a direct and far reaching effect on the cryostat design, an indirect effect on the TPC electrode design (sense wire spacing, wire length and drift distance), and a significant effect on the TPC performance. All these factors weigh so overwhelmingly in favor of the cold electronics that it remains an optimal solution for very large TPCs. In this paper signal and noise considerations are summarized, the concept of the readout chain is described, and the guidelines for design of CMOS circuits for operation in liquid argon (at {approx}89 K) are discussed.

  14. Process for vaporizing a liquid hydrocarbon fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szydlowski, Donald F. (East Hartford, CT); Kuzminskas, Vaidotas (Glastonbury, CT); Bittner, Joseph E. (East Hartford, CT)

    1981-01-01

    The object of the invention is to provide a process for vaporizing liquid hydrocarbon fuels efficiently and without the formation of carbon residue on the apparatus used. The process includes simultaneously passing the liquid fuel and an inert hot gas downwardly through a plurality of vertically spaed apart regions of high surface area packing material. The liquid thinly coats the packing surface, and the sensible heat of the hot gas vaporizes this coating of liquid. Unvaporized liquid passing through one region of packing is uniformly redistributed over the top surface of the next region until all fuel has been vaporized using only the sensible heat of the hot gas stream.

  15. Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid Propane Injection Technology Conductive to Today's North American Specification Liquid propane injection ...

  16. Biosystems Design

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Breakout Session 2: Frontiers and Horizons Session 2-A: Synthetic Biology and the Promise of Biofuels Pablo Rabinowicz, Program Manager, Biosystems Design Program, Biological and Environmental Research (BER), U.S. Department of Energy

  17. Reactor Engineering Design | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Reactor Engineering Design The Reactor Engineering Design Key Technology will focus on control of chemical reactions with unprecedented precision in increasingly modular and efficient reactors, allowing for smaller reactors and streamlined processes that will convert coal into valuable products at low cost and with high energy efficiency. Here, the specific emphasis will be reactors enabling conversion of coal-biomass to liquid fuels, Novel reactors, advanced manufacturing, etc. will be

  18. Total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer to study dynamic adsorption phenomena at liquid/liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tupy, M.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Radke, C.J.

    1998-08-01

    Adsorption at oil/water interfaces affects the performance of many industrial systems including oil recovery, extraction processes, cosmetic products, and food technology. However, no technique currently available can monitor adsorption dynamics using molecularly sensitive methods. The authors have constructed a novel total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer (TIRFS) to follow dynamic adsorption events at the oil/water interface. The TIRFS monitors changes in fluorescence intensity and fluorescence spectra over time by maintaining an optical focus on the fluid interface during adsorption and desorption processes. Kinetic adsorption phenomena are examined by altering the composition of the aqueous phase and recording surface fluorescence response without mechanically disturbing the fluid/fluid interface. The spectrometer captures changes in the fluorescence intensity over tenths of seconds and maintains optical focus for periods of days. Mass transport of fluorescing surface-active material to and from the oil/water interface is accurately modeled using the simple one-dimensional diffusion equation. The geometry designed for this apparatus can be applied to other light-based techniques studying adsorption at liquid/liquid interfaces. Here, the authors apply the TIRFS apparatus to the study of {beta}-casein adsorption and desorption at an aliphatic oil/water interface. The observed increase in interfacial fluorescence due to {beta}-casein adsorption is slower than the diffusive flux, and desorption is found to be very slow if not irreversible. The TIRF spectrum indicates interaction of sorbed {beta}-casein with the oil phase and subsequent rearrangement of the native structure.

  19. Radiation Chemistry and Photochemistry of Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart, J.F.; Takahaski, K.

    2010-12-01

    As our understanding of ionic liquids and their tunable properties has grown, it is possible to see many opportunities for ionic liquids to contribute to the sustainable use of energy. The potential safety and environmental benefits of ionic liquids, as compared to conventional solvents, have attracted interest in their use as processing media for the nuclear fuel cycle. Therefore, an understanding of the interactions of ionizing radiation and photons with ionic liquids is strongly needed. However, the radiation chemistry of ionic liquids is still a relatively unexplored topic although there has been a significant increase in the number of researchers in the field recently. This article provides a brief introduction to ionic liquids and their interesting properties, and recent advances in the radiation chemistry and photochemistry of ionic liquids. In this article, we will mainly focus on excess electron dynamics and radical reaction dynamics. Because solvation dynamics processes in ionic liquids are much slower than in molecular solvents, one of the distinguishing characteristics is that pre-solvated electrons play an important role in ionic liquid radiolysis. It will be also shown that the reaction dynamics of radical ions is significantly different from that observed in molecular solvents because of the Coulombic screening effects and electrostatic interactions in ionic liquids.

  20. Large area liquid argon detectors for interrogation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, Charles; Kane, Steve; Firestone, Murray I.; Smith, Gregory [Adelphi Technology LLC, Purdue Technology Center, 5225 Exploration Drive, Indianapolis, IN 46241 (United States); Gozani, Tsahi; Brown, Craig; Kwong, John; King, Michael J. [Rapiscan Laboratories, 520 Almanor Avenue, Sunnyvale, CA 94085 (United States); Nikkel, James A.; McKinsey, Dan [Physics Department, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Measurements of the efficiency, pulse shape, and energy and time resolution of liquid argon (LAr) detectors are presented. Liquefied noble gas-based (LNbG) detectors have been developed for the detection of dark matter and neutrinoless double-beta decay. However, the same qualities that make LNbG detectors ideal for these applications, namely their size, cost, efficiency, pulse shape discrimination and resolution, make them promising for portal screening and the detection of Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). Two 18-liter prototype detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested, one with pure LAr and the other doped with liquid Xe (LArXe). The LArXe detector presented the better time and energy resolution of 3.3 ns and 20% at 662 KeV, respectively. The total efficiency of the detector was measured to be 35% with 4.5% of the total photons detected in the photopeak.

  1. Liquid-sodium thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, A.; Swift, G.W.

    1988-08-01

    We have constructed a thermoacoustic engine that uses liquid sodium as its working substance. The engine generates acoustic power using heat flowing from a high-temperature source to a low-temperature sink. The measured performance of this engine disagrees significantly with numerical calculations based on our theory of thermoacoustic engines. The efficiency of the engine is a substantial fraction of Carnot's efficiency, and its power density is comparable to that of the conventional heat engines in widespread use. Thus we expect this type of engine to be of practical, economic importance.

  2. Bearing for liquid metal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dickinson, Robert J.; Wasko, John; Pennell, William E.

    1984-01-01

    A liquid metal pump bearing support comprises a series of tangentially oriented spokes that connect the bearing cylinder to the pump internals structure. The spokes may be arranged in a plurality of planes extending from the bearing cylinder to the pump internals with the spokes in one plane being arranged alternately with those in the next plane. The bearing support structure provides the pump with sufficient lateral support for the bearing structure together with the capability of accommodating differential thermal expansion without adversely affecting pump performance.

  3. Method of fabrication of supported liquid membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luebke, David R.; Hong, Lei; Myers, Christina R.

    2015-11-17

    Method for the fabrication of a supported liquid membrane having a dense layer in contact with a porous layer, and a membrane liquid layer within the interconnected pores of the porous layer. The dense layer is comprised of a solidified material having an average pore size less than or equal to about 0.1 nanometer, while the porous layer is comprised of a plurality of interconnected pores and has an average pore size greater than 10 nanometers. The supported liquid membrane is fabricated through the preparation of a casting solution of a membrane liquid and a volatile solvent. A pressure difference is established across the dense layer and porous layer, the casting solution is applied to the porous layer, and the low viscosity casting solution is drawn toward the dense layer. The volatile solvent is evaporated and the membrane liquid precipitates, generating a membrane liquid layer in close proximity to the dense layer.

  4. PUMPS FOR LIQUID CURRENT-CONDUCTING MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watt, D.A.

    1958-12-23

    An induction-type liquid conductor pump is described wherein the induced current flow is substantially tnansverse to the flow of the liquid in the duct, thus eliminating parallel current flow that tends to cause unwanted pressures resulting in turbulence, eddy-flow, heating losses, and reduced pumping efficiency. This improvement is achieved by offering the parallel current a path of lower impedance along the duct than that offered by the liquid so that the induced currents remaining in the liquid flow in a substantially transverse directlon. Thick copper bars are brazed to the liquid duct parallel to the flow, and additional induced currents are created in the copper bars of appropriate magnitude to balance the ohmic drop ln the current paths outside of the liquid metal.

  5. Tokamak with liquid metal toroidal field coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohkawa, Tihiro; Schaffer, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Tokamak apparatus includes a pressure vessel for defining a reservoir and confining liquid therein. A toroidal liner disposed within the pressure vessel defines a toroidal space within the liner. Liquid metal fills the reservoir outside said liner. Electric current is passed through the liquid metal over a conductive path linking the toroidal space to produce a toroidal magnetic field within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof. Toroidal plasma is developed within the toroidal space about the major axis thereof.

  6. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM ORGANIC LIQUIDS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vavalides, S.P.

    1959-08-25

    A process is described for recovering small quantities of uranium from organic liquids such as hydrocarbon oils. halogen-substituted hydrocarbons, and alcohols. The organic liquid is contacted with a comminuted alkaline earth hydroxide, calcium hydroxide particularly, and the resulting uranium-bearing solid is separated from the liquid by filtration. Uranium may then be recovered from the solid by means of dissolution in nitric acid and conventional extraction with an organic solvent such as tributyl phosphate.

  7. A New Model for Liquid Water Absorption

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model for Liquid Water Absorption For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Liquid water path (LWP) is a critical measurement for a wide range of atmospheric studies, as the amount of liquid in a cloud is critical to understanding many cloud processes. For example, the radiative impact of the cloud (in both the longwave and shortwave portions of the spectrum) depends heavily on the LWP. Thus, the Atmospheric

  8. Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Handling Equipment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8, 2007 Jerry Gillette Large-Scale Liquid Hydrogen Handling Equipment Hydrogen Delivery Analysis Meeting Argonne National Laboratory Some Delivery Pathways Will Necessitate the Use of Large- Scale Liquid Hydrogen Handling Equipment „ Potential Scenarios include: - Production plant shutdowns - Summer-peak storage „ Equipment Needs include: - Storage tanks - Liquid Pumps - Vaporizers - Ancillaries 2 1 Concern is that Scaling up from Small Units Could Significantly Underestimate Costs of Larger

  9. Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor plant system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunsbedt, Anstein; Boardman, Charles E.

    1993-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor having a passive cooling system for removing residual heat resulting for fuel decay during reactor shutdown, or heat produced during a mishap. The reactor system is enhanced with sealing means for excluding external air from contact with the liquid metal coolant leaking from the reactor vessel during an accident. The invention also includes a silo structure which resists attack by leaking liquid metal coolant, and an added unique cooling means.

  10. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James

    2006-01-20

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  11. Liquid Salt Heat Exchanger Technology for VHTR Based Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Mark; Sridhara, Kumar; Allen, Todd; Peterson, Per

    2012-10-11

    The objective of this research is to evaluate performance of liquid salt fluids for use as a heat carrier for transferring high-temperature process heat from the very high-temperature reactor (VHTR) to chemical process plants. Currently, helium is being considered as the heat transfer fluid; however, the tube size requirements and the power associated with pumping helium may not be economical. Recent work on liquid salts has shown tremendous potential to transport high-temperature heat efficiently at low pressures over long distances. This project has two broad objectives: To investigate the compatibility of Incoloy 617 and coated and uncoated SiC ceramic composite with MgCl2-KCl molten salt to determine component lifetimes and aid in the design of heat exchangers and piping; and, To conduct the necessary research on the development of metallic and ceramic heat exchangers, which are needed for both the helium-to-salt side and salt-to-process side, with the goal of making these heat exchangers technologically viable. The research will consist of three separate tasks. The first task deals with material compatibility issues with liquid salt and the development of techniques for on-line measurement of corrosion products, which can be used to measure material loss in heat exchangers. Researchers will examine static corrosion of candidate materials in specific high-temperature heat transfer salt systems and develop an in situ electrochemical probe to measure metallic species concentrations dissolved in the liquid salt. The second task deals with the design of both the intermediate and process side heat exchanger systems. Researchers will optimize heat exchanger design and study issues related to corrosion, fabrication, and thermal stresses using commercial and in-house codes. The third task focuses integral testing of flowing liquid salts in a heat transfer/materials loop to determine potential issues of using the salts and to capture realistic behavior of the salts in a

  12. NGNP Process Heat Utilization: Liquid Metal Phase Change Heat Exchanger

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Mike Patterson; Vivek Utgikar; Fred Gunnerson

    2008-09-01

    One key long-standing issue that must be overcome to fully realize the successful growth of nuclear power is to determine other benefits of nuclear energy apart from meeting the electricity demands. The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) will most likely be producing electricity and heat for the production of hydrogen and/or oil retrieval from oil sands and oil shale to help in our national pursuit of energy independence. For nuclear process heat to be utilized, intermediate heat exchange is required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant or oil recovery field in the most efficient way possible. Development of nuclear reactor - process heat technology has intensified the interest in liquid metals as heat transfer media because of their ideal transport properties. Liquid metal heat exchangers are not new in practical applications. An important rational for considering liquid metals is the potential convective heat transfer is among the highest known. Thus explains the interest in liquid metals as coolant for intermediate heat exchange from NGNP. For process heat it is desired that, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) transfer heat from the NGNP in the most efficient way possible. The production of electric power at higher efficiency via the Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production, requires both heat at higher temperatures and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. Compact heat exchangers maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. High temperature IHX design requirements are governed in part by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet and inlet of the NGNP. In order to improve the characteristics of heat transfer, liquid metal phase change heat exchangers may be more effective and efficient. This paper explores the overall heat transfer characteristics and pressure drop of the phase change

  13. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    designed to be used on Class 8 trucks with CWI ISX G HPDI engines. Extensive test cart and engineering truck tests of the pump demonstrated good durability and the high-pressure performance needed for HPDI application. The LNG tanks manufactured by Taylor-Wharton passed SAE J2343 Recommended Practice drop tests and accelerated road-load vibration tests. NER and hold-time tests produced highly consistent results. Additional tests confirmed the design adequacy of the liquid level sensor, vaporizer, ullage volume, and other fuel system components. While the testing work performed under this program focused on a high-pressure pumped LNG fuel system design, the results also validate the feasibility of a low-pressure pumped fuel system. A low-pressure pumped fuel system could incorporate various design refinements including a simpler and lighter-weight pump, which would decrease costs somewhat relative to a high-pressure system.

  14. Liquid Resources LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Liquid Resources LLC Place: Medina, Ohio Zip: 44258 Product: Produces bioethanol from waste. Coordinates: 43.174659, -89.082003 Show Map Loading map......

  15. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid ... It was found that the rhodium catalyst works well under biphase conditions rather than ...

  16. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1998-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  17. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-01-01

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units.

  18. Closed-field capacitive liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1998-03-03

    A liquid level sensor based on a closed field circuit comprises a ring oscillator using a symmetrical array of plate units that creates a displacement current. The displacement current varies as a function of the proximity of a liquid to the plate units. The ring oscillator circuit produces an output signal with a frequency inversely proportional to the presence of a liquid. A continuous liquid level sensing device and a two point sensing device are both proposed sensing arrangements. A second set of plates may be located inside of the probe housing relative to the sensing plate units. The second set of plates prevent any interference between the sensing plate units. 12 figs.

  19. ,"Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Natural Gas Plant Liquids Proved Reserves",49,"Annual",2013,"06301979" ,"Release...

  20. Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Communication: Quantum molecular dynamics simulation of liquid para-hydrogen by nuclear and electron wave packet approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Communication:...

  1. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    July--September 1995 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly status report, July--September 1995 You are accessing...

  2. Photoresponsive Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Networks with Shape...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Published Article: Photoresponsive Liquid Crystalline Epoxy Networks with Shape Memory ... Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Word Cloud ...

  3. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S.

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  4. Membrane separation of ionic liquid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campos, Daniel; Feiring, Andrew Edward; Majumdar, Sudipto; Nemser, Stuart

    2015-09-01

    A membrane separation process using a highly fluorinated polymer membrane that selectively permeates water of an aqueous ionic liquid solution to provide dry ionic liquid. Preferably the polymer is a polymer that includes polymerized perfluoro-2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxole (PDD). The process is also capable of removing small molecular compounds such as organic solvents that can be present in the solution. This membrane separation process is suitable for drying the aqueous ionic liquid byproduct from precipitating solutions of biomass dissolved in ionic liquid, and is thus instrumental to providing usable lignocellulosic products for energy consumption and other industrial uses in an environmentally benign manner.

  5. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.

    2007-01-30

    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  6. Thermophilic Cellulases Compatible with Ionic Liquid Pretreatment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ionic liquids dissolve cellulose, which can then be separated out in an additional process. However, significant decreases in the available commercial fungal cellulase activity in ...

  7. Anomalous liquid scintillation counting of chromium-51

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charig, A.; Blake-Haskins, J.; Eigen, E.

    1985-12-01

    Unusual behavior of chromium-51 in liquid scintillation cocktail is described. Rapidly declining count rate is attributed to first-order binding of chromate to glass vials.

  8. Air Liquide Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: Air Liquide Group Place: Paris, France Zip: 75321 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Paris-based manufacturer of industrial and medical gases. The company is...

  9. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may lead to a twisting force that can modify the...

  10. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutler, R.A.; Virkar, A.V.; Hurford, A.C.

    1989-05-09

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1,600 C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase. 4 figs.

  11. Liquid phase sintering of silicon carbide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cutler, Raymond A.; Virkar, Anil V.; Hurford, Andrew C.

    1989-01-01

    Liquid phase sintering is used to densify silicon carbide based ceramics using a compound comprising a rare earth oxide and aluminum oxide to form liquids at temperatures in excess of 1600.degree. C. The resulting sintered ceramic body has a density greater than 95% of its theoretical density and hardness in excess of 23 GPa. Boron and carbon are not needed to promote densification and silicon carbide powder with an average particle size of greater than one micron can be densified via the liquid phase process. The sintered ceramic bodies made by the present invention are fine grained and have secondary phases resulting from the liquid phase.

  12. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion. Quarterly report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coal liquids can be hydrogenated catalyzed by Catalyst 2 include monocyclic aromatic ... PROGRESS REPORT; ORGANOMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; EXPERIMENTAL DATA Word Cloud More Like ...

  13. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chirality, the absence of inversion symmetry, plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and materials science. Introducing molecular chirality into a liquid crystal may...

  14. Liquid metal ion source and alloy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Jr., William M.; Utlaut, Mark W.; Behrens, Robert G.; Szklarz, Eugene G.; Storms, Edmund K.; Santandrea, Robert P.; Swanson, Lynwood W.

    1988-10-04

    A liquid metal ion source and alloy, wherein the species to be emitted from the ion source is contained in a congruently vaporizing alloy. In one embodiment, the liquid metal ion source acts as a source of arsenic, and in a source alloy the arsenic is combined with palladium, preferably in a liquid alloy having a range of compositions from about 24 to about 33 atomic percent arsenic. Such an alloy may be readily prepared by a combustion synthesis technique. Liquid metal ion sources thus prepared produce arsenic ions for implantation, have long lifetimes, and are highly stable in operation.

  15. Binding Organic Liquids - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    More Like This Return to Search Binding Organic Liquids Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Researchers at...

  16. Mixing liquid holding tanks for uniform concentration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprouse, K.M.

    1988-01-01

    Achieving uniform concentration within liquid holding tanks can often times be a difficult task for the nuclear chemical process industry. This is due to the fact that nuclear criticality concerns require these tanks to be designed with high internal aspect ratios such that the free movement of fluid is greatly inhibited. To determine the mixing times required to achieve uniform concentrations within these tanks, an experimental program was conducted utilizing pencil tanks, double-pencil tanks, and annular tanks of varying geometries filled with salt-water solutions (simulant for nitric acid actinide solutions). Mixing was accomplished by air sparging and/or pump recirculation. Detailed fluid mechanic mixing models were developed --from first principles--to analyze and interpret the test results. These nondimensional models show the functionality of the concentration inhomogeneity (defined as the relative standard deviation of the true concentration within the tank) in relationship to the characteristic mixing time--among other variables. The results can be readily used to scale tank geometries to sizes other than those studied here.

  17. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, A.S.

    1983-12-08

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  18. Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1985-01-01

    Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.

  19. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  20. A study of dielectric breakdown along insulators surrounding conductors in liquid argon

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lockwitz, Sarah; Jostlein, Hans

    2016-03-22

    High voltage breakdown in liquid argon is an important concern in the design of liquid argon time projection chambers, which are often used as neutrino and dark matter detectors. We have made systematic measurements of breakdown voltages in liquid argon along insulators surrounding negative rod electrodes where the breakdown is initiated at the anode. The measurements were performed in an open cryostat filled with commercial grade liquid argon exposed to air, and not the ultra-pure argon required for electron drift. While not addressing all high voltage concerns in liquid argon, these measurements have direct relevance to the design of highmore » voltage feedthroughs especially for averting the common problem of flash-over breakdown. The purpose of these tests is to understand the effects of materials, of breakdown path length, and of surface topology for this geometry and setup. We have found that the only material-specific effects are those due to their permittivity. We have found that the breakdown voltage has no dependence on the length of the exposed insulator. Lastly, a model for the breakdown mechanism is presented that can help inform future designs.« less

  1. control design

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    control design - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  2. Liquid metal cooling of synchrotron optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smither, R.K.

    1992-09-01

    The installation of insertion devices at existing synchrotron facilities around the world has stimulated the development of new ways to cool the optical elements in the associated x-ray beamlines. Argonne has been a leader in the development of liquid metal cooling for high heat load x-ray optics for the next generation of synchrotron facilities. The high thermal conductivity, high volume specific heat, low kinematic viscosity, and large working temperature range make liquid metals a very efficient heat transfer fluid. A wide range of liquid metals were considered in the initial phase of this work. The most promising liquid metal cooling fluid identified to date is liquid gallium, which appears to have all the desired properties and the fewest number of undesired features of the liquid metals examined. Besides the special features of liquid metals that make them good heat transfer fluids, the very low vapor pressure over a large working temperature range make liquid gallium an ideal cooling fluid for use in a high vacuum environment. A leak of the liquid gallium into the high vacuum and even into very high vacuum areas will not result in any detectable vapor pressure and may even improve the vacuum environment as the liquid gallium combines with any water vapor or oxygen present in the system. The practical use of a liquid metal for cooling silicon crystals and other high heat load applications depends on having a convenient and efficient delivery system. The requirements for a typical cooling system for a silicon crystal used in a monochromator are pumping speeds of 2 to 5 gpm (120 cc per sec to 600 cc per sec) at pressures up to 100 psi.

  3. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650[degrees]F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  4. Assessment of coal liquids as refinery feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, P.

    1992-02-01

    The R&D of direct coal liquefaction has reached such a stage that current two-stage processes can produce coal liquids with high yields and improved quality at a reasonable cost. To fully realize the potential value, these coal liquids should be refined into high-value liquid transportation fuels. The purpose of this study is to assess coal liquids as feedstocks to be processed by modern petroleum refining technologies. After the introduction, Section 2.0 summarizes ASTM specifications for major transportation fuels: gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel fuel, which serve as a target for coal-liquid refining. A concise description of modern refining processes follows with an emphasis on the requirements for the raw materials. These provide criteria to judge the quality of coal liquids as a refinery feedstock for the production of marketable liquid fuels. Section 3.0 surveys the properties of coal liquids produced by various liquefaction processes. Compared with typical petroleum oils, the current two-stage coal liquids are: Light in boiling range and free of resids and metals; very low in sulfur but relatively high in oxygen; relatively low in hydrogen and high in cyclics content; and essentially toxicologically inactive when end point is lower than 650{degrees}F, particularly after hydroprocessing. Despite these characteristics, the coal liquids are basically similar to petroleum. The modern refining technology is capable of processing coal liquids into transportation fuels meeting all specifications, and hydroprocessinq is obviously the major tool. The important point is the determination of a reasonable product slate and an appropriate refining scheme.

  5. Liquid-level sensing device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldfuss, G.T.

    1975-09-16

    This invention relates to a device for sensing the level of a liquid while preventing the deposition and accumulation of materials on the exterior surfaces thereof. Two dissimilar metal wires are enclosed within an electrical insulating material, the wires being joined together at one end to form a thermocouple junction outside the insulating material. Heating means is disposed within the electrical insulating material and maintains the device at a temperature substantially greater than that of the environment surrounding the device, the heating means being electrically insulated from the two dissimilar thermocouple wires. In addition, a metal sheath surrounds and contacts both the electrical insulating material and the thermocouple junction. Electrical connections are provided for connecting the heating means with a power source and for connecting the thermocouple wires with a device for sensing the electrical potential across the thermocouple junction. (auth)

  6. APPARATUS FOR LIQUID PHASE EXTRACTION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hicks, T.R.; Lehman, H.R.; Rubin, B.

    1958-09-16

    operation is described. It comprises a tubular colunm having upper and lower enlarged terminal portions, and a constricted central section containing fluid dispersal packing. Pulsing means are coupled to the upper portion of the column. The inlet for the less dense phase is located above the inlet for the denser phase and both are positioned so that liquids enter the constricted packingfilled central section. The apparatos also includes an interfacing level control, and means fer sensing the level of the interface actuate apparatus for controlling the rate of flow of input or discharge. The outlet for the less dense phase is located in the upper packing free portion of the colunm and that of the denser phase in the lower portion.

  7. Exploring Motion Reversal in Polymer Cholesteric-Liquid-Crystal Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kosc, T.Z.; Coon, C.J.; Babcock, G.V.; Marshall, K.L.; Trajkovska-Petkoska, Jacobs, S.D.

    2006-12-13

    Polymer cholesteric-liquid-crystal (PCLC) flakes suspended in a fluid are used as the active medium in a novel particle-based, electro-optic technology. The motion of PCLC flakes is controlled with an electric field so that PCLC flake devices are brightly reflective in their “off” state and appear dark when an electric field is applied, causing the flakes to reorient 90º. We seek to control flake orientation by designing waveforms that follow the initial drive voltage. Shaped pulses were investigated to accelerate flake relaxation.

  8. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, James L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C.sub.7 -C.sub.17 paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+.

  9. Process of producing liquid hydrocarbon fuels from biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuester, J.L.

    1987-07-07

    A continuous thermochemical indirect liquefaction process is described to convert various biomass materials into diesel-type transportation fuels which fuels are compatible with current engine designs and distribution systems comprising feeding said biomass into a circulating solid fluidized bed gasification system to produce a synthesis gas containing olefins, hydrogen and carbon monoxide and thereafter introducing the synthesis gas into a catalytic liquefaction system to convert the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon fuel consisting essentially of C[sub 7]-C[sub 17] paraffinic hydrocarbons having cetane indices of 50+. 1 fig.

  10. LSU EFRC - Center for Atomic Level Catalyst Design - Article Archives

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Articles >> space control Catalysts by Design for Syngas Cleanup space control Quantitative Relationship between Support Porosity and the Stability of Pore-Confined Metal Nanoparticles Studied on CuZnO/SiO2 Methanol Synthesis Catalysts space control Millifluidics for Time-resolved Mapping of the Growth of Gold Nanostructures space control Geometric optimization of liquid-liquid slug flow in a flow-focusing millifluidic device for synthesis of nanomaterials space control An article about

  11. US and Russian innovative technologies to process low-level liquid radioactive wastes: The Murmansk initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dyer, R.S.; Penzin, R.; Duffey, R.B.; Sorlie, A.

    1996-12-31

    This paper documents the status of the technical design for the upgrade and expansion to the existing Low-level Liquid Radioactive Waste (LLLRW) treatment facility in Murmansk, the Russian Federation. This facility, owned by the Ministry of Transportation and operated by the Russian company RTP Atomflot in Murmansk, Russia, has been used by the Murmansk Shipping Company (MSCo) to process low-level liquid radioactive waste generated by the operation of its civilian icebreaker fleet. The purpose of the new design is to enable Russia to permanently cease the disposal at sea of LLLRW in the Arctic, and to treat liquid waste and high saline solutions from both the Civil and North Navy Fleet operations and decommissioning activities. Innovative treatments are to be used in the plant which are discussed in this paper.

  12. Ignition Capsules with Aerogel-Supported Liquid DT Fuel For The National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, D D; Salmonson, J D; Clark, D S; Lindl, J D; Haan, S W; Amendt, P; Wu, K J

    2011-10-25

    For high repetition-rate fusion power plant applications, capsules with aerogel-supported liquid DT fuel can have much reduced fill time compared to {beta}-layering a solid DT fuel layer. The melting point of liquid DT can be lowered once liquid DT is embedded in an aerogel matrix, and the DT vapor density is consequently closer to the desired density for optimal capsule design requirement. We present design for NIF-scale aerogel-filled capsules based on 1-D and 2-D simulations. An optimal configuration is obtained when the outer radius is increased until the clean fuel fraction is within 65-75% at peak velocity. A scan (in ablator and fuel thickness parameter space) is used to optimize the capsule configurations. The optimized aerogel-filled capsule has good low-mode robustness and acceptable high-mode mix.

  13. Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies Ionic Liquid Pretreatment Technologies These slides were used as a presentation by Dr. Blake Simmons on June 24, 2013, for the bimonthly BETO webinar. june2013_snl_webinar.pdf (4.32 MB) More Documents & Publications 2015 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion Innovative Topics for Advanced Biofuels 2013 Peer Review Presentations-Biochemical Conversion

  14. Fiber-optic liquid level sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber-optic liquid level sensor measures the height of a column of liquid through the hydrostatic pressure it produces. The sensor employs a fiber-optic displacement sensor to detect the pressure-induced displacement of the center of a corrugated diaphragm.

  15. Engineered microorganisms having resistance to ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruegg, Thomas Lawrence; Thelen, Michael P.

    2016-03-22

    The present invention provides for a method of genetically modifying microorganisms to enhance resistance to ionic liquids, host cells genetically modified in accordance with the methods, and methods of using the host cells in a reaction comprising biomass that has been pretreated with ionic liquids.

  16. Liquid crystal-templated conducting organic polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stupp, Samuel I.; Hulvat, James F.

    2004-01-20

    A method of preparing a conductive polymeric film, includes providing a liquid crystal phase comprising a plurality of hydrophobic cores, the phase on a substrate, introducing a hydrophobic component to the phase, the component a conductive polymer precursor, and applying an electric potential across the liquid crystal phase, the potential sufficient to polymerize the said precursor.

  17. Mechanical Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shook, Richard; /Marquette U. /SLAC

    2010-08-25

    The particle beam of the SXR (soft x-ray) beam line in the LCLS (Linac Coherent Light Source) has a high intensity in order to penetrate through samples at the atomic level. However, the intensity is so high that many experiments fail because of severe damage. To correct this issue, attenuators are put into the beam line to reduce this intensity to a level suitable for experimentation. Attenuation is defined as 'the gradual loss in intensity of any flux through a medium' by [1]. It is found that Beryllium and Boron Carbide can survive the intensity of the beam. At very thin films, both of these materials work very well as filters for reducing the beam intensity. Using a total of 12 filters, the first 9 being made of Beryllium and the rest made of Boron Carbide, the beam's energy range of photons can be attenuated between 800 eV and 9000 eV. The design of the filters allows attenuation for different beam intensities so that experiments can obtain different intensities from the beam if desired. The step of attenuation varies, but is relative to the thickness of the filter as a power function of 2. A relationship for this is f(n) = x{sub 0}2{sup n} where n is the step of attenuation desired and x{sub 0} is the initial thickness of the material. To allow for this desired variation, a mechanism must be designed within the test chamber. This is visualized using a 3D computer aided design modeling tool known as Solid Edge.

  18. 13.0 LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL 13.1 LIQUID EFFLUENT DISCHARGE RESTRICTIONS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3-1 13.0 LIQUID EFFLUENT TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL 13.1 LIQUID EFFLUENT DISCHARGE RESTRICTIONS 13.1.1 Introduction This section addresses requirements for management of restrictions for discharge of liquid effluents to the soil column at Hanford. These managerial requirements are the result, in part, of EPA's and Ecology's reviews of the Liquid Effluent Study (LES) that was submitted by DOE in August 1990. The LES included information on the 33 Phase I and Phase II liquid effluent streams and was

  19. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, D.D.

    A chromatographic system is described that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a nontransparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extreme low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  20. Producing power from a cryogenic liquid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruhemann, M.S.W.

    1983-08-30

    Power is produced from a methane-containing cryogenic liquid such as LNG by compressing the liquid and employing the compressed liquid as a refrigerant in the condensers of two closed and independent power cycles. The heat exchange medium in the first of the cycles evaporates in a lower temperature range than that at which the heat exchange medium in the second cycle condenses. The first heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a first heat exchange step with the compressed cryogenic liquid and the second heat exchange medium is condensed by heat exchange in a second heat exchange step with compressed cryogenic liquid recovered from the first heat exchange step and evaporating first heat exchange medium. Power is recovered from the expansion engines associated with the two power cycles.

  1. Dual liquid and gas chromatograph system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gay, Don D.

    1985-01-01

    A chromatographic system that utilizes one detection system for gas chromatographic and micro-liquid chromatographic determinations. The detection system is a direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, helium plasma emission spectrometer. The detector utilizes a non-transparent plasma source unit which contains the plasma region and two side-arms which receive effluents from the micro-liquid chromatograph and the gas chromatograph. The dual nature of this chromatographic system offers: (1) extreme flexibility in the samples to be examined; (2) extremely low sensitivity; (3) element selectivity; (4) long-term stability; (5) direct correlation of data from the liquid and gas samples; (6) simpler operation than with individual liquid and gas chromatographs, each with different detection systems; and (7) cheaper than a commercial liquid chromatograph and a gas chromatograph.

  2. Sewage sludge dewatering using flowing liquid metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlson, Larry W.

    1986-01-01

    A method and apparatus for reducing the moisture content of a moist sewage sludge having a moisture content of about 50% to 80% and formed of small cellular micro-organism bodies having internally confined water is provided. A hot liquid metal is circulated in a circulation loop and the moist sewage sludge is injected in the circulation loop under conditions of temperature and pressure such that the confined water vaporizes and ruptures the cellular bodies. The vapor produced, the dried sludge, and the liquid metal are then separated. Preferably, the moist sewage sludge is injected into the hot liquid metal adjacent the upstream side of a venturi which serves to thoroughly mix the hot liquid metal and the moist sewage sludge. The venturi and the drying zone after the venturi are preferably vertically oriented. The dried sewage sludge recovered is available as a fuel and is preferably used for heating the hot liquid metal.

  3. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  4. Secretary Chu Announces Winning Startup Companies for "America...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... These Liquid Desiccant HVAC systems deliver a 50 to 75 percent reduction in energy usage over conventional HVAC units. The system consists of a membrane conditioner responsible for ...

  5. Hybrid multiphase CFD simulation for liquid-liquid interfacial area prediction in annular centrifugal contactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wardle, K.E.

    2013-07-01

    Liquid-liquid contacting equipment used in solvent extraction processes has the dual purpose of mixing and separating two immiscible fluids. Consequently, such devices inherently encompass a wide variety of multiphase flow regimes. A hybrid multiphase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid method with VOF (volume of fluid) sharp interface capturing has been developed for application to annular centrifugal contactors. This solver has been extended to enable prediction of mean droplet size and liquid-liquid interfacial area through a single moment population balance method. Simulations of liquid-liquid mixing in a simplified geometry and a model annular centrifugal contactor are reported with droplet breakup/coalescence models being calibrated versus available experimental data. Quantitative comparison is made for two different housing vane geometries and it is found that the predicted droplet size is significantly smaller for vane geometries which result in higher annular liquid holdup.

  6. Ionic Liquids: Radiation Chemistry, Solvation Dynamics and Reactivity Patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wishart,J.F.

    2008-09-29

    the influence of ILs on charge transport processes. Picosecond pulse radiolysis studies at BNL's Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF) are used to identify reactive species in ionic liquids and measure their solvation and reaction rates. We and our collaborators (R. Engel (Queens College, CUNY) and S. Lall-Ramnarine, (Queensborough CC, CUNY)) develop and characterize new ionic liquids specifically designed for our radiolysis and solvation dynamics studies. IL solvation and rotational dynamics are measured by TCSPC and fluorescence upconversion measurements in the laboratory of E. W. Castner at Rutgers Univ. Investigations of radical species in irradiated ILs are carried out at ANL by I. Shkrob and S. Chemerisov using EPR spectroscopy. Diffusion rates are obtained by PGSE NMR in S. Greenbaum's lab at Hunter College, CUNY and S. Chung's lab at William Patterson U. Professor Mark Kobrak of CUNY Brooklyn College performs molecular dynamics simulations of solvation processes. A collaboration with M. Dietz at U. Wisc. Milwaukee is centered around the properties and radiolytic behavior of ionic liquids for nuclear separations. Collaborations with C. Reed (UC Riverside), D. Gabel (U. Bremen) and J. Davis (U. South Alabama) are aimed at characterizing the radiolytic and other properties of borated ionic liquids, which could be used to make fissile material separations processes inherently safe from criticality accidents.

  7. A bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline phase with inter-stack electronic coupling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Bin; Sun, Runkun; GĂĽnbaĹź, Duygu D.; Zhang, Hao; Grozema, Ferdinand C.; Xiao, Kai; Jin, Shi

    2015-06-15

    The first compound proving to be capable of forming a bundled-stack discotic columnar liquid crystalline (BSDCLC) phase was designed and synthesized. Finally, the unique perylene anhydride inter-stack interaction was found to be the key to the formation of the BSDCLC structure and inter-stack electronic coupling (ISEC).

  8. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics for the Spallation Neutron Source liquid mercury target

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendel, M.W.; Siman-Tov, M.

    1998-11-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a high-power accelerator-based pulsed spallation source being designed by a multilaboratory team led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to achieve high fluxes of neutrons for scientific experiments. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is being used to analyze the SNS design. The liquid-mercury target is subjected to the neutronic (internal) heat generation that results from the proton collisions with the mercury nuclei. The liquid mercury simultaneously serves as the neutronic target medium, transports away the heat generated within itself, and cools the metallic target structure. Recirculation and stagnation zones within the target are of particular concern because of the likelihood that they will result in local hot spots. These zones exist because the most feasible target designs include a complete U-turn flow redirection. Although the primary concern is that the target is adequately cooled, the pressure drop from inlet to outlet must also be considered because pressure drop directly affects structural loading and required pumping power. Based on the current design, a three-dimensional CFD model has been developed that includes the stainless steel target structure, the liquid-mercury target flow, and the liquid-mercury cooling jacket that wraps around the nose of the target.

  9. A flowing liquid lithium limiter for the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, J.; Zuo, G. Z.; Hu, J. S.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Q. X.; Li, J. G.; Xie, H.; Chen, Z. X.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2015-02-15

    A program involving the extensive and systematic use of lithium (Li) as a “first,” or plasma-facing, surface in Tokamak fusion research devices located at Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was started in 2009. Many remarkable results have been obtained by the application of Li coatings in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) and liquid Li limiters in the HT-7 Tokamak—both located at the institute. In furtherance of the lithium program, a flowing liquid lithium (FLiLi) limiter system has been designed and manufactured for EAST. The design of the FLiLi limiter is based on the concept of a thin flowing film which was previously tested in HT-7. Exploiting the capabilities of the existing material and plasma evaluation system on EAST, the limiter will be pre-wetted with Li and mechanically translated to the edge of EAST during plasma discharges. The limiter will employ a novel electro-magnetic pump which is designed to drive liquid Li flow from a collector at the bottom of limiter into a distributor at its top, and thus supply a continuously flowing liquid Li film to the wetted plasma-facing surface. This paper focuses on the major design elements of the FLiLi limiter. In addition, a simulation of incoming heat flux has shown that the distribution of heat flux on the limiter surface is acceptable for a future test of power extraction on EAST.

  10. Development of a low background liquid scintillation counter for a shallow underground laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erchinger, Jennifer L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; Douglas, Matthew; Fuller, Erin S.; Keillor, Martin E.; Morley, Shannon M.; Mullen, Crystal A.; Orrell, John L.; Panisko, Mark E.; Warren, Glen A.; Williams, Russell O.; Wright, Michael E.

    2015-08-20

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has recently opened a shallow underground laboratory intended for measurement of lowconcentration levels of radioactive isotopes in samples collected from the environment. The development of a low-background liquid scintillation counter is currently underway to further augment the measurement capabilities within this underground laboratory. Liquid scintillation counting is especially useful for measuring charged particle (e.g., B, a) emitting isotopes with no (orvery weak) gamma-ray yields. The combination of high-efficiency detection of charged particle emission in a liquid scintillation cocktail coupled with the low-background environment of an appropriately-designed shield located in a clean underground laboratory provides the opportunity for increased-sensitivity measurements of a range of isotopes. To take advantage of the 35-meter water-equivalent overburden of the underground laboratory, a series of simulations have evaluated the instrumental shield design requirements to assess the possible background rate achievable. This report presents the design and background evaluation for a shallow underground, low background liquid scintillation counter design for sample measurements.

  11. NUCLEAR REACTOR CORE DESIGN

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahlmeister, J.E.; Peck, W.S.; Haberer, W.V.; Williams, A.C.

    1960-03-22

    An improved core design for a sodium-cooled, graphitemoderated nuclear reactor is described. The improved reactor core comprises a number of blocks of moderator material, each block being in the shape of a regular prism. A number of channels, extending the length of each block, are disposed around the periphery. When several blocks are placed in contact to form the reactor core, the channels in adjacent blocks correspond with each other to form closed conduits extending the length of the core. Fuel element clusters are disposed in these closed conduits, and liquid coolant is forced through the annulus between the fuel cluster and the inner surface of the conduit. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the moderator blocks are in the form of hexagonal prisms with longitudinal channels cut into the corners of the hexagon. The main advantage of an "edge-loaded" moderator block is that fewer thermal neutrons are absorbed by the moderator cladding, as compared with a conventional centrally loaded moderator block.

  12. Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 03_dti_cost_analysis_bio-derived_liquids_reforming.pdf (471.59 KB) More Documents & Publications BILIWG Meeting: High Pressure Steam Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working

  13. Ionic liquids for rechargeable lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salminen, Justin; Papaiconomou, Nicolas; Kerr, John; Prausnitz,John; Newman, John

    2005-09-29

    We have investigated possible anticipated advantages of ionic-liquid electrolytes for use in lithium-ion batteries. Thermal stabilities and phase behavior were studied by thermal gravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. The ionic liquids studied include various imidazoliumTFSI systems, pyrrolidiniumTFSI, BMIMPF{sub 6}, BMIMBF{sub 4}, and BMIMTf. Thermal stabilities were measured for neat ionic liquids and for BMIMBF{sub 4}-LiBF{sub 4}, BMIMTf-LiTf, BMIMTFSI-LiTFSI mixtures. Conductivities have been measured for various ionic-liquid lithium-salt systems. We show the development of interfacial impedance in a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + LiBF{sub 4}|Li cell and we report results from cycling experiments for a Li|BMIMBF{sub 4} + 1 mol/kg LIBF{sub 4}|C cell. The interfacial resistance increases with time and the ionic liquid reacts with the lithium electrode. As expected, imidazolium-based ionic liquids react with lithium electrodes. We seek new ionic liquids that have better chemical stabilities.

  14. Electromagnetic pumping of liquid lithium in inertial confinement fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.S.; Blink, J.A.; Tessier, M.J.

    1983-03-01

    The basic operating principles and geometries of ten electromagnetic pumps are described. Two candidate pumps, the annular-linear-induction pump and the helical-rotor electromagnetic pump, are compared for possible use in a full-scale liquid-lithium inertial confinement fusion reactor. A parametric design study completed for the helical-rotor pump is shown to be valid when applied to an experimental sodium pump. Based upon the preliminary HYLIFE requirements for a lithium flow rate per pump of 8.08 m/sup 3//s at a head of 82.5 kPa, a complete set of 70 variables are specified for a helical-rotor pump with either a normally conducting or a superconducting winding. The two alternative designs are expected to perform with efficiencies of 50 and 60%, respectively.

  15. Recent advances in centrifugal contactors design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, R.A.

    1987-10-01

    Advances in thedesign of the Argonne centrifugal contactor for solvent extaction are being realized as these contactors are built, tested, and used to implement the TRUEX process for the cleanup of nuclear waste liquids. These advances include (1) using off-the-shelf, face-mounted motors, (2) modifying the contractor so that relatively volatile solvents can be used, (3) adding a high-level liquid detector that can be used to alert the plant operator of process upsets, (4) providing secondary feed ports, (5) optimizing support frame design, (6) maintaining a linear design with external interstage lines so the stages can be allocated as needed for extraction, scrub, strip, and solvent cleanup operations, and (7) developing features that facilitate contractor operation in remote facilities. 11 refs., 8 figs.

  16. Characterization of Arc Generated Plasma Interactions with a Liquid Metal Medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Gregory C.; Martin, Elijah H.; Bourham, Mohamed A.

    2005-05-15

    Plasma interaction with first wall and interior reactor chamber components is an influencing factor in the design of inertial fusion facilities. The concept of a liquid metal wall, in which a circulating lithium curtain would be used, has been considered in many studies. The interaction of plasmas with moving liquid metals is a complex subject due to the influence of hydrodynamics, evaporation and droplet formation, nucleation and agglomeration of condensed particulates. To gain an understanding of some of the specific details of this interaction an experimental setup of an arc-generated plasma interacting with a liquid lead pool has been designed, constructed and operated. This simulation of the plasma-liquid interaction focuses on the particle condensation of the liquid metal after plasma interaction. The experiment generates transient high-density plasma over 50 {mu}s pulse duration. Plasma characteristics are determined by various diagnostics. A set of collection substrates are arranged to collect nucleated particulates condensing from the evolving plume. Particulate size and distribution are analyzed numerically using digital images.

  17. Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for multifunctional, antifouling surfaces Title: Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for ...

  18. High intensity x-ray source using liquid gallium target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smither, Robert K.; Knapp, Gordon S.; Westbrook, Edwin M.; Forster, George A.

    1990-01-01

    A high intensity x-ray source that uses a flowing stream of liquid gallium as a target with the electron beam impinging directly on the liquid metal.

  19. Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion (Conference) | SciTech...

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    Conference: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular catalytic coal liquid conversion This research, which is relevant to the ...

  20. Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...

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    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0...

  1. Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

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    and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Utah and Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade...

  2. Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid...

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    Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help...

  3. A Sealed Liquid Cell for In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy...

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    A Sealed Liquid Cell for In Situ Transmission Electron Microscopy of Controlled Electrochemical Processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Sealed Liquid Cell for In ...

  4. Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid...

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    Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels Low-Emissions Burner Technology using Biomass-Derived Liquid Fuels This factsheet describes a project that ...

  5. Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste...

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    Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations Ventilation System to Improve Savannah River Site's Liquid Waste Operations August 28, 2014 - 12:00pm ...

  6. Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the...

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    Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Title: Dataset used to improve liquid water absorption models in the microwave Two datasets, one a ...

  7. Time-Resolved Study of Bonding in Liquid Carbon

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    of liquid carbon at near-solid densities that can then be compared with results from molecular dynamics simulations. Extreme Carbon: Liquid Diamond or Molten Graphite?...

  8. Energetics of Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid...

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    Hydrogen Bond Network Rearrangements in Liquid Water Print The unique chemical and physical properties of liquid water are thought to result from the highly directional hydrogen ...

  9. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working...

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    Meeting - November 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Meeting - November 2007 The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming ...

  10. Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis...

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    Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Liquid and gel electrodes for transverse free flow electrophoresis The ...

  11. Transport diffusion of liquid water and methanol through membranes...

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  12. Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with...

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    comparison with light water reactor Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Advantages of liquid fluoride thorium reactor in comparison with light water reactor Liquid Fluoride ...

  13. CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS...

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    CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS: PROTOTYPE DEVELOPMENT AND FULL-SCALE TESTING CATALYST-ASSISTED PRODUCTION OF OLEFINS FROM NATURAL GAS LIQUIDS: ...

  14. Short-Term Outlook for Hydrocarbon Gas Liquids - Energy Information...

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    Highlights Prices Global Petroleum and Other Liquids U.S. Petroleum and Other Liquids Natural Gas Coal Electricity Renewables and Carbon Dioxide Emissions U.S. Economic Assumptions ...

  15. New York Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves (Million Barrels...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Release Date: 11192015 Next Release Date: 12312016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 New York Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves Natural Gas ...

  16. New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic...

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    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production ... Referring Pages: NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent New Mexico Natural Gas Plant ...

  17. New Mathematics Accurately Captures Liquids and Surfaces Moving...

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    New Mathematics Accurately Captures Liquids and Surfaces Moving in Synergy New Mathematics Accurately Captures Liquids and Surfaces Moving in Synergy Berkeley Lab Mathematics ...

  18. Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path...

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    Monitoring of Precipitable Water Vapor and Cloud Liquid Path from Scanning Microwave ... used to measure atmospheric precipitable water vapor (PWV) and cloud liquid path (CLP). ...

  19. ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid...

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    Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and Precipitable Water Vapor Title: ARM: Microwave Radiometer Retrievals (MWRRET) of Cloud Liquid Water and ...

  20. Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge...

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    Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thin Liquid Water Clouds: Their Importance and Our Challenge Many of the ...

  1. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids...

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    Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well ...

  2. Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent...

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    Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent extraction Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Recovery of sugars from ionic liquid biomass liquor by solvent ...

  3. West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic...

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    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production ... NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Processing NGPL ...

  4. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: West Virginia Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  5. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids...

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    High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to ...

  6. Voluntary Protection Program Onsite, Liquid Waste Contract Savannah...

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    Onsite, Liquid Waste Contract Savannah River Site - February 2011 Voluntary Protection Program Onsite, Liquid Waste Contract Savannah River Site - February 2011 February 2011 ...

  7. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... 12:17:34 PM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Oklahoma Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  8. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... 7:17:28 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Kansas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  9. ,"Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids...

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    for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ... 1: Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ...

  10. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... to Contents","Data 1: Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  11. ,"Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease ... AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: Federal Offshore--Texas Natural Gas Liquids Lease ...

  12. ,"Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... to Contents","Data 1: Lower 48 Federal Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  13. ,"Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... "Back to Contents","Data 1: Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  14. ,"Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ... to Contents","Data 1: Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ...

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    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Texas--State Offshore Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade Year-0 Year-1 ...

  16. ,"Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids,...

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    for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ... Contents","Data 1: Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ...

  17. ,"Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ... to Contents","Data 1: Alaska (with Total Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ...

  18. ,"Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ... Contents","Data 1: Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected ...

  19. ,"Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease...

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    for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... 1: Mississippi (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  20. ,"Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...

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    for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... Contents","Data 1: Louisiana (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  1. ,"Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... Contents","Data 1: Alabama (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... to Contents","Data 1: Texas (with State Offshore) Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ... to Contents","Data 1: Louisiana--State Offshore Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, ...

  4. Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids...

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    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Federal Offshore--Louisiana and Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels) Decade ...

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  6. Non-aqueous liquid compositions comprising ion exchange polymers...

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  7. ,"Louisiana--North Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved...

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  8. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Lease Condensate, Proved Reserves...

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    Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Lease ... 9:28:11 AM" "Back to Contents","Data 1: North Dakota Natural Gas Liquids Lease ...

  9. North Dakota Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic...

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  11. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Natural Gas Plant Liquids...

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    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million ... NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Utah Natural Gas Plant Processing NGPL Production, ...

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  14. ,"Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

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    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  15. Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet...

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    Liquids Production (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Plant Liquids Production ... NGPL Production, Gaseous Equivalent Alabama Natural Gas Plant Processing NGPL Production, ...

  16. ,"Oklahoma Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

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    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

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  19. ,"West Virginia Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

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  1. ,"Utah Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

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  7. ,"Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  8. ,"Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  9. ,"Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production (Million Barrels)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab ... 1","Miscellaneous States Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Expected Future Production ...

  10. Two-Phase Liquid Dielectric - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Return to Search Two-Phase Liquid Dielectric Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory ... Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory researchers have developed a two-phase liquid ...

  11. Test and evaluation report for Westinghouse Hanford Company`s 1-L liquid shipper, docket 95-41-7A, Type A container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelly, D.L.

    1996-03-13

    This report incorporates the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Facility Safety Analysis (DOE/EH-32) approval letter for packaging use. This report documents the U.S. Department of Transportation Specification 7A Type A (DOT-7A) compliance test results of the 1-L Liquid Shipper packaging. The approved packaging system is designed to ship Type A quantities of radioactive materials, normal form. Contents may be liquid or solid form. Liquid contents must have a specific gravity {lt}2. Solid materials are limited in weight, to include packaging, to the gross weight of the as-tested liquids and bottles.

  12. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, G.F.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Chisheng Wang.

    1993-03-16

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  13. Method and apparatus for transporting liquid slurries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, Gregory F.; Lyczkowski, Robert W.; Wang, Chi-Sheng

    1993-01-01

    An improved method and device to prevent erosion of slurry transport devices is disclosed which uses liquid injection to prevent contact by the slurry composition with the inner surface of the walls of the transport system. A non-abrasive liquid is injected into the slurry transport system and maintains intimate contact with the entire inner surface of the transport system, thereby creating a fluid barrier between the non-abrasive liquid and the inner surface of the transport system which thereby prevents erosion.

  14. Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

    2013-05-29

    Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

  15. IONIC LIQUIDS: RADIATION CHEMISTRY, SOLVATION DYNAMICS AND REACTIVITY PATTERNS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WISHART,J.F.

    2007-10-01

    's Laser-Electron Accelerator Facility (LEAF) are used to identify reactive species in ionic liquids and measure their solvation and reaction rates. We and our collaborators (R. Engel (Queens College, CUNY) and S. Lall-Ramnarine, (Queensborough CC, CUNY)) develop and characterize new ionic liquids specifically designed for our radiolysis and solvation dynamics studies. IL solvation and rotational dynamics are measured by TCSPC and fluorescence upconversion measurements in the laboratory of E. W. Castner at Rutgers Univ. Investigations of radical species in irradiated ILs are carried out at ANL by I. Shkrob and S. Chemerisov using EPR spectroscopy. Diffusion rates are obtained by PGSE NMR in S. Greenbaum's lab at Hunter College, CUNY and S. Chung's lab at William Patterson U. Professor Mark Kobrak of CUNY Brooklyn College performs molecular dynamics simulations of solvation processes. A collaboration with M. Dietz and coworkers at ANL is centered around the properties and radiolytic behavior of ionic liquids for nuclear separations. Collaborations with C. Reed (UC Riverside), D. Gabel (U. Bremen) and J. Davis (U. South Alabama) are aimed at characterizing the radiolytic and other properties of borated ionic liquids, which could be used to make fissile material separations processes inherently safe from criticality accidents.

  16. SEAPORT LIQUID NATURAL GAS STUDY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COOK,Z.

    1999-02-01

    The Seaport Liquid Natural Gas Study has attempted to evaluate the potential for using LNG in a variety of heavy-duty vehicle and equipment applications at the Ports of Los Angeles and Oakland. Specifically, this analysis has focused on the handling and transport of containerized cargo to, from and within these two facilities. In terms of containerized cargo throughput, Los Angeles and Oakland are the second and sixth busiest ports in the US, respectively, and together handle nearly 4.5 million TEUs per year. At present, the landside handling and transportation of containerized cargo is heavily dependent on diesel-powered, heavy-duty vehicles and equipment, the utilization of which contributes significantly to the overall emissions impact of port-related activities. Emissions from diesel units have been the subject of increasing scrutiny and regulatory action, particularly in California. In the past two years alone, particulate matter from diesel exhaust has been listed as a toxic air contaminant by CAM, and major lawsuits have been filed against several of California's largest supermarket chains, alleging violation of Proposition 65 statutes in connection with diesel emissions from their distribution facilities. CARE3 has also indicated that it may take further regulatory action relating to the TAC listing. In spite of these developments and the very large diesel emissions associated with port operations, there has been little AFV penetration in these applications. Nearly all port operators interviewed by CALSTART expressed an awareness of the issues surrounding diesel use; however, none appeared to be taking proactive steps to address them. Furthermore, while a less controversial issue than emissions, the dominance of diesel fuel use in heavy-duty vehicles contributes to a continued reliance on imported fuels. The increasing concern regarding diesel use, and the concurrent lack of alternative fuel use and vigorous emissions reduction activity at the Ports provide

  17. THERMAL OSCILLATIONS IN LIQUID HELIUM TARGETS.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WANG,L.; JIA,L.X.

    2001-07-16

    A liquid helium target for the high-energy physics was built and installed in the proton beam line at the Alternate Gradient Synchrotron of Brookhaven National Laboratory in 2001. The target flask has a liquid volume of 8.25 liters and is made of thin Mylar film. A G-M/J-T cryocooler of five-watts at 4.2K was used to produce liquid helium and refrigerate the target. A thermosyphon circuit for the target was connected to the J-T circuit by a liquid/gas separator. Because of the large heat load to the target and its long transfer lines, thermal oscillations were observed during the system tests. To eliminate the oscillation, a series of tests and analyses were carried out. This paper describes the phenomena and provides the understanding of the thermal oscillations in the target system.

  18. Liquid Fuels Market Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Defines the objectives of the Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM), describes its basic approach, and provides detail on how it works. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the public.

  19. Liquid Propane Injection Applications | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart. deer10_arnold.pdf (2.29

  20. Radiopure Metal-Loaded Liquid Scintillator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosero, Richard; Yeh, Minfang

    2015-03-18

    Metal-loaded liquid scintillator plays a key role in particle and nuclear physics experiments. The applications of metal ions in various neutrino experiments and the purification methods for different scintillator components are discussed in this paper.

  1. Pressure sensor for high-temperature liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Forster, George A.

    1978-01-01

    A pressure sensor for use in measuring pressures in liquid at high temperatures, especially such as liquid sodium or liquid potassium, comprises a soft diaphragm in contact with the liquid. The soft diaphragm is coupled mechanically to a stiff diaphragm. Pressure is measured by measuring the displacment of both diaphragms, typically by measuring the capacitance between the stiff diaphragm and a fixed plate when the stiff diaphragm is deflected in response to the measured pressure through mechanical coupling from the soft diaphragm. Absolute calibration is achieved by admitting gas under pressure to the region between diaphragms and to the region between the stiff diaphragm and the fixed plate, breaking the coupling between the soft and stiff diaphragms. The apparatus can be calibrated rapidly and absolutely.

  2. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.

    1985-01-01

    Described is a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous derived liquids by contacting said liquid at an elevated temperature with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene having catechol ligands anchored thereon. Also, described is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid as described above and involves: a. treating said spent catecholated polystyrene, at a temperature in the range of about 20.degree. to 100.degree. C. with an aqueous solution of at least one carbonate and/or bicarbonate of ammonium, alkali and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10 and, b. separating the solids and liquids from each other. Preferably the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution containing lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (a) and (b) are repeated using a bicarbonate.

  3. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    In a chiral liquid crystal, stacked molecular layers form a twist-a useful property in LCD technology. NOBOW transforms from the B4 (helical) phase to the B2 (flat) phase at 142...

  4. Active Radiatiive Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Active Radiatiive Liquid Lithium (metal) Divertor Developing a reactor-compatible divertor ... Application of Lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power ...

  5. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    but are best known for the liquid-crystal displays that drive the billion-dollar smartphone and flat-screen industries. Chirality, the absence of inversion symmetry, plays an...

  6. Liquid Fuels Market Model (LFMM) Unveiling LFMM

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Implementation of the Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) in the Liquid Fuels Market Module (LFMM) of NEMS Michael H. Cole, PhD, PE michael.cole@eia.gov August 1, 2012 | Washington, DC ...

  7. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of why the development, by Zhu et al., of a technique allowing direct measurement and control of liquid-crystal properties is important. The NOBOW molecular structure and a...

  8. Future of Liquid Biofuels for APEC Economies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milbrandt, A.; Overend, R. P.

    2008-05-01

    This project was initiated by APEC Energy Working Group (EWG) to maximize the energy sector's contribution to the region's economic and social well-being through activities in five areas of strategic importance including liquid biofuels production and development.

  9. Phosphonium-based ionic liquids and uses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Del Sesto, Rico E; Koppisch, Andrew T; Lovejoy, Katherine S; Purdy, Geraldine M

    2014-12-30

    Phosphonium-based room temperature ionic liquids ("RTILs") were prepared. They were used as matrices for Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry and also for preparing samples of dyes for analysis.

  10. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S S; Meier, W R; Abbott, R B; Barnard, J J; Brown, t; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan, B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G -L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-12-16

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  11. An Updated Point Design for Heavy Ion Fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, W R; Yu, S S; Abbott, R P; Barnard, J J; Brown, T; Callahan, D A; Heitzenroeder, P; Latkowski, J F; Logan B G; Pemberton, S J; Peterson, P F; Rose, D V; Sabbi, G-L; Sharp, W M; Welch, D R

    2002-11-12

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  12. An updated point design for heavy ion fusion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, S.S.; Meier, W.R.; Abbott, R.P.; Barnard, J.J.; Brown, T.; Callahan, D.A.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Latkowski, J.F.; Logan, B.G.; Pemberton, S.J.; Peterson, P.F.; Rose, D.V.; Sabbi, G-L.; Sharp, W.M.; Welch, D.R.

    2002-11-01

    An updated, self-consistent point design for a heavy ion fusion (HIF) power plant based on an induction linac driver, indirect-drive targets, and a thick liquid wall chamber has been completed. Conservative parameters were selected to allow each design area to meet its functional requirements in a robust manner, and thus this design is referred to as the Robust Point Design (RPD-2002). This paper provides a top-level summary of the major characteristics and design parameters for the target, driver, final focus magnet layout and shielding, chamber, beam propagation to the target, and overall power plant.

  13. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster in gas jet under liquid nitrogen temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han Jifeng; Yang Chaowen; Miao Jingwei; Fu Pengtao; Luo Xiaobing; Shi Miangong

    2010-09-15

    The generation of hydrogen clusters in gas jet is tested using the Rayleigh scattering method under liquid nitrogen temperature of 79 K. The self limiting effect of hydrogen cluster is studied and it is found that the cluster formation is greatly affected by the number of expanded molecules. The well designed liquid nitrogen cold trap ensured that the hydrogen cluster would keep maximum size for maximum 15 ms during one gas jet. The scattered light intensity exhibits a power scaling on the backing pressure ranging from 5 to 48 bar with the power value of 4.1.

  14. Process for preparing a liquid fuel composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singerman, Gary M.

    1982-03-16

    A process for preparing a liquid fuel composition which comprises liquefying coal, separating a mixture of phenols from said liquefied coal, converting said phenols to the corresponding mixture of anisoles, subjecting at least a portion of the remainder of said liquefied coal to hydrotreatment, subjecting at least a portion of said hydrotreated liquefied coal to reforming to obtain reformate and then combining at least a portion of said anisoles and at least a portion of said reformate to obtain said liquid fuel composition.

  15. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, John D.; Darab, John G.; Gross, Mark E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer.

  16. Superbase-derived protic ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Baker, Gary A.

    2013-09-03

    Protic ionic liquids having a composition of formula (A.sup.-)(BH.sup.+) wherein A.sup.- is a conjugate base of an acid HA, and BH.sup.+ is a conjugate acid of a superbase B. In particular embodiments, BH.sup.+ is selected from phosphazenium species and guanidinium species encompassed, respectively, by the general formulas: ##STR00001## The invention is also directed to films and membranes containing these protic ionic liquids, with particular application as proton exchange membranes for fuel cells.

  17. Photosensitive dopants for liquid noble gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, David F.

    1988-01-01

    In an ionization type detector for high energy radiation wherein the energy of incident radiation is absorbed through the ionization of a liquid noble gas and resulting free charge is collected to form a signal indicative of the energy of the incident radiation, an improvement comprising doping the liquid noble gas with photosensitive molecules to convert scintillation light due to recombination of ions, to additional free charge.

  18. Nonconventional Liquid Fuels (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01

    Higher prices for crude oil and refined petroleum products are opening the door for nonconventional liquids to displace petroleum in the traditional fuel supply mix. Growing world demand for diesel fuel is helping to jump-start the trend toward increasing production of nonconventional liquids, and technological advances are making the nonconventional alternatives more viable commercially. Those trends are reflected in the Annual Energy Outlook 2006 projections.

  19. Flash evaporation of liquid monomer particle mixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Affinito, J.D.; Darab, J.G.; Gross, M.E.

    1999-05-11

    The present invention is a method of making a first solid composite polymer layer. The method has the steps of (a) mixing a liquid monomer with particles substantially insoluble in the liquid monomer forming a monomer particle mixture; (b) flash evaporating the particle mixture and forming a composite vapor; and (c) continuously cryocondensing said composite vapor on a cool substrate and cross-linking the cryocondensed film thereby forming the polymer layer. 3 figs.

  20. Small-Scale Coal-Biomass to Liquids Production Using Highly Selective Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; McCabe, Kevin

    2015-04-30

    The research project advanced coal-to-liquids (CTL) and coal-biomass to liquids (CBTL) processes by testing and validating Chevron’s highly selective and active cobalt-zeolite hybrid Fischer-Tropsch (FT) catalyst to convert gasifier syngas predominantly to gasoline, jet fuel and diesel range hydrocarbon liquids, thereby eliminating expensive wax upgrading operations The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) operated by Southern Company (SC) at Wilsonville, Alabama served as the host site for the gasifier slip-stream testing/demonstration. Southern Research designed, installed and commissioned a bench scale skid mounted FT reactor system (SR-CBTL test rig) that was fully integrated with a slip stream from SC/NCCC’s transport integrated gasifier (TRIGTM). The test-rig was designed to receive up to 5 lb/h raw syngas augmented with bottled syngas to adjust the H2/CO molar ratio to 2, clean it to cobalt FT catalyst specifications, and produce liquid FT products at the design capacity of 2 to 4 L/day. It employed a 2-inch diameter boiling water jacketed fixed-bed heat-exchange FT reactor incorporating Chevron’s catalyst in Intramicron’s high thermal conductivity micro-fibrous entrapped catalyst (MFEC) packing to efficiently remove heat produced by the highly exothermic FT reaction.

  1. Process for stabilization of coal liquid fractions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davies, Geoffrey; El-Toukhy, Ahmed

    1987-01-01

    Coal liquid fractions to be used as fuels are stabilized against gum formation and viscosity increases during storage, permitting the fuel to be burned as is, without further expensive treatments to remove gums or gum-forming materials. Stabilization is accomplished by addition of cyclohexanol or other simple inexpensive secondary and tertiary alcohols, secondary and tertiary amines, and ketones to such coal liquids at levels of 5-25% by weight with respect to the coal liquid being treated. Cyclohexanol is a particularly effective and cost-efficient stabilizer. Other stabilizers are isopropanol, diphenylmethanol, tertiary butanol, dipropylamine, triethylamine, diphenylamine, ethylmethylketone, cyclohexanone, methylphenylketone, and benzophenone. Experimental data indicate that stabilization is achieved by breaking hydrogen bonds between phenols in the coal liquid, thereby preventing or retarding oxidative coupling. In addition, it has been found that coal liquid fractions stabilized according to the invention can be mixed with petroleum-derived liquid fuels to produce mixtures in which gum deposition is prevented or reduced relative to similar mixtures not containing stabilizer.

  2. Elimination of liquid discharge to the environment from the TA-50 Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moss, D.; Williams, N.; Hall, D.; Hargis, K.; Saladen, M.; Sanders, M.; Voit, S.; Worland, P.; Yarbro, S.

    1998-06-01

    Alternatives were evaluated for management of treated radioactive liquid waste from the radioactive liquid waste treatment facility (RLWTF) at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The alternatives included continued discharge into Mortandad Canyon, diversion to the sanitary wastewater treatment facility and discharge of its effluent to Sandia Canyon or Canada del Buey, and zero liquid discharge. Implementation of a zero liquid discharge system is recommended in addition to two phases of upgrades currently under way. Three additional phases of upgrades to the present radioactive liquid waste system are proposed to accomplish zero liquid discharge. The first phase involves minimization of liquid waste generation, along with improved characterization and monitoring of the remaining liquid waste. The second phase removes dissolved salts from the reverse osmosis concentrate stream to yield a higher effluent quality. In the final phase, the high-quality effluent is reused for industrial purposes within the Laboratory or evaporated. Completion of these three phases will result in zero discharge of treated radioactive liquid wastewater from the RLWTF.

  3. Liquid effluents program FY 1997 multi-year work plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, F.T.

    1996-09-30

    This document provides the technical baseline and work breakdown structure for the liquid effluents program.

  4. Semiconductor liquid crystal composition and methods for making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Li, Liang-shi

    2005-04-26

    Semiconductor liquid crystal compositions and methods for making such compositions are disclosed. One embodiment of the invention is directed to a liquid crystal composition including a solvent and semiconductor particles in the solvent. The solvent and the semiconductor particles are in an effective amount in the liquid crystal composition to form a liquid crystal phase.

  5. Method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClure, G.

    1980-06-17

    A method for the removal of carbonyl sulfide from liquid propane under liquid-liquid contact conditions by mixing liquid propane containing carbonyl sulfide as an impurity with 2-(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol as the principal agent for the carbonyl sulfide removal. The 2(2-aminoethoxy) ethanol is reclaimed and reused for further carbonyl sulfide removal. 5 claims.

  6. Enzyme structure and activity at liquid-liquid interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverung, C.J.; Tupy, M.J.; Radke, C.J.; Blanch, H.W.

    1997-12-31

    Understanding the behavior of proteins interaction at oil/water interfaces is crucial to the design of two-phase bioprocesses (aqueous/organic). An examination of the mechanism of protein adsorption at the oil/water interface was undertaken using tensiometry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and a novel total internal reflection fluorescence spectrometer (TIRFS), constructed to monitor adsorption dynamics. Dynamic interfacial tension measurements of protein adsorption show three regimes which can be described by diffusion to the interface, adsorption and denaturation of the adsorbed protein. TEM micrographs show a network of proteins in the adsorbed layer at long times. TIRFS data show that this network formation or protein entanglement in the adsorbed state requires a long period of time to occur. A series of two-monomer random polyamino acids used as model proteins demonstrate many of the adsorption characteristics observed for natural proteins.

  7. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1993-09-21

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant. 1 figure.

  8. Liquid over-feeding air conditioning system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.

    1993-01-01

    A refrigeration air conditioning system utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation is described. A liquid refrigerant accumulator-heat exchanger is placed in the system to provide a heat exchange relationship between hot liquid refrigerant discharged from condenser and a relatively cool mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant discharged from the evaporator. This heat exchange relationship substantially sub-cools the hot liquid refrigerant which undergoes little or no evaporation across the expansion device and provides a liquid over-feeding operation through the evaporator for effectively using 100 percent of evaporator for cooling purposes and for providing the aforementioned mixture of liquid and vaporous refrigerant.

  9. Collection of liquid from below-ground location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Steven J.; Alexander, Robert G.

    1995-01-01

    A method of retrieving liquid from a below-ground collection area by permitting gravity flow of the liquid from the collection area to a first closed container; monitoring the level of the liquid in the closed container; and after the liquid reaches a given level in the first closed container, transferring the liquid to a second closed container disposed at a location above the first closed container, via a conduit, by introducing into the first closed container a gas which is substantially chemically inert with respect to the liquid, the gas being at a pressure sufficient to propel the liquid from the first closed container to the second closed container.

  10. Selective Extraction of Uranium from Liquid or Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farawila, Anne F.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Wai, Chien M.; Taylor, Harry Z.; Liao, Yu-Jung

    2012-07-31

    Current liquid-liquid extraction processes used in recycling irradiated nuclear fuel rely on (1) strong nitric acid to dissolve uranium oxide fuel, and (2) the use of aliphatic hydrocarbons as a diluent in formulating the solvent used to extract uranium. The nitric acid dissolution process is not selective. It dissolves virtually the entire fuel meat which complicates the uranium extraction process. In addition, a solvent washing process is used to remove TBP degradation products, which adds complexity to the recycling plant and increases the overall plant footprint and cost. A liquid or supercritical carbon dioxide (l/sc -CO2) system was designed to mitigate these problems. Indeed, TBP nitric acid complexes are highly soluble in l/sc -CO2 and are capable of extracting uranium directly from UO2, UO3 and U3O8 powders. This eliminates the need for total acid dissolution of the irradiated fuel. Furthermore, since CO2 is easily recycled by evaporation at room temperature and pressure, it eliminates the complex solvent washing process. In this report, we demonstrate: (1) A reprocessing scheme starting with the selective extraction of uranium from solid uranium oxides into a TBP-HNO3 loaded Sc-CO2 phase, (2) Back extraction of uranium into an aqueous phase, and (3) Conversion of recovered purified uranium into uranium oxide. The purified uranium product from step 3 can be disposed of as low level waste, or mixed with enriched uranium for use in a reactor for another fuel cycle. After an introduction on the concept and properties of supercritical fluids, we first report the characterization of the different oxides used for this project. Our extraction system and our online monitoring capability using UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy directly in sc-CO2 is then presented. Next, the uranium extraction efficiencies and kinetics is demonstrated for different oxides and under different physical and chemical conditions: l/sc -CO2 pressure and temperature, TBP/HNO3 complex used

  11. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F.; Burtis, Carl A.; Walker, William A.

    1989-05-30

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  12. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Wayne F.; Burtis, Carl A.; Walker, William A.

    1989-01-01

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described.

  13. Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Hydrogen from Bio-Derived Liquids (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland. 09_pnnl_h2_from_bio-derived_liquids.pdf (326.2 KB) More Documents & Publications Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Renewable

  14. Gas-liquid separator and method of operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Whitt, David Brandon

    2009-07-14

    A system for gas-liquid separation in electrolysis processes is provided. The system includes a first compartment having a liquid carrier including a first gas therein and a second compartment having the liquid carrier including a second gas therein. The system also includes a gas-liquid separator fluidically coupled to the first and second compartments for separating the liquid carrier from the first and second gases.

  15. Rotor for processing liquids using movable capillary tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, W.F.; Burtis, C.A.; Walker, W.A.

    1987-07-17

    A rotor assembly for processing liquids, especially whole blood samples, is disclosed. The assembly includes apparatus for separating non-liquid components of whole blood samples from liquid components, apparatus for diluting the separated liquid component with a diluent and apparatus for transferring the diluted sample to an external apparatus for analysis. The rotor assembly employs several movable capillary tubes to handle the sample and diluents. A method for using the rotor assembly to process liquids is also described. 5 figs.

  16. Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map This is a "pre-decisional draft of the Bio-Derived Liquid Distributed Reforming Outcomes Map. biliwg06_schlasner.pdf (36.88 KB) More Documents & Publications Agenda for the Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Hydrogen Production Technical Team Research Review Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation) Bio-Derived Liquids to

  17. Ionic Liquid Sorbents for Carbon Capture - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Ionic Liquid Sorbents for Carbon Capture Ionic liquids for carbon capture and gas separation National Energy Technology Laboratory Contact NETL About This Technology Ionic liquids Ionic liquids Technology Marketing Summary Research is active on technologies for application of ionic liquids to carbon capture or other separation processes in energy systems. The technologies consist of materials and methods that promise to

  18. Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Computer Simulations Indicate Calcium Carbonate Has a Dense Liquid Phase Berkeley Lab research could help scientists predict how carbon is stored underground August 22, 2013 Dan Krotz 510-486-4019 dakrotz@lbl.gov red2.jpg Artistic rendition of liquid-liquid separation in a supersaturated calcium carbonate solution. New research suggests that a dense liquid phase (shown in red in the background and in full atomistic detail

  19. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-07-30

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid-liquid phase separation. If liquid-liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semi-volatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of solar radiation, and the uptake of reactive gas species on atmospheric particles will be affected, with important implications for climate predictions. The actual occurrence of these types of phase transitions within individual atmospheric particles has been considered uncertain, in large part because of the absence of observations for real-world samples. Here, using optical and fluorescence microscopy, we observe the coexistence of two non-crystalline phases in particles generated from real-world samples collected on multiple days in Atlanta, Georgia, and in particles generated in the laboratory using atmospheric conditions. These results reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid-liquid phase separations. Using a box model, we show that liquid-liquid phase separation can result in increased concentrations of gas-phase NO3 and N2O5 in the Atlanta region, due to decreased particle uptake of N2O5.

  20. Process for the production of liquid hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bhatt, Bharat Lajjaram; Engel, Dirk Coenraad; Heydorn, Edward Clyde; Senden, Matthijis Maria Gerardus

    2006-06-27

    The present invention concerns a process for the preparation of liquid hydrocarbons which process comprises contacting synthesis gas with a slurry of solid catalyst particles and a liquid in a reactor vessel by introducing the synthesis gas at a low level into the slurry at conditions suitable for conversion of the synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbons, the solid catalyst particles comprising a catalytic active metal selected from cobalt or iron on a porous refractory oxide carrier, preferably selected from silica, alumina, titania, zirconia or mixtures thereof, the catalyst being present in an amount between 10 and 40 vol. percent based on total slurry volume liquids and solids, and separating liquid material from the solid catalyst particles by using a filtration system comprising an asymmetric filtration medium (the selective side at the slurry side), in which filtration system the average pressure differential over the filtration medium is at least 0.1 bar, in which process the particle size distribution is such that at least a certain amount of the catalyst particles is smaller than the average pore size of the selective layer of the filtration medium. The invention also comprises an apparatus to carry out the process described above.

  1. Liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.

    1990-12-11

    A system is described for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air and includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container in which is disposed a wettable material extending substantially the entire length of the container. One end of the wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid, which flows to the other end of the container. Sample air is flowed through the container in contact with the wetted material for trapping and preconcentrating the traces of analyte in the sorbing liquid, which is then collected at the other end of the container and discharged to the detector. The wetted material may be a wick comprising a bundle of fibers, one end of which is immersed in a reservoir of the analyte-sorbing liquid, or may be a liner disposed on the inner surface of the container, with the sorbing liquid being centrifugally dispersed onto the liner at one end thereof. The container is preferably vertically oriented so that gravity effects the liquid flow. 4 figs.

  2. Liquid-absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air and includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container in which is disposed a wettable material extending substantially the entire length of the container. One end of the wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid, which flows to the other end of the container. Sample air is flowed through the container in contact with the wetted material for trapping and preconcentrating the traces of analyte in the sorbing liquid, which is then collected at the other end of the container and discharged to the detector. The wetted material may be a wick comprising a bundle of fibers, one end of which is immersed in a reservoir of the analyte-sorbing liquid, or may be a liner disposed on the inner surface of the container, with the sorbing liquid being centrifugally dispersed onto the liner at one end thereof. The container is preferably vertically oriented so that gravity effects the liquid flow.

  3. Removal of arsenic compounds from petroliferous liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, R.H.

    1984-04-06

    The present invention in one aspect comprises a process for removing arsenic from petroliferous-derived liquids by contacting said liquid with a divinylbenzene-crosslinked polystyrene polymer (i.e. PS-DVB) having catechol ligands anchored to said polymer, said contacting being at an elevated temperature. In another aspect, the invention is a process for regenerating spent catecholated polystyrene polymer by removal of the arsenic bound to it from contacting petroliferous liquid in accordance with the aspect described above which regenerating process comprises: (a) treating said spent catecholated polystyrene polymer with an aqueous solution of at least one member selected from the group consisting of carbonates and bicarbonates of ammonium, alkali metals, and alkaline earth metals, said solution having a pH between about 8 and 10, and said treating being at a temperature in the range of about 20/sup 0/ to 100/sup 0/C; (b) separating the solids and liquids from each other. In a preferred embodiment the regeneration treatment is in two steps wherein step: (a) is carried out with an aqueous alcoholic carbonate solution which includes at least one lower alkyl alcohol, and, steps (c) and (d) are added. Steps (c) and (d) comprise: (c) treating the solids with an aqueous alcoholic solution of at least one ammonium, alkali or alkaline earth metal bicarbonate at a temperature in the range of about 20 to 100/sup 0/C; and (d) separating the solids from the liquids.

  4. Study on natural convection capability of liquid gallium for passive decay heat removal system (PDHRS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, S.; Ha, K. S.; Lee, S. W.; Park, S. D.; Kim, S. M.; Seo, H.; Kim, J. H.; Bang, I. C.

    2012-07-01

    The safety issues of the SFRs are important due to the fact that it uses sodium as a nuclear coolant, reacting vigorously with water and air. For that reason, there are efforts to seek for alternative candidates of liquid metal coolants having excellent heat transfer property and to adopt improved safety features to the SFR concepts. This study considers gallium as alternative liquid metal coolant applicable to safety features in terms of chemical activity issue of the sodium and aims to experimentally investigate the natural convection capability of gallium as a feasibility study for the development of gallium-based passive safety features in SFRs. In this paper, the design and construction of the liquid gallium natural convection loop were carried out. The experimental results of heat transfer coefficient of liquid gallium resulting in heat removal {approx}2.53 kW were compared with existing correlations and they were much lower than the correlations. To comparison of the experimental data with computer code analysis, gallium property code was developed for employing MARS-LMR (Korea version of RELAP) based on liquid gallium as working fluid. (authors)

  5. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  6. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, C.C.; Taylor, L.T.

    1985-01-04

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (..mu.. HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a ..mu.. HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the ..mu.. HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF/sub 2/), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  7. Liquid chromatography/Fourier transform IR spectrometry interface flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Charles C.; Taylor, Larry T.

    1986-01-01

    A zero dead volume (ZDV) microbore high performance liquid chromatography (.mu.HPLC)/Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) interface flow cell includes an IR transparent crystal having a small diameter bore therein through which a sample liquid is passed. The interface flow cell further includes a metal holder in combination with a pair of inner, compressible seals for directly coupling the thus configured spectrometric flow cell to the outlet of a .mu.HPLC column end fitting to minimize the transfer volume of the effluents exiting the .mu.HPLC column which exhibit excellent flow characteristics due to the essentially unencumbered, open-flow design. The IR beam passes transverse to the sample flow through the circular bore within the IR transparent crystal, which is preferably comprised of potassium bromide (KBr) or calcium fluoride (CaF.sub.2), so as to minimize interference patterns and vignetting encountered in conventional parallel-plate IR cells. The long IR beam pathlength and lensing effect of the circular cross-section of the sample volume in combination with the refractive index differences between the solvent and the transparent crystal serve to focus the IR beam in enhancing sample detection sensitivity by an order of magnitude.

  8. Innovative Process for Comprehensive Treatment of Liquid Radioactive Waste - 12551

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penzin, R.A.; Sarychev, G.A.

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents the results of research activities aimed at creation of a principally new LRW distilling treatment method. The new process is based on the instantaneous evaporation method widely used in distillation units. The main difference of the proposed process is that the vapor condensation is conducted without using heat exchangers in practically ideal mode by way of direct contacting in a vapor-liquid system. This process is conducted in a specially designed ejector unit in supersonic mode. Further recuperation of excess heat of vaporization is carried out in a standard heat exchanger. Such an arrangement of the process, together with use of the barometric height principle, allows to carry out LRW evaporation under low temperatures, which enables to use excess heat from NPS for heating initial LRW. Thermal calculations and model experiments have revealed that, in this case, the expenditure of energy for LRW treatment by distilling will not exceed 3 kilowatt-hour/m{sup 3}, which is comparable with the reverse-osmosis desalination method. Besides, the proposed devices are 4 to 5 times less metal-intensive than standard evaporation units. These devices are also characterized by versatility. Experiments have revealed that the new method can be used for evaporation of practically any types of LRW, including those containing a considerable amount of oil products. Owing to arrangement of the evaporation process at low temperatures, the new devices are not sensitive to 'scale formation'. This is why, they can be used for concentrating brines of up to 500-600 g/l. New types of such evaporating devices can be required both for LRW treatment processes at nuclear-power plants under design and for treating 'non-standard' LRW with complex physicochemical and radionuclide composition resulting from the disaster at the Fukushima I Nuclear Power Plant.) As a result of accidents at nuclear energy objects, as it has recently happened at NPP 'Fukushima-1', personnel faces

  9. Specific power of liquid-metal-cooled reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobranich, D.

    1987-10-01

    Calculations of the core specific power for conceptual space-based liquid-metal-cooled reactors, based on heat transfer considerations, are presented for three different fuel types: (1) pin-type fuel; (2) cermet fuel; and (3) thermionic fuel. The calculations are based on simple models and are intended to provide preliminary comparative results. The specific power is of interest because it is a measure of the core mass required to produce a given amount of power. Potential problems concerning zero-g critical heat flux and loss-of-coolant accidents are also discussed because these concerns may limit the core specific power. Insufficient experimental data exists to accurately determine the critical heat flux of liquid-metal-cooled reactors in space; however, preliminary calculations indicate that it may be a concern. Results also indicate that the specific power of the pin-type fuels can be increased significantly if the gap between the fuel and the clad is eliminated. Cermet reactors offer the highest specific power because of the excellent thermal conductivity of the core matrix material. However, it may not be possible to take fuel advantage of this characteristic when loss-of-coolant accidents are considered in the final core design. The specific power of the thermionic fuels is dependent mainly on the emitter temperature. The small diameter thermionic fuels have specific powers comparable to those of pin-type fuels. 11 refs., 12 figs, 2 tabs.

  10. System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, J.J.; Grohse, E.W.; Johnson, J.R.; Winsche, W.E.

    1985-02-22

    The reversible reaction M + x/2 H/sub 2/ reversible MH/sub x/, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH/sub x/ in the presence of H/sub 2/, generally used to store and recall H/sub 2/, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H/sub 2/, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H/sub 2/ through the liquid is dependent upon the H/sub 2/ pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H/sub 2/ pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particle. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  11. System for exchange of hydrogen between liquid and solid phases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, James J.; Grohse, Edward W.; Johnson, John R.; Winsche, deceased, Warren E.

    1988-01-01

    The reversible reaction M+x/2 H.sub.2 .rarw..fwdarw.MH.sub.x, wherein M is a reversible metal hydride former that forms a hydride MH.sub.x in the presence of H.sub.2, generally used to store and recall H.sub.2, is found to proceed under an inert liquid, thereby reducing contamination, providing better temperature control, providing in situ mobility of the reactants, and increasing flexibility in process design. Thus, a slurry of particles of a metal hydride former with an inert solvent is subjected to a temperature and pressure controlled atmosphere containing H.sub.2, to store hydrogen and to release previously stored hydrogen. The direction of the flow of the H.sub.2 through the liquid is dependent upon the H.sub.2 pressure in the gas phase at a given temperature. When the actual H.sub.2 pressure is above the equilibrium absorption pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the right, i.e., the metal hydride is formed and hydrogen is stored in the solid particles. When the actual pressure in the gas phase is below the equilibrium dissociation pressure of the respective hydride the reaction proceeds to the left, the metal hydride is decomposed and hydrogen is released into the gas phase.

  12. Photon Detection System Designs for the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittington, Denver

    2015-11-19

    The Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE) will be a premier facility for exploring long-standing questions about the boundaries of the standard model. Acting in concert with the liquid argon time projection chambers underpinning the far detector design, the DUNE photon detection system will capture ultraviolet scintillation light in order to provide valuable timing information for event reconstruction. To maximize the active area while maintaining a small photocathode coverage, the experiment will utilize a design based on plastic light guides coated with a wavelength-shifting compound, along with silicon photomultipliers, to collect and record scintillation light from liquid argon. This report presents recent preliminary performance measurements of this baseline design and several alternative designs which promise significant improvements in sensitivity to low-energy interactions.

  13. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E.; Moses, William W.

    2015-10-27

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  14. Liquid chromatography detection unit, system, and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E; Moses, William W

    2015-11-06

    An embodiment of a liquid chromatography detection unit includes a fluid channel and a radiation detector. The radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of a radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along the fluid channel. An embodiment of a liquid chromatography system includes an injector, a separation column, and a radiation detector. The injector is operable to inject a sample that includes a radiolabeled compound into a solvent stream. The position sensitive radiation detector is operable to image a distribution of the radiolabeled compound as the distribution travels along a fluid channel. An embodiment of a method of liquid chromatography includes injecting a sample that comprises radiolabeled compounds into a solvent. The radiolabeled compounds are then separated. A position sensitive radiation detector is employed to image distributions of the radiolabeled compounds as the radiolabeled compounds travel along a fluid channel.

  15. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, S.; Bozen, R.M.

    1992-12-22

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis. 12 figs.

  16. Lithium-Air and ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellar, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The final portion of this project was accomplished at Sandia National Labs, Livermore, with the overall goal being to optimize lithium-air cells with an ionic liquid electrolyte. Both of these are potential future routes for lithium-ion technology. Lithiumair presents the advantage of higher gravimetric energy density, and ionic liquids present the advantage of greater hydrophobicity and much lower volatility, along with a larger window of electrochemical stability. Ionic liquids however have several drawbacks for the battery industry. Currently they are not as cost effective as many organic solvents. Additionally, because of the added viscosity of ionic interactions compared to the typical dipole interactions of a solvent, the ionic conductivity is lower than for common organic solvents.

  17. Apparatus for detecting leakage of liquid sodium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Himeno, Yoshiaki

    1978-01-01

    An apparatus for detecting the leakage of liquid sodium includes a cable-like sensor adapted to be secured to a wall of piping or other equipment having sodium on the opposite side of the wall, and the sensor includes a core wire electrically connected to the wall through a leak current detector and a power source. An accidental leakage of the liquid sodium causes the corrosion of a metallic layer and an insulative layer of the sensor by products resulted from a reaction of sodium with water or oxygen in the atmospheric air so as to decrease the resistance between the core wire and the wall. Thus, the leakage is detected as an increase in the leaking electrical current. The apparatus is especially adapted for use in detecting the leakage of liquid sodium from sodium-conveying pipes or equipment in a fast breeder reactor.

  18. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, Peter C.; Watkins, Arthur D.

    1999-01-01

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube.

  19. Liquid injection plasma deposition method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kong, P.C.; Watkins, A.D.

    1999-05-25

    A liquid injection plasma torch deposition apparatus for depositing material onto a surface of a substrate may comprise a plasma torch for producing a jet of plasma from an outlet nozzle. A plasma confinement tube having an inlet end and an outlet end and a central bore therethrough is aligned with the outlet nozzle of the plasma torch so that the plasma jet is directed into the inlet end of the plasma confinement tube and emerges from the outlet end of the plasma confinement tube. The plasma confinement tube also includes an injection port transverse to the central bore. A liquid injection device connected to the injection port of the plasma confinement tube injects a liquid reactant mixture containing the material to be deposited onto the surface of the substrate through the injection port and into the central bore of the plasma confinement tube. 8 figs.

  20. High throughput liquid absorption preconcentrator sampling instrument

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaromb, Solomon (Hinsdale, IL); Bozen, Ralph M. (Hattiesburg, MS)

    1992-01-01

    A system for detecting trace concentrations of an analyte in air includes a preconcentrator for the analyte and an analyte detector. The preconcentrator includes an elongated tubular container comprising a wettable material. The wettable material is continuously wetted with an analyte-sorbing liquid which flows from one part of the container to a lower end. Sampled air flows through the container in contact with the wetted material with a swirling motion which results in efficient transfer of analyte vapors or aerosol particles to the sorbing liquid and preconcentration of traces of analyte in the liquid. The preconcentrated traces of analyte may be either detected within the container or removed therefrom for injection into a separate detection means or for subsequent analysis.