National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for liquid crystal display

  1. Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays Linghui Rao,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Low voltage blue-phase liquid crystal displays Linghui Rao,1 Zhibing Ge,1 Shin-Tson Wu,1,a of the emerging blue-phase liquid crystal displays BP-LCDs . Simulation results indicate that the generated-effect-induced isotropic-to-anisotropic transition in blue-phase liquid crystal BPLC 1­6 has potential to become next

  2. Liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields Ji Woong Park,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    a wide viewing angle. The lower operation voltage helps to reduce power consumption and heat dissipationLiquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane electric fields Ji Woong Park,1 Young Joo August 2008 A high performance liquid crystal display using combined fringe and in-plane horizontal

  3. Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast-response no-bias-bend liquid crystal displays using nanostructured surfaces Fion Sze-Yan Yeung 21 December 2005; published online 7 February 2006 We present results of a fast-response no of liquid crystal displays LCDs re- quire fast response times. For example, image blurring due to slow

  4. Application of Nanotechnology to liquid crystal displays H S Kwok, Z L Xie and Fion Yeung

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Application of Nanotechnology to liquid crystal displays H S Kwok, Z L Xie and Fion Yeung Center shall report new results on the application of nanotechnology to LCD. Specifically we shall discuss as the alignment layer. Summary We describe here two experiments on the application of nanotechnology to liquid

  5. Design of a polarized head-mounted projection display using ferroelectric liquid-crystal-on-silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hua, Hong

    - gravated in head-mounted projection displays in which multiple beam splitting and low retroreflectanceDesign of a polarized head-mounted projection display using ferroelectric liquid 2008 It has been a common problem in optical see-through head-mounted displays that the displayed image

  6. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 4, APRIL 2015 353 A Fringe Field Switching Liquid Crystal Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 11, NO. 4, APRIL 2015 353 A Fringe Field Switching Liquid resolution for Retina display, low power consumption for long battery life, pressure resistance for touch charging problem can be resolved by using an oxide TFT with high mobility [9]. However, the slow LC

  7. Emerging Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Display Jin Yan, Hui-Cheng Cheng, Linghui Rao, Takahiro Ishinabe and Shin-Tson Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Emerging Polymer-Stabilized Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Display Jin Yan, Hui-Cheng Cheng, Linghui Rao, FL 32816, USA ABSTRACT Polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid crystals hold great potential for future display applications. Some technical challenges, such as blue-phase temperature range, operation voltage

  8. Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200 C and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, P.G.; Smith, P.M.; Havens, J.H.; Jones, P.

    1999-01-05

    Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100 C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired. 12 figs.

  9. Plastic substrates for active matrix liquid crystal display incapable of withstanding processing temperature of over 200.degree. C and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Havens, John (San Diego, CA); Jones, Phil (Marlborough, GB)

    1999-01-01

    Bright-polarizer-free, active-matrix liquid crystal displays (AMLCDs) are formed on plastic substrates. The primary components of the display are a pixel circuit fabricated on one plastic substrate, an intervening liquid-crystal material, and a counter electrode on a second plastic substrate. The-pixel circuit contains one or more thin-film transistors (TFTs) and either a transparent or reflective pixel electrode manufactured at sufficiently low temperatures to avoid damage to the plastic substrate. Fabrication of the TFTs can be carried out at temperatures less than 100.degree. C. The liquid crystal material is a commercially made nematic curvilinear aligned phase (NCAP) film. The counter electrode is comprised of a plastic substrate coated with a transparent conductor, such as indium-doped tin oxide (ITO). By coupling the active matrix with NCAP, a high-information content can be provided in a bright, fully plastic package. Applications include any low cost portable electronics containing flat displays where ruggedization of the display is desired.

  10. 280 JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 3, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2007 Pretilt Angle Effects on Liquid Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Crystal Response Time Xiangyi Nie, Haiqing Xianyu, Ruibo Lu, Thomas X. Wu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Shin

  11. Liquid Crystal Optofluidics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Cuennet, J. G.; Psaltis, D.

    2012-10-11

    By employing anisotropic fluids and namely liquid crystals, fluid flow becomes an additional degree of freedom in designing optofluidic devices. In this paper, we demonstrate optofluidic liquid crystal devices based on the direct flow of nematic liquid crystals in microfluidic channels. Contrary to previous reports, in the present embodiment we employ the effective phase delay acquired by light travelling through flowing liquid crystal, without analysing the polarisation state of the transmitted light. With this method, we demonstrate the variation in the diffraction pattern of an array of microfluidic channels acting as a grating. We also discuss our recent activities in integrating mechanical oscillators for on-chip peristaltic pumping.

  12. Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays Linghui Rao (SID Student Member)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    and resolution density. Higher optical effi- ciency leads to lower power consumption which implies to an energy saving and longer battery life. However, in order to minimize color breakup in color-sequential displays, is subject to an electric field E, the induced birefringence is related to E as19: nind = KE2 , (1) where

  13. Polysiloxane-based liquid crystal block copolymers for piezoelectric and mechano-optical applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McAfee, LaRuth C. (LaRuth CaSandra)

    2005-01-01

    Liquid crystal research has gained interest in a wide range of applications that go beyond displays. Some of these applications include memory devices, sensors, and variable light valves. Currently, liquid crystals in the ...

  14. Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taheri, Bahman; Bodnar, Volodymyr

    2011-12-31

    Energy consumption by private and commercial sectors in the U.S. has steadily grown over the last decade. The uncertainty in future availability of imported oil, on which the energy consumption relies strongly, resulted in a dramatic increase in the cost of energy. About 20% of this consumption are used to heat and cool houses and commercial buildings. To reduce dependence on the foreign oil and cut down emission of greenhouse gases, it is necessary to eliminate losses and reduce total energy consumption by buildings. To achieve this goal it is necessary to redefine the role of the conventional windows. At a minimum, windows should stop being a source for energy loss. Ideally, windows should become a source of energy, providing net gain to reduce energy used to heat and cool homes. It is possible to have a net energy gain from a window if its light transmission can be dynamically altered, ideally electronically without the need of operator assistance, providing optimal control of the solar gain that varies with season and climate in the U.S. In addition, the window must not require power from the building for operation. Resolution of this problem is a societal challenge and of national interest and will have a broad global impact. For this purpose, the year-round, allclimate window solution to provide an electronically variable solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC) with a wide dynamic range is needed. AlphaMicron, Inc. (AMI) developed and manufactured 1ft × 1ft prototype panels for the world’s first auto-adjusting Adaptive Liquid Crystal Windows (ALCWs) that can operate from sunlight without the need for external power source and demonstrate an electronically adjustable SHGC. This novel windows are based on AlphaMicron’s patented e-Tint® technology, a guesthost liquid crystal system implemented on flexible, optically clear plastic films. This technology is suitable both for OEM and aftermarket (retro-fitting) lamination to new and existing windows. Low level of power consumption by ALCWs allows for on-board power electronics for automatic matching of transmission through windows to varying climate conditions without drawing the power from the power grid. ALCWs are capable of transmitting more sunlight in winters to assist in heating and less sunlight in summers to minimize overheating. As such, they can change the window from being a source of energy loss to a source of energy gain. In addition, the scalable AMI’s roll-to-roll process, proved by making 1ft × 1ftALCW prototype panels, allows for cost-effective production of large-scale window panels along with capability to change easily their color and shape. In addition to architectural glazing in houses and commercial buildings, ALCWs can be used in other applications where control of sunlight is needed, such as green houses, used by commercial produce growers and botanical gardens, cars, aircrafts, etc.

  15. Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, James J.

    Theoretical Aspects of Liquid Crystals and Liquid Crystalline Polymers James J. Feng Department theories and mole- cular theories separately. In addition, a theory for liquid crystalline materials has, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada INTRODUCTION Liquid crystallinity refers to an intermediate state

  16. Liquid crystal polyester thermosets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benicewicz, Brian C. (Los Alamos, NM); Hoyt, Andrea E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides (1) curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 where R.sup.1 and R.sup.2 are radicals selected from the group consisting of maleimide, substituted maleimide, nadimide, substituted naimide, ethynyl, and (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 where R.sup.3 is hydrogen with the proviso that the two carbon atoms of (C(R.sup.3).sub.2).sub.2 are bound on the aromatic ring of A.sup.1 or A.sup.3 to adjacent carbon atoms, A.sup.1 and A.sup.3 are 1,4-phenylene and the same where said group contains one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, or propyl, alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, A.sup.2 is selected from the group consisting of 1,4-phenylene, 4,4'-biphenyl, 2,6-naphthylene and the same where said groups contain one or more substituents selected from the group consisting of halo, e.g., fluoro, chloro, bromo, or iodo, nitro, lower alkyl, e.g., methyl, ethyl, and propyl, lower alkoxy, e.g., methoxy, ethoxy, or propoxy, and fluoroalkyl or fluoroalkoxy, e.g., trifluoromethyl, pentafluoroethyl and the like, and B.sup.1 and B.sup.2 are selected from the group consisting of --C(O)--O-- and --O--C(O)--, (2) thermoset liquid crystalline polyester compositions comprised of heat-cured segments derived from monomers represented by the formula: R.sup.1 --A.sup.1 --B.sup.1 --A.sup.2 --B.sup.2 --A.sup.3 --R.sup.2 as described above, (3) curable blends of at least two of the polyester monomers and (4) processes of preparing the curable liquid crystalline polyester monomers.

  17. Bent core liquid crystal elastomers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verduzco, R.; DiMasi, E.; Luchette, P.; Ho Hong, S.; Harden, J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.; Kilbey II, S.M.; Sprunt, S.; Gleeson, G.T. Jakli, A.

    2010-07-28

    Liquid crystal (LC) elastomers with bent-core side-groups incorporate the properties of bent-core liquid crystals in a flexible and self-supporting polymer network. Bent-core liquid crystal elastomers (BCEs) with uniform alignment were prepared by attaching a reactive bent-core LC to poly(hydrogenmethylsiloxane) and crosslinking with a divinyl crosslinker. Phase behavior studies indicate a nematic phase over a wide temperature range that approaches room temperature, and thermoelastic measurements show that these BCEs can reversibly change their length by more than a factor of two upon heating and cooling. Small-angle X-ray scattering studies reveal multiple, broad low-angle peaks consistent with short-range smectic C order of the bent-core side groups. A comparison of these patterns with predictions of a Landau model for short-range smectic C order shows that the length scale for smectic ordering in BCEs is similar to that seen in pure bent-core LCs. The combination of rubber elasticity and smectic ordering of the bent-core side groups suggests that BCEs may be promising materials for sensing, actuating, and other advanced applications.

  18. Nanoscopic Manipulation and Imaging of Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosenblatt, Charles S.

    2014-02-04

    This is the final project report. The project’s goals centered on nanoscopic imaging and control of liquid crystals and surfaces. We developed and refined techniques to control liquid crystal orientation at surfaces with resolution as small as 25 nm, we developed an optical imaging technique that we call Optical Nanotomography that allows us to obtain images inside liquid crystal films with resolution of 60 x 60 x 1 nm, and we opened new thrust areas related to chirality and to liquid crystal/colloid composites.

  19. Liquid crystal device and method thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiyanovskii, Sergij V; Gu, Mingxia; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2012-10-23

    The invention provides a liquid crystal device and method thereof. Subsequent to applying a first electrical voltage on a liquid crystal to induce a reorientation of the liquid crystal, a second electrical voltage with proper polarity is applied on the liquid crystal to assist the relaxation of the reorientation that was induced by the first electrical voltage. The "switch-off" phase of the liquid crystal can therefore be accelerated or temporally shortened, and the device can exhibit better performance such as fast response to on/off signals. The invention can be widely used LCD, LC shutter, LC lens, spatial light modulator, telecommunication device, tunable filter, beam steering device, and electrically driven LC device, among others.

  20. Photo-responsive liquid crystal block copolymers/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr, Michael Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Photo-responsive liquid crystal polymers (LCP) which contain azobenzene moieties have gained interest for their ability to change properties by merely irradiating them with the correct wavelength of light in the appropriate ...

  1. Colloidal Particles at Chiral Liquid Crystal Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anne Claire Pawsey; Juho Lintuvuori

    2014-03-19

    Colloidal particles trapped at an interface between two fluids can form a wide range of different structures. Replacing one of the fluid with a liquid crystal increases the complexity of interactions and results in a greater range of possible structures. New behaviour emerges when colloidal particles interact with defects in the liquid crystal phases. Here we discuss the templating of colloids at a cholesteric isotropic interface.

  2. Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular and Ionic Permeability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid/Liquid Interface Polymerized Porphyrin Membranes Displaying Size-Selective Molecular of ca. 3.5 Å. Molecular transport can be modulated by axially ligating pore- blocking moieties of studies of photophysical and photochemical processes, including solar-cell-related processes. In many

  3. Liquid crystals boojum-colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Tasinkevych; N. M. Silvestre; M. M. Telo da Gama

    2012-04-02

    Colloidal particles dispersed in a liquid crystal lead to distortions of the director field. The distortions are responsible for long-range effective colloidal interactions whose asymptotic behaviour is well understood. The short distance behaviour of the interaction, however, is sensitive to the structure and dynamics of the topological defects nucleated near the colloidal particles in the strong anchoring regime. The full non-linear theory is required in order to determine the interaction at short separations. Spherical colloidal particles with sufficiently strong planar degenerate anchoring nucleate a pair of antipodal surface topological defects, known as boojums. We use the Landau-de Gennes formalism in order to resolve the mesoscopic structure of the boojum cores and to determine the pairwise colloidal interaction. We compare the results in three (3D) and two (2D) spatial dimensions. The corresponding free energy functionals are minimized numerically using finite elements with adaptive meshes. Boojums are always point-like in 2D, but acquire a rather complex structure in 3D which depends on the combination of the anchoring potential, the radius of the colloid, the temperature and the LC elastic anisotropy. We identify three types of defect cores in 3D which we call single, double and split core boojums, and investigate the associated structural transitions. In the presence of two colloidal particles there are substantial re-arrangements of the defects at short distances, both in 3D and 2D. These re-arrangements lead to qualitative changes in the force-distance profile when compared to the asymptotic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. In line with the experimental results, the presence of the defects prevents coalescence of the colloidal particles in 2D, but not in 3D systems.

  4. Microscale locomotion in a nematic liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieger, Madison S; Powers, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    Microorganisms often encounter anisotropy, for example in mucus and biofilms. We study how anisotropy and elasticity of the ambient fluid affects the speed of a swimming microorganism with a prescribed stroke. Motivated by recent experiments on swimming bacteria in anisotropic environments, we extend a classical model for swimming microorganisms, the Taylor swimming sheet, actuated either by transverse or longitudinal traveling waves in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal without twist. We calculate the swimming speed and entrained volumetric flux as a function of the swimmer's stroke properties as well as the elastic and rheological properties of the liquid crystal. The behavior is quantitatively and qualitatively well-approximated by a hexatic liquid crystal except in the cases of small Ericksen number and in a nematic fluid with tumbling parameter near the transition to a flow-aligning nematic, where anisotropic effects dominate. We also propose a novel method of swimming or pumping in a nematic flu...

  5. The transmission of symmetry in liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jie Xu; Pingwen Zhang

    2015-09-22

    The existing experiments and simulations suggest that the molecular symmetry is always transmitted to homogeneous phases in liquid crystals. It has been proved for rod-like molecules. We conjecture that it holds for three other symmetries, and prove it for some molecules of these symmetries.

  6. Communications Counterion Effects in Liquid Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    such as SnS2.12 Typically, such mesoporous solids have periodic nanometer scale pores, and the mechanism of nanostructured CdS templated directly with ion-doped liquid crystals.13,14 In both cases the mesoporous solid of oligoethylene oxide (10) oleyl ether doped with cadmium acetate or cadmium chloride was utilized. In the other

  7. The diverse world of liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    The diverse world of liquid crystals Peter Palffy-Muhoray Orientationally ordered soft matter are still making new discoveries and gaining deeper understanding of orientational order and its-range ori- entational, but not positional, order. A more apt name would be orientationally ordered soft

  8. Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Segatti, Antonio

    Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results #12;Liquid crystals and Q-tensors The free energy A temperature-dependent model Mathematical results, Non-isothermal nematic liquid crystals flows with the Ball-Majumdar free energy, Ann. Mat. Pura Appl

  9. Introduction Liquid crystals [1] and colloids [2] are interesting model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew B.

    Introduction Liquid crystals [1] and colloids [2] are interesting model systems for fundamental, 8] and by computer simulations [9]. When combining liquid crystals with colloids, typically-molecular weight liquid crystals with colloids or droplets [10, 12­ 18]. Inverted nematic emulsions may form

  10. Microscale locomotion in a nematic liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madison S. Krieger; Saverio E. Spagnolie; Thomas R. Powers

    2015-09-18

    Microorganisms often encounter anisotropy, for example in mucus and biofilms. We study how anisotropy and elasticity of the ambient fluid affects the speed of a swimming microorganism with a prescribed stroke. Motivated by recent experiments on swimming bacteria in anisotropic environments, we extend a classical model for swimming microorganisms, the Taylor swimming sheet, actuated either by transverse or longitudinal traveling waves in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal without twist. We calculate the swimming speed and entrained volumetric flux as a function of the swimmer's stroke properties as well as the elastic and rheological properties of the liquid crystal. The behavior is quantitatively and qualitatively well-approximated by a hexatic liquid crystal except in the cases of small Ericksen number and in a nematic fluid with tumbling parameter near the transition to a flow-aligning nematic, where anisotropic effects dominate. We also propose a novel method of swimming or pumping in a nematic fluid by passing a traveling wave of director oscillation along a rigid wall.

  11. Microscale locomotion in a nematic liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madison S. Krieger; Saverio E. Spagnolie; Thomas R. Powers

    2015-07-02

    Microorganisms often encounter anisotropy, for example in mucus and biofilms. We study how anisotropy and elasticity of the ambient fluid affects the speed of a swimming microorganism with a prescribed stroke. Motivated by recent experiments on swimming bacteria in anisotropic environments, we extend a classical model for swimming microorganisms, the Taylor swimming sheet, actuated either by transverse or longitudinal traveling waves in a three-dimensional nematic liquid crystal without twist. We calculate the swimming speed and entrained volumetric flux as a function of the swimmer's stroke properties as well as the elastic and rheological properties of the liquid crystal. The behavior is quantitatively and qualitatively well-approximated by a hexatic liquid crystal except in the cases of small Ericksen number and in a nematic fluid with tumbling parameter near the transition to a flow-aligning nematic, where anisotropic effects dominate. We also propose a novel method of swimming or pumping in a nematic fluid by passing a traveling wave of director oscillation along a rigid wall.

  12. Submillisecond-response polymer network liquid crystal phase modulators at 1.06-lm wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    is the increased operating voltage. Potential applications include spatial light modulators and adaptive optics. VC modulators are useful for adaptive optics,1 spatial light modulators,2 and switchable displays.3 The response online 15 July 2011) A fast-response and scattering-free polymer network liquid crystal (PNLC) light

  13. Coarsening Dynamics of Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. V. Priezjev; Robert A. Pelcovits

    2002-02-14

    We study the coarsening dynamics of two and three dimensional biaxial nematic liquid crystals, using Langevin dynamics. Unlike previous work, we use a model with no a priori relationship among the three elastic constants associated with director deformations. We find a rich variety of coarsening behavior, including the simulataneous decay of nearly equal populations of the three classes of half-integer disclination lines. The behavior we observed can be understood on the basis of the relative values of the elastic constants and the resulting decay channels of the defects.

  14. Dynamical States in Driven Colloidal Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellen Fischermeier; Matthieu Marechal; Klaus Mecke

    2014-09-24

    We study a model colloidal liquid crystal consisting of hard spherocylinders under the influence of an external aligning potential by Langevin dynamics simulation. The external field that rotates in a plane acts on the orientation of the individual particles and induces a variety of collective nonequilibrium states. We characterize these states by the time-resolved orientational distribution of the particles and explain their origin using the single particle behavior. By varying the external driving frequency and the packing fraction of the spherocylinders we construct the dynamical state diagram.

  15. Strong solutions of the compressible nematic liquid crystal flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-04-29

    Apr 29, 2011 ... nematic liquid crystal flows in a domain ? ? R3. We first prove the local ... natural compatibility condition. The initial density .... gas dynamics).

  16. A Variational Model for Bent-Core Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-05-17

    THE 3RD SYMPOSIUM ON ANALYSIS AND PDES. PURDUE UNIVERSITY, MAY 27–30, 2007. A VARIATIONAL MODEL FOR BENT-CORE LIQUID CRYSTALS.

  17. Electric field effects in liquid crystals with dielectric dispersion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lavrentovich, Oleg D.

    2014-11-29

    The project is focused on the experimental and theoretical exploration of the coupling of an externally applied electric field and a nematic liquid crystal.

  18. Dynamics of Defect Motion in Nematic Liquid Crystal Flow: Modeling ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-08-02

    Liquid crystal is often viewed as the fourth state of the matter besides the gas, liquid and solid .... Thus, it is natural to look at the deformation tensor F associated.

  19. Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Fast-Response Infrared Ferroelectric Liquid Crystal Phase Modulators Ju-Hyun Lee Yung-Hsun Wu Shin (about 2.3p at k ¼ 1.55 lm under E ¼ 2.5 V=lm) and fast response time ( at an infrared wavelength, say k ¼ 1.55 mm. On the contrary, ferroelectric liquid crystals (FLCs) show very fast

  20. Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    volts with fast response time. Such a device works well for a linearly polarized light. 2003 Optical-terminal adaptive Nematic liquid-crystal lens device," Opt. Lett. 19, 1013-1015 (1994). 6. A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, "Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control," Opt. Lett. 23

  1. Fast-response nematic liquid-crystal mixtures Sebastian Gauza

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    , response time, photostability. 1 Introduction The continuous demand for faster electro-optic response timesFast-response nematic liquid-crystal mixtures Sebastian Gauza Chien-Hui Wen Benjamin Wu Shin implies a fast response time of the described liquid crystals was observed. Using the new UCF mixture

  2. Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals Yun-Hsing Fan, Hongwen Ren@mail.ucf.edu http:/lcd.creol.ucf.edu Abstract: A switchable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a polymer controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens," Proc. SPIE 1168, 352-357 (1989). 2. J. S. Patel and K. Rastani

  3. A Smooth Interface Method for Simulating Liquid Crystal Colloid Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Smooth Interface Method for Simulating Liquid Crystal Colloid Dispersions Ryoichi Yamamoto is presented for mesoscopic simulations of particle dispersions in liquid crystal solvents. It allows efficient mediated by the solvents. Demonstrations have been performed for the aggregation of colloid dispersions

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Quantum Computing Using Liquid Crystal Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Costantino S. Yannoni; Mark H. Sherwood; Lieven M. K. Vandersypen; Dolores C. Miller; Mark G. Kubinec; Isaac L. Chuang

    1999-12-12

    Liquid crystals offer several advantages as solvents for molecules used for nuclear magnetic resonance quantum computing (NMRQC). The dipolar coupling between nuclear spins manifest in the NMR spectra of molecules oriented by a liquid crystal permits a significant increase in clock frequency, while short spin-lattice relaxation times permit fast recycling of algorithms, and save time in calibration and signal-enhancement experiments. Furthermore, the use of liquid crystal solvents offers scalability in the form of an expanded library of spin-bearing molecules suitable for NMRQC. These ideas are demonstrated with the successful execution of a 2-qubit Grover search using a molecule ($^{13}$C$^{1}$HCl$_3$) oriented in a liquid crystal and a clock speed eight times greater than in an isotropic solvent. Perhaps more importantly, five times as many logic operations can be executed within the coherence time using the liquid crystal solvent.

  5. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, S.D.; Marshall, K.L.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1991-10-08

    Composite optical devices are disclosed using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T[sub g]) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device. 7 figures.

  6. Methods of making composite optical devices employing polymer liquid crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, Stephen D. (Pittsford, NY); Marshall, Kenneth L. (Henrietta, NY); Cerqua, Kathleen A. (Fairport, NY)

    1991-01-01

    Composite optical devices using polymer liquid crystal materials both as optical and adhesive elements. The devices are made by assembling a heated polymer liquid crystal compound, while in a low viscosity form between optically transparent substrates. The molecules of the polymer are oriented, while in the liquid crystalline state and while above the glass transition temperature (T.sub.g) of the polymer, to provide the desired optical effects, such as polarization, and selective reflection. The liquid crystal polymer cements the substrates together to form an assembly providing the composite optical device.

  7. White light emitting diode as liquid crystal display backlight

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soon, Chian Myau

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of high brightness (white) light emitting diode (LED) is considered as a real threat to the current lighting industry in various applications. One of the most promising sectors would be using white LED to ...

  8. Emission properties of radiative chiral nematic liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mavrogordatos, Themistoklis

    2015-01-06

    the fluorescence characteristics from a † I.P. Il'chishin, E.A. Tikhonov, V.G. Tishchenko and M.T. Shpak, Generation of a tunable radiation by impurity cholesteric liquid crystals, JETP Lett., Vol. 32, 24-27 (1980). x xi dye-doped chiral nematic LC in the region... nematic crystal is determined by the specification of the director n alongside the usual quantities (mass density ?, pressure p and velocity v) for a liquid. In equi- librium, a nematic liquid crystal at rest under no external forces (including the forces...

  9. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 9, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2013 87 Time-Multiplexed Dual-View Display Using a Blue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Using a Blue Phase Liquid Crystal Jian-Peng Cui, Yan Li, Jin Yan, Hui-Chuan Cheng, and Qiong-Hua Wang Abstract--A time-multiplexed dual-view display device using a blue phase liquid crystal is proposed. In this design, a vertical field switching blue phase liquid crystal display (VFS-BPLCD) panel is used to achieve

  10. Smectic Liquid Crystals in Random Environments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leo Radzihovsky; John Toner

    1999-06-04

    We study smectic liquid crystals in random environments, e.g., aerogel. A low temperature analysis reveals that even arbitrarily weak quenched disorder (i.e., arbitrarily low aerogel density) destroys translational (smectic) order. A harmonic approximation to the elastic energy suggests that there is no ``smectic Bragg glass'' phase in this system: even at zero temperature, it is riddled with dislocation loops induced by the quenched disorder. This result implies the destruction of orientational (nematic) order as well, and that the thermodynamically sharp Nematic-Smectic-A transition is destroyed by disorder, in agreement with recent experimental results. We also show that the anharmonic elastic terms neglected in the above treatment are important (i.e., are ``relevant'' in the renormalization group sense); whether they alter the above conclusions about the smectic Bragg glass, orientational disorder, and the existence of sharp transitions, remains an open question. However, they do not alter our conclusion that translational (smectic) order is always destroyed. In contrast, we expect that weak annealed disorder should have no qualitative effects on the smectic order.

  11. Trapped nonneutral plasmas, liquids, and crystals (the thermal equilibrium states)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    to the cryogenic temperature range, where liquid and crystal-like states are realized. The authors discuss plasma 121 2. Correlation energy 123 3. Free energy, the freezing transition, and correlation pressure

  12. Carbon Nanotube-Reinforced Thermotropic Liquid Crystal Polymer Nanocomposites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jun Young

    This paper focuses on the fabrication via simple melt blending of thermotropic liquid crystal polyester (TLCP) nanocomposites reinforced with a very small quantity of modified carbon nanotube (CNT) and the unique effects ...

  13. Hybrid Graphene Nematic Liquid Crystal Light Scattering Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qasim, M. M.; Khan, A. A.; Kostanyan, A.; Kidambi, P. R.; Cabrero-Vilatela, A.; Braeuninger-Weimer, P.; Gardiner, D. J.; Hofman, S.; Wilkinson, T. D.

    2015-08-05

    A hybrid graphene nematic liquid crystal (LC) light scattering device is presented. This device exploits the inherent poly-crystallinity of chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene films to induce directional anchoring and formation of LC multi...

  14. Liquid crystal devices especially for use in liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L. (Rochester, NY)

    2009-02-17

    Liquid crystal point diffraction interferometer (LCPDI) systems that can provide real-time, phase-shifting interferograms that are useful in the characterization of static optical properties (wavefront aberrations, lensing, or wedge) in optical elements or dynamic, time-resolved events (temperature fluctuations and gradients, motion) in physical systems use improved LCPDI cells that employ a "structured" substrate or substrates in which the structural features are produced by thin film deposition or photo resist processing to provide a diffractive element that is an integral part of the cell substrate(s). The LC material used in the device may be doped with a "contrast-compensated" mixture of positive and negative dichroic dyes.

  15. Phase Change Enthalpies and Entropies of Liquid Crystals William E. Acree, Jr.a...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chickos, James S.

    Phase Change Enthalpies and Entropies of Liquid Crystals William E. Acree, Jr.a... Department The thermochemical behavior of more than 3000 organic compounds known to form liquid crystals is reported along.1063/1.1901689 Key words: fusion enthalpy; fusion entropy; liquid crystals; liquid crystal compendium; phase

  16. Flexoelectricity of a Calamitic Liquid Crystal Elastomer Swollen with a Bent-core Liquid Crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, M.; Verduzco, R; Gleeson, J; Sprunt, S; Jakli, A

    2009-01-01

    We have measured the electric current induced by mechanical distortion of a calamitic liquid crystal elastomer (LCE) swollen with a low molecular weight bent-core nematic (BCN) liquid crystal, and have determined, for the first time, the bend flexoelectric coefficient e{sub 3} of such a BCN-LCE composite. In one method, we utilize air-pressure to induce a mechanical bend deformation and flexoelectric polarization in a BCN-LCE film, and then measure the polarization current as a function of time. An alternative technique uses a rotary-motor driven scotch yoke to periodically flex the BCN-LCE; in this case, the magnitude and phase of the induced current are recorded via a lock-in amplifier. The flexoelectric coefficient, e{sub 3}, was found to be {approx}20 nC/cm{sup 2}, and is stable in magnitude from room temperature to {approx}65 C. It is about one third the value measured in samples of the pure BCN; this fraction corresponds closely to the molar concentration of BCN in the LCE. The flexoelectric current increases linearly with the magnitude of the bend deformation and decays with frequency. These observations indicate a promising way forward towards producing very low-cost, self-standing, rugged electromechanical energy conversion devices.

  17. Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye- doped liquid crystals Tsung-Hsien Lin,1,2 Yuhua controllable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a photo-induced alignment of the dye-doped liquid. X. Ren, S. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Fabrication of off-axis holographic Fresnel lens used as multiplexer

  18. The ImmersaDesk3 -Experiences With A Flat Panel Display for Virtual Reality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew

    crystal, #12;ferro-electric liquid crystal, plasma panel, and light emitting diode displays. In our, they are presently only available in developer kits. Light Emitting Diode displays are bright and potentially

  19. Electro-optic response and switchable Bragg diffraction for liquid crystals in colloid-templated materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electro-optic response and switchable Bragg diffraction for liquid crystals in colloid on self- assembled colloids. We compare the electro-optic responses of liquid crystal imbibed into colloid-templated polymers, liquid crystal imbibed in the interstitial space of colloid crystals, and conventional polymer

  20. Polarization fields: dynamic light field display using multi-layer LCDs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanman, Douglas

    We introduce polarization field displays as an optically-efficient design for dynamic light field display using multi-layered LCDs. Such displays consist of a stacked set of liquid crystal panels with a single pair of ...

  1. Polarization Studies of Resonant Forbidden Reflections in Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandes, P.; Barois, P.; Nguyen, H. T.; Wang, S. T.; Liu, Z. Q.; McCoy, B. K.; Huang, C. C.; Pindak, R.; Caliebe, W.

    2007-11-30

    We report the results of resonant x-ray diffraction experiments performed on thick films of a biaxial liquid crystal made of achiral bent-core molecules. Polarization properties of forbidden reflections are observed as a function of the sample rotation angle {phi} about the scattering vector Q for the first time on a fluid material. The experimental data are successfully analyzed within a tensor structure factor model by taking the nonperfect alignment of the liquid crystal into account. The local structure of the B{sub 2} mesophase is hence determined to be SmC{sub S}P{sub A}.

  2. Chiral and Antichiral Order in Bent-Core Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jonathan V. Selinger

    2003-03-18

    Recent experiments have found a bent-core liquid crystal in which the layer chirality alternates from layer to layer, giving a racemic or "antichiral" material, even though the molecules are uniformly chiral. To explain this effect, we map the liquid crystal onto an Ising model, analogous to a model for chiral order in polymers. We calculate the phase diagram for this model, and show that it has a second-order phase transition between antichiral order and homogeneous chiral order. We discuss how this transition can be studied by further chemical synthesis or by doping experiments.

  3. Equilibrium configurations of nematic liquid crystals on a torus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Segatti; Michael Snarski; Marco Veneroni

    2014-06-13

    The topology and the geometry of a surface play a fundamental role in determining the equilibrium configurations of thin films of liquid crystals. We propose here a theoretical analysis of a recently introduced surface Frank energy, in the case of two-dimensional nematic liquid crystals coating a toroidal particle. Our aim is to show how a different modeling of the effect of extrinsic curvature acts as a selection principle among equilibria of the classical energy, and how new configurations emerge. In particular, our analysis predicts the existence of new stable equilibria with complex windings.

  4. The equilibrium intrinsic crystal-liquid interface of colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jessica Hernández-Guzmán; Eric R. Weeks

    2009-06-30

    We use confocal microscopy to study an equilibrated crystal-liquid interface in a colloidal suspension. Capillary waves roughen the surface, but locally the intrinsic interface is sharply defined. We use local measurements of the structure and dynamics to characterize the intrinsic interface, and different measurements find slightly different widths of this interface. In terms of the particle diameter $d$, this width is either $1.5d$ (based on structural information) or $2.4d$ (based on dynamics), both not much larger than the particle size. This work is the first direct experimental visualization of an equilibrated crystal-liquid interface.

  5. Large Flow Birefringence of Nematogenic Bent-Core Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bailey, C.; Fodor-Csorba, K; Verduzco, R; Gleeson, J; Sprunt, S; Jakli, A

    2009-01-01

    We have found that bent-core liquid crystalline materials show exceptionally large intrinsic flow birefringence in their isotropic liquid phase. This effect is more than 100 times larger than typical values measured for low molecular weight liquid crystals. The specific flow birefringence (i.e., normalized by the flow viscosity) is an order of magnitude larger than in both side-chain polymeric as well as low molecular weight liquid crystals. We propose that this large enhancement for bent-core compounds may be attributed to nanoscale smecticlike clusters that persist above the nematic-isotropic transition temperature, and shear align under shear flow; however, this mechanism has not yet been definitively confirmed.

  6. Depth of Field Analysis for Multilayer Automultiscopic Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanman, D

    With the re-emergence of stereoscopic displays, through polarized glasses for theatrical presentations and shuttered liquid crystal eyewear in the home, automultiscopic displays have received increased attention. Commercial ...

  7. Fabrication and transmission measurements of liquid crystal cells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoon, Dae Won

    1984-01-01

    understand the time dependence and the anomalous behaviour. From these results, the time dependence and the dips are interpreted in terms of voltage induced disorder during the cholesteric to nematic phase change. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank... parallel to each other but free to move up and down. Cholesteric mesophase is also known as twisted nematic. In this phase the molecules are arranged in layers, but each layers twists through Solid State Liquid Crystal Isotropic Liquid Solid...

  8. Introduction: new directions in liquid crystal science

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    and detergents, sensor technologies and in the manipulation of electromagnetic radiation of various wavelengths lives. It is the display technology that has allowed the development of mobile phones, hand- held games. They are to be found in a multitude of different situations from DNA and cell membranes to sensor technology and soaps

  9. Elastic octopoles and colloidal structures in nematic liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. B. Chernyshuk; O. M. Tovkach; B. I. Lev

    2013-05-14

    We propose a simple theoretical model which explains a formation of dipolar 2D and 3D colloidal structures in nematic liquid crystal. Colloidal particles are treated as effective hard spheres interacting via their elastic dipole, quadrupole and octopole moments. It is shown that octopole moment plays an important role in the formation of 2D and 3D nematic colloidal crystals. We generalize this assumption on the case of the external electric field and theoretically explain a giant electrostriction effect in 3D crystals observed recently [A. Nych et al., Nature Communications \\textbf{4}, 1489 (2013)].

  10. Soluble fullerene derivative in liquid crystal: polymer composites and their impact on photorefractive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Soluble fullerene derivative in liquid crystal: polymer composites and their impact photorefractive efficiency in polymer­ liquid crystal composites in comparison to previous works on similar) and containing a conducting polymer matrix, such as polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) doped with N

  11. Switching and defect dynamics in multistable liquid crystal devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2011-02-07

    We investigate the switching dynamics of multistable nematic liquid crystal devices. In particular we identify a remarkably simple 2-dimensional (2D) device which exploits hybrid alignment at the surfaces to yield a bistable response. We also consider a 3-dimensional (3D) tristable nematic device with patterned anchoring, recently implemented in practice, and discuss how the director and disclination patterns change during switching.

  12. Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY Assignment 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY 74495 Assignment 2. P. Pal¤y-Muhoray Feb. 6, 2015 Due: Feb 13, 2015 1. Read pages 25 - 37 of the text (Guenther, Modern Optics). 2. Read Ch 2., Review of Electricity and Magnetism (http://mpal¤y.lci.kent.edu/optics) 3. Red light with wavelength = 632:8nm

  13. Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY Assignment 1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY 74495 Assignment 1. P. Pal¤y-Muhoray Jan. 21, 2015 Due of the string? (b) Give an expression for the energy density in the string. (c) Calculate the average energy) Give an expression for the potential energy density and the kinetic energy density for each wave when

  14. Analysis and Stability of Bent–Core Liquid Crystal Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-02-21

    Feb 21, 2011 ... In this paper we analyze a free–boundary model for free–standing fibers made from smectic layers of kinked (bent–core) liquid crystal molecules. ...... The elastic term is the smallest of the three in modulus, however all are of.

  15. Nanostructure Templating in Inorganic Solids with Organic Lyotropic Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    successful templated synthesis of periodically nanostructured inorganics which copied directly the symmetryNanostructure Templating in Inorganic Solids with Organic Lyotropic Liquid Crystals Paul V. Braun of Materials Science and Engineering and Chemistry, Northwestern UniVersity, EVanston, Illinois 60208 Recei

  16. Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY Assignment 2.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    Liquid Crystal Optics and Photonics CPHY 74495 Assignment 2. P. Pal¤y-Muhoray Jan. 24, 2014 Due: Feb 4, 2014 1. Read pages 25 - 37 of the text (Guenther, Modern Optics). 2. Read Ch 2., Review of Electricity and Magnetism (http://mpal¤y.lci.kent.edu/optics) 3. Red light with wavelength = 632:8nm

  17. Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Second and Fourth Harmonic Frequencies in Electric Field-Induced Liquid Crystal Reorientations of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA The second and fourth harmonics of low frequency electric field-optical modulation; liquid crystal; second and fourth harmonics 1. INTRODUCTION Nematic liquid crystal (LC) has been

  18. ANALYSIS OF NONLOCAL ELECTROSTATIC EFFECTS IN CHIRAL SMECTIC C LIQUID CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are cholesteric. On the other hand, B2 phases of bent-core molecule liquid crystals are mostly non-chiral and haveANALYSIS OF NONLOCAL ELECTROSTATIC EFFECTS IN CHIRAL SMECTIC C LIQUID CRYSTALS By Jinhae Park and M SMECTIC C LIQUID CRYSTALS JINHAE PARK AND M. CARME CALDERER Abstract. We present modeling and analysis

  19. Electrically switchable finite energy Airy beams generated by a liquid crystal cell with patterned electrode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    Electrically switchable finite energy Airy beams generated by a liquid crystal cell with patterned Keywords: Diffraction Liquid crystal devices Propagation A pair of electrically switchable finite energy to the liquid crystal molecules realignment, and the finite energy Airy beams can be generated or erased

  20. YOUNG MEASURES AND ORDER-DISORDER TRANSITION IN STATIONARY FLOW OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    YOUNG MEASURES AND ORDER-DISORDER TRANSITION IN STATIONARY FLOW OF LIQUID CRYSTALS By M. Carme AND ORDER-DISORDER TRANSITION IN STATIONARY FLOW OF LIQUID CRYSTALS M. CARME CALDERER AND ALEXANDER of the governing equations. It is experimentally well known that liquid crystal flows with large Ericksen number

  1. Self-assembled gels of liquid crystals: hydrogen-bonded aggregates formed in various liquid crystalline textures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yue

    Self-assembled gels of liquid crystals: hydrogen-bonded aggregates formed in various liquid as an Advance Article on the web 30th March 2001 An azobenzene-containing gelator can gel the nematic liquid crystal BL006 through self-assembly of hydrogen- bonded aggregates. Due to the high nematic

  2. Spontaneous Liquid Crystal and Ferromagnetic Ordering of Colloidal Magnetic Nanoplates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min Shuai; Arthur Klittnick; Yongqiang Shen; Gregory P. Smith; Michael R. Tuchband; Chenhui Zhu; Rolfe G. Petschek; Alenka Mertelj; Darja Lisjak; Martin ?opi?; Joseph E. Maclennan; Matthew A. Glaser; Noel A. Clark

    2015-10-07

    Ferrofluids are familiar as colloidal suspensions of ferromagnetic nanoparticles in aqueous or organic solvents. The dispersed particles are randomly oriented but their moments become aligned if a magnetic field is applied, producing a variety of exotic and useful magneto-mechanical effects. A longstanding interest and challenge has been to make such suspensions macroscopically ferromagnetic, that is having uniform magnetic alignment in absence of a field. Here we report a fluid suspension of magnetic nanoplates which spontaneously aligns into an equilibrium nematic liquid crystal phase that is also macroscopically ferromagnetic. Its zero-field magnetization produces distinctive magnetic self-interaction effects, including liquid crystal textures of fluid block domains arranged in closed flux loops, and makes this phase highly sensitive, with it dramatically changing shape even in the Earth's magnetic field.

  3. General elastic interaction in nematic liquid crystals colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. B. Chernyshuk; B. I. Lev

    2009-07-29

    The new free energy functional that describes general elastic interaction between colloidal particles and nematic liquid crystal has been proposed. It generalizes results of the paper \\cite{lupe} on the case of arbitrary orientation of colloidal particles and is valid for arbitrary surface anchoring strength. Formal analogies and differences between electric particles and colloidal particles in LC are found. It is first time shown that spur of the quadrupole moment tensor is different from zero $Sp\\hat{Q}_{\\mu}\

  4. A Smooth Interface Method for Simulating Liquid Crystal Colloid Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryoichi Yamamoto; Yasuya Nakayama; Kang Kim

    2003-10-30

    A new method is presented for mesoscopic simulations of particle dispersions in liquid crystal solvents. It allows efficient first-principle simulations of the dispersions involving many particles with many-body interactions mediated by the solvents. Demonstrations have been performed for the aggregation of colloid dispersions in two-dimensional nematic and smectic-C* solvents neglecting hydrodynamic effects, which will be taken into account in the near future.

  5. Macroscopic Nanotemplating of Semiconductor Films with Hydrogen-Bonded Lyotropic Liquid Crystals**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Paul

    Macroscopic Nanotemplating of Semiconductor Films with Hydrogen-Bonded Lyotropic Liquid Crystals with aqueous gel- like liquid crystals, which rapidly generates a semiconductor film of nearly uniform thickness perforated with 2.5 nm holes on a 7 nm pitch over a virtually limitless area. Liquid

  6. Formation of Self-Supporting Reversible Cellular Networks in Suspensions of Colloids and Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Andrew

    .11-13 (ii) In suspensions of sterically stabilized colloidal particles dispersed in liquid crystalFormation of Self-Supporting Reversible Cellular Networks in Suspensions of Colloids and Liquid, calorimetric findings for liquid crystal/colloid mixtures, heated and cooled up to 13 times, point

  7. Photochemical switching behavior of azofunctionalized polymer liquid crystal/SiO{sub 2} composite photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moritsugu, M.; Kim, S. N.; Ogata, T.; Nonaka, T.; Kurihara, S.; Kubo, S.; Segawa, H.; Sato, O.

    2006-10-09

    A photochemically tunable photonic crystal was prepared by infiltrating azopolymer liquid crystal in a SiO{sub 2} inverse opal structure. The SiO{sub 2} inverse opal film obtained reflected a light corresponding to the periodicity as well as the refractive indices of the inverse opal structure. Linearly polarized light irradiation shifted the reflection band to longer wavelength more than 15 nm. This is caused by the formation of anisotropic molecular orientation of the azopolymer. The switched state was stable in the dark, and the reversible switching of the reflection band can be achieved by the linearly and circularly polarized light irradiations.

  8. Bond orientational ordering in liquids: Towards a unified description of water-like anomalies, liquid-liquid transition, glass transition, and crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tanaka, Hajime

    2013-01-01

    There are at least three fundamental states of matter, depending upon temperature and pressure: gas, liquid, and solid (crystal). These states are separated by first-order phase transitions between them. In both gas and liquid phases the complete translational and rotational symmetry exist, whereas in a solid phase both symmetries are broken. In intermediate phases between liquid and solid, which include liquid crystal and plastic crystal phases, only one of the two symmetries is preserved. Among the fundamental states of matter, the liquid state is most poorly understood. We argue that it is crucial for a better understanding of liquid to recognize that a liquid generally has a tendency to have local structural order and its presence is intrinsic and universal to any liquid. Such structural ordering is a consequence of many body correlations, more specifically, bond angle correlations, which we believe are crucial for the description of the liquid state. We show that this physical picture may naturally expla...

  9. Liquid crystalline growth within a phase-field crystal model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sai Tang; Simon Praetorius; Rainer Backofen; Axel Voigt; Yan-Mei Yu; Jincheng Wang

    2015-01-09

    By using a phase-field crystal (PFC) model, the liquid-crystal growth of the plastic triangular phase is simulated with emphasis on crystal shape and topological defect formation. The equilibrium shape of a plastic triangular crystal (PTC) grown from a isotropic phase is compared with that grown from a columnar/smectic A (CSA) phase. While the shape of a PTC nucleus in the isotropic phase is almost identical to that of a classical PFC model, the shape of a PTC nucleus in CSA is affected by the orientation of stripes in the CSA phase, and irregular hexagonal, elliptical, octagonal, and rectangular shapes are obtained. Concerning the dynamics of the growth process we analyse the topological structure of the nematic-order, which starts from nucleation of $+\\frac{1}{2}$ and $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclination pairs at the PTC growth front and evolves into hexagonal cells consisting of $+1$ vortices surrounded by six satellite $-\\frac{1}{2}$ disclinations. It is found that the orientational and the positional order do not evolve simultaneously, the orientational order evolves behind the positional order, leading to a large transition zone, which can span over several lattice spacings.

  10. Millisecond time resolution neutron reflection from a nematic liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dalgliesh, R.M.; Lau, Y.G.J.; Richardson, R.M.; Riley, D.J. [ISIS Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon OX11 0QX (United Kingdom); H.H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Cantocks Close, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom)

    2004-09-01

    The director reorientation of the liquid crystal 4,4' octyl cyanobiphenyl in the nematic phase under application of bursts of ac field have been observed using time-resolved neutron scattering in reflection geometry. The relaxation of the director has been shown to agree with existing theory, as determined by material and cell parameters. This result shows that it is possible to use neutron reflection measurements from buried interfaces to follow kinetic processes on a time scale comparable with the pulse length of the ISIS neutron source (20 ms)

  11. Surface induced structures in nematic liquid crystal colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. B. Chernyshuk; O. M. Tovkach; B. I. Lev

    2014-05-30

    We predict theoretically the existence of a class of colloidal structures in nematic liquid crystal (NLC) cells, which are induced by surface patterns on the plates of the cell (like cells with UV-irradiated polyimide surfaces using micron size masks). These bulk structures arise from non-zero boundary conditions for the director distortions at the confining surfaces. In particular, we demonstrate that quadrupole spherical particles (like spheres with boojums or Saturn-ring director configurations) form a square lattice inside a planar NLC cell, which has checkerboard patterns on both its plates.

  12. Ultra-high-resolution time projection chambers with liquid crystal backplanes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monreal, Benjamin

    2014-10-15

    We investigated the possibility of incorporating a liquid-crystal device into a gas ionization detector. After extensive R&D on several candidate liquid-crystal technologies, we developed some novel materials allowing twisted nematic liquid-crystal layers to be coupled directly to gas ionization counters. However, the resulting structures were unsuitable for large-scale or practical use. We tested several technologies known to result in mechanically-robust liquid crystal electrooptic layers, but found poor behavior in the detector context.

  13. Correlation functions in liquids and crystals : Free energy functional and liquid - crystal transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atul S. Bharadwaj; Swarn L. Singh; Yashwant Singh

    2013-04-03

    A free energy functional for a crystal that contains both the symmetry conserved and symmetry broken parts of the direct pair correlation function has been used to investigate the crystallization of fluids in three-dimensions. The symmetry broken part of the direct pair correlation function has been calculated using a series in ascending powers of the order parameters and which contains three- and higher-bodies direct correlation functions of the isotropic phase. It is shown that a very accurate description of freezing transitions for a wide class of potentials is found by considering the first two terms of this series. The results found for freezing parameters including structure of the frozen phase for fluids interacting via the inverse power potential u(r) = \\epsilon (\\sigma/r)^{n} for n ranging from 4 to \\infty are in very good agreement with simulation results. It is found that for n > 6.5 the fluid freezes into a face centred cubic (fcc) structure while for n \\leq 6 the body centred cubic (bcc) structure is preferred. The fluid-bcc-fcc triple point is found to be at 1/n = 0.158 which is in good agreement with simulation result.

  14. A method to estimate the Leslie coefficients of liquid crystals based on MBBA data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    A method to estimate the Leslie coefficients of liquid crystals based on MBBA data HAIYING WANG ) A new effective approach for estimating the Leslie coefficients of liquid crystals based on MBBA data of the Leslie coefficients based on the MBBA data. We used the published temperature-dependent MBBA data to fit

  15. Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Bent-Core Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lech Longa; Grzegorz Paj?k; Thomas Wydro

    2009-02-04

    By molecular modeling we demonstrate that the nematic long-range order discovered in bent-core liquid crystal systems should reveal further spatially homogeneous phases. Two of them are identified as a tetrahedratic nematic ($N_T$) phase with $D_{2d}$ symmetry and a chiral tetrahedratic nematic ($N_T^*$) phase with $D_2$ symmetry. These new phases were found for a lattice model with quadrupolar and octupolar anisotropic interactions using Mean Field theory and Monte Carlo simulations. The phase diagrams exhibit tetrahedratic ($T$), $N_T$ and $N_T^*$ phases, in addition to ordinary isotropic ($I$), uniaxial nematic ($N_U$) and biaxial nematic ($N_B$) phases. To our knowledge, this is the first molecular model with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in non-layered systems.

  16. Statistical theory of elastic constants of cholesteric liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kapanowski

    2009-10-20

    A statistical theory of cholesteric liquid crystals composed of short rigid biaxial molecules is presented. It is derived in the thermodynamic limit at a small density and a small twist. The uniaxial (biaxial) cholesteric phase is regarded as a distorted form of the uniaxial (biaxial) nematic phase. The chirality of the interactions and the implementation of the inversion to the rotation matrix elements are discussed in detail. General microscopic expressions for the elastic constants are derived. The expressions involve the one-particle distribution function and the potential energy of two-body short-range interactions. It is shown that the elastic constants determine the twist of the phase. The stability condition for the cholesteric and nematic phases is presented. The theory is used to study unary and binary systems. The temperature and concentration dependence of the order parameters, the elastic constants and the twist of the phase are obtained. The possibility of phase separation is not investigated.

  17. Elastic monopoles and external torques in nematic liquid crystal colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. M. Tovkach; S. B. Chernyshuk; B. I. Lev

    2013-11-19

    Up to now it is commonly believed that a colloidal particle suspended in a nematic liquid crystal never produces elastic monopoles because this violates the mechanical equilibrium condition. And the only way to obtain deformations of director field falling off with distance as r^{-1} is to exert an external torque \\Gamma_{ext} on the colloid \\cite{de_Gennes}. In this paper we demonstrate that this statement is not quite correct and elastic monopoles, as well as dipoles and quadrupoles, can be induced without any external influence just by the particle itself. A behavior of a spherical colloidal particle with asymmetric anchoring strength distribution is considered theoretically. It is demonstrated that such a particle when suspended in a nematic host can produce director deformations decreasing as $r^{-1}$, i.e. elastic monopoles, by itself without any external influence.

  18. The Frozen State in the Liquid Phase of Side-Chain Liquid-Crystal Polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendil, H.; Noirez, L.; Baroni, P.; Grillo, I. [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin (CEA-CNRS), Ce-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Institut Laue Langevin, BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 09 (France)

    2006-02-24

    Quenched isotropic melts of side-chain liquid-crystal polymers reveal surprisingly an anisotropic polymer conformation. This small-angle neutron-scattering (SANS) result is consistent with the identification of a macroscopic, solidlike response in the isotropic phase. Both experiments (rheology and SANS) indicate that the polymer system appears frozen on millimeter length scales and at the time scales of the observation. This result implies that the flow behavior is not the terminal behavior and that cross-links or entanglements are not a necessary condition to provide elasticity in melts.

  19. The OCT-Penlight: In-Situ Image Display for Guiding Microsurgery Using Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stetten, George

    surgical access. The two prototypes constructed thus far have used, respectively, a miniature organic light emitting diode (OLED) display and a reflective liquid crystal display (LCD). The OLED has the advantage

  20. Nematic ordering of topological defects in active liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anand U. Oza; Jörn Dunkel

    2015-07-15

    Identifying the ordering principles of intracellular matter is key to understanding the physics of microbiological systems. Recent experiments show that ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can form non-equilibrium networks of liquid-crystalline order when trapped in an oil-water interface near a solid boundary. At high densities, the bundles realize a 2D active nematic phase characterized by spontaneous creation and annihilation of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This remarkable discovery sparked considerable theoretical interest, yet a satisfactory mathematical description has remained elusive, primarily for the following two reasons. First, prevailing multi-component theories feature a large number of unknown parameters that make quantitative comparison with experiment infeasible. Second, the currently favored hydrodynamic models assume divergence-free 2D interfacial flow, thereby promoting turbulent pattern formation through upward cascades. Such cascades are unlikely to occur in experiments, where interface and bulk fluid can continuously exchange matter. Here, we propose a compact alternative continuum theory for dense active liquid crystals by merging ideas from the Landau-de Gennes and Swift-Hohenberg theories. The resulting fourth-order model agrees quantitatively with experimental data, correctly predicts a regime of long-range nematic alignment of defects, and manifests an analogy with a generalized Gross-Pitaevskii quantum theory. Generally, our results suggest that universal ordering principles may govern a wide range of active materials.

  1. GINZBURG-LANDAU MODEL OF A LIQUID CRYSTAL WITH RANDOM INCLUSIONS L. BERLYAND AND E. KHRUSLOV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlyand, Leonid

    Abstract. We consider a Ginzburg­Landau 3D functional with a surface energy term to model a nematic liquid heterogeneous, optically uniaxial medium, the overall optical properties of a nematic material are determined between ordered solids and amorphous liquids, liquid crystals possess both special structure and unique

  2. Optical apparatus using liquid crystals for shaping the spatial intensity of optical beams having designated wavelengths

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobs, S.D.; Cerqua, K.A.

    1987-07-14

    The spatial intensity profile of an optical beam of designated wavelengths, such as a laser beam, is shaped (the beam is apodized) by means of cholesteric liquid crystals of opposite chirality disposed successively along the path of the beam. The crystals have curved surfaces, which may be defined by a lens which defines the thickness of the liquid crystal fluid gap in a liquid crystal cell, so as to vary the selective reflection of the designated wavelength across the aperture of the beam. In this way, a soft aperture is provided. By using tandem cell pairs having liquid crystals of opposite chirality, but of different pitch, and with lenses of different curvature, beams of different wavelengths which are projected colinearly along the path may be individually tailored in spatial intensity profile. 11 figs.

  3. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 5, NO. 8, AUGUST 2009 335 Design Optimization of Reflective Polarizers for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Polarizers for LCD Backlight Recycling Yan Li, Thomas X. Wu, Senior Member, IEEE, and Shin-Tson Wu, Fellow polarizers for recycling the back- light of liquid crystal displays. Factors affecting the Bragg reflec- tion. Index Terms--Birefringent, liquid crystal display (LCD), multi- layer, polymer, reflective polarizer. I

  4. Formation of a Columnar Liquid Crystal in a Simple One-Component System of Particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alfredo Metere; Tomas Oppelstrup; Sten Sarman; Mikhail Dzugutov

    2015-03-18

    We report a molecular dynamics simulation demonstrating that a columnar liquid crystal, commonly formed by disc-shaped molecules, can be formed by identical particles interacting via a spherically symmetric potential. Upon isochoric cooling from a low-density isotropic liquid state the simulated system performed a weak first order phase transition which produced a liquid crystal phase composed of parallel particle columns arranged in a hexagonal pattern in the plane perpendicular to the column axis. The particles within columns formed a liquid structure and demonstrated a significant intracolumn diffusion. Further cooling resulted in another first-order transition whereby the column structure became periodically ordered in three dimensions transforming the liquid-crystal phase into a crystal. This result is the first observation of a liquid crystal formation in a simple one-component system of particles. Its conceptual significance is in that it demonstrated that liquid crystals that have so far only been produced in systems of anisometric molecules, can also be formed by mesoscopic soft-matter and colloidal systems of spherical particles with appropriately tuned interatomic potential.

  5. Computational studies of the phase behavior and dynamics of rodlike liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Micah James

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis, the unusual physics of rodlike liquid crystals are explored through simulations of rigid-rod kinetic theory discretized by the finite element method. As their name suggests. these substances retain crystalline. ...

  6. CARS polarized microscopy of three-dimensional director structures in liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Kachynski; A. N. Kuzmin; P. N. Prasad; I. I. Smalyukh

    2007-10-18

    We demonstrate three-dimensional vibrational imaging of director structures in liquid crystals using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) polarized microscopy. Spatial mapping of the structures is based on sensitivity of a polarized CARS signal to orientation of anisotropic molecules in liquid crystals. As an example, we study structures in a smectic material and demonstrate that single-scan CARS and two-photon fluorescence images of molecular orientation patterns are consistent with each other and with the structure model.

  7. Photo-isomerization fronts in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gavilan, Marcel G. Clerc

    Photo-isomerization fronts in dye-doped nematic liquid crystals V. Odent,1, * M. G. Clerc,1 C study of the photo-isomerization dynamics in dye-doped nematic crystals is reported, which shows that and thus induc- ing a photo-controlled optical aperture. The optical intensity and temperature fields

  8. Liquid-Crystal Photoalignment by Super Thin Azo Dye Layer Xihua LI, Vladimir M. KOZENKOV, Fion Sze-Yan YEUNG, Peizhi XU, Vladimir G. CHIGRINOV and Hoi-Sing KWOK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    knitwear and uniform alignment by azo dye layer without spin coating and rubbing processes. The thickness, better adhesion on indium tin oxide (ITO) surface and compatibility with roll-to-roll process. [DOI: 10. On the other hand, the spin coating is needed in liquid crystal display (LCD) fabrication process to be sure

  9. Speckle noise suppression using a helix-free ferroelectric liquid crystal cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreev, A L; Andreeva, T B; Kompanets, I N; Zalyapin, N V

    2014-12-31

    We have studied the method for suppressing speckle noise in patterns produced by a laser based on a fast-response electro-optical cell with a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC) in which helicoid is absent, i.e., compensated for. The character of smectic layer deformation in an electric field is considered along with the mechanism of spatially inhomogeneous phase modulation of a laser beam passing through the cell which is accompanied by the destruction of phase relations in the beam. Advantages of a helix-free FLC cell are pointed out as compared to helical crystal cells studied previously. (liquid crystal devices)

  10. IEEE/OSA JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 1, NO. 1, SEPTEMBER 2005 15 Transflective Liquid Crystal Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    -nematic (TN) LCD [1] exhibits a high contrast ratio due to the self phase compensation effect consumption is relatively high. Moreover, the image of a transmissive LCD is easily washed out by the strong LCDs have advantages in lower power consumption, lighter weight, and better outdoor readability

  11. Observation of crystallization slowdown in supercooled para-hydrogen and ortho-deuterium quantum liquid mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Kühnel; José M. Fernández; Filippo Tramonto; Guzmán Tejeda; Elena Moreno; Anton Kalinin; Marco Nava; Davide E. Galli; Salvador Montero; Robert E. Grisenti

    2014-10-10

    We report a quantitative experimental study of the crystallization kinetics of supercooled quantum liquid mixtures of para-hydrogen (pH$_2$) and ortho-deuterium (oD$_2$) by high spatial resolution Raman spectroscopy of liquid microjets. We show that in a wide range of compositions the crystallization rate of the isotopic mixtures is significantly reduced with respect to that of the pure substances. To clarify this behavior we have performed path-integral simulations of the non-equilibrium pH$_2$-oD$_2$ liquid mixtures, revealing that differences in quantum delocalization between the two isotopic species translate into different effective particle sizes. Our results provide first experimental evidence for crystallization slowdown of quantum origin, offering a benchmark for theoretical studies of quantum behavior in supercooled liquids.

  12. The ground state and the character of the interaction between a colloidal particles in a liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. I. Lev

    2013-11-08

    In this article is proposed the general approach to determination the character of the interaction between colloidal particles in a different liquid crystals. The main idea of this approach are in the presentation of the colloidal particle as sours of the possible deformation of the ground state of the director field. The ground state of liquid crystal imposes restrictions on the possible deformations and as result determine the character of the interaction between the colloidal particles. Based on this approach the Coulomb like interaction between dipole particles in a cholesteric liquid crystal and changing of the character of the interaction in a smactic liquid crystal has been predicted.

  13. Evaluation of primary flight display enhancements for improving general aviation safety

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Daniel R

    2005-01-01

    The information architecture of general aviation cockpits is shifting from one of independent mechanical instruments to one of digital sensors, common databuses, and liquid crystal displays. This integrated architecture ...

  14. Operation of a high purity germanium crystal in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John L. Orrell; Craig E. Aalseth; John F. Amsbaugh; Peter J. Doe; Todd W. Hossbach

    2006-10-11

    A high purity germanium crystal was operated in liquid argon as a Compton suppressed radiation spectrometer. Spectroscopic quality resolution of less than 1% of the full-width half maximum of full energy deposition peaks was demonstrated. The construction of the small apparatus used to obtain these results is reported. The design concept is to use the liquid argon bath to both cool the germanium crystal to operating temperatures and act as a scintillating veto. The scintillation light from the liquid argon can veto cosmic-rays, external primordial radiation, and gamma radiation that does not fully deposit within the germanium crystal. This technique was investigated for its potential impact on ultra-low background gamma-ray spectroscopy. This work is based on a concept initially developed for future germanium-based neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments.

  15. Optofluidic-Tunable Color Filters And Spectroscopy Based On Liquid-Crystal Microflows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuennet, J. G.; Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-05-24

    The integration of color filters with microfluidics has attracted substantial attention in recent years, for on-chip absorption, fluorescence, or Raman analysis. We describe such tunable filters based on the micro-flow of liquid crystals. The filter operation is based on the wavelength dependent liquid crystal birefringence that can be tuned by modifying the flow velocity field in the microchannel. The latter is possible both temporally and spatially by varying the inlet pressure and the channel geometry respectively. We explored the use of these optofluidic filters for on-chip absorption spectroscopy; by integrating the distance dependent color filter with a dye-filled micro-channel, the absorption spectrum of a dye could be measured. Liquid crystal microflows simplify substantially the optofluidic integration, actuation and tuning of color filters for lab-on-a-chip spectroscopic applications.

  16. Optical Manipulation of Shape-Morphing Elastomeric Liquid Crystal Microparticles Doped with Gold Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Y. R.; Evans, J. S.; Lee, T.; Senyuk, B.; Keller, P.; He, S. L.; Smalyukh, I. I.

    2012-06-11

    We demonstrate facile optical manipulation of shape of birefringent colloidal microparticles made from liquid crystal elastomers. Using soft lithography and polymerization, we fabricate elastomeric microcylinders with weakly undulating director oriented on average along their long axes. These particles are infiltrated with gold nanospheres acting as heat transducers that allow for an efficient localized transfer of heat from a focused infrared laser beam to a submicrometer region within a microparticle. Photothermal control of ordering in the liquid crystal elastomer using scanned beams allows for a robust control of colloidal particles, enabling both reversible and irreversible changes of shape. Possible applications include optomechanics, microfluidics, and reconfigurable colloidal composites with shape-dependent self-assembly.

  17. Graphene and chiral nematic liquid crystals: a focus on lasing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khan, Ammar; Kamarudin, Muhammad Akmal; Kidambi, Piran; Hofmann, Stephan; Wilkinson, Tim; Qasim, Malik

    2015-07-01

    This work presents the interaction of self-assembled liquid crystalline (LC) unidimensional photonic structures on the surface of polycrystalline graphene. Further, this surface effect is studied through different substrate geometries in the test...

  18. Prospects of emerging polymer-stabilized blue-phase liquid-crystal displays Linghui Rao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    to lower power consumption which implies to an energy saving and longer battery life. However, in order, is subject to an electric field E, the induced birefringence is related to E as19: nind = KE2 , (1) where, but this is valid only when the electric field is weak. As E keeps increasing, the induced birefringence

  19. A triage approach to streamline environmental footprinting : a case study for liquid crystal displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zgola, Melissa Lee

    2011-01-01

    Quantitative environmental performance evaluation methods are desired given the growing certification and labeling landscape for consumer goods. Challenges associated with existing methods, such as life cycle assessment ...

  20. 44.3 / S. Valyukh 44.3: A Liquid Crystal Lens with Non-uniform Anchoring Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the anchoring energy is a good alternative for other known methods applied for liquid crystal lenses. 144.3 / S. Valyukh 44.3: A Liquid Crystal Lens with Non-uniform Anchoring Energy Sergiy Valyukh and non-uniform anchoring energy was done. Optimal parameters of such a lens were found and discussed. We

  1. Colloidal particles in liquid crystal films and at interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mykola Tasinkevych; Denis Andrienko

    2010-11-04

    This mini-review discusses the recent contribution of theoretical and computational physics as well as experimental efforts to the understanding of the behavior of colloidal particles in confined geometries and at liquid crystalline interfaces. Theoretical approaches used to study trapping, long- and short-range interactions, and assembly of solid particles and liquid inclusions are outlined. As an example, an interaction of a spherical colloidal particle with a nematic-isotropic interface and a pair interaction potential between two colloids at this interface are obtained by minimizing the Landau-de Gennes free energy functional using the finite-element method with adaptive meshes.

  2. Tuning the correlated color temperature of white LED with a guest-host liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Tuning the correlated color temperature of white LED with a guest-host liquid crystal Haiwei Chen the molecular reorientation of dichroic dyes, the power ratio of the transmitted blue and red lights. P. Schuurmans, and M. D. Pashley, "Red, green, and blue LEDs for white light illumination," IEEE J

  3. Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Photo-patterning micro-mirror devices using azo dye-doped cholesteric liquid crystals Tsung: A simple method for fabricating patternable micro-mirror devices by photo-induced alignment of dye to nearly perfect planar by the photo-excited adsorbed dyes. This structure transformation leads

  4. Photo-induced handedness inversion with opposite-handed cholesteric liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Photo-induced handedness inversion with opposite-handed cholesteric liquid crystal Yun-Han Lee,1-invertible CLC through opposite-handed doping of a photo-sensitive chiral azobenzene dopant and a photo-stable chiral dopant. With high solubility of the photo-sensitive chiral dopant, the Bragg reflection can

  5. Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization Daming Xu,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Blue phase liquid crystals stabilized by linear photo-polymerization Daming Xu,1 Jiamin Yuan,1-plane-switching cell, anisotropic polymer networks are formed through the linear photo-polymerization process the electric field is below a critical field (E

  6. P-133 / C.-Y. Lee P-133: Variable Liquid Crystal Pretilt and Azimuth Angle using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    pretilt and azimuth angles for the liquid crystal. It is based on stacking both photo-aligned polymer alignment surface based on stacked alignment layers. The stacked alignment layers comprise of both photo.-Y. Lee The onset of the convection is determined by the critical Marangoni Number Mc. Mc is equal

  7. High efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with an external stable resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, Martin C.

    High efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with an external stable resonator Hamidreza Shirvani-Mahdavi,1,2 Shima Fardad,2 Ezeddin Mohajerani,1 and Shin-Tson Wu2* 1 Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin St., Tehran, Iran 2 College of Optics and Photonics

  8. Circularly polarized high-efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with a tunable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Circularly polarized high-efficiency cholesteric liquid crystal lasers with a tunable nematic phase retarder Hamidreza Shirvani-Mahdavi,1,2 Ezeddin Mohajerani,1 and Shin-Tson Wu2* 1 Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G.C., Evin St., Tehran, Iran 2 College of Optics and Photonics

  9. Liquid Crystal Pretilt and Azimuth Angle Study of Stacked Alignment Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    angles for the liquid crystal. It is based on stacking both photo- aligned polymer and rubbed polyimide comprise of both photo-aligned horizontal polymer and rubbed vertical polyimide. The advantage alignment polyimide JALS2021 form JSR Corporation is spin coated on the substrate. Then it is baked inside

  10. Optical anisotropy and liquid-crystal alignment properties of rubbed polyimide layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    Optical anisotropy and liquid-crystal alignment properties of rubbed polyimide layers FUZI YANG polyimide layers and the rubbing process is investigated using the recently developed polarization-conversion guided mode technique. Results indicate that the effective optical anisotropy of the polyimide layers may

  11. Photoalignment of nematic liquid crystal on polyamic-acid-based soluble polyimide with no side fragments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    Photoalignment of nematic liquid crystal on polyamic-acid-based soluble polyimide with no side of newly synthesized UV-sensitive polyimide without side fragments is reported. The photoaligning polymer, are not worse than those of rubbed polyimides. At the same time, the new material possesses all the advantages

  12. Mechanistic Origins of Hierarchical Order in Organic Monolayers Deposited From Liquid Crystal Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, David L.

    Solvents Nick E. Gislason, Calvin Murphy, and David L. Patrick* Department of Chemistry, Western Washington two oriented liquid crystal solvents and one isotropic solvent using a sacrificial template method in which a solvent film applied in a first deposition step is displaced by BOC in a second deposition step

  13. Characterization of Lung Tissues using Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter and Hyperspectral Imaging System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Won, Chang-Hee

    Characterization of Lung Tissues using Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter and Hyperspectral Imaging to characterize lung tissue for detecting emphysematous tissues in lung volume reduction surgery. The system, the spectral signature of healthy lung tissue and simulated smokers lung tissue is obtained and compared

  14. Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase liquid crystals*a and Yasuhiro Hasebab We report the low temperature and high frequency effects on polymer-stabilized blue phase temperature and high frequency operations are critical issues, especially for outdoor applications or color

  15. YOUNG MEASURES AND ORDER-DISORDER TRANSITION IN STATIONARY FLOW OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panchenko, Alexander

    YOUNG MEASURES AND ORDER-DISORDER TRANSITION IN STATIONARY FLOW OF LIQUID CRYSTALS M. CARME measures generated by sequences of weak solutions of the governing equations. It is experimentally well [-1, 1] with R2 Ã? (-1, 1), representing the domain of the flow. The governing system is highly

  16. Phase Separation and Liquid Crystal Self-Assembly in Surfactant-Inorganic-Solvent Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siperstein, Flor R.

    phases is observed in the phase containing a high surfactant concentration, and the structure on the formation of surfactant-silica liquid crystals and the synthesis of MCM-41 type materials. The effects of temperature and surfactant architecture are also investigated. We show that the increase in surfactant

  17. Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal Thermography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghajar, Afshin J.

    62 TC02-007 Heat Transfer Measurements for a Horizontal Micro-Tube Using Liquid Crystal-tube and 1000m micro-tube. In the single-phase heat transfer experiments, the fully-developed flow heat transfer were also measured using thermocouples (TC). The results showed that the heat transfer coefficient

  18. Distant optical detection of small rotations and displacements by means of chiral liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibaev, Petr V. E-mail: shibayev@fordham.edu; Troisi, Juliana; Reddy, Kathryn; Iljin, Andrey

    2014-01-15

    The paper describes novel chiral viscoelastic liquid crystalline mixtures and their application for the detection of small rotational displacements of two plates confining cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC). The mixtures are characterized by extremely high viscosities and stability of the selective reflection band (SRB) at ambient temperatures. Even a small rotation applied to the chiral liquid crystal (CLC) cell results in dramatic changes of the reflective properties of sandwiched CLC films. The angle and direction of rotation as well as the magnitude of CLC's shear deformation can be determined for a variety of experimental geometries, each of which is characterized by its own response function. The proposed model explains changes in the reflection spectra for different experimental geometries and relates them to the angle of rotation and magnitude of shear. The method was tested for a detection of small rotations from a distance of up to 50 m and allows for resolving small rotations of the order of fractions of degrees.

  19. Thermalization Calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jakobsen, Bo; Niss, Kristine; Olsen, Niels Boye; Pedersen, Ib H; Rasmussen, Torben; Christensen, Tage; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2015-01-01

    We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This "Thermalization Calorimetry" technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat conduction through an insulating material, i.e., is proportional to the temperature difference between sample and surroundings. The monitored signal reflects the sample's specific heat and is sensitive to exo- and endothermic processes. The technique is useful for studying supercooled liquids and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s), as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition.

  20. Thermalization Calorimetry: A simple method for investigating glass transition and crystallization of supercooled liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Jakobsen; Alejandro Sanz; Kristine Niss; Niels Boye Olsen; Ib H. Pedersen; Torben Rasmussen; Tage Christensen; Jeppe C. Dyre

    2015-11-30

    We present a simple method for fast and cheap thermal analysis on supercooled glass-forming liquids. This "Thermalization Calorimetry" technique is based on monitoring the temperature and its rate of change during heating or cooling of a sample for which the thermal power input comes from heat conduction through an insulating material, i.e., is proportional to the temperature difference between sample and surroundings. The monitored signal reflects the sample's specific heat and is sensitive to exo- and endothermic processes. The technique is useful for studying supercooled liquids and their crystallization, e.g., for locating the glass transition and melting point(s), as well as for investigating the stability against crystallization and estimating the relative change in specific heat between the solid and liquid phases at the glass transition.

  1. Nematic ordering of topological defects in active liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oza, Anand U

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the ordering principles of intracellular matter is key to understanding the physics of microbiological systems. Recent experiments show that ATP-driven microtubule-kinesin bundles can form non-equilibrium networks of liquid-crystalline order when trapped in an oil-water interface near a solid boundary. At high densities, the bundles realize a 2D active nematic phase characterized by spontaneous creation and annihilation of topological defects, reminiscent of particle-pair production processes in quantum systems. This remarkable discovery sparked considerable theoretical interest, yet a satisfactory mathematical description has remained elusive, primarily for the following two reasons. First, prevailing multi-component theories feature a large number of unknown parameters that make quantitative comparison with experiment infeasible. Second, the currently favored hydrodynamic models assume divergence-free 2D interfacial flow, thereby promoting turbulent pattern formation through upward cascades. Suc...

  2. Colloids in liquid crystals: a lattice Boltzmann study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. S. Lintuvuori; D. Marenduzzo; K. Stratford; M. E. Cates

    2011-02-10

    We propose a hybrid lattice Boltzmann algorithm to simulate the hydrodynamics of colloidal particles inside a liquid crystalline host. To validate our algorithm, we study the static and the microrheology of a colloid in a nematic, with tangential anchoring of the director field at the particle surface, and we confirm theories and experiments showing that the drag force in a nematic is markedly anisotropic. We then apply our method to consider the case of a colloid inside a cholesteric, and with normal anchoring at the surface. We show that by tuning the ratio between particle size and cholesteric pitch it is possible to control the defect configuration around the particle, and to stabilise novel figure-of-eight or highly twisted loops close to the colloid surface.

  3. Theory of Chiral Modulations and Fluctuations in Smectic-A Liquid Crystals Under an Electric Field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. V. Selinger; J. Xu; R. L. B. Selinger; B. R. Ratna; R. Shashidhar

    2000-02-02

    Chiral liquid crystals often exhibit periodic modulations in the molecular director; in particular, thin films of the smectic-C* phase show a chiral striped texture. Here, we investigate whether similar chiral modulations can occur in the induced molecular tilt of the smectic-A phase under an applied electric field. Using both continuum elastic theory and lattice simulations, we find that the state of uniform induced tilt can become unstable when the system approaches the smectic-A--smectic-C* transition, or when a high electric field is applied. Beyond that instability point, the system develops chiral stripes in the tilt, which induce corresponding ripples in the smectic layers. The modulation persists up to an upper critical electric field and then disappears. Furthermore, even in the uniform state, the system shows chiral fluctuations, including both incipient chiral stripes and localized chiral vortices. We compare these predictions with observed chiral modulations and fluctuations in smectic-A liquid crystals.

  4. Anchoring effects at the isotropic-nematic interface in liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. C. Vink

    2007-06-18

    The isotropic-to-nematic transition in liquid crystals is studied in d=3 spatial dimensions. A simulation method is proposed to measure the angle dependent interfacial tension g(theta), with theta the anchoring angle of the nematic phase at the interface. In addition, an alternative liquid crystal model is introduced, defined on a lattice. The advantage of the lattice model is that accurate simulations of anchoring effects become possible. For the lattice model, g(theta) depends sensitively on the nearest-neighbor pair interaction, and both stable and metastable anchoring angles can be detected. We also measure g(theta) for an off-lattice fluid of soft rods. For soft rods, only one stable anchoring angle is found, corresponding to homogeneous alignment of the nematic director in the plane of the interface. This finding is in agreement with most theoretical predictions obtained for hard rods.

  5. Technique for compressing light intensity ranges utilizing a specifically designed liquid crystal notch filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    A pin hole camera assembly for use in viewing an object having a relatively large light intensity range, for example a crucible containing molten metal in an atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) system is disclosed herein. The assembly includes means for optically compressing the light intensity range appearing at its input sufficient to make it receivable and decipherable by a standard video camera. To accomplish this, the assembly utilizes the combination of interference filter and a liquid crystal notch filter. The latter which preferably includes a cholesteric liquid crystal arrangement is configured to pass light at all wavelengths, except a relatively narrow wavelength band which defines the filter's notch, and includes means for causing the notch to vary to at least a limited extent with the intensity of light at its light incidence surface.

  6. Shape-controlled orientation and assembly of colloids with sharp edges in nematic liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel A. Beller; Mohamed A. Gharbi; Iris B. Liu

    2014-12-12

    The assembly of colloids in nematic liquid crystals via topological defects has been extensively studied for spherical particles, and investigations of other colloid shapes have revealed a wide array of new assembly behaviors. We show, using Landau-de Gennes numerical modeling, that nematic defect configurations and colloidal assembly can be strongly influenced by fine details of colloid shape, in particular the presence of sharp edges. For cylinder, microbullet, and cube colloid geometries, we obtain the particles' equilibrium alignment directions and effective pair interaction potentials as a function of simple shape parameters. We find that defects pin at sharp edges, and that the colloid consequently orients at an oblique angle relative to the far-field nematic director that depends on the colloid's shape. This shape-dependent alignment, which we confirm in experimental measurements, raises the possibility of selecting self-assembly outcomes for colloids in liquid crystals by tuning particle geometry.

  7. Instabilities induced by Light in Liquid Crystal Cells with a Photo-Responsive Substrate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Tóth-Katona; K. Fodor-Csorba; A. Vajda; I. Jánossy

    2014-09-07

    Instabilities are discussed which take place when a nematic liquid crystal (LC) layer, enclosed between a planar reference plate and a photosensitive substrate, is illuminated with polarized light from the reference side ({\\it reverse} geometry). The dependence of the observed effects on the wavelength, polarization direction of the light, and on the thickness of the LC layer is explained by a model based on photoinduced surface torque. The application possibilities of the phenomena are also explored.

  8. Defect structures and torque on an elongated colloidal particle immersed in a liquid crystal host

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Andrienko; M. P. Allen; G. Skacej; S. Zumer

    2002-03-06

    Combining molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulation we study defect structures around an elongated colloidal particle embedded in a nematic liquid crystal host. By studying nematic ordering near the particle and the disclination core region we are able to examine the defect core structure and the difference between two simulation techniques. In addition, we also study the torque on a particle tilted with respect to the director, and modification of this torque when the particle is close to the cell wall.

  9. Heat transfer measurements in a two-pass square duct via a transient liquid crystal image method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luna, Jesus Arturo

    2000-01-01

    ° turn region is air gun spray coated with liquid crystals. An RGB (Red, Green, and Blue) camera faces the inside opaque test section surface. Plexiglas ribs are double side taped at designated intervals and configurations to the inside surface...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of fibers with built-in liquid crystal channels and electrodes for transverse incident-light modulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Lei

    We report on an all-in-fiber liquid crystal (LC) structure designed for the modulation of light incident transverse to the fiber axis. A hollow cavity flanked by viscous conductors is introduced into a polymer matrix, and ...

  11. Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface studied by optical second harmonic generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Xiaowei

    Orientations of side chains and adsorbed liquid crystal molecules on a rubbed polyimide surface on a rubbed side-chain polyimide surface. Both the side chains and the LC molecules appear to be well aligned

  12. Mechanism of Molecular Ordering in Monolayer Liquid Crystal Films David L. Patrick, Victor J. Cee, and Thomas P. Beebe, Jr.*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, David L.

    length scales with scanning probe micros- copy (SPM).1 Aside from investigations of biological macro- molecules, liquid crystal films are probably the most studied molecular system by SPM.2 It is therefore

  13. Polymeric-lens-embedded 2D/3D switchable display with dramatically reduced crosstalk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    OCIS codes: (110.1080) Active or adaptive optics; (110.0110) Imaging systems; (100.6890) Three and mobile displays. A critical element in the 2D/3D switchable display is the adaptive liquid crystal (LC optimization by modifying the layout of light blocking components [21], and us- ing triplet structures

  14. Light-induced orientational effects in periodic photonic structures with pure and dye-doped nematic liquid crystal defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; published 19 November 2008 We theoretically study and compare the light-induced Fréedericksz transition originally proposed to benefit from liquid crystals LCs sensitivity to external fields using LC infiltration crystals NLCs are particularly interesting materials due to their infiltration capabilities and huge opti

  15. Flow-driven transition and associated velocity profiles in a nematic liquid-crystal cell S. A. Jewell,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jewell, Sharon

    molding processes. The confinement of a fluid between walls separated on the micron scale can im- pose liquid crystals and the formation of defects when extruding polymeric liquid crys- tals. Thus by the presence of fixed particles and the interaction between flow and topological defects 6 . Experimentally

  16. Ligand-assisted liquid crystal templating in mesoporous niobium oxide molecular sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antonelli, D.M.; Nakahira, A.; Ying, J.Y.

    1996-05-22

    A systematic study of the factors governing the formation of Nb-TMS1, a niobium-based mesoporous hexagonally-packed transition metal oxide molecular sieve, is reported. The synthesis of this material was achieved through a novel ligand-assisted liquid crystal templating mechanism in which a discrete covalent bond is used to direct the templating interaction between the organic and inorganic phases. In general, the synthesis of Nb-TMS1 is more strongly affected by starting conditions such as temperature, surfactant-to-metal ratio, pH, and solvent than by temperature and time of aging after the initial hydrolysis step. The results also show that Nb-TMS1 can be synthesized under conditions which strongly disfavor the formation of micelles. This suggests that Nb-TMS1 is formed via a mechanism involving self-assembly with concomitant condensation. It was found that with increasing surfactant-to-metal ratios, new hexagonal P63/mmc (Nb-TMS2) and layered (Nb-TMS4) phases could be formed, while increasing the surfactant chain length led to a new cubic phase (Nb-TMS3). Crystals of Nb-TMS1 of up to several mm in dimensions were also grown. These crystals are larger than the biggest mesoporous crystals reported by a factor of 3 orders of magnitude. These crystals retain their structure on micelle removal by acid treatment and are thus of great interest as hosts for quantum wires.

  17. Analogy of the slow dynamics between the supercooled liquid and the supercooled plastic crystal states of difluorotetrachloroethane

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. Affouard; M. Descamps

    2005-02-15

    Slow dynamics of difluorotetrachloroethane in both supercooled plastic crystal and supercooled liquid states have been investigated from Molecular Dynamics simulations. The temperature and wave-vector dependence of collective dynamics in both states are probed using coherent dynamical scattering functions $S(Q,t)$. Our results confirm the strong analogy between molecular liquids and plastic crystals for which $\\alpha$-relaxation times and non-ergodicity parameters are controlled by the non trivial static correlations $S(Q)$ as predicted by the Mode Coupling Theory. The use of infinitely thin needles distributed on a lattice as model of plastic crystals is discussed.

  18. Spontaneous Ferroelectric Order in a Bent-Core Smectic Liquid Crystal of Fluid Orthorhombic Layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R Reddy; C Zhu; R Shao; E Korblova; T Gong; Y Shen; M Glaser; J Maclennan; D Walba; N Clark

    2011-12-31

    Macroscopic polarization density, characteristic of ferroelectric phases, is stabilized by dipolar intermolecular interactions. These are weakened as materials become more fluid and of higher symmetry, limiting ferroelectricity to crystals and to smectic liquid crystal stackings of fluid layers. We report the SmAP{sub F}, the smectic of fluid polar orthorhombic layers that order into a three-dimensional ferroelectric state, the highest-symmetry layered ferroelectric possible and the highest-symmetry ferroelectric material found to date. Its bent-core molecular design employs a single flexible tail that stabilizes layers with untilted molecules and in-plane polar ordering, evident in monolayer-thick freely suspended films. Electro-optic response reveals the three-dimensional orthorhombic ferroelectric structure, stabilized by silane molecular terminations that promote parallel alignment of the molecular dipoles in adjacent layers.

  19. Theory of the dielectric susceptibility of liquid crystals with bent-core molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Kapanowski

    2011-02-03

    Statistical theory of the dielectric susceptibility of polar liquid crystals is proposed. The molecules are calamitic or bent-core but the permanent dipole moment is perpendicular to the molecule long axis. The ordering of the phase is described by means of the mean-field theory based on the Maier-Saupe approach. The theory is used to calculate the temperature dependence of the order parameters and the susceptibilities. The phase diagram with four phases is obtained: isotropic, uniaxial nematic, uniaxial ferroelectric, and biaxial ferroelectric. Four critical points are predicted.

  20. Effects of graphene on electro-optic switching and spontaneous polarization of a ferroelectric liquid crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basu, Rajratan, E-mail: basu@usna.edu [Department of Physics, Soft-matter and Nanomaterials Laboratory, The United States Naval Academy, Annapolis, Maryland 21402 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    A small quantity of graphene flakes was doped in a ferroelectric liquid crystal (FLC), and the field-induced ferroelectric electro-optic switching was found to be significantly faster in the FLC + graphene hybrid than that of the pure FLC. Further studies revealed that the suspended graphene flakes enhanced the FLC's spontaneous polarization by improving smectic-C ordering resulting from the ?–? electron stacking, and reduced rotation viscosity by trapping some of the free ions of the FLC media. These effects coherently impacted the FLC-switching phenomenon, enabling the FLC molecules to switch faster on reversing an external electric field.

  1. Liquid crystal terahertz phase shifters with functional indium-tin-oxide nanostructures for biasing and alignment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Chan-Shan [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Tang, Tsung-Ta [Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ru-Pin [Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30078, Taiwan (China); Yu, Peichen [Department of Photonics and Institute of Electro-Optical Engineering, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Pan, Ci-Ling, E-mail: clpan@phys.nthu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China); Frontier Research Center on Fundamental and Applied Science of Matters, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan (China)

    2014-04-07

    Indium Tin Oxide (ITO) nanowhiskers (NWhs) obliquely evaporated by electron-beam glancing-angle deposition can serve simultaneously as transparent electrodes and alignment layer for liquid crystal (LC) devices in the terahertz (THz) frequency range. To demonstrate, we constructed a THz LC phase shifter with ITO NWhs. Phase shift exceeding ?/2 at 1.0 THz was achieved in a ?517??m-thick cell. The phase shifter exhibits high transmittance (?78%). The driving voltage required for quarter-wave operation is as low as 5.66?V (rms), compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) and thin-film transistor (TFT) technologies.

  2. Ionic content dependence of viscoelasticity of lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal sunset yellow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuang Zhou; Adam J. Cervenka; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2014-10-10

    A lyotropic chromonic liquid crystal (LCLC) is an orientationally ordered system made by self-assembled aggregates of charged organic molecules in water, bound by weak non-covalent attractive forces and stabilized by electrostatic repulsions. We determine how the ionic content of the LCLC, namely the presence of mono- and divalent salts and pH enhancing agent, alter the viscoelastic properties of the LCLC. Aqueous solutions of the dye Sunset Yellow with a uniaxial nematic order are used as an example. By applying a magnetic field to impose orientational deformations, we measure the splay $K_1$, twist $K_2$ and bend $K_3$ elastic constants and rotation viscosity $\\gamma_1$ as a function of concentration of additives. The data indicate that the viscoelastic parameters are influenced by ionic content in dramatic and versatile ways. For example, the monovalent salt NaCl decreases $K_3$ and $K_2$ and increases $\\gamma_1$, while an elevated pH decreases all the parameters. We attribute these features to the ion-induced changes in length and flexibility of building units of LCLC, the chromonic aggregates, a property not found in conventional thermotropic and lyotropic liquid crystals formed by covalently bound units of fixed length.

  3. Crystallization of belite–melilite clinker minerals in the presence of liquid phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurokawa, Daisuke, E-mail: daisuke_kurokawa@taiheiyo-cement.co.jp [Central Research Laboratory, Taiheiyo Cement Corporation, Chiba 285-8655 (Japan); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan); Yoshida, Hideto [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Fukuda, Koichiro [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Nagoya Institute of Technology, Nagoya 466-8555 (Japan)

    2014-06-01

    Crystallization of belite–melilite clinker minerals was studied from the view point of a high temperature equilibrium. Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}–Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}–Ca{sub 2}AlFeSiO{sub 7} clinkers were synthesized at 1330 °C–1650 °C. The constituent phases were determined by X-ray powder diffractometry and optical microscopy. Chemical compositions of the individual clinker minerals were determined using an electron probe microanalyzer. We established the two types of P{sub 2}O{sub 5}-bearing pseudobinary phase diagrams in the systems Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}–Ca{sub 2}Al{sub 2}SiO{sub 7} at 1505 °C–1650 °C and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}–Ca{sub 2}(Al,Fe){sub 2}SiO{sub 7} at 1330 °C–1550 °C. In the latter system, the liquid phase appeared at 1390 °C, which is approximately 150 °C lower than the temperature of liquid formation in the former system. The melilite phenocrysts larger than 50 ?m were observed not only in the slowly cooled Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}–Ca{sub 2}(Al,Fe){sub 2}SiO{sub 7} clinker but also in commercial belite–melilite clinkers. These crystals would be nucleated and grown from a liquid phase which was formed at relatively low temperatures.

  4. Induced and spontaneous deracemization in bent-core liquid crystal phases and in other phases doped with bent-core molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Earl, David J.

    Induced and spontaneous deracemization in bent-core liquid crystal phases and in other phases doped by the discovery of bent-core liquid crystals composed of achiral bow-shaped molecules 10 . In these phases with bent-core molecules David J. Earl Department of Bioengineering, Rice University, 6100 Main Street

  5. Novel Photo-Aligned Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell D.D. Huang, V.M. Kozenkov, V.G. Chigrinov, H.S. Kwok

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novel Photo-Aligned Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystal Cell D.D. Huang, V.M. Kozenkov, V.G. Chigrinov Novel photo-aligned twisted nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell based on one- step illumination azo-dye layer in comparison with the upper one. Thus the photo-alignment of azo-dye layer

  6. Two-step electrical percolation in nematic liquid crystal filled by multiwalled carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Serhiy Tomylko; Oleg Yaroshchuk; Nikolai Lebovka

    2015-04-29

    Percolation of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in liquid crystals (LCs) opens way for a unique class of anisotropic hybrid materials with a complex dielectric constant widely controlled by CNT concentration. Percolation in such systems is commonly described as a one-step process starting at a very low loading of CNTs. In the present study the two-step percolation was observed in the samples of thickness 250 $\\mu$m obtained by pressing the suspension between two substrates. The percolation concentrations for the first and second percolation processes were $C_n^{p_1}\\approx 0.0002$ wt. \\% and $C_n^{p_2}\\approx 0.5$ wt. \\%, respectively. The two-stage nature of percolation was explained on a base of mean field theory assuming core-shell structure of CNTs.

  7. Amplification of interference color by using liquid crystal for protein detection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Qingdi; Yang, Kun-Lin

    2013-12-09

    Micrometer-sized, periodic protein lines printed on a solid surface cause interference color which is invisible to the naked eye. However, the interference color can be amplified by using a thin layer of liquid crystal (LC) covered on the surface to form a phase diffraction grating. Strong interference color can thus be observed under ambient light. By using the LC-amplified interference color, we demonstrate naked-eye detection of a model protein—immunoglobulin G (IgG). Limit of detection can reach 20??g/ml of IgG without using any instrumentation. This detection method is potentially useful for the development of low-cost and portable biosensors.

  8. Molecular simulation study of polar order in orthogonal bent core smectic liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stavros D. Peroukidis; Alexandros G. Vanakaras; Demetri J. Photinos

    2015-04-16

    We explore the phase behavior and structure of orthogonal smectic liquid crystals consisting of bent-core molecules (BCMs) by means of Monte Carlo molecular simulations. A simple athermal molecular model is introduced that describes the basic features of the BCMs. Phase transitions between uniaxial and biaxial (antiferroelectric) orthogonal smectics are obtained. The results indicate the presence of local in-plane polar correlations in the uniaxial smectic phase. The macroscopic uniaxial-biaxial transformation is rationalized in terms of local polar correlations giving rise to polar domains. The size of these polar domains grows larger under the action of an external vector field and their internal ordering is enhanced, leading to field-induced biaxial order-disorder transitions.

  9. An electrically tunable plenoptic camera using a liquid crystal microlens array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lei, Yu; Tong, Qing; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Ji, An; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-05-15

    Plenoptic cameras generally employ a microlens array positioned between the main lens and the image sensor to capture the three-dimensional target radiation in the visible range. Because the focal length of common refractive or diffractive microlenses is fixed, the depth of field (DOF) is limited so as to restrict their imaging capability. In this paper, we propose a new plenoptic camera using a liquid crystal microlens array (LCMLA) with electrically tunable focal length. The developed LCMLA is fabricated by traditional photolithography and standard microelectronic techniques, and then, its focusing performance is experimentally presented. The fabricated LCMLA is directly integrated with an image sensor to construct a prototyped LCMLA-based plenoptic camera for acquiring raw radiation of targets. Our experiments demonstrate that the focused region of the LCMLA-based plenoptic camera can be shifted efficiently through electrically tuning the LCMLA used, which is equivalent to the extension of the DOF.

  10. Adaptive lens using liquid crystal concentration redistribution Hongwen Ren, Yi-Hsin Lin, and Shin-Tson Wua

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    , to be fabricated. Compared with prior adaptive LC lenses,4­6 which bear strong astigmatism, dis- tortion, or light reorientation is involved during light modulation. Based on this unique operation mechanism, other adaptiveAdaptive lens using liquid crystal concentration redistribution Hongwen Ren, Yi-Hsin Lin, and Shin

  11. Control of Polymer Structures in Phase-Separated Liquid Crystal-Polymer Composite Systems Qingbing WANG, Jung O. PARK1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasarao, Mohan

    Control of Polymer Structures in Phase-Separated Liquid Crystal-Polymer Composite Systems Qingbing, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242, USA 1 School of Polymer, Textile and Fiber Engineering and diffusion of small molecules, play important roles in determining a specific PSCOF polymer structure

  12. Scaling of broadband dielectric data of glass-forming liquids and plastic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. Schneider; R. Brand; P. Lunkenheimer; A. Loidl

    1999-11-09

    The Nagel-scaling and the modified scaling procedure proposed recently by Dendzik et al. have been applied to broadband dielectric data on two glass- forming liquids (glycerol and propylene carbonate) and three plastic crystals (ortho-carborane, meta-carborane, and 1-cyano-adamantane). Our data extend the upper limit of the abscissa range to considerably higher values than in previously published analyses. At the highest frequencies investigated, deviations from a single master curve show up which are most pronounced in the Dendzik-scaling plot. The loss curves of the plastic crystals do not scale in the Nagel-plot, but they fall onto a separate master curve in the Dendzik-plot. In addition, we address the question of a possible divergence of the static susceptibility near the Vogel-Fulcher temperature. For this purpose, the low-temperature evolution of the high-frequency wing of the dielectric loss peaks is investigated in detail. No convincing proof for such a divergence can be deduced from the present broadband data.

  13. Thermodynamic Relationships for Bulk Crystalline and Liquid Phases in the Phase-Field Crystal Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victor W. L. Chan; Nirand Pisutha-Arnond; Katsuyo Thornton

    2015-02-06

    We present thermodynamic relationships between the free energy of the phase-field crystal (PFC) model and thermodynamic state variables for bulk phases under hydrostatic pressure. This relationship is derived based on the thermodynamic formalism for crystalline solids of Larch\\'e and Cahn [Larch\\'e and Cahn, Acta Metallurgica, Vol. 21, 1051 (1973)]. We apply the relationship to examine the thermodynamic processes associated with varying the input parameters of the PFC model: temperature, lattice spacing, and the average value of the PFC order parameter, $\\bar{n}$. The equilibrium conditions between bulk crystalline solid and liquid phases are imposed on the thermodynamic relationships for the PFC model to obtain a procedure for determining solid-liquid phase coexistence. The resulting procedure is found to be in agreement with the method commonly used in the PFC community, justifying the use of the common-tangent construction to determine solid-liquid phase coexistence in the PFC model. Finally, we apply the procedure to an eighth-order-fit (EOF) PFC model that has been parameterized to body-centered-cubic ($bcc$) Fe [Jaatinen et al., Physical Review E 80, 031602 (2009)] to demonstrate the procedure as well as to develop physical intuition about the PFC input parameters. We demonstrate that the EOF-PFC model parameterization does not predict stable $bcc$ structures with positive vacancy densities. This result suggests an alternative parameterization of the PFC model, which requires the primary peak position of the two-body direct correlation function to shift as a function of $\\bar{n}$.

  14. Out-of-equilibrium processes in suspensions of oppositely charged colloids: liquid-to-crystal nucleation and gel formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduardo Sanz; Chantal Valeriani; Teun Vissers; Andrea Fortini; Mirjam E. Leunissen; Alfons van Blaaderen; Daan Frenkel; Marjolein Dijkstra

    2009-07-13

    We study the kinetics of the liquid-to-crystal transformation and of gel formation in colloidal suspensions of oppositely charged particles. We analyse, by means of both computer simulations and experiments, the evolution of a fluid quenched to a state point of the phase diagram where the most stable state is either a homogeneous crystalline solid or a solid phase in contact with a dilute gas. On the one hand, at high temperatures and high packing fractions, close to an ordered-solid/disordered-solid coexistence line, we find that the fluid-to-crystal pathway does not follow the minimum free energy route. On the other hand, a quench to a state point far from the ordered-crystal/disordered-crystal coexistence border is followed by a fluid-to-solid transition through the minimum free energy pathway. At low temperatures and packing fractions we observe that the system undergoes a gas-liquid spinodal decomposition that, at some point, arrests giving rise to a gel-like structure. Both our simulations and experiments suggest that increasing the interaction range favors crystallization over vitrification in gel-like structures.

  15. 26 JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 1, MARCH 2006 Characteristic Parameters of Liquid Crystal Cells and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the spectral methods [10], the methods described in that paper depend on the polarization transformation-mail: eekwok@ust.hk). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/JDT.2005.862197 monochromatic methods have an advantage

  16. Gate-induced Barrier Field Effect Transistor (GBFET) A New Thin Film Transistor for Active Matrix Liquid Crystal Display Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    , Semnan University, Semnan, Iran E-mail: mamidala@ieee.org aliorouji@ee.iitd.ac.in Abstract Using two the number of grains in the channel using excimer laser annealing [4,5]. Since the grain size increases, for example, pulsed wave laser annealing, we can still induce large potential barriers in the channel using

  17. Fast response film-compensated liquid crystal on silicon display X. J. Yu and H. S. Kwoka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    alignment layer consisting of nanodomains of vertical and horizontal polyimides.7,8 However, for projection applica- tions, it has been shown that polyimides deteriorate at high light intensities. In this letter

  18. Frustrated smectic layer structures in bent-shaped dimer liquid crystals studied by x-ray microbeam diffraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takanishi, Yoichi; Toshimitsu, Megumi; Nakata, Michi; Takada, Naoki; Izumi, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Ken; Takezoe, Hideo; Watanabe, Junji; Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atsuo

    2006-11-15

    The layer structures in bent-shaped liquid crystal dimers mOAM5AMOm (m=6-16) have been investigated by x-ray microbeam diffraction. These liquid crystal molecules have two rodlike mesogens connected with an odd-numbered alkylene spacer and form a bent shape. In these compounds it is found that the structure changes from the single (m=6) to frustrated-layer structures (m=8, 10, and 12) and switchable frustrated-layer structures (m=14 and 16) with increasing terminal chain length. An anticlinic antiferroelectric structure is suggested in the compound with m=16, based on the different electric-field-induced reorientation behavior from those in the other dimers.

  19. Liquid Crystals with Patterned Molecular Orientation as an Electrolytic Active Medium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenhui Peng; Yubing Guo; Christopher Conklin; Jorge Vinals; Sergij V. Shiyanovskii; Qi-Huo Wei; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2015-10-05

    Transport of fluids and particles at the microscale is an important theme both in fundamental and applied science. One of the most successful approaches is to use an electric field, which requires the system to carry or induce electric charges. We describe a versatile approach to generate electrokinetic flows by using a liquid crystal (LC) with surface-patterned molecular orientation as an electrolyte. The surface patterning is produced by photo-alignment. In the presence of an electric field, the spatially varying orientation induces space charges that trigger flows of the LC. The active patterned LC electrolyte converts the electric energy into the LC flows and transport of embedded particles of any type (fluid, solid, gaseous) along a predesigned trajectory, posing no limitation on the electric nature (charge, polarizability) of these particles and interfaces. The patterned LC electrolyte exhibits a quadratic field dependence of the flow velocities; it induces persistent vortices of controllable rotation speed and direction that are quintessential for micro- and nanoscale mixing applications.

  20. Electric Field Induced Patterns and their Temperature Dependence in a Bent-Core Liquid Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ying Xiang; Yi-Kun Liu; Ágnes Buka; Nándor Éber; Zhi-Yong Zhang; Ming-Ya Xu; Everett Wang

    2014-11-30

    Two kinds of electroconvection (EC) patterns in an ether-bridged bent-core nematic liquid crystal material (BCN), which appear in different frequency ranges, are examined and compared in this paper. One is a longitudinal pattern with the stripes parallel to the orientation of the BCN and with a periodicity of approximately the cell thickness, occurring in the high frequency range of several hundreds Hz; the other one is oblique stripes, which results in a zig-zag pattern, and appears in the low frequency range of several tens Hz. In addition, within an intermediate frequency range, transformations from oblique to longitudinal and then to normal stripes occur at increased ac voltages. In particular, we investigated the temperature behavior of longitudinal and oblique stripes: when the temperature T increases and approaches the clearing temperature Tc, the contrast of the domains is enhanced and the frequency range of existence becomes wider, while the onset voltages increase only moderately instead of diverging, thus suggesting an isotropic mechanism of pattern formation.

  1. Generalized liquid crystals: giant fluctuations and the vestigial chiral order of $I$, $O$ and $T$ matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ke Liu; Jaakko Nissinen; Robert-Jan Slager; Kai Wu; Jan Zaanen

    2015-12-29

    The physics of nematic liquid crystals has been subject of research since late 19th century. However, because of the limitations of chemistry the focus has been nearly entirely on uni- and biaxial nematics formed from "rod-" and "plate-like" molecules. In view of general symmetries, these are nonetheless singularly special since nematic order can in principle involve any point group symmetry. Given the progress in tailoring nano particles with particular shapes and interactions, this vast family of "generalized nematics" might become accessible in the laboratory. Little is known since the order parameter theories associated with the highly symmetric point groups are remarkably complicated, involving tensor order parameters of high rank. Here we show that the generic features of the statistical physics of such systems can be studied in a highly flexible and efficient fashion using a mathematical tool borrowed from high energy physics: discrete non-Abelian gauge theory. We find that the most symmetrical "generalized nematics" are subjected to thermal fluctuations of unprecedented severity. As a result, novel forms of fluctuation phenomena become possible: we demonstrate that a vestigial phase carrying no more than chiral order becomes ubiquitous departing from high point group symmetry chiral building blocks.

  2. Chirality Amplification and Detection by Tactoids of Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenhui Peng; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2015-07-27

    Detection of chiral molecules requires amplification of chirality to measurable levels. Typically, amplification mechanisms are considered at the microscopic scales of individual molecules and their aggregates. Here we demonstrate chirality amplification and visualization of structural handedness in water solutions of organic molecules that extends over the scale of many micrometers. The mechanism is rooted in the long-range elastic nature of orientational order in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) formed in water solutions of achiral disc-like molecules. The nematic LCLC coexists with its isotropic counterpart, forming elongated tactoids; spatial confinement causes structural twist even when the material is nonchiral. Minute quantities of chiral molecules such as amino acid L-alanine and limonene transform the racemic array of left- and right-twisted tactoids into a homochiral set. The left and right chiral enantiomers are readily distinguished from each other as the induced structural handedness is visualized through a simple polarizing microscope observation. The effect is important for developing our understanding of chirality amplification mechanisms; it also might open new possibilities in biosensing.

  3. Robustness of the periodic and chaotic orientational behavior of tumbling nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heidenreich, Sebastian; Hess, Siegfried [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 (Germany); Ilg, Patrick [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenbergstrasse 36, D-10623 (Germany); Universite Lyon1, Laboratoire de Physique de la Matiere Condensee et Nanostructures, CNRS, UMR5586, F-69622 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)

    2006-06-15

    The dynamical behavior of molecular alignment strongly affects physical properties of nematic liquid crystals. A theoretical description can be made by a nonlinear relaxation equation of the order parameter and leads to the prediction that rather complex even chaotic orientational behavior occur. Here the influence of fluctuating shear rates on the orientational dynamics especially on chaotic solutions is discussed. With the help of phase portraits and time evolution diagrams, we investigated the influence of different fluctuation strengths on the flow aligned, isotropic, and periodic solutions. To explore the effect of fluctuations on the chaotic behavior, we calculated the largest Lyapunov exponent for different fluctuation strengths. We found in all cases that small fluctuations of the shear rate do not affect the basic features of the dynamics of tumbling nematics. Furthermore, we present an amended potential modeling the isotropic to nematic transition and discuss the equivalence and difference to the commonly used Landau-de Gennes potential. In contrast to the Landau-de Gennes potential, our potential has the advantage to restrict the order parameter to physically admissible values. In the case of extensional flow, we show that the amended potential leads for increasing extensional rate to a better agreement with experimental results.

  4. Curvature-driven, One-step Assembly of Reconfigurable Smectic Liquid Crystal "Compound Eye" Lenses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesca Serra; Mohamed A. Gharbi; Yimin Luo; Iris B. Liu; Nathan D. Bade; Randall D. Kamien; Shu Yang; Kathleen J. Stebe

    2015-05-06

    Confined smectic A liquid crystals (SmA LCs) form topological defects called focal conic domains (FCDs) that focus light as gradient-index lenses. Here, we exploit surface curvature to self-assemble FCDs in a single step into a hierarchical structure (coined "flower pattern") molded by the fluid interface that is pinned at the top of a micropillar. The structure resembles the compound eyes of some invertebrates, which consist of hundreds of microlenses on a curved interface, able to focus and construct images in three dimensions. Here we demonstrate that these flowers are indeed "compound eyes" with important features which have not been demonstrated previously in the literature. The eccentric FCDs gradually change in size with radial distance from the edge of the micropillar, resulting in a variable microlens focal length that ranges from a few microns to a few tens of microns within a single "flower". We show that the microlenses can construct a composite 3D image from different depth of field. Moreover, the smectic "compound eye" can be reconfigured by heating and cooling at the LC phase transition temperature; its field of view can be manipulated by tuning the curvature of the LC interface, and the lenses are sensitive to light polarization.

  5. Effect of surface viscosity, anchoring energy, and cell gap on the response time of nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Souza, R.F. de; Yang, D.-Ke; Lenzi, E.K.; Evangelista, L.R.; Zola, R.S.

    2014-07-15

    An analytical expression for the relaxation time of a nematic liquid crystal is obtained for the first time by considering the influence of surface viscosity, anchoring energy strength and cell gap, validated numerically by using the so-called relaxation method. This general equation for the molecular response time (?{sub 0}) was derived for a vertical aligned cell and by solving an eigenvalue equation coming from the usual balance of torque equation in the Derzhanskii and Petrov formulation, recovering the usual equations in the appropriate limit. The results show that ??d{sup b}, where b=2 is observed only for strongly anchored cells, while for moderate to weak anchored cells, the exponent lies between 1 and 2, depending on both, surface viscosity and anchoring strength. We found that the surface viscosity is important when calculating the response time, specially for thin cells, critical for liquid crystal devices. The surface viscosity’s effect on the optical response time with pretilt is also explored. Our results bring new insights about the role of surface viscosity and its effects in applied physics. - Highlights: • The relaxation of nematic liquid crystals is calculated by taking the surface viscosity into account. • An analytical expression for the relaxation time depending on surface viscosity, anchoring strength and cell gap is obtained. • The results are numerically verified. • Surface viscosity is crucial for thin and weak anchored cells. • The effect on optical time and pretilt angle is also studied.

  6. 32.3 / Z. Meng 32.3: Metal-Induced Unilaterally Crystallized Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    quality. 1. Introduction Organic light-emitting diode (OLED) is challenging liquid- crystal (LC Transistor Technology for Active-Matrix Organic Light-Emitting Diode Displays with Reduced Susceptibility-matrix organic light-emitting diode displays, a pixel in its non-emitting state is determined to be more

  7. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 021405 (2012) Direct visualization of three-dimensional crystallization behavior in microgels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    of the colloids, the crystals display remarkable structural stability when subjected to external stress. DOI: 10 the liquid-crystal­amorphous phase transitions in these colloidal suspensions [7­12]. Recently, soft colloids colloids. In this paper, we examine the three-dimensional crystalliza- tion behavior in suspensions of p

  8. Statistical mechanics of bend flexoelectricity and the twist-bend phase in bent-core liquid crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaikh M. Shamid; Subas Dhakal; Jonathan V. Selinger

    2013-05-21

    We develop a Landau theory for bend flexoelectricity in liquid crystals of bent-core molecules. In the nematic phase of the model, the bend flexoelectric coefficient increases as we reduce the temperature toward the nematic to polar phase transition. At this critical point, there is a second order transition from high-temperature uniform nematic phase to low-temperature nonuniform polar phase composed of twist-bend or splay-bend deformations. To test the predictions of Landau theory, we perform Monte Carlo simulations to find the director and polarization configurations as functions of temperature, applied electric field, and interaction parameters.

  9. Formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal composites by a surface-controlled anisotropic phase separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, Jae-Hong; Khoo, Iam Choon; Yu, Chang-Jae; Jung, Min-Sik; Lee, Sin-Doo [216 Electrical Engineering East, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); School of Electrical Engineering no. 32, Seoul National University, Kwanak P.O. Box 34, Seoul 151-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-01-10

    We report on formation of binary phase gratings in photopolymer-liquid crystal (PLC) composites using a surface-controlled phase separation method. The binary nature of the PLC phase gratings is produced by employing a single step photo-ablation through an amplitude photomask which precisely controls the interfacial interactions between the LC and the photopolymer on the alignment layer. A subsequent illumination of the ultraviolet light onto the whole PLC promotes an anisotropic phase separation resulting in the formation of distinct binary patterns for the PLC structure. The electrically tunable diffraction properties of the binary phase gratings are presented.

  10. The stress field and energy of screw dislocation in smectic-A liquid crystals and on the mistakes of the classical solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tian You Fan; Xian Fang Li

    2015-09-28

    The mistakes of the classical solution of screw dislocations in smectic-A liquid crystals are pointed out. This reveals a serious problem of the well-known theory, which may be named de Gennes-Kleman-Pershan paradox, for many decades in the scientific community of liquid crystal study. The correct solution is given in this letter in terms of simplest, elementary and straightforward solution method. Furthermore, the stress filed and energy of dislocation are discussed in detail. The present article gives a corrected stress field and dislocation energy as well.

  11. Strong pressure-energy correlations in liquids as a configuration space property: Simulations of temperature down jumps and crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas B. Schroder; Ulf R. Pedersen; Nicoletta Gnan; Jeppe C. Dyre

    2009-03-03

    Computer simulations recently revealed that several liquids exhibit strong correlations between virial and potential energy equilibrium fluctuations in the NVT ensemble [U. R. Pedersen {\\it et al.}, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 100}, 015701 (2008)]. In order to investigate whether these correlations are present also far from equilibrium constant-volume aging following a temperature down jump from equilibrium was simulated for two strongly correlating liquids, an asymmetric dumbbell model and Lewis-Wahnstr{\\"o}m OTP, as well as for SPC water that is not strongly correlating. For the two strongly correlating liquids virial and potential energy follow each other closely during the aging towards equilibrium. For SPC water, on the other hand, virial and potential energy vary with little correlation as the system ages towards equilibrium. Further proof that strong pressure-energy correlations express a configuration space property comes from monitoring pressure and energy during the crystallization (reported here for the first time) of supercooled Lewis-Wahnstr{\\"o}m OTP at constant temperature.

  12. Light-Controlled Alignment of Cholesteric Liquid Crystals on Photosensitive Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    of Sciences of Ukraine, Kyiv, Ukraine D.-H. Kim S.-K. Park S.-B. Kwon School of Display Engineering, Hoseo of Sciences of Ukraine, Pr. Nauki 46, Kyiv, 03028, Ukraine. E-mail: ouskova@iop.kiev.ua Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst

  13. Thermodynamically Stable Dispersions of Quantum Dots in a Nematic Liquid Crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    *, State Scientific Institution "Institute for Single Crystals", NAS of Ukraine, 60, Lenin Ave., Kharkov, 61001, Ukraine Faculty of Pharmacy, UMR CNRS 7213, University of Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France § Institute of Physics, NAS of Ukraine, 46, Nauki Ave., Kiev, 03039, Ukraine North Carolina A&T State

  14. Quantitative analysis of the x-ray diffraction intensities of undulated smectic phases in bent-core liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folcia, C. L.; Etxebarria, J.; Ortega, J.

    2007-07-15

    X-ray diffraction diagrams of undulated smectic phases in bent-core liquid crystals have been theoretically studied. The intensities of the reflections have been obtained for different layer modulations, and a general expression has been deduced for orthogonal cells in terms of the different harmonics of the distortion. The case of sinusoidal modulation is especially simple and has been studied also in oblique cells. High-quality x-ray measurements of three compounds reported in the literature have been analyzed as examples. In all cases it has been deduced that the modulation is sinusoidal and its amplitude has been easily obtained by fitting the experimental intensities. Equatorial (h0) reflections have been also considered to obtain information about the structure of defects at the maxima and minima of the undulation.

  15. Nanophase Segregation in Binary Mixtures of a Bent-Core and a Rodlike Liquid-Crystal Molecule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, C.; Chen, D; Shen, Y; Jones, C; Glaser, M; Maclennan, J; Clark, N

    2010-01-01

    We studied mixtures of the achiral bent-core mesogen NOBOW 1,3-phenylene bis[4-(4-9-alkoxyphenyliminonetyl)benzoates] (P-9-O-PIMB) and the small, rodlike liquid crystal 8CB using high-resolution synchrotron x-ray diffraction, freeze fracture transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry. NOBOW and 8CB mix in an isotropic state at high temperatures but phase separate at lower temperatures when NOBOW transforms into the B4 phase and forms chiral helical nanofilaments. In pure NOBOW, the nanofilaments are close packed but at moderate 8CB concentrations, they are separated by nanosized gaps filled by 8CB. At higher concentrations of 8CB, macroscopic phase separation occurs.

  16. Structural study of a bent-core liquid crystal showing the B{sub 1}-B{sub 2} transition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Folcia, Cesar Luis; Etxebarria, J.; Ortega, J.; Ros, M. B.

    2006-09-15

    An experimental study of the B{sub 1}-B{sub 2} transition is carried out in a bent-core liquid crystal. The study is essentially based on x-ray measurements as a function of temperature. The B{sub 1}-B{sub 2} transition is extremely unusual and implies a deep structural change from a columnar phase to a lamellar phase. We have found that the B{sub 1} phase in our compound is similar to the so-called B{sub 1} reversed phase, with an additional splay of the polarization in the columns. On approaching the B{sub 2} phase the width of the cross section of the columns increases. The transition is clearly first order, with a large hysteresis though the enthalpy content is very small. A possible mechanism for the transition is briefly sketched.

  17. Domain Walls and Anchoring Transitions Mimicking Nematic Biaxiality in the Oxadiazole Bent-Core Liquid Crystal C7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Young-ki; Xiang, Jie; Shin, Sung-Tae; Lavrentovich, Oleg D

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the origin of secondary disclinations that were recently described as a new evidence of a biaxial nematic phase in an oxadiazole bent-core thermotropic liquid crystal C7. With an assortment of optical techniques such as polarizing optical microscopy, LC PolScope, and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary disclinations represent non-singular domain walls formed in an uniaxial nematic during the surface anchoring transition, in which surface orientation of the director changes from tangential (parallel to the bounding plates) to tilted. Each domain wall separates two regions with the director tilted in opposite azimuthal directions. At the centre of the wall, the director remains parallel to the bonding plates. The domain walls can be easily removed by applying a modest electric field. The anchoring transition is explained by the balance of (a) the intrinsic perpendicular surface anchoring produced by the polyimide aligning layer and (b) tangential alignme...

  18. Electrically switchable polymer liquid crystal and polymer birefringent flake in fluid host systems and optical devices utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marshall, Kenneth L.; Kosc, Tanya Z.; Jacobs, Stephen D.; Faris, Sadeg M.; Li, Le

    2003-12-16

    Flakes or platelets of polymer liquid crystals (PLC) or other birefringent polymers (BP) suspended in a fluid host medium constitute a system that can function as the active element in an electrically switchable optical device when the suspension is either contained between a pair of rigid substrates bearing transparent conductive coatings or dispersed as microcapsules within the body of a flexible host polymer. Optical properties of these flake materials include large effective optical path length, different polarization states and high angular sensitivity in their selective reflection or birefringence. The flakes or platelets of these devices need only a 3-20.degree. rotation about the normal to the cell surface to achieve switching characteristics obtainable with prior devices using particle rotation or translation.

  19. Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan, and Shin-Tson Wua)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan May 2003; accepted 27 June 2003 An electrically tunable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using by voltage. The major advantages of such a Fresnel lens are simple fabrication, large aperture size

  20. Proceedings of ICAD 04-Tenth Meeting of the International Conference on Auditory Display, Sydney, Australia, July 6-9, 2004 PHYSICALLY-BASED MODELS FOR LIQUID SOUNDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van den Doel, Kees

    liquid sounds such as produced by streams, pouring water, rivers, rain, and breaking waves is based be synthesized in this manner. 1. INTRODUCTION Figure 1: A photograph of a water drop falling in water. Photo courtesy of Andrew Davidhazy. The sounds made by liquids, especially those of water, are prevalent in our

  1. Measurement of the viscoelastic properties of liquid crystals using the piezoelectric ultrasonic composite oscillator 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seet, Tiong Boon

    1990-01-01

    point. The schlieren disclination can be found in the nematic 34 phase of p-methoxybenzylidene p-n-butylaniline (MBBA). 14 For smectics, the schlieren disclination does exist with some LCs while other textures are possible due to the two... (NLC) The nematic phase is commonly hounded by a smectic or crystalline phase at low temperature and an isotropic liquid at high 12 temperature. It has the following features (Figure 9): 1. no long range order, 2. direction of molecules is ordered...

  2. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small appliedmore »magnetic field (« less

  3. Quenched crystal-field disorder and magnetic liquid ground states in Tb?Sn2-xTixO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaulin, B. D.; Kermarrec, E.; Dahlberg, M. L.; Matthews, M. J.; Bert, F.; Zhang, J.; Mendels, P.; Fritsch, K.; Granroth, G. E.; Jiramongkolchai, P.; Amato, A.; Baines, C.; Cava, R. J.; Schiffer, P.

    2015-06-01

    Solid solutions of the “soft” quantum spin ice pyrochlore magnets Tb?B?O? with B = Ti and Sn display a novel magnetic ground state in the presence of strong B-site disorder, characterized by a low susceptibility and strong spin fluctuations to temperatures below 0.1 K. These materials have been studied using ac susceptibility and ?SR techniques to very low temperatures, and time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering techniques to 1.5 K. Remarkably, neutron spectroscopy of the Tb³? crystal-field levels appropriate to high B-site mixing (0.5 2-xTixO?) reveal that the doublet ground and first excited states present as continua in energy, while transitions to singlet excited states at higher energies simply interpolate between those of the end members of the solid solution. The resulting ground state suggests an extreme version of a random-anisotropy magnet, with many local moments and anisotropies, depending on the precise local configuration of the six B sites neighboring each magnetic Tb³? ion.

  4. Quenched crystal-field disorder and magnetic liquid ground states in Tb?Sn2-xTixO?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaulin, B. D.; Kermarrec, E.; Dahlberg, M. L.; Matthews, M. J.; Bert, F.; Zhang, J.; Mendels, P.; Fritsch, K.; Granroth, G. E.; Jiramongkolchai, P.; et al

    2015-06-18

    Solid solutions of the “soft” quantum spin ice pyrochlore magnets Tb?B?O? with B = Ti and Sn display a novel magnetic ground state in the presence of strong B-site disorder, characterized by a low susceptibility and strong spin fluctuations to temperatures below 0.1 K. These materials have been studied using ac susceptibility and ?SR techniques to very low temperatures, and time-of-flight inelastic neutron scattering techniques to 1.5 K. Remarkably, neutron spectroscopy of the Tb³? crystal-field levels appropriate to high B-site mixing (0.5 2-xTixO?) reveal that the doublet ground and first excited states present as continuamore »in energy, while transitions to singlet excited states at higher energies simply interpolate between those of the end members of the solid solution. The resulting ground state suggests an extreme version of a random-anisotropy magnet, with many local moments and anisotropies, depending on the precise local configuration of the six B sites neighboring each magnetic Tb³? ion.« less

  5. Order-parameter-aided temperature-accelerated sampling for the exploration of crystal polymorphism and solid-liquid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Tang-Qing Vanden-Eijnden, Eric; Chen, Pei-Yang; Chen, Ming; Samanta, Amit; Tuckerman, Mark

    2014-06-07

    The problem of predicting polymorphism in atomic and molecular crystals constitutes a significant challenge both experimentally and theoretically. From the theoretical viewpoint, polymorphism prediction falls into the general class of problems characterized by an underlying rough energy landscape, and consequently, free energy based enhanced sampling approaches can be brought to bear on the problem. In this paper, we build on a scheme previously introduced by two of the authors in which the lengths and angles of the supercell are targeted for enhanced sampling via temperature accelerated adiabatic free energy dynamics [T. Q. Yu and M. E. Tuckerman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 015701 (2011)]. Here, that framework is expanded to include general order parameters that distinguish different crystalline arrangements as target collective variables for enhanced sampling. The resulting free energy surface, being of quite high dimension, is nontrivial to reconstruct, and we discuss one particular strategy for performing the free energy analysis. The method is applied to the study of polymorphism in xenon crystals at high pressure and temperature using the Steinhardt order parameters without and with the supercell included in the set of collective variables. The expected fcc and bcc structures are obtained, and when the supercell parameters are included as collective variables, we also find several new structures, including fcc states with hcp stacking faults. We also apply the new method to the solid-liquid phase transition in copper at 1300 K using the same Steinhardt order parameters. Our method is able to melt and refreeze the system repeatedly, and the free energy profile can be obtained with high efficiency.

  6. Atomic Level Green-Kubo Stress Correlation Function for a Model Crystal: An Insight into Molecular Dynamics Results on a Model Liquid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. A. Levashov

    2014-06-23

    In order to get insight into the connection between the vibrational dynamics and the atomic level Green-Kubo stress correlation function in liquids we consider this connection in a model crystal instead. Of course, vibrational dynamics in liquids and crystals are quite different and it is not expected that the results obtained on a model crystal should be valid for liquids. However, these considerations provide a benchmark to which the results of the previous molecular dynamics simulations can be compared. Thus, assuming that vibrations are plane waves, we derive analytical expressions for the atomic level stress correlation functions in the classical limit and analyze them. These results provide, in particular, a recipe for analysis of the atomic level stress correlation functions in Fourier space and extraction of the wavevector and frequency dependent information. We also evaluate the energies of the atomic level stresses. Obtained energies are significantly smaller than the energies that were obtained in MD simulations of liquids previously. This result suggests that the average energies of the atomic level stresses in liquids and glasses are largely determined by the structural disorder. We discuss this result in the context of equipartition of the atomic level stress energies. Analysis of the previously published data suggests that it is possible to speak about configurational and vibrational contributions to the average energies of the atomic level stresses in a glass state. However, this separation in a liquid state is problematic. We also consider peak broadening in the pair distribution function with increase of distance. We find that peak broadening (by ~40%) occurs due to the transverse vibrational modes, while contribution from the longitudinal modes does not change with distance. Finally, we introduce and consider atomic level transverse current correlation function.

  7. Magnetic field induced quantum dot brightening in liquid crystal synergized magnetic and semiconducting nanoparticle composite assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amaral, Jose Jussi; Wan, Jacky; Rodarte, Andrea L.; Ferri, Christopher; Quint, Makiko T.; Pandolfi, Ronald J.; Scheibner, Michael; Hirst, Linda S.; Ghosh, Sayantani

    2014-10-22

    The design and development of multifunctional composite materials from artificial nano-constituents is one of the most compelling current research areas. This drive to improve over nature and produce ‘meta-materials’ has met with some success, but results have proven limited with regards to both the demonstration of synergistic functionalities and in the ability to manipulate the material properties post-fabrication and in situ. Here, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and semiconducting quantum dots (QDs) are co-assembled in a nematic liquid crystalline (LC) matrix, forming composite structures in which the emission intensity of the quantum dots is systematically and reversibly controlled with a small applied magnetic field (<100 mT). This magnetic field-driven brightening, ranging between a two- to three-fold peak intensity increase, is a truly cooperative effect: the LC phase transition creates the co-assemblies, the clustering of the MNPs produces LC re-orientation at atypical low external field, and this re-arrangement produces compaction of the clusters, resulting in the detection of increased QD emission. These results demonstrate a synergistic, reversible, and an all-optical process to detect magnetic fields and additionally, as the clusters are self-assembled in a fluid medium, they offer the possibility for these sensors to be used in broad ranging fluid-based applications.

  8. Ferroelectric domain formation in discotic liquid crystals : Monte Carlo study on the influence of boundary conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tushar Kanti Bose; Jayashree Saha

    2015-03-06

    The realization of a spontaneous macroscopic ferroelectric order in fluids of anisotropic mesogens is a topic of both fundamental and technological interest. Recently, we demonstrated that a system of dipolar achiral disklike ellipsoids can exhibit long-searched ferroelectric liquid crystalline phases of dipolar origin. In the present work, extensive off-lattice Monte Carlo simulations are used to investigate the phase behavior of the system under the influences of the electrostatic boundary conditions that restrict any global polarization. We find that the system develops strongly ferroelectric slablike domains periodically arranged in an antiferroelectric fashion. Exploring the phase behavior at different dipole strengths, we find existence of the ferroelectric nematic and ferroelectric columnar order inside the domains. For higher dipole strengths, a biaxial phase is also obtained with a similar periodic array of ferroelectric slabs of antiparallel polarizations. We have studied the depolarizing effects by using both the Ewald summation and the spherical cut-off techniques. We present and compare the results of the two different approaches of considering the depolarizing effects in this anisotropic system. It is explicitly shown that the domain size increases with the system size as a result of considering longer range of dipolar interactions. The system exhibits pronounced system size effects for stronger dipolar interactions. The results provide strong evidence to the novel understanding that the dipolar interactions are indeed sufficient to produce long range ferroelectric order in anisotropic fluids.

  9. A model-free temperature-dependent conformational study of n-pentane in nematic liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnell, E. Elliott; Weber, Adrian C. J.; Dong, Ronald Y.; Meerts, W. Leo; Lange, Cornelis A. de

    2015-01-14

    The proton NMR spectra of n-pentane orientationally ordered in two nematic liquid-crystal solvents are studied over a wide temperature range and analysed using covariance matrix adaptation evolutionary strategy. Since alkanes possess small electrostatic moments, their anisotropic intermolecular interactions are dominated by short-range size-and-shape effects. As we assumed for n-butane, the anisotropic energy parameters of each n-pentane conformer are taken to be proportional to those of ethane and propane, independent of temperature. The observed temperature dependence of the n-pentane dipolar couplings allows a model-free separation between conformer degrees of order and conformer probabilities, which cannot be achieved at a single temperature. In this way for n-pentane 13 anisotropic energy parameters (two for trans trans, tt, five for trans gauche, tg, and three for each of gauche{sub +} gauche{sub +}, pp, and gauche{sub +} gauche{sub ?}, pm), the isotropic trans-gauche energy difference E{sub tg} and its temperature coefficient E{sub tg}{sup ?} are obtained. The value obtained for the extra energy associated with the proximity of the two methyl groups in the gauche{sub +} gauche{sub ?} conformers (the pentane effect) is sensitive to minute details of other assumptions and is thus fixed in the calculations. Conformer populations are affected by the environment. In particular, anisotropic interactions increase the trans probability in the ordered phase.

  10. Role of Molecular Structure on X-ray Diffraction in Thermotropic Uniaxial and Biaxial Nematic Liquid Crystal Phases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acharya, Bharat R.; Kang, Shin-Woong; Prasad, Veena; Kumar, Satyendra

    2009-08-27

    X-ray diffraction is one of the most definitive methods to determine the structure of condensed matter phases, and it has been applied to unequivocally infer the structures of conventional calamitic and lyotropic liquid crystals. With the advent of bent-core and tetrapodic mesogens and the discovery of the biaxial nematic phase in them, the experimental results require more careful interpretation and analysis. Here, we present ab-initio calculations of X-ray diffraction patterns in the isotropic, uniaxial nematic, and biaxial nematic phases of bent-core mesogens. A simple Meier-Saupe-like molecular distribution function is employed to describe both aligned and unaligned mesophases. The distribution function is decomposed into two, polar and azimuthal, distribution functions to calculate the effect of the evolution of uniaxial and biaxial nematic orientational order. The calculations provide satisfactory semiquantitative interpretations of experimental results. The calculations presented here should provide a pathway to more refined and quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction data from the biaxial nematic phase.

  11. Role of Molecular Structure on X-ray Diffraction in Uniaxial and Biaxial Phases of Thermotropic Liquid Crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Acharya, Bharat R.; Kang, Shin-Woong; Prasad, Veena; Kumar, Satyendra

    2009-04-29

    X-ray diffraction is one of the most definitive methods to determine the structure of condensed matter phases, and it has been applied to unequivocally infer the structures of conventional calamitic and lyotropic liquid crystals. With the advent of bent-core and tetrapodic mesogens and the discovery of the biaxial nematic phase in them, the experimental results require more careful interpretation and analysis. Here, we present ab-initio calculations of X-ray diffraction patterns in the isotropic, uniaxial nematic, and biaxial nematic phases of bent-core mesogens. A simple Meier-Saupe-like molecular distribution function is employed to describe both aligned and unaligned mesophases. The distribution function is decomposed into two, polar and azimuthal, distribution functions to calculate the effect of the evolution of uniaxial and biaxial nematic orientational order. The calculations provide satisfactory semiquantitative interpretations of experimental results. The calculations presented here should provide a pathway to more refined and quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction data from the biaxial nematic phase.

  12. Domain Walls and Anchoring Transitions Mimicking Nematic Biaxiality in the Oxadiazole Bent-Core Liquid Crystal C7

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young-ki Kim; Greta Cukrov; Jie Xiang; Sung-Tae Shin; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2015-03-23

    We investigate the origin of secondary disclinations that were recently described as a new evidence of a biaxial nematic phase in an oxadiazole bent-core thermotropic liquid crystal C7. With an assortment of optical techniques such as polarizing optical microscopy, LC PolScope, and fluorescence confocal polarizing microscopy, we demonstrate that the secondary disclinations represent non-singular domain walls formed in an uniaxial nematic during the surface anchoring transition, in which surface orientation of the director changes from tangential (parallel to the bounding plates) to tilted. Each domain wall separates two regions with the director tilted in opposite azimuthal directions. At the centre of the wall, the director remains parallel to the bonding plates. The domain walls can be easily removed by applying a modest electric field. The anchoring transition is explained by the balance of (a) the intrinsic perpendicular surface anchoring produced by the polyimide aligning layer and (b) tangential alignment caused by ionic impurities forming electric double layers. The model is supported by the fact that the temperature of the tangential-tilted anchoring transition decreases as the cell thickness increases and as the concentration of ionic species (added salt) increases. We also demonstrate that the surface alignment is strongly affected by thermal degradation of the samples. The study shows that C7 exhibits only a uniaxial nematic phase and demonstrate yet another mechanism (formation of secondary disclinations) by which a uniaxial nematic can mimic a biaxial nematic behaviour.

  13. Reexamination of the mean-field phase diagram of biaxial nematic liquid crystals: Insights from Monte Carlo studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Kamala Latha; Regina Jose; K. P. N. Murthy; V. S. S. Sastry

    2015-09-13

    Investigations of the phase diagram of biaxial liquid crystal systems through analyses of general Hamiltonian models within the simplifications of mean-field theory (MFT), as well as by computer simulations based on microscopic models, are directed towards an appreciation of the role of the underlying molecular-level interactions to facilitate its spontaneous condensation into a nematic phase with biaxial symmetry. Continuing experimental challenges in realising such a system unambiguously, despite encouraging predictions from MFT for example, are requiring more versatile simulational methodologies capable of providing insights into possible hindering barriers within the system, typically gleaned through its free energy dependences on relevant observables as the system is driven through the transitions. The recent brief report from this group [B. Kamala Latha, et. al., Phys. Rev. E 89, 050501 (R), 2014] summarizing the outcome of detailed Monte Carlo simulations carried out employing entropic sampling technique, suggested a qualitative modification of the MFT phase diagram as the Hamiltonian is asymptotically driven towards the so-called partly-repulsive regions. It was argued that the degree of the (cross) coupling between the uniaxial and biaxial tensor components of neighbouring molecules plays a crucial role in facilitating, or otherwise, a ready condensation of the biaxial phase, suggesting that this could be a plausible f actor in explaining the experimental difficulties. In this paper, we elaborate this point further, providing additional evidences from curious variations of free-energy profiles with respect to the relevant orientational order parameters, at different temperatures bracketing the phase transitions.

  14. Photovoltaic properties and morphology of organic solar cells based on liquid-crystal semiconducting polymer with additive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Zushi, Masahito; Suzuki, Hisato; Ogahara, Shinichi; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Oku, Takeo

    2014-02-20

    Bulk heterojunction organic solar cell based on liquid crystal semiconducting polymers of poly[9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bithiophene] (F8T2) as p-type semiconductors and fullerenes (C{sub 60}) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron donor and acceptor has been fabricated and characterized for improving photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic performance including current voltage curves in the dark and illumination of the F8T2/C{sub 60} conventional and inverted bulk heterojunction solar cells were investigated. Relationship between the photovoltaic properties and morphological behavior was focused on tuning for optimization of photo-voltaic performance under annealing condition near glass transition temperature. Additive-effect of diiodooctane (DIO) and poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (P3HT) on the photovoltaic performance and optical properties was investigated. Mechanism of the photovoltaic properties of the conventional and inverted solar cells will be discussed by the experimental results.

  15. Electronic and vibronic properties of a discotic liquid-crystal and its charge transfer complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haverkate, Lucas A.; Mulder, Fokko M.; Zbiri, Mohamed Johnson, Mark R.; Carter, Elizabeth; Kotlewski, Arek; Picken, S.

    2014-01-07

    Discotic liquid crystalline (DLC) charge transfer (CT) complexes combine visible light absorption and rapid charge transfer characteristics, being favorable properties for photovoltaic (PV) applications. We present a detailed study of the electronic and vibrational properties of the prototypic 1:1 mixture of discotic 2,3,6,7,10,11-hexakishexyloxytriphenylene (HAT6) and 2,4,7-trinitro-9-fluorenone (TNF). It is shown that intermolecular charge transfer occurs in the ground state of the complex: a charge delocalization of about 10{sup ?2} electron from the HAT6 core to TNF is deduced from both Raman and our previous NMR measurements [L. A. Haverkate, M. Zbiri, M. R. Johnson, B. Deme, H. J. M. de Groot, F. Lefeber, A. Kotlewski, S. J. Picken, F. M. Mulder, and G. J. Kearley, J. Phys. Chem. B 116, 13098 (2012)], implying the presence of permanent dipoles at the donor-acceptor interface. A combined analysis of density functional theory calculations, resonant Raman and UV-VIS absorption measurements indicate that fast relaxation occurs in the UV region due to intramolecular vibronic coupling of HAT6 quinoidal modes with lower lying electronic states. Relatively slower relaxation in the visible region the excited CT-band of the complex is also indicated, which likely involves motions of the TNF nitro groups. The fast quinoidal relaxation process in the hot UV band of HAT6 relates to pseudo-Jahn-Teller interactions in a single benzene unit, suggesting that the underlying vibronic coupling mechanism can be generic for polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Both the presence of ground state CT dipoles and relatively slow relaxation processes in the excited CT band can be relevant concerning the design of DLC based organic PV systems.

  16. VOLUME 87, NUMBER 7 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 13 AUGUST 2001 Simulating Particle Dispersions in Nematic Liquid-Crystal Solvents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dispersions in Nematic Liquid-Crystal Solvents Ryoichi Yamamoto* Department of Chemistry, University-crystal solvents. It allows efficient first-principles simulations of the dispersions involving many particles with many-body interactions mediated by the solvents. A simple demonstration is shown for the aggregation

  17. IEEE/OSA JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 1, NO. 1, SEPTEMBER 2005 41 New Developments in Liquid Crystal Photo-Aligning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    using cinnamoyl side-chain polymers [4], [5] and polyimide aligning agents [6]. More recently, a new polyimide (PI). Finally the ultraviolet

  18. Liquid crystal bilayer wall

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    electron microscopy done on freeze fractured samples, as well as theoretical considerations. The pore tests show that the polymerization proceeds despite the mechanical failure. These findings suggest many to the shape of the reaction vessel. Because of these properties, we propose that the silica L3 could be used

  19. A simple technique to reduce evaporation of crystallization droplets by using plate lids with apertures for adding liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zipper, Lauren E.; Aristide, Xavier; Bishop, Dylan P.; Joshi, Ishita; Kharzeev, Julia; Patel, Krishna B.; Santiago, Brianna M.; Joshi, Karan; Dorsinvil, Kahille; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2014-11-28

    This article describes the use of evaporation control lids that are fitted to crystallization plates to improve the reproducibility of trials using as little as 5 nl. The plate lids contain apertures which are large enough for the transfer of protein containing droplets, but small enough to greatly reduce the rate of evaporation during the time needed to prepare the plate. A method is described for using plate lids to reduce evaporation in low-volume vapor-diffusion crystallization experiments. The plate lids contain apertures through which the protein and precipitants were added to different crystallization microplates (the reservoir was filled before fitting the lids). Plate lids were designed for each of these commonly used crystallization microplates. This system minimizes the dehydration of crystallization droplets containing just a few nanolitres of protein and precipitant, and results in more reproducible diffraction from the crystals. For each lid design, changes in the weight of the plates were used to deduce the rate of evaporation under different conditions of temperature, air movement, droplet size and precipitant. For comparison, the state of dehydration was also visually assessed throughout the experiment. Finally, X-ray diffraction methods were used to compare the diffraction of protein crystals that were conventionally prepared against those that were prepared on plates with plate lids. The measurements revealed that the plate lids reduced the rate of evaporation by 63–82%. Crystals grown in 5 nl drops that were set up with plate lids diffracted to higher resolution than similar crystals from drops that were set up without plate lids. The results demonstrate that plate lids can be instrumental for improving few-nanolitre crystallizations.

  20. Metastable liquid-liquid phase transition in a single-component system with only one crystal phase and no density anomaly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    Center for Polymer Studies and Department of Physics, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts 02215 2 calculations to explore the three-parameter space of the soft-core potential and perform molecular dynamics widely used to study a va- riety of systems such as liquid metals, metallic mixtures, electrolytes

  1. Liquid crystal reorientation induced by completely unpolarized light L. Marrucci, P. Maddalena, G. Arnone, L. Sirleto, and E. Santamato

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marrucci, Lorenzo

    crystal film acts as a sort of Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlator for the light polarization, rather than for the light intensity. As in the Hanbury Brown and Twiss experiment, the response is quadratic in the light

  2. Transflective device with a transparent organic light-emitting diode and a reflective liquid-crystal device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    based on a hybrid structure consisting of a trans- parent organic light-emitting diode (OLED) stacked Introduction The organic light-emitting diode (OLED) holds great prom- ise as a display technology due of the ambient light by using an OLED and RLCD under dark and bright ambient, respectively. Also, an emi

  3. Crystallization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler, Robert J. (Shaker Heights, OH); Brown, William R. (Brecksville, OH); Auyang, Lun (Highland Heights, OH); Liu, Yin-Chang (Richmond Heights, OH); Cook, W. Jeffrey (Cleveland Heights, OH)

    1986-01-01

    An improved crystallization process is disclosed for separating a crystallizable material and an excluded material which is at least partially excluded from the solid phase of the crystallizable material obtained upon freezing a liquid phase of the materials. The solid phase is more dense than the liquid phase, and it is separated therefrom by relative movement with the formation of a packed bed of solid phase. The packed bed is continuously formed adjacent its lower end and passed from the liquid phase into a countercurrent flow of backwash liquid. The packed bed extends through the level of the backwash liquid to provide a drained bed of solid phase adjacent its upper end which is melted by a condensing vapor.

  4. Liquid Crystalline Polymer Vesicles: Thermotropic Phases in Lyotropic Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Jia; Min-Hui Li

    2015-03-04

    This paper reviews the research work on the liquid crystalline (LC) polymer vesicles (polymersomes), where the thermotropic nematic and smectic phases are displayed in the lyotropic bilayer polymer membrane. LC polymersomes possess the properties of both liquid crystals and polymers, the two essential soft matters. LC polymersomes offer, on the one hand, novel examples of the interplay between orientational order and the curved geometry of a two dimensional membrane. Spherical, ellipsoidal and tetrahedral vesicles are discussed. On the other hand, LC polymersomes enable novel design of stimuli-responsive polymersomes using intramolecular conformational transition from nematic to isotropic phase of LC blocks. Photo-responsive polymersome bursting is highlighted.

  5. Characterization of a chiral phase in an achiral bent-core liquid crystal by polarization studies of resonant x-ray forbidden reflections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponsinet, V.; Pindak, R.; Barois, P.; Pan, L.; Wang, S.; Huang, C.C.; Wang, S.T.; Baumeister, U. and Weissflog, W.

    2011-07-15

    The chiral antiferroelectric structure of an achiral bent-core liquid crystal is characterized by resonant x-ray scattering at chlorine K edge. The 'forbidden' reflections resulting from the glide or screw symmetry elements are restored by the anisotropy of the tensor structure factor, which we calculate for two possible structural models. A careful analysis of the polarization states of the restored 'forbidden' reflections enables an unambiguous identification of a chiral structure (i.e., the so-called anticlinic, antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub A}P{sub A}) coexisting with the achiral synclinic antiferroelectric smectic-C or Sm-C{sub S}P{sub A}. The method proves to be quite powerful as it identifies the chiral structure within coexisting phases despite an imperfect orientation of the sample. The volume fraction of the chiral phase and the distribution of alignment are extracted from the data.

  6. Journal of Crystal Growth 241 (2002) 4550 Boron doping of silicon layers grown by liquid phase epitaxy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01

    Energy Systems, Department of Engineering, Australian National University, Acton, 0200, Australia cell approaches, such as the solar cells by liquid phase epitaxy over porous silicon (SCLIPS) process in the source wafer. This mismatch is explained by the gradual removal of boron from our system, most likely

  7. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F.W.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest. 1 fig.

  8. Cytoplasmic bacteriophage display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William (Stony Brook, NY); Rosenberg, Alan H. (Setauket, NY)

    1998-06-16

    Disclosed are display vectors comprising DNA encoding a portion of a structural protein from a cytoplasmic bacteriophage, joined covalently to a protein or peptide of interest. Exemplified are display vectors wherein the structural protein is the T7 bacteriophage capsid protein. More specifically, in the exemplified display vectors the C-terminal amino acid residue of the portion of the capsid protein is joined to the N-terminal residue of the protein or peptide of interest. The portion of the T7 capsid protein exemplified comprises an N-terminal portion corresponding to form 10B of the T7 capsid protein. The display vectors are useful for high copy number display or lower copy number display (with larger fusion). Compositions of the type described herein are useful in connection with methods for producing a virus displaying a protein or peptide of interest.

  9. Display blocks : cubic displays for multi-perspective visualizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pla i Conesa, Pol

    2012-01-01

    This thesis details the design, execution and evaluation of a new type of display technology, known as Display Blocks. Display Blocks are a response to two major limitations of current displays: visualization and interaction. ...

  10. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenglei Li

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition, evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

  11. Polyplanar optical display electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSanto, L.; Biscardi, C.

    1997-07-01

    The Polyplanar Optical Display (POD) is a unique display screen which can be used with any projection source. The prototype ten inch display is two inches thick and has a matte black face which allows for high contrast images. The prototype being developed is a form, fit and functional replacement display for the B-52 aircraft which uses a monochrome ten-inch display. In order to achieve a long lifetime, the new display uses a 100 milliwatt green solid-state laser (10,000 hr. life) at 532 nm as its light source. To produce real-time video, the laser light is being modulated by a Digital Light Processing (DLP{trademark}) chip manufactured by Texas Instruments. In order to use the solid-state laser as the light source and also fit within the constraints of the B-52 display, the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD{trademark}) circuit board is removed from the Texas Instruments DLP light engine assembly. Due to the compact architecture of the projection system within the display chassis, the DMD{trademark} chip is operated remotely from the Texas Instruments circuit board. The authors discuss the operation of the DMD{trademark} divorced from the light engine and the interfacing of the DMD{trademark} board with various video formats (CVBS, Y/C or S-video and RGB) including the format specific to the B-52 aircraft. A brief discussion of the electronics required to drive the laser is also presented.

  12. Method of fabrication of display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Display pixels driven by silicon thin film transistors are fabricated on plastic substrates for use in active matrix displays, such as flat panel displays. The process for forming the pixels involves a prior method for forming individual silicon thin film transistors on low-temperature plastic substrates. Low-temperature substrates are generally considered as being incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 200.degree. C. The pixel formation process results in a complete pixel and active matrix pixel array. A pixel (or picture element) in an active matrix display consists of a silicon thin film transistor (TFT) and a large electrode, which may control a liquid crystal light valve, an emissive material (such as a light emitting diode or LED), or some other light emitting or attenuating material. The pixels can be connected in arrays wherein rows of pixels contain common gate electrodes and columns of pixels contain common drain electrodes. The source electrode of each pixel TFT is connected to its pixel electrode, and is electrically isolated from every other circuit element in the pixel array.

  13. Computational immersive displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novy, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

    2013-01-01

    Immersion is an oft-quoted but ill-defined term used to describe a viewer or participant's sense of engagement with a visual display system or participatory media. Traditionally, advances in immersive quality came at the ...

  14. PHOTOALIGNMENT OF LIQUID CRYSTALS PHOTOALIGNMENT OF LIQUID CRYSTALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    . Acad. of Sci. of Ukraine (46, Prosp. Nauky, Kyiv 03028, Ukraine; e-mail: boyarchyk. nina@ gmail. com ) 2Uzhgorod National University (46, Pidhirna Str., Uzhgorod 88000, Ukraine) PACS 78.15.+e, 61.30.Gd c

  15. Display blocks: cubic displays for multi-perspective visualization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pla i Conesa, Pol

    We propose the design, implementation and evaluation of a set of tangible cubic displays. This novel approach to display technology consists of arranging six organic light emitting diode screens in a cubic form factor. We ...

  16. Formation of Spatially Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals through the Control of Capillary Forces and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parikh, Atul N.

    Formation of Spatially Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals through the Control of Capillary colloidal crystals using physical confinement in conjunction with surfaces displaying predetermined binary planar colloidal crystals. These methods rely on controlled gravitational settling or solvent evaporation

  17. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface: Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using Sum Frequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy, and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-01-01

    W. ; Lu, C. in Applications of Piezoelectric Quartz CrystalW. ; Lu, C. in Applications of Piezoelectric Quartz Crystal

  18. Two-step liquid-solid vortex transition with the field along the ab planes in YBa2Cu3O7 crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigera, Santiago

    , in the mixed state of clean and twinned YBa2Cu3O7 single crystals, support the existence of a vortex and Instituto Balseiro, Comisio´n Nacional de Energi´a Ato´mica, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina-smectic phase when the vortices interact with an attractive periodic potential. The transition from the vortex

  19. Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solidliquid interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Three-dimensional wave propagation through single crystal solid­liquid interfaces Yichi Lua solid­ liquid interfaces during single crystal growth. A previously developed two-dimensional ray across solid­liquid interfaces in cylindrical bodies where the receiver is located at an arbitrary

  20. 336 JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 8, NO. 6, JUNE 2012 Color Displays Based on Voltage-Stretchable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    for adaptive liquid devices, e.g., adaptive lenses [1]­[5], beam steers [6], tunable irises [7], and optical color display based on DEP-induced light channel was demonstrated [10]. At , the incident light the top sub- strate and becomes flat, a dielectric effect-induced light channel is open and the beam

  1. Display Requirements for an Interactive Rail Scheduling Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cummings, Mary "Missy"

    the development of an interactive in-cab scheduling interface. Information about current high speed railDisplay Requirements for an Interactive Rail Scheduling Display Jacqueline M. Tappan1 , David J, paper speed charts, and rote memorization to meet the many demands of train operation. The separation

  2. Cell surface display of functional human MHC class II proteins: yeast display versus insect cell display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Huimin

    Cell surface display of functional human MHC class II proteins: yeast display versus insect cell histocompatibility complex class II (MHCII) pro- teins have proved elusive. Availability of such systems would enable success, the tetramer technology has been more difficult to use for MHC class II molecules, mainly due

  3. Dynamic Response of Quartz Crystal Microbalances in contact with Silicone Oil Droplets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhuang, Han

    Quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs) in contact with liquid droplets have been used to investigate the rheological properties of liquids and the diverse solid-liquid interfacial phenomena. In this article, we first report ...

  4. Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2013-03-05

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  5. Collimated light from a waveguide for a display Adrian Travis,1,2*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajamani, Sriram K.

    between this light-guide and a liquid crystal panel guides light from color light-emitting diodes by light emitting diodes but these are point #116996 - $15.00 USD Received 9 Sep 2009; revised 9 Oct 2009

  6. Improving OLED technology for displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu, Jennifer J. (Jennifer Jong-Hwa), 1980-

    2008-01-01

    Organic light emitting devices (OLEDs) are brightly emissive, efficient, have fast switching speeds, and are paper-thin in format, propelling their use as an emerging flat panel display technology. However, two primary ...

  7. In Situ Adsorption Studies at the Solid/Liquid Interface:Characterization of Biological Surfaces and Interfaces Using SumFrequency Generation Vibrational Spectroscopy, Atomic Force Microscopy,and Quartz Crystal Microbalance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phillips, D.C.

    2006-05-16

    Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), and quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) have been used to study the molecular surface structure, surface topography and mechanical properties, and quantitative adsorbed amount of biological molecules at the solid-liquid interface. The molecular-level behavior of designed peptides adsorbed on hydrophobic polystyrene and hydrophilic silica substrates has been examined as a model of protein adsorption on polymeric biomaterial surfaces. Proteins are such large and complex molecules that it is difficult to identify the features in their structure that lead to adsorption and interaction with solid surfaces. Designed peptides which possess secondary structure provide simple model systems for understanding protein adsorption. Depending on the amino acid sequence of a peptide, different secondary structures ({alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet) can be induced at apolar (air/liquid or air/solid) interfaces. Having a well-defined secondary structure allows experiments to be carried out under controlled conditions, where it is possible to investigate the affects of peptide amino acid sequence and chain length, concentration, buffering effects, etc. on adsorbed peptide structure. The experiments presented in this dissertation demonstrate that SFG vibrational spectroscopy can be used to directly probe the interaction of adsorbing biomolecules with a surface or interface. The use of well designed model systems aided in isolation of the SFG signal of the adsorbing species, and showed that surface functional groups of the substrate are sensitive to surface adsorbates. The complementary techniques of AFM and QCM allowed for deconvolution of the effects of surface topography and coverage from the observed SFG spectra. Initial studies of biologically relevant surfaces are also presented: SFG spectroscopy was used to study the surface composition of common soil bacteria for use in bioremediation of nuclear waste.

  8. Liquid Crystalline Elastomers as Artificial Muscles P. E. Cladis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cladis, Patricia E.

    Liquid Crystalline Elastomers as Artificial Muscles P. E. Cladis Advanced Liquid Crystal Technologies, POB 1314, Summit, NJ 07902 USA Abstract We find that low molecular weight liquid crystalline cooperative effects acting over length scales larger than the typical mesh size of a liquid single crystalline

  9. Condensation of Self-assembled Lyotropic Chromonic Liquid Crystal Sunset Yellow in Aqueous Solutions Crowded with Polyethylene glycol and Doped with Salt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heung-Shik Park; Shin-Woong Kang; Luana Tortora; Satyendra Kumar; Oleg D. Lavrentovich

    2011-04-06

    We use optical and fluorescence microscopy, densitometry, cryo-transmission electron microscopy (cryo-TEM), spectroscopy, and synchrotron X-ray scattering, to study the phase behavior of the reversible self-assembled chromonic aggregates of an anionic dye Sunset Yellow (SSY) in aqueous solutions crowded with an electrically neutral polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) and doped with the salt NaCl. PEG causes the isotropic SSY solutions to condense into a liquid-crystalline region with a high concentration of SSY aggregates, coexisting with a PEG-rich isotropic (I) region. PEG added to the homogeneous nematic (N) phase causes separation into the coexisting N and I domains; the SSY concentration in the N domains is higher than the original concentration of PEG-free N phase. Finally, addition of PEG to the highly concentrated homogeneous N phase causes separation into the coexisting columnar hexagonal (C) phase and I phase. This behavior can be qualitatively explained by the depletion (excluded volume) effects that act at two different levels: at the level of aggregate assembly from monomers and short aggregates and at the level of inter-aggregate packing. We also show a strong effect of a monovalent salt NaCl on phase diagrams that is different for high and low concentrations of SSY. Upon the addition of salt, dilute I solutions of SSY show appearance of the condensed N domains, but the highly concentrated C phase transforms into a coexisting I and N domains. We suggest that the salt-induced screening of electric charges at the surface of chromonic aggregates leads to two different effects: (a) increase of the scission energy and the contour length of aggregates, and (b) decrease of the persistence length of SSY aggregates.

  10. Wind-Shield Display(WSD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kameda, Yoshinari

    AR *1 *2 *2 *2 *1 *2 Wind-Shield Display(WSD) Evaluation of Driver's Speed Sensation by Augmented Reality on Wind-Shield Display Hayato TOUI*1 Yoshinari KAMEDA*2 Kitahara is drawn on optical see-through display called Wind-Shield Display. Spontaneous speed suppression

  11. Crystal growth under external electric fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uda, Satoshi; Koizumi, Haruhiko; Nozawa, Jun; Fujiwara, Kozo

    2014-10-06

    This is a review article concerning the crystal growth under external electric fields that has been studied in our lab for the past 10 years. An external field is applied electrostatically either through an electrically insulating phase or a direct injection of an electric current to the solid-interface-liquid. The former changes the chemical potential of both solid and liquid and controls the phase relationship while the latter modifies the transport and partitioning of ionic solutes in the oxide melt during crystallization and changes the solute distribution in the crystal.

  12. Midair Displays: Concept and First Experiences with Free-Floating Pervasive Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    drones, such displays can be easily built. A study on the readability of such displays showcases Display, Drones, Free-Floating Displays, Interaction Techniques Categories and Subject Descriptors H.5.1145/2611009.2611013 Figure 1: A sketch of the envisioned midair display with a map attached to a drone. appear at any given

  13. LG Display | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EAInvervar HydroElectric Cooperative(RedirectedChem Ltd JumpDisplay

  14. Changes in mobility of plastic crystal ethanol during its transformation into the monoclinic crystal state

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanz, Alejandro Nogales, Aurora; Ezquerra, Tiberio A.; Puente-Orench, Inés; Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragón, ICMA-CSIC, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza ; Jiménez-Ruiz, Mónica

    2014-02-07

    Transformation of deuterated ethanol from the plastic crystal phase into the monoclinic one is investigated by means of a singular setup combining simultaneously dielectric spectroscopy with neutron diffraction. We postulate that a dynamic transition from plastic crystal to supercooled liquid-like configuration through a deep reorganization of the hydrogen-bonding network must take place as a previous step of the crystallization process. Once these precursor regions are formed, subsequent crystalline nucleation and growth develop with time.

  15. Compressive multi-mode superresolution display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heide, Felix

    Compressive displays are an emerging technology exploring the co-design of new optical device configurations and compressive computation. Previously, research has shown how to improve the dynamic range of displays and ...

  16. A view-sequential 3D display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cossairt, Oliver S. (Oliver Strider), 1978-

    2003-01-01

    This thesis outlines the various techniques for creating electronic 3D displays and analyzes their commercial potential. The thesis argues for the use of view-sequential techniques in the design of 3D displays based on ...

  17. D20: Interaction with Multifaceted Display Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    , there has been a rapid progress in the new dis- play technologies, such as electronic ink and organic light-emitting diode (OLED) displays. These technolo- gies potentially allows to make displays with arbitrary pixel

  18. SHEAR CELL RUPTURE OF NEMATIC LIQUID CRYSTAL ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-18

    For two-phase Newtonian (purely viscous) fluids, the free energy above yields the Cahn-Hilliard ...... Efficient phase-field simulation of quantum dot formation in a ...

  19. Discotic Liquid Crystals and Polymersomes: Molecule Goniometers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Ya-Wen

    2012-10-19

    .................................................. 20 2.2.4 Pristine ?-ZrP Particle Synthesis and Exfoliation ............ 23 2.2.5 Chemical Modification of ZrP Monolayer Platelets ........ 25 2.2.6 Particle Sizing.... Introduction ............................................................................. 62 4.3. Ordered Phase Formation of Organic Cation Exfoliated ZrP 63 4.3.1 Exfoliation of ?-ZrP with Tetraalkylammoniums ............ 63 4.3.2...

  20. Singular Limits in Polymer Stabilized Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1910-31-00

    the temperature. ... We are interested in the effect of having a large contact area between the ... where ?(x1,x2) ? H1(D) is the angle between e3 and n(x1,x2). ..... Theorem 2.5 A function ? is a minimizer for E in H1(D) if and only if there is an.

  1. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos/01/2012 Page 1 ofTreatmentWatching a

  2. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservationBio-Inspired SolarAbout /Two0Photos and Videos/01/2012 Page 1 ofTreatmentWatching

  3. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA|UpcomingVisit12/10/15 WIPP Home Page AboutWatching

  4. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02)Management Waste8GO28308

  5. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02)Management Waste8GO28308Watching a

  6. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02)Management Waste8GO28308Watching

  7. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02)Management Waste8GO28308WatchingWatching

  8. Watching a Liquid-Crystal Helix Unwind

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricN A 035(92/02)Management

  9. Properties of Liquid Plutonium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freibert, Franz J.; Mitchell, Jeremy N.; Schwartz, Daniel S.; Saleh, Tarik A.; Migliori, Albert

    2012-08-02

    Unalloyed polycrystalline Pu displays extreme thermal expansion behavior, i.e., {alpha} {yields} {beta} {yields} {gamma} {yields} {delta} increases by 25% in volume and {delta} {yields} {var_epsilon} {yields} liquid decreases by 4.5% in volume. Thus, making it difficult to measure density into the liquid state. Dilatometer outfitted with CaF molten metal cell offers a proven capability to measure thermal expansion in molten metals, but has yet to be proven for Pu. Historic data from the liquid nuclear fuels program will prove extremely useful as a guide to future measurements. 3.3at% Ga changes Pu molten metal properties: 50% increase in viscosity and {approx}3% decrease in density. Fe may decrease the density by a small amount assuming an averaging of densities for Pu-Ga and Pu-Fe liquids. More recent Boivineau (2009) work needs some interpretation, but technique is being employed in (U,Pu)O{sub 2} nuclear fuels program (Pu Futures, 2012).

  10. Display Blocks: a Set of Cubic Displays for Tangible, Multi-Perspective Data Exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -digital disconnect. Each Display Block consists of six organic light emitting diode (OLED) screens, arranged

  11. Density functional theory for carbon dioxide crystal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, Yiwen; Mi, Jianguo Zhong, Chongli

    2014-05-28

    We present a density functional approach to describe the solid?liquid phase transition, interfacial and crystal structure, and properties of polyatomic CO{sub 2}. Unlike previous phase field crystal model or density functional theory, which are derived from the second order direct correlation function, the present density functional approach is based on the fundamental measure theory for hard-sphere repulsion in solid. More importantly, the contributions of enthalpic interactions due to the dispersive attractions and of entropic interactions arising from the molecular architecture are integrated in the density functional model. Using the theoretical model, the predicted liquid and solid densities of CO{sub 2} at equilibrium triple point are in good agreement with the experimental values. Based on the structure of crystal-liquid interfaces in different planes, the corresponding interfacial tensions are predicted. Their respective accuracies need to be tested.

  12. Crystallization and arrest mechanisms of model colloids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haxton, Thomas K; Whitelam, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    We performed dynamic simulations of spheres with short-range attractive interactions for many values of interaction strength and range. Fast crystallization occurs in a localized region of this parameter space, but the character of crystallization pathways is not uniform within this region. Pathways range from one-step, in which a crystal nucleates directly from a gas, to two-step, in which substantial liquid-like clusters form and only subsequently become crystalline. Crystallization can fail because of slow nucleation from either gas or liquid, or because of dynamic arrest caused by strong interactions. Arrested states are characterized by the formation of networks of face-sharing tetrahedra that can be detected by a local common neighbor analysis.

  13. Critical function and success path summary display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scarola, Kenneth (Windsor, CT); Jamison, David S. (Windsor, CT); Manazir, Richard M. (North Canton, CT); Rescorl, Robert L. (Vernon, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT)

    1995-01-01

    The content of and hierarchical access to three levels of display pages containing information on critical function monitoring and success path monitoring.

  14. DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES ON MUDLOG GRAPHS Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  15. Melting of colloidal crystals: A Monte Carlo study James C. Zahorchak, FL Kesavamoorthy, @vb)Rob D. Coalson, and Sanford A. Asherb)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asher, Sanford A.

    Melting of colloidal crystals: A Monte Carlo study James C. Zahorchak, FL Kesavamoorthy, @vb)Rob D) Electrostatically stabilized colloidal crystals show phase transitions into liquid and gaslike states as the ionic of four colloidal crystals (two fee crystals and two bee crystals) which have also been examined

  16. Collaborative Interaction with Volumetric Displays Tovi Grossman, Ravin Balakrishnan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toronto, University of

    Collaborative Interaction with Volumetric Displays Tovi Grossman, Ravin Balakrishnan Department Volumetric displays possess a number of unique properties which potentially make them particularly suitable for volumetric displays. Author Keywords Volumetric displays, collaborative interaction. ACM Classification

  17. Photochemical switching between colloidal photonic crystals at the nematic-air interface S. B. Chernyshuk,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weeks, Eric R.

    Photochemical switching between colloidal photonic crystals at the nematic-air interface B. Lev,1 S August 2008 A direct observation of the photochemical switching between colloidal crystals with different liquid crystal form two-dimensional hexagonal colloidal crystal at the nematic-air interface

  18. Real time speech formant analyzer and display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holland, G.E.; Struve, W.S.; Homer, J.F.

    1987-02-03

    A speech analyzer for interpretation of sound includes a sound input which converts the sound into a signal representing the sound. The signal is passed through a plurality of frequency pass filters to derive a plurality of frequency formants. These formants are converted to voltage signals by frequency-to-voltage converters and then are prepared for visual display in continuous real time. Parameters from the inputted sound are also derived and displayed. The display may then be interpreted by the user. The preferred embodiment includes a microprocessor which is interfaced with a television set for displaying of the sound formants. The microprocessor software enables the sound analyzer to present a variety of display modes for interpretive and therapeutic used by the user. 19 figs.

  19. Structural characterization of thin film photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania, G.; Biswas, R.; Constant, K.; Sigalas, M. M.; Ho, K. M.

    2001-06-15

    We quantitatively analyze the structure of thin film inverse-opal photonic crystals composed of ordered arrays of air pores in a background of titania. Ordering of the sphere template and introduction of the titania background were performed simultaneously in the thin film photonic crystals. Nondestructive optical measurements of backfilling with high refractive index liquids, angle-resolved reflectivity, and optical spectroscopy were combined with band-structure calculations. The analysis reveals a thin film photonic crystal structure with a very high filling fraction (92{endash}94%) of air and a substantial compression along the c axis ({similar_to}22{endash}25%).

  20. Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces Fion S. Yeung, Jacob Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, Ophelia K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwoka

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    displays LCDs are conventionally aligned by rubbing of a polyimide PI layer. Pretilt angles of 0 alignment surface based on a random distribution of vertical and hori- zontal polyimide domains.5 is also very strong, being comparable to ordinary rubbed polyimides. In fact, ordinary polyimides

  1. Stable and metastable nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2014-11-18

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  2. A CMOS-compatible compact display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Andrew R. (Andrew Raymond)

    2005-01-01

    Portable information devices demand displays with high resolution and high image quality that are increasingly compact and energy-efficient. Microdisplays consisting of a silicon CMOS backplane integrated with light ...

  3. Tailored displays to compensate for visual aberrations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pamplona, Vitor F.

    We introduce tailored displays that enhance visual acuity by decomposing virtual objects and placing the resulting anisotropic pieces into the subject's focal range. The goal is to free the viewer from needing wearable ...

  4. Scalable spatially aware media sharing display system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menard, Patrick, 1981-

    2004-01-01

    The scalable spatially aware media sharing display system provides an efficient and convenient means of harnessing media messaging in global communications. A three- tiered system of input, control, and output creates a ...

  5. Relief: A Scalable Actuated Shape Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leithinger, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Relief is an actuated tabletop display, which is able to render and animate three-dimensional shapes with a malleable surface. It allows users to experience and form digital models like geographical terrain in an intuitive ...

  6. Relaxation dynamics and ionic conductivity in a fragile plastic crystal Th. Bauer,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Relaxation dynamics and ionic conductivity in a fragile plastic crystal Th. Bauer,1 M. Köhler,1 P is investigated by broadband dielectric spectroscopy in the liquid, plastic crystalline, and glassy crystal phases with Freon112, this material stands out among all other plastic crystals by being a relatively fragile glass

  7. Beacon data acquisition and display system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, D.G.; Black, B.D.

    1991-12-17

    A system for transmitting aircraft beacon information received by a secondary surveillance radar through telephone lines to a remote display includes a digitizer connected to the radar for preparing a serial file of data records containing position and identification information of the beacons detected by each sweep of the radar. This information is transmitted through the telephone lines to a remote computer where it is displayed. 6 figures.

  8. High power laser having a trivalent liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.

    2005-08-16

    A laser having a lasing chamber and a semiconductor pumping device with trivalent titanium ions dissolved in a liquid host within the lasing chamber. Since the host is a liquid, it can be removed from the optical cavity when it becomes heated avoiding the inevitable optical distortion and birefringence common to glass and crystal hosts.

  9. Reaction Dynamics at Liquid Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benjamin, Ilan

    2015-01-01

    dielectric semiconductor-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. J. Phys. Chem.rates across liquid-liquid interfaces. 2. Relationships and

  10. The Ultimate Fate of Supercooled Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacob D. Stevenson; Peter G. Wolynes

    2010-06-30

    In recent years it has become widely accepted that a dynamical length scale {\\xi}_{\\alpha} plays an important role in supercooled liquids near the glass transition. We examine the implications of the interplay between the growing {\\xi}_{\\alpha} and the size of the crystal nucleus, {\\xi}_M, which shrinks on cooling. We argue that at low temperatures where {\\xi}_{\\alpha} > {\\xi}_M a new crystallization mechanism emerges enabling rapid development of a large scale web of sparsely connected crystallinity. Though we predict this web percolates the system at too low a temperature to be easily seen in the laboratory, there are noticeable residual effects near the glass transition that can account for several previously observed unexplained phenomena of deeply supercooled liquids including Fischer clusters, and anomalous crystal growth near T_g.

  11. A Taxonomy of Real and Virtual World Display Integration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milgram, Paul

    -mounted display HMD or head-up display HUD. In the case of HMD's, the viewer observes a direct see- through" view that head-up displays HUD's, which have existed in primarily military aviation environments for several

  12. A novel active heads-up display for driver assistance.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doshi, Anup; Cheng, Shinko Yuanhsien; Trivedi, Mohan Manubhai

    2009-01-01

    and P. Green, “The effect of HUD warning location on driverComparison of head-up display (HUD) vs. head-down display (also use heads-up displays (HUDs) to convey information to

  13. Perspective+Detail a visualization technique for vertically curved displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    on the vertical display segment and (3) a head-up display (HUD) in the connecting curved segment (see Figure 1 display connection. The detail view and the HUD are seamlessly integrated with this extended overview

  14. Midair Displays: Exploring the Concept of Free-Floating Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    drones, such displays can be easily built. Keywords Drones; Public Displays; Midair Displays ACM of the approach. Second, we present a functional proto- type consisting of a copter drone to which we mounted

  15. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, E.D.

    1992-07-21

    A method is disclosed for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B[sub x]O[sub y] are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T[sub m1] of the oxide of boron (T[sub m1]=723 K for boron oxide B[sub 2]O[sub 3]), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T[sub m2] of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm[sup 2]. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 [mu]m. 7 figs.

  16. Controlled growth of semiconductor crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret-Courchesne, Edith D. (Richmond, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A method for growth of III-V, II-VI and related semiconductor single crystals that suppresses random nucleation and sticking of the semiconductor melt at the crucible walls. Small pieces of an oxide of boron B.sub.x O.sub.y are dispersed throughout the comminuted solid semiconductor charge in the crucible, with the oxide of boron preferably having water content of at least 600 ppm. The crucible temperature is first raised to a temperature greater than the melt temperature T.sub.m1 of the oxide of boron (T.sub.m1 =723.degree. K. for boron oxide B.sub.2 O.sub.3), and the oxide of boron is allowed to melt and form a reasonably uniform liquid layer between the crucible walls and bottom surfaces and the still-solid semiconductor charge. The temperature is then raised to approximately the melt temperature T.sub.m2 of the semiconductor charge material, and crystal growth proceeds by a liquid encapsulated, vertical gradient freeze process. About half of the crystals grown have a dislocation density of less than 1000/cm.sup.2. If the oxide of boron has water content less than 600 ppm, the crucible material should include boron nitride, a layer of the inner surface of the crucible should be oxidized before the oxide of boron in the crucible charge is melted, and the sum of thicknesses of the solid boron oxide layer and liquid boron oxide layer should be at least 50 .mu.m.

  17. Neutron detection with single crystal organic scintillators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hamel, S; Carman, L; Faust, M; Lordi, V; Cherepy, N; Stoeffl, W; Payne, S

    2009-07-15

    Detection of high-energy neutrons in the presence of gamma radiation background utilizes pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) phenomena in organics studied previously only with limited number of materials, mostly liquid scintillators and single crystal stilbene. The current paper presents the results obtained with broader varieties of luminescent organic single crystals. The studies involve experimental tools of crystal growth and material characterization in combination with the advanced computer modeling, with the final goal of better understanding the relevance between the nature of the organic materials and their PSD properties. Special consideration is given to the factors that may diminish or even completely obscure the PSD properties in scintillating crystals. Among such factors are molecular and crystallographic structures that determine exchange coupling and exciton mobility in organic materials and the impurity effect discussed on the examples of trans-stilbene, bibenzyl, 9,10-diphenylanthracene and diphenylacetylene.

  18. Design, Synthesis, and Characterization of Bent-Core Mesogen-Jacketed Liquid Crystalline Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    of a series of mesogen-jacketed liquid crystalline polymers with bent-core liquid crystals (BCLCsDesign, Synthesis, and Characterization of Bent-Core Mesogen-Jacketed Liquid Crystalline Polymers). For the first time, BCLC mesogens were directly side-attached to the polymer backbone and bent-core mesogen

  19. Freezing of 4 He and its liquid-solid interface from density functional theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    Freezing of 4 He and its liquid-solid interface from density functional theory F. Ancilotto,1 M of the method that accurately describes the solid phase and the freezing transition of liquid 4 He at zero phenomenon of crystallization waves, i.e., melting-freezing waves which can easily propagate on the liquid

  20. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases February 20, 2015 - 4:55pm Addthis New...

  1. Color Correction for Optical See-Through Displays Using Display Color Profiles Srikanth Kirshnamachari Sridharan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mail:irani@cs.umanitoba.ca plays or transparent OLED) or subtractive (filter white light from an external source e.g. LCD of Dundee, Dundee, Scotland Abstract In optical see-through displays, light coming from background ob- jects mixes with the light originating from the display, causing what is known as the color blending problem

  2. JOURNAL OF DISPLAY TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 10, NO. 12, DECEMBER 2014 987 Display Technology Letters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    displays (LCDs) and organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays has reached satisfactory level. However ( 136% AdobeRGB in CIE1976 color space) but also greatly improve light efficiency by reducing consumption, and good sunlight readability. This technology could supplement LCD and OLED in some applications

  3. Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    SSRL's Monochromator Crystal Glitch Library allows users to view glitch spectra online, list specific crystal orientations, and download PDF files of the glitch spectra. (Specialized Interface)

  4. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, Amy A. (Augusta, GA)

    1994-01-01

    A dropping electrolyte electrode for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions.

  5. The Allure of the Window Display 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varela, Tyne

    2012-04-30

    for consumers. I took this information and applied it to interviews with window designers to find out first hand how window displays are executed from concept to execution and how they use visual appeal to create a sense of allure. Simultaneously, I analyzed...

  6. Image display device in digital TV

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Choi, Seung Jong (Seoul, KR)

    2006-07-18

    Disclosed is an image display device in a digital TV that is capable of carrying out the conversion into various kinds of resolution by using single bit map data in the digital TV. The image display device includes: a data processing part for executing bit map conversion, compression, restoration and format-conversion for text data; a memory for storing the bit map data obtained according to the bit map conversion and compression in the data processing part and image data inputted from an arbitrary receiving part, the receiving part receiving one of digital image data and analog image data; an image outputting part for reading the image data from the memory; and a display processing part for mixing the image data read from the image outputting part and the bit map data converted in format from the a data processing part. Therefore, the image display device according to the present invention can convert text data in such a manner as to correspond with various resolution, carry out the compression for bit map data, thereby reducing the memory space, and support text data of an HTML format, thereby providing the image with the text data of various shapes.

  7. Application, Rendering and Display of Automotive Paint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Gary

    Application, Rendering and Display of Automotive Paint by Jonathan Konieczny Dr Gary W. MeyerPont Paints was kind enough to allow us to visit their own paint testing facility and track their spray painters using real spray guns. The data gathered from that visit was essential to creating the spray paint

  8. Skeletonization of Volumetric Angiograms for Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hayward, Vincent

    Skeletonization of Volumetric Angiograms for Display Dingrong Yi and Vincent Hayward Department number of object voxels contained in the binary volumetric data. The method is also shown to be robust are first segmented from the background to obtain binary volumetric data with label "0" being assigned

  9. A Conceptual Architecture for Pervasive Advertising in Public Display Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Conceptual Architecture for Pervasive Advertising in Public Display Networks Florian Alt, Stefan for pervasive advertising on public displays. It can help researchers and practitioners to inform the design with displays and it is not only large out- door advertisers anymore operating them. However, pub- lic displays

  10. VORTEX: Design and Implementation of an Interactive Volumetric Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Sriram

    VORTEX: Design and Implementation of an Interactive Volumetric Display Abstract True 3D display systems like volumetric displays allow generation of autostereoscopic, multi-view 3D content that has real custom volumetric display from easily available components. By building a touch-enabled volumetric

  11. PAPILLON: Designing Curved Display Surfaces With Printed Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poupyrev, Ivan

    manufac- tured as arbitrary 3D shapes. Flexible displays, such as or- ganic light emitting displays (OLED. It is based on 3D printed optics, where the surface of the display is constructed as a bundle of printed light elements also direct light from the surface of the display back to the image sensor allowing for touch

  12. International Crystal Manufacturing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    International Crystal Manufacturing CRYSTAL OSCILLATOR AND FILTER PRODUCTS International Crystal Manufacturing, Inc. P.O. Box 26330 · Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0330 · Phone (405) 236-3741 Fax (405) 235@icmfg.com #12;2 International Crystal Manufacturing, Inc. P.O. Box 26330 · Oklahoma City, OK 73126-0330 · Phone

  13. Liquid electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ekechukwu, A.A.

    1994-07-05

    A dropping electrolyte electrode is described for use in electrochemical analysis of non-polar sample solutions, such as benzene or cyclohexane. The liquid electrode, preferably an aqueous salt solution immiscible in the sample solution, is introduced into the solution in dropwise fashion from a capillary. The electrolyte is introduced at a known rate, thus, the droplets each have the same volume and surface area. The electrode is used in making standard electrochemical measurements in order to determine properties of non-polar sample solutions. 2 figures.

  14. Mixed crystal organic scintillators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zaitseva, Natalia P; Carman, M Leslie; Glenn, Andrew M; Hamel, Sebastien; Hatarik, Robert; Payne, Stephen A; Stoeffl, Wolfgang

    2014-09-16

    A mixed organic crystal according to one embodiment includes a single mixed crystal having two compounds with different bandgap energies, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source, wherein the signal response signature does not include a significantly-delayed luminescence characteristic of neutrons interacting with the organic crystal relative to a luminescence characteristic of gamma rays interacting with the organic crystal. According to one embodiment, an organic crystal includes bibenzyl and stilbene or a stilbene derivative, the organic crystal having a physical property of exhibiting a signal response signature for neutrons from a radioactive source.

  15. CRYSTAL COLLIMATION AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLILLER,R.P.,III.DREES,A.GASSNER,D.HAMMONS,L.MCINTYRE,G.PEGGS,S.TRBOJEVIC,D.BIRYUKOV,V.CHESNOKOV,Y.TEREKHOV,V.

    2003-06-19

    Crystal Channeling occurs when an ion enters a crystal with a small angle with respect to the crystal planes. The electrostatic interaction between the incoming ion and the lattice causes the ion to follow the crystal planes. By mechanically bending a crystal, it is possible to use a crystal to deflect ions. One novel use of a bent crystal is to use it to channel beam halo particles into a collimator downstream. By deflecting the halo particles into a collimator with a crystal it may be possible to improve collimation efficiency as compared to a single collimator. A bent crystal is installed in the yellow ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). In this paper we discuss our experience with the crystal collimator, and compare our results to previous data, simulation, and theoretical prediction.

  16. Information Display: Considerations for Designing Modern Computer-Based Display Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.O'Hara, D.Pirus, L.Beltracchi

    2003-10-01

    OAK- B135 To help nuclear utilities and suppliers design and implement plant information management systems and displays that provide accurate and timely information and require minimal navigation and interface management.

  17. Thin film polycrystalline silicon: Promise and problems in displays and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fonash, S.J.

    1995-08-01

    Thin film polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) with its carrier mobilities, potentially good stability, low intragrain defect density, compatibility with silicon processing, and ease of doping activation is an interesting material for {open_quotes}macroelectronics{close_quotes} applications such as TFTs for displays and solar cells. The poly-Si films needed for these applications can be ultra-thin-in the 500{Angstrom} to 1000{Angstrom} thickness range for flat panel display TFTs and in the 4{mu}m to 10{mu}m thickness range for solar cells. Because the films needed for these microelectronics applications can be so thin, an effective approach to producing the films is that of crystallizing a-Si precursor material. Unlike cast materials, poly-Si films made this way can be produced using low temperature processing. Unlike deposited poly-Si films, these crystallized poly-Si films can have grain widths that are much larger than the film thickness and almost atomically smooth surfaces. This thin film poly-Si crystallized from a-Si precursor films, and its promise and problems for TFTs and solar cells, is the focus of this discussion.

  18. Glassy Dislocation Dynamics in 2-D Colloidal Dimer Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharon J. Gerbode; Umang Agarwal; Desmond C. Ong; Chekesha M. Liddell; Fernando Escobedo; Itai Cohen

    2010-08-11

    Although glassy relaxation is typically associated with disorder, here we report on a new type of glassy dynamics relating to dislocations within 2-D crystals of colloidal dimers. Previous studies have demonstrated that dislocation motion in dimer crystals is restricted by certain particle orientations. Here, we drag an optically trapped particle through such dimer crystals, creating dislocations. We find a two-stage relaxation response where initially dislocations glide until encountering particles that cage their motion. Subsequent relaxation occurs logarithmically slowly through a second process where dislocations hop between caged configurations. Finally, in simulations of sheared dimer crystals, the dislocation mean squared displacement displays a caging plateau typical of glassy dynamics. Together, these results reveal a novel glassy system within a colloidal crystal.

  19. Crystallization of polyethylene by modified weighted density approximation(MWDA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Razeghizadeh, Alireza; Lavafpour, Farhad

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we use the modified weighted density approximation to study the crystallization of polyethylene. We also use a direct correlation function of polyethylene based on RISM theory. The free energy of a polyethylene is calculated using density functional theory. The crystallization and solid and liquid density are calculated and finally compared with the prism simulation and experimental results. That shown the result obtained by MWDA is in better agreement, compared with the experimental result than the prism.

  20. Crystallization of polyethylene by modified weighted density approximation(MWDA)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alireza Razeghizadeh; Vahdat Rafee; Farhad Lavafpour

    2015-02-07

    In this article, we use the modified weighted density approximation to study the crystallization of polyethylene. We also use a direct correlation function of polyethylene based on RISM theory. The free energy of a polyethylene is calculated using density functional theory. The crystallization and solid and liquid density are calculated and finally compared with the prism simulation and experimental results. That shown the result obtained by MWDA is in better agreement, compared with the experimental result than the prism.

  1. Liquid Hydrogen Bubble Chambers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Luis W.

    1956-01-01

    t No. W - 7 4 0 5 -eng-48 ,LIQUID HYDROGEN EUSBLE CHA,MBEEZSand 3erkeley to iind if liquid hydrogen could be used as thethat supezheated 'liquid hydrogen could be made to boil

  2. Liquid foams of graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alcazar Jorba, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Liquid foams are dispersions of bubbles in a liquid. Bubbles are stabilized by foaming agents that position at the interface between the gas and the liquid. Most foaming agents, such as the commonly used sodium dodecylsulfate, ...

  3. Reducing Leaking Electricity to 1 Watt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meier, A.K.; Huber, Wolfgang; Rosen, Karen

    1998-01-01

    Flash Register Input/Output Emitters Light emitting diode (LED) Light emitting diode (LED) Liquid crystal display (LCD)displays are light emitting diodes (LEDs) and vacuum

  4. CRYSTAL COLLIMATION AT RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FLILLER,III, R.P.; DREES,A.; GASSNER,D.; HAMMONS,L.; MCINTYRE,G.; PEGGS,S.; TRBOJEVIC,D.; BIRYUKOV,V.; CHESNKOV,Y.; TEREKHOV,V.

    2002-06-02

    For the year 2001 run, a bent crystal was installed in the yellow ring of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The crystal forms the first stage of a two stage collimation system. By aligning the crystal to the beam, halo particles are channeled through the crystal and deflected into a copper scraper. The purpose is to reduce beam halo with greater efficiency than with a scraper alone. In this paper we present the first results from the use of the crystal collimator. We compare the crystal performance under various conditions, such as different particle species, and beta functions.

  5. Covered Product Category: Displays | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p aDepartmentEnergyEvery Thanksgiving, we hear and©displays, a

  6. The CNG process: Acid gas removal with liquid carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Y.C.; Auyang, L.; Brown, W.R.

    1987-01-01

    The CNG acid gas removal process has two unique features: the absorption of sulfur-containing compounds and other trace contaminants with liquid carbon dioxide, and the regeneration of pure liquid carbon dioxide by triple-point crystallization. The process is especially suitable for treating gases which contain large amounts of carbon dioxide and much smaller amounts (relative to carbon dioxide) of hydrogen sulfide. Capital and energy costs are lower than conventional solvent processes. Further, products of the CNG process meet stringent purity specifications without undue cost penalties. A process demonstration unit has been constructed and operated to demonstrate the two key steps of the CNG process. Hydrogen sulfide and carbonyl sulfide removal from gas streams with liquid carbon dioxide absorbent to sub-ppm concentrations has been demonstrated. The production of highly purified liquid carbon dioxide (less than 0.1 ppm total contaminant) by triple-point crystallization also has been demonstrated.

  7. Home Energy Displays: Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaMarche, J.; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. We hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, we conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. First, after extensive outreach campaigns to apartment complexes with 760 units, only 8% of building's tenants elected to receive a free HED in their homes as part of the field study. Second, the HED used, a leading market model, had a spectrum of problems, including gateway miscommunications, failure to post to a data-hosting third party, and display malfunctions. In light of these challenges, we are pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  8. Cylindrical photonic crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ibanescu, Mihai, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we explore the properties of cylindrical photonic crystal waveguides in which light is confined laterally by the band gap of a cylindrically-layered photonic crystal. We show in particular that axially-uniform ...

  9. Electromagnetic Eavesdropping Risks of Flat-Panel Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Markus

    Electromagnetic Eavesdropping Risks of Flat-Panel Displays Markus G. Kuhn University of Cambridge/ Abstract. Electromagnetic eavesdropping of computer displays ­ first demonstrated to the general public shielded against such compromising electromagnetic emanations. The exact "TEMPEST" emis- sion limits

  10. Mid-air display experiments to create novel user interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    95110, USA A. Olwal Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden #12;display technologies. The interactive, "immaterial" walk-through FogScreen is a patented mid-air display. Viewers can reach through

  11. Hermetically sealed encasements for historic document display and preservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durand, Keith (Keith V.)

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this thesis was to develop designs and methods for the preservation and display of historic documents. The results were applied via the design, manufacture, and installation of five hermetic display encasements ...

  12. LM Completes the Grand Junction, Colorado, Site Historical Wall Display

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On Wednesday, October 8, a new display was unveiled at DOE Headquarters in Washington, DC, by DOE Deputy Under Secretary David Klaus. The display celebrates more than 70 years of operations at the...

  13. Apparatus for mounting crystal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Longeway, Paul A. (East Windsor, NJ)

    1985-01-01

    A thickness monitor useful in deposition or etching reactor systems comprising a crystal-controlled oscillator in which the crystal is deposited or etched to change the frequency of the oscillator. The crystal rests within a thermally conductive metallic housing and arranged to be temperature controlled. Electrode contacts are made to the surface primarily by gravity force such that the crystal is substantially free of stress otherwise induced by high temperature.

  14. Perceptual Affordances of Wall-Sized Displays for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Petra

    .g., HCI)]: Miscellaneous. Introduction Wall-sized displays (PowerWalls) engulf viewers in very large high

  15. Non-intrusive ultrasonic liquid-in-line detector for small diameter tubes. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piper, T.C.

    1980-09-24

    An arrangement for detecting liquids in a line, using non-intrusive ultrasonic techniques is disclosed. In this arrangement, four piezoelectric crystals are arranged in pairs about a 0.078 inch o.d. pipe. An ultrasonic tone burst is transmitted along the pipe, between crystal pairs, and the amplitude of the received tone burst indicates the absence/presence of liquid in the pipe.

  16. Growing intermetallic single crystals using in situ decanting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrovic, Cedomir; Canfield, Paul; Mellen, Jonathan

    2012-05-16

    High temperature metallic solution growth is one of the most successful and versatile methods for single crystal growth, and is particularly suited for exploratory synthesis. The method commonly utilizes a centrifuge at room temperature and is very successful for the synthesis of single crystal phases that can be decanted from the liquid below the melting point of the silica ampoule. In this paper, we demonstrate the extension of this method that enables single crystal growth and flux decanting inside the furnace at temperatures above 1200°C. This not only extends the number of available metallic solvents that can be used in exploratory crystal growth but also can be particularly well suited for crystals that have a rather narrow exposed solidification surface in the equilibrium alloy phase diagram.

  17. TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pang, Grantham

    1 TRICOLOR LIGHT EMITTING DIODE DOT MATRIX DISPLAY SYSTEM WITHAUDIO OUTPUT Grantham Pang, Chi emitting diodes; tricolor display; audio communication. I. Introduction This paper relates to a tricolor broadcasting through the visible light rays transmitted by the display panel or assembly. Keywords: light

  18. ORIGINAL PAPER Peacocks orient their courtship displays towards the sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Montgomerie, Bob

    ORIGINAL PAPER Peacocks orient their courtship displays towards the sun Roslyn Dakin & Robert on male orientation relative to the position of the sun. During the "wing-shaking" display, females were generally behind the displaying male, and male orientation with respect to the position of the sun

  19. Visualization and Computer Graphics on Isotropically Emissive Volumetric Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maciejewski, Ross

    Visualization and Computer Graphics on Isotropically Emissive Volumetric Displays Benjamin Mora--The availability of commodity volumetric displays provides ordinary users with a new means of visualizing 3D data on isotropically emissive volumetric displays, delivering results that are much closer to what is traditionally

  20. Safetygram #9- Liquid Hydrogen

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Hydrogen is colorless as a liquid. Its vapors are colorless, odorless, tasteless, and highly flammable.

  1. Guidance Document Cryogenic Liquids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Liquid hydrogen, liquid methane or liquefied natural gas could form an extremely flammable mixtureGuidance Document Cryogenic Liquids [This is a brief and general summary. Read the full MSDS for more details before handling.] Introduction: All cryogenic liquids are gases at normal temperature

  2. Assessment of SEAD Global Efficiency Medals for Televisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Young, Park, Won

    2013-01-01

    LCD liquid crystal display LED light emitting diode OLEDorganic light emitting diode p progressive scan PC personalwinning models are light emitting diode (LED) backlit liquid

  3. NIOSH publications on video display terminals (revised)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Materials developed by NIOSH concerning video display terminals (VDTs) comprise the publication. The first section listed citations of reports developed by NIOSH concerning VDTs and possible hazards associated with their use, and contained ordering information for these publications. Types of publications included NIOSH numbered publications, hazard evaluation and technical assistance reports, contract reports, journal articles, book chapters, presentations, and miscellaneous reports. The second section of the report contained full text copies of selected references from the bibliography. These references included testimony before congressional committees, presentations and articles dealing with radiation issues, reproductive outcomes of workers using VDTs the risk of spontaneous abortion, an epidemiologic investigation of electric and magnetic fields and operator exposure, controlling glare problems in the VDT work environment, and the design of rest breaks for VDT operators.

  4. Home Energy Displays. Consumer Adoption and Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaMarche, Janelle; Cheney, K.; Akers, C.; Roth, K.; Sachs, O.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of this project was to investigate the factors influencing consumer adoption of Home Energy Displays (HEDs) and to evaluate electricity consumption in households with basic HEDs versus enhanced feedback methods - web portals or alerts. The team hypothesized that providing flexible and relatable information to users, in addition to a basic HED, would make feedback more effective and achieve persistent energy savings. In Phase I, Fraunhofer conducted three user research studies and found preferences for aesthetically pleasing, easy to understand feedback that is accessible through multiple media and offered free of charge. The deployment of HEDs in 150 households planned for Phase II encountered major recruitment and HED field deployment problems. In light of these challenges, the team is pursuing a modified study investigating the energy savings of a web portal versus alert-based energy feedback instead of a physical HED.

  5. Stamping colloidal photonic crystals: a facile way towards complex pixel colour patterns for sensing and displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ding, Tao; Smoukov, Stoyan K.; Baumberg, Jeremy J.

    2014-12-10

    patterns made of Poly(St- MMA-AA), 90 °C, 30 bar, 60 s. (a) Top-view of the micropatterns. Inset is the optical image, scale bar is 100 ?m. (b) Magnified view of the bound- ary of the micropatterns inside white box in 1a. (c, d) Cross-sectional views... spectra of imprinted CPC patterns at 100 °C, 30 bar, 60 s. Inset is the optical image of the imprinted patterns, scale bar is 100 ?m. Scheme 1 The fabrication procedure of dual patterned CPCs via microimprint lithography. Paper Nanoscale 1858 | Nanoscale...

  6. Modeling snow crystal growth III: three-dimensional snowfakes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janko Gravner; David Griffeath

    2007-11-26

    We introduce a three-dimensional, computationally feasible, mesoscopic model for snow crystal growth, based on diffusion of vapor, anisotropic attachment, and a semi-liquid boundary layer. Several case studies are presented that faithfully emulate a wide variety of physical snowflakes.

  7. Multichannel Monolithic Quartz Crystal Microbalance Gas Sensor Array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Andrew

    chip was fabricated using a simple, straightforward method. Four pairs QCM electrodes on a single AT-cut selectively coated with an assortment of sensing films (ionic liquids (BMICS, BMIBF4) and conductive polymer as an analytical tool lies in its ability to detect mass deposited on crystal surface and act as a sensor

  8. Design rules for the self-assembly of a protein crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Haxton; Stephen Whitelam

    2011-10-25

    Theories of protein crystallization based on spheres that form close-packed crystals predict optimal assembly within a `slot' of second virial coefficients and enhanced assembly near the metastable liquid-vapor critical point. However, most protein crystals are open structures stabilized by anisotropic interactions. Here, we use theory and simulation to show that assembly of one such structure is not predicted by the second virial coefficient or enhanced by the critical point. Instead, good assembly requires that the thermodynamic driving force be on the order of the thermal energy and that interactions be made as nonspecific as possible without promoting liquid-vapor phase separation.

  9. Looking for the rainbow on exoplanets covered by liquid and icy water clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karalidi, T; Hovenier, J W

    2012-01-01

    Looking for the primary rainbow in starlight that is reflected by exoplanets appears to be a promising method to search for liquid water clouds in exoplanetary atmospheres. Ice water clouds, that consist of water crystals instead of water droplets, could potentially mask the rainbow feature in the planetary signal by covering liquid water clouds. Here, we investigate the strength of the rainbow feature for exoplanets that have liquid and icy water clouds in their atmosphere, and calculate the rainbow feature for a realistic cloud coverage of Earth. We calculate flux and polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by horizontally and vertically inhomogeneous Earth--like exoplanets, covered by patchy clouds consisting of liquid water droplets or water ice crystals. The planetary surfaces are black. On a planet with a significant coverage of liquid water clouds only, the total flux signal shows a weak rainbow feature. Any coverage of the liquid water clouds by ice clouds, however, dampens the rainbow fea...

  10. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, A.P.

    1984-02-21

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  11. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

    1986-01-01

    A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

  12. Photonic crystals Fabrication of Tunable Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Photonic crystals Fabrication of Tunable Spherical Colloidal Crystals Immobilized in Soft Hydrogels** Toshimitsu Kanai, Daeyeon Lee, Ho Cheung Shum, and David A. Weitz* Spherical colloidal crystals are three as photonic crystals in the optical regime.[2] In contrast to conventional film-type colloidal crystals where

  13. Light Redirective Display Panel And A Method Of Making A Light Redirective Display Panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2005-07-26

    An optical display panel which provides improved light intensity at a viewing angle by redirecting light emitting from the viewing screen, and a method of making a light redirective display panel, are disclosed. The panel includes an inlet face at one end for receiving light, and an outlet screen at an opposite end for displaying the light. The inlet face is defined at one end of a transparent body, which body may be formed by a plurality of waveguides, and the outlet screen is defined at an opposite end of the body. The screen includes light redirective elements at the outlet screen for re-directing light emitting from the outlet screen. The method includes stacking a plurality of glass sheets, with a layer of adhesive or epoxy between each sheet, curing the adhesive to form a stack, placing the stack against a saw and cutting the stack at two opposite ends to form a wedge-shaped panel having an inlet face and an outlet face, and forming at the outlet face a plurality of light redirective elements which direct light incident on the outlet face into a controlled light cone.

  14. Light redirective display panel and a method of making a light redirective display panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T. (Manorville, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An optical display panel which provides improved light intensity at a viewing angle by redirecting light emitting from the viewing screen, and a method of making a light redirective display panel, are disclosed. The panel includes an inlet face at one end for receiving light, and an outlet screen at an opposite end for displaying the light. The inlet face is defined at one end of a transparent body, which body may be formed by a plurality of waveguides, and the outlet screen is defined at an opposite end of the body. The screen includes light redirective elements at the outlet screen for re-directing light emitting from the outlet screen. The method includes stacking a plurality of glass sheets, with a layer of adhesive or epoxy between each sheet, curing the adhesive to form a stack, placing the stack against a saw and cutting the stack at two opposite ends to form a wedge-shaped panel having an inlet face and an outlet face, and forming at the outlet face a plurality of light redirective elements which direct light incident on the outlet face into a controlled light cone.

  15. Liquid Hydrogen Absorber for MICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishimoto, S.

    2010-01-01

    REFERENCES Figure 5: Liquid hydrogen absorber and test6: Cooling time of liquid hydrogen absorber. Eight CernoxLIQUID HYDROGEN ABSORBER FOR MICE S. Ishimoto, S. Suzuki, M.

  16. Enzyme Activity and Biomolecule Templating at Liquid and Solid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey W. Blanch

    2004-12-01

    There are two main components of this research program. The first involves studies of the adsorption and catalytic activity of proteins at fluid-fluid and fluid-solid interfaces; the second employs biological macromolecules as templates at the solid-liquid interface for controlled crystallization of inorganic materials, to provide materials with specific functionality.

  17. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  18. Phononic crystal devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F. (Albuquerque, NM); Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2012-01-10

    Phononic crystals that have the ability to modify and control the thermal black body phonon distribution and the phonon component of heat transport in a solid. In particular, the thermal conductivity and heat capacity can be modified by altering the phonon density of states in a phononic crystal. The present invention is directed to phononic crystal devices and materials such as radio frequency (RF) tags powered from ambient heat, dielectrics with extremely low thermal conductivity, thermoelectric materials with a higher ratio of electrical-to-thermal conductivity, materials with phononically engineered heat capacity, phononic crystal waveguides that enable accelerated cooling, and a variety of low temperature application devices.

  19. High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nizkorodov, Sergey

    HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE INTRODUCTION Even thoughHPLC - 1 High Performance Liquid Chromatography HPLC MEASUREMENT OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN CIGARETTE SMOKE Last updated: June 17, 2014 #12;HPLC - 2 High Performance Liquid Chromatography

  20. Novel Fluctuations at a Constrained Liquid-Solid Interface

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Chaudhuri; Debasish Chaudhuri; Surajit Sengupta

    2007-03-19

    We study the interface between a solid trapped within a bath of liquid by a suitably shaped non-uniform external potential. Such a potential may be constructed using lasers, external electric or magnetic fields or a surface template. We study a two dimensional case where a thin strip of solid, created in this way, is surrounded on either side by a bath of liquid with which it can easily exchange particles. Since height fluctuations of the interface cost energy, this interface is constrained to remain flat at all length scales. However, when such a solid is stressed by altering the depth of the potential; beyond a certain limit, it responds by relieving stress by novel interfacial fluctuations which involve addition or deletion of entire lattice layers of the crystal. This ``layering'' transition is a generic feature of the system regardless of the details of the interaction potential. We show how such interfacial fluctuations influence mass, momentum and energy transport across the interface. Tiny momentum impulses produce weak shock waves which travel through the interface and cause the spallation of crystal layers into the liquid. Kinetic and energetic constraints prevent spallation of partial layers from the crystal, a fact which may be of some practical use. We also study heat transport through the liquid-solid interface and obtain the resistances in liquid, solid and interfacial regions (Kapitza resistance) as the solid undergoes such layering transitions. Heat conduction, which shows strong signatures of the structural transformations, can be understood using a free volume calculation.

  1. Y-12 historian assists in Lincoln Memorial University display...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    assists in Lincoln Memorial University display design NNSA Blog Y-12 historian Ray Smith, left, joins Lincoln Memorial University board of trustees chairman Pete DeBusk in...

  2. Health monitoring display system for a complex plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ridolfo, Charles F. (Bloomfield, CT); Harmon, Daryl L. (Enfield, CT); Colin, Dreyfuss (Enfield, CT)

    2006-08-08

    A single page enterprise wide level display provides a comprehensive readily understood representation of the overall health status of a complex plant. Color coded failure domains allow rapid intuitive recognition of component failure status. A three-tier hierarchy of displays provide details on the health status of the components and systems displayed on the enterprise wide level display in a manner that supports a logical drill down to the health status of sub-components on Tier 1 to expected faults of the sub-components on Tier 2 to specific information relative to expected sub-component failures on Tier 3.

  3. Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Poly(meth)acrylates with Bent-Core Xiaofang Chen,, Kishore K. Tenneti, Christopher Y. Li,*, Yaowen Bai, Xinhua Wan,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wan, Xin-hua

    Side-Chain Liquid Crystalline Poly(meth)acrylates with Bent-Core Mesogens Xiaofang Chen,, Kishore K- (meth)acrylates with end-on bent-core liquid crystalline (BCLC) mesogens. Both conventional free radical of their fascinating structure and profound electro- optic (EO) applications, chiral liquid crystals (LC) have been

  4. Liquid-metal-mediated homoepitaxial film growth of Ge at low temperature Fulin Xiong,a) Eric Ganz, A. G. Loeser, J. A. Golovchenko, and Frans Spaepen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golovchenko, Jene A.

    Liquid-metal-mediated homoepitaxial film growth of Ge at low temperature Fulin Xiong,a) Eric Ganz for publication 10 October 1991) We demonstrate liquid-metal-mediated homoepitaxial crystal growth of Ge on Ge. The liquid-metal phase at the interface is a Au-Ge alloy formed by initial deposition of a thin Au layer

  5. Lighted display devices for producing static or animated visual displays, including animated facial features

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heilbron, Valerie J; Clem, Paul G; Cook, Adam Wade

    2014-02-11

    An illuminated display device with a base member with a plurality of cavities therein. Illumination devices illuminate the cavities and emit light through an opening of the cavities in a pattern, and a speaker can emit sounds in synchronization with the pattern. A panel with translucent portions can overly the base member and the cavities. An animated talking character can have an animated mouth cavity complex with multiple predetermined mouth lighting configurations simulative of human utterances. The cavities can be open, or optical waveguide material or positive members can be disposed therein. Reflective material can enhance internal reflectance and light emission.

  6. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2005-11-01

    Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF3SO3-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3SO2)2N-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF3CF2SO2)2N-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF3SO2)3C-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

  7. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, J.E.; Bolton, R.D.

    1999-03-02

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans. 4 figs.

  8. Radiation monitor for liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koster, James E. (Los Alamos, NM); Bolton, Richard D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1999-01-01

    A radiation monitor for use with liquids that utilizes air ions created by alpha radiation emitted by the liquids as its detectable element. A signal plane, held at an electrical potential with respect to ground, collects these air ions. A guard plane or guard rings is used to limit leakage currents. In one embodiment, the monitor is used for monitoring liquids retained in a tank. Other embodiments monitor liquids flowing through a tank, and bodies of liquids, such as ponds, lakes, rivers and oceans.

  9. Function Photonic Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiang-Yao Wu; Bai-Jun Zhang; Jing-Hai Yang; Xiao-Jing Liu; Nuo Ba; Yi-Heng Wu; Qing-Cai Wang; Guang-Huai Wang

    2012-12-01

    In the paper, we present a new kind of function photonic crystals, which refractive index is a function of space position. Unlike conventional PCs, which structure grow from two materials, A and B, with different dielectric constants $\\epsilon_{A}$ and $\\epsilon_{B}$. By Fermat principle, we give the motion equations of light in one-dimensional, two-dimensional and three-dimensional function photonic crystals. For one-dimensional function photonic crystals, we study the dispersion relation, band gap structure and transmissivity, and compare them with conventional photonic crystals. By choosing various refractive index distribution function $n(z)$, we can obtain more width or more narrow band gap structure than conventional photonic crystals.

  10. Metal slits and liquid crystals at microwave frequencies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Exeter, University of

    by a permanent magnet gave a well-aligned monodomain. The director alignment is set parallel to the E thin slits in metal structures, a completely new generation of LC devices for use at microwaves may for by a 3608 mechanical phase shifter in the other arm. A magnetic field of 5 kG imposed upon the LC

  11. Elongation of discotic liquid crystal strands and lubricant effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Surjya Sarathi Bhattacharyya; Yves Galerne

    2014-05-22

    After a short review on the physics of pulled threads and their mechanical properties, the paper reports and discusses on the strand elongation of disordered columnar phases, hexagonal or lamello-columnar, of small molecules or polymers. The mechanical properties appear to be relevant to the length of the columns of molecules compared to the thread length, instead of the usual correlation length. When short, the column entanglement being taken into account, the strand exhibits rather fluid properties that may even look like nematic at a macroscopic scale. Then, the Plateau-Rayleigh instability soon breaks the thread. However, the hydrodynamic objects being the columns instead of the molecules, the viscosity is anomalously large. The observations show that the strands of columnar phases are made of filaments, or fibrils, that indeed are bundles of columns of molecules. They both explain the grooves and rings observed on the antenna or bamboo-like strand profiles. On pulling a strand, the elongation stress eventually exceeds the plasticity threshold, thus breaking columns and filaments. Cracks, more exactly, giant dislocations are thus formed. They change the strand thickness by steps of different birefringence colours. Interestingly, adding a solute may drastically change the effective viscosity of the columnar phase and its mechanical properties. Some solutes as alcanes, exhibit lubricant and detangling properties, while others as triphenylene, are quite anti-lubricant.

  12. Photoalignment of Liquid Crystals on Chalcogenide Glassy Films

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznikov, Yuri

    of National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Ukraine 2 Department of Physics, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev Reznikov, Institute of Physics, National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Pr. Nauki 16, Kiev 03039, Ukraine

  13. TwoPhoton Absorption (TPA) Liquid Crystal Institute

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palffy-Muhoray, Peter

    written structures with a complicated material recipe. a A 3D spiral structure within silver-doped sol demonstrated twophoton photopolymerization to make 3D spiral structures #12; Introduction TPA microscopy Pinhole All dye along laser path are excited UV light Optical sectioning, 3D imaging, laser

  14. Analysis of Nematic Liquid Crystals with Disclination Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-05-31

    May 31, 2011 ... 2,2; ˜B5/8. ? C(M). Elliptic estimates imply that ˜z ? W3,2( .... only on ? and k such that min{|bn ? bl|, dist(bn,??); 1 ? n, l ? k, n = l} = ?. 19 ...

  15. Synthesis and Liquid Crystal Phase Transitions of Zirconium Phosphate Disks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shuai, Min

    2013-05-07

    Solvent-mediated self-assembly of nanoparticles is an effective and efficient way for the bottom-up organization of functional structures. The primary object of this work is to build up a model system for the study of ...

  16. The Free Energy Landscape of a Multistable Liquid Crystal Device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kusumaatmaja, Halim

    2015-01-01

    The planar bistable device [Tsakonas et al., Appl. Phys. Lett., 2007, 90, 111913] is known to have two distinct classes of stable equilibria: the diagonal and rotated solutions. We model this device within the two-dimensional Landau-de Gennes theory, with a surface potential and without any external fields. We systematically compute transition pathways between the stable equilibria that provide new information about how the equilibria are connected in the Landau-de Gennes free energy landscape. These transition pathways exhibit an intermediate transition state, which is a saddle point of the Landau-de Gennes energy. We numerically compute the structural details of the transition states, the optimal transition pathways and the energy barriers between the equilibria, as a function of the surface anchoring strength. For strong anchoring, the transition pathways are mediated by defects whereas we get defect-free transition pathways for moderate and weak anchoring. In the weak anchoring limit, we recover a cusp ca...

  17. Photoalignment of Ferroelectric Liquid Crystals by Azodye Layers Eugene POZHIDAEV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kwok, Hoi S.

    buffing of thin polyimide films. The impurities and electrostatic charge of polyimide align- ing films surfaces, including rubbed polyimide films4­7) and photoaligned layers,8­13) were used. Several types-irradiated polyimide films by the double exposure method.9) A high contrast ratio and a perfectly bistable switching

  18. Stamping Oriented Molecular Monolayers Using Liquid Crystal Inks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick, David L.

    stamps were made from mechanically rubbed polyimide (PI) films on glass, grooved Si, or embossed poly(methylmethacrylate) (PMMA) (Figures S1A-C). Polyimide stamps were made by spin coating a polyimide precursor solution (PI by rubbing of the cured film with a soft cloth. Biaxial polyimide stamps were made by masking half the film

  19. Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications Fenglin Penga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    contender for phase modulation, such as spatial light modula- tors (SLMs),[1] laser beam steering,[2,3] adaptive optics, adaptive lenses,[4] and phase shifters in the microwave [5,6] and terahertz [7­9] regions, in which light scattering loss would be intolerable. After having taken this factor of 10

  20. Compressible hydrodynamic flow of liquid crystals in 1-D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-08-17

    We consider the equation modeling the compressible hydrodynamic flow ... In this paper, we consider the one dimensional initial-boundary value problem for.

  1. Dopant-Enhanced Vertical Alignment of Negative Liquid Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    Gauza Xiangyi Nie Shin-Tson Wu College of Optics and Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando

  2. Asymptotic behavior for a nematic liquid crystal model with different ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-23

    molecular orientations in Rn. P is a scalar function representing the hydrodynamic ..... The Stokes operator S can be viewed as an unbounded positive linear ... the Ladyzhenskaya method to get higher-order energy estimates (cf. ... As mentioned in the introduction, system (1.1)–(1.5) admits a Lyapunov functional (recall.

  3. Supercoiled DNA; plectonemic structure and liquid crystal formation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van der Maarel, J R C; Zakharova, S S; Jesse, W; Backendorf, C; Egelhaaf, Stefan U; Lapp, A

    2003-01-01

    We have investigated the phase behaviour of pUC18 plasmid solutions with phase separation experiments and polarized light microscopy. Furthermore, the configuration of the superhelix is monitored with small-angle ...

  4. Liquid-Phase Quartz Crystal Microbalance for Photovoltaics Research: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, C. L.; Li, X.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes the new low-cost tool, its capabilities, potential pitfalls with its use, initial results, and possible future research directions.

  5. Physics of liquid crystals embedded in silica gels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Sungil, 1967-

    2001-01-01

    Octylcyanobiphenyl (8CB) embedded in silica aerosil gels have been studied by means of high resolution X-ray scattering experiments. The silica particles form a hydrogen-bonded fractal gel network that introduces quenched ...

  6. Capillary and winding transitions in a confined cholesteric liquid crystal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel de las Heras; Enrique Velasco; Yuri Martínez-Ratón

    2015-07-23

    We consider a Lebwohl-Lasher model of chiral particles confined in a planar cell (slit pore) with different boundary conditions, and solve it using mean-field theory. The phase behaviour of the system with respect to temperature and pore width is studied. Two phenomena are observed: (i) an isotropic-cholesteric transition which exhibits an oscillatory structure with respect to pore width, and (ii) an infinite set of winding transitions caused by commensuration effects between cholesteric pitch and pore width. The latter transitions have been predicted and analysed by other authors for cholesterics confined in a fixed pore and subject to an external field promoting the uniaxial nematic phase; here we induce winding transitions solely from geometry by changing the pore width at zero external field (a setup recently explored in Atomic-Force Microscopy experiments). In contrast with previous studies, we obtain the phase diagrams in the temperature vs pore width plane, including the isotropic-cholesteric transition, the winding transitions and their complex relationship. In particular, the structure of winding transitions terminates at the capillary isotropic-cholesteric transition via triple points where the confined isotropic phase coexists with two cholesterics with different helix indices. For symmetric and asymmetric monostable plate anchorings the phase diagram are qualitatively similar.

  7. Modeling and simulation of switchings in ferroelectric liquid crystals.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-12-09

    ical and numerical investigations are conducted to study effects of the energy associated with the polarization, switching patterns between two uniform states.

  8. Lyotropic Liquid Crystal (LLC) Nanofiltration Membranes - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACTThousandReport) | SciTech ConnectFuture | Department ofLynn

  9. Liquid Metal Transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheng, Lei; Liu, Jing

    2014-01-01

    The room temperature liquid metal is quickly emerging as an important functional material in a variety of areas like chip cooling, 3D printing or printed electronics etc. With diverse capabilities in electrical, thermal and flowing behaviors, such fluid owns many intriguing properties that had never been anticipated before. Here, we show a group of unconventional phenomena occurring on the liquid metal objects. Through applying electrical field on the liquid metals immersed in water, a series of complex transformation behaviors such as self-assembling of a sheet of liquid metal film into a single sphere, quick mergences of separate metal droplets, controlled self-rotation and planar locomotion of liquid metal objects can be realized. Meanwhile, it was also found that two accompanying water vortexes were induced and reliably swirled near the rotating liquid metal sphere. Further, effects of the shape, size, voltage, orientation and geometries of the electrodes to control the liquid metal transformers were clar...

  10. Vibration Enhances Geometry Perception with Tactile Shape Displays Mara Oyarzbal *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tachi, Susumu

    Vibration Enhances Geometry Perception with Tactile Shape Displays María Oyarzábal * Masashi, but little is known about the effects of vibrating displayed shapes. This study examines passive touch, but it was readily detected when the pattern was vibrated at 5 Hz. A central raised bar was incorrectly perceived

  11. A Computer-Oriented System Assembling and Displaying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Computer-Oriented System for Assembling and Displaying Land Management Information Elliot L. A computer-oriented system for assembling and display- ing land management information. Berkeley, Calif and potential uses for the system and includes cost estimates. 582:U518;2 Amidon, Elliot L. 1964. A computer

  12. Immersive Planar Display using Roughly Aligned Projectors Ramesh Raskar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuchs, Henry

    ://www.cs.unc.edu/~raskar/Planar/ Abstract When a projector is oblique with respect to a planar dis- playsurface, it creates keystoning is not perpendicular to the display screen, the resultant image is keystoned and ap- pears distorted (Fig 1). We rectangular images (b) Oblique projectors create keystoned images. positioned in large display systems, after

  13. Categorization of Display Ads using Image and Landing Page Features

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Categorization of Display Ads using Image and Landing Page Features Andrew Kae Department the problem of automatically categorizing display ad images into a taxonomy of relevant interest categories. In particu- lar, we focus on the efficacy of using image features extracted by OCR techniques from the ad

  14. Flexpad: Highly Flexible Bending Interactions for Projected Handheld Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flexpad: Highly Flexible Bending Interactions for Projected Handheld Displays Jürgen Steimle MIT of plain paper or foam into flexible, highly deformable, and spatially aware handheld displays. We present application examples: curved cross-cuts in volumetric images, deforming virtual paper characters, and slicing

  15. Displaying Pictures according to the Songs Being Played Jesus Ibanez

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Displaying Pictures according to the Songs Being Played Jesâ??us Ibâ??aâ?nez (Pompeu Fabra University presents Musimage, a novel system which displays pictures according to the songs being played at the same time. By using the interface the user selects the songs to be played, but the pictures

  16. Real-time Image Generation for Compressive Light Field Displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wetzstein, Gordon

    With the invention of integral imaging and parallax barriers in the beginning of the 20th century, glasses-free 3D displays have become feasible. Only today—more than a century later—glasses-free 3D displays are finally ...

  17. Structural transformation in supercooled water controls the crystallization rate of ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emily B. Moore; Valeria Molinero

    2011-09-27

    One of water's unsolved puzzles is the question of what determines the lowest temperature to which it can be cooled before freezing to ice. The supercooled liquid has been probed experimentally to near the homogeneous nucleation temperature TH{\\approx}232 K, yet the mechanism of ice crystallization - including the size and structure of critical nuclei - has not yet been resolved. The heat capacity and compressibility of liquid water anomalously increase upon moving into the supercooled region according to a power law that would diverge at Ts{\\approx}225 K,(1,2) so there may be a link between water's thermodynamic anomalies and the crystallization rate of ice. But probing this link is challenging because fast crystallization prevents experimental studies of the liquid below TH. And while atomistic studies have captured water crystallization(3), the computational costs involved have so far prevented an assessment of the rates and mechanism involved. Here we report coarse-grained molecular simulations with the mW water model(4) in the supercooled regime around TH, which reveal that a sharp increase in the fraction of four-coordinated molecules in supercooled liquid water explains its anomalous thermodynamics and also controls the rate and mechanism of ice formation. The simulations reveal that the crystallization rate of water reaches a maximum around 225 K, below which ice nuclei form faster than liquid water can equilibrate. This implies a lower limit of metastability of liquid water just below TH and well above its glass transition temperature Tg{\\approx}136 K. By providing a relationship between the structural transformation in liquid water, its anomalous thermodynamics and its crystallization rate, this work provides a microscopic foundation to the experimental finding that the thermodynamics of water determines the rates of homogeneous nucleation of ice.(5)

  18. Chiral Isotropic Liquids from Achiral Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L Hough; M Spannuth; M Nakata; D Coleman; C Jones; G Dantlgraber; C Tschierske; J Watanabe; N Clark; et al.

    2011-12-31

    A variety of simple bent-core molecules exhibit smectic liquid crystal phases of planar fluid layers that are spontaneously both polar and chiral in the absence of crystalline order. We found that because of intralayer structural mismatch, such layers are also only marginally stable against spontaneous saddle splay deformation, which is incompatible with long-range order. This results in macroscopically isotropic fluids that possess only short-range orientational and positional order, in which the only macroscopically broken symmetry is chirality - even though the phases are formed from achiral molecules. Their conglomerate domains exhibit optical rotatory powers comparable to the highest ever found for isotropic fluids of chiral molecules.

  19. Liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tshishiku, Eugene M. (Augusta, GA)

    2011-08-09

    A liquid level detector for conductive liquids for vertical installation in a tank, the detector having a probe positioned within a sheath and insulated therefrom by a seal so that the tip of the probe extends proximate to but not below the lower end of the sheath, the lower end terminating in a rim that is provided with notches, said lower end being tapered, the taper and notches preventing debris collection and bubble formation, said lower end when contacting liquid as it rises will form an airtight cavity defined by the liquid, the interior sheath wall, and the seal, the compression of air in the cavity preventing liquid from further entry into the sheath and contact with the seal. As a result, the liquid cannot deposit a film to form an electrical bridge across the seal.

  20. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-11-19

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2] cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  1. Selective posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tsao, Meng-Lin; Tian, Feng; Schultz, Peter

    2013-02-05

    The invention relates to posttranslational modification of phage-displayed polypeptides. These displayed polypeptides comprise at least one unnatural amino acid, e.g., an aryl-azide amino acid such as p-azido-L-phenylalanine, or an alkynyl-amino acid such as para-propargyloxyphenylalanine, which are incorporated into the phage-displayed fusion polypeptide at a selected position by using an in vivo orthogonal translation system comprising a suitable orthogonal aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase and a suitable orthogonal tRNA species. These unnatural amino acids advantageously provide targets for posttranslational modifications such as azide-alkyne [3+2]cycloaddition reactions and Staudinger modifications.

  2. Liquid Propane Injection Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Liquid propane injection technology meets manufacturing/assembly guidelines, maintenance/repair strategy, and regulations, with same functionality, horsepower, and torque as gasoline counterpart.

  3. Ultrasonic liquid level detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kotz, Dennis M. (North Augusta, SC); Hinz, William R. (Augusta, GA)

    2010-09-28

    An ultrasonic liquid level detector for use within a shielded container, the detector being tubular in shape with a chamber at its lower end into which liquid from in the container may enter and exit, the chamber having an ultrasonic transmitter and receiver in its top wall and a reflector plate or target as its bottom wall whereby when liquid fills the chamber a complete medium is then present through which an ultrasonic wave may be transmitted and reflected from the target thus signaling that the liquid is at chamber level.

  4. VOLUME 86, NUMBER 21 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 21 MAY 2001 Particle Excursions in Colloidal Crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vos, Willem L.

    of sound modes sustained by the combined system of particles and suspension liquid in colloidal crystals in Colloidal Crystals Mischa Megens* and Willem L. Vos Van der Waals­Zeeman Instituut, Universiteit van small-angle x-ray diffraction experiments on charge-stabilized col- loidal crystals. The mean squared

  5. Eavesdropping attacks on computer displays Markus G. Kuhn

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, Markus

    Electromagnetic information leakage from computer displays was first demonstrated to the general public by van Eck for the return current. Opponents connected earth rods to portable valve amplifiers, in order to make the voltage

  6. Modified Cooper Harper scales for assessing unmanned vehicle displays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donmez, Birsen

    Unmanned vehicle (UV) displays are often the only information link between operators and vehicles, so their design is critical to mission success. However, there is currently no standardized methodology for operators to ...

  7. POSITION-INDEPENDENT INTERACTION FOR LARGE HIGH-RESOLUTION DISPLAYS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    very different systems ­ a planar 221 Powerwall and a curved 360° panoramic display. Furthermore, a comparative evaluation study with 16 participants was conducted on the Powerwall to compare the performances

  8. The biomechanical basis of evolutionary change in a territorial display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ord, Terry

    The biomechanical basis of evolutionary change in a territorial display Terry J. Ord*,1 , David C on Puerto Rico. 5. Our study shows how the biomechanics of a social signal can have important implications

  9. Training Room Equipment Instructions Projector and TV Display

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, T. Daniel

    Training Room Equipment Instructions Projector and TV Display The control panel on the wall are connected to a training room computer and room is equipped with a keyboard, mouse and clicker. Connect USB

  10. A programmable pilot oriented display system for GA aircraft

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Littlefield, James A.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a complete description of a digital flight data processing platform designed to support a range of airborne or flight simulator based experiments requiring the acquisition, processing, and display of ...

  11. Renormalization Group Flows, Cycles, anddisplay='inline...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Group Flows, Cycles, anddisplay'inline'>c-Theorem Folklore Curtright, Thomas L.; Jin, Xiang; Zachos, Cosmas K. Not Available American Physical Society None...

  12. Scalability of mass transfer in liquid-liquid flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woitalka, A.

    We address liquid–liquid mass transfer between immiscible liquids using the system 1-butanol and water, with succinic acid as the mass transfer component. Using this system we evaluate the influence of two-phase flow ...

  13. Lattice model for kinetics and grain-size distribution in crystallization Mario Castro*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sánchez, Angel "Anxo"

    deposition has been driven by the technological development of active matrix addressed flat-panel displays1 and thin-film solar cells.2 With these and similar applications in mind, the capability to en- gineer that in crystal- lization of Si over SiO2 substrates, nucleation develops in the Si/SiO2 interface due

  14. Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals Alessandra Balestreri and Lucio Claudio Andreani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Optical properties and diffraction effects in opal photonic crystals Alessandra Balestreri Optical properties of fcc opals oriented along the 111 direction are calculated by means of a scattering on polystyrene opals. Diffraction spectra as a function of the number of layers display an oscillatory behavior

  15. Multifunctional recombinant phycobiliprotein-based fluorescent constructs and phycobilisome display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Cai, Yuping

    2003-11-18

    The invention provides multifunctional fusion constructs which are rapidly incorporated into a macromolecular structure such as a phycobilisome such that the fusion proteins are separated from one another and unable to self-associate. The invention provides methods and compositions for displaying a functional polypeptide domain on an oligomeric phycobiliprotein, including fusion proteins comprising a functional displayed domain and a functional phycobiliprotein domain incorporated in a functional oligomeric phycobiliprotein. The fusion proteins provide novel specific labeling reagents.

  16. Multifunctional recombinant phycobiliprotein-based fluorescent constructs and phycobilisome display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Cai, Yuping

    2007-01-30

    The invention provides multifunctional fusion constructs which are rapidly incorporated into a macromolecular structure such as a phycobilisome such that the fusion proteins are separated from one another and unable to self-associate. The invention provides methods and compositions for displaying a functional polypeptide domain on an oligomeric phycobiliprotein, including fusion proteins comprising a functional displayed domain and a functional phycobiliprotein domain incorporated in a functional oligomeric phycobiliprotein. The fusion proteins provide novel specific labeling reagents.

  17. Multifunctional recombinant phycobiliprotein-based fluorescent constructs and phycobilisome display

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glazer, Alexander N.; Cai, Yuping

    2007-02-13

    The invention provides multifunctional fusion constructs which are rapidly incorporated into a macromolecular structure such as a phycobilisome such that the fusion proteins are separated from one another and unable to self-associate. The invention provides methods and compositions for displaying a functional polypeptide domain on an oligomeric phycobiliprotein. including fusion proteins comprising a functional displayed domain and a functional phycobiliprotein domain incorporated in a functional oligomeric phycobiliprotein. The fusion proteins provide novel specific labeling reagents.

  18. Epitaxial thin film growth of LiH using a liquid-Li atomic template

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oguchi, Hiroyuki; Ikeshoji, Tamio; Orimo, Shin-ichi; Ohsawa, Takeo; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro; Kuwano, Hiroki

    2014-11-24

    We report on the synthesis of lithium hydride (LiH) epitaxial thin films through the hydrogenation of a Li melt, forming abrupt LiH/MgO interface. Experimental and first-principles molecular dynamics studies reveal a comprehensive microscopic picture of the crystallization processes, which sheds light on the fundamental atomistic growth processes that have remained unknown in the vapor-liquid-solid method. We found that the periodic structure that formed, because of the liquid-Li atoms at the film/MgO-substrate interface, serves as an atomic template for the epitaxial growth of LiH crystals. In contrast, films grown on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates indicated polycrystalline films with a LiAlO{sub 2} secondary phase. These results and the proposed growth process provide insights into the preparation of other alkaline metal hydride thin films on oxides. Further, our investigations open the way to explore fundamental physics and chemistry of metal hydrides including possible phenomena that emerge at the heterointerfaces of metal hydrides.

  19. Fragile-to-fragile Liquid Transition at Tg and Stable-Glass Phase Nucleation Rate Maximum at the Kauzmann Temperature TK

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert Felix Tournier

    2015-02-23

    An undercooled liquid is unstable. The driving force of the glass transition at Tg is a change of the undercooled-liquid Gibbs free energy. The classical Gibbs free energy change for a crystal formation is completed including an enthalpy saving. The crystal growth critical nucleus is used as a probe to observe the Laplace pressure change Dp accompanying the enthalpy change -Vm *Dp at Tg where Vm is the molar volume. A stable glass-liquid transition model predicts the specific heat jump of fragile liquids at temperatures smaller than Tg, the Kauzmann temperature TK where the liquid entropy excess with regard to crystal goes to zero, the equilibrium enthalpy between TK and Tg, the maximum nucleation rate at TK of superclusters containing magic atom numbers, and the equilibrium latent heats at Tg and TK. Strong-to-fragile and strong-to-strong liquid transitions at Tg are also described and all their thermodynamic parameters are determined from their specific heat jumps. The existence of fragile liquids quenched in the amorphous state, which do not undergo liquid-liquid transition during heating preceding their crystallization, is predicted. Long ageing times leading to the formation at TK of a stable glass composed of superclusters containing up to 147 atoms, touching and interpenetrating, are evaluated from nucleation rates. A fragile-to-fragile liquid transition occurs at Tg without stable-glass formation while a strong glass is stable after transition.

  20. Crystal Field Disorder in the Quantum Spin Ice Ground State of Tb2Sn2 xTixO7

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaulin, Bruce D.; Zhang, J.; Dahlberg, M. L.; Matthews, Maria J.; Bert, F.; Kermarrec, E.; Fritsch, Katharina; Granroth, Garrett E; Jiramongkolchai, P.; Amato, A.; Baines, C.; Cava, R. J.; Mendels, P.; Schiffer, P

    2015-01-01

    Spin ice physics marries that of hydrogen disorder in water ice, first discussed almost 60 years ago by Pauling, and that of low temperature magnetism on certain networks of connected tetrahedra. Recently the classical spin ice mag- nets Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 have shown an emergent artificial magneto- statics , which manifests itself as Coulombic spin correlations and excitations behaving as diffusive magnetic monopoles. The related pyrochlore magnet, Tb2Ti2O7, has been proposed as a quantum variant of spin ice, stabilized by 1 virtual excitations between the crystal field (CF) ground state doublet appro- priate to Tb3+, and its low lying excited state doublet. Isostructural Tb2Sn2O7 displays soft spin ice order, and its Tb3+ ground and excited CF eigenstates are known to differ relative to those of Tb2Ti2O7. We present a comprehensive study of Tb2Sn2 xTixO7 showing a novel, dynamic spin liquid state for all x other than the end members (0, 2). This state is the result of disorder in the low lying Tb3+ CF environments which de-stabilizes the mechanism by which quantum fluctuations contribute to ground state selection in Tb2Sn2 xTixO7.

    1. Liquid heat capacity lasers

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Comaskey, Brian J. (Walnut Creek, CA); Scheibner, Karl F. (Tracy, CA); Ault, Earl R. (Livermore, CA)

      2007-05-01

      The heat capacity laser concept is extended to systems in which the heat capacity lasing media is a liquid. The laser active liquid is circulated from a reservoir (where the bulk of the media and hence waste heat resides) through a channel so configured for both optical pumping of the media for gain and for light amplification from the resulting gain.

    2. Precision liquid level sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

      1985-01-01

      A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

    3. Precision liquid level sensor

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Field, M.E.; Sullivan, W.H.

      1985-01-29

      A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge. 2 figs.

    4. Synthesis of ionic liquids

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Luo, Huimin (Knoxville, TN)

      2011-11-01

      Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic ligand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

    5. Synthesis of ionic liquids

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Dai, Sheng [Knoxville, TN; Luo, Huimin [Knoxville, TN

      2008-09-09

      Ionic compounds which are liquids at room temperature are formed by the method of mixing a neutral organic liqand with the salt of a metal cation and its conjugate anion. The liquids are hydrophobic, conductive and stable and have uses as solvents and in electrochemical devices.

    6. Phonons in a one-dimensional microfluidic crystal

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Tsevi Beatus; Tsvi Tlusty; Roy Bar-Ziv

      2010-08-06

      The development of a general theoretical framework for describing the behaviour of a crystal driven far from equilibrium has proved difficult1. Microfluidic crystals, formed by the introduction of droplets of immiscible fluid into a liquid-filled channel, provide a convenient means to explore and develop models to describe non-equilibrium dynamics2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11. Owing to the fact that these systems operate at low Reynolds number (Re), in which viscous dissipation of energy dominates inertial effects, vibrations are expected to be over-damped and contribute little to their dynamics12, 13, 14. Against such expectations, we report the emergence of collective normal vibrational modes (equivalent to acoustic 'phonons') in a one-dimensional microfluidic crystal of water-in-oil droplets at Reapprox10-4. These phonons propagate at an ultra-low sound velocity of approx100 mum s-1 and frequencies of a few hertz, exhibit unusual dispersion relations markedly different to those of harmonic crystals, and give rise to a variety of crystal instabilities that could have implications for the design of commercial microfluidic systems. First-principles theory shows that these phonons are an outcome of the symmetry-breaking flow field that induces long-range inter-droplet interactions, similar in nature to those observed in many other systems including dusty plasma crystals15, 16, vortices in superconductors17, 18, active membranes19 and nucleoprotein filaments20.

    7. Frequency doubling crystals

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Wang, Francis (Danville, CA); Velsko, Stephan P. (Livermore, CA)

      1989-01-01

      A systematic approach to the production of frequency conversion crystals is described in which a chiral molecule has attached to it a "harmonic generating unit" which contributes to the noncentrosymmetry of the molecule. Certain preferred embodiments of such harmonic generating units include carboxylate, guanadyly and imidazolyl units. Certain preferred crystals include L-arginine fluoride, deuterated L-arginine fluoride, L-arginine chloride monohydrate, L-arginine acetate, dithallium tartrate, ammonium N-acetyl valine, N-acetyl tyrosine and N-acetyl hydroxyproline. Chemical modifications of the chiral molecule, such as deuteration, halogenation and controlled counterion substitution are available to adapt the dispersive properties of a crystal in a particular wavelength region.

    8. Liquid sampling system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Larson, L.L.

      1984-09-17

      A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed. 5 figs.

    9. Liquid sampling system

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Larson, Loren L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

      1987-01-01

      A conduit extends from a reservoir through a sampling station and back to the reservoir in a closed loop. A jet ejector in the conduit establishes suction for withdrawing liquid from the reservoir. The conduit has a self-healing septum therein upstream of the jet ejector for receiving one end of a double-ended cannula, the other end of which is received in a serum bottle for sample collection. Gas is introduced into the conduit at a gas bleed between the sample collection bottle and the reservoir. The jet ejector evacuates gas from the conduit and the bottle and aspirates a column of liquid from the reservoir at a high rate. When the withdrawn liquid reaches the jet ejector the rate of flow therethrough reduces substantially and the gas bleed increases the pressure in the conduit for driving liquid into the sample bottle, the gas bleed forming a column of gas behind the withdrawn liquid column and interrupting the withdrawal of liquid from the reservoir. In the case of hazardous and toxic liquids, the sample bottle and the jet ejector may be isolated from the reservoir and may be further isolated from a control station containing remote manipulation means for the sample bottle and control valves for the jet ejector and gas bleed.

    10. Liquid metal electric pump

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Abbin, J.P.; Andraka, C.E.; Lukens, L.L.; Moreno, J.B.

      1992-01-14

      An electrical pump for pumping liquid metals to high pressures in high temperature environments without the use of magnets or moving mechanical parts. The pump employs a non-porous solid electrolyte membrane, typically ceramic, specific to the liquid metal to be pumped. A DC voltage is applied across the thickness of the membrane causing ions to form and enter the membrane on the electrically positive surface, with the ions being neutralized on the opposite surface. This action provides pumping of the liquid metal from one side of the non-porous solid electrolyte membrane to the other. 3 figs.

    11. Two-stage crystallization of charged colloids at low supersaturations

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Kai Kratzer; Axel Arnold

      2014-10-31

      We report simulations on the homogeneous liquid-fcc nucleation of charged colloids for both low and high contact energy values. As a precursor for crystal formation, we observe increased local order at the position where the crystal will form, but no correlations with the local density. Thus, the nucleation is driven by order fluctuations rather than density fluctuations. Our results also show that the transition involves two stages in both cases, first a transition liquid-bcc, followed by a bcc-hcp/fcc transition. Both transitions have to overcome free energy barriers, so that a spherical bcc-like cluster is formed first, in which the final fcc-like structure is nucleated mainly at the surface of the crystallite. This means that the bcc-fcc phase transition is a heterogeneous nucleation, even though we start from a homogeneous bulk liquid. The height of the bcc-hcp/fcc free energy barrier strongly depends on the contact energies of the colloids. For low contact energy this barrier is low, so that the bcc-hcp/fcc transition happens spontaneously. For the higher contact energy, the second barrier is too high to be crossed spontaneously by the colloidal system. However, it was possible to ratchet the system over the second barrier and to transform the bcc nuclei into the stable hcp/fcc phase. The transitions are dominated by the first liquid-bcc transition and can be described by Classical Nucleation Theory using an effective surface tension.

    12. Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Brigo, Damiano

      Risk Management under Liquidity Risk: Liquidity inclusive Risk Measures GARP Seminar, London, Nov://www.capco.com/capco-insights -- Joint work with Claudio Nordio Prof. D. Brigo (Imperial College and Capco) Risk Management under Management under Liquidity Risk GARP Seminar London 2 / 60 #12;Introduction Liquidity in Risk Measurement

    13. Calibration Sets for Multiprimary Displays: Representation, Vi-sualization, and Applications

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Sharma, Gaurav

      . For instance, in organic light emitting diode (OLED) and other similar displays, where power is controlled and of alternative calibration strate- gies for multiprimary displays. For display technologies such as OLED, where

    14. Commercial Application of Freeze Crystallization 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Gorgol, R. G.

      1992-01-01

      crystallization for this particular application presented HPD's designers with a new set of technical challenges. The largest freeze crystallization unit in the world, prior to the Chetwynd installation, was a desalination unit in operation in Saudi Arabia...

    15. Controlling Chirality of Entropic Crystals

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Damasceno, Pablo F; Schultz, Benjamin A; Engel, Michael; Glotzer, Sharon C

      2015-01-01

      Colloidal crystal structures with complexity and diversity rivaling atomic and molecular crystals have been predicted and obtained for hard particles by entropy maximization. However, so far homochiral colloidal crystals, which are candidates for photonic metamaterials, are absent. Using Monte Carlo simulations we show that chiral polyhedra exhibiting weak directional entropic forces self-assemble either an achiral crystal or a chiral crystal with limited control over the crystal handedness. Building blocks with stronger faceting exhibit higher selectivity and assemble a chiral crystal with handedness uniquely determined by the particle chirality. Tuning the strength of directional entropic forces by means of particle rounding or the use of depletants allows for reconfiguration between achiral and homochiral crystals. We rationalize our findings by quantifying the chirality strength of each particle, both from particle geometry and potential of mean force and torque diagrams.

    16. Huge broadening of the crystal-fluid interface for sedimenting colloids

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Allahyarov, Elshad

      2011-01-01

      For sedimenting colloidal hard spheres, the propagation and broadening of the crystal-fluid interface is studied by Brownian dynamics computer simulations of an initially homogeneous sample. Two different types of interface broadenings are observed: the first occurs during growth and is correlated with the interface velocity, the second is concomitant with the splitting of the crystal-fluid interface into the crystal-amorphous and amorphous-liquid interfaces. The latter width is strongly peaked as a function of the gravitational driving strength with a huge amplitude relative to its equilibrium counterpart.

    17. Orbit Display's Use of the Physics Application Framework

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Zelazny, Michael; Chevtsov, Sergei; Chu, Chungming Paul; Fairley, Diane; Krejcik, Patrick; Natampalli, Partha; Rogind, Deborah; White, Greg; /SLAC

      2009-12-09

      At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (SLAC) the Controls Department (CD) is developing a physics application framework based on the Java(tm) programming language developed by Sun Microsystems. This paper will discuss the first application developed using this approach: a new Orbit Display. The software is being developed by several individuals in reusable Java packages. It relies on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) toolkit for data collection and XAL - A Java based Hierarchy for Application Programming for model parameters. The Orbit Display tracks and displays electron paths through the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) in both a graphical, beam line plot, and tabular format. It contains many features that may be unique to SLAC and is meant to be used both in the control room and by individuals in their offices or at home. Unique features include BSA Beam Synchronous Acquisition (BSA), Orbit Fitting, and Buffered Acquisition.

    18. Junction-based field emission structure for field emission display

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Dinh, Long N. (Concord, CA); Balooch, Mehdi (Berkeley, CA); McLean, II, William (Oakland, CA); Schildbach, Marcus A. (Livermore, CA)

      2002-01-01

      A junction-based field emission display, wherein the junctions are formed by depositing a semiconducting or dielectric, low work function, negative electron affinity (NEA) silicon-based compound film (SBCF) onto a metal or n-type semiconductor substrate. The SBCF can be doped to become a p-type semiconductor. A small forward bias voltage is applied across the junction so that electron transport is from the substrate into the SBCF region. Upon entering into this NEA region, many electrons are released into the vacuum level above the SBCF surface and accelerated toward a positively biased phosphor screen anode, hence lighting up the phosphor screen for display. To turn off, simply switch off the applied potential across the SBCF/substrate. May be used for field emission flat panel displays.

    19. Direct liquid injection of liquid petroleum gas

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Lewis, D.J.; Phipps, J.R.

      1984-02-14

      A fuel injector and injection system for injecting liquified petroleum gas (LPG) into at least one air/fuel mixing chamber from a storage means that stores pressurized LPG in its liquid state. The fuel injector (including a body), adapted to receive pressurized LPG from the storage means and for selectively delivering the LPG to the air/fuel mixing chamber in its liquified state. The system including means for correcting the injector activation signal for pressure and density variations in the fuel.

    20. Liquidity facilities and signaling

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Arregui, Nicolás

      2010-01-01

      This dissertation studies the role of signaling concerns in discouraging access to liquidity facilities like the IMF contingent credit lines (CCL) and the Discount Window (DW). In Chapter 1, I analyze the introduction of ...

    1. Liquid scintillator sampling calorimetry 

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Dudgeon, R. Greg

      1994-01-01

      This research was supported by the Department of Energy to investigate a new sampling calorimeter technology for the high intensity regions of the Superconducting Supercollider. The technology involved using liquid scintillator filled glass tubes...

    2. Fractons and Luttinger liquids

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Wellington da Cruz

      2000-10-05

      We consider the concept of fractons as particles or quasiparticles which obey a specific fractal statistics in connection with a one-dimensional Luttinger liquid theory. We obtain a dual statistics parameter ${\\tilde{\

    3. Journal of Crystal Growth ] (

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      ) at high pressure of CO2 (initial PCO2 ¼ 55 bar) and moderate to high temperature (30 and 90 1C) was used and the dissolved quantity of CO2 have a significant effect on the average particle size, specific surface areaJournal of Crystal Growth ] (

    4. University of Nevada Las Vegas LED Display Engineering

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      None

      2010-08-31

      The primary objective of this part of the project is to develop and implement a method that compensates for the inefficiency of the green LED. The proposed engineering solution which will be the backbone of this project will be to use RGBW combination in every pixel to save energy. Two different RGBW geometrical pixel configurations will be implemented and compared against traditional LED configurations. These configurations will be analyzed for energy efficiency while keeping the quality of the display the same. Cost of the addition of white LEDs to displays along with energy cost savings will be presented and analyzed.

    5. Silicon crystal growing by oscillating crucible technique

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Schwuttke, G.H.; Kim, K.M.; Smetana, P.

      1983-08-03

      A process for growing silicon crystals from a molten melt comprising oscillating the container during crystal growth is disclosed.

    6. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting...

      Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

      CATIONS; CRYSTALLIZATION; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; CRYSTALS; HOST; LIPIDS; MEMBRANE PROTEINS; MEMBRANES; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE; PEPTIDES; RANGE; SHAPE; SIZE Word Cloud More...

    7. Liquid mixing device

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      O'Leary, R. P.

      1985-08-06

      A mixing device for mixing at least two liquids to produce a homogenous mixture. The device includes an elongated chamber in which a vertically oriented elongated mixing cavity is located. The cavity is sealed at its lower end and it is open at its upper end and in communication with the interior of the chamber. An elongated conduit extends the length of the cavity and is adapted to receive liquids to be mixed. The conduit includes a plurality of ports located at longitudinally spaced positions therealong and which ports are directed in different directions. The ports create plural streams of liquid which interact and mix with one another within the cavity. The mixed liquids overflow the cavity and out its top end into the chamber 24. The chamber 24 includes an outlet from which the mixed liquids are withdrawn. In accordance with the preferred embodiment gas eductor means are provided in the inlet to the conduit to introduce gas bubbles within the cavity. Gas vent means are also provided in the device to vent any introduced gases from the device so that only the mixed liquids flow out the outlet.

    8. Liquid crystalline composites containing phyllosilicates

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Chaiko, David J.

      2004-07-13

      The present invention provides phyllosilicate-polymer compositions which are useful as liquid crystalline composites. Phyllosilicate-polymer liquid crystalline compositions of the present invention can contain a high percentage of phyllosilicate while at the same time be transparent. Because of the ordering of the particles liquid crystalline composite, liquid crystalline composites are particularly useful as barriers to gas transport.

    9. Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) to Be Displayed on June 22...

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) to Be Displayed on June 22 During Sustainable Transportation Day Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs) to Be Displayed on June 22 During...

    10. Crystal structures of two-dimensional magnetic colloids in tilted external magnetic fields V. A. Froltsov, R. Blaak, C. N. Likos, and H. Lowen

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Likos, Christos N.

      Crystal structures of two-dimensional magnetic colloids in tilted external magnetic fields V. A; published 30 December 2003 The stability of different crystal lattices of two-dimensional superparamagnetic suspensions that are confined to a planar liquid-gas interface and exposed to a tilted external magnetic field

    11. Gas-Liquid Coexistence in the Primitive Model for Water

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      F. Romano; P. Tartaglia; F. Sciortino

      2007-05-08

      We evaluate the location of the gas-liquid coexistence line and of the associated critical point for the primitive model for water (PMW), introduced by Kolafa and Nezbeda [J. Kolafa and I. Nezbeda, Mol. Phys. 61, 161 (1987)]. Besides being a simple model for a molecular network forming liquid, the PMW is representative of patchy proteins and novel colloidal particles interacting with localized directional short-range attractions. We show that the gas-liquid phase separation is metastable, i.e. it takes place in the region of the phase diagram where the crystal phase is thermodynamically favored, as in the case of articles interacting via short-range attractive spherical potentials. Differently from spherical potentials, we do not observe crystallization close to the critical point. The region of gas-liquid instability of this patchy model is significantly reduced as compared to equivalent models of spherically interacting particles, confirming the possibility of observing kinetic arrest in an homogeneous sample driven by bonding as opposed to packing.

    12. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

      1982-01-01

      This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

    13. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

      1981-04-30

      This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

    14. Heating-induced glass-glass and glass-liquid transformations in computer simulations of water

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Chiu, Janet; Giovambattista, Nicolas [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, Brooklyn, New York 11210 (United States); Starr, Francis W. [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Wesleyan University, Middletown, Connecticut 06459 (United States)

      2014-03-21

      Water exists in at least two families of glassy states, broadly categorized as the low-density (LDA) and high-density amorphous ice (HDA). Remarkably, LDA and HDA can be reversibly interconverted via appropriate thermodynamic paths, such as isothermal compression and isobaric heating, exhibiting first-order-like phase transitions. We perform out-of-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of glassy water using the ST2 model to study the evolution of LDA and HDA upon isobaric heating. Depending on pressure, glass-to-glass, glass-to-crystal, glass-to-vapor, as well as glass-to-liquid transformations are found. Specifically, heating LDA results in the following transformations, with increasing heating pressures: (i) LDA-to-vapor (sublimation), (ii) LDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (iii) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid, (iv) LDA-to-HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, and (v) LDA-to-HDA-to-crystal. Similarly, heating HDA results in the following transformations, with decreasing heating pressures: (a) HDA-to-crystal, (b) HDA-to-liquid-to-crystal, (c) HDA-to-liquid (glass transition), (d) HDA-to-LDA-to-liquid, and (e) HDA-to-LDA-to-vapor. A more complex sequence may be possible using lower heating rates. For each of these transformations, we determine the corresponding transformation temperature as function of pressure, and provide a P-T “phase diagram” for glassy water based on isobaric heating. Our results for isobaric heating dovetail with the LDA-HDA transformations reported for ST2 glassy water based on isothermal compression/decompression processes [Chiu et al., J. Chem. Phys. 139, 184504 (2013)]. The resulting phase diagram is consistent with the liquid-liquid phase transition hypothesis. At the same time, the glass phase diagram is sensitive to sample preparation, such as heating or compression rates. Interestingly, at least for the rates explored, our results suggest that the LDA-to-liquid (HDA-to-liquid) and LDA-to-HDA (HDA-to-LDA) transformation lines on heating are related, both being associated with the limit of kinetic stability of LDA (HDA)

    15. Growth and properties of Lithium Salicylate single crystals

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Zaitseva, N; Newby, J; Hull, G; Saw, C; Carman, L; Cherepy, N; Payne, S

      2009-02-13

      An attractive feature of {sup 6}Li containing fluorescence materials that determines their potential application in radiation detection is the capture reaction with slow ({approx}< 100 keV) neutrons: {sup 6}Li + n = {sup 4}He + {sup 3}H + 4.8MeV. The use of {sup 6}Li-salicylate (LiSal, LiC{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 3}) for thermal neutron detection was previously studied in liquid and polycrystalline scintillators. The studies showed that both liquid and polycrystalline LiSal scintillators could be utilized in pulse shape discrimination (PSD) techniques that enable separation of neutrons from the background gamma radiation. However, it was found that the efficiency of neutron detection using LiSal in liquid solutions was severely limited by its low solubility in commonly used organic solvents like, for example, toluene or xylene. Better results were obtained with neutron detectors containing the compound in its crystalline form, such as pressed pellets, or microscopic-scale (7-14 micron) crystals dispersed in various media. The expectation drown from these studies was that further improvement of pulse height, PSD, and efficiency characteristics could be reached with larger and more transparent LiSal crystals, growth of which has not been reported so far. In this paper, we present the first results on growth and characterization of relatively large, a cm-scale size, single crystals of LiSal with good optical quality. The crystals were grown both from aqueous and anhydrous (methanol) media, mainly for neutron detection studies. However, the results on growth and structural characterization may be interesting for other fields where LiSal, together with other alkali metal salicylates, is used for biological, medical, and chemical (as catalyst) applications.

    16. 'Naked' Crystals go Underground

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Hans Volker Klapdor-Kleingrothaus

      2003-07-26

      On May 5, 2003 in the GRAN SASSO Underground Laboratory the first naked high-purity Germanium detectors were installed successfully in liquid nitrogen in the GENIUS-Test-Facility (GENIUS-TF). This is the first time ever that this novel technique for extreme background reduction in searches for rare decays is going to be tested under realistic background conditions.

    17. Wirelessly Powered Bistable Display Tags Artem Dementyev1

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Hochberg, Michael

      to applications in which they are tethered to a power source or a large and frequently charged battery (NFC) technology that is being widely integrated across mobile phone platforms, to power display for a mobile phone that can be used to capture and preserve a screenshot. We also discuss other

    18. CAR2 Displays Unique Ligand Binding and RXR Heterodimerization Characteristics

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Omiecinski, Curtis

      CAR2 Displays Unique Ligand Binding and RXR Heterodimerization Characteristics Scott S. Auerbach ABSTRACT: The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR; NR1I3) regulates the expression of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Alternative splicing of the human CAR gene yields an array of mRNAs that encode

    19. Display of Haptic Shape at Different Scales Vincent Hayward

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Hayward, Vincent

      modes can in principle be combined to make complex displays operating at different scales. 1 with virtual objects, and if this handle is subject to the same perturbations that would be caused by a real- formation. The result of this strategy is that the location of the mutual contact changes both on the object

    20. Cell Surface Display of Functional Macromolecule Fusions on

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chen, Wilfred

      Cell Surface Display of Functional Macromolecule Fusions on Escherichia coli for Development parathion hydrolase (MPH) and enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) fusions (60 kDa) by employing-OmpA-MPH-GFP fusion protein was constructed for targeting the fusion protein onto the surface of Escherichia coli

    1. The Information Mural: A Technique for Displaying and Navigating Large

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Stasko, John T.

      The Information Mural: A Technique for Displaying and Navigating Large Information Spaces Dean F-24 Replaces Technical Report GIT-GVU-96-25 Abstract Information visualizations must allow users to browse information spaces and focus quickly on items of interest. Being able to see some representation of the entire

    2. Person Aware Advertising Displays: Emotional, Cognitive, Physical Adaptation Capabilities

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Person Aware Advertising Displays: Emotional, Cognitive, Physical Adaptation Capabilities advertising. In the future however, the ever more demanding audience will not be satisfied by today's contents the efficiency of outdoor advertising. The paper starts with a vision of out-of-home- media in the year 2034

    3. An Expressive Auction Design for Online Display Advertising Sebastien Lahaie

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chen, Yiling

      An Expressive Auction Design for Online Display Advertising S´ebastien Lahaie Yahoo! Research New to target within an advertising network. The design al- lows the network to differentiate impressions according to relevant attributes (e.g., geographic location of the user, topic of the webpage). Advertisers

    4. Adaptive Image Synthesis for Compressive Displays Felix Heide1

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Heidrich, Wolfgang

      Wolfgang Heidrich1 1 University of British Columbia 2 MIT Media Lab Figure 1: Adaptive light field-resolution target light field of 85 × 21 views with 840 × 525 pixels each (center). Our adaptive reconstruction usesAdaptive Image Synthesis for Compressive Displays Felix Heide1 Gordon Wetzstein2 Ramesh Raskar2

    5. NanofabricationTechnologies for Optoelectronics, Imaging, Sensing, and Displays

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Eustice, Ryan

      , the group is working on exceptionally low-cost, ultra-thin film InP and GaAs solar cells cold welded in organic solar cells, nanolasers, flexible displays, optical metamaterial structures, photo- acoustic pioneering work in the development of high-performance InAs/GaAs lasers emitting at 1.0, 1.3, and 1.55µm

    6. Viewability Prediction for Online Display Ads Information Systems Dept.

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Borcea, Cristian

      Viewability Prediction for Online Display Ads Chong Wang Information Systems Dept. New Jersey. Advertisers are charged by ad serv- ing, where their ads are shown in web pages. However, re- cent studies show that about half of the ads were actually never seen by users because they do not scroll deep

    7. INTRODUCTION Insects display an impressive diversity of acoustic sensory organs

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Yack, Jayne E.

      found to be a key factor in frequency discrimination in locusts and cicadas (Michelsen, 1971a; Windmill (Windmill et al., 2005; Sueur et al., 2006). The importance of membrane structure is even more pronounced' membrane displays a non-linear mechanical response to ultrasound stimuli (Windmill et al., 2007

    8. What is SYP? A Web site that displays a wide

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      What is SYP? A Web site that displays a wide range of exciting opportunities for pre-K through 12th, science, sports, and writing, MSU is sure to have a program for every student! You can search the SYP Web and topics from any page on the site The Spartan Youth Programs Web site is maintained by University Outreach

    9. ADE SOFTWARE: MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS AND GRAPHICAL DISPLAY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Thioulouse, Jean

      ADE SOFTWARE: MULTIVARIATE ANALYSIS AND GRAPHICAL DISPLAY OF ENVIRONMENTAL DATA J. Thioulouse Name: ADE software 4.0. Date of release: 3/95. Developers: Jean Thioulouse, Daniel Chessel, Sylvain. General remarks ADE (Analysis of Environmental Data) software deals with the multivariate analysis

    10. Dynamic Voltage Scaling of OLED Displays Donghwa Shin, Younghyun Kim,

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Pedram, Massoud

      thanks to their self-illuminating characteristic. In spite of this fact, the OLED dis- play panel attempts to reduce the OLED power consumption. Since power consumption of any pixel of the OLED display systems account for a significant portion of the total power consumption in battery-powered electronics

    11. Introduction to CHART: a graphic analysis and display system. Revision

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Herbig, J.; Sventek, V.

      1984-08-01

      Chart is an interactive graphics program that can be used to create tables of data and to display this data as a table or as a graph. Several different graphic forms are available, including bar charts, line graphs, and pie charts. Chart is interactive; this means that commands are typed by the user at a terminal and their effects are seen in a few seconds. It is easy to experiment with different display formats and then choose the one that displays your data most effectively. Chart also makes it easy to start with a simple table and then gradually add additional features such as titles, footnotes, and complex column headings in gradual steps. Each step gives the user a clearer idea of what the final published table or graph should look like in order to best communicate the meaning of the data. This manual provides an introduction to using Chart and at the end of the course you will be able to produce tables and graphic displays like those shown in Figures 1 through 4. The Introduction to Chart course assumes that the user has taken the Introduction to the Distributed Computer Network course or can demonstrate knowledge of the topics covered in that course.

    12. Real-time graphic displays in Mars. [AVLIS process

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Treadway, T.

      1985-12-01

      Real-time diagnostic data of the AVLIS process is displayed in the form of a two-dimensional plot on selected monitors in the Mars Control Room. Each Mars workstation contains a HP2622 terminal for computer interface to the experiment and a Raster Technologies graphic controller driving a Conrac high resolution color monitor for graphics output.

    13. Interactive Weather Simulation and Visualization on a Display Wall

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Ha, Phuong H.

      Interactive Weather Simulation and Visualization on a Display Wall with Many-Core Compute Nodes B.hoai.ha,john.markus.bjorndalen,otto.anshus}@uit.no, {tormsh,daniels}@cs.uit.no Abstract. Numerical Weather Prediction models (NWP) used for op- erational weather forecasting are typically run at predetermined times at a predetermined resolution and a fixed

    14. Investigation of Energy-Efficient Supermarket Display Cases

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Walker, D.H.

      2005-01-21

      Supermarkets represent one of the largest energy-intensive building groups in the commercial sector, consuming 2 to 3 million kWh/yr per store (ES-1). Over half of this energy use is for the refrigeration of food display cases and storage coolers. Display cases are used throughout a supermarket for the merchandising of perishable food products. The cases are maintained at air temperatures ranging from -10 to 35 F, depending upon the type of product stored. The operating characteristics and energy requirements of the refrigeration system are directly related to the refrigeration load. The sources of the display case refrigeration load consist of: (1) Moist and warm air infiltration through the open front of the case--air curtains are employed to inhibit this infiltration, but some ambient air is entrained, which adds a substantial portion to the refrigeration load. (2) Heat conduction through case panels and walls. (3) Thermal radiation from the ambient to the product and display case interior. (4) Internal thermal loads--the use of lights, evaporator fans, periodic defrosts, and antisweat heaters adds to the refrigeration load of the display case as well as directly consuming electric energy. The impact of each of these elements on the refrigeration load is very dependent upon case type (Figure ES-1). For example, air infiltration is the most significant portion of the refrigeration load for open, multi-deck cases, while radiation is the largest part of the load for tub-type cases. The door anti-sweat heaters represent a major share of the refrigeration load for frozen food door reach-in cases. Figure ES-2 shows the distribution of display cases in a typical supermarket (ES-2). Open, multi-deck, medium temperature display cases typically comprise about half of the refrigerated fixtures in a store (ES-3). In addition, medium temperature fixtures and storage coolers account for roughly 70 to 75 percent of the total store refrigeration load with open, multi-deck cases contributing about 3/4 of that fraction. Consequently, the focus of this investigation has tilted toward the open, vertical, multi-deck medium temperature case type. Various technologies and control methods are energy efficiency measures (EEMs) that could be applied to display cases and result in the reduction of the refrigeration load and of the energy consumption of the supermarket refrigeration system. An extensive evaluation of the EEMs was conducted in order to select those that met the following criteria: (1) Near-term implementation--All EEMs considered could be implemented with existing refrigeration hardware and technology. (2) Potential for energy-efficiency improvements--Energy savings and/or refrigeration load reduction must be obtained by the implementation of the EEM. (3) Enhancement of the ability to maintain target product temperature--Proper operation of the display case and maintenance of the stored product temperature could not be compromised by the use of the EEM. The energy impact of a number of viable display case EEMs was quantified by performing whole building hourly simulations. A special version of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE-2.3) program was used to develop a model of a supermarket. The model was then calibrated using available end-use monitored data to increase confidence in simulation results.

    15. Durable Electrooptic Devices Comprising Ionic Liquids

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin, John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

      2008-11-11

      Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

    16. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM); Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM)

      2006-10-10

      Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes.

    17. Durable electrooptic devices comprising ionic liquids

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Burrell, Anthony K. (Los Alamos, NM); Agrawal, Anoop (Tucson, AZ); Cronin; John P. (Tucson, AZ); Tonazzi, Juan C. L. (Tucson, AZ); Warner, Benjamin P. (Los Alamos, NM); McCleskey, T. Mark (Los Alamos, NM)

      2009-12-15

      Electrolyte solutions for electrochromic devices such as rear view mirrors and displays with low leakage currents are prepared using inexpensive, low conductivity conductors. Preferred electrolytes include bifunctional redox dyes and molten salt solvents with enhanced stability toward ultraviolet radiation. The solvents include lithium or quaternary ammonium cations, and perfluorinated sulfonylimide anions selected from trifluoromethylsulfonate (CF.sub.3SO.sub.3.sup.-), bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-), bis(perfluoroethylsulfonyl)imide ((CF.sub.3CF.sub.2SO.sub.2).sub.2N.sup.-) and tris(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)methide ((CF.sub.3SO.sub.2).sub.3C.sup.-). Electroluminescent, electrochromic and photoelectrochromic devices with nanostructured electrodes include ionic liquids with bifunctional redox dyes. Some of the electrolyte solutions color to red when devices employing the solutions are powered, leading to red or neutral electrooptic devices.

    18. Continuous-Flow Tubular Crystallization in Slugs Spontaneously Induced by Hydrodynamics

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      are decoupled to enhance the individual control of each phenomenon. Coaxial or radial mixers combine liquid operate at lower shear rates than a single stirred-tank crystallizer but is limited to lower solids consists of slurry flowing through a tube with Kenics-type static mixers through its length to induce

    19. Crystallization and gelation in colloidal systems with short-ranged attractive interactions

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Andrea Fortini; Eduardo Sanz; Marjolein Dijkstra

      2008-10-02

      We systematically study the relationship between equilibrium and non-equilibrium phase diagrams of a system of short-ranged attractive colloids. Using Monte Carlo and Brownian dynamics simulations we find a window of enhanced crystallization that is limited at high interaction strength by a slowing down of the dynamics and at low interaction strength by the high nucleation barrier. We find that the crystallization is enhanced by the metastable gas-liquid binodal by means of a two-stage crystallization process. First, the formation of a dense liquid is observed and second the crystal nucleates within the dense fluid. In addition, we find at low colloid packing fractions a fluid of clusters, and at higher colloid packing fractions a percolating network due to an arrested gas-liquid phase separation that we identify with gelation. We find that this arrest is due to crystallization at low interaction energy and it is caused by a slowing down of the dynamics at high interaction strength. Likewise, we observe that the clusters which are formed at low colloid packing fractions are crystalline at low interaction energy, but glassy at high interaction energy. The clusters coalesce upon encounter.

    20. Variable frequency photonic crystals

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Jing-Hai; Li, Hong; Chen, Wan-Jin

      2015-01-01

      In this paper, we have firstly proposed a new one-dimensional variable frequency photonic crystals (VFPCs), and calculated the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution of VFPCs with and without defect layer, and considered the effect of defect layer and variable frequency function on the transmissivity and the electronic field distribution. We have obtained some new characteristics for the VFPCs, which should be help to design a new type optical devices.

    1. Converting Commodity Head-Mounted Displays for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Pollefeys, Marc

      head-mounted display. Project achieves wide field of view and low latency augmented reality displayConverting Commodity Head-Mounted Displays for Optical See-Through Augmented Reality The Challenge The current market for fully immersive virtual reality head- mounted displays is rapidly expanding, however

    2. Lightweight electrowetting display on ultra-thin glass substrate Andrew J. Steckl

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Cincinnati, University of

      and have a long battery lifetime, requirements which point to the use of reflective display technologies.11. Currently, the major application of EW technology is in the field of flat panel display.15 EW displays -- Mobile display devices that use ultra-thin (100 m) glass substrates offer a combination of attractive

    3. Consigalo: Multi-user Face-to-face Interaction on Immaterial Displays

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      California at Santa Barbara, University of

      then, numerous interactive large display systems have been presented, such as the CAVE [4], Powerwall

    4. A Sliding-Window Approach to Supporting On-Line Interactive Display for Continuous Media1

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Chang, Ye-In

      A Sliding-Window Approach to Supporting On-Line Interactive Display for Continuous Media1 Chien the overhead, in this paper, we will propose a sliding window approach to supporting interactive display subobjects for display in a sliding window. For the way of interactive display described above, in which

    5. Subjective Usefulness of CAVE and Fish Tank VR Display Systems for a Scientific Visualization Application

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Laidlaw, David

      Subjective Usefulness of CAVE and Fish Tank VR Display Systems for a Scientific Visualization usefulness of two virtual reality (VR) display systems, a CAVE and a Fish Tank VR display, for a scientific. Most of the users preferred the Fish Tank display because of perceived dis- play resolution, crispness

    6. An Evaluation of Depth Perception on Volumetric Displays Tovi Grossman, Ravin Balakrishnan

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Toronto, University of

      An Evaluation of Depth Perception on Volumetric Displays Tovi Grossman, Ravin Balakrishnan.toronto.edu ABSTRACT We present an experiment that compares volumetric displays to existing 3D display techniques space, volumetric displays allow viewers to use their natural physiological mechanisms for depth

    7. Passive-matrix-driven field-sequential-color displays Abstract --Passive-matrix-driven field-sequential-color (FSC) displays were successfully fabricated.

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Passive-matrix-driven field-sequential-color displays Y. W. Li L. Tan H. S. Kwok Abstract -- Passive-matrix-driven field-sequential-color (FSC) displays were successfully fabricated. It makes use of the display. Keywords -- Passive matrix, field-sequential color. 1 Introduction Field-sequential-color (FSC

    8. 16.2 / Z. L. Xie SID 01 DIGEST 1

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      16.2 / Z. L. Xie SID 01 DIGEST · 1 16.2: Bistable Twisted Nematic Liquid Crystals Display 01 DIGEST #12;16.2 / Z

    9. Mobile interfaces: Liquids as a perfect structural material for multifunctional, antifouling surfaces

      DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

      Grinthal, Alison; Aizenberg, Joanna

      2013-10-14

      Life creates some of its most robust, extreme surface materials not from solids but from liquids: a purely liquid interface, stabilized by underlying nanotexture, makes carnivorous plant leaves ultraslippery, the eye optically perfect and dirt-resistant, our knees lubricated and pressure-tolerant, and insect feet reversibly adhesive and shape-adaptive. Novel liquid surfaces based on this idea have recently been shown to display unprecedented omniphobic, self-healing, anti-ice, antifouling, optical, and adaptive properties. In this Perspective, we present a framework and a path forward for developing and designing such liquid surfaces into sophisticated, versatile multifunctional materials. Drawing on concepts from solid materials design andmore »fluid dynamics, we outline how the continuous dynamics, responsiveness, and multiscale patternability of a liquid surface layer can be harnessed to create a wide range of unique, active interfacial functions-able to operate in harsh, changing environments-not achievable with static solids. We discuss how, in partnership with the underlying substrate, the liquid surface can be programmed to adaptively and reversibly reconfigure from a defect-free, molecularly smooth, transparent interface through a range of finely tuned liquid topographies in response to environmental stimuli. In conclusion, with nearly unlimited design possibilities and unmatched interfacial properties, liquid materials-as long-term stable interfaces yet in their fully liquid state-may potentially transform surface design everywhere from medicine to architecture to energy infrastructure.« less

    10. Comments on liquid hydrogen absorbers for MICE

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Green, Michael A.

      2003-01-01

      SCMAG-798 Comments on Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers for MICEshown in Figure 1. Three liquid hydrogen absorbers are shownthe RF Cavities, the Liquid Hydrogen Absorbers, the Central

    11. Liquid Hydrogen Delivery | Department of Energy

      Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

      Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Liquid Hydrogen Delivery Hydrogen is most commonly transported and delivered as a liquid when high-volume transport is needed in the absence of pipelines....

    12. SHALE: An Efficient Algorithm for Allocation of Guaranteed Display Advertising

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Bharadwaj, Vijay; Ma, Wenjing; Nagarajan, Chandrashekhar; Tomlin, John; Vassilvitskii, Sergei; Vee, Erik; Yang, Jian

      2012-01-01

      Motivated by the problem of optimizing allocation in guaranteed display advertising, we develop an efficient, lightweight method of generating a compact {\\em allocation plan} that can be used to guide ad server decisions. The plan itself uses just O(1) state per guaranteed contract, is robust to noise, and allows us to serve (provably) nearly optimally. The optimization method we develop is scalable, with a small in-memory footprint, and working in linear time per iteration. It is also "stop-anytime", meaning that time-critical applications can stop early and still get a good serving solution. Thus, it is particularly useful for optimizing the large problems arising in the context of display advertising. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm using actual Yahoo! data.

    13. Dose factor entry and display tool for BNCT radiotherapy

      DOE Patents [OSTI]

      Wessol, Daniel E. (Bozeman, MT); Wheeler, Floyd J. (Idaho Falls, ID); Cook, Jeremy L. (Greeley, CO)

      1999-01-01

      A system for use in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) radiotherapy planning where a biological distribution is calculated using a combination of conversion factors and a previously calculated physical distribution. Conversion factors are presented in a graphical spreadsheet so that a planner can easily view and modify the conversion factors. For radiotherapy in multi-component modalities, such as Fast-Neutron and BNCT, it is necessary to combine each conversion factor component to form an effective dose which is used in radiotherapy planning and evaluation. The Dose Factor Entry and Display System is designed to facilitate planner entry of appropriate conversion factors in a straightforward manner for each component. The effective isodose is then immediately computed and displayed over the appropriate background (e.g. digitized image).

    14. Los Alamos Quantum Dots for Solar, Display Technology

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Klimov, Victor

      2015-04-13

      Quantum dots are ultra-small bits of semiconductor matter that can be synthesized with nearly atomic precision via modern methods of colloidal chemistry. Their emission color can be tuned by simply varying their dimensions. Color tunability is combined with high emission efficiencies approaching 100 percent. These properties have recently become the basis of a new technology – quantum dot displays – employed, for example, in the newest generation of e-readers and video monitors.

    15. Aerogels: A new material for emissive display applications

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Glauser, S.A.C. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States); Lee, H.W.H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

      1997-03-01

      The remarkable optical and electronic properties of doped and undoped silica aerogels establish their utility as unique, multifunctional host materials for fluorescent dyes and other luminescent materials for display and imaging applications. We present results on the photoluminescence and absorption of undoped silica aerogels and aerogels doped with Er{sup 3+}, rhodamine 6G (R6G), and fluorescein. We also demonstrate evidence of Fowler-Nordheim tunneling of electrons in aerogels. 4 refs., 10 figs.

    16. SLAC Large Detector (SLD) Image and Event Display Collections

      DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

      Perl, Joseph; Cowan, Ray; Johnson, Tony

      The SLD makes use of the unique capabilities of the Stanford Linear Collider (SLC) to perform studies of polarized Z particles produced in collisions between electrons and positrons. The SLD Event Display Collection shows computer generated pictures of a number of Z particle decays as reconstructed by the SLD detector. More than 90 images, each in several formats, captured from 1991 - 1996 events, are archived here. There are also figures and data plots available.

    17. Druid, displaying root module used for linear collider detectors

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Ruan, M

      2015-01-01

      Based on the ROOT TEve/TGeo classes and the standard linear collider data structure, a dedicated linear collider event display has been developed. It supports the latest detector models for both International Linear Collider and Compact Linear Collider as well as the CALICE test beam prototypes. It can be used to visualise event information at the generation, simulation and reconstruction levels. Many options are provided in an intuitive interface. It has been heavily employed in a variety of analyses.

    18. liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Niebur, Ernst

      liquid nberwp.tex Liquidity Constraints and Precautionary Saving Christopher D. Carroll ccarroll to the optimal consumption/saving problem under uncertainty have long known that there are quantitatively important in- teractions between liquidity constraints and precautionary saving behavior. This paper

    19. Cloud Liquid Water Measurements

      E-Print Network [OSTI]

      Delene, David J.

      of heat to vaporize drops. Power is supplied to coil to maintain a constant temperature. P ­ Total Power #12;Wet Power Term Energy is transferred to heat droplets to to the boiling point and vaporize;Liquid Water Content Formula Combine the Wet and Dry Power Terms PC Ts-TaPv x Mldv[Lvcw Tv-Ta] · M

    20. Characterization of Epitaxial Film Silicon Solar Cells Grown on Seeded Display Glass: Preprint

      SciTech Connect (OSTI)

      Young, D. L.; Grover, S.; Teplin, C.; Stradins, P.; LaSalvia, V.; Chuang, T. K.; Couillard, J. G.; Branz, H. M.

      2012-06-01

      We report characterizations of epitaxial film crystal silicon (c-Si) solar cells with open-circuit voltages (Voc) above 560 mV. The 2-um absorber cells are grown by low-temperature (<750 degrees C) hot-wire CVD (HWCVD) on Corning EAGLE XG display glass coated with a layer-transferred (LT) Si seed. The high Voc is a result of low-defect epitaxial Si (epi-Si) growth and effective hydrogen passivation of defects. The quality of HWCVD epitaxial growth on seeded glass substrates depends on the crystallographic quality of the seed and the morphology of the epitaxial growth surface. Heterojunction devices consist of glass/c-Si LT seed/ epi n+ Si:P/epi n- Si:P/intrinsic a-Si:H/p+ a-Si:H/ITO. Similar devices grown on electronically 'dead' n+ wafers have given Voc {approx}630 mV and {approx}8% efficiency with no light trapping features. Here we study the effects of the seed surface polish on epi-Si quality, how hydrogenation influences the device character, and the dominant junction transport physics.