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Sample records for links hydrogen production

  1. Hydrogen Production Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Related Links Hydrogen Production Related Links The following resources provide details about U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded hydrogen production activities, research plans and roadmaps, models and tools, and additional related links. DOE-Funded Hydrogen Production Activities Each year, hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. View posters and

  2. Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-09-01

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produce hydrogen. It includes an overview of research goals as well as “quick facts” about hydrogen energy resources and production technologies.

  3. Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This 2-page fact sheet provides a brief introduction to hydrogen production technologies. Intended for a non-technical audience, it explains how different resources and processes can be used to produ

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Related Links on

  5. Hydrogen Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen can be produced directly from water using sunlight and a special class of semiconductor materials. These highly specialized semiconductors ...

  6. Hydrogen Production: Photobiological

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The photobiological hydrogen production process uses microorganisms and sunlight to turn water, and sometimes organic matter, into hydrogen.

  7. Hydrogen Delivery Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Delivery Related Links Hydrogen Delivery Related Links The following resources provide details about U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded hydrogen delivery activities, research plans and roadmaps, models and tools, and additional related links. DOE-Funded Hydrogen Delivery Activities Each year, hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. View posters and

  8. Hydrogen Storage Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Related Links Hydrogen Storage Related Links The following resources provide details about U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded hydrogen storage activities, research plans and roadmaps, models and tools, and additional related links. DOE-Funded Hydrogen Storage Activities Each year, hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. View posters and presentations from the latest

  9. Bacterial Fermentative Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Melanie Mormile, Missouri University of Science and Technology, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  10. Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) held a Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop on September 24–25, 2013, in Golden, Colorado. The workshop...

  11. Hydrogen production from carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackner, Klaus S.; Ziock, Hans J.; Harrison, Douglas P.

    2004-09-14

    Hydrogen is produced from solid or liquid carbon-containing fuels in a two-step process. The fuel is gasified with hydrogen in a hydrogenation reaction to produce a methane-rich gaseous reaction product, which is then reacted with water and calcium oxide in a hydrogen production and carbonation reaction to produce hydrogen and calcium carbonate. The calcium carbonate may be continuously removed from the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone and calcined to regenerate calcium oxide, which may be reintroduced into the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction zone. Hydrogen produced in the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction is more than sufficient both to provide the energy necessary for the calcination reaction and also to sustain the hydrogenation of the coal in the gasification reaction. The excess hydrogen is available for energy production or other purposes. Substantially all of the carbon introduced as fuel ultimately emerges from the invention process in a stream of substantially pure carbon dioxide. The water necessary for the hydrogen production and carbonation reaction may be introduced into both the gasification and hydrogen production and carbonation reactions, and allocated so as transfer the exothermic heat of reaction of the gasification reaction to the endothermic hydrogen production and carbonation reaction.

  12. Hydrogen Production | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Hydrogen is the simplest element on earth-it consists of only one proton and one electron-and it is an energy carrier, not an energy source. Hydrogen can store and deliver usable energy, but it doesn't typically exist by itself in nature and must be produced from compounds that contain it. WHY STUDY HYDROGEN PRODUCTION Hydrogen can be used in fuel cells to generate power using a chemical reaction rather than combustion, producing only water and

  13. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The mission of the Hydrogen Production Technical Team (HPTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen production technologies, using clean, domestic resources, which will allow for an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed cost of $2 to $4 per gasoline gallon equivalent (gge) of hydrogen.

  14. Hydrogen Production Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Hydrogen is an energy carrier, not an energy source—it stores and delivers energy in a usable form, but it must be produced from hydrogen containing compounds.

  15. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production...

  16. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Potential Impacts to Utilities

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Potential Impacts to Utilities Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop February 28, 2014 Frank Novachek Director, Corporate Planning 2...

  17. Hydrogen Production: Natural Gas Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Natural gas reforming is an advanced and mature production process that builds upon the existing natural gas pipeline delivery infrastructure. Today, 95% of the hydrogen produced in the United States is made by natural gas reforming in large central plants. This is an important technology pathway for near-term hydrogen production.

  18. Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems Matthew Posewitz Colorado School of Mines DOE Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop September 24 th , 2013 H 2 production PSIIPSI...

  19. Nanolipoprotein Particles for Hydrogen Production - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Nanolipoprotein Particles for Hydrogen Production Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact...

  20. Hydrogen Production Fact Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fact Sheet Hydrogen Production Fact Sheet Fact sheet produced by the Fuel Cell Technologies Office describing hydrogen production. PDF icon Hydrogen Production More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap FTA - SunLine Transit Agency - Final Report

  1. Hydrogen Production: Microbial Biomass Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Microbial biomass conversion processes take advantage of the ability of microorganisms to consume and digest biomass and release hydrogen. Depending on the pathway, this research could result in commercial-scale systems in the mid- to long-term timeframe that could be suitable for distributed, semi-central, or central hydrogen production scales, depending on the feedstock used.

  2. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production and Delivery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production and Delivery Learn how NREL is developing and advancing a number of pathways to renewable hydrogen production. Text Version Most of the hydrogen in the United States is produced by steam reforming of natural gas. For the near term, this production method will continue to dominate. Researchers at NREL are developing advanced processes to produce hydrogen economically from sustainable resources. NREL's hydrogen production and delivery R&D efforts, which are led by Huyen

  3. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner ...

  4. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner and Proton Above is the video recording for the webinar, "Hydrogen Production by ...

  5. Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies Presentation by John Peters, Montana State University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held...

  6. Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon bioh2workshopdismukes.pdf More Documents & Publications 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological ...

  7. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-06-01

    The Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap identifies research pathways leading to hydrogen production technologies that produce near-zero net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from highly efficient and diverse renewable energy sources. This roadmap focuses on initial development of the technologies, identifies their gaps and barriers, and describes activities by various U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) offices to address the key issues and challenges.

  8. Technical Analysis of Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali T-Raissi

    2005-01-14

    The aim of this work was to assess issues of cost, and performance associated with the production and storage of hydrogen via following three feedstocks: sub-quality natural gas (SQNG), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), and water. Three technology areas were considered: (1) Hydrogen production utilizing SQNG resources, (2) Hydrogen storage in ammonia and amine-borane complexes for fuel cell applications, and (3) Hydrogen from solar thermochemical cycles for splitting water. This report summarizes our findings with the following objectives: Technoeconomic analysis of the feasibility of the technology areas 1-3; Evaluation of the hydrogen production cost by technology areas 1; and Feasibility of ammonia and/or amine-borane complexes (technology areas 2) as a means of hydrogen storage on-board fuel cell powered vehicles. For each technology area, we reviewed the open literature with respect to the following criteria: process efficiency, cost, safety, and ease of implementation and impact of the latest materials innovations, if any. We employed various process analysis platforms including FactSage chemical equilibrium software and Aspen Technologies AspenPlus and HYSYS chemical process simulation programs for determining the performance of the prospective hydrogen production processes.

  9. Thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.

    1976-07-13

    A thermochemical reaction cycle for the generation of hydrogen from water comprising the following sequence of reactions wherein M represents a metal and Z represents a metalloid selected from the arsenic-antimony-bismuth and selenium-tellurium subgroups of the periodic system: 2MO + Z + SO.sub.2 .fwdarw. MZ + MSO.sub.4 (1) mz + h.sub.2 so.sub.4 .fwdarw. mso.sub.4 + h.sub.2 z (2) 2mso.sub.4 .fwdarw. 2mo + so.sub.2 + so.sub.3 + 1/20.sub.2 (3) h.sub.2 z .fwdarw. z + h.sub.2 (4) h.sub.2 o + so.sub.3 .fwdarw. h.sub.2 so.sub.4 (5) the net reaction is the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  10. Negative hydrogen ion production mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bacal, M.; Wada, M.

    2015-06-15

    Negative hydrogen/deuterium ions can be formed by processes occurring in the plasma volume and on surfaces facing the plasma. The principal mechanisms leading to the formation of these negative ions are dissociative electron attachment to ro-vibrationally excited hydrogen/deuterium molecules when the reaction takes place in the plasma volume, and the direct electron transfer from the low work function metal surface to the hydrogen/deuterium atoms when formation occurs on the surface. The existing theoretical models and reported experimental results on these two mechanisms are summarized. Performance of the negative hydrogen/deuterium ion sources that emerged from studies of these mechanisms is reviewed. Contemporary negative ion sources do not have negative ion production electrodes of original surface type sources but are operated with caesium with their structures nearly identical to volume production type sources. Reasons for enhanced negative ion current due to caesium addition to these sources are discussed.

  11. Solar Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koval, C.; Sutin, N.; Turner, J.

    1996-09-01

    This panel addressed different methods for the photoassisted dissociation of water into its component parts, hydrogen and oxygen. Systems considered include PV-electrolysis, photoelectrochemical cells, and transition-metal based microheterogeneous and homogeneous systems. While none of the systems for water splitting appear economically viable at the present time, the panel identified areas of basic research that could increase the overall efficiency and decrease the costs. Common to all the areas considered was the underlying belief that the water-to-hydrogen half reaction is reasonably well characterized, while the four-electron oxidation of water-to-oxygen is less well understood and represents a significant energy loss. For electrolysis, research in electrocatalysis to reduce overvoltage losses was identified as a key area for increased efficiency. Non-noble metal catalysts and less expensive components would reduce capital costs. While potentially offering higher efficiencies and lower costs, photoelectrochemical-based direct conversion systems undergo corrosion reactions and often have poor energetics for the water reaction. Research is needed to understand the factors that control the interfacial energetics and the photoinduced corrosion. Multi-photon devices were identified as promising systems for high efficiency conversion.

  12. Hydrogen production: Overview of technology options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2009-01-15

    Overview of technology options for hydrogen production, its challenges and research needs and next steps

  13. Hydrogen Production: Electrolysis | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    » Processes » Hydrogen Production: Electrolysis Hydrogen Production: Electrolysis Electrolysis is a promising option for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Electrolysis is the process of using electricity to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. This reaction takes place in a unit called an electrolyzer. Electrolyzers can range in size from small, appliance-size equipment that is well-suited for small-scale distributed hydrogen production to large-scale, central production

  14. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures, DOE Hydrogen Program FY 2010 Annual Progress Report Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency ...

  15. 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    November 2013 summary report for the 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop. PDF icon bioh2workshopfinalreport.pdf More Documents & Publications The Hydrogen Program at ...

  16. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hour-by-Hour Cost Modeling of Optimized Central Wind-Based Water Electrolysis Production Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner ...

  17. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Jian

    2013-12-23

    The objectives of this project, covering two phases and an additional extension phase, were the development of thin film-based hybrid photovoltaic (PV)/photoelectrochemical (PEC) devices for solar-powered water splitting. The hybrid device, comprising a low-cost photoactive material integrated with amorphous silicon (a-Si:H or a-Si in short)-based solar cells as a driver, should be able to produce hydrogen with a 5% solar-to-hydrogen conversion efficiency (STH) and be durable for at least 500 hours. Three thin film material classes were studied and developed under this program: silicon-based compounds, copper chalcopyrite-based compounds, and metal oxides. With the silicon-based compounds, more specifically the amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC), we achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% when the photoelectrode was coupled to an a-Si tandem solar cell, and a STH efficiency of 6.1% when using a crystalline Si PV driver. The hybrid PV/a-SiC device tested under a current bias of -3~4 mA/cm{sup 2}, exhibited a durability of up to ~800 hours in 0.25 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} electrolyte. Other than the PV driver, the most critical element affecting the photocurrent (and hence the STH efficiency) of the hybrid PV/a-SiC device was the surface energetics at the a-SiC/electrolyte interface. Without surface modification, the photocurrent of the hybrid PEC device was ~1 mA/cm{sup 2} or lower due to a surface barrier that limits the extraction of photogenerated carriers. We conducted an extensive search for suitable surface modification techniques/materials, of which the deposition of low work function metal nanoparticles was the most successful. Metal nanoparticles of ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W) or titanium (Ti) led to an anodic shift in the onset potential. We have also been able to develop hybrid devices of various configurations in a monolithic fashion and optimized the current matching via altering the energy bandgap and thickness of each constituent cell. As a result, the short-circuit photocurrent density of the hybrid device (measured in a 2-electrode configuration) increased significantly without assistance of any external bias, i.e. from ?1 mA/cm{sup 2} to ~5 mA/cm{sup 2}. With the copper chalcopyrite compounds, we have achieved a STH efficiency of 3.7% in a coplanar configuration with 3 a-Si solar cells and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode. This material class exhibited good durability at a photocurrent density level of -4 mA/cm{sup 2} (5% STH equivalent) at a fixed potential (-0.45 VRHE). A poor band-edge alignment with the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) potential was identified as the main limitation for high STH efficiency. Three new pathways have been identified to solve this issue. First, PV driver with bandgap lower than that of amorphous silicon were investigated. Crystalline silicon was identified as possible bottom cell. Mechanical stacks made with one Si solar cell and one CuGaSe{sub 2} photocathode were built. A 400 mV anodic shift was observed with the Si cell, leading to photocurrent density of -5 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE (compared to 0 mA/cm{sup 2} at the same potential without PV driver). We also investigated the use of p-n junctions to shift CuGaSe{sub 2} flatband potential anodically. Reactively sputtered zinc oxy-sulfide thin films was evaluated as n-type buffer and deposited on CuGaSe{sub 2}. Ruthenium nanoparticles were then added as HER catalyst. A 250 mV anodic shift was observed with the p-n junction, leading to photocurrent density at 0VRHE of -1.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Combining this device with a Si solar cell in a mechanical stack configuration shifted the onset potential further (+400 mV anodically), leading to photocurrent density of -7 mA/cm{sup 2} at 0VRHE. Finally, we developed wide bandgap copper chalcopyrite thin film materials. We demonstrated that Se can be substituted with S using a simple annealing step. Photocurrent densities in the 5-6 mA/cm{sub 2} range were obtained with red 2.0eV CuInGaS{sub 2} photocathodes. With the metal oxide compounds, we have demonstrated that a WO{sub 3}-based hybrid photoelectrode was feasible. Specifically, we showed that WO{sub 3} paired with an a-Si tandem solar cell can generate short circuit photocurrent density of 2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}, equivalent to STH efficiency of 3.1%. Long-term durability tests demonstrated WO{sub 3} ability to split water over extended periods, for up to 600 hours at current density levels of 2.0-2.5 mA/cm{sup 2}. Efforts have been done to decrease WO{sub 3} bandgap using foreign elements incorporation. We did not manage to reduce the bandgap of WO{sub 3} with this method. However, more promising results have been achieved with bilayered systems, where only the top part of WO{sub 3} films was modified. Also, we have demonstrated that alloying WO{sub 3} with CuO can form 2.2eV bandgap CuWO{sub 4}. Incorporating conductive carbon nanotubes in CuWO{sub 4} reduced its intrinsic bulk resistance. Saturation photocurrent densities in the 0.4-0.5 mA/cm{sub 2} range were achieved. Recently, in collaboration with University of Texas at Arlington, we have identified new quaternary metal oxides with CuWO{sub 4} as primary material host. Our experimental work on ceramics confirmed the theoretical calculations that crowned bismuth as a possible candidate to improve CuWO{sub 4} water splitting efficiency.

  18. Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria Autofermentative Biological Hydrogen Production by Cyanobacteria Presentation by Charles Dismukes, Rutgers University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado. PDF icon bio_h2_workshop_dismukes.pdf More Documents & Publications 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report Renewable Hydrogen

  19. Hydrogen Storage and Production Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, Abhijit; Biris, A. S.; Mazumder, M. K.; Karabacak, T.; Kannarpady, Ganesh; Sharma, R.

    2011-07-31

    This is the final technical report. This report is a summary of the project. The goal of our project is to improve solar-to-hydrogen generation efficiency of the PhotoElectroChemical (PEC) conversion process by developing photoanodes with high absorption efficiency in the visible region of the solar radiation spectrum and to increase photo-corrosion resistance of the electrode for generating hydrogen from water. To meet this goal, we synthesized nanostructured heterogeneous semiconducting photoanodes with a higher light absorption efficiency compared to that of TiO2 and used a corrosion protective layer of TiO2. While the advantages of photoelectrochemical (PEC) production of hydrogen have not yet been realized, the recent developments show emergence of new nanostructural designs of photoanodes and choices of materials with significant gains in photoconversion efficiency.

  20. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Experts from industry and national laboratories representing polymer electrolyte membrane, ...SOEC Development Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) ...

  1. Low Cost Hydrogen Production Platform

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Timothy M. Aaron, Jerome T. Jankowiak

    2009-10-16

    A technology and design evaluation was carried out for the development of a turnkey hydrogen production system in the range of 2.4 - 12 kg/h of hydrogen. The design is based on existing SMR technology and existing chemical processes and technologies to meet the design objectives. Consequently, the system design consists of a steam methane reformer, PSA system for hydrogen purification, natural gas compression, steam generation and all components and heat exchangers required for the production of hydrogen. The focus of the program is on packaging, system integration and an overall step change in the cost of capital required for the production of hydrogen at small scale. To assist in this effort, subcontractors were brought in to evaluate the design concepts and to assist in meeting the overall goals of the program. Praxair supplied the overall system and process design and the subcontractors were used to evaluate the components and system from a manufacturing and overall design optimization viewpoint. Design for manufacturing and assembly (DFMA) techniques, computer models and laboratory/full-scale testing of components were utilized to optimize the design during all phases of the design development. Early in the program evaluation, a review of existing Praxair hydrogen facilities showed that over 50% of the installed cost of a SMR based hydrogen plant is associated with the high temperature components (reformer, shift, steam generation, and various high temperature heat exchange). The main effort of the initial phase of the program was to develop an integrated high temperature component for these related functions. Initially, six independent concepts were developed and the processes were modeled to determine overall feasibility. The six concepts were eventually narrowed down to the highest potential concept. A US patent was awarded in February 2009 for the Praxair integrated high temperature component design. A risk analysis of the high temperature component was conducted to identify any potential design deficiency related to the concept. The analysis showed that no fundamental design flaw existed with the concept, but additional simulations and prototypes would be required to verify the design prior to fabricating a production unit. These identified risks were addressed in detail during Phase II of the development program. Along with the models of the high temperature components, a detailed process and 3D design model of the remainder of system, including PSA, compression, controls, water treatment and instrumentation was developed and evaluated. Also, in Phase II of the program, laboratory/fullscale testing of the high temperature components was completed and stable operation/control of the system was verified. The overall design specifications and test results were then used to develop accurate hydrogen costs for the optimized system. Praxair continued development and testing of the system beyond the Phase II funding provided by the DOE through the end of 2008. This additional testing is not documented in this report, but did provide significant additional data for development of a prototype system as detailed in the Phase III proposal. The estimated hydrogen product costs were developed (2007 basis) for the 4.8 kg/h system at production rates of 1, 5, 10, 100 and 1,000 units built per year. With the low cost SMR approach, the product hydrogen costs for the 4.8 kg/h units at 50 units produced per year were approximately $3.02 per kg. With increasing the volume production to 1,000 units per year, the hydrogen costs are reduced by about 12% to $2.67 per kg. The cost reduction of only 12% is a result of significant design and fabrication efficiencies being realized in all levels of production runs through utilizing the DFMA principles. A simplified and easily manufactured design does not require large production volumes to show significant cost benefits. These costs represent a significant improvement and a new benchmark in the cost to produce small volume on-site hydrogen using existing process technologies. The cost models assume a natural gas cost of $5/MMBtu (HHV). Praxair has, in Phases I and II of this program, shown that significant improvements in cost, plant layout, system integration and overall system optimization are achievable. Phase III of the program, submitted in January 2007, was to focus on demonstrating both the technical feasibility and economic viability of the design developed in Phases I and II through a full-scale prototype design, construction, installation, analysis and operation at a hydrogen fueling station. Due to funding limitations, Phase III of the program was not approved by the DOE.

  2. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via ...

  3. Hydrogen Production: Fundamentals and Case Study Summaries (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harrison, K.; Remick, R.; Hoskin, A.; Martin, G.

    2010-05-19

    This presentation summarizes hydrogen production fundamentals and case studies, including hydrogen to wind case studies.

  4. Bioelectrocatalysis of hydrogen oxidation/production by hydrogenases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bioelectrocatalysis of hydrogen oxidation/production by hydrogenases Authors: Jones, A.K., McIntosh, C.L., Dutta, A., Kwan, P., Roy, S., Yang, S. Title: Bioelectrocatalysis of hydrogen oxidation/production by hydrogenases Source: In: Enzymatic fuel cells: From fundamentals to applications. Edited by H. Luckarift, G. Johnson and P. Attanasov, Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany Year: 2013 Volume: in press Pages: ABSTRACT: Date of online publication: Link online: http://solarfuel.clas.asu.edu

  5. Hydrogen Production Pathways | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Pathways Hydrogen Production Pathways Hydrogen Production Pathways DOE is focused on developing technologies that can produce hydrogen at a target of less than $4/kg (delivered and dispensed). To reach these goals, the program looks at a wide portfolio of processes over a range of time frames and production scales. Currently, most hydrogen in the United States is produced by large-scale natural gas reforming. This established technology has been shown to be able to reach the cost targets in the

  6. Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) held the Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop on February 27-28, 2014, at The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado, to discuss and share information on the research, development, and demonstration (RD&D) needs for enabling low-cost, effective hydrogen

  7. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Cost Analysis NREL analyzed the cost of hydrogen production via wind-based water electrolysis at 42 potential sites in 11 states across the nation. This analysis included centralized plants producing the Department of Energy (DOE) target of 50,000 kg of hydrogen per day, using both wind and grid electricity. The use of wind and grid electricity can be balanced either by power or cost, including or excluding the purchase of peak summer electricity. Current wind incentives-such

  8. System for thermochemical hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werner, R.W.; Galloway, T.R.; Krikorian, O.H.

    1981-05-22

    Method and apparatus are described for joule boosting a SO/sub 3/ decomposer using electrical instead of thermal energy to heat the reactants of the high temperature SO/sub 3/ decomposition step of a thermochemical hydrogen production process driven by a tandem mirror reactor. Joule boosting the decomposer to a sufficiently high temperature from a lower temperature heat source eliminates the need for expensive catalysts and reduces the temperature and consequent materials requirements for the reactor blanket. A particular decomposer design utilizes electrically heated silicon carbide rods, at a temperature of 1250/sup 0/K, to decompose a cross flow of SO/sub 3/ gas.

  9. Hydrogen Production Processes | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes Hydrogen Production Processes Hydrogen can be produced using a number of different processes. Thermochemical processes use heat and chemical reactions to release hydrogen from organic materials such as fossil fuels and biomass. Water (H2O) can be split into hydrogen (H2) and oxygen (O2) using electrolysis or solar energy. Microorganisms such as bacteria and algae can produce hydrogen through biological processes. Thermochemical Processes Some thermal processes use the energy in various

  10. Hydrogen production from microbial strains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harwood, Caroline S; Rey, Federico E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. This method involves inoculating one or more microbes in a sample containing cell culture medium to form an inoculated culture medium. The inoculated culture medium is then incubated under hydrogen producing conditions. Once incubating causes the inoculated culture medium to produce hydrogen, microbes in the culture medium are identified as candidate microbe strains capable of generating hydrogen. Methods of producing hydrogen using one or more of the microbial strains identified as well as the hydrogen producing strains themselves are also disclosed.

  11. 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report November 2013 summary report for the 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop. PDF icon bio_h2_workshop_final_report.pdf More Documents & Publications The Hydrogen Program at NREL: A Brief Overview Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems

  12. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and identifies the critical path challenges to the commercial potential of each cycle. PDF icon Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemical ...

  13. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report This report updates the 1999 economic analysis ...

  14. Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Hydrogenases and barriers for biotechnological hydrogen production technologies John W. Peters Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry Department of Microbiology Montana State...

  15. Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report documents the engineering and cost characteristics of four PEC hydrogen production systems selected by DOE to represent canonical embodiments of future systems.

  16. Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biomass Pyrolysis Aqueous...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... via directed evolution (25 generations) - Demonstration of hydrogen production from bio-oil aqueous phase (boap) (5 LL-day) - Demonstrating conversion of phenolic ...

  17. Hydrogen (H2) Production by Oxygenic Phototrophs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Eric Hegg, Michigan State University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  18. Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis U.S. Department of Energy Fuel Cell Technologies Office January ...

  19. Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, Brian D.; Baum, George N.; Perez, Julie; Baum, Kevin N.

    2009-12-01

    This report documents the engineering and cost characteristics of four PEC hydrogen production systems selected by DOE to represent canonical embodiments of future systems.

  20. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production from Coal Derived Syngas Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metallic Membrane Materials Development for...

  1. Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Materialscientist, Wikipedia) (click image to enlarge) Promising technique improves hydrogen production of affordable alternative to platinum By Angela Hardin * October 26, 2015...

  2. Redirection of metabolism for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwood, Caroline S.

    2011-11-28

    This project is to develop and apply techniques in metabolic engineering to improve the biocatalytic potential of the bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris for nitrogenase-catalyzed hydrogen gas production. R. palustris, is an ideal platform to develop as a biocatalyst for hydrogen gas production because it is an extremely versatile microbe that produces copious amounts of hydrogen by drawing on abundant natural resources of sunlight and biomass. Anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria, such as R. palustris, generate hydrogen and ammonia during a process known as biological nitrogen fixation. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme nitrogenase and normally consumes nitrogen gas, ATP and electrons. The applied use of nitrogenase for hydrogen production is attractive because hydrogen is an obligatory product of this enzyme and is formed as the only product when nitrogen gas is not supplied. Our challenge is to understand the systems biology of R. palustris sufficiently well to be able to engineer cells to produce hydrogen continuously, as fast as possible and with as high a conversion efficiency as possible of light and electron donating substrates. For many experiments we started with a strain of R. palustris that produces hydrogen constitutively under all growth conditions. We then identified metabolic pathways and enzymes important for removal of electrons from electron-donating organic compounds and for their delivery to nitrogenase in whole R. palustris cells. For this we developed and applied improved techniques in 13C metabolic flux analysis. We identified reactions that are important for generating electrons for nitrogenase and that are yield-limiting for hydrogen production. We then increased hydrogen production by blocking alternative electron-utilizing metabolic pathways by mutagenesis. In addition we found that use of non-growing cells as biocatalysts for hydrogen gas production is an attractive option, because cells divert all resources away from growth and to hydrogen. Also R. palustris cells remain viable in a non-growing state for long periods of time.

  3. Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Coal Gasification Hydrogen Production: Coal Gasification The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically through the process of coal gasification with carbon capture, utilization, and storage. DOE anticipates that coal gasification for hydrogen production with carbon capture, utilization, and storage could be deployed in the mid-term time frame. How Does It Work? Chemically, coal is a complex and highly

  4. Hydrogen Production by Water Biophotolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghirardi, Maria L.; King, Paul W.; Mulder, David W.; Eckert, Carrie; Dubini, Alexandra; Maness, Pin-Ching; Yu, Jianping

    2014-01-22

    The use of microalgae for production of hydrogen gas from water photolysis has been studied for many years, but its commercialization is still limited by multiple challenges. Most of the barriers to commercialization are attributed to the existence of biological regulatory mechanisms that, under anaerobic conditions, quench the absorbed light energy, down-regulate linear electron transfer, inactivate the H2-producing enzyme, and compete for electrons with the hydrogenase. Consequently, the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons into H2 is significantly lower than its estimated potential of 1213 %. However, extensive research continues towards addressing these barriers by either trying to understand and circumvent intracellular regulatory mechanisms at the enzyme and metabolic level or by developing biological systems that achieve prolonged H2 production albeit under lower than 1213 % solar conversion efficiency. This chapter describes the metabolic pathways involved in biological H2 photoproduction from water photolysis, the attributes of the two hydrogenases, [FeFe] and [NiFe], that catalyze biological H2 production, and highlights research related to addressing the barriers described above. These highlights include: (a) recent advances in improving our understanding of the O2 inactivation mechanism in different classes of hydrogenases; (b) progress made in preventing competitive pathways from diverting electrons from H2 photoproduction; and (c) new developments in bypassing the non-dissipated proton gradient from down-regulating photosynthetic electron transfer. As an example of a major success story, we mention the generation of truncated-antenna mutants in Chlamydomonas and Synechocystis that address the inherent low-light saturation of photosynthesis. In addition, we highlight the rationale and progress towards coupling biological hydrogenases to non-biological, photochemical charge-separation as a means to bypass the barriers of photobiological systems.

  5. Waste/By-Product Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Ruth Cox, Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Energy Association, at the DOE-DOD Waste-to-Energy using Fuel Cells Workshop held Jan. 13, 2011

  6. Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting Hydrogen Production: Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting In photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting, hydrogen is produced from water using sunlight and specialized semiconductors called photoelectrochemical materials, which use light energy to directly dissociate water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen. This is a long-term technology pathway, with the potential for low or no greenhouse gas emissions. How Does it Work? The PEC water splitting

  7. Production of hydrogen from alcohols

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deluga, Gregg A.; Schmidt, Lanny D.

    2007-08-14

    A process for producing hydrogen from ethanol or other alcohols. The alcohol, optionally in combination with water, is contacted with a catalyst comprising rhodium. The overall process is preferably carried out under autothermal conditions.

  8. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  9. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meet

  10. Renewable Hydrogen Production from Biological Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Matthew Posewitz, Colorado School of Mines, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  11. Central Versus Distributed Hydrogen Production | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Central, semi-central, and distributed production facilities are expected to play a role in the evolution and long-term use of hydrogen as an energy carrier. The different ...

  12. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    project(s) that will utilize hydrogen production equipment and nuclear energy as necessary to produce data and analysis on the economics of hydrogen production with nuclear energy. ...

  13. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM)Electrolysis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis-Spotlight on Giner ... Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte ...

  14. Hydrogen Analysis (H2A) Production Component Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    determine the hydrogen selling cost given a specified after-tax internal rate of return. ... Production model evaluates cost of hydrogen production from any primary energy source for ...

  15. Energy Department Invests $20 Million to Advance Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department Invests 20 Million to Advance Hydrogen Production and Delivery Technologies Energy Department Invests 20 Million to Advance Hydrogen Production and Delivery...

  16. Vacancy Announcements Posted for Hydrogen Production and Delivery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vacancy Announcements Posted for Hydrogen Production and Delivery Program Vacancy Announcements Posted for Hydrogen Production and Delivery Program October 3, 2014 - 10:49am ...

  17. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATIN...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN ...

  18. Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: ...

  19. Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant This May 2012 study assesses the costs ...

  20. Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass Gasification Hydrogen Production: Biomass Gasification Photo of a man standing near a pilot-scale gasification system. Biomass gasification is a mature technology pathway that uses a controlled process involving heat, steam, and oxygen to convert biomass to hydrogen and other products, without combustion. Because growing biomass removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, the net carbon emissions of this method can be low, especially if coupled with carbon capture, utilization, and

  1. Hydrogen production using ammonia borane

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hamilton, Charles W; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy A; Shrestha, Roshan P

    2013-12-24

    Hydrogen ("H.sub.2") is produced when ammonia borane reacts with a catalyst complex of the formula L.sub.nM-X wherein M is a base metal such as iron, X is an anionic nitrogen- or phosphorus-based ligand or hydride, and L is a neutral ancillary ligand that is a neutral monodentate or polydentate ligand.

  2. Hydrolysis reactor for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Thomas A.; Matthews, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    In accordance with certain embodiments of the present disclosure, a method for hydrolysis of a chemical hydride is provided. The method includes adding a chemical hydride to a reaction chamber and exposing the chemical hydride in the reaction chamber to a temperature of at least about 100.degree. C. in the presence of water and in the absence of an acid or a heterogeneous catalyst, wherein the chemical hydride undergoes hydrolysis to form hydrogen gas and a byproduct material.

  3. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Production and Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Production and Distribution on Digg Find More places

  4. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, C.H.; Bauer, H.F.; Grimes, R.W.

    1993-03-30

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen and carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  5. Low-cost process for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cha, Chang Y.; Bauer, Hans F.; Grimes, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    A method is provided for producing hydrogen and carbon black from hydrocarbon gases comprising mixing the hydrocarbon gases with a source of carbon and applying radiofrequency energy to the mixture. The hydrocarbon gases and the carbon can both be the products of gasification of coal, particularly the mild gasification of coal. A method is also provided for producing hydrogen an carbon monoxide by treating a mixture of hydrocarbon gases and steam with radio-frequency energy.

  6. Hydrogen Production: Overview of Technology Options, January 2009

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Overview of technology options for hydrogen production, its challenges and research needs and next steps

  7. Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, E.L.; Marsen, B.; Paluselli, D.; Rocheleau, R.

    2004-11-17

    The scope of this photoelectrochemical hydrogen research project is defined by multijunction photoelectrode concepts for solar-powered water splitting, with the goal of efficient, stable, and economic operation. From an initial selection of several planar photoelectrode designs, the Hybrid Photoelectrode (HPE) has been identified as the most promising candidate technology. This photoelectrode consists of a photoelectrochemical (PEC) junction and a solid-state photovoltaic (PV) junction. Immersed in aqueous electrolyte and exposed to sunlight, these two junctions provide the necessary voltage to split water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. The efficiency of the conversion process is determined by the performance of the PEC- and the PV-junctions and on their spectral match. Based on their stability and cost effectiveness, iron oxide (Fe2O3) and tungsten oxide (WO3) films have been studied and developed as candidate semiconductor materials for the PEC junction (photoanode). High-temperature synthesis methods, as reported for some high-performance metal oxides, have been found incompatible with multijunction device fabrication. A low-temperature reactive sputtering process has been developed instead. In the parameter space investigated so far, the optoelectronic properties of WO3 films were superior to those of Fe2O3 films, which showed high recombination of photo-generated carriers. For the PV-junction, amorphous-silicon-based multijunction devices have been studied. Tandem junctions were preferred over triple junctions for better stability and spectral matching with the PEC junction. Based on a tandem a-SiGe/a-SiGe device and a tungsten trioxide film, a prototype hybrid photoelectrode has been demonstrated at 0.7% solar-to-hydrogen (STH) conversion efficiency. The PEC junction performance has been identified as the most critical element for higher-efficiency devices. Research into sputter-deposited tungsten trioxide films has yielded samples with higher photocurrents of up to 1.3 mA/cm2. An improved a-Si/aSi tandem device has been demonstrated that would provide a better voltage match to the recently improved WO3 films. For a hybrid photoelectrode based on these component devices the projected STH efficiency is 1.3%. For significant efficiency enhancements, metal oxide films with increased optical absorption, thus lower bandgap, are necessary. Initial experiments were successful in lowering the WO3 bandgap by nitrogen doping, from 3.0 eV to 2.1 eV. Optimizing the electronic properties of these compounds, or other reduced-bandgap materials such as Fe2O3, is the most immediate challenge. As the photocurrent levels of the PEC junction are improved, increasing attention will have to be paid to the matching PV junction.

  8. Systematic Discrimination of Advanced Hydrogen Production Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Park; Michael W. Patterson

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, in concert with industry, is developing a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to demonstrate high temperature heat applications to produce hydrogen and electricity or to support other industrial applications. A key part of this program is the production of hydrogen from water that would significantly reduce carbon emissions compared to current production using natural gas. In 2009 the INL led the methodical evaluation of promising advanced hydrogen production technologies in order to focus future resources on the most viable processes. This paper describes how the evaluation process was systematically planned and executed. As a result, High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis was selected as the most viable near-term technology to deploy as a part of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project.

  9. US DRIVE Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Technical Team Roadmap US DRIVE Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap The mission of the Hydrogen Production Technical Team (HPTT) is to enable the development of hydrogen production technologies, using clean, domestic resources, which will allow for an as-produced, delivered, and dispensed cost of $2 to $4 per gasoline gallon equivalent (gge) of hydrogen. PDF icon hptt_roadmap_june2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap Bio-Derived

  10. DOE Technical Targets for Photobiological Hydrogen Production | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Photobiological Hydrogen Production DOE Technical Targets for Photobiological Hydrogen Production These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for photobiological hydrogen production. The tables are organized into separate sections for photolytic biological and photosynthetic bacterial hydrogen production systems. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research,

  11. Hydrogen Production Technical Team Roadmap

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production Technical Team Roadmap June 2013 This roadmap is a document of the U.S. DRIVE Partnership. U.S. DRIVE (Driving Research and Innovation for Vehicle efficiency and Energy ...

  12. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, J.; Mattingly, S.M.

    1999-08-24

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch; the reaction mixture also comprising an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; (b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and (c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture. 8 figs.

  13. Method for the enzymatic production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodward, Jonathan; Mattingly, Susan M.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an enzymatic method for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: a) forming a reaction mixture within a reaction vessel comprising a substrate capable of undergoing oxidation within a catabolic reaction, such as glucose, galactose, xylose, mannose, sucrose, lactose, cellulose, xylan and starch. The reaction mixture further comprises an amount of glucose dehydrogenase in an amount sufficient to catalyze the oxidation of the substrate, an amount of hydrogenase sufficient to catalyze an electron-requiring reaction wherein a stoichiometric yield of hydrogen is produced, an amount of pH buffer in an amount sufficient to provide an environment that allows the hydrogenase and the glucose dehydrogenase to retain sufficient activity for the production of hydrogen to occur and also comprising an amount of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate sufficient to transfer electrons from the catabolic reaction to the electron-requiring reaction; b) heating the reaction mixture at a temperature sufficient for glucose dehydrogenase and the hydrogenase to retain sufficient activity and sufficient for the production of hydrogen to occur, and heating for a period of time that continues until the hydrogen is no longer produced by the reaction mixture, wherein the catabolic reaction and the electron-requiring reactions have rates of reaction dependent upon the temperature; and c) detecting the hydrogen produced from the reaction mixture.

  14. The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM ...

  15. Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at Hickam Air Force Base Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base Presented at the Renewable Hydrogen Workshop, Nov. 16, 2009, in Palm Springs, CA PDF icon ...

  16. Method of Production of Pure Hydrogen Near Room Temperature From...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Energy Storage Energy Storage Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Method of Production of Pure...

  17. Method for the continuous production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Getty, John Paul; Orr, Mark T.; Woodward, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a method for the continuous production of hydrogen. The present method comprises reacting a metal catalyst with a degassed aqueous organic acid solution within a reaction vessel under anaerobic conditions at a constant temperature of .ltoreq.80.degree. C. and at a pH ranging from about 4 to about 9. The reaction forms a metal oxide when the metal catalyst reacts with the water component of the organic acid solution while generating hydrogen, then the organic acid solution reduces the metal oxide thereby regenerating the metal catalyst and producing water, thus permitting the oxidation and reduction to reoccur in a continual reaction cycle. The present method also allows the continuous production of hydrogen to be sustained by feeding the reaction with a continuous supply of degassed aqueous organic acid solution.

  18. Thermoelectrochemical hydrogen production using sodium chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El-Bassuoni, A.M.A.; Sheffield, J.W.; Veziroglu, T.N.

    1981-01-01

    Three closed-cycle processes for the thermoelectrochemical production of hydrogen from water using sodium chloride are under investigation. The maximum required temperature of 700/degree/C can be achieved by solar energy using various concentration techniques. By means of photovoltaic cells or a solar power station, the required electric power can be obtained. 11 refs.

  19. DOE Science Showcase - Hydrogen Production | OSTI, US Dept of Energy,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Research in DOE Databases Energy Citations Database Information Bridge Science.gov WorldWideScience.org More information Making molecular hydrogen more efficiently Breaking Up (Hydrogen) No Longer As Hard To Do Hydrogen and Our Energy Future Fuel Cell Animation Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Increase your Hydrogen IQ Visit the Science Showcase homepage. Last updated on Monday 29 July

  20. Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Air Products and

  1. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Using Low-Cost Natural Gas | Department of Energy 2024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas This program record from the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office provides information about the cost of hydrogen production using low-cost natural gas. PDF icon DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record # 12024 More Documents & Publications Distributed Hydrogen

  2. Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production: Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Resource Assessment for Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Production Potential from Fossil and Renewable Energy Resources M. Melaina, M. Penev, and D. Heimiller National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-5400-55626 September 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

  3. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines A ...

  4. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines Citation Details In-Document Search Title: On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines You ...

  5. DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Record 12024: Hydrogen Production Cost Using Low-Cost Natural Gas This program record ...

  6. A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production | ANSER Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Argonne-Northwestern National Laboratory A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > A Photosynthetic Hydrogel for Catalytic Hydrogen Production

  7. Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2003-09-01

    This document summarizes the opportunities and challenges for low-cost renewable hydrogen production from wind and hydropower. The Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower was held September 9-10, 2003.

  8. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills t

  9. Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropower Workshop Proceedings

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This document summarizes the opportunities and challenges for low-cost renewable hydrogen production from wind and hydropower. The Workshop on Electrolysis Production of Hydrogen from Wind and Hydropo

  10. Startech Hydrogen Production Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Startech Engineering Department

    2007-11-27

    The assigned work scope includes the modification and utilization of the Plasma Converter System, Integration of a StarCell{trademark} Multistage Ceramic Membrane System (StarCell), and testing of the integrated systems towards DOE targets for gasification and membrane separation. Testing and evaluation was performed at the Startech Engineering and Demonstration Test Center in Bristol, CT. The Objectives of the program are as follows: (1) Characterize the performance of the integrated Plasma Converter and StarCell{trademark} Systems for hydrogen production and purification from abundant and inexpensive feedstocks; (2) Compare integrated hydrogen production performance to conventional technologies and DOE benchmarks; (3) Run pressure and temperature testing to baseline StarCell's performance; and (4) Determine the effect of process contaminants on the StarCell{trademark} system.

  11. Webinar: Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Webinar: Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Presentation slides, webinar Q&A, and speaker biography from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production" held on January 24, 2011. PDF icon Photosynthesis for Hydrogen and Fuels Production Webinar Slides PDF icon Webinar Q&A PDF icon Professional Biography for Tasios Melis More Documents & Publications

  12. Hydrogen Production Roadmap: Technology Pathways to the Future, January 2009

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Roadmap to identify key challenges and priority R&D needs associated with various hydrogen fuel production technologies.

  13. Hydrogen Production Roadmap. Technology Pathways to the Future, January 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curry-Nkansah, Maria; Driscoll, Daniel; Farmer, Richard; Garland, Roxanne; Gruber, Jill; Gupta, Nikunj; Hershkowitz, Frank; Holladay, Jamelyn; Nguyen, Kevin; Schlasner, Steven; Steward, Darlene; Penev, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roadmap to identify key challenges and priority R&D needs associated with various hydrogen fuel production technologies.

  14. Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Their Environmental Consequences Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Their ...

  15. Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology × You are accessing a

  16. Integrated Ceramic Membrane System for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwartz, Joseph; Lim, Hankwon; Drnevich, Raymond

    2010-08-05

    Phase I was a technoeconomic feasibility study that defined the process scheme for the integrated ceramic membrane system for hydrogen production and determined the plan for Phase II. The hydrogen production system is comprised of an oxygen transport membrane (OTM) and a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM). Two process options were evaluated: 1) Integrated OTM-HTM reactor – in this configuration, the HTM was a ceramic proton conductor operating at temperatures up to 900°C, and 2) Sequential OTM and HTM reactors – in this configuration, the HTM was assumed to be a Pd alloy operating at less than 600°C. The analysis suggested that there are no technical issues related to either system that cannot be managed. The process with the sequential reactors was found to be more efficient, less expensive, and more likely to be commercialized in a shorter time than the single reactor. Therefore, Phase II focused on the sequential reactor system, specifically, the second stage, or the HTM portion. Work on the OTM portion was conducted in a separate program. Phase IIA began in February 2003. Candidate substrate materials and alloys were identified and porous ceramic tubes were produced and coated with Pd. Much effort was made to develop porous substrates with reasonable pore sizes suitable for Pd alloy coating. The second generation of tubes showed some improvement in pore size control, but this was not enough to get a viable membrane. Further improvements were made to the porous ceramic tube manufacturing process. When a support tube was successfully coated, the membrane was tested to determine the hydrogen flux. The results from all these tests were used to update the technoeconomic analysis from Phase I to confirm that the sequential membrane reactor system can potentially be a low-cost hydrogen supply option when using an existing membrane on a larger scale. Phase IIB began in October 2004 and focused on demonstrating an integrated HTM/water gas shift (WGS) reactor to increase CO conversion and produce more hydrogen than a standard water gas shift reactor would. Substantial improvements in substrate and membrane performance were achieved in another DOE project (DE-FC26-07NT43054). These improved membranes were used for testing in a water gas shift environment in this program. The amount of net H2 generated (defined as the difference of hydrogen produced and fed) was greater than would be produced at equilibrium using conventional water gas shift reactors up to 75 psig because of the shift in equilibrium caused by continuous hydrogen removal. However, methanation happened at higher pressures, 100 and 125 psig, and resulted in less net H2 generated than would be expected by equilibrium conversion alone. An effort to avoid methanation by testing in more oxidizing conditions (by increasing CO2/CO ratio in a feed gas) was successful and net H2 generated was higher (40-60%) than a conventional reactor at equilibrium at all pressures tested (up to 125 psig). A model was developed to predict reactor performance in both cases with and without methanation. The required membrane area depends on conditions, but the required membrane area is about 10 ft2 to produce about 2000 scfh of hydrogen. The maximum amount of hydrogen that can be produced in a membrane reactor decreased significantly due to methanation from about 2600 scfh to about 2400 scfh. Therefore, it is critical to eliminate methanation to fully benefit from the use of a membrane in the reaction. Other modeling work showed that operating a membrane reactor at higher temperature provides an opportunity to make the reactor smaller and potentially provides a significant capital cost savings compared to a shift reactor/PSA combination.

  17. The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of product morphology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology Authors: Dinh, L N ; ...

  18. Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct Hydrogen PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ... PDF icon Mass Production Cost Estimation of Direct H2 PEM Fuel Cell Systems for ...

  19. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Microbial Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion | Department of Energy Microbial Biomass Conversion DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Microbial Biomass Conversion This table lists the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets for hydrogen production from microbial biomass conversion. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Dark Fermentative Hydrogen

  20. DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program Record 12024: Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Note that the potential effects that low natural gas prices might have on electricity prices are not incorporated into these analyses. Figure 2. Hydrogen Levelized Cost Results for ...

  1. Production of hydrogen from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schora, F. C.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Janka, J. C.

    1985-12-24

    A process for production of hydrogen from oil shale fines by direct introduction of the oil shale fines into a fluidized bed at temperatures about 1200/sup 0/ to about 2000/sup 0/ F. to obtain rapid heating of the oil shale. The bed is fluidized by upward passage of steam and oxygen, the steam introduced in the weight ratio of about 0.1 to about 10 on the basis of the organic carbon content of the oil shale and the oxygen introduced in less than the stoichiometric quantity for complete combustion of the organic carbonaceous kerogen content of the oil shale. Embodiments are disclosed for heat recovery from the spent shale and heat recovery from the spent shale and product gas wherein the complete process and heat recovery is carried out in a single reaction vessel. The process of this invention provides high conversion of organic carbon component of oil shale and high production of hydrogen from shale fines which when used in combination with a conventional oil shale hydroconversion process results in increased overall process efficiency of greater than 15 percent.

  2. Hydrogen Production in the U.S. and Worldwide - 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2015-04-01

    This article describes the different categories of hydrogen production (captive, by-product, and merchant) and presents production data for 2013 by industry within these categories. Merchant production data is provided for the top-four industrial gas companies.

  3. Advanced Electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production by Alternative Thermochemical Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei; Chung, Mike; Fedkin, Mark; Lewis, Michele; Balashov, Victor; Chalkova, Elena; Akinfiev, Nikolay; Stork, Carol; Davis, Thomas; Gadala-Maria, Francis; Stanford, Thomas; Weidner, John; Law, Victor; Prindle, John

    2011-01-06

    Hydrogen fuel is a potentially major solution to the problem of climate change, as well as addressing urban air pollution issues. But a key future challenge for hydrogen as a clean energy carrier is a sustainable, low-cost method of producing it in large capacities. Most of the world's hydrogen is currently derived from fossil fuels through some type of reforming processes. Nuclear hydrogen production is an emerging and promising alternative to the reforming processes for carbon-free hydrogen production in the future. This report presents the main results of a research program carried out by a NERI Consortium, which consisted of Penn State University (PSU) (lead), University of South Carolina (USC), Tulane University (TU), and Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). Thermochemical water decomposition is an emerging technology for large-scale production of hydrogen. Typically using two or more intermediate compounds, a sequence of chemical and physical processes split water into hydrogen and oxygen, without releasing any pollutants externally to the atmosphere. These intermediate compounds are recycled internally within a closed loop. While previous studies have identified over 200 possible thermochemical cycles, only a few have progressed beyond theoretical calculations to working experimental demonstrations that establish scientific and practical feasibility of the thermochemical processes. The Cu-Cl cycle has a significant advantage over other cycles due to lower temperature requirements around 530 C and below. As a result, it can be eventually linked with the Generation IV thermal power stations. Advantages of the Cu-Cl cycle over others include lower operating temperatures, ability to utilize low-grade waste heat to improve energy efficiency, and potentially lower cost materials. Another significant advantage is a relatively low voltage required for the electrochemical step (thus low electricity input). Other advantages include common chemical agents and reactions going to completion without side reactions, and lower demands on materials of construction. Three university research groups from PSU, USC, and TU as well as a group from ANL have been collaborating on the development of enabling technologies for the Cu-Cl cycle, including experimental work on the Cu-Cl cycle reactions, modeling and simulation, and particularly electrochemical reaction for hydrogen production using a CuCl electrolyzer. The Consortium research was distributed over the participants and organized in the following tasks: (1) Development of CuCl electrolyzer (PSU), (2) Thermodynamic modeling of anolyte solution (PSU), (3) Proton conductive membranes for CuCl electrolysis (PSU), (4) Development of an analytical method for online analysis of copper compounds in highly concentrated aqueous solutions (USC), (5) Electrodialysis as a means for separation and purification of the streams exiting the electrolyzer in the Cu-Cl cycle (USC), (6) Development of nanostructured electrocatalysts for the Cu-Cl electrolysis (USC), (7) Cu-Cl electrolyzer modeling (USC), (8) Aspen Plus modeling of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (TU), (9) International coordination of research on the development of the Cu-Cl thermochemical cycle (ANL). The results obtained in the project clearly demonstrate that the Cu-Cl alternative thermochemical cycle is a promising and viable technology to produce hydrogen efficiently.

  4. Nuclear Hydrogen for Peak Electricity Production and Spinning Reserve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, C.W.

    2005-01-20

    Nuclear energy can be used to produce hydrogen. The key strategic question is this: ''What are the early markets for nuclear hydrogen?'' The answer determines (1) whether there are incentives to implement nuclear hydrogen technology today or whether the development of such a technology could be delayed by decades until a hydrogen economy has evolved, (2) the industrial partners required to develop such a technology, and (3) the technological requirements for the hydrogen production system (rate of production, steady-state or variable production, hydrogen purity, etc.). Understanding ''early'' markets for any new product is difficult because the customer may not even recognize that the product could exist. This study is an initial examination of how nuclear hydrogen could be used in two interconnected early markets: the production of electricity for peak and intermediate electrical loads and spinning reserve for the electrical grid. The study is intended to provide an initial description that can then be used to consult with potential customers (utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, etc.) to better determine the potential real-world viability of this early market for nuclear hydrogen and provide the starting point for a more definitive assessment of the concept. If this set of applications is economically viable, it offers several unique advantages: (1) the market is approximately equivalent in size to the existing nuclear electric enterprise in the United States, (2) the entire market is within the utility industry and does not require development of an external market for hydrogen or a significant hydrogen infrastructure beyond the utility site, (3) the technology and scale match those of nuclear hydrogen production, (4) the market exists today, and (5) the market is sufficient in size to justify development of nuclear hydrogen production techniques independent of the development of any other market for hydrogen. These characteristics make it an ideal early market for nuclear hydrogen.

  5. Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Breakout Session 2-C: Biogas and Beyond: Challenges and Opportunities for Advanced Biofuels from Wet-Waste Feedstocks Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial Electrolysis Cells Bruce Logan, Kappe Professor of Environmental Engineering and Evan Pugh Professor, Pennsylvania State University PDF icon logan_bioenergy_2015.pdf More

  6. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Biomass Gasification DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass Gasification These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass gasification. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Biomass Gasification/Pyrolysis

  7. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Electrolysis |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Electrolysis DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Electrolysis These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from water electrolysis. The tables are organized into separate sections for distributed electrolysis and central electrolysis. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research,

  8. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Thermochemical Water

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Splitting | Department of Energy from Thermochemical Water Splitting DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Thermochemical Water Splitting These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost and performance parameter values that achieve the targets for hydrogen production from thermochemical water splitting. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year

  9. Fermentation and Electrohydrogenic Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maness, P. C.; Thammannagowda, S.; Magnusson, L.; Logan, B.

    2010-06-01

    This work describes the development of a waste biomass fermentation process using cellulose-degrading bacteria for hydrogen production. This process is then integrated with an electrohydrogenesis process via the development of a microbial electrolysis cell reactor, during which fermentation waste effluent is further converted to hydrogen to increase the total output of hydrogen from biomass.

  10. Method for low temperature catalytic production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahajan, Devinder

    2003-07-22

    The invention provides a process for the catalytic production of a hydrogen feed by exposing a hydrogen feed to a catalyst which promotes a base-catalyzed water-gas-shift reaction in a liquid phase. The hydrogen feed can be provided by any process known in the art of making hydrogen gas. It is preferably provided by a process that can produce a hydrogen feed for use in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. The step of exposing the hydrogen feed takes place preferably from about 80.degree. C. to about 150.degree. C.

  11. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perret, Robert

    2011-05-01

    Eight cycles in a coordinated set of projects for Solar Thermochemical Cycles for Hydrogen production (STCH) were self-evaluated for the DOE-EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Program at a Working Group Meeting on October 8 and 9, 2008. This document reports the initial selection process for development investment in STCH projects, the evaluation process meant to reduce the number of projects as a means to focus resources on development of a few most-likely-to-succeed efforts, the obstacles encountered in project inventory reduction and the outcomes of the evaluation process. Summary technical status of the projects under evaluation is reported and recommendations identified to improve future project planning and selection activities.

  12. Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report documenting the biological and engineering characteristics of five algal and bacterial hydrogen production systems selected by DOE and NREL for evaluation.

  13. Summary of Electrolytic Hydrogen Production: Milestone Completion Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report provides an overview of the current state of electrolytic hydrogen production techonologies and an economic analysis of the processes and systems available as of December 2003.

  14. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Distributed Forecourt Production of Hydrogen from Bio-Derived ...

  15. Livermore team awarded for hydrogen production research | National...

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), the award recognizes the team for its work developing models of photoelectrochemical solar-hydrogen production and corrosion processes. ...

  16. Co-production of Hydrogen and Electricity (A Developer's Perspective)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FuelCell Energy Overview, Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) Technology Status, Hydrogen Co-production Technology, Benefits and Status, Strategic Input

  17. Co-production of Hydrogen and Electricity (A Developer's Perspective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    FuelCell Energy Overview, Direct Fuel Cell (DFC) Technology Status, Hydrogen Co-production Technology, Benefits and Status, Strategic Input PDF icon tspipatel.pdf More Documents & ...

  18. Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production viaWind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Renewable Hydrogen Production via WindElectrolysis: Milestone Completion Report Life ... Analysis Activities at National Renewable Energy Laboratory Life Cycle Assessment of ...

  19. Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Production and Purification from Coal and Other Heavy Feedstocks Year 6 - Activity 1.4 - ... sour syngas exposure, as well as deposition of metals from carbonyl decomposition. ...

  20. Hydrogenases and Barriers for Biotechnological Hydrogen Production Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by John Peters, Montana State University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  1. DOE Issues Request for Information on Biological Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued a request for information seeking feedback from interested stakeholders regarding biological hydrogen production research and development.

  2. Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James, B. D.; Baum, G. N.; Perez, J.; Baum, K. N.

    2009-09-01

    Report documenting the biological and engineering characteristics of five algal and bacterial hydrogen production systems selected by DOE and NREL for evaluation.

  3. Hydrogen Production: Thermochemical Water Splitting | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    nuclear power reactions-and chemical reactions to produce hydrogen and oxygen from water. ... heat (500-2,000C) to drive a series of chemical reactions that produce hydrogen. ...

  4. NREL Photoelectrode Research Advances Hydrogen Production Efforts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Scientists have created a high-performing photoelectrode that boosts the ability of solar water-splitting to produce hydrogen.

  5. Methods and systems for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Chang H.; Kim, Eung S.; Sherman, Steven R.

    2012-03-13

    Methods and systems are disclosed for the production of hydrogen and the use of high-temperature heat sources in energy conversion. In one embodiment, a primary loop may include a nuclear reactor utilizing a molten salt or helium as a coolant. The nuclear reactor may provide heat energy to a power generation loop for production of electrical energy. For example, a supercritical carbon dioxide fluid may be heated by the nuclear reactor via the molten salt and then expanded in a turbine to drive a generator. An intermediate heat exchange loop may also be thermally coupled with the primary loop and provide heat energy to one or more hydrogen production facilities. A portion of the hydrogen produced by the hydrogen production facility may be diverted to a combustor to elevate the temperature of water being split into hydrogen and oxygen by the hydrogen production facility.

  6. Suite of Photo-electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Suite of Photo-electrochemical Technologies for Hydrogen Production National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The primary fuel powering new fuel cell technologies is hydrogen. The market for fuel cells is expected

  7. Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Ceramic Membranes for Hydrogen/Oxygen Production Ceramic Membranes Developed at Argonne May Bring Fuel-Cell Cars Closer to Reality Argonne National Laboratory Contact ANL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary In the long term, hydrogen is expected to be the fuel of choice for both the

  8. Production of negative hydrogen ions on metal grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Takeda, Toshiaki; Yokoyama, H.; Kawata, K.

    2015-03-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced on a nickel grid with positive-ion irradiation. In order to investigate the production mechanism, a copper grid without the chemisorption of hydrogen atoms and positive helium ions without negative ionization are used for comparison. Positive hydrogen ions reflected on the metal surface obtain two electrons from the surface and become negatively ionized. It is found that the production yield of negative ions by desorption ionization of chemisorbed hydrogen atoms seems to be small, and the production is a minor mechanism.

  9. Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes to Their Environmental Consequences | Department of Energy Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Their Environmental Consequences Linking Legacies: Connecting the Cold War Nuclear Weapons Production Processes to Their Environmental Consequences This report described each step in the cycle of nuclear weapons production and defined for the first time a planned disposition path for all waste streams generated prior to 1992 as a result of

  10. Hydrogen production from water: Recent advances in photosynthesis research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenbaum, E.; Lee, J.W.

    1997-12-31

    The great potential of hydrogen production by microalgal water splitting is predicated on quantitative measurement of the algae`s hydrogen-producing capability, which is based on the following: (1) the photosynthetic unit size of hydrogen production; (2) the turnover time of photosynthetic hydrogen production; (3) thermodynamic efficiencies of conversion of light energy into the Gibbs free energy of molecular hydrogen; (4) photosynthetic hydrogen production from sea water using marine algae; (5) the potential for research advances using modern methods of molecular biology and genetic engineering to maximize hydrogen production. ORNL has shown that sustained simultaneous photoevolution of molecular hydrogen and oxygen can be performed with mutants of the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii that lack a detectable level of the Photosystem I light reaction. This result is surprising in view of the standard two-light reaction model of photosynthesis and has interesting scientific and technological implications. This ORNL discovery also has potentially important implications for maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency of light energy into chemical energy by green plant photosynthesis. Hydrogen production performed by a single light reaction, as opposed to two, implies a doubling of the theoretically maximum thermodynamic conversion efficiency from {approx}10% to {approx}20%.

  11. Process for the thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norman, John H.; Russell, Jr., John L.; Porter, II, John T.; McCorkle, Kenneth H.; Roemer, Thomas S.; Sharp, Robert

    1978-01-01

    Hydrogen is thermochemically produced from water in a cycle wherein a first reaction produces hydrogen iodide and H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 by the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water under conditions which cause two distinct aqueous phases to be formed, i.e., a lighter sulfuric acid-bearing phase and a heavier hydrogen iodide-bearing phase. After separation of the two phases, the heavier phase containing most of the hydrogen iodide is treated, e.g., at a high temperature, to decompose the hydrogen iodide and recover hydrogen and iodine. The H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is pyrolyzed to recover sulfur dioxide and produce oxygen.

  12. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2014-12-31

    The project addressed the following technical barrier from the Biological Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Program Multi-Year Research, Development and Demonstration Plan: Low Sunlight Utilization Efficiency in Photobiological Hydrogen Production is due to a Large Photosystem Chlorophyll Antenna Size in Photosynthetic Microorganisms (Barrier AN: Light Utilization Efficiency).

  13. Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None, None

    2005-12-01

    DOE's Solar and Wind Technologies for Hydrogen Production Report to Congress summarizes the technology roadmaps for solar- and wind-based hydrogen production. Published in December 2005, it fulfills the requirement under section 812 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

  14. Anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oh, Jihun; Branz, Howard M

    2014-05-20

    Exemplary embodiments are disclosed of anti-reflective nanoporous silicon for efficient hydrogen production by photoelectrolysis of water. A nanoporous black Si is disclosed as an efficient photocathode for H.sub.2 production from water splitting half-reaction.

  15. Designing catalysts for hydrogen production | Center for Bio...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    catalysts for hydrogen production 12 Oct 2012 Dr. Anne Jones is a Principal Investigator in the Center of Bio-Inspired Solar Fuel production at Arizona State University. Her lab is...

  16. Structured material for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flickinger, Michael C.; Harwood, Caroline S.; Rey, Federico

    2010-06-29

    The present invention provides composite biological devices that include biological material as an integral component thereof. The devices can be used for producing hydrogen gas, for example.

  17. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kgday of hydrogen from natural gas. PDF icon 40382.pdf More ...

  18. Fermentative Approaches to Hydrogen Production (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maness, P. C.; Czernik, S.; Smolinski, S.

    2005-05-01

    A PowerPoint presentation given as part of the 2005 Hydrogen Program Review, May 23-26, 2005, in Washington, D.C.

  19. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, Rathin (Chicago, IL); Randhava, Sarabjit S. (Evanston, IL); Tsai, Shih-Perng (Naperville, IL)

    1997-01-01

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H.sub.2 O.sub.2 laden permeate.

  20. Process for the production of hydrogen peroxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Datta, R.; Randhava, S.S.; Tsai, S.P.

    1997-09-02

    An integrated membrane-based process method for producing hydrogen peroxide is provided comprising oxidizing hydrogenated anthraquinones with air bubbles which were created with a porous membrane, and then contacting the oxidized solution with a hydrophilic membrane to produce an organics free, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} laden permeate. 1 fig.

  1. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollabaugh, C.M.; Bowman, M.G.

    A process is described for the production of hydrogen from water by a sulfuric acid process employing electrolysis and thermo-chemical decomposition. The water containing SO/sub 2/ is electrolyzed to produce H/sub 2/ at the cathode and to oxidize the SO/sub 2/ to form H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ at the anode. After the H/sub 2/ has been separated, a compound of the type M/sub r/X/sub s/ is added to produce a water insoluble sulfate of M and a water insoluble oxide of the metal in the radical X. In the compound M/sub r/X/sub s/, M is at least one metal selected from the group consisting of Ba/sup 2 +/, Ca/sup 2 +/, Sr/sup 2 +/, La/sup 2 +/, and Pb/sup 2 +/; X is at least one radical selected from the group consisting of molybdate (MoO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), tungstate (WO/sub 4//sup 2 -/), and metaborate (BO/sub 2//sup 1 -/); and r and s are either 1, 2, or 3 depending upon the valence of M and X. The precipitated mixture is filtered and heated to a temperature sufficiently high to form SO/sub 3/ gas and to reform M/sub r/X/sub s/. The SO/sub 3/ is dissolved in a small amount of H/sub 2/O to produce concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, and the M/sub r/X/sub s/ is recycled to the process. Alternatively, the SO/sub 3/ gas can be recycled to the beginning of the process to provide a continuous process for the production of H/sub 2/ in which only water need be added in a substantial amount. (BLM)

  2. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.

    2011-10-01

    This independent review is the conclusion arrived at from data collection, document reviews, interviews and deliberation from December 2010 through April 2011 and the technical potential of Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification. The Panel reviewed the current H2A case (Version 2.12, Case 01D) for hydrogen production via biomass gasification and identified four principal components of hydrogen levelized cost: CapEx; feedstock costs; project financing structure; efficiency/hydrogen yield. The panel reexamined the assumptions around these components and arrived at new estimates and approaches that better reflect the current technology and business environments.

  3. Hydrogen production with coal using a pulverization device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulson, Leland E.

    1989-01-01

    A method for producing hydrogen from coal is described wherein high temperature steam is brought into contact with coal in a pulverizer or fluid energy mill for effecting a steam-carbon reaction to provide for the generation of gaseous hydrogen. The high temperature steam is utilized to drive the coal particles into violent particle-to-particle contact for comminuting the particulates and thereby increasing the surface area of the coal particles for enhancing the productivity of the hydrogen.

  4. Process for the production of hydrogen from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, William E.; Maroni, Victor A.; Willit, James L.

    2010-05-25

    A method and device for the production of hydrogen from water and electricity using an active metal alloy. The active metal alloy reacts with water producing hydrogen and a metal hydroxide. The metal hydroxide is consumed, restoring the active metal alloy, by applying a voltage between the active metal alloy and the metal hydroxide. As the process is sustainable, only water and electricity is required to sustain the reaction generating hydrogen.

  5. Carbonate thermochemical cycle for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Collins, Jack L [Knoxville, TN; Dole, Leslie R [Knoxville, TN; Ferrada, Juan J [Knoxville, TN; Forsberg, Charles W [Oak Ridge, TN; Haire, Marvin J [Oak Ridge, TN; Hunt, Rodney D [Oak Ridge, TN; Lewis Jr., Benjamin E [Knoxville, TN; Wymer, Raymond G [Oak Ridge, TN

    2010-02-23

    The present invention is directed to a thermochemical method for the production of hydrogen from water. The method includes reacting a multi-valent metal oxide, water and a carbonate to produce an alkali metal-multi-valent metal oxide compound, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen.

  6. On-Board Hydrogen Gas Production System For Stirling Engines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johansson, Lennart N. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2004-06-29

    A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed. A hydrogen production system for use in connection with Stirling engines. The production system generates hydrogen working gas and periodically supplies it to the Stirling engine as its working fluid in instances where loss of such working fluid occurs through usage through operation of the associated Stirling engine. The hydrogen gas may be generated by various techniques including electrolysis and stored by various means including the use of a metal hydride absorbing material. By controlling the temperature of the absorbing material, the stored hydrogen gas may be provided to the Stirling engine as needed.

  7. Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25 Years. Brown, Daryl R. hydrogen; production; U.S.; merchant; captive hydrogen; production; U.S.; merchant; captive This...

  8. Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Biomass Gasification: Independent Review

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This independent review report assesses the 2009 state-of-the-art and 2020 projected capital cost, energy efficiency, and levelized cost for hydrogen production from biomass via gasification.

  9. Hydrogen Production and Dispensing Facility Opens at W. Va. Airport

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A hydrogen production and dispensing station constructed and operated with support from the Office of Fossil Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory was officially opened Monday at the Yeager Airport in Charleston, W.Va.

  10. Renewable Hydrogen Production at Hickam Air Force Base

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... steel packages for military or commercial transport. *&1; Three primary PODs: &2;&1; Hydrogen Fuel Processor (H 2 FP) using two Teledyne Energy Systems HMX 200 electrolyzers; production ...

  11. Vacancy Announcements Posted for Hydrogen Production and Delivery Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office has posted two vacancy announcements for a position to serve as Program Manager for the Hydrogen Production and Delivery Program in the DOE EERE Fuel Cell Technologies Office. The closing date is October 28, 2014.

  12. Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status Hydrogen Production and Storage for Fuel Cells: Current Status Presented at the Clean Energy States Alliance and U.S. Department of ...

  13. Photo-induced hydrogen production in a helical peptide incorporating...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Photo-induced hydrogen production in a helical peptide incorporating a FeFe hydrogenase active site mimic Authors: Roy, A., Madden, C., and Ghirlanda, G. Title: Photo-induced...

  14. Potential for Hydrogen Production from Key Renewable Resources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Potential for Hydrogen Production from Key Renewable Resources in the United States A. Milbrandt and M. Mann Technical Report NRELTP-640-41134 February 2007 NREL is operated by...

  15. Hydrogen (H2) Production by Anoxygenic Purple Nonsulfur Bacteria

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Jake McKinlay, Indiana University, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  16. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis ...

  17. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation) Presented at the 2007 ...

  18. NGNP Process Heat Applications: Hydrogen Production Accomplishments for FY2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V Park

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes FY10 accomplishments of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Engineering Process Heat Applications group in support of hydrogen production technology development. This organization is responsible for systems needed to transfer high temperature heat from a high temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) reactor (being developed by the INL NGNP Project) to electric power generation and to potential industrial applications including the production of hydrogen.

  19. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Photoelectrochemical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Water Splitting | Department of Energy from Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost and performance parameter values that achieve the targets for hydrogen production from photoelectrochemical water splitting. The tables are organized into separate sections for photoelectrode systems and dual bed photocatalyst systems.

  20. Hydrogen Production Roadmap: Technology Pathways to the Future

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership Hydrogen Production Technical Team This roadmap was created by the Hydrogen Production Technical Team (HPTT) of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Partnership. This is a partnership of industry's U.S. Council for Automotive Research (USCAR), energy companies and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to advance technologies that enable reduced oil consumption and increased energy efficiency in passenger vehicles. The Partnership focuses on the pre-competitive, high-risk

  1. Deadline Extended for RFI on Biological Hydrogen Production | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Deadline Extended for RFI on Biological Hydrogen Production Deadline Extended for RFI on Biological Hydrogen Production February 26, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis DOE has extended the submission deadline for this Request for Information. Responses must be submitted by 5:00 p.m. Eastern Time on March 14, 2014. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued a request for information (RFI) seeking feedback from interested stakeholders regarding biological

  2. Hydrogen Production by High Temperature Electrolysis with Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogawa, Takashi; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kasai, Shigeo; Yamada, Kazuya

    2007-07-01

    In this paper, we report our design of high temperature electrolysis plant system and the analysis results. The system efficiency increases with the increase of the steam utilization in the solid oxide electrolysis cell (SOEC) or the decrease of the hydrogen recycle (hydrogen recycle flow to product hydrogen flow) ratio,. The system efficiency is nearly independent of the SOEC operating temperature and pressure, and the air to product O{sub 2} ratio. In this study, the maximum system efficiency is 56.3%. (authors)

  3. Hydrogen production by the decomposition of water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hollabaugh, Charles M.; Bowman, Melvin G.

    1981-01-01

    How to produce hydrogen from water was a problem addressed by this invention. The solution employs a combined electrolytical-thermochemical sulfuric acid process. Additionally, high purity sulfuric acid can be produced in the process. Water and SO.sub.2 react in electrolyzer (12) so that hydrogen is produced at the cathode and sulfuric acid is produced at the anode. Then the sulfuric acid is reacted with a particular compound M.sub.r X.sub.s so as to form at least one water insoluble sulfate and at least one water insoluble oxide of molybdenum, tungsten, or boron. Water is removed by filtration; and the sulfate is decomposed in the presence of the oxide in sulfate decomposition zone (21), thus forming SO.sub.3 and reforming M.sub.r X.sub.s. The M.sub.r X.sub.s is recycled to sulfate formation zone (16). If desired, the SO.sub.3 can be decomposed to SO.sub.2 and O.sub.2 ; and the SO.sub.2 can be recycled to electrolyzer (12) to provide a cycle for producing hydrogen.

  4. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer technology for onboard applications in internal combustion engine vehicles using diesel, gasoline and biofuels. This included the reduction of NOx and particulate matter emissions from diesel engines using plasmatron reformer generated hydrogen-rich gas, conversion of ethanol and bio-oils into hydrogen rich gas, and the development of new concepts for the use of plasmatron fuel reformers for enablement of HCCI engines.

  5. Hydrogen Production Using Hydrogenase-Containing Oxygenic Photosynthetic Organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, A.; Zhang, L.; Benemann, J. R.; Forestier, M.; Ghirardi, M.; Seibert, M.

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  6. Hydrogen production using hydrogenase-containing oxygenic photosynthetic organisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Melis, Anastasios; Zhang, Liping; Benemann, John R.; Forestier, Marc; Ghirardi, Maria; Seibert, Michael

    2006-01-24

    A reversible physiological process provides for the temporal separation of oxygen evolution and hydrogen production in a microorganism, which includes the steps of growing a culture of the microorganism in medium under illuminated conditions to accumulate an endogenous substrate, depleting from the medium a nutrient selected from the group consisting of sulfur, iron, and/or manganese, sealing the culture from atmospheric oxygen, incubating the culture in light whereby a rate of light-induced oxygen production is equal to or less than a rate of respiration, and collecting an evolved gas. The process is particularly useful to accomplish a sustained photobiological hydrogen gas production in cultures of microorganisms, such as Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  7. Discovery of Photocatalysts for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Brent MacQueen

    2006-10-01

    This project for DOE was designed to address these materials-related issues through a combination of high-throughput screening of semiconductor candidates and theoretical modeling of nanostructures. High-throughput screening is an effective and economical way to examine a large number of candidates and identify those worthy of further study. Unfortunately, in the course of this project, we discovered no semiconductor candidates that can meet the DOEs stringent requirements for an economically feasible photoelectrochemical process. However, some of our results indicated that several systems may have potential if further optimized. In particular, the published theoretical modeling work indicates that core-shell nanorod structures, if properly engineered, have the potential to overcome the shortfalls of current semiconductors. Although the synthesis of the designed core-shell nanorod structures proved to be beyond the current capabilities of our laboratories, recent advances in the synthesis of core-shell nanorod structures imply that the designed structures can be synthesized. SRI is confident that once these materials are made they will validate our models and lead to economical and environmentally friendly hydrogen from sunlight and water. The high-throughput photolysis analysis module developed at SRI will also have utility in applications such as identifying catalysts for photo-assisted chemical detoxification, as well as non-photolytic applications such as hydrogen storage, which can take advantage of the ability of the analysis module to monitor pressure over time.

  8. 2014 Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    PROGRAM | Department of Energy ELECTRICAL PRODUCTION: EPACT 2005 SECTION 242 HYDROELECTRIC INCENTIVE PROGRAM 2014 ELECTRICAL PRODUCTION: EPACT 2005 SECTION 242 HYDROELECTRIC INCENTIVE PROGRAM In 2015, Congress appropriated funds for Hydroelectric Production Incentives under Section 242 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Qualified hydroelectric facilities-existing powered or non-powered dams and conduits that added a new turbine or other hydroelectric generating device-may receive up to 1.8

  9. Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis Webinar Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar ...

  10. Metallic Membrane Materials Development for Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    PRODUCTION; GREENHOUSE GASES The goals of Office of Clean Coal are: (1) Improved energy security; (2) Reduced green house gas emissions; (3) High tech job creation; and...

  11. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2009-09-01

    Analysis of the levelized cost of producing hydrogen via different pathways using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's H2A Hydrogen Production Model, Version 2.

  12. EVermont Renewable Hydrogen Production and Transportation Fueling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garabedian, Harold T. Wight, Gregory Dreier, Ken Borland, Nicholas

    2008-03-30

    A great deal of research funding is being devoted to the use of hydrogen for transportation fuel, particularly in the development of fuel cell vehicles. When this research bears fruit in the form of consumer-ready vehicles, will the fueling infrastructure be ready? Will the required fueling systems work in cold climates as well as they do in warm areas? Will we be sure that production of hydrogen as the energy carrier of choice for our transit system is the most energy efficient and environmentally friendly option? Will consumers understand this fuel and how to handle it? Those are questions addressed by the EVermont Wind to Wheels Hydrogen Project: Sustainable Transportation. The hydrogen fueling infrastructure consists of three primary subcomponents: a hydrogen generator (electrolyzer), a compression and storage system, and a dispenser. The generated fuel is then used to provide transportation as a motor fuel. EVermont Inc., started in 1993 by then governor Howard Dean, is a public-private partnership of entities interested in documenting and advancing the performance of advanced technology vehicles that are sustainable and less burdensome on the environment, especially in areas of cold climates, hilly terrain and with rural settlement patterns. EVermont has developed a demonstration wind powered hydrogen fuel producing filling system that uses electrolysis, compression to 5000 psi and a hydrogen burning vehicle that functions reliably in cold climates. And that fuel is then used to meet transportation needs in a hybrid electric vehicle whose internal combustion engine has been converted to operate on hydrogen Sponsored by the DOE EERE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells & Infrastructure Technologies (HFC&IT) Program, the purpose of the project is to test the viability of sustainably produced hydrogen for use as a transportation fuel in a cold climate with hilly terrain and rural settlement patterns. Specifically, the project addresses the challenge of building a renewable transportation energy capable system. The prime energy for this project comes from an agreement with a wind turbine operator.

  13. CO-PRODUCTION OF HYDROGEN AND ELECTRICITY USING PRESSURIZED CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhen Fan

    2006-05-30

    Foster Wheeler has completed work under a U.S. Department of Energy cooperative agreement to develop a gasification equipment module that can serve as a building block for a variety of advanced, coal-fueled plants. When linked with other equipment blocks also under development, studies have shown that Foster Wheeler's gasification module can enable an electric generating plant to operate with an efficiency exceeding 60 percent (coal higher heating value basis) while producing near zero emissions of traditional stack gas pollutants. The heart of the equipment module is a pressurized circulating fluidized bed (PCFB) that is used to gasify the coal; it can operate with either air or oxygen and produces a coal-derived syngas without the formation of corrosive slag or sticky ash that can reduce plant availabilities. Rather than fuel a gas turbine for combined cycle power generation, the syngas can alternatively be processed to produce clean fuels and or chemicals. As a result, the study described herein was conducted to determine the performance and economics of using the syngas to produce hydrogen for sale to a nearby refinery in a hydrogen-electricity co-production plant setting. The plant is fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, produces 99.95 percent pure hydrogen at a rate of 260 tons per day and generates 255 MWe of power for sale. Based on an electricity sell price of $45/MWhr, the hydrogen has a 10-year levelized production cost of $6.75 per million Btu; this price is competitive with hydrogen produced by steam methane reforming at a natural gas price of $4/MMBtu. Hence, coal-fueled, PCFB gasifier-based plants appear to be a viable means for either high efficiency power generation or co-production of hydrogen and electricity. This report describes the PCFB gasifier-based plant, presents its performance and economics, and compares it to other coal-based and natural gas based hydrogen production technologies.

  14. The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The plutonium-hydrogen reaction: SEM characterization of product morphology Authors: Dinh, L N ; McCall, S K ; Saw, C K ; Haschke, J M ; Allen, P G ; McClean II, W Publication Date: 2013-12-23 OSTI Identifier: 1150726 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-648158 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC52-07NA27344 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation:

  15. Thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinberg, M.; Dang, V.D.

    Two-step processes for the preparation of hydrogen are described: CrCl/sub 3/(g) ..-->.. CrCl/sub 2/(g) + 1/2Cl/sub 2/(g) and CrCl/sub 2/(s) + HCl(g) reversible CrCl/sub 3/(s) + 1/2H/sub 2/(g); UCl/sub 4/(g) ..-->.. UCl/sub 3/(g) + 1/2Cl/sub 2/(g) and UCl/sub 3/(s) + HCl(g) ..-->.. UCl/sub 4/(s) + 1/2H/sub 2/(g); and CaSO/sub 4/(s) ..-->.. CaO(s) + SO/sub 2/(g) + 1/2O/sub 2/(g) and CaO(s) + SO/sub 2/(g) + H/sub 2/O(l) ..-->.. CaSO/sub 4/(s) + H/sub 2/(g). The high temperature available from solar collectors, high temperature gas reactors or fusion reactors is utilized in the first step in which the reaction is endothermic. The efficiency is at least 60% and with process heat recovery, the efficiency may be increased up to 74.4%. An apparatus fr carrying out the process in conjunction with a fusion reactor, is described.

  16. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen ...

  17. Designer proton-channel transgenic algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu

    2011-04-26

    A designer proton-channel transgenic alga for photobiological hydrogen production that is specifically designed for production of molecular hydrogen (H.sub.2) through photosynthetic water splitting. The designer transgenic alga includes proton-conductive channels that are expressed to produce such uncoupler proteins in an amount sufficient to increase the algal H.sub.2 productivity. In one embodiment the designer proton-channel transgene is a nucleic acid construct (300) including a PCR forward primer (302), an externally inducible promoter (304), a transit targeting sequence (306), a designer proton-channel encoding sequence (308), a transcription and translation terminator (310), and a PCR reverse primer (312). In various embodiments, the designer proton-channel transgenic algae are used with a gas-separation system (500) and a gas-products-separation and utilization system (600) for photobiological H.sub.2 production.

  18. DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Integrated Hydrogen Production, Purification and Compression System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tamhankar, Satish; Gulamhusein, Ali; Boyd, Tony; DaCosta, David; Golben, Mark

    2011-06-30

    The project was started in April 2005 with the objective to meet the DOE target of delivered hydrogen of <$1.50/gge, which was later revised by DOE to $2-$3/gge range for hydrogen to be competitive with gasoline as a fuel for vehicles. For small, on-site hydrogen plants being evaluated at the time for refueling stations (the 'forecourt'), it was determined that capital cost is the main contributor to the high cost of delivered hydrogen. The concept of this project was to reduce the cost by combining unit operations for the entire generation, purification, and compression system (refer to Figure 1). To accomplish this, the Fluid Bed Membrane Reactor (FBMR) developed by MRT was used. The FBMR has hydrogen selective, palladium-alloy membrane modules immersed in the reformer vessel, thereby directly producing high purity hydrogen in a single step. The continuous removal of pure hydrogen from the reformer pushes the equilibrium 'forward', thereby maximizing the productivity with an associated reduction in the cost of product hydrogen. Additional gains were envisaged by the integration of the novel Metal Hydride Hydrogen Compressor (MHC) developed by Ergenics, which compresses hydrogen from 0.5 bar (7 psia) to 350 bar (5,076 psia) or higher in a single unit using thermal energy. Excess energy from the reformer provides up to 25% of the power used for driving the hydride compressor so that system integration improved efficiency. Hydrogen from the membrane reformer is of very high, fuel cell vehicle (FCV) quality (purity over 99.99%), eliminating the need for a separate purification step. The hydride compressor maintains hydrogen purity because it does not have dynamic seals or lubricating oil. The project team set out to integrate the membrane reformer developed by MRT and the hydride compression system developed by Ergenics in a single package. This was expected to result in lower cost and higher efficiency compared to conventional hydrogen production technologies. The overall objective was to develop an integrated system to directly produce high pressure, high-purity hydrogen from a single unit, which can meet the DOE cost H2 cost target of $2 - $3/gge when mass produced. The project was divided into two phases with the following tasks and corresponding milestones, targets and decision points. Phase 1 - Task 1 - Verify feasibility of the concept, perform a detailed techno-economic analysis, and develop a test plan; and Task 2: Build and experimentally test a Proof of Concept (POC) integrated membrane reformer/metal hydride compressor system. Phase 2 - Task 3: Build an Advanced Prototype (AP) system with modifications based on POC learning and demonstrate at a commercial site; and Task 4: Complete final product design for mass manufacturing units capable of achieving DOE 2010 H2 cost and performance targets.

  19. Hydrogen production at run-of-river hydro plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarnay, D.S.

    1983-12-01

    Production of energy from non-renewable petroleum, natural gas and coal is declining due to depletion and high prices. Presently, the research concentrates on reduction of consumption and more efficient use of traditional fuels, and on development of renewable sources of energy and new energy technologies. Most of the new energy sources, however, are not available in a convenient form for consumer. The new energy must be renewable, economically feasible and transportable. Not all the available renewable energy sources have these qualities. Many scientists and engineers believe that hydrogen meets these criteria best. Hydrogen can be produced from various renewable sources such as solar, wind, geothermal, tidal and glacier energies, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), and obviously from - waterpower. The production of hydrogen at run-of-river hydropower plants via electrolysis could be the front-runner in developing new hydrogen energy technologies, and open the way to a new hydrogen era, similarly as the polyphase system and the a-c current generator of N. Tesla used at the Niagara Falls Hydropower Plant, opened the door to a new electrical age in 1895.

  20. Thermocatalytic CO2-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of Central Florida

    2004-01-30

    The main objective of this project is the development of an economically viable thermocatalytic process for production of hydrogen and carbon from natural gas or other hydrocarbon fuels with minimal environmental impact. The three major technical goals of this project are: (1) to accomplish efficient production of hydrogen and carbon via sustainable catalytic decomposition of methane or other hydrocarbons using inexpensive and durable carbon catalysts, (2) to obviate the concurrent production of CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts and drastically reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from the process, and (3) to produce valuable carbon products in order to reduce the cost of hydrogen production The important feature of the process is that the reaction is catalyzed by carbon particulates produced in the process, so no external catalyst is required (except for the start-up operation). This results in the following advantages: (1) no CO/CO{sub 2} byproducts are generated during hydrocarbon decomposition stage, (2) no expensive catalysts are used in the process, (3) several valuable forms of carbon can be produced in the process depending on the process conditions (e.g., turbostratic carbon, pyrolytic graphite, spherical carbon particles, carbon filaments etc.), and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions could be drastically reduced (compared to conventional processes).

  1. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production at Existing Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Schey

    2009-07-01

    Cooperative Agreement DE-FC07-06ID14788 was executed between the U.S. Department of Energy, Electric Transportation Applications, and Idaho National Laboratory to investigate the economics of producing hydrogen by electrolysis using electricity generated by nuclear power. The work under this agreement is divided into the following four tasks: Task 1 – Produce Data and Analyses Task 2 – Economic Analysis of Large-Scale Alkaline Electrolysis Task 3 – Commercial-Scale Hydrogen Production Task 4 – Disseminate Data and Analyses. Reports exist on the prospect that utility companies may benefit from having the option to produce electricity or produce hydrogen, depending on market conditions for both. This study advances that discussion in the affirmative by providing data and suggesting further areas of study. While some reports have identified issues related to licensing hydrogen plants with nuclear plants, this study provides more specifics and could be a resource guide for further study and clarifications. At the same time, this report identifies other area of risks and uncertainties associated with hydrogen production on this scale. Suggestions for further study in some of these topics, including water availability, are included in the report. The goals and objectives of the original project description have been met. Lack of industry design for proton exchange membrane electrolysis hydrogen production facilities of this magnitude was a roadblock for a significant period. However, recent design breakthroughs have made costing this facility much more accurate. In fact, the new design information on proton exchange membrane electrolyzers scaled to the 1 kg of hydrogen per second electrolyzer reduced the model costs from $500 to $100 million. Task 1 was delayed when the original electrolyzer failed at the end of its economic life. However, additional valuable information was obtained when the new electrolyzer was installed. Products developed during this study include a process model and a N2H2 economic assessment model (both developed by the Idaho National Laboratory). Both models are described in this report. The N2H2 model closely tracked and provided similar results as the H2A model and was instrumental in assessing the effects of plant availability on price when operated in the shoulder mode for electrical pricing. Differences between the H2A and N2H2 model are included in this report.

  2. Low-Cost Hydrogen Distributed Production System Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.E. Thomas, Ph.D., President Franklin D. Lomax, Ph.D, CTO & Principal Investigator, and Maxim Lyubovski, Ph.D.

    2011-03-10

    H{sub 2}Gen, with the support of the Department of Energy, successfully designed, built and field-tested two steam methane reformers with 578 kg/day capacity, which has now become a standard commercial product serving customers in the specialty metals and PV manufacturing businesses. We demonstrated that this reformer/PSA system, when combined with compression, storage and dispensing (CSD) equipment could produce hydrogen that is already cost-competitive with gasoline per mile driven in a conventional (non-hybrid) vehicle. We further showed that mass producing this 578 kg/day system in quantities of just 100 units would reduce hydrogen cost per mile approximately 13% below the cost of untaxed gasoline per mile used in a hybrid electric vehicle. If mass produced in quantities of 500 units, hydrogen cost per mile in a FCEV would be 20% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in an HEV in the 2015-2020 time period using EIA fuel cost projections for natural gas and untaxed gasoline, and 45% below the cost of untaxed gasoline in a conventional car. This 20% to 45% reduction in fuel cost per mile would accrue even though hydrogen from this 578 kg/day system would cost approximately $4.14/kg, well above the DOE hydrogen cost targets of $2.50/kg by 2010 and $2.00/kg by 2015. We also estimated the cost of a larger, 1,500 kg/day SMR/PSA fueling system based on engineering cost scaling factors derived from the two H{sub 2}Gen products, a commercial 115 kg/day system and the 578 kg/day system developed under this DOE contract. This proposed system could support 200 to 250 cars per day, similar to a medium gasoline station. We estimate that the cost per mile from this larger 1,500 kg/day hydrogen fueling system would be 26% to 40% below the cost per mile of untaxed gasoline in an HEV and ICV respectively, even without any mass production cost reductions. In quantities of 500 units, we are projecting per mile cost reductions between 45% (vs. HEVs) and 62% (vs ICVs), with hydrogen costing approximately $2.87/kg, still above the DOE's 2010 $2.50/kg target. We also began laboratory testing of reforming ethanol, which we showed is currently the least expensive approach to making renewable hydrogen. Extended testing of neat ethanol in micro-reactors was successful, and we also were able to reform E-85 acquired from a local fueling station for 2,700 hours, although some modifications were required to handle the 15% gasoline present in E-85. We began initial tests of a catalyst-coated wall reformer tube that showed some promise in reducing the propensity to coke with E-85. These coated-wall tests ran for 350 hours. Additional resources would be required to commercialize an ethanol reformer operating on E-85, but there is no market for such a product at this time, so this ethanol reformer project was moth-balled pending future government or industry support. The two main objectives of this project were: (1) to design, build and test a steam methane reformer and pressure swing adsorption system that, if scaled up and mass produced, could potentially meet the DOE 2015 cost and efficiency targets for on-site distributed hydrogen generation, and (2) to demonstrate the efficacy of a low-cost renewable hydrogen generation system based on reforming ethanol to hydrogen at the fueling station.

  3. Assessment of methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glatzmaier, G.; Blake, D.; Showalter, S.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to assess methods for hydrogen production using concentrated solar energy. The results of this work can be used to guide future work in the application of concentrated solar energy to hydrogen production. Specifically, the objectives were to: (1) determine the cost of hydrogen produced from methods that use concentrated solar thermal energy, (2) compare these costs to those of hydrogen produced by electrolysis using photovoltaics and wind energy as the electricity source. This project had the following scope of work: (1) perform cost analysis on ambient temperature electrolysis using the 10 MWe dish-Stirling and 200 MWe power tower technologies; for each technology, sue two cases for projected costs, years 2010 and 2020 the dish-Stirling system, years 2010 and 2020 for the power tower, (2) perform cost analysis on high temperature electrolysis using the 200 MWe power tower technology and projected costs for the year 2020, and (3) identify and describe the key technical issues for high temperature thermal dissociation and the thermochemical cycles.

  4. Thermodynamic evaluation of hydrogen production via bioethanol steam reforming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tasnadi-Asztalos, Zsolt; Cormos, Ana-Maria; Imre-Lucaci, Árpád; Cormos, Călin C.

    2013-11-13

    In this article, a thermodynamic analysis for bioethanol steam reforming for hydrogen production is presented. Bioethanol is a newly proposed renewable energy carrier mainly produced from biomass fermentation. Reforming of bioethanol provides a promising method for hydrogen production from renewable resources. Steam reforming of ethanol (SRE) takes place under the action of a metal catalyst capable of breaking C-C bonds into smaller molecules. A large domain for the water/bioethanol molar ratio as well as the temperature and average pressure has been used in the present work. The interval of investigated temperature was 100-800°C, the pressure was in the range of 1-10 bar and the molar ratio was between 3-25. The variations of gaseous species concentration e.g. H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} were analyzed. The concentrations of the main products (H{sub 2} and CO) at lower temperature are smaller than the ones at higher temperature due to by-products formation (methane, carbon dioxide, acetylene etc.). The concentration of H2 obtained in the process using high molar ratio (>20) is higher than the one at small molar ratio (near stoichiometric). When the pressure is increased the hydrogen concentration decreases. The results were compared with literature data for validation purposes.

  5. Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) Presentation slides from the February 8, ...

  6. Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25 Years. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The...

  7. High-Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency Solar Thermochemical Reactor for Hydrogen Production - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle

  8. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2009-09-01

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  9. Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Hydrogen Production via Wind/Electrolysis: Milestone Completion Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report summarizes the results of a lifecycle assessment of a renewable hydrogen production process employing wind/electrolysis.

  10. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-09-01

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  11. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report updates the 1999 economic analysis of NREL’s photobiological hydrogen production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

  12. Current (2009) State-of-the-Art Hydrogen Production Cost Estimate Using Water Electrolysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This independent review examines DOE cost targets for state-of-the art hydrogen production using water electrolysis.

  13. Pathway of Fermentative Hydrogen Production by Sulfate-reducing Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wall, Judy D.

    2015-02-16

    Biofuels are a promising source of sustainable energy. Such biofuels are intermediate products of microbial metabolism of renewable substrates, in particular, plant biomass. Not only are alcohols and solvents produced in this degradative process but energy-rich hydrogen as well. Non photosynthetic microbial hydrogen generation from compounds other than sugars has not been fully explored. We propose to examine the capacity of the abundant soil anaerobes, sulfate-reducing bacteria, for hydrogen generation from organic acids. These apparently simple pathways have yet to be clearly established. Information obtained may facilitate the exploitation of other microbes not yet readily examined by molecular tools. Identification of the flexibility of the metabolic processes to channel reductant to hydrogen will be useful in consideration of practical applications. Because the tools for genetic and molecular manipulation of sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio are developed, our efforts will focus on two strains, D. vulgaris Hildenborough and Desulfovibrio G20.Therefore total metabolism, flux through the pathways, and regulation are likely to be limiting factors which we can elucidate in the following experiments.

  14. Development of efficient photoreactors for solar hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Cunping; Yao, Weifeng; T-Raissi, Ali; Muradov, Nazim

    2011-01-15

    The rate of hydrogen evolution from a photocatalytic process depends not only on the activity of a photocatalyst, but also on photoreactor design. Ideally, a photoreactor should be able to absorb the incident light, promoting photocatalytic reactions in an effective manner with minimal photonic losses. There are numerous technical challenges and cost related issues when designing a large-scale photoreactor for hydrogen production. Active stirring of the photocatalyst slurry within a photoreactor is not practical in large-scale applications due to cost related issues. Rather, the design should allow facile self-mixing of the flow field within the photoreactor. In this paper two types of photocatalytic reactor configurations are studied: a batch type design and another involving passive self-mixing of the photolyte. Results show that energy loss from a properly designed photoreactor is mainly due to reflection losses from the photoreactor window. We describe the interplay between the reaction and the photoreactor design parameters as well as effects on the rate of hydrogen evolution. We found that a passive self-mixing of the photolyte is possible. Furthermore, the use of certain engineering polymer films as photoreactor window materials has the potential for substantial cost savings in large-scale applications, with minimal reduction of photon energy utilization efficiency. Eight window materials were tested and the results indicate that Aclar trademark polymer film used as the photoreactor window provides a substantial cost saving over other engineering polymers, especially with respect to fused silica glass at modest hydrogen evolution rates. (author)

  15. Techno Economic Analysis of Hydrogen Production by gasification of biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Francis Lau

    2002-12-01

    Biomass represents a large potential feedstock resource for environmentally clean processes that produce power or chemicals. It lends itself to both biological and thermal conversion processes and both options are currently being explored. Hydrogen can be produced in a variety of ways. The majority of the hydrogen produced in this country is produced through natural gas reforming and is used as chemical feedstock in refinery operations. In this report we will examine the production of hydrogen by gasification of biomass. Biomass is defined as organic matter that is available on a renewable basis through natural processes or as a by-product of processes that use renewable resources. The majority of biomass is used in combustion processes, in mills that use the renewable resources, to produce electricity for end-use product generation. This report will explore the use of hydrogen as a fuel derived from gasification of three candidate biomass feedstocks: bagasse, switchgrass, and a nutshell mix that consists of 40% almond nutshell, 40% almond prunings, and 20% walnut shell. In this report, an assessment of the technical and economic potential of producing hydrogen from biomass gasification is analyzed. The resource base was assessed to determine a process scale from feedstock costs and availability. Solids handling systems were researched. A GTI proprietary gasifier model was used in combination with a Hysys(reg. sign) design and simulation program to determine the amount of hydrogen that can be produced from each candidate biomass feed. Cost estimations were developed and government programs and incentives were analyzed. Finally, the barriers to the production and commercialization of hydrogen from biomass were determined. The end-use of the hydrogen produced from this system is small PEM fuel cells for automobiles. Pyrolysis of biomass was also considered. Pyrolysis is a reaction in which biomass or coal is partially vaporized by heating. Gasification is a more general term, and includes heating as well as the injection of other ''ingredients'' such as oxygen and water. Pyrolysis alone is a useful first step in creating vapors from coal or biomass that can then be processed in subsequent steps to make liquid fuels. Such products are not the objective of this project. Therefore pyrolysis was not included in the process design or in the economic analysis. High-pressure, fluidized bed gasification is best known to GTI through 30 years of experience. Entrained flow, in contrast to fluidized bed, is a gasification technology applied at much larger unit sizes than employed here. Coal gasification and residual oil gasifiers in refineries are the places where such designs have found application, at sizes on the order of 5 to 10 times larger than what has been determined for this study. Atmospheric pressure gasification is also not discussed. Atmospheric gasification has been the choice of all power system pilot plants built for biomass to date, except for the Varnamo plant in Sweden, which used the Ahlstrom (now Foster Wheeler) pressurized gasifier. However, for fuel production, the disadvantage of the large volumetric flows at low pressure leads to the pressurized gasifier being more economical.

  16. Technology status of hydrogen road vehicles. IEA technical report from the IEA Agreement of the production and utilization of hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, T.A.

    1998-01-31

    The report was commissioned under the Hydrogen Implementing Agreement of the International Energy Agency (IEA) and examines the state of the art in the evolving field of hydrogen-fueled vehicles for road transport. The first phase surveys and analyzes developments since 1989, when a comprehensive review was last published. The report emphasizes the following: problems, especially backfiring, with internal combustion engines (ICEs); operational safety; hydrogen handling and on-board storage; and ongoing demonstration projects. Hydrogen vehicles are receiving much attention, especially at the research and development level. However, there has been a steady move during the past 5 years toward integral demonstrations of operable vehicles intended for public roads. Because they emit few, or no greenhouse gases, hydrogen vehicles are beginning to be taken seriously as a promising solution to the problems of urban air quality. Since the time the first draft of the report was prepared (mid-19 96), the 11th World Hydrogen Energy Conference took place in Stuttgart, Germany. This biennial conference can be regarded as a valid updating of the state of the art; therefore, the 1996 results are included in the current version. Sections of the report include: hydrogen production and distribution to urban users; on-board storage and refilling; vehicle power units and drives, and four appendices titled: 'Safety questions of hydrogen storage and use in vehicles', 'Performance of hydrogen fuel in internal production engines for road vehicles, 'Fuel cells for hydrogen vehicles', and 'Summaries of papers on hydrogen vehicles'. (refs., tabs.)

  17. Chemical Hydride Slurry for Hydrogen Production and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McClaine, Andrew W

    2008-09-30

    The purpose of this project was to investigate and evaluate the attractiveness of using a magnesium chemical hydride slurry as a hydrogen storage, delivery, and production medium for automobiles. To fully evaluate the potential for magnesium hydride slurry to act as a carrier of hydrogen, potential slurry compositions, potential hydrogen release techniques, and the processes (and their costs) that will be used to recycle the byproducts back to a high hydrogen content slurry were evaluated. A 75% MgH2 slurry was demonstrated, which was just short of the 76% goal. This slurry is pumpable and storable for months at a time at room temperature and pressure conditions and it has the consistency of paint. Two techniques were demonstrated for reacting the slurry with water to release hydrogen. The first technique was a continuous mixing process that was tested for several hours at a time and demonstrated operation without external heat addition. Further work will be required to reduce this design to a reliable, robust system. The second technique was a semi-continuous process. It was demonstrated on a 2 kWh scale. This system operated continuously and reliably for hours at a time, including starts and stops. This process could be readily reduced to practice for commercial applications. The processes and costs associated with recycling the byproducts of the water/slurry reaction were also evaluated. This included recovering and recycling the oils of the slurry, reforming the magnesium hydroxide and magnesium oxide byproduct to magnesium metal, hydriding the magnesium metal with hydrogen to form magnesium hydride, and preparing the slurry. We found that the SOM process, under development by Boston University, offers the lowest cost alternative for producing and recycling the slurry. Using the H2A framework, a total cost of production, delivery, and distribution of $4.50/kg of hydrogen delivered or $4.50/gge was determined. Experiments performed at Boston University have demonstrated the technical viability of the process and have provided data for the cost analyses that have been performed. We also concluded that a carbothermic process could also produce magnesium at acceptable costs. The use of slurry as a medium to carry chemical hydrides has been shown during this project to offer significant advantages for storing, delivering, and distributing hydrogen: • Magnesium hydride slurry is stable for months and pumpable. • The oils of the slurry minimize the contact of oxygen and moisture in the air with the metal hydride in the slurry. Thus reactive chemicals, such as lithium hydride, can be handled safely in the air when encased in the oils of the slurry. • Though magnesium hydride offers an additional safety feature of not reacting readily with water at room temperatures, it does react readily with water at temperatures above the boiling point of water. Thus when hydrogen is needed, the slurry and water are heated until the reaction begins, then the reaction energy provides heat for more slurry and water to be heated. • The reaction system can be relatively small and light and the slurry can be stored in conventional liquid fuel tanks. When transported and stored, the conventional liquid fuel infrastructure can be used. • The particular metal hydride of interest in this project, magnesium hydride, forms benign byproducts, magnesium hydroxide (“Milk of Magnesia”) and magnesium oxide. • We have estimated that a magnesium hydride slurry system (including the mixer device and tanks) could meet the DOE 2010 energy density goals. During the investigation of hydriding techniques, we learned that magnesium hydride in a slurry can also be cycled in a rechargeable fashion. Thus, magnesium hydride slurry can act either as a chemical hydride storage medium or as a rechargeable hydride storage system. Hydrogen can be stored and delivered and then stored again thus significantly reducing the cost of storing and delivering hydrogen. Further evaluation and development of this concept will be performed as follow-on work under another project. However, since the cost of reducing magnesium from magnesium oxide makes up 85% of the cost of the slurry, if hydrogen can be stored many times in the slurry, then the cost of storing hydrogen can be spread over many units of hydrogen and can be significantly reduced from the costs of a chemical hydride system. This may be the most important finding of this project. If the slurry is used to carry a rechargeable hydride, the slurry can be stored in a conventional liquid fuel tank and delivered to a release system as hydrogen is needed. The release system will contain only the hydride needed to produce the hydrogen desired. This is in contrast to conventional designs proposed for other rechargeable hydride systems that store all the hydride in a large and heavy pressure and heat transfer vessel.

  18. DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Delivery | Department of Energy 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery DOE Issues 2 Requests for Information on Low-Cost Hydrogen Production and Delivery October 29, 2014 - 12:29pm Addthis The U.S. Department of Energy's Fuel Cell Technologies Office has issued two requests for information (RFIs) seeking feedback from the research community and relevant stakeholders about hydrogen production and hydrogen delivery research, development, and demonstration

  19. Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Useful Links BIOSYNC: Structural Biology Synchrotron Users Organization X-ray Anomalous Scattering Going MAD at CHESS Protein Data Bank Protein Data Bank Search International...

  20. NREL Wind to Hydrogen Project: Renewable Hydrogen Production for Energy Storage & Transportation (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Harrison, K.; Steward, D.

    2009-11-16

    Presentation about NREL's Wind to Hydrogen Project and producing renewable hydrogen for both energy storage and transporation, including the challenges, sustainable pathways, and analysis results.

  1. Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) Presentation slides from the February 8, 2012, Fuel Cell Technologies Program webinar, "Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3)." PDF icon Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications H2A Delivery Models and Results Hydrogen

  2. Production of Hydrogen at the Forecourt Using Off-Peak Electricity: June 2005 (Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levene, J. I.

    2007-02-01

    This milestone report provides information about the production of hydrogen at the forecourt using off-peak electricity as well as the Hydrogen Off-Peak Electricity (HOPE) model.

  3. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated Temperatures Year 6 - Activity 1.12 - Development of a National Center

  4. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  5. Ice method for production of hydrogen clathrate hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokshin, Konstantin; Zhao, Yusheng

    2008-05-13

    The present invention includes a method for hydrogen clathrate hydrate synthesis. First, ice and hydrogen gas are supplied to a containment volume at a first temperature and a first pressure. Next, the containment volume is pressurized with hydrogen gas to a second higher pressure, where hydrogen clathrate hydrates are formed in the process.

  6. Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description Related Links List of Companies in Hydrogen Sector List of Hydrogen Incentives Hydrogen Energy Data Book Retrieved from...

  7. Switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu

    2010-01-05

    A switchable photosystem-II designer algae for photobiological hydrogen production. The designer transgenic algae includes at least two transgenes for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production wherein a first transgene serves as a genetic switch that can controls photosystem II (PSII) oxygen evolution and a second transgene encodes for creation of free proton channels in the algal photosynthetic membrane. In one embodiment, the algae includes a DNA construct having polymerase chain reaction forward primer (302), a inducible promoter (304), a PSII-iRNA sequence (306), a terminator (308), and a PCR reverse primer (310). In other embodiments, the PSII-iRNA sequence (306) is replaced with a CF.sub.1-iRNA sequence (312), a streptomycin-production gene (314), a targeting sequence (316) followed by a proton-channel producing gene (318), or a PSII-producing gene (320). In one embodiment, a photo-bioreactor and gas-product separation and utilization system produce photobiological H.sub.2 from the switchable PSII designer alga.

  8. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reforming | Department of Energy Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Biomass-Derived Liquid Reforming These tables list the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) technical targets and example cost contributions for hydrogen production from biomass-derived liquid reforming. More information about targets can be found in the Hydrogen Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan.

  9. Natural Gas Used as Feedstock for Hydrogen Production

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Used as Feedstock for Hydrogen Production (Million Cubic Feet) Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 143,004 154,503 169,465 183,051 182,715 186,006 2008-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 4,178 3,346 4,815 6,313 5,261 5,723 2008-2014 Midwest (PADD 2) 36,936 45,452 44,623 46,640 45,069 46,871 2008-2014 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 41,049 43,170 50,968 62,829 62,936 60,887

  10. Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Slides presented at the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton" on May 23, 2011.

  11. Webinar: Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the webinar, Hydrogen Production by Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) Electrolysis—Spotlight on Giner and Proton, originally presented on May 23, 2011.

  12. Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (2009)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Brian James, Strategic Analysis Inc., at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  13. Hydrogen Production from Biomass via Indirect Gasification: The Impact of NREL Process Development Unit Gasifier Correlations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinchin, C. M.; Bain, R. L.

    2009-05-01

    This report describes a set of updated gasifier correlations developed by NREL to predict biomass gasification products and Minimum Hydrogen Selling Price.

  14. Energy Department Invests $20 Million to Advance Hydrogen Production and Delivery Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department today announced $20 million for ten new research and development projects that will advance hydrogen production and delivery technologies.

  15. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 4 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Peters, M.

    2014-05-01

    This report includes 25 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through quarter 4 of 2013.

  16. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 2 of 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Post, M.; Saur, G.; Peters, M.

    2013-11-01

    This report includes 18 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through quarter 2 of 2013.

  17. Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    producing hydrogen and electricity. The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) conducts comprehensive efforts to overcome the technological, economic, and institutional ...

  18. Method of production of pure hydrogen near room temperature from aluminum-based hydride materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.; Balema, Viktor P.

    2004-08-10

    The present invention provides a cost-effective method of producing pure hydrogen gas from hydride-based solid materials. The hydride-based solid material is mechanically processed in the presence of a catalyst to obtain pure gaseous hydrogen. Unlike previous methods, hydrogen may be obtained from the solid material without heating, and without the addition of a solvent during processing. The described method of hydrogen production is useful for energy conversion and production technologies that consume pure gaseous hydrogen as a fuel.

  19. IEA agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 2000 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C.

    2001-12-01

    The 2000 annual report of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement contains an overview of the agreement, including its guiding principles, latest strategic plan, and a report from the Chairman, Mr. Neil P. Rossmeissl, U.S. Department of Energy. Overviews of the National Hydrogen Programs of nine member countries are given: Canada, Japan, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States. Task updates are provided on the following annexes: Annex 12 - Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Annex 13 - Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Annex 14 - Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and, Annex 15 - Photobiological Production of Hydrogen.

  20. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1999 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    2000-01-31

    The annual report begins with an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including guiding principles and their strategic plan followed by the Chairman's report providing the year's highlights. Annex reports included are: the final report for Task 11, Integrated Systems; task updates for Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage, Task 13, Design and Optimization of Integrated Systems, Task 14, Photoelectrolytic Production of Hydrogen, and Task 15, Photobiological Production of Hydrogen; and a feature article by Karsten Wurr titled 'Large-Scale Industrial Uses of Hydrogen: Final Development Report'.

  1. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  2. hydrogen

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    3%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  3. Hydrogen production from water using copper and barium hydroxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, deceased, Donald M.

    1979-01-01

    A process for producing hydrogen comprises the step of reacting metallic Cu with Ba(OH).sub.2 in the presence of steam to produce hydrogen and BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2. The BaCu.sub.2 O.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to form Cu.sub.2 O and a Ba(OH).sub.2 product for recycle to the initial reaction step. Cu can be obtained from the Cu.sub.2 O product by several methods. In one embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with HF solution to provide CuF.sub.2 and Cu. The CuF.sub.2 is reacted with H.sub.2 O to provide CuO and HF. CuO is decomposed to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The HF, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment the Cu.sub.2 O is reacted with aqueous H.sub.2 SO.sub.4 solution to provide CuSO.sub.4 solution and Cu. The CuSO.sub.4 is decomposed to CuO and SO.sub.3. The CuO is decomposed to form Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2. The SO.sub.3 is dissolved to form H.sub.2 SO.sub.4. H.sub.2 SO.sub.4, Cu and Cu.sub.2 O are recycled. In another embodiment Cu.sub.2 O is decomposed electrolytically to Cu and O.sub.2. In another aspect of the invention, Cu is recovered from CuO by the steps of decomposing CuO to Cu.sub.2 O and O.sub.2, reacting the Cu.sub.2 O with aqueous HF solution to produce Cu and CuF.sub.2, reacting the CuF.sub.2 with H.sub.2 O to form CuO and HF, and recycling the CuO and HF to previous reaction steps.

  4. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Photoelectrochemica...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Progress Report; Crystalline material systems have been demonstrated with STH >12% for tens of hours. O. Khaselev, J.A. Turner, Science 280, 425 (1998). g The hydrogen ...

  5. Hydrogen Production via Reforming of Bio-Derived Liquids

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Yong Wang and David King at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  6. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 10virentaqeousphasereforming.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Generation from Biomass-Derived Carbohydrates via Aqueous-Phase Reforming Bio-Derived Liquids ...

  7. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review Panel Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.

  8. Impact of Hydrogen Production on U.S. Energy Markets

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * Evaluate impacts on U.S. energy markets including price and consumption changes for coal, natural gas, ... * IEA cost data from "Prospects for Hydrogen and Fuel Cells" * ...

  9. DOE Issues Request for Information on Biological Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a request for information (RFI) seeking feedback from interested stakeholders regarding ... Feedback is specifically requested on the workshop report for the Biological Hydrogen ...

  10. Energy Department Invests $20 Million to Advance Hydrogen Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Wiretough Cylinders LLC of Bristol, Virginia will receive 2 million to demonstrate a low cost high pressure hydrogen storage vessel using a steel wire overwrap. Find additional ...

  11. H2A Hydrogen Production Analysis Tool (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  12. Renewable Hydrogen Production Using Sugars and Sugar Alcohols (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  13. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... "Electrochemical evaluation of a molybdenum disulfide catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction under solution conditions applicable to microbial electrolysis cells." Int. ...

  14. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.; Callaghan, V.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.

  15. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, Alex J.; Ren, Shoujie; Ye, Philip; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbe, Niki; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-06-30

    A new approach to hydrogen production using a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50 3.2% to76 0.5% while anode coulombic efficiency ranged from 54 6.5% to 96 0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%, respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass.

  16. System for the co-production of electricity and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pham, Ai Quoc; Anderson, Brian Lee

    2007-10-02

    Described herein is a system for the co-generation of hydrogen gas and electricity, wherein the proportion of hydrogen to electricity can be adjusted from 0% to 100%. The system integrates fuel cell technology for power generation with fuel-assisted steam-electrolysis. A hydrocarbon fuel, a reformed hydrocarbon fuel, or a partially reformed hydrocarbon fuel can be fed into the system.

  17. Techniques in teaching statistics : linking research production and research use.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez-Moyano, I .; Smith, A.

    2012-01-01

    In the spirit of closing the 'research-practice gap,' the authors extend evidence-based principles to statistics instruction in social science graduate education. The authors employ a Delphi method to survey experienced statistics instructors to identify teaching techniques to overcome the challenges inherent in teaching statistics to students enrolled in practitioner-oriented master's degree programs. Among the teaching techniques identi?ed as essential are using real-life examples, requiring data collection exercises, and emphasizing interpretation rather than results. Building on existing research, preliminary interviews, and the ?ndings from the study, the authors develop a model describing antecedents to the strength of the link between research and practice.

  18. Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-08-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  19. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION AND DELIVERY INFRASTRUCTURE AS A COMPLEX ADAPTIVE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolley, George S

    2010-06-29

    An agent-based model of the transition to a hydrogen transportation economy explores influences on adoption of hydrogen vehicles and fueling infrastructure. Attention is given to whether significant penetration occurs and, if so, to the length of time required for it to occur. Estimates are provided of sensitivity to numerical values of model parameters and to effects of alternative market and policy scenarios. The model is applied to the Los Angeles metropolitan area In the benchmark simulation, the prices of hydrogen and non-hydrogen vehicles are comparable. Due to fuel efficiency, hydrogen vehicles have a fuel savings advantage of 9.8 cents per mile over non-hydrogen vehicles. Hydrogen vehicles account for 60% of new vehicle sales in 20 years from the initial entry of hydrogen vehicles into show rooms, going on to 86% in 40 years and reaching still higher values after that. If the fuel savings is 20.7 cents per mile for a hydrogen vehicle, penetration reaches 86% of new car sales by the 20th year. If the fuel savings is 0.5 cents per mile, market penetration reaches only 10% by the 20th year. To turn to vehicle price difference, if a hydrogen vehicle costs $2,000 less than a non-hydrogen vehicle, new car sales penetration reaches 92% by the 20th year. If a hydrogen vehicle costs $6,500 more than a non-hydrogen vehicle, market penetration is only 6% by the 20th year. Results from other sensitivity runs are presented. Policies that could affect hydrogen vehicle adoption are investigated. A tax credit for the purchase of a hydrogen vehicle of $2,500 tax credit results in 88% penetration by the 20th year, as compared with 60% in the benchmark case. If the tax credit is $6,000, penetration is 99% by the 20th year. Under a more modest approach, the tax credit would be available only for the first 10 years. Hydrogen sales penetration then reach 69% of sales by the 20th year with the $2,500 credit and 79% with the $6,000 credit. A carbon tax of $38 per metric ton is not large enough to noticeably affect sales penetration. A tax of $116 per metric ton makes centrally produced hydrogen profitable in the very first year but results in only 64% penetration by year 20 as opposed to the 60% penetration in the benchmark case. Provision of 15 seed stations publicly provided at the beginning of the simulation, in addition to the 15 existing stations in the benchmark case, gives sales penetration rates very close to the benchmark after 20 years, namely, 63% and 59% depending on where they are placed.

  20. High Pressure Ethanol Reforming for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by S. Ahmed and S.H.D. Lee at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  1. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Fall 2009; Composite Data Products, Final Version September 11, 2009

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.

    2009-09-01

    Graphs of composite data products produced by DOE's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation project through September 2009.

  2. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation Project: Spring 2010; Composite Data Products, Final Version March 29, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wipke, K.; Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ramsden, T.

    2010-05-01

    Graphs of composite data products produced by DOE's Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and Validation project through March 2010.

  3. Webinar: Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    v3) | Department of Energy Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) Webinar: Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3) Below is the text version of the webinar titled "Critical Updates to the Hydrogen Analysis Production Model (H2A v3)," originally presented on February 8, 2012. In addition to this text version of the audio, you can access the presentation slides. Darlene Steward: So I have a little presentation here. The real

  4. Fast-quench reactor for hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2006-08-29

    A fast-quench reactor for production of diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated carbons is provided. During the fast quench in the downstream diverging section of the nozzle, such as in a free expansion chamber, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  5. Hydrogen Pathways. Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, Mark; Laffen, Melissa; Timbario, Thomas A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  6. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2009-09-01

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  7. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  8. Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Report of levelized cost in 2005 US dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

  9. SBIR/STTR FY15 Phase 2 Awards Announced—Includes Hydrogen Production and FCEV Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the 2015 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase 2 Release 1 Awards, including three Office of Science projects focusing on hydrogen production from electrolysis and hydrogen systems supporting fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs).

  10. DOE NSF Partnership to Address Critical Challenges in Hydrogen Production from Solar Water Splitting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    EERE and the National Science Foundation (NSF) announce a funding opportunity in the area of renewable hydrogen technology research and development, specifically addressing discovery and development of advanced materials systems and chemical proceesses for direct photochemical and/or thermochemical water splitting for application in the solar production of hydrogen fuel.

  11. Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate Production of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biofuels From Poplar (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate Production of Biofuels From Poplar Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modification of Lignin by Protein Cross-linking to Facilitate Production of Biofuels From Poplar The limited supply of fossil fuels and the associated environmental issues associated with their utilization has resulted in much effort put forth to promote renewable resources of

  12. Analysis of Improved Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2010-06-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using an advanced Very-High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of these system analyses, using the UniSim process analysis software, have shown that the HTE process, when coupled to a VHTR capable of operating at reactor outlet temperatures of 800 C to 950 C, has the potential to produce the large quantities of hydrogen needed to meet future energy and transportation needs with hydrogen production efficiencies in excess of 50%. In addition, economic analyses performed on the INL reference plant design, optimized to maximize the hydrogen production rate for a 600 MWt VHTR, have shown that a large nuclear-driven HTE hydrogen production plant can to be economically competitive with conventional hydrogen production processes, particularly when the penalties associated with greenhouse gas emissions are considered. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This paper describes the resulting new INL reference design and presents results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions.

  13. Methane-methanol cycle for the thermochemical production of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dreyfuss, Robert M.; Hickman, Robert G.

    1976-01-01

    A thermochemical reaction cycle for the generation of hydrogen from water comprising the following sequence of reactions wherein M represents a metal: CH.sub.4 + H.sub.2 O .fwdarw. CO + 3H.sub.2 (1) co + 2h.sub.2 .fwdarw. ch.sub.3 oh (2) ch.sub.3 oh + so.sub.2 + mo .fwdarw. mso.sub.4 + ch.sub.4 (3) mso.sub.4 .fwdarw. mo + so.sub.2 + 1/2o.sub.2 (4) the net reaction is the decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen.

  14. Ni-Si Alloys for the S-I Reactor-Hydrogen Production Process Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph W. Newkirk; Richard K. Brow

    2010-01-21

    The overall goal of this project was to develop Ni-Si alloys for use in vessels to contain hot, pressurized sulfuric acid. The application was to be in the decomposition loop of the thermochemical cycle for production of hydrogen.

  15. Solar Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Research (STCH): Thermochemical Cycle Selection and Investment Priority

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Sandia National Laboratories report documents the evaluation of nine solar thermochemical reaction cycles for the production of hydrogen and identifies the critical path challenges to the commercial potential of each cycle.

  16. Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences.

  17. Webinar: Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis" on Thursday, January 21, from 12 to 1 p.m. Eastern Standard Time (EST).

  18. Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Access the recording and download the presentation slides from the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis" held on January 21, 2016.

  19. Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen (H2) Production from Biodegradable Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by Jason Ren, University of Colorado Boulder, at the Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop held September 24-25, 2013, at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, Colorado.

  20. Liquid composition having ammonia borane and decomposing to form hydrogen and liquid reaction product

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Benjamin L; Rekken, Brian D

    2014-04-01

    Liquid compositions of ammonia borane and a suitably chosen amine borane material were prepared and subjected to conditions suitable for their thermal decomposition in a closed system that resulted in hydrogen and a liquid reaction product.

  1. LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY USING HIGH TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James E. O'Brien

    2010-08-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from water splitting with relatively high efficiency using high-temperature electrolysis. This technology makes use of solid-oxide cells, running in the electrolysis mode to produce hydrogen from steam, while consuming electricity and high-temperature process heat. When coupled to an advanced high temperature nuclear reactor, the overall thermal-to-hydrogen efficiency for high-temperature electrolysis can be as high as 50%, which is about double the overall efficiency of conventional low-temperature electrolysis. Current large-scale hydrogen production is based almost exclusively on steam reforming of methane, a method that consumes a precious fossil fuel while emitting carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. Demand for hydrogen is increasing rapidly for refining of increasingly low-grade petroleum resources, such as the Athabasca oil sands and for ammonia-based fertilizer production. Large quantities of hydrogen are also required for carbon-efficient conversion of biomass to liquid fuels. With supplemental nuclear hydrogen, almost all of the carbon in the biomass can be converted to liquid fuels in a nearly carbon-neutral fashion. Ultimately, hydrogen may be employed as a direct transportation fuel in a hydrogen economy. The large quantity of hydrogen that would be required for this concept should be produced without consuming fossil fuels or emitting greenhouse gases. An overview of the high-temperature electrolysis technology will be presented, including basic theory, modeling, and experimental activities. Modeling activities include both computational fluid dynamics and large-scale systems analysis. We have also demonstrated high-temperature electrolysis in our laboratory at the 15 kW scale, achieving a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5500 L/hr.

  2. Hydrogen Production Forwards and Backwards | U.S. DOE Office of Science

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SC) Hydrogen Production Forwards and Backwards Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More Information » 02.01.12 Hydrogen Production Forwards and

  3. Global Assessment of Hydrogen Technologies – Tasks 3 & 4 Report Economic, Energy, and Environmental Analysis of Hydrogen Production and Delivery Options in Select Alabama Markets: Preliminary Case Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fouad, Fouad H.; Peters, Robert W.; Sisiopiku, Virginia P.; Sullivan Andrew J.; Gillette, Jerry; Elgowainy, Amgad; Mintz, Marianne

    2007-12-01

    This report documents a set of case studies developed to estimate the cost of producing, storing, delivering, and dispensing hydrogen for light-duty vehicles for several scenarios involving metropolitan areas in Alabama. While the majority of the scenarios focused on centralized hydrogen production and pipeline delivery, alternative delivery modes were also examined. Although Alabama was used as the case study for this analysis, the results provide insights into the unique requirements for deploying hydrogen infrastructure in smaller urban and rural environments that lie outside the DOE’s high priority hydrogen deployment regions. Hydrogen production costs were estimated for three technologies – steam-methane reforming (SMR), coal gasification, and thermochemical water-splitting using advanced nuclear reactors. In all cases examined, SMR has the lowest production cost for the demands associated with metropolitan areas in Alabama. Although other production options may be less costly for larger hydrogen markets, these were not examined within the context of the case studies.

  4. Hydrogen and elemental carbon production from natural gas and other hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2002-01-01

    Diatomic hydrogen and unsaturated hydrocarbons are produced as reactor gases in a fast quench reactor. During the fast quench, the unsaturated hydrocarbons are further decomposed by reheating the reactor gases. More diatomic hydrogen is produced, along with elemental carbon. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The product is a substantially clean-burning hydrogen fuel that leaves no greenhouse gas emissions, and elemental carbon that may be used in powder form as a commodity for several processes.

  5. Updated Cost Analysis of Photobiological Hydrogen Production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Green Algae: Milestone Completion Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amos, W. A.

    2004-01-01

    This report updates the 1999 economic analysis of NREL's photobiological hydrogen production from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The previous study had looked mainly at incident light intensities, batch cycles and light adsorption without directly attempting to model the saturation effects seen in algal cultures. This study takes a more detailed look at the effects that cell density, light adsorption and light saturation have on algal hydrogen production. Performance estimates based on actual solar data are also included in this study. Based on this analysis, the estimated future selling price of hydrogen produced from algae ranges $0.57/kg to $13.53/kg.

  6. Hydrogen Production in Radioactive Solutions in the Defense Waste Processing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    CRAWFORD, CHARLES L.

    2004-05-26

    In the radioactive slurries and solutions to be processed in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF), hydrogen will be produced continuously by radiolysis. This production results from alpha, beta, and gamma rays from decay of radionuclides in the slurries and solutions interacting with the water. More than 1000 research reports have published data concerning this radiolytic production. The results of these studies have been reviewed in a comprehensive monograph. Information about radiolytic hydrogen production from the different process tanks is necessary to determine air purge rates necessary to prevent flammable mixtures from accumulating in the vapor spaces above these tanks. Radiolytic hydrogen production rates are usually presented in terms of G values or molecules of hydrogen produced per 100ev of radioactive decay energy absorbed by the slurry or solution. With the G value for hydrogen production, G(H2), for a particular slurry and the concentrations of radioactive species in that slurry, the rate of H2 production for that slurry can be calculated. An earlier investigation estimated that the maximum rate that hydrogen could be produced from the sludge slurry stream to the DWPF is with a G value of 0.45 molecules per 100ev of radioactive decay energy sorbed by the slurry.

  7. CuC1 thermochemical cycle for hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Qinbai; Liu, Renxuan

    2012-01-03

    An electrochemical cell for producing copper having a dense graphite anode electrode and a dense graphite cathode electrode disposed in a CuCl solution. An anion exchange membrane made of poly(ethylene vinyl alcohol) and polyethylenimine cross-linked with a cross-linking agent selected from the group consisting of acetone, formaldehyde, glyoxal, glutaraldehyde, and mixtures thereof is disposed between the two electrodes.

  8. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a HTGR Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego; Anastasia A. Gandrik

    2010-10-01

    A design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production has been developed. The HTE plant is powered by a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) whose configuration and operating conditions are based on the latest design parameters planned for the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The current HTGR reference design specifies a reactor power of 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 322°C and 750°C, respectively. The power conversion unit will be a Rankine steam cycle with a power conversion efficiency of 40%. The reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes a steam-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the higher heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 40.4% at a hydrogen production rate of 1.75 kg/s and an oxygen production rate of 13.8 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed with realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a cost of $3.67/kg of hydrogen assuming an internal rate of return, IRR, of 12% and a debt to equity ratio of 80%/20%. A second analysis shows that if the power cycle efficiency increases to 44.4%, the hydrogen production efficiency increases to 42.8% and the hydrogen and oxygen production rates are 1.85 kg/s and 14.6 kg/s respectively. At the higher power cycle efficiency and an IRR of 12% the cost of hydrogen production is $3.50/kg.

  9. Hydrogen Production by PEM Electrolysis: Spotlight on Giner and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PRODUCTION BY PEM ELECTROLYSIS: SPOTLIGHT ON GINER AND PROTON US DOE WEBINAR (May 23, 2011) 2 Webinar Outline *Water Electrolysis H 2 Production Overview DOE-EERE-FCT: Eric L. ...

  10. The reaction of cobaloximes with hydrogen: Products and thermodynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Estes, Deven P.; Grills, David C.; Norton, Jack R.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, a cobalt hydride has been proposed as an intermediate in many reactions of the Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ system, but its observation has proven difficult. We have observed the UV–vis spectra of Co(dmgBF₂)₂L₂ (1) in CH₃CN under hydrogen pressures up to 70 atm. A Co(I) compound (6), with an exchangeable proton, is eventually formed. We have determined the bond dissociation free energy and pKa of the new O–H bond in 6 to be 50.5 kcal/mol and 13.4, respectively, in CH₃CN, matching previous reports.

  11. The reaction of cobaloximes with hydrogen: Products and thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estes, Deven P.; Grills, David C.; Norton, Jack R.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, a cobalt hydride has been proposed as an intermediate in many reactions of the Co(dmgBF?)?L? system, but its observation has proven difficult. We have observed the UVvis spectra of Co(dmgBF?)?L? (1) in CH?CN under hydrogen pressures up to 70 atm. A Co(I) compound (6), with an exchangeable proton, is eventually formed. We have determined the bond dissociation free energy and pKa of the new OH bond in 6 to be 50.5 kcal/mol and 13.4, respectively, in CH?CN, matching previous reports.

  12. Capabilities to Support Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Technology Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel M. Ginosar

    2009-05-01

    This report presents the results of a study to determine if Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has the skilled staff, instrumentation, specialized equipment, and facilities required to take on work in thermochemical research, development, and demonstration currently being performed by the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI). This study outlines the beneficial collaborations between INL and other national laboratories, universities, and industries to strengthen INL's thermochemical efforts, which should be developed to achieve the goals of the NHI in the most expeditious, cost effective manner. Taking on this work supports INL's long-term strategy to maintain leadership in thermochemical cycle development. This report suggests a logical path forward to accomplish this transition.

  13. Thermocatalytic process for CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon from hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Muradov, Nazim Z.

    2011-08-23

    A novel process and apparatus are disclosed for sustainable CO.sub.2-free production of hydrogen and carbon by thermocatalytic decomposition (dissociation, pyrolysis, cracking) of hydrocarbon fuels over carbon-based catalysts in the absence of air and/or water. The apparatus and thermocatalytic process improve the activity and stability of carbon catalysts during the thermocatalytic process and produce both high purity hydrogen (at least, 99.0 volume %) and carbon, from any hydrocarbon fuel, including sulfurous fuels. In a preferred embodiment, production of hydrogen and carbon is achieved by both internal and external activation of carbon catalysts. Internal activation of carbon catalyst is accomplished by recycling of hydrogen-depleted gas containing unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons back to the reactor. External activation of the catalyst can be achieved via surface gasification with hot combustion gases during catalyst heating. The process and apparatus can be conveniently integrated with any type of fuel cell to generate electricity.

  14. Photobiological hydrogen production with switchable photosystem-II designer algae

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, James Weifu

    2014-02-18

    A process for enhanced photobiological H.sub.2 production using transgenic alga. The process includes inducing exogenous genes in a transgenic alga by manipulating selected environmental factors. In one embodiment inducing production of an exogenous gene uncouples H.sub.2 production from existing mechanisms that would downregulate H.sub.2 production in the absence of the exogenous gene. In other embodiments inducing an exogenous gene triggers a cascade of metabolic changes that increase H.sub.2 production. In some embodiments the transgenic alga are rendered non-regenerative by inducing exogenous transgenes for proton channel polypeptides that are targeted to specific algal membranes.

  15. Hydrogen production and delivery analysis in US markets : cost, energy and greenhouse gas emissions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mintz, M.; Gillette, J.; Elgowainy, A.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogen production cost conclusions are: (1) Steam Methane Reforming (SMR) is the least-cost production option at current natural gas prices and for initial hydrogen vehicle penetration rates, at high production rates, SMR may not be the least-cost option; (2) Unlike coal and nuclear technologies, the cost of natural gas feedstock is the largest contributor to SMR production cost; (3) Coal- and nuclear-based hydrogen production have significant penalties at small production rates (and benefits at large rates); (4) Nuclear production of hydrogen is likely to have large economies of scale, but because fixed O&M costs are uncertain, the magnitude of these effects may be understated; and (5) Given H2A default assumptions for fuel prices, process efficiencies and labor costs, nuclear-based hydrogen is likely to be more expensive to produce than coal-based hydrogen. Carbon taxes and caps can narrow the gap. Hydrogen delivery cost conclusions are: (1) For smaller urban markets, compressed gas delivery appears most economic, although cost inputs for high-pressure gas trucks are uncertain; (2) For larger urban markets, pipeline delivery is least costly; (3) Distance from hydrogen production plant to city gate may change relative costs (all results shown assume 100 km); (4) Pipeline costs may be reduced with system 'rationalization', primarily reductions in service pipeline mileage; and (5) Liquefier and pipeline capital costs are a hurdle, particularly at small market sizes. Some energy and greenhouse gas Observations: (1) Energy use (per kg of H2) declines slightly with increasing production or delivery rate for most components (unless energy efficiency varies appreciably with scale, e.g., liquefaction); (2) Energy use is a strong function of production technology and delivery mode; (3) GHG emissions reflect the energy efficiency and carbon content of each component in a production-delivery pathway; (4) Coal and natural gas production pathways have high energy consumption and significant GHG emissions (in the absence of carbon caps, taxes or sequestration); (5) Nuclear pathway is most favorable from energy use and GHG emissions perspective; (6) GH2 Truck and Pipeline delivery have much lower energy use and GHG emissions than LH2 Truck delivery; and (7) For LH2 Truck delivery, the liquefier accounts for most of the energy and GHG emissions.

  16. Reversible Electrocatalytic Production and Oxidation of Hydrogen at Low Overpotentials by a Functional Hydrogenase Mimic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Stuart E.; Yang, Jenny Y.; DuBois, Daniel L.; Bullock, Morris

    2012-03-26

    A new bis(diphosphine) nickel(II) complex, [Ni(PPh2NR2)2](BF4)2, 1, (R = CH2CH2OCH3) is described. A {Delta}G{sup o} of 0.84 kcal/mol{sup -1} for hydrogen addition for this complex was calculated from the experimentally determined equilibrium constant. This complex displays reversible electrocatalytic activity for hydrogen production and oxidation at low overpotentials, a characteristic most commonly associated with hydrogenase enzymes.

  17. Hydrogen production from switchgrass via a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lewis, Alex J.; Ren, Shoujie; Ye, Philip; Kim, Pyoungchung; Labbe, Niki; Borole, Abhijeet P.

    2015-06-30

    A new approach to hydrogen production using a hybrid pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process is described. The aqueous stream generated during pyrolysis of switchgrass was used as a substrate for hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell, achieving a maximum hydrogen production rate of 4.3 L H2/L-day at a loading of 10 g COD/L-anode-day. Hydrogen yields ranged from 50 3.2% to76 0.5% while anode coulombic efficiency ranged from 54 6.5% to 96 0.21%, respectively. Significant conversion of furfural, organic acids and phenolic molecules was observed under both batch and continuous conditions. The electrical and overall energy efficiency ranged from 149-175% and 48-63%,more » respectively. The results demonstrate the potential of the pyrolysis-microbial electrolysis process as a sustainable and efficient route for production of renewable hydrogen with significant implications for hydrocarbon production from biomass.« less

  18. DOE Technical Targets for Hydrogen Production from Thermochemical...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Production section of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office's Multi-Year Research, Development, and Demonstration Plan. Technical Targets: Solar-Driven High-Temperature ...

  19. MEASUREMENT AND PREDICTION OF RADIOLYTIC HYDROGEN PRODUCTION IN DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING SLURRIES AT SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N; John Pareizs, J; Terri Fellinger, T; Cj Bannochie, C

    2007-01-10

    This paper presents results of measurements and predictions of radiolytic hydrogen production rates from two actual process slurries in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) at Savannah River Site (SRS). Hydrogen is a flammable gas and its production in nuclear facilities can be a safety hazard if not mitigated. Measurements were made in the Shielded Cells of Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) using a sample of Sludge Batch 3 (SB3) currently being processed by the DWPF. Predictions were made using published values for rates of radiolytic reactions producing H{sub 2} in aqueous solutions and the measured radionuclide and chemical compositions of the two slurries. The agreement between measured and predicted results for nine experiments ranged from complete agreement to 24% difference. This agreement indicates that if the composition of the slurry being processed is known, the rate of radiolytic hydrogen production can be reasonably estimated.

  20. Comparative environmental impact and efficiency assessment of selected hydrogen production methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozbilen, Ahmet Dincer, Ibrahim Rosen, Marc A.

    2013-09-15

    The environmental impacts of various hydrogen production processes are evaluated and compared, considering several energy sources and using life cycle analysis. The results indicate that hydrogen produced by thermochemical water decomposition cycles are more environmentally benign options compared to conventional steam reforming of natural gas. The nuclear based four-step Cu–Cl cycle has the lowest global warming potential (0.559 kg CO{sub 2}-eq per kg hydrogen production), mainly because it requires the lowest quantity of energy of the considered processes. The acidification potential results show that biomass gasification has the highest impact on environment, while wind based electrolysis has the lowest. The relation is also investigated between efficiency and environmental impacts. -- Highlights: • Environmental performance of nuclear-based hydrogen production is investigated. • The GWP and AP results are compared with various hydrogen production processes. • Nuclear based 4-step Cu–Cl cycle is found to be an environmentally benign process. • Wind-based electrolysis has the lowest AP value.

  1. Natural Gas Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas Production and Its Transportation to Market

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Processing: The Crucial Link Between Natural Gas Production and Its Transportation to Market Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas, January 2006 1 The natural gas product fed into the mainline gas transportation system in the United States must meet specific quality measures in order for the pipeline grid to operate properly. Consequently, natural gas produced at the wellhead, which in most cases contains contaminants 1 and natural gas liquids, 2 must be processed, i.e.,

  2. Improving Power System Modeling. A Tool to Link Capacity Expansion and Production Cost Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, Victor; Cole, Wesley; Sullivan, Patrick; Brinkman, Gregory; Margolis, Robert

    2015-11-01

    Capacity expansion models (CEM) provide a high-level long-term view at the prospects of the evolving power system. In simulating the possibilities of long-term capacity expansion, it is important to maintain the viability of power system operation in the short-term (daily, hourly and sub-hourly) scales. Production-cost models (PCM) simulate routine power system operation on these shorter time scales using detailed load, transmission and generation fleet data by minimizing production costs and following reliability requirements. When based on CEM 'predictions' about generating unit retirements and buildup, PCM provide more detailed simulation for the short-term system operation and, consequently, may confirm the validity of capacity expansion predictions. Further, production cost model simulations of a system that is based on capacity expansion model solution are 'evolutionary' sound: the generator mix is the result of logical sequence of unit retirement and buildup resulting from policy and incentives. The above has motivated us to bridge CEM with PCM by building a capacity expansion - to - production cost model Linking Tool (CEPCoLT). The Linking Tool is built to onset capacity expansion model prescriptions onto production cost model inputs. NREL's ReEDS and Energy Examplar's PLEXOS are the capacity expansion and the production cost models, respectively. Via the Linking Tool, PLEXOS provides details of operation for the regionally-defined ReEDS scenarios.

  3. System Evaluations and Life-Cycle Cost Analyses for High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-05-01

    This report presents results of system evaluations and lifecycle cost analyses performed for several different commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) hydrogen production concepts. The concepts presented in this report rely on grid electricity and non-nuclear high-temperature process heat sources for the required energy inputs. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate both central plant designs for large-scale hydrogen production (50,000 kg/day or larger) and forecourt plant designs for distributed production and delivery at about 1,500 kg/day. The HYSYS software inherently ensures mass and energy balances across all components and it includes thermodynamic data for all chemical species. The optimized designs described in this report are based on analyses of process flow diagrams that included realistic representations of fluid conditions and component efficiencies and operating parameters for each of the HTE hydrogen production configurations analyzed. As with previous HTE system analyses performed at the INL, a custom electrolyzer model was incorporated into the overall process flow sheet. This electrolyzer model allows for the determination of the average Nernst potential, cell operating voltage, gas outlet temperatures, and electrolyzer efficiency for any specified inlet steam, hydrogen, and sweep-gas flow rates, current density, cell active area, and external heat loss or gain. The lifecycle cost analyses were performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. There are standard default sets of assumptions that the methodology uses to ensure consistency when comparing the cost of different production or plant design options. However, these assumptions may also be varied within the spreadsheets when better information is available or to allow the performance of sensitivity studies. The selected reference plant design for this study was a 1500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant operating in the thermal-neutral mode. The plant utilized industrial natural gas-fired heaters to provide process heat, and grid electricity to supply power to the electrolyzer modules and system components. Modifications to the reference design included replacing the gas-fired heaters with electric resistance heaters, changing the operating mode of the electrolyzer (to operate below the thermal-neutral voltage), and considering a larger 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant design. Total H2A-calculated hydrogen production costs for the reference 1,500 kg/day forecourt hydrogen production plant were $3.42/kg. The all-electric plant design using electric resistance heaters for process heat, and the reference design operating below the thermal-neutral voltage had calculated lifecycle hydrogen productions costs of $3.55/kg and $5.29/kg, respectively. Because of its larger size and associated economies of scale, the 50,000 kg/day central hydrogen production plant was able to produce hydrogen at a cost of only $2.89/kg.

  4. An Integrated Hydrogen Production-CO2 Capture Process from Fossil Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhicheng Wang

    2007-03-15

    The new technology concept integrates two significant complementary hydrogen production and CO{sub 2}-sequestration approaches that have been developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and Clark Atlanta University. The process can convert biomass into hydrogen and char. Hydrogen can be efficiently used for stationary power and mobile applications, or it can be synthesized into Ammonia which can be used for CO{sub 2}-sequestration, while char can be used for making time-release fertilizers (NH{sub 4}HCO{sub 3}) by absorption of CO{sub 2} and other acid gases from exhaust flows. Fertilizers are then used for the growth of biomass back to fields. This project includes bench scale experiments and pilot scale tests. The Combustion and Emission Lab at Clark Atlanta University has conducted the bench scale experiments. The facility used for pilot scale tests was built in Athens, GA. The overall yield from this process is 7 wt% hydrogen and 32 wt% charcoal/activated carbon of feedstock (peanut shell). The value of co-product activated carbon is about $1.1/GJ and this coproduct reduced the selling price of hydrogen. And the selling price of hydrogen is estimated to be $6.95/GJ. The green house experimental results show that the samples added carbon-fertilizers have effectively growth increase of three different types of plants and improvement ability of keeping fertilizer in soil to avoid the fertilizer leaching with water.

  5. EERE Success Story-Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity EERE Success Story-Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity April 10, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis At an airport in Anchorage, Alaska, EERE provided funds to Bloom Energy in completing a one-year demonstration of two 25-kilowatt fuel cells-providing valuable, real-world data in one of the harshest environments on earth. Each fuel cell showed an impressive peak electrical efficiency of more than 50%. The high operating

  6. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 4 of 2014; NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sprik, S.; Kurtz, J.; Ainscough, C.; Peters, M.

    2015-05-14

    This publication includes 43 composite data products (CDPs) produced for next generation hydrogen stations, with data through the fourth quarter of 2014.

  7. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  8. A Process Model for the Production of Hydrogen Using High Temperature Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. G. Mc Kellar; E. A. Harvego; M. Richards; A. Shenoy

    2006-07-01

    High temperature electrolysis (HTE) involves the splitting of stream into hydrogen and oxygen at high temperatures. The primary advantage of HTE over conventional low temperature electrolysis is that considerably higher hydrogen production efficiencies can be achieved. Performing the electrolysis process at high temperatures results in more favorable thermodynamics for electrolysis, more efficient production of electricity, and allows direct use of process heat to generate steam. This paper presents the results of process analyses performed to evaluate the hydrogen production efficiencies of an HTE plant coupled to a 600 MWt Modular Helium Reactor (MHR) that supplies both the electricity and process heat needed to drive the process. The MHR operates with a coolant outlet temperature of 950 C. Approximately 87% of the high-temperature heat is used to generate electricity at high efficiency using a direct, Brayton-cycle power conversion system. The remaining high-temperature heat is used to generate a superheated steam / hydrogen mixture that is supplied to the electrolyzers. The analyses were performed using the HYSYS process modeling software. The model used to perform the analyses consisted of three loops; a primary high temperature helium loop, a secondary helium loop and the HTE process loop. The detailed model included realistic representations of all major components in the system, including pumps, compressors, heat exchange equipment, and the electrolysis stack. The design of the hydrogen production process loop also included a steam-sweep gas system to remove oxygen from the electrolysis stack so that it can be recovered and used for other applications. Results of the process analyses showed that hydrogen production efficiencies in the range of 45% to 50% are achievable with this system.

  9. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominatedmore » community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).« less

  10. Bioengineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tabita, F. Robert [The Ohio State University] [The Ohio State University

    2013-07-30

    In this study, the Principal Investigator, F.R. Tabita has teemed up with J. C. Liao from UCLA. This project's main goal is to manipulate regulatory networks in phototrophic bacteria to affect and maximize the production of large amounts of hydrogen gas under conditions where wild-type organisms are constrained by inherent regulatory mechanisms from allowing this to occur. Unrestrained production of hydrogen has been achieved and this will allow for the potential utilization of waste materials as a feed stock to support hydrogen production. By further understanding the means by which regulatory networks interact, this study will seek to maximize the ability of currently available unrestrained organisms to produce hydrogen. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Moreover, due to their great metabolic versatility, such organisms highly regulate these processes in the cell and since virtually all such capabilities are dispensable, excellent experimental systems to study aspects of molecular control and biochemistry/physiology are available.

  11. High Temperature Electrolysis for Hydrogen Production from Nuclear Energy – TechnologySummary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; C. M. Stoots; J. S. Herring; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; M. S. Sohal; K. G. Condie

    2010-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, has requested that a Hydrogen Technology Down-Selection be performed to identify the hydrogen production technology that has the best potential for timely commercial demonstration and for ultimate deployment with the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). An Independent Review Team has been assembled to execute the down-selection. This report has been prepared to provide the members of the Independent Review Team with detailed background information on the High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) process, hardware, and state of the art. The Idaho National Laboratory has been serving as the lead lab for HTE research and development under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. The INL HTE program has included small-scale experiments, detailed computational modeling, system modeling, and technology demonstration. Aspects of all of these activities are included in this report. In terms of technology demonstration, the INL successfully completed a 1000-hour test of the HTE Integrated Laboratory Scale (ILS) technology demonstration experiment during the fall of 2008. The HTE ILS achieved a hydrogen production rate in excess of 5.7 Nm3/hr, with a power consumption of 18 kW. This hydrogen production rate is far larger than has been demonstrated by any of the thermochemical or hybrid processes to date.

  12. Influence of acidic pH on hydrogen and acetate production by an electrosynthetic microbiome

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBelle, Edward V.; Marshall, Christopher W.; Gilbert, Jack A.; May, Harold D.; Battista, John R.

    2014-10-15

    Production of hydrogen and organic compounds by an electrosynthetic microbiome using electrodes and carbon dioxide as sole electron donor and carbon source, respectively, was examined after exposure to acidic pH (~5). Hydrogen production by biocathodes poised at -600 mV vs. SHE increased>100-fold and acetate production ceased at acidic pH, but ~5–15 mM (catholyte volume)/day acetate and>1,000 mM/day hydrogen were attained at pH ~6.5 following repeated exposure to acidic pH. Cyclic voltammetry revealed a 250 mV decrease in hydrogen overpotential and a maximum current density of 12.2 mA/cm2 at -765 mV (0.065 mA/cm2 sterile control at -800 mV) by the Acetobacterium-dominated community. Supplying -800 mV to the microbiome after repeated exposure to acidic pH resulted in up to 2.6 kg/m3/day hydrogen (≈2.6 gallons gasoline equivalent), 0.7 kg/m3/day formate, and 3.1 kg/m3/day acetate ( = 4.7 kg CO2 captured).

  13. Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    267 September 2009 Analyzing the Levelized Cost of Centralized and Distributed Hydrogen Production Using the H2A Production Model, Version 2 T. Ramsden and D. Steward National Renewable Energy Laboratory J. Zuboy Independent Contractor National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for

  14. Engineering and Coordination of Regulatory Networks and Intracellular Complexes to Maximize Hydrogen Production by Phototrophic Microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James C. Liao

    2012-05-22

    This project is a collaboration with F. R. Tabita of Ohio State. Our major goal is to understand the factors and regulatory mechanisms that influence hydrogen production. The organisms to be utilized in this study, phototrophic microorganisms, in particular nonsulfur purple (NSP) bacteria, catalyze many significant processes including the assimilation of carbon dioxide into organic carbon, nitrogen fixation, sulfur oxidation, aromatic acid degradation, and hydrogen oxidation/evolution. Our part of the project was to develop a modeling technique to investigate the metabolic network in connection to hydrogen production and regulation. Organisms must balance the pathways that generate and consume reducing power in order to maintain redox homeostasis to achieve growth. Maintaining this homeostasis in the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria is a complex feat with many avenues that can lead to balance, as these organisms possess versatile metabolic capabilities including anoxygenic photosynthesis, aerobic or anaerobic respiration, and fermentation. Growth is achieved by using H{sub 2} as an electron donor and CO{sub 2} as a carbon source during photoautotrophic and chemoautotrophic growth, where CO{sub 2} is fixed via the Calvin-Benson-Bassham (CBB) cycle. Photoheterotrophic growth can also occur when alternative organic carbon compounds are utilized as both the carbon source and electron donor. Regardless of the growth mode, excess reducing equivalents generated as a result of oxidative processes, must be transferred to terminal electron acceptors, thus insuring that redox homeostasis is maintained in the cell. Possible terminal acceptors include O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, organic carbon, or various oxyanions. Cells possess regulatory mechanisms to balance the activity of the pathways which supply energy, such as photosynthesis, and those that consume energy, such as CO{sub 2} assimilation or N{sub 2} fixation. The major route for CO{sub 2} assimilation is the CBB reductive pentose phosphate pathway, whose key enzyme is ribulose 1,5-biphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO). In addition to providing virtually all cellular carbon during autotrophic metabolism, RubisCO-mediated CO{sub 2} assimilation is also very important for nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacteria under photoheterotrophic growth conditions since CO{sub 2} becomes the major electron sink under these conditions. In this work, Ensemble Modeling (EM) was developed to examine the behavior of CBB-compromised RubisCO knockout mutant strains of the nonsulfur purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides. Mathematical models of metabolism can be a great aid in studying the effects of large perturbations to the system, such as the inactivation of RubisCO. Due to the complex and highly-interconnected nature of these networks, it is not a trivial process to understand what the effect of perturbations to the metabolic network will be, or vice versa, what enzymatic perturbations are necessary to yield a desired effect. Flux distribution is controlled by multiple enzymes in the network, often indirectly linked to the pathways of interest. Further, depending on the state of the cell and the environmental conditions, the effect of a perturbation may center around how it effects the carbon flow in the network, the balancing of cofactors, or both. Thus, it is desirable to develop mathematical models to describe, understand, and predict network behavior. Through the development of such models, one may gain the ability to generate a set of testable hypotheses for system behavior.

  15. Assessement of Codes and Standards Applicable to a Hydrogen Production Plant Coupled to a Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. J. Russell

    2006-06-01

    This is an assessment of codes and standards applicable to a hydrogen production plant to be coupled to a nuclear reactor. The result of the assessment is a list of codes and standards that are expected to be applicable to the plant during its design and construction.

  16. Hydrogen production. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the manufacture of hydrogen by electrolysis, photosynthesis, and coal conversion processes. Citations discuss plant and process evaluations, theoretical and laboratory investigations, economic analyses, and the use of thermonuclear reactors as production source. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  17. Hydrogen Production and Consumption in the U.S.: The Last 25 Years.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Daryl R.

    2015-09-01

    This article was requested by Cryogas International, which is celebrating its 25th anniversary this year. At the title suggests, the article identifies hydrogen consumption in the U.S., broken out by the major contributors to total production. Explanatory information is provided describing the causes underlying the significant changes seen in the summary data.

  18. Zeolite Membrane Reactor for Water Gas Shift Reaction for Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jerry Y.S.

    2013-01-29

    Gasification of biomass or heavy feedstock to produce hydrogen fuel gas using current technology is costly and energy-intensive. The technology includes water gas shift reaction in two or more reactor stages with inter-cooling to maximize conversion for a given catalyst volume. This project is focused on developing a membrane reactor for efficient conversion of water gas shift reaction to produce a hydrogen stream as a fuel and a carbon dioxide stream suitable for sequestration. The project was focused on synthesizing stable, hydrogen perm-selective MFI zeolite membranes for high temperature hydrogen separation; fabricating tubular MFI zeolite membrane reactor and stable water gas shift catalyst for membrane reactor applications, and identifying experimental conditions for water gas shift reaction in the zeolite membrane reactor that will produce a high purity hydrogen stream. The project has improved understanding of zeolite membrane synthesis, high temperature gas diffusion and separation mechanisms for zeolite membranes, synthesis and properties of sulfur resistant catalysts, fabrication and structure optimization of membrane supports, and fundamentals of coupling reaction with separation in zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction. Through the fundamental study, the research teams have developed MFI zeolite membranes with good perm-selectivity for hydrogen over carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and water vapor, and high stability for operation in syngas mixture containing 500 part per million hydrogen sulfide at high temperatures around 500°C. The research teams also developed a sulfur resistant catalyst for water gas shift reaction. Modeling and experimental studies on the zeolite membrane reactor for water gas shift reaction have demonstrated the effective use of the zeolite membrane reactor for production of high purity hydrogen stream.

  19. Production of Hydrogen for Clean and Renewable Source of Energy for Fuel Cell Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Xunming; Ingler, William B, Jr.; Abraham, Martin; Castellano, Felix; Coleman, Maria; Collins, Robert; Compaan, Alvin; Giolando, Dean; Jayatissa, Ahalapitiya. H.; Stuart, Thomas; Vonderembse, Mark

    2008-10-31

    This was a two-year project that had two major components: 1) the demonstration of a PV-electrolysis system that has separate PV system and electrolysis unit and the hydrogen generated is to be used to power a fuel cell based vehicle; 2) the development of technologies for generation of hydrogen through photoelectrochemical process and bio-mass derived resources. Development under this project could lead to the achievement of DOE technical target related to PEC hydrogen production at low cost. The PEC part of the project is focused on the development of photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation devices and systems using thin-film silicon based solar cells. Two approaches are taken for the development of efficient and durable photoelectrochemical cells; 1) An immersion-type photoelectrochemical cells (Task 3) where the photoelectrode is immersed in electrolyte, and 2) A substrate-type photoelectrochemical cell (Task 2) where the photoelectrode is not in direct contact with electrolyte. Four tasks are being carried out: Task 1: Design and analysis of DC voltage regulation system for direct PV-to-electrolyzer power feed Task 2: Development of advanced materials for substrate-type PEC cells Task 3: Development of advanced materials for immersion-type PEC cells Task 4: Hydrogen production through conversion of biomass-derived wastes

  20. Multi-stage microbial system for continuous hydrogen production

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kosourov, Sergey; Ghirardi, Maria L.; Seibert, Michael

    2010-06-08

    A method of using sequential chemostat culture vessels to provide continuous H.sub.2 production, in which photosynthetic O.sub.2 evolution and H.sub.2 photoproduction are separated physically into two separate bioreactors, comprising: a) growing a microorganism culture able to continuously generate H.sub.2 by photosynthetically producing cells at about the early-to-late log state in a first photobioreactor operating as a sulfur chemostat under aerobic and/or conditions; b) continuously feeding cells from the first photobioreactor to a second photobioreactor operating under anaerobic conditions and sulfur deprivation conditions resulting from constant uptake of sulfate in the first bioreactor and a low rate of culture flow between the first and second bioreactors, for induction of hydrogenase and H.sub.2 photoproduction to allow for continuous cultivation of the microorganism's cells in the first photobioreactor and constant H.sub.2 production in the second photobioreactor, and c) H.sub.2 gas from the second photobioreactor.

  1. Analysis of Reference Design for Nuclear-Assisted Hydrogen Production at 750C Reactor Outlet Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. McKellar; Edwin A. Harvego

    2010-05-01

    The use of High Temperature Electrolysis (HTE) for the efficient production of hydrogen without the greenhouse gas emissions associated with conventional fossil-fuel hydrogen production techniques has been under investigation at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INL) for the last several years. The activities at the INL have included the development, testing and analysis of large numbers of solid oxide electrolysis cells, and the analyses of potential plant designs for large scale production of hydrogen using a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) to provide the process heat and electricity to drive the electrolysis process. The results of this research led to the selection in 2009 of HTE as the preferred concept in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) hydrogen technology down-selection process. However, the down-selection process, along with continued technical assessments at the INL, has resulted in a number of proposed modifications and refinements to improve the original INL reference HTE design. These modifications include changes in plant configuration, operating conditions and individual component designs. This report describes the resulting new INL reference design coupled to two alternative HTGR power conversion systems, a Steam Rankine Cycle and a Combined Cycle (a Helium Brayton Cycle with a Steam Rankine Bottoming Cycle). Results of system analyses performed to optimize the design and to determine required plant performance and operating conditions when coupled to the two different power cycles are also presented. A 600 MWt high temperature gas reactor coupled with a Rankine steam power cycle at a thermal efficiency of 44.4% can produce 1.85 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.6 kg/s of oxygen. The same capacity reactor coupled with a combined cycle at a thermal efficiency of 42.5% can produce 1.78 kg/s of hydrogen and 14.0 kg/s of oxygen.

  2. SIMULTANEOUS PRODUCTION OF HIGH-PURITY HYDROGEN AND SEQUESTRATION-READY CO2 FROM SYNGAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linda Denton; Hana Lorethova; Tomasz Wiltowski; Court Moorefield; Parag Kulkarni; Vladimir Zamansky; Ravi Kumar

    2003-12-01

    This final report summarizes the progress made on the program ''Simultaneous Production of High-Purity Hydrogen and Sequestration-Ready CO{sub 2} from Syngas (contract number DE-FG26-99FT40682)'', during October 2000 through September of 2003. GE Energy and Environmental Research (GE-EER) and Southern Illinois University (SIU) at Carbondale conducted the research work for this program. This program addresses improved methods to efficiently produce simultaneous streams of high-purity hydrogen and separated carbon dioxide from synthesis gas (syngas). The syngas may be produced through either gasification of coal or reforming of natural gas. The process of production of H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2} utilizes a dual-bed reactor and regenerator system. The reactor produces hydrogen and the regenerator produces separated CO{sub 2}. The dual-bed system can be operated under either a circulating fluidized-bed configuration or a cyclic fixed-bed configuration. Both configurations were evaluated in this project. The experimental effort was divided into lab-scale work at SIU and bench-scale work at GE-EER. Tests in a lab-scale fluidized bed system demonstrated the process for the conversion of syngas to high purity H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The lab-scale system generated up to 95% H{sub 2} (on a dry basis). Extensive thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions between the syngas and the fluidized solids determined an optimum range of temperature and pressure operation, where the extent of the undesirable reactions is minimum. The cycling of the process between hydrogen generation and oxygen regeneration has been demonstrated. The fluidized solids did not regenerate completely and the hydrogen purity in the reuse cycle dropped to 70% from 95% (on a dry basis). Changes in morphology and particle size may be the most dominant factor affecting the efficiency of the repeated cycling between hydrogen production and oxygen regeneration. The concept of simultaneous production of hydrogen and separated stream of CO{sub 2} was proved using a fixed bed 2 reactor system at GE-EER. This bench-scale cyclic fixed-bed reactor system designed to reform natural gas to syngas has been fabricated in another coordinated DOE project. This system was modified to reform natural gas to syngas and then convert syngas to H{sub 2} and separated CO{sub 2}. The system produced 85% hydrogen (dry basis).

  3. Separation Requirements for a Hydrogen Production Plant and High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curtis Smith; Scott Beck; Bill Galyean

    2005-09-01

    This report provides the methods, models, and results of an evaluation for locating a hydrogen production facility near a nuclear power plant. In order to answer the risk-related questions for this combined nuclear and chemical facility, we utilized standard probabilistic safety assessment methodologies to answer three questions: what can happen, how likely is it, and what are the consequences? As part of answering these questions, we developed a model suitable to determine separation distances for hydrogen process structures and the nuclear plant structures. Our objective of the model-development and analysis is to answer key safety questions related to the placement of one or more hydrogen production plants in the vicinity of a high-temperature nuclear reactor. From a thermal-hydraulic standpoint we would like the two facilities to be quite close. However, safety and regulatory implications force the separation distance to be increased, perhaps substantially. Without answering these safety questions, the likelihood for obtaining a permit to construct and build such as facility in the U.S. would be questionable. The quantitative analysis performed for this report provides us with a scoping mechanism to determine key parameters related to the development of a nuclear-based hydrogen production facility. From our calculations, we estimate that when the separation distance is less than 100m, the core damage frequency is large enough (greater than 1E-6/yr) to become problematic in a risk-informed environment. However, a variety of design modifications, for example blast-deflection barriers, were explored to determine the impact of potential mitigating strategies. We found that these mitigating cases may significantly reduce risk and should be explored as the design for the hydrogen production facility evolves.

  4. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2006-03-30

    Professors and graduate students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and hydrocarbon gases and liquids produced from coal. An Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report summarizes the results obtained in this program during the period October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2006. The results are presented in detailed reports on 16 research projects headed by professors at each of the five CFFS Universities and an Executive Summary. Some of the highlights from these results are: (1) Small ({approx}1%) additions of acetylene or other alkynes to the Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) reaction increases its yield, causes chain initiation, and promotes oxygenate formation. (2) The addition of Mo to Fe-Cu-K/AC F-T catalysts improves catalyst lifetime and activity. (3) The use of gas phase deposition to place highly dispersed metal catalysts on silica or ceria aerogels offers promise for both the F-T and the water-gas shift WGS reactions. (4) Improved activity and selectivity are exhibited by Co F-T catalysts in supercritical hexane. (5) Binary Fe-M (M=Ni, Mo, Pd) catalysts exhibit excellent activity for dehydrogenation of gaseous alkanes, yielding pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes in one reaction. A fluidized-bed/fixed-bed methane reactor was developed for continuous hydrogen and nanotube production. (6) A process for co-production of hydrogen and methyl formate from methanol has been developed. (7) Pt nanoparticles on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes easily strip hydrogen from liquids such as cyclohexane, methylcyclohexane, tetralin and decalin, leaving rechargeable aromatic phases. (8) Hydrogen volume percentages produced during reforming of methanol in supercritical water in the output stream are {approx}98%, while CO and CO2 percentages are <2 %.

  5. A review of dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable municipal waste fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Gioannis, G.; Muntoni, A.; Polettini, A.; Pomi, R.

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ? A large number of factors affect fermentative hydrogen production. ? Harmonization and systematic comparison of results from different literature sources are needed. ? More than 80 publications on H{sub 2} production from food waste and OFMSW have been examined. ? Experimental data from the reviewed literature were analyzed using statistical tools. ? For a reliable assessment of the process performance, the use of multiple parameters appears to be recommended. - Abstract: Hydrogen is believed to play a potentially key role in the implementation of sustainable energy production, particularly when it is produced from renewable sources and low energy-demanding processes. In the present paper an attempt was made at critically reviewing more than 80 recent publications, in order to harmonize and compare the available results from different studies on hydrogen production from FW and OFMSW through dark fermentation, and derive reliable information about process yield and stability in view of building related predictive models. The review was focused on the effect of factors, recognized as potentially affecting process evolution (including type of substrate and co-substrate and relative ratio, type of inoculum, food/microorganisms [F/M] ratio, applied pre-treatment, reactor configuration, temperature and pH), on the fermentation yield and kinetics. Statistical analysis of literature data from batch experiments was also conducted, showing that the variables affecting the H{sub 2} production yield were ranked in the order: type of co-substrate, type of pre-treatment, operating pH, control of initial pH and fermentation temperature. However, due to the dispersion of data observed in some instances, the ambiguity about the presence of additional hidden variables cannot be resolved. The results from the analysis thus suggest that, for reliable predictive models of fermentative hydrogen production to be derived, a high level of consistency between data is strictly required, claiming for more systematic and comprehensive studies on the subject.

  6. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

  7. Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Pathways Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios T. Ramsden, M. Ruth, V. Diakov National Renewable Energy Laboratory M. Laffen, T.A. Timbario Alliance Technical Services, Inc. Technical Report NREL/TP-6A10-60528 March 2013 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable

  8. CTP Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    CTP Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search Name: CTP Hydrogen Place: Westborough, Massachusetts Zip: 1581 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: CTP Hydrogen is an early stage company...

  9. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.A. Semelsberger

    2004-10-01

    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  10. Production of hydrogen by thermocatalytic cracking of natural gas. Task 4 report; Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-01

    The conventional methods of hydrogen production from natural gas, for example, steam reforming (SR), are complex multi-step processes. These processes also result in the emission of large quantities of CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere. One alternative is the single-step thermocatalytic cracking (TCC) (or decomposition) of natural gas into hydrogen and carbon. The comparative assessment of SR and TCC processes was conducted. Thermocatalytic cracking of methane over various catalysts and supports in a wide range of temperatures (500--900 C) and flow rates was conducted. Two types of fix bed catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested: continuous flow and pulse reactors. Ni-Mo/Alumina and Fe-catalysts demonstrated relatively high efficiency in the methane cracking reaction at the range of temperatures 600--800 C. Fe-catalyst demonstrated fairly good stability, whereas alumina-supported Pt-catalyst rapidly lost its catalytic activity. Methane decomposition reaction over Ni-Mo/alumina was studied over wide range of space velocities in a continuous flow fixed bed catalytic reactor. The experimental results indicate that the hydrogen yield decreases noticeably with an increase in the space velocity of methane. The pulse type catalytic reactor was used to test the activity of the catalysts. It was found that induction period on the kinetic curve of hydrogen production corresponded to the reduction of metal oxide to metallic form of the catalyst. SEM method was used to study the structure of the carbon deposited on the catalyst surface.

  11. Linking legacies: Connecting the Cold War nuclear weapons production processes to their environmental consequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-01-01

    In the aftermath of the Cold War, the US has begun addressing the environmental consequences of five decades of nuclear weapons production. In support of this effort, the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1995 directed the Department of Energy (DOE) to describe the waste streams generated during each step in the production of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, this report responds to this mandate, and it is the Department`s first comprehensive analysis of the sources of waste and contamination generated by the production of nuclear weapons. The report also contains information on the missions and functions of nuclear weapons facilities, on the inventories of waste and materials remaining at these facilities, as well as on the extent and characteristics of contamination in and around these facilities. This analysis unites specific environmental impacts of nuclear weapons production with particular production processes. The Department used historical records to connect nuclear weapons production processes with emerging data on waste and contamination. In this way, two of the Department`s legacies--nuclear weapons manufacturing and environmental management--have become systematically linked. The goal of this report is to provide Congress, DOE program managers, non-governmental analysts, and the public with an explicit picture of the environmental results of each step in the nuclear weapons production and disposition cycle.

  12. System Evaluation and Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen-Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2010-06-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.1% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

  13. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1100.degree. to 1900.degree. C., while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products.

  14. Co-Production of Electricity and Hydrogen Using a Novel Iron-based Catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilaly, Ahmad; Georgas, Adam; Leboreiro, Jose; Arora, Salil; Head, Megann; Trembly, Jason; Turk, Brian; Gupta, Raghubir

    2011-09-30

    The primary objective of this project was to develop a hydrogen production technology for gasification applications based on a circulating fluid-bed reactor and an attrition resistant iron catalyst. The work towards achieving this objective consisted of three key activities: • Development of an iron-based catalyst suitable for a circulating fluid-bed reactor • Design, construction, and operation of a bench-scale circulating fluid-bed reactor system for hydrogen production • Techno-economic analysis of the steam-iron and the pressure swing adsorption hydrogen production processes. This report describes the work completed in each of these activities during this project. The catalyst development and testing program prepared and iron-based catalysts using different support and promoters to identify catalysts that had sufficient activity for cyclic reduction with syngas and steam oxidation and attrition resistance to enable use in a circulating fluid-bed reactor system. The best performing catalyst from this catalyst development program was produced by a commercial catalyst toll manufacturer to support the bench-scale testing activities. The reactor testing systems used during material development evaluated catalysts in a single fluid-bed reactor by cycling between reduction with syngas and oxidation with steam. The prototype SIP reactor system (PSRS) consisted of two circulating fluid-bed reactors with the iron catalyst being transferred between the two reactors. This design enabled demonstration of the technical feasibility of the combination of the circulating fluid-bed reactor system and the iron-based catalyst for commercial hydrogen production. The specific activities associated with this bench-scale circulating fluid-bed reactor systems that were completed in this project included design, construction, commissioning, and operation. The experimental portion of this project focused on technical demonstration of the performance of an iron-based catalyst and a circulating fluid-bed reactor system for hydrogen production. Although a technology can be technically feasible, successful commercial deployment also requires that a technology offer an economic advantage over existing commercial technologies. To effective estimate the economics of this steam-iron process, a techno-economic analysis of this steam iron process and a commercial pressure swing adsorption process were completed. The results from this analysis described in this report show the economic potential of the steam iron process for integration with a gasification plant for coproduction of hydrogen and electricity.

  15. Carbonaceous material for production of hydrogen from low heating value fuel gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Elias P.

    1989-01-01

    A process for the catalytic production of hydrogen, from a wide variety of low heating value fuel gases containing carbon monoxide, comprises circulating a carbonaceous material between two reactors--a carbon deposition reactor and a steaming reactor. In the carbon deposition reactor, carbon monoxide is removed from a fuel gas and is deposited on the carbonaceous material as an active carbon. In the steaming reactor, the reactive carbon reacts with steam to give hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The carbonaceous material contains a metal component comprising from about 75% to about 95% cobalt, from about 5% to about 15% iron, and up to about 10% chromium, and is effective in suppressing the production of methane in the steaming reactor.

  16. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, West Virginia University, University of Utah, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. Feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification, coalbed methane, light products produced by Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis, methanol, and natural gas.

  17. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-01-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the ninth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of October 1, 2005-December 31, 2005. This quarter saw progress in four areas. These areas are: (1) reformate purification, (2) heat transfer enhancement, (3) autothermal reforming coal-derived methanol degradation test; and (4) model development for fuel cell system integration. The project is on schedule and is now shifting towards the design of an integrated PEM fuel cell system capable of using the coal-derived product. This system includes a membrane clean up unit and a commercially available PEM fuel cell.

  18. Hydrogen Production

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering ...

  19. Production and Engineering of Hydrogenase as a Biocatalyst for Hydrogen Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Guangyi

    2010-04-09

    Hydrogenases are fascinating redox proteins, showing tremendous promise in the utilization of hydrogen fuel as a bioelectrocatalyst. They play critical roles in both biohydrogen production and hydrogen oxidation. Specifically, the recently-established comparability of the oxidative activity of the [NiFe]-hydrogenase active site to that of the fuel cell catalyst platinum marks a significant milestone for the potential application of hydrogenase in hydrogen fuel cells to replace platinum. However, the ability of producing hydrogenase in heterologous expression hosts and the sensitivity of hydrogenases to oxygen and carbon monoxide, etc. have seriously limited the viable macroscale utilization and production of hydrogen from the renewable source. A new technology for the production of up-take hydrogenase is being developed for the utilization of hydrogenase as a hydrogen catalyst. The development of this new technology integrates knowledge of structural biology, molecular biology, and principles of metabolic engineering to produce and engineer a stable hydrogenase as a hydrogen bioelectrocatalyst. It contributes to the critical issues of expensive noble metal catalysts (i.e., platinum) and their limited reserves threatening the long-term sustainability of a hydrogen economy. It also provides a model to design natural materials and enzyme catalyst for efficient and cost-effective technologies for a clean and sustainable energy in 21st century. This new technology includes 3 major components. The first component is the synthetic operons, which carry hydrogenase maturation pathways of Ralstonia eutropha. These synthetic operons are engineered to produce RH hydrogenase in the Escherichia coli strains based on our current molecular and genetic information of hydrogenase maturation mechanisms and pathways of R. eutropha. It presents the first example of producing hydrogenase in the conventional expression host using synthetic biology principles and tool kits. For the high-yield production of the hydrogenase, protein degradation pathways are altered to prevent hydrogenase degradation. This part of the new technology provides a frame work for the design of hydrogenase production pathways for desirable bioengineering purposes. The results of this work are significantly beneficial to research in the areas of enzyme fuel cells, bioelectrocatalyst production, and biohydrogen production as well as basic research in hydrogenase structure biology. The second component of the new technology includes the stable hydrogenase with the improved electrochemical and catalytic properties. With the guidance of the current information on [NiFe] hydrogenase structure, hydrogenase mutants and mutant libraries are generated using protein engineering approaches. The resulting mutants are screened for better hydrogenase stability and catalytic activities. This part of the research results in the identification of new hydrogenase mutants with improved catalytic properties, which can be used for the future studies on enzyme full cells and the catalytic mechanism of hydrogenase. The third component is the optimized production of the selected hydrogenase mutant using current fermentation and metabolic engineering strategies. Metabolic burdens and biomass is balanced using different induction conditions for the optimum production of the engineered hydrogenase in genetically engineered E. coli strains. The success of this work presents a good example of the application of modern fermentation technologies in bioelectrocatalyst production.

  20. Evaluation of the Potential Environmental Impacts from Large-Scale Use and Production of Hydrogen in Energy and Transportation Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wuebbles, D.J.; Dubey, M.K., Edmonds, J.; Layzell, D.; Olsen, S.; Rahn, T.; Rocket, A.; Wang, D.; Jia, W.

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this project is to systematically identify and examine possible near and long-term ecological and environmental effects from the production of hydrogen from various energy sources based on the DOE hydrogen production strategy and the use of that hydrogen in transportation applications. This project uses state-of-the-art numerical modeling tools of the environment and energy system emissions in combination with relevant new and prior measurements and other analyses to assess the understanding of the potential ecological and environmental impacts from hydrogen market penetration. H2 technology options and market penetration scenarios will be evaluated using energy-technology-economics models as well as atmospheric trace gas projections based on the IPCC SRES scenarios including the decline in halocarbons due to the Montreal Protocol. Specifically we investigate the impact of hydrogen releases on the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere, the long-term stability of the ozone layer due to changes in hydrogen emissions, the impact of hydrogen emissions and resulting concentrations on climate, the impact on microbial ecosystems involved in hydrogen uptake, and criteria pollutants emitted from distributed and centralized hydrogen production pathways and their impacts on human health, air quality, ecosystems, and structures under different penetration scenarios

  1. Removal of hydrogen sulfide as ammonium sulfate from hydropyrolysis product vapors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marker, Terry L; Felix, Larry G; Linck, Martin B; Roberts, Michael J

    2014-10-14

    A system and method for processing biomass into hydrocarbon fuels that includes processing a biomass in a hydropyrolysis reactor resulting in hydrocarbon fuels and a process vapor stream and cooling the process vapor stream to a condensation temperature resulting in an aqueous stream. The aqueous stream is sent to a catalytic reactor where it is oxidized to obtain a product stream containing ammonia and ammonium sulfate. A resulting cooled product vapor stream includes non-condensable process vapors comprising H.sub.2, CH.sub.4, CO, CO.sub.2, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide.

  2. Metabolic Engineering and Modeling of Metabolic Pathways to Improve Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Bacteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiao, Y.; Navid, A.

    2014-12-19

    Rising energy demands and the imperative to reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are driving research on biofuels development. Hydrogen gas (H2) is one of the most promising biofuels and is seen as a future energy carrier by virtue of the fact that 1) it is renewable, 2) does not evolve the “greenhouse gas” CO2 in combustion, 3) liberates large amounts of energy per unit weight in combustion (having about 3 times the energy content of gasoline), and 4) is easily converted to electricity by fuel cells. Among the various bioenergy strategies, environmental groups and others say that the concept of the direct manufacture of alternative fuels, such as H2, by photosynthetic organisms is the only biofuel alternative without significant negative criticism [1]. Biological H2 production by photosynthetic microorganisms requires the use of a simple solar reactor such as a transparent closed box, with low energy requirements, and is considered as an attractive system to develop as a biocatalyst for H2 production [2]. Various purple bacteria including Rhodopseudomonas palustris, can utilize organic substrates as electron donors to produce H2 at the expense of solar energy. Because of the elimination of energy cost used for H2O oxidation and the prevention of the production of O2 that inhibits the H2-producing enzymes, the efficiency of light energy conversion to H2 by anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria is in principle much higher than that by green algae or cyanobacteria, and is regarded as one of the most promising cultures for biological H2 production [3]. Here implemented a simple and relatively straightforward strategy for hydrogen production by photosynthetic microorganisms using sunlight, sulfur- or iron-based inorganic substrates, and CO2 as the feedstock. Carefully selected microorganisms with bioengineered beneficial traits act as the biocatalysts of the process designed to both enhance the system efficiency of CO2 fixation and the net hydrogen production rate. Additionally we applied metabolic engineering approaches guided by computational modeling for the chosen model microorganisms to enable efficient hydrogen production.

  3. Economic Analysis of the Reference Design for a Nuclear-Driven High-Temperature-Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

    2008-01-01

    A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen consists of 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. A nominal cell area-specific resistance, ASR, value of 0.4 Ohm•cm2 with a current density of 0.25 A/cm2 was used, and isothermal boundary conditions were assumed. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating current, AC, to direct current, DC, conversion is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the low heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of the plant was also performed using the H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. A required cost of $3.23 per kg of hydrogen produced was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%. Approximately 73% of this cost ($2.36/kg) is the result of capital costs associated with the construction of the combined nuclear plant and hydrogen production facility. Operation and maintenance costs represent about 18% of the total cost ($0.57/kg). Variable costs (including the cost of nuclear fuel) contribute about 8.7% ($0.28/kg) to the total cost of hydrogen production, and decommissioning and raw material costs make up the remaining fractional cost.

  4. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  5. Energy Department Announces up to $4 Million to Advance Low-Cost Hydrogen Production from Renewable and Low Carbon Sources

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In support of the Obama Administration's all-of-the-above energy strategy, the Energy Department today announced up to$4 million in new funding to address critical challenges and barriers for low-cost, low-carbon hydrogen production.

  6. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Ce

  7. A review of recent advances of numerical simulations of microscale fuel processors for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holladay, Jamelyn D.; Wang, Yong

    2015-05-01

    Microscale (<5W) reformers for hydrogen production have been investigated for over a decade. These devices are intended to provide hydrogen for small fuel cells. Due to the reformer’s small size, numerical simulations are critical to understand heat and mass transfer phenomena occurring in the systems. This paper reviews the development of the numerical codes and details the reaction equations used. The majority of the devices utilized methanol as the fuel due to methanol’s low reforming temperature and high conversion, although, there are several methane fueled systems. As computational power has decreased in cost and increased in availability, the codes increased in complexity and accuracy. Initial models focused on the reformer, while more recently, the simulations began including other unit operations such as vaporizers, inlet manifolds, and combustors. These codes are critical for developing the next generation systems. The systems reviewed included, plate reactors, microchannel reactors, annulus reactors, wash-coated, packed bed systems.

  8. Process and apparatus for the production of hydrogen by steam reforming of hydrocarbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sircar, Shivaji (Wescosville, PA); Hufton, Jeffrey Raymond (Fogelsville, PA); Nataraj, Shankar (Allentown, PA)

    2000-01-01

    In the steam reforming of hydrocarbon, particularly methane, under elevated temperature and pressure to produce hydrogen, a feed of steam and hydrocarbon is fed into a first reaction volume containing essentially only reforming catalyst to partially reform the feed. The balance of the feed and the reaction products of carbon dioxide and hydrogen are then fed into a second reaction volume containing a mixture of catalyst and adsorbent which removes the carbon dioxide from the reaction zone as it is formed. The process is conducted in a cycle which includes these reactions followed by countercurrent depressurization and purge of the adsorbent to regenerate it and repressurization of the reaction volumes preparatory to repeating the reaction-sorption phase of the cycle.

  9. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2006-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feedstocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the tenth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1-March 31, 2006. This quarter saw progress in six areas. These areas are: (1) The effect of catalyst dimension on steam reforming, (2) Transient characteristics of autothermal reforming, (3) Rich and lean autothermal reformation startup, (4) Autothermal reformation degradation with coal derived methanol, (5) Reformate purification system, and (6) Fuel cell system integration. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  10. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research.

  11. HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FOR FUEL CELLS VIA REFORMING COAL-DERIVED METHANOL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-04-01

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the second report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of January 1--March 31, 2004. This quarter saw progress in five areas. These areas are: (1) Internal and external evaluations of coal based methanol and the fuel cell grade baseline fuel; (2) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation; (3) Design and set up of the autothermal reactor; (4) Steam reformation of Coal Based Methanol; and (5) Initial catalyst degradation studies. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  12. Webinar November 19: Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department will present a live webinar titled "Potential Strategies for Integrating Solar Hydrogen Production and Concentrating Solar Power: A Systems Analysis" on Thursday, November 19, from 1:00 to 2:00 p.m. EST. This webinar will present the results of an analysis conducted by Sandia National Laboratories that explored potential synergies that may be realized by integrating solar hydrogen production and concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies.

  13. Hydrogen program overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gronich, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper consists of viewgraphs which summarize the following: Hydrogen program structure; Goals for hydrogen production research; Goals for hydrogen storage and utilization research; Technology validation; DOE technology validation activities supporting hydrogen pathways; Near-term opportunities for hydrogen; Market for hydrogen; and List of solicitation awards. It is concluded that a full transition toward a hydrogen economy can begin in the next decade.

  14. Ocean thermal plantships for production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Panchal, C.B.; Pandolfini, P. P.; Kumm, W. H.; Energy Systems; Johns Hopkins Univ.; Arctic Energies, Ltd.

    2009-12-02

    Conventional petroleum, natural gas, and coal are the primary sources of energy that have underpinned modern civilization. Their continued availability in the projected quantities required and the impacts of emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) on the environment are issues at the forefront of world concerns. New primary sources of energy are being sought that would significantly reduce the emissions of GHGs. One such primary source that can help supply energy, water, and fertilizer without GHG emissions is available in the heretofore unexploited thermal gradients of the tropical oceans. The world's oceans are the largest natural collector and reservoir of solar energy. The potential of ocean energy is limitless for producing base-load electric power or ammonia as the hydrogen carrier and fresh water from seawater. However, until now, ocean energy has been virtually untapped. The general perception is that ocean thermal energy is limited to tropical countries. Therefore, the full potential of at-sea production of (1) ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and (2) desalinated water has not been adequately evaluated. Using ocean thermal plantships for the at-sea co-production of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier and desalinated water offer potential energy, environmental, and economic benefits that support the development of the technology. The introduction of a new widespread solution to our projected energy supply requires lead times of a decade or more. Although continuation of the ocean thermal program from the 1970s would likely have put us in a mitigating position in the early 2000s, we still have a window of opportunity to dedicate some of our conventional energy sources to the development of this renewable energy by the time new sources would be critically needed. The primary objective of this project is to evaluate the technical and economic viability of ocean thermal plantships for the production of ammonia as the hydrogen carrier. This objective is achieved by completing project tasks that consist of updating the John Hopkins University/Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) pilot plantship design and extrapolating it to commercial plantships, evaluating a new energy-efficient ammonia synthesis process, evaluating the co-production of desalinated water on plantships, and developing a conceptual design of a satellite plantships system for commercial-scale ammonia production. In addition, an industrial workshop was organized to present the results and develop future goals for commercialization of ocean thermal plantships by 2015. The following goals, arranged in chronological order, were examined at the workshop: (1) Global displacement of petroleum-fuel-based (diesel, fuel oil, naphtha) power generation for freeing up these fuels for transportation, chemical feedstock, and other high-valued uses; (2) At-sea production of desalinated water for regions of critical water shortages; (3) Displacement of carbon-based feed stocks and energy for production of ammonia fertilizers; (4) Development of hydrogen supply to allow economic processing of heavy crude oils and upgrading oil sands; (5) Development of ammonia-fueled distributed energy to displace natural-gas fueled power generation to free up natural gas for higher-value uses and the mitigation of issues associated with imported liquefied natural gas (LNG); and (6) Use of ammonia as a hydrogen carrier for transportation.

  15. RECENT ADVANCES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE HYBRID SULFUR PROCESS FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-07-22

    Thermochemical processes are being developed to provide global-scale quantities of hydrogen. A variant on sulfur-based thermochemical cycles is the Hybrid Sulfur (HyS) Process, which uses a sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer (SDE) to produce the hydrogen. In the HyS Process, sulfur dioxide is oxidized in the presence of water at the electrolyzer anode to produce sulfuric acid and protons. The protons are transported through a cation-exchange membrane electrolyte to the cathode and are reduced to form hydrogen. In the second stage of the process, the sulfuric acid by-product from the electrolyzer is thermally decomposed at high temperature to produce sulfur dioxide and oxygen. The two gases are separated and the sulfur dioxide recycled to the electrolyzer for oxidation. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been exploring a fuel-cell design concept for the SDE using an anolyte feed comprised of concentrated sulfuric acid saturated with sulfur dioxide. The advantages of this design concept include high electrochemical efficiency and small footprint compared to a parallel-plate electrolyzer design. This paper will provide a summary of recent advances in the development of the SDE for the HyS process.

  16. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2004-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  17. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2005-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of liquid transportation fuel and hydrogen from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, the Air Force Research Laboratory, the U.S. Army National Automotive Center (Tank & Automotive Command--TACOM), and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the six months of the subject contract from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003. The results are presented in thirteen detailed reports on research projects headed by various faculty members at each of the five CFFS Universities. Additionally, an Executive Summary has been prepared that summarizes the principal results of all of these projects during the six-month reporting period.

  18. Hydrogen Production for Fuel Cells Via Reforming Coal-Derived Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul A. Erickson

    2004-09-30

    Hydrogen can be produced from many feed stocks including coal. The objectives of this project are to establish and prove a hydrogen production pathway from coal-derived methanol for fuel cell applications. This progress report is the fourth report submitted to the DOE reporting on the status and progress made during the course of the project. This report covers the time period of July 1-Sept 30, 2004 along with a recap of progress from the start of the project on Oct 1, 2003 to Sept 30, 2004. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule. This year saw progress in several areas. These areas are: (1) External and internal evaluation of coal based methanol and a fuel cell grade baseline fuel, (2) Design set up and initial testing of three laboratory scale steam reformers, (3) Design, set up and initial testing of a laboratory scale autothermal reactor, (4) Hydrogen generation from coal-derived methanol using steam reformation, (5) Experiments to determine the axial and radial thermal profiles of the steam reformers, (6) Initial catalyst degradation studies with steam reformation and coal based methanol, and (7) Experimental investigations of heat and mass transfer enhancement methods by flow field manipulation. All of the projects are proceeding on or slightly ahead of schedule.

  19. IEA Agreement on the production and utilization of hydrogen: 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    1997-01-31

    The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including a brief summary of hydrogen in general. The Chairman's report provides highlights for the year. Sections are included on hydrogen energy activities in the IEA Hydrogen Agreement member countries, including Canada, European Commission, Germany, Japan, Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the US. Lastly, Annex reports are given for the following tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage.

  20. California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Jump to: navigation, search Name: California Hydrogen Infrastructure Project Place: California Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: String...

  1. Long-Term Demonstration of Hydrogen Production from Coal at Elevated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology Citation Details In-Document Search ... of a National Center for Hydrogen Technology The Energy & Environmental Research ...

  2. Liquid Fuel From Bacteria: Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from CO2, Hydrogen, and Oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-15

    Electrofuels Project: MIT is using solar-derived hydrogen and common soil bacteria called Ralstonia eutropha to turn carbon dioxide (CO2) directly into biofuel. This bacteria already has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. MIT is engineering the bacteria to use hydrogen to convert CO2 directly into liquid transportation fuels. Hydrogen is a flammable gas, so the MIT team is building an innovative reactor system that will safely house the bacteria and gas mixture during the fuel-creation process. The system will pump in precise mixtures of hydrogen, oxygen, and CO2, and the online fuel-recovery system will continuously capture and remove the biofuel product.

  3. Maintaining a Technology-Neutral Approach to Hydrogen Production Process Development through Conceptual Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael W. Patterson

    2008-05-01

    The Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) project was authorized in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct), tasking the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) with demonstrating High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) technology. The demonstration is to include the technical, licensing, operational, and commercial viability of HTGR technology for the production of electricity and hydrogen. The Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative (NHI), a component of the DOE Hydrogen Program managed by the Office of Nuclear Energy, is also investigating multiple approaches to cost effective hydrogen production from nuclear energy. The objective of NHI is development of the technology and information basis for a future decision on commercial viability. The initiatives are clearly intertwined. While the objectives of NGNP and NHI are generally consistent, NGNP has progressed to the project definition phase and the project plan has matured. Multiple process applications for the NGNP require process heat, electricity and hydrogen in varied combinations and sizes. Coupling these processes to the reactor in multiple configurations adds complexity to the design, licensing and demonstration of both the reactor and the hydrogen production process. Commercial viability of hydrogen production may depend on the specific application and heat transport configuration. A component test facility (CTF) is planned by the NGNP to support testing and demonstration of NGNP systems, including those for hydrogen production, in multiple configurations. Engineering-scale demonstrations in the CTF are expected to start in 2012 to support scheduled design and licensing activities leading to subsequent construction and operation. Engineering-scale demonstrations planned by NHI are expected to start at least two years later. Reconciliation of these schedules is recommended to successfully complete both initiatives. Hence, closer and earlier integration of hydrogen process development and heat transport systems is sensible. For integration purposes, an analysis comparing the design, cost and schedule impact of maintaining a technology neutral approach through conceptual design or making an early hydrogen process technology selection was performed. Early selection does not specifically eliminate a technology, but rather selects the first hydrogen technology for demonstration. A systems-engineering approach was taken to define decision-making criteria for selecting a hydrogen technology. The relative technical, cost and schedule risks of each approach were analyzed and risk mitigation strategies were recommended, including provisions to maintain close collaboration with the NHI. The results of these analyses are presented here.

  4. Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products: Data through Quarter 4 of 2014 (Presentation), NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Hydrogen Station Composite Data Products Data through Quarter 4 of 2014 Sam Sprik, Jennifer Kurtz, Chris Ainscough, Mike Peters May 2015 NREL/PR-5400-64317 2 CDP-INFR-01 Hydrogen Dispensed by Quarter 3 CDP-INFR-02 Histogram of Fueling Rates 4 CDP-INFR-03 Histogram of Fueling Times 5 CDP-INFR-04 Histogram of Fueling Amounts 6 CDP-INFR-05 Dispensed Hydrogen per Day of Week 7 CDP-INFR-06 Station Capacity Utilization 8 CDP-INFR-07 Station Usage 9 CDP-INFR-08 Time Between Fueling 10

  5. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  6. Engineering Bacteria for Efficient Fuel Production: Novel Biological Conversion of Hydrogen and Carbon Dioxide Directly into Free Fatty Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-07-12

    Electrofuels Project: OPX Biotechnologies is engineering a microorganism currently used in industrial biotechnology to directly produce a liquid fuel from hydrogen and carbon dioxide (CO2). The microorganism has the natural ability to use hydrogen and CO2 for growth. OPX Biotechnologies is modifying the microorganism to divert energy and carbon away from growth and towards the production of liquid fuels in larger, commercially viable quantities. The microbial system will produce a fuel precursor that can be chemically upgraded to various hydrocarbon fuels.

  7. BIMETALLIC NANOCATALYSTS IN MESOPOROUS SILICA FOR HYDROGEN PRODUCTION FROM COAL-DERIVED FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuila, Debasish; Ilias, Shamsuddin

    2013-02-13

    In steam reforming reactions (SRRs) of alkanes and alcohols to produce H{sub 2}, noble metals such as platinum (Pt) and palladium (Pd) are extensively used as catalyst. These metals are expensive; so, to reduce noble-metal loading, bi-metallic nanocatalysts containing non-noble metals in MCM-41 (Mobil Composition of Material No. 41, a mesoporous material) as a support material with high-surface area were synthesized using one-pot hydrothermal procedure with a surfactant such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as a template. Bi-metallic nanocatalysts of Pd-Ni and Pd-Co with varying metal loadings in MCM-41 were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. The BET surface area of MCM-41 (~1000 m{sup 2}/g) containing metal nanoparticles decreases with the increase in metal loading. The FTIR studies confirm strong interaction between Si-O-M (M = Pd, Ni, Co) units and successful inclusion of metal into the mesoporous silica matrix. The catalyst activities were examined in steam reforming of methanol (SRM) reactions to produce hydrogen. Reference tests using catalysts containing individual metals (Pd, Ni and Co) were also performed to investigate the effect of the bimetallic system on the catalytic behavior in the SRM reactions. The bimetallic system remarkably improves the hydrogen selectivity, methanol conversion and stability of the catalyst. The results are consistent with a synergistic behavior for the Pd-Ni-bimetallic system. The performance, durability and thermal stability of the Pd-Ni/MCM-41 and Pd-Co/MCM-41 suggest that these materials may be promising catalysts for hydrogen production from biofuels. A part of this work for synthesis and characterization of Pd-Ni-MCM-41 and its activity for SRM reactions has been published (“Development of Mesoporous Silica Encapsulated Pd-Ni Nanocatalyst for Hydrogen Production” in “Production and Purification of Ultraclean Transportation Fuels”; Hu, Y., et al.; ACS Symposium Series; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2011.)

  8. C1 CHEMISTRY FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ULTRA-CLEAN LIQUID TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND HYDROGEN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-09-30

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Science (CFFS) is a research consortium with participants from the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University. The CFFS is conducting a research program to develop C1 chemistry technology for the production of clean transportation fuel from resources such as coal and natural gas, which are more plentiful domestically than petroleum. The processes under development will convert feedstocks containing one carbon atom per molecular unit into ultra clean liquid transportation fuels (gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel) and hydrogen, which many believe will be the transportation fuel of the future. These feedstocks include synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. Some highlights of the results obtained during the first year of the current research contract are summarized as: (1) Terminal alkynes are an effective chain initiator for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) reactions, producing normal paraffins with C numbers {ge} to that of the added alkyne. (2) Significant improvement in the product distribution towards heavier hydrocarbons (C{sub 5} to C{sub 19}) was achieved in supercritical fluid (SCF) FT reactions compared to that of gas-phase reactions. (3) Xerogel and aerogel silica supported cobalt catalysts were successfully employed for FT synthesis. Selectivity for diesel range products increased with increasing Co content. (4) Silicoaluminophosphate (SAPO) molecular sieve catalysts have been developed for methanol to olefin conversion, producing value-added products such as ethylene and propylene. (5) Hybrid Pt-promoted tungstated and sulfated zirconia catalysts are very effective in cracking n-C{sub 36} to jet and diesel fuel; these catalysts will be tested for cracking of FT wax. (6) Methane, ethane, and propane are readily decomposed to pure hydrogen and carbon nanotubes using binary Fe-based catalysts containing Mo, Ni, or Pd in a single step non-oxidative reaction. (7) Partial dehydrogenation of liquid hydrocarbons (cyclohexane and methyl cyclohexane) has been performed using catalysts consisting of Pt and other metals on stacked-cone carbon nanotubes. (8) An understanding of the catalytic reaction mechanisms of the catalysts developed in the CFFS C1 program is being achieved by structural characterization using multiple techniques, including XAFS and Moessbauer spectroscopy, XRD, TEM, NMR, ESR, and magnetometry.

  9. System Evaluation and Life-Cycle Cost Analysis of a Commercial-Scale High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin A. Harvego; James E. O'Brien; Michael G. McKellar

    2012-11-01

    Results of a system evaluation and lifecycle cost analysis are presented for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) central hydrogen production plant. The plant design relies on grid electricity to power the electrolysis process and system components, and industrial natural gas to provide process heat. The HYSYS process analysis software was used to evaluate the reference central plant design capable of producing 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen. The HYSYS software performs mass and energy balances across all components to allow optimization of the design using a detailed process flow sheet and realistic operating conditions specified by the analyst. The lifecycle cost analysis was performed using the H2A analysis methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program. This methodology utilizes Microsoft Excel spreadsheet analysis tools that require detailed plant performance information (obtained from HYSYS), along with financial and cost information to calculate lifecycle costs. The results of the lifecycle analyses indicate that for a 10% internal rate of return, a large central commercial-scale hydrogen production plant can produce 50,000 kg/day of hydrogen at an average cost of $2.68/kg. When the cost of carbon sequestration is taken into account, the average cost of hydrogen production increases by $0.40/kg to $3.08/kg.

  10. In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capp, John P.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

  11. Theoretical Design of Molecular Electrocatalysts with Flexible Pendant Amines for Hydrogen Production and Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, Laura; Horvath, Samantha; Hammes-Schiffer, Sharon

    2013-02-07

    The design of hydrogen oxidation and production catalysts is important for the development of alternative renewable energy sources. The overall objective is to maximize the turnover frequency and minimize the overpotential. In an effort to assist in the design of such catalysts, we use computational methods to examine a variety of nickel-based molecular electrocatalysts with pendant amines. Our studies focus on the proton-coupled electron transfer (PCET) process involving electron transfer between the complex and the electrode and intramolecular proton transfer between the nickel center and the nitrogen of the pendant amine. The concerted PCET mechanism, which tends to require a lower overpotential, is favored by a smaller equilibrium Ni-N distance and a more flexible pendant amine ligand, thereby decreasing the energetic penalty for the nitrogen to approach the nickel center for proton transfer. These calculations provide design principles that will be useful for developing the next generation of hydrogen catalysts. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  12. C1 Chemistry for the Production of Ultra-Clean Liquid Transportation Fuels and Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald P. Huffman

    2003-03-31

    Faculty and students from five universities--the University of Kentucky, University of Pittsburgh, University of Utah, West Virginia University, and Auburn University--are collaborating in a research program to develop C1 chemistry processes to produce ultra-clean liquid transportation fuels and hydrogen, the zero-emissions transportation fuel of the future. The feedstocks contain one carbon atom per molecular unit. They include synthesis gas (syngas), a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen produced by coal gasification or reforming of natural gas, methane, methanol, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. An important objective is to develop C1 technology for the production of transportation fuel from domestically plentiful resources such as coal, coalbed methane, and natural gas. An Industrial Advisory Board with representatives from Chevron-Texaco, Eastman Chemical, Conoco-Phillips, Energy International, the Department of Defense, and Tier Associates provides guidance on the practicality of the research. The current report presents results obtained in this research program during the first six months of the subject contract (DE-FC26-02NT-4159), from October 1, 2002 through March 31, 2003.

  13. Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  14. Safe Hydrogen LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Safe Hydrogen LLC Place: Lexington, Massachusetts Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Focused on hydrogen storage, through a 'slurry' of...

  15. Hydrogen Car Co | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Car Co Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Car Co Place: Los Angeles, California Zip: 90036 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The Hydrogen Car Company produces hydrogen...

  16. Hydrogen Macro System Model User Guide, Version 1.2.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Sa, T.; Goldsby, M.; Genung, K.; Hoseley, R.; Smith, A.; Yuzugullu, E.

    2009-07-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  17. Macro-System Model for Hydrogen Energy Systems Analysis in Transportation: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.; Ruth, M.; Sa, T. J.; Goldsby, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    The Hydrogen Macro System Model (MSM) is a simulation tool that links existing and emerging hydrogen-related models to perform rapid, cross-cutting analysis. It allows analysis of the economics, primary energy-source requirements, and emissions of hydrogen production and delivery pathways.

  18. HIGH-TEMPERATURE ELECTROLYSIS FOR LARGE-SCALE HYDROGEN AND SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM NUCLEAR ENERGY SYSTEM SIMULATION AND ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. E. O'Brien; M. G. McKellar; E. A. Harvego; C. M. Stoots

    2009-05-01

    A research and development program is under way at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to assess the technological and scale-up issues associated with the implementation of solid-oxide electrolysis cell technology for efficient high-temperature hydrogen production from steam. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, under the Nuclear Hydrogen Initiative. This paper will provide an overview of large-scale system modeling results and economic analyses that have been completed to date. System analysis results have been obtained using the commercial code UniSim, augmented with a custom high-temperature electrolyzer module. Economic analysis results were based on the DOE H2A analysis methodology. The process flow diagrams for the system simulations include an advanced nuclear reactor as a source of high-temperature process heat, a power cycle and a coupled steam electrolysis loop. Several reactor types and power cycles have been considered, over a range of reactor outlet temperatures. Pure steam electrolysis for hydrogen production as well as coelectrolysis for syngas production from steam/carbon dioxide mixtures have both been considered. In addition, the feasibility of coupling the high-temperature electrolysis process to biomass and coal-based synthetic fuels production has been considered. These simulations demonstrate that the addition of supplementary nuclear hydrogen to synthetic fuels production from any carbon source minimizes emissions of carbon dioxide during the production process.

  19. Carbon Molecular Sieve Membrane as a True One Box Unit for Large Scale Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul Liu

    2012-05-01

    IGCC coal-fired power plants show promise for environmentally-benign power generation. In these plants coal is gasified to syngas then processed in a water gas-shift (WGS) reactor to maximize the hydrogen/CO{sub 2} content. The gas stream can then be separated into a hydrogen rich stream for power generation and/or further purified for sale as a chemical and a CO{sub 2} rich stream for the purpose of carbon capture and storage (CCS). Today, the separation is accomplished using conventional absorption/desorption processes with post CO{sub 2} compression. However, significant process complexity and energy penalties accrue with this approach, accounting for ~20% of the capital cost and ~27% parasitic energy consumption. Ideally, a “one-box” process is preferred in which the syngas is fed directly to the WGS reactor without gas pre-treatment, converting the CO to hydrogen in the presence of H{sub 2}S and other impurities and delivering a clean hydrogen product for power generation or other uses. The development of such a process is the primary goal of this project. Our proposed "one-box" process includes a catalytic membrane reactor (MR) that makes use of a hydrogen-selective, carbon molecular sieve (CMS) membrane, and a sulfur-tolerant Co/Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst. The membrane reactor’s behavior has been investigated with a bench top unit for different experimental conditions and compared with the modeling results. The model is used to further investigate the design features of the proposed process. CO conversion >99% and hydrogen recovery >90% are feasible under the operating pressures available from IGCC. More importantly, the CMS membrane has demonstrated excellent selectivity for hydrogen over H{sub 2}S (>100), and shown no flux loss in the presence of a synthetic "tar"-like material, i.e., naphthalene. In summary, the proposed "one-box" process has been successfully demonstrated with the bench-top reactor. In parallel we have successfully designed and fabricated a full-scale CMS membrane and module for the proposed application. This full-scale membrane element is a 3" diameter with 30"L, composed of ~85 single CMS membrane tubes. The membrane tubes and bundles have demonstrated satisfactory thermal, hydrothermal, thermal cycling and chemical stabilities under an environment simulating the temperature, pressure and contaminant levels encountered in our proposed process. More importantly, the membrane module packed with the CMS bundle was tested for over 30 pressure cycles between ambient pressure and >300 -600 psi at 200 to 300°C without mechanical degradation. Finally, internal baffles have been designed and installed to improve flow distribution within the module, which delivered ≥90% separation efficiency in comparison with the efficiency achieved with single membrane tubes. In summary, the full-scale CMS membrane element and module have been successfully developed and tested satisfactorily for our proposed one-box application; a test quantity of elements/modules have been fabricated for field testing. Multiple field tests have been performed under this project at National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The separation efficiency and performance stability of our full-scale membrane elements have been verified in testing conducted for times ranging from 100 to >250 hours of continuous exposure to coal/biomass gasifier off-gas for hydrogen enrichment with no gas pre-treatment for contaminants removal. In particular, "tar-like" contaminants were effectively rejected by the membrane with no evidence of fouling. In addition, testing was conducted using a hybrid membrane system, i.e., the CMS membrane in conjunction with the palladium membrane, to demonstrate that 99+% H{sub 2} purity and a high degree of CO{sub 2} capture could be achieved. In summary, the stability and performance of the full-scale hydrogen selective CMS membrane/module has been verified in multiple field tests in the presence of coal/biomass gasifier off-gas under this project. A promising process scheme has been developed for power generation and/or hydrogen coproduction with CCS based upon our proposed "one-box" process. Our preliminary economic analysis indicates about 10% reduction in the required electricity selling price and ~40% cost reduction in CCS on per ton CO{sub 2} can be achieved in comparison with the base case involving conventional WGS with a two-stage Selexsol® for CCS. Long term field tests (e.g., >1,000 hrs) with the incorporation of the catalyst for the WGS membrane reactor and more in-depth analysis of the process scheme are recommended for the future study.

  20. Strategic partnerships final LDRD report : nanocomposite materials for efficient solar hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corral, Erica L.; Miller, James Edward; Walker, Luke S.; Evans, Lindsey R.

    2012-05-01

    This 'campus executive' project sought to advance solar thermochemical technology for producing the chemical fuels. The project advanced the common interest of Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Arizona in creating a sustainable and viable alternative to fossil fuels. The focus of this effort was in developing new methods for creating unique monolithic composite structures and characterizing their performance in thermochemical production of hydrogen from water. The development and processing of the materials was undertaken in the Materials Science and Engineering Department at the University of Arizona; Sandia National Laboratories performed the thermochemical characterization. Ferrite/yttria-stabilized zirconia composite monoliths were fabricated and shown to have exceptionally high utilization of the ferrite for splitting CO{sub 2} to obtain CO (a process analogous to splitting H{sub 2}O to obtain H{sub 2}).

  1. Ultraviolet stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production using aminoindazole, diaminopyridine, and phenylenediamine solid polymer complexes of Zn(II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayes, Jennifer A.; Schubert, David M.; Amonette, James E.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Disselkamp, Robert S.

    2008-06-25

    Hydrogen peroxide is a valuable chemical commodity whose production relies on expensive methods. If an efficient, sustainable, and inexpensive solar-mediated production method could be developed from the reaction between dioxygen and water then its use as a fuel may be possible and gain acceptance. Hydrogen peroxide at greater than 10 M possesses a high specific energy, is environmentally clean, and is easily stored. However, the current method of manufacturing H2O2 via the anthraquinone process is environmentally unfriendly making the unexplored nature of its photochemical production from solar irradiation of interest. Here the concentration and quantum yield of hydrogen peroxide produced in an ultraviolet (UV-B) irradiated environment using aromatic and nitrogen-heterocyclic ring complexes of zinc(II) as solid substrates was studied. The amino-substituted isomers of the substrates indazole, pyridine, and phenylenediamine solid polymer complexes are examined. Samples exposed to the ambient atmosphere (e.g., aerated) were irradiated with a low power lamp with emission from 280-360 nm. Irradiation of various zinc complexes revealed Zn-5-aminoindazole to have the greatest first-day production of 63 mM/day with a 37% quantum yield. Para-phenylenediamine (PPAM) showed the greatest long-term stability and thus suggests H2O2 is produced photocatalytically. Isomeric forms of the catalysts organic components (e.g., amino groups) did have an effect on the production. Irradiation of diaminopyridine isomers indicated 2,3-diamino and 3,4-diamino structures were the most productive, each generating 32 mM/day hydrogen peroxide. However, the 2,5-diamino isomer showed no peroxide production. A significant decrease in hydrogen peroxide production in all but PPAM was noticed in the samples, suggesting the possibility of a catalyst poisoning mechanism. The samples ability to produce H2O2 is rationalized by proposing a reaction mechanism and examining the stability of the resonance structures of the different isomers.

  2. 97e Intermediate Temperature Catalytic Reforming of Bio-Oil for Distributed Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marda, J. R.; Dean, A. M.; Czernik, S.; Evans, R. J.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.

    2008-01-01

    With the world's energy demands rapidly increasing, it is necessary to look to sources other than fossil fuels, preferably those that minimize greenhouse emissions. One such renewable source of energy is biomass, which has the added advantage of being a near-term source of hydrogen. While there are several potential routes to produce hydrogen from biomass thermally, given the near-term technical barriers to hydrogen storage and delivery, distributed technologies such that hydrogen is produced at or near the point of use are attractive. One such route is to first produce bio-oil via fast pyrolysis of biomass close to its source to create a higher energy-density product, then ship this bio-oil to its point of use where it can be reformed to hydrogen and carbon dioxide. This route is especially well suited for smaller-scale reforming plants located at hydrogen distribution sites such as filling stations. There is also the potential for automated operation of the conversion system. A system has been developed for volatilizing bio-oil with manageable carbon deposits using ultrasonic atomization and by modifying bio-oil properties, such as viscosity, by blending or reacting bio-oil with methanol. Non-catalytic partial oxidation of bio-oil is then used to achieve significant conversion to CO with minimal aromatic hydrocarbon formation by keeping the temperature at 650 C or less and oxygen levels low. The non-catalytic reactions occur primarily in the gas phase. However, some nonvolatile components of bio-oil present as aerosols may react heterogeneously. The product gas is passed over a packed bed of precious metal catalyst where further reforming as well as water gas shift reactions are accomplished completing the conversion to hydrogen. The approach described above requires significantly lower catalyst loadings than conventional catalytic steam reforming due to the significant conversion in the non-catalytic step. The goal is to reform and selectively oxidize the bio-oil and catalyze the water gas shift reaction without catalyzing methanation or oxidation of CO and H{sub 2}, thus attaining equilibrium levels of H{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and CO{sub 2} at the exit of the catalyst bed. Experimental Bio-oil (mixed with varied amounts of methanol to reduce the viscosity and homogenize the bio-oil) or selected bio-oil components are introduced at a measured flow rate through the top of a vertical quartz reactor which is heated using a five zone furnace. The ultrasonic nozzle used to feed the reactants allows the bio-oil to flow down the center of the reactor at a low, steady flow rate. Additionally, the fine mist created by the nozzle allows for intimate mixing with oxygen and efficient heat transfer, providing optimal conditions to achieve high conversion at relatively low temperatures in the non-catalytic step thus reducing the required catalyst loading. Generation of the fine mist is especially important for providing good contact between non-volatile bio-oil components and oxygen. Oxygen and helium are also delivered at the top of the reactor via mass flow meters with the amount of oxygen being varied to maximize the yields of H{sub 2} and CO and the amount of helium being adjusted such that the gas phase residence time in the hot zone is {approx}0.3 and {approx}0.45 s for bio-oil and methanol experiments, respectively. A catalyst bed can be located at the bottom of the reactor tube. To date, catalyst screening experiments have used Engelhard noble metal catalysts. The catalysts used for these experiments were 0.5 % rhodium, ruthenium, platinum, and palladium (all supported on alumina). Experiments were performed using pure alumina as well. Both the catalyst type and the effect of oxygen and steam on the residual hydrocarbons and accumulated carbon containing particulates were investigated. The residence time before the catalyst is varied to determine the importance of the non-catalytic step and its potential effect on the required catalyst loading. Non-catalytic experiments (primarily homogeneous cracking) use a bed of quartz placed to capture any deposits that are formed in the volatilization and cracking zones. The inner reactor effluent is quenched by a flow of 10 SLPM He which serves to sweep the products quickly ({approx}0.03 s) to a triple quadrupole molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) for analysis. The MBMS serves as a universal detector and allows for real time data collection. The study of pyrolysis by MBMS has been described previously. The dilution of the reactor effluent reduces the potential problems caused by matrix effects associated with the MBMS analysis. Argon is used as an internal standard in the quantitative analysis of all the major products (CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and benzene) as well as any residual carbon, which is determined by subsequent oxidation of carbon (monitored as CO{sub 2}) after shutting off the feed and maintaining the oxygen/helium flow.

  3. Feasibility Study of Hydrogen Production from Existing Nuclear Power Plants Using Alkaline Electrolysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana R. Swalla

    2008-12-31

    The mid-range industrial market currently consumes 4.2 million metric tons of hydrogen per year and has an annual growth rate of 15% industries in this range require between 100 and 1000 kilograms of hydrogen per day and comprise a wide range of operations such as food hydrogenation, electronic chip fabrication, metals processing and nuclear reactor chemistry modulation.

  4. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Hydrogen Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen on

  5. Maximizing Light Utilization Efficiency and Hydrogen Production in Microalgal Cultures, DOE Hydrogen Program FY 2010 Annual Progress Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    UCB will minimize, or truncate, the chlorophyll antenna size in green algae to maximize photobiological solar conversion efficiency and H2-production.

  6. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahesh Iyer; Shwetha Ramkumar; Liang-Shih Fan

    2006-03-31

    Hydrogen production from coal gasification can be enhanced by driving the equilibrium limited Water Gas Shift reaction forward by incessantly removing the CO{sub 2} by-product via the carbonation of calcium oxide. This project uses the high-reactivity mesoporous precipitated calcium carbonate sorbent for removing the CO{sub 2} product to enhance H{sub 2} production. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the show the superior performance of the PCC sorbent over other naturally occurring calcium sorbents. It was observed that the CO{sub 2} released during the in-situ calcination causes the deactivation of the iron oxide WGS catalyst by changing the active phase of the catalyst from magnetite (F{sub 3}O{sub 4}). Detailed understanding of the iron oxide phase diagram helped in developing a catalyst pretreatment procedure using a H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}O system. Intermediate catalyst pretreatment helps prevent its deactivation by reducing the catalyst back to its active magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) form. Multicyclic runs which consist of combined WGS/carbonation reaction followed by in-situ calcination with a subsequent catalyst pretreatment procedure sustains the catalytic activity and prevents deactivation. The water gas shift reaction was studied at different temperatures, different steam to carbon monoxide ratios (S/C) 3:1, 2:1, 1:1 and different total pressures ranging from 0-300 psig. The CO conversion was found to have an optimal value with increasing pressure, S/C ratio and temperatures. The combined water gas shift and carbonation reaction was investigated at 650 C, S/C ratio of 3:1and at different pressures of 0-300 psig.

  7. Pathways to Commercial Success: Technologies and Products Supported by the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-08-01

    This report documents the results of an effort to identify and characterize commercial and near-commercial (emerging) technologies and products that benefited from the support of the Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program and its predecessor programs within DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

  8. SBIR/STTR FY16 Phase 1 Release 1 Topics Announced—Includes Hydrogen Production and Fuel Cell Membrane Topics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the 2016 Small Business Innovation Research and Small Business Technology Transfer (SBIR/STTR) Phase I Release 1 Topics, including hydrogen production from organic waste streams and fuel cell membranes, through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences.

  9. Hydrogenation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, J.; Oberg, C. L.; Russell, L. H.

    1981-06-23

    Hydrogenation reaction apparatus is described comprising a housing having walls which define a reaction zone and conduits for introducing streams of hydrogen and oxygen into the reaction zone, the oxygen being introduced into a central portion of the hydrogen stream to maintain a boundary layer of hydrogen along the walls of the reaction zone. A portion of the hydrogen and all of the oxygen react to produce a heated gas stream having a temperature within the range of from 1,100 to 1,900 C, while the boundary layer of hydrogen maintains the wall temperature at a substantially lower temperature. The heated gas stream is introduced into a hydrogenation reaction zone and provides the source of heat and hydrogen for a hydrogenation reaction. There also is provided means for quenching the products of the hydrogenation reaction. The present invention is particularly suitable for the hydrogenation of low-value solid carbonaceous materials to provide high yields of more valuable liquid and gaseous products. 2 figs.

  10. Biotransformation of furanic and phenolic compounds with hydrogen gas production in a microbial electrolysis cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Xiaofei; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.

    2015-10-27

    In this study, furanic and phenolic compounds are problematic byproducts resulting from the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass during biofuel production. This study assessed the capacity of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to produce hydrogen gas (H2) using a mixture of two furanic (furfural, FF; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, HMF) and three phenolic (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) compounds as the sole carbon and energy source in the bioanode. The rate and extent of biotransformation of the five compounds, efficiency of H2 production, as well as the anode microbial community structure were investigated. The five compounds were completely transformed within 7-day batch runs and their biotransformation rate increased with increasing initial concentration. At an initial concentration of 1,200 mg/L (8.7 mM) of the mixture of the five compounds, their biotransformation rate ranged from 0.85 to 2.34 mM/d. The anode coulombic efficiency was 44-69%, which is comparable to wastewater-fed MECs. The H2 yield varied from 0.26 to 0.42 g H2-COD/g COD removed in the anode, and the bioanode volume-normalized H2 production rate was 0.07-0.1 L/L-d. The major identified fermentation products that did not transform further were catechol and phenol. Acetate was the direct substrate for exoelectrogenesis. Current and H2 production were inhibited at an initial substrate concentration of 1,200 mg/L, resulting in acetate accumulation at a much higher level than that measured in other batch runs conducted with a lower initial concentration of the five compounds. The anode microbial community consisted of exoelectrogens, putative degraders of the five compounds, and syntrophic partners of exoelectrogens. The H2 production route demonstrated in this study has proven to be an alternative to the currently used process of reforming natural gas to supply H2 needed to upgrade bio-oils to stable hydrocarbon fuels.

  11. Biotransformation of furanic and phenolic compounds with hydrogen gas production in a microbial electrolysis cell

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zeng, Xiaofei; Borole, Abhijeet P.; Pavlostathis, Spyros G.

    2015-10-27

    In this study, furanic and phenolic compounds are problematic byproducts resulting from the decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass during biofuel production. This study assessed the capacity of a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) to produce hydrogen gas (H2) using a mixture of two furanic (furfural, FF; 5-hydroxymethyl furfural, HMF) and three phenolic (syringic acid, SA; vanillic acid, VA; and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, HBA) compounds as the sole carbon and energy source in the bioanode. The rate and extent of biotransformation of the five compounds, efficiency of H2 production, as well as the anode microbial community structure were investigated. The five compounds were completelymore » transformed within 7-day batch runs and their biotransformation rate increased with increasing initial concentration. At an initial concentration of 1,200 mg/L (8.7 mM) of the mixture of the five compounds, their biotransformation rate ranged from 0.85 to 2.34 mM/d. The anode coulombic efficiency was 44-69%, which is comparable to wastewater-fed MECs. The H2 yield varied from 0.26 to 0.42 g H2-COD/g COD removed in the anode, and the bioanode volume-normalized H2 production rate was 0.07-0.1 L/L-d. The major identified fermentation products that did not transform further were catechol and phenol. Acetate was the direct substrate for exoelectrogenesis. Current and H2 production were inhibited at an initial substrate concentration of 1,200 mg/L, resulting in acetate accumulation at a much higher level than that measured in other batch runs conducted with a lower initial concentration of the five compounds. The anode microbial community consisted of exoelectrogens, putative degraders of the five compounds, and syntrophic partners of exoelectrogens. The H2 production route demonstrated in this study has proven to be an alternative to the currently used process of reforming natural gas to supply H2 needed to upgrade bio-oils to stable hydrocarbon fuels.« less

  12. Results of Scoping Studies for Determining Radiolytic Hydrogen Production from Moist CST and CST Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bibler, N.E.

    1998-12-11

    In support of the Salt Disposition team, scoping studies have been performed on the radiolysis of moist and aqueous slurries of Crystalline Silicotitanate(CST). If CST is used for removal of Cs-137 from SRS salt solutions, radiolysis of the water by Cs-137 on the CST will produce H2. Also it has been shown that the presence of a solid in the system can enhance the production of H2 by transferring absorbed energy from the solid to the water (1). As indicated in the test plan (2) for this scoping study, it is the intent of this study to determine if CST enhances the radiolytic production of H2 and to estimate the radiolytic hydrogen generation rate from an aqueous CST slurry in a column at the maximum expected Cs-137 loading on the CST.Initially several CST slurry systems were irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays and the radiolytic yield of H2 measured in terms of its G value (molecules of H2 produced per 100 eV of energy absorbed). Based on the results of these tests it was determined that CST did not enhance the radiolytic production of H2 by transferring energy to the water and causing it to decompose.Calculations were then performed to estimate the rate of H2 production from a process column 16ft. long by 5ft. in diameter containing CST that was fully loaded with Cs-137. The maximum rate of H2 production based on the G values measured in this study was one liter per minute at STP (0.04 cfm). This was for a 63 percent water/CST slurry with a G value of 0.2 molecules/100eV for H2 production and a loading of 1 gram of Cs-137 per 100 grams of resin. The present work also indicates that for a column containing salt solution and CST rather than water and CST, the rate would be 4X lower. This lower value is much more realistic.

  13. Production of carbon monoxide-free hydrogen and helium from a high-purity source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Golden, Timothy Christopher; Farris, Thomas Stephen

    2008-11-18

    The invention provides vacuum swing adsorption processes that produce an essentially carbon monoxide-free hydrogen or helium gas stream from, respectively, a high-purity (e.g., pipeline grade) hydrogen or helium gas stream using one or two adsorber beds. By using physical adsorbents with high heats of nitrogen adsorption, intermediate heats of carbon monoxide adsorption, and low heats of hydrogen and helium adsorption, and by using vacuum purging and high feed stream pressures (e.g., pressures of as high as around 1,000 bar), pipeline grade hydrogen or helium can purified to produce essentially carbon monoxide -free hydrogen and helium, or carbon monoxide, nitrogen, and methane-free hydrogen and helium.

  14. NREL: Learning - Hydrogen Basics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Basics Hydrogen is a clean-burning fuel, and when combined with oxygen in a fuel cell, it produces heat and electricity with only water vapor as a by-product. But hydrogen...

  15. Development of Efficient Flowsheet and Transient Modeling for Nuclear Heat Coupled Sulfur Iodine Cyclefor Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shripad T. Revankar; Nicholas R. Brown; Cheikhou Kane; Seungmin Oh

    2010-05-01

    The realization of the hydrogen as an energy carrier for future power sources relies on a practical method of producing hydrogen in large scale with no emission of green house gases. Hydrogen is an energy carrier which can be produced by a thermochemical water splitting process. The Sulfur-Iodine (SI) process is an example of a water splitting method using iodine and sulfur as recycling agents.

  16. Hydrogen production by high-temperature water splitting using electron-conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Tae H.; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2004-04-27

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at disassociation temperatures the hydrogen from the disassociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the disassociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen.

  17. Liquid Hydrogen Production and Delivery from a Dedicated Wind Power Plant

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This May 2012 study assesses the costs and potential for remote renewable energy to be transported via hydrogen to a demand center for transportation use.

  18. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation by C.E. (Sandy) Thomas at the October 24, 2006 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group Kick-Off Meeting.

  19. Hydrogen Storage Technologies: Long-Term Commercialization Approach with First Products First

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Manufacturing R&D Workshop in Washington, DC, August 11-12, 2011.

  20. Low-Cost Hydrogen-from-Ethanol: A Distributed Production System (Presentation)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presented at the 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group held November 6, 2007 in Laurel, Maryland.

  1. IEA Agreement on the Production and utilization of hydrogen: 1998 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elam, Carolyn C. )

    1999-01-31

    The annual report includes an overview of the IEA Hydrogen Agreement, including its guiding principles. The Chairman's report section includes highlights of the agreement for 1998. Annex reports are given on various tasks: Task 10, Photoproduction of Hydrogen, Task 11, Integrated Systems, and Task 12, Metal Hydrides and Carbon for Hydrogen Storage. Lastly, a feature article by Karsten Wurr, E3M Material Consulting, GmbH, Hamburg Germany, is included titled 'Hydrogen in Material Science and Technology: State of the Art and New Tendencies'.

  2. Mechanochemical hydrogenation of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Ralph T.; Smol, Robert; Farber, Gerald; Naphtali, Leonard M.

    1981-01-01

    Hydrogenation of coal is improved through the use of a mechanical force to reduce the size of the particulate coal simultaneously with the introduction of gaseous hydrogen, or other hydrogen donor composition. Such hydrogen in the presence of elemental tin during this one-step size reduction-hydrogenation further improves the yield of the liquid hydrocarbon product.

  3. Development & Optimization of Materials and Processes for a Cost Effective Photoelectrochemical Hydrogen Production System. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, Eric W

    2011-01-17

    The overall project objective was to apply high throughput experimentation and combinatorial methods together with novel syntheses to discover and optimize efficient, practical, and economically sustainable materials for photoelectrochemical production of bulk hydrogen from water. Automated electrochemical synthesis and photoelectrochemical screening systems were designed and constructed and used to study a variety of new photoelectrocatalytic materials. We evaluated photocatalytic performance in the dark and under illumination with or without applied bias in a high-throughput manner and did detailed evaluation on many materials. Significant attention was given to ?-Fe2O3 based semiconductor materials and thin films with different dopants were synthesized by co-electrodeposition techniques. Approximately 30 dopants including Al, Zn, Cu, Ni, Co, Cr, Mo, Ti, Pt, etc. were investigated. Hematite thin films doped with Al, Ti, Pt, Cr, and Mo exhibited significant improvements in efficiency for photoelectrochemical water splitting compared with undoped hematite. In several cases we collaborated with theorists who used density functional theory to help explain performance trends and suggest new materials. The best materials were investigated in detail by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy (UV-Vis), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoelectrocatalytic performance of the thin films was evaluated and their incident photon

  4. MECHANICAL ALLOYING AND THERMAL TREATMENT FOR PRODUCTION OF ZIRCONIUM IRON HYDROGEN ISOTOPE GETTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K.

    2008-02-20

    The objective of this task was to demonstrate that metal hydrides could be produced by mechanical alloying in the quantities needed to support production-scale hydrogen isotope separations. Three starting compositions (ratios of elemental Zr and Fe powders) were selected and attritor milled under argon for times of 8 to 60 hours. In general, milling times of at least 24 hours were required to form the desired Zr{sub 2}Fe and Zr{sub 3}Fe phases, although a considerable amount of unalloyed Zr and Fe remained. Milling in liquid nitrogen does not appear to provide any advantages over milling in hexane, particularly due to the formation of ZrN after longer milling times. Carbides of Zr formed during some of the milling experiments in hexane. Elemental Zr was present in the as-milled material but not detected after annealing for milling times of 48 and 60 hours. It may be that after intimate mixing of the powders in the attritor mill the annealing temperature was sufficient to allow for the formation of a Zr-Fe alloy. Further investigation of this conversion is necessary, and could provide an opportunity for reducing the amount of unreacted metal powder after milling.

  5. Report on Hydrogen Storage Panel Findings in DOE-BES Sponsored Workshop on Basic Research for Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation from the Hydrogen Storage Pre-Solicitation Meeting held June 19, 2003 in Washington, DC.

  6. Carbon Capture and Sequestration from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engels, Cheryl; Williams, Bryan, Valluri, Kiranmal; Watwe, Ramchandra; Kumar, Ravi; Mehlman, Stewart

    2010-06-21

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE?s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  7. Composite Data Products (CDPs) from the Hydrogen Secure Data Center (HSDC) at the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF), NREL

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Secure Data Center (HSDC) at NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) plays a crucial role in NREL's independent, third-party analysis of hydrogen fuel cell technologies in real-world operation. NREL partners submit operational, maintenance, safety, and cost data to the HSDC on a regular basis. NREL's Technology Validation Team uses an internal network of servers, storage, computers, backup systems, and software to efficiently process raw data, complete quarterly analysis, and digest large amounts of time series data for data visualization. While the raw data are secured by NREL to protect commercially sensitive and proprietary information, individualized data analysis results are provided as detailed data products (DDPs) to the partners who supplied the data. Individual system, fleet, and site analysis results are aggregated into public results called composite data products (CDPs) that show the status and progress of the technology without identifying individual companies or revealing proprietary information. These CDPs are available from this NREL website: 1) Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicle and Infrastructure Learning Demonstration; 2) Early Fuel Cell Market Demonstrations; 3) Fuel Cell Technology Status [Edited from http://www.nrel.gov/hydrogen/facilities_secure_data_center.html].

  8. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2015-11-04

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  9. Calcium looping process for high purity hydrogen production integrated with capture of carbon dioxide, sulfur and halides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ramkumar, Shwetha; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-07-30

    A process for producing hydrogen comprising the steps of: (i) gasifying a fuel into a raw synthesis gas comprising CO, hydrogen, steam, sulfur and halide contaminants in the form of H.sub.2S, COS, and HX, wherein X is a halide; (ii) passing the raw synthesis gas through a water gas shift reactor (WGSR) into which CaO and steam are injected, the CaO reacting with the shifted gas to remove CO.sub.2, sulfur and halides in a solid-phase calcium-containing product comprising CaCO.sub.3, CaS and CaX.sub.2; (iii) separating the solid-phase calcium-containing product from an enriched gaseous hydrogen product; and (iv) regenerating the CaO by calcining the solid-phase calcium-containing product at a condition selected from the group consisting of: in the presence of steam, in the presence of CO.sub.2, in the presence of synthesis gas, in the presence of H.sub.2 and O.sub.2, under partial vacuum, and combinations thereof.

  10. Characterization of the products and comparison of the product yields from the flash pyrolysis of fir wood in hydrogen and helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sundaram, M.S.; Steinberg, M.; Fallon, P.T.

    1984-01-01

    A seasoned sawdust of Douglas Fir wood was flash pyrolyzed in an entrained tubular reactor in the presence of hydrogen and helium at short residence times (less than 4 sec) at temperatures varying from 600/sup 0/ to 1000/sup 0/C and pressures of 50 to 500 psi. A significant quantity of gaseous and liquid hydrocarbons and CO were produced. The liquid products were characterized via GC/MS and Pyrolysis Mass Spectrometry. The composition of the liquid products and the influence of the processing conditions on the product yields are discussed. 2 references, 13 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Production of Hydrogen by Electrocatalysis: Making the H-H Bond by Combining Protons and Hydrides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bullock, R. Morris; Appel, Aaron M.; Helm, Monte L.

    2014-03-25

    Generation of hydrogen by reduction of two protons by two electrons can be catalysed by molecular electrocatalysts. Determination of the thermodynamic driving force for elimination of H2 from molecular complexes is important for the rational design of molecular electrocatalysts, and allows the design of metal complexes of abundant, inexpensive metals rather than precious metals (“Cheap Metals for Noble Tasks”). The rate of H2 evolution can be dramatically accelerated by incorporating pendant amines into diphosphine ligands. These pendant amines in the second coordination sphere function as protons relays, accelerating intramolecular and intermolecular proton transfer reactions. The thermodynamics of hydride transfer from metal hydrides and the acidity of protonated pendant amines (pKa of N-H) contribute to the thermodynamics of elimination of H2; both of the hydricity and acidity can be systematically varied by changing the substituents on the ligands. A series of Ni(II) electrocatalysts with pendant amines have been developed. In addition to the thermochemical considerations, the catalytic rate is strongly influenced by the ability to deliver protons to the correct location of the pendant amine. Protonation of the amine endo to the metal leads to the N-H being positioned appropriately to favor rapid heterocoupling with the M-H. Designing ligands that include proton relays that are properly positioned and thermodynamically tuned is a key principle for molecular electrocatalysts for H2 production as well as for other multi-proton, multi-electron reactions important for energy conversions. The research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for DOE.

  12. Hydrogen production by high temperature water splitting using electron conducting membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Wang, Shuangyan; Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.

    2006-08-08

    A device and method for separating water into hydrogen and oxygen is disclosed. A first substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing protons or hydrogen is provided and spaced from a second substantially gas impervious solid electron-conducting membrane for selectively passing oxygen. When steam is passed between the two membranes at dissociation temperatures the hydrogen from the dissociation of steam selectively and continuously passes through the first membrane and oxygen selectively and continuously passes through the second membrane, thereby continuously driving the dissociation of steam producing hydrogen and oxygen. The oxygen is thereafter reacted with methane to produce syngas which optimally may be reacted in a water gas shift reaction to produce CO2 and H2.

  13. EERE Success Story-Low-Cost Production of Hydrogen and Electricity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    lower temperature fuel cells, which a have a peak electrical efficiency closer to 40% when operating on natural gas. In addition, a small-scale electrochemical hydrogen pump was ...

  14. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines and products formed thereby

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, E.A.; Morgan, P.E.D.

    1988-04-04

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about O/degree/C up to about 300/degree/C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200-1700/degree/C for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  15. Novel Magnetically Fluidized Bed Reactor Development for the Looping Process: Coal to Hydrogen Production R&D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, Renwei; Hahn, David; Klausner, James; Petrasch, Jorg; Mehdizadeh, Ayyoub; Allen, Kyle; Rahmatian, Nima; Stehle, Richard; Bobek, Mike; Al-Raqom, Fotouh; Greek, Ben; Li, Like; Chen, Chen; Singh, Abhishek; Takagi, Midori; Barde, Amey; Nili, Saman

    2013-09-30

    The coal to hydrogen project utilizes the iron/iron oxide looping process to produce high purity hydrogen. The input energy for the process is provided by syngas coming from gasification process of coal. The reaction pathways for this process have been studied and favorable conditions for energy efficient operation have been identified. The Magnetically Stabilized Porous Structure (MSPS) is invented. It is fabricated from iron and silica particles and its repeatable high performance has been demonstrated through many experiments under various conditions in thermogravimetric analyzer, a lab-scale reactor, and a large scale reactor. The chemical reaction kinetics for both oxidation and reduction steps has been investigated thoroughly inside MSPS as well as on the surface of very smooth iron rod. Hydrogen, CO, and syngas have been tested individually as the reducing agent in reduction step and their performance is compared. Syngas is found to be the most pragmatic reducing agent for the two-step water splitting process. The transport properties of MSPS including porosity, permeability, and effective thermal conductivity are determined based on high resolution 3D CT x-ray images obtained at Argonne National Laboratory and pore-level simulations using a lattice Boltzmann Equation (LBE)-based mesoscopic model developed during this investigation. The results of those measurements and simulations provide necessary inputs to the development of a reliable volume-averaging-based continuum model that is used to simulate the dynamics of the redox process in MSPS. Extensive efforts have been devoted to simulate the redox process in MSPS by developing a continuum model consist of various modules for conductive and radiative heat transfer, fluid flow, species transport, and reaction kinetics. Both the Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches for species transport of chemically reacting flow in porous media have been investigated and verified numerically. Both approaches lead to correct prediction of hydrogen production rates over a large range of experimental conditions in the laboratory scale reactor and the bench-scale reactor. In the economic analysis, a comparison of the hydrogen production plants using iron/iron oxide looping cycle and the conventional process has been presented. Plant configurations are developed for the iron/iron oxide looping cycle. The study suggests a higher electric power generation but a lower hydrogen production efficiency comparing with the conventional process. Additionally, it was shown that the price of H{sub 2} obtained from our reactor can be as low as $1.7/kg, which is 22% lower than the current price of the H{sub 2} obtained from reforming plants.

  16. Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Jump to: navigation, search Name: Infinity Fuel Cell and Hydrogen Place: Suffield, Connecticut Zip: 6078 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: A team of fuel cell, hydrogen and...

  17. Direct Determination of Equilibrium Potentials for Hydrogen Oxidation/Production by Open Circuit Potential Measurements in Acetonitrile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-03-14

    Open circuit potentials were measured for acetonitrile solutions of a variety of acids and their conjugate bases under 1 atm H2. Acids examined include triethylammonium, dimethylformamidium, 2,6-dichloroanilinium, 4-cyanoanilinium, 4-bromoanilinium, and 4-anisidinium salts. These potentials, together with the pKa values of the acids, establish the value of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) potential in acetonitrile as ?0.028(4) V vs the ferrocenium/ferrocene couple. Dimethylformamidium is shown to form homoconjugates and other aggregates with dimethylformamide; open circuit potentials are used to quantify the extent of these reactions. Overpotentials for electrocatalytic hydrogen production and oxidation were determined from open circuit potentials and voltammograms of acidic or basic catalyst solutions under H2. This method requires neither pKa values, homoconjugation constants, nor an estimate for the SHE potential and thus allows direct comparison of catalytic systems in different media.

  18. Hydrogen & Our Energy Future | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Future Hydrogen & Our Energy Future DOE overview of hydrogen fuel initiative and hydrogen production, delivery and storate hydrogenenergyfutureweb.pdf More Documents &...

  19. Florida Hydrogen Initiative Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Initiative Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Florida Hydrogen Initiative Inc Place: Florida Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Provides grants to aid the development of...

  20. Hydrogen Solar Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Solar Ltd Place: Guildford, United Kingdom Zip: GU2 7YG Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Solar Product: Hydrogen Solar Ltd is...

  1. National Hydrogen Association | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Association Jump to: navigation, search Name: National Hydrogen Association Place: Washington, Washington, DC Zip: 20036 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The source for...

  2. Highline Hydrogen Hybrids | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Hybrids Jump to: navigation, search Name: Highline Hydrogen Hybrids Place: farmington, Arkansas Zip: 72730-1500 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Vehicles Product: US-based...

  3. Chevron Hydrogen Company LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Company LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Chevron Hydrogen Company LLC Place: California Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: California-based, subsidairy of Chevron...

  4. The London Hydrogen Partnership | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    London Hydrogen Partnership Jump to: navigation, search Name: The London Hydrogen Partnership Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SE1 2AA Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The London...

  5. Hunterston Hydrogen Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hunterston Hydrogen Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hunterston Hydrogen Ltd Place: Anglesey, United Kingdom Zip: LL65 4RJ Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Wind energy Product:...

  6. German Hydrogen Association DWV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Association DWV Jump to: navigation, search Name: German Hydrogen Association (DWV) Place: Berlin, Germany Zip: 12205 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: String...

  7. Hydrogen Engine Center HEC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engine Center HEC Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Engine Center (HEC) Place: Algona, Iowa Zip: IA 50511 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: The Hydrogen Engine Center (HEC)...

  8. Thermocatalytic CO{sub 2}-Free Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbon Fuels - Final Report for the Period August 1999 - September 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nazim Muradov, Ph.D.

    2000-10-01

    The overall objective of this work is to develop a novel process for CO{sub 2}-free production of hydrogen via thermocatalytic decomposition (pyrolysis) of hydrocarbon fuels as a viable alternative to the conventional processes of methane steam reforming or partial oxidation. The objective of Phase I work was to demonstrate the technical feasibility of CO{sub 2}-free production of hydrogen and carbon from different hydrocarbons, including methane, propane and gasoline.

  9. Controlled Hydrogen Fleet and Infrastructure Demonstration and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Controlled Hydrogen Fleet & Infrastructure Analysis National FCEV Learning Demonstration: All Composite Data Products National Hydrogen Learning ...

  10. ASU nitrogen sweep gas in hydrogen separation membrane for production of HRSG duct burner fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panuccio, Gregory J.; Raybold, Troy M.; Jamal, Agil; Drnevich, Raymond Francis

    2013-04-02

    The present invention relates to the use of low pressure N2 from an air separation unit (ASU) for use as a sweep gas in a hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) to increase syngas H2 recovery and make a near-atmospheric pressure (less than or equal to about 25 psia) fuel for supplemental firing in the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) duct burner.

  11. Thermochemical process for the production of hydrogen using chromium and barium compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.; Richardson, Donald M.

    1977-01-25

    Hydrogen is produced by a closed cyclic process involving the reduction and oxidation of chromium compounds by barium hydroxide and the hydrolytic disproportionation of Ba.sub.2 CrO.sub.4 and Ba.sub.3 (CrO.sub.4).sub.2.

  12. Method for hydrogen production and metal winning, and a catalyst/cocatalyst composition useful therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhooge, Patrick M.

    1987-10-13

    A catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition of matter is useful in electrolytically producing hydrogen or electrowinning metals. Use of the catalyst/cocatalyst/organics composition causes the anode potential and the energy required for the reaction to decrease. An electrolyte, including the catalyst/cocatalyst composition, and a reaction medium composition further including organic material are also described.

  13. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of cold negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1984-02-13

    A process for selectively neutralizing H/sup -/ ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H/sup -/ ions that are

  14. Hydrogen production from the steam reforming of Dinethyl Ether and Methanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Semelsberger, T. A.; Borup, R. L.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for fuel cell applications. Methanol has long been considered as a fuel for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds due to its high energy density, low reforming temperature, and zero impurity content. However, it has not been accepted as the fuel of choice due its current limited availability, toxicity and corrosiveness. While methanol steam reforming for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds has been extensively studied, the steam reforming of DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3} + 3H{sub 2}O = 2CO{sub 2} + 6H{sub 2}, has had limited research effort. DME is the simplest ether (CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}) and is a gas at ambient conditions. DME has physical properties similar to those of LPG fuels (i.e. propane and butane), resulting in similar storage and handling considerations. DME is currently used as an aerosol propellant and has been considercd as a diesel substitute due to the reduced NOx, SOx and particulate emissions. DME is also being considered as a substitute for LPG fuels, which is used extensively in Asia as a fuel for heating and cooking, and naptha, which is used for power generation. The potential advantages of both methanol and DME include low reforming temperature, decreased fuel proccssor startup energy, environmentally benign, visible flame, high heating value, and ease of storage and transportation. In addition, DME has the added advantages of low toxicity and being non-corrosive. Consequently, DME may be an ideal candidate for the generation of hydrogen rich fuel cell feeds for both automotive and portable power applications. The steam reforming of DME has been demonstrated to occur through a pair of reactions in series, where the first reaction is DME hydration followed by MeOH steam reforming to produce a hydrogen rich stream.

  15. Hydrogen-or-Fossil-Combustion Nuclear Combined-Cycle Systems for Base- and Peak-Load Electricity Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forsberg, Charles W; Conklin, Jim

    2007-09-01

    A combined-cycle power plant is described that uses (1) heat from a high-temperature nuclear reactor to meet base-load electrical demands and (2) heat from the same high-temperature reactor and burning natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen to meet peak-load electrical demands. For base-load electricity production, fresh air is compressed; then flows through a heat exchanger, where it is heated to between 700 and 900 C by heat provided by a high-temperature nuclear reactor via an intermediate heat-transport loop; and finally exits through a high-temperature gas turbine to produce electricity. The hot exhaust from the Brayton-cycle gas turbine is then fed to a heat recovery steam generator that provides steam to a steam turbine for added electrical power production. To meet peak electricity demand, the air is first compressed and then heated with the heat from a high-temperature reactor. Natural gas, jet fuel, or hydrogen is then injected into the hot air in a combustion chamber, combusts, and heats the air to 1300 C-the operating conditions for a standard natural-gas-fired combined-cycle plant. The hot gas then flows through a gas turbine and a heat recovery steam generator before being sent to the exhaust stack. The higher temperatures increase the plant efficiency and power output. If hydrogen is used, it can be produced at night using energy from the nuclear reactor and stored until needed. With hydrogen serving as the auxiliary fuel for peak power production, the electricity output to the electric grid can vary from zero (i.e., when hydrogen is being produced) to the maximum peak power while the nuclear reactor operates at constant load. Because nuclear heat raises air temperatures above the auto-ignition temperatures of the various fuels and powers the air compressor, the power output can be varied rapidly (compared with the capabilities of fossil-fired turbines) to meet spinning reserve requirements and stabilize the electric grid. This combined cycle uses the unique characteristics of high-temperature reactors (T>700 C) to produce electricity for premium electric markets whose demands can not be met by other types of nuclear reactors. It may also make the use of nuclear reactors economically feasible in smaller electrical grids, such as those found in many developing countries. The ability to rapidly vary power output can be used to stabilize electric grid performance-a particularly important need in small electrical grids.

  16. Theoretical Design of a Thermosyphon for Efficient Process Heat Removal from Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) for Production of Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piyush Sabharwall; Fred Gunnerson; Akira Tokuhiro; Vivek Utgiker; Kevan Weaver; Steven Sherman

    2007-10-01

    The work reported here is the preliminary analysis of two-phase Thermosyphon heat transfer performance with various alkali metals. Thermosyphon is a device for transporting heat from one point to another with quite extraordinary properties. Heat transport occurs via evaporation and condensation, and the heat transport fluid is re-circulated by gravitational force. With this mode of heat transfer, the thermosyphon has the capability to transport heat at high rates over appreciable distances, virtually isothermally and without any requirement for external pumping devices. For process heat, intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) are required to transfer heat from the NGNP to the hydrogen plant in the most efficient way possible. The production of power at higher efficiency using Brayton Cycle, and hydrogen production requires both heat at higher temperatures (up to 1000oC) and high effectiveness compact heat exchangers to transfer heat to either the power or process cycle. The purpose for selecting a compact heat exchanger is to maximize the heat transfer surface area per volume of heat exchanger; this has the benefit of reducing heat exchanger size and heat losses. The IHX design requirements are governed by the allowable temperature drop between the outlet of the NGNP (900oC, based on the current capabilities of NGNP), and the temperatures in the hydrogen production plant. Spiral Heat Exchangers (SHEs) have superior heat transfer characteristics, and are less susceptible to fouling. Further, heat losses to surroundings are minimized because of its compact configuration. SHEs have never been examined for phase-change heat transfer applications. The research presented provides useful information for thermosyphon design and Spiral Heat Exchanger.

  17. Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Pressure Hydrogen Production. A comprehensive project report (FY2010 - FY2012)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaehn, John; Peterson, Eric; Orme, Christopher; Bhandari, Dhaval; Miller, Scott; Ku, Anthony; Polishchuk, Kimberly; Narang, Kristi; Singh, Surinder; Wei, Wei; Shisler, Roger; Wickersham, Paul; McEvoy, Kevin; Alberts, William; Howson, Paul; Barton, Thomas; Sethi, Vijay

    2013-01-01

    Idaho National Laboratory (INL), GE Global Research (GEGR), and Western Research Institute (WRI) have successfully produced hydrogen-selective membranes for water-gas-shift (WGS) modules that enable high-pressure hydrogen product streams. Several high performance (HP) polymer membranes were investigated for their gas separation performance under simulated (mixed gas) and actual syngas conditions. To enable optimal module performance, membranes with high hydrogen (H2) selectivity, permeance, and stability under WGS conditions are required. The team determined that the VTEC PI 80-051 and VTEC PI 1388 (polyimide from Richard Blaine International, Inc.) are prime candidates for the H2 gas separations at operating temperatures (~200C). VTEC PI 80-051 was thoroughly analyzed for its H2 separations under syngas processing conditions using more-complex membrane configurations, such as tube modules and hollow fibers. These membrane formats have demonstrated that the selected VTEC membrane is capable of providing highly selective H2/CO2 separation (? = 7-9) and H2/CO separation (? = 40-80) in humidified syngas streams. In addition, the VTEC polymer membranes are resilient within the syngas environment (WRI coal gasification) at 200C for over 1000 hours. The information within this report conveys current developments of VTEC PI 80-051 as an effective H2 gas separations membrane for high-temperature syngas streams.

  18. Method of producing metallized chloroplasts and use thereof in the photochemical production of hydrogen and oxygen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias

    1987-01-01

    The invention is primarily a metallized chloroplast composition for use in a photosynthetic reaction. A catalytic metal is precipitated on a chloroplast membrane at the location where a catalyzed reduction reaction occurs. This metallized chloroplast is stabilized by depositing it on a support medium such as fiber so that it can be easily handled. A possible application of this invention is the splitting of water to form hydrogen and oxygen that can be used as a renewable energy source.

  19. Effect of nickel grid parameters on production of negative hydrogen ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oohara, W.; Yokoyama, H.; Takeda, Toshiaki; Maetani, Y.; Takeda, Takashi; Kawata, K.

    2014-06-15

    Negative hydrogen ions are produced by plasma-assisted catalytic ionization using a nickel grid. When positive ions passing through the grid are decelerated by an electric field, the extraction current density of passing positive ions is sharply reduced by neutralization and negative ionization of the ions. This phenomenon is found to depend on the specific surface area of the grid and the current density.

  20. Hydrogen Energy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Energy Place: Surrey, England, United Kingdom Zip: KT13 0NY Sector: Carbon, Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Surrey-based BP subsidiary...

  1. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a metal boride, nitride, carbide and/or silicide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGuiggan, M.F.; Kuch, P.L.

    1984-05-08

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a metal boride, carbide, nitride and/or silicide catalyst, such as titanium carbide, vanadium boride, manganese nitride or molybdenum silicide.

  2. Experimental Demonstration of Advanced Palladium Membrane Separators for Central High Purity Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sean Emerson; Neal Magdefrau; Susanne Opalka; Ying She; Catherine Thibaud-Erkey; Thoman Vanderspurt; Rhonda Willigan

    2010-06-30

    The overall objectives for this project were to: (1) confirm the high stability and resistance of a PdCu trimetallic alloy to carbon and carbide formation and, in addition, resistance to sulfur, halides, and ammonia; (2) develop a sulfur, halide, and ammonia resistant alloy membrane with a projected hydrogen permeance of 25 m{sup 3}m{sup -2}atm{sup -0.5}h{sup -1} at 400 C and capable of operating at pressures of 12.1 MPa ({approx}120 atm, 1750 psia); and (3) construct and experimentally validate the performance of 0.1 kg/day H{sup 2} PdCu trimetallic alloy membrane separators at feed pressures of 2 MPa (290 psia) in the presence of H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, and HCl. This project successfully increased the technology readiness level of palladium-based metallic membranes for hydrogen separation from coal-biomass gasifier exhaust or similar hydrogen-containing gas streams. The reversible tolerance of palladium-copper (PdCu) alloys was demonstrated for H{sub 2}S concentrations varying from 20 ppmv up to 487 ppmv and NH{sub 3} concentrations up to 9 ppmv. In addition, atomistic modeling validated the resistance of PdCu alloys to carbon formation, irreversible sulfur corrosion, and chlorine attack. The experimental program highlighted two key issues which must be addressed as part of future experimental programs: (1) tube defects and (2) non-membrane materials of construction. Four out of five FCC PdCu separators developed leaks during the course of the experimental program because {approx}10% of the alloy tubes contained a single defect that resulted in a thin, weak point in the tube walls. These defects limited operation of the existing tubes to less than 220 psig. For commercial applications of a PdCu alloy hydrogen separator under high sulfur concentrations, it was determined that stainless steel 316 is not suitable for housing or supporting the device. Testing with sulfur concentrations of 487 {+-} 4 ppmv resulted in severe corrosion of the stainless steel components of the separators. The project identified an experimental methodology for quantifying the impact of gas contaminants on PdCu alloy membrane performance as well as an atomistic modeling approach to screen metal alloys for their resistance to irreversible sulfur corrosion. Initial mathematical descriptions of the effect of species such as CO and H{sub 2}S were developed, but require further experimental work to refine. At the end of the project, an improvement to the experimental approach for acquiring the necessary data for the permeability model was demonstrated in preliminary tests on an enhanced PdCu separator. All of the key DOE 2010 technical targets were met or exceeded except for the hydrogen flux. The highest flux observed for the project, 125 ft{sup 3}ft{sup -2}h{sup -1}, was obtained on a single tube separator with the aforementioned enhanced PdCu separator with a hydrogen feed pressure of 185 psig at 500 C.

  3. High Purity Hydrogen Production with In-Situ Carbon Dioxide and Sulfur Capture in a Single Stage Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nihar Phalak; Shwetha Ramkumar; Daniel Connell; Zhenchao Sun; Fu-Chen Yu; Niranjani Deshpande; Robert Statnick; Liang-Shih Fan

    2011-07-31

    Enhancement in the production of high purity hydrogen (H{sub 2}) from fuel gas, obtained from coal gasification, is limited by thermodynamics of the water gas shift (WGS) reaction. However, this constraint can be overcome by conducting the WGS in the presence of a CO{sub 2}-acceptor. The continuous removal of CO{sub 2} from the reaction mixture helps to drive the equilibrium-limited WGS reaction forward. Since calcium oxide (CaO) exhibits high CO{sub 2} capture capacity as compared to other sorbents, it is an ideal candidate for such a technique. The Calcium Looping Process (CLP) developed at The Ohio State University (OSU) utilizes the above concept to enable high purity H{sub 2} production from synthesis gas (syngas) derived from coal gasification. The CLP integrates the WGS reaction with insitu CO{sub 2}, sulfur and halide removal at high temperatures while eliminating the need for a WGS catalyst, thus reducing the overall footprint of the hydrogen production process. The CLP comprises three reactors - the carbonator, where the thermodynamic constraint of the WGS reaction is overcome by the constant removal of CO{sub 2} product and high purity H{sub 2} is produced with contaminant removal; the calciner, where the calcium sorbent is regenerated and a sequestration-ready CO{sub 2} stream is produced; and the hydrator, where the calcined sorbent is reactivated to improve its recyclability. As a part of this project, the CLP was extensively investigated by performing experiments at lab-, bench- and subpilot-scale setups. A comprehensive techno-economic analysis was also conducted to determine the feasibility of the CLP at commercial scale. This report provides a detailed account of all the results obtained during the project period.

  4. Partial Oxidation Gas Turbine for Power and Hydrogen Co-Production from Coal-Derived Fuel in Industrial Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Rabovitser

    2009-06-30

    The report presents a feasibility study of a new type of gas turbine. A partial oxidation gas turbine (POGT) shows potential for really high efficiency power generation and ultra low emissions. There are two main features that distinguish a POGT from a conventional gas turbine. These are associated with the design arrangement and the thermodynamic processes used in operation. A primary design difference of the POGT is utilization of a non?catalytic partial oxidation reactor (POR) in place of a conventional combustor. Another important distinction is that a much smaller compressor is required, one that typically supplies less than half of the air flow required in a conventional gas turbine. From an operational and thermodynamic point of view a key distinguishing feature is that the working fluid, fuel gas provided by the OR, has a much higher specific heat than lean combustion products and more energy per unit mass of fluid can be extracted by the POGT expander than in the conventional systems. The POGT exhaust stream contains unreacted fuel that can be combusted in different bottoming ycle or used as syngas for hydrogen or other chemicals production. POGT studies include feasibility design for conversion a conventional turbine to POGT duty, and system analyses of POGT based units for production of power solely, and combined production of power and yngas/hydrogen for different applications. Retrofit design study was completed for three engines, SGT 800, SGT 400, and SGT 100, and includes: replacing the combustor with the POR, compressor downsizing for about 50% design flow rate, generator replacement with 60 90% ower output increase, and overall unit integration, and extensive testing. POGT performances for four turbines with power output up to 350 MW in POGT mode were calculated. With a POGT as the topping cycle for power generation systems, the power output from the POGT ould be increased up to 90% compared to conventional engine keeping hot section temperatures, pressures, and volumetric flows practically identical. In POGT mode, the turbine specific power (turbine net power per lb mass flow from expander exhaust) is twice the value of the onventional turbine. POGT based IGCC plant conceptual design was developed and major components have been identified. Fuel flexible fluid bed gasifier, and novel POGT unit are the key components of the 100 MW IGCC plant for co producing electricity, hydrogen and/or yngas. Plant performances were calculated for bituminous coal and oxygen blown versions. Various POGT based, natural gas fueled systems for production of electricity only, coproduction of electricity and hydrogen, and co production of electricity and syngas for gas to liquid and hemical processes were developed and evaluated. Performance calculations for several versions of these systems were conducted. 64.6 % LHV efficiency for fuel to electricity in combined cycle was achieved. Such a high efficiency arise from using of syngas from POGT exhaust s a fuel that can provide required temperature level for superheated steam generation in HRSG, as well as combustion air preheating. Studies of POGT materials and combustion instabilities in POR were conducted and results reported. Preliminary market assessment was performed, and recommendations for POGT systems applications in oil industry were defined. POGT technology is ready to proceed to the engineering prototype stage, which is recommended.

  5. Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technoeconomic Analysis of Photoelectrochemical (PEC) Hydrogen Production This report documents the engineering and cost characteristics of four PEC hydrogen production systems ...

  6. Hydrogen production in the K-Basin ion exchange columns, modules and cartridge filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-21

    K-Basin uses ion exchange modules and ion exchange (IX) columns for removing radionuclides from the basin water. When the columns and modules are loaded, they are removed from service, drained and stored. After a few IX columns accumulate in storage, they are moved to a burial box. One of the burial box contains 33 columns and the other, six. The radionuclides act on the liquid left within and adhering to the beads to produce hydrogen. This report describes the generation rate, accumulation rate and significance of that accumulation. This summary also highlights those major areas of concern to the external (to Westinghouse Hanford Company [WHC]) reviewers. Appendix H presents the comments made by the external reviewers and, on a separate sheet, the responses to those comments. The concerns regarding the details of the analytical approach, are addressed in Appendix H and in the appropriate section.

  7. Robust Low-Cost Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor for High-Purity Hydrogen Production form Coal-Derived Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Torkelson; Neng Ye; Zhijiang Li; Decio Coutinho; Mark Fokema

    2008-05-31

    This report details work performed in an effort to develop a low-cost, robust water gas shift membrane reactor to convert coal-derived syngas into high purity hydrogen. A sulfur- and halide-tolerant water gas shift catalyst and a sulfur-tolerant dense metallic hydrogen-permeable membrane were developed. The materials were integrated into a water gas shift membrane reactor in order to demonstrate the production of >99.97% pure hydrogen from a simulated coal-derived syngas stream containing 2000 ppm hydrogen sulfide. The objectives of the program were to (1) develop a contaminant-tolerant water gas shift catalyst that is able to achieve equilibrium carbon monoxide conversion at high space velocity and low steam to carbon monoxide ratio, (2) develop a contaminant-tolerant hydrogen-permeable membrane with a higher permeability than palladium, (3) demonstrate 1 L/h purified hydrogen production from coal-derived syngas in an integrated catalytic membrane reactor, and (4) conduct a cost analysis of the developed technology.

  8. An Analysis of Methanol and Hydrogen Production via High-Temperature Electrolysis Using the Sodium Cooled Advanced Fast Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton; Richard D. Boardman; Robert S. Cherry; Wesley R. Deason; Michael G. McKellar

    2014-03-01

    Integration of an advanced, sodium-cooled fast spectrum reactor into nuclear hybrid energy system (NHES) architectures is the focus of the present study. A techno-economic evaluation of several conceptual system designs was performed for the integration of a sodium-cooled Advanced Fast Reactor (AFR) with the electric grid in conjunction with wind-generated electricity. Cases in which excess thermal and electrical energy would be reapportioned within an integrated energy system to a chemical plant are presented. The process applications evaluated include hydrogen production via high temperature steam electrolysis and methanol production via steam methane reforming to produce carbon monoxide and hydrogen which feed a methanol synthesis reactor. Three power cycles were considered for integration with the AFR, including subcritical and supercritical Rankine cycles and a modified supercritical carbon dioxide modified Brayton cycle. The thermal efficiencies of all of the modeled power conversions units were greater than 40%. A thermal efficiency of 42% was adopted in economic studies because two of the cycles either performed at that level or could potentially do so (subcritical Rankine and S-CO2 Brayton). Each of the evaluated hybrid architectures would be technically feasible but would demonstrate a different internal rate of return (IRR) as a function of multiple parameters; all evaluated configurations showed a positive IRR. As expected, integration of an AFR with a chemical plant increases the IRR when “must-take” wind-generated electricity is added to the energy system. Additional dynamic system analyses are recommended to draw detailed conclusions on the feasibility and economic benefits associated with AFR-hybrid energy system operation.

  9. Production of intense negative hydrogen beams with polarized nuclei by selective neutralization of negative ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1987-01-01

    A process for selectively neutralizing H.sup.- ions in a magnetic field to produce an intense negative hydrogen ion beam with spin polarized protons. Characteristic features of the process include providing a multi-ampere beam of H.sup.- ions that are intersected by a beam of laser light. Photodetachment is effected in a uniform magnetic field that is provided around the beam of H.sup.- ions to spin polarize the H.sup.- ions and produce first and second populations or groups of ions, having their respective proton spin aligned either with the magnetic field or opposite to it. The intersecting beam of laser light is directed to selectively neutralize a majority of the ions in only one population, or given spin polarized group of H.sup.- ions, without neutralizing the ions in the other group thereby forming a population of H.sup.- ions each of which has its proton spin down, and a second group or population of H.sup.o atoms having proton spin up. Finally, the two groups of ions are separated from each other by magnetically bending the group of H.sup.- ions away from the group of neutralized ions, thereby to form an intense H.sup.- ion beam that is directed toward a predetermined objective.

  10. Energy Education Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education » For Students & Educators » Energy Education Links Energy Education Links These websites offer educational information about hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. American Hydrogen Association - This site includes an educational section called Hydrogen Students as well as related features called Build Your Own Fuel Cell and Think Hydrogen. California Energy Commission/Energy Quest - This energy education website of the California Energy Commission provides information about all

  11. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  12. Thermal-Hydraulic Analyses of Heat Transfer Fluid Requirements and Characteristics for Coupling A Hydrogen Production Plant to a High-Temperature Nuclear Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. B. Davis; C. H. Oh; R. B. Barner; D. F. Wilson

    2005-06-01

    The Department of Energy is investigating the use of high-temperature nuclear reactors to produce hydrogen using either thermochemical cycles or high-temperature electrolysis. Although the hydrogen production processes are in an early stage of development, coupling either of these processes to the hightemperature reactor requires both efficient heat transfer and adequate separation of the facilities to assure that off-normal events in the production facility do not impact the nuclear power plant. An intermediate heat transport loop will be required to separate the operations and safety functions of the nuclear and hydrogen plants. A next generation high-temperature reactor could be envisioned as a single-purpose facility that produces hydrogen or a dual-purpose facility that produces hydrogen and electricity. Early plants, such as the proposed Next Generation Nuclear Plant, may be dual-purpose facilities that demonstrate both hydrogen and efficient electrical generation. Later plants could be single-purpose facilities. At this stage of development, both single- and dual-purpose facilities need to be understood. Seven possible configurations for a system that transfers heat between the nuclear reactor and the hydrogen and/or electrical generation plants were identified. These configurations included both direct and indirect cycles for the production of electricity. Both helium and liquid salts were considered as the working fluid in the intermediate heat transport loop. Methods were developed to perform thermalhydraulic and cycle-efficiency evaluations of the different configurations and coolants. The thermalhydraulic evaluations estimated the sizes of various components in the intermediate heat transport loop for the different configurations. The relative sizes of components provide a relative indication of the capital cost associated with the various configurations. Estimates of the overall cycle efficiency of the various configurations were also determined. The evaluations determined which configurations and coolants are the most promising from thermal-hydraulic and efficiency points of view. These evaluations also determined which configurations and options do not appear to be feasible at the current time.

  13. Composite Pd and Pd Alloy Porous Stainless Steel Membranes for Hydrogen Production and Process Intensification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yi Hua Ma; Nikolaos Kazantzis; Ivan Mardilovich; Federico Guazzone; Alexander Augustine; Reyyan Koc

    2011-11-06

    The synthesis of composite Pd membranes has been modified by the addition of a Al(OH){sub 3} graded layer and sequential annealing at high temperatures to obtain membranes with high permeance and outstanding selectivity stability for over 4000 hours at 450°C. Most of the membranes achieved in this work showed H{sub 2} flux well above 2010 DOE targets and in some case, also above 2015 DOE targets. Similar composite membranes were tested in water gas shift reaction atmospheres and showed to be stable with high CO conversion and high hydrogen recovery for over 1000 hours. The H{sub 2} permeance of composite Pd-Au membranes was studied as well as its resistance in H{sub 2}S containing atmospheres. H{sub 2}S poisoning of Pd-based membranes was reduced by the addition of Au and the loss undergone by membranes was found to be almost totally recoverable with 10-30 wt%Au. PSA technique was studied to test the possibility of H{sub 2}S and COS removal from feed stream with limited success since the removal of H{sub 2}S also led to the removal of a large fraction of the CO{sub 2}. The economics of a WGS bundle reactor, using the information of the membranes fabricated under this project and integrated into an IGCC plant were studied based on a 2D reactor modeling. The calculations showed that without a government incentive to impose a CO{sub 2} tax, application of WGS membrane reactors in IGCC would be not as economically attractive as regular pulverized coal plants.

  14. Hydrogen separation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mundschau, Michael; Xie, Xiaobing; Evenson, IV, Carl; Grimmer, Paul; Wright, Harold

    2011-05-24

    A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for separating a hydrogen-rich product stream from a feed stream comprising hydrogen and at least one carbon-containing gas, comprising feeding the feed stream, at an inlet pressure greater than atmospheric pressure and a temperature greater than 200.degree. C., to an integrated water gas shift/hydrogen separation membrane system wherein the hydrogen separation membrane system comprises a membrane that is selectively permeable to hydrogen, and producing a hydrogen-rich permeate product stream on the permeate side of the membrane and a carbon dioxide-rich product raffinate stream on the raffinate side of the membrane. A method for pretreating a membrane, comprising: heating the membrane to a desired operating temperature and desired feed pressure in a flow of inert gas for a sufficient time to cause the membrane to mechanically deform; decreasing the feed pressure to approximately ambient pressure; and optionally, flowing an oxidizing agent across the membrane before, during, or after deformation of the membrane. A method of supporting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising selecting a hydrogen separation membrane system comprising one or more catalyst outer layers deposited on a hydrogen transport membrane layer and sealing the hydrogen separation membrane system to a porous support.

  15. Hydrogen Delivery and Fueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-09-09

    This MP3 provides an overview of how hydrogen is delivered from the point of production to where it is used.

  16. Basic Research Needs for the Hydrogen Economy. Report of the Basic Energy Sciences Workshop on Hydrogen Production, Storage and Use, May 13-15, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresselhaus, M; Crabtree, G; Buchanan, M; Mallouk, T; Mets, L; Taylor, K; Jena, P; DiSalvo, F; Zawodzinski, T; Kung, H; Anderson, I S; Britt, P; Curtiss, L; Keller, J; Kumar, R; Kwok, W; Taylor, J; Allgood, J; Campbell, B; Talamini, K

    2004-02-01

    The coupled challenges of a doubling in the world's energy needs by the year 2050 and the increasing demands for ''clean'' energy sources that do not add more carbon dioxide and other pollutants to the environment have resulted in increased attention worldwide to the possibilities of a ''hydrogen economy'' as a long-term solution for a secure energy future.

  17. Integrating large-scale functional genomics data to dissect metabolic networks for hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harwood, Caroline S

    2012-12-17

    The goal of this project is to identify gene networks that are critical for efficient biohydrogen production by leveraging variation in gene content and gene expression in independently isolated Rhodopseudomonas palustris strains. Coexpression methods were applied to large data sets that we have collected to define probabilistic causal gene networks. To our knowledge this a first systems level approach that takes advantage of strain-to strain variability to computationally define networks critical for a particular bacterial phenotypic trait.

  18. Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Programs | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Education For Students & Educators Higher Education Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Programs Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Programs The links below provide information about colleges and ...

  19. ENERGY EFFICIENCY LIMITS FOR A RECUPERATIVE BAYONET SULFURIC ACID DECOMPOSITION REACTOR FOR SULFUR CYCLE THERMOCHEMICAL HYDROGEN PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorensek, M.; Edwards, T.

    2009-06-11

    A recuperative bayonet reactor design for the high-temperature sulfuric acid decomposition step in sulfur-based thermochemical hydrogen cycles was evaluated using pinch analysis in conjunction with statistical methods. The objective was to establish the minimum energy requirement. Taking hydrogen production via alkaline electrolysis with nuclear power as the benchmark, the acid decomposition step can consume no more than 450 kJ/mol SO{sub 2} for sulfur cycles to be competitive. The lowest value of the minimum heating target, 320.9 kJ/mol SO{sub 2}, was found at the highest pressure (90 bar) and peak process temperature (900 C) considered, and at a feed concentration of 42.5 mol% H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. This should be low enough for a practical water-splitting process, even including the additional energy required to concentrate the acid feed. Lower temperatures consistently gave higher minimum heating targets. The lowest peak process temperature that could meet the 450-kJ/mol SO{sub 2} benchmark was 750 C. If the decomposition reactor were to be heated indirectly by an advanced gas-cooled reactor heat source (50 C temperature difference between primary and secondary coolants, 25 C minimum temperature difference between the secondary coolant and the process), then sulfur cycles using this concept could be competitive with alkaline electrolysis provided the primary heat source temperature is at least 825 C. The bayonet design will not be practical if the (primary heat source) reactor outlet temperature is below 825 C.

  20. Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kathe, Mandar; Xu, Dikai; Hsieh, Tien-Lin; Simpson, James; Statnick, Robert; Tong, Andrew; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2014-12-31

    This document is the final report for the project titled “Chemical Looping Gasification for Hydrogen Enhanced Syngas Production with In-Situ CO2 Capture” under award number FE0012136 for the performance period 10/01/2013 to 12/31/2014.This project investigates the novel Ohio State chemical looping gasification technology for high efficiency, cost efficiency coal gasification for IGCC and methanol production application. The project developed an optimized oxygen carrier composition, demonstrated the feasibility of the concept and completed cold-flow model studies. WorleyParsons completed a techno-economic analysis which showed that for a coal only feed with carbon capture, the OSU CLG technology reduced the methanol required selling price by 21%, lowered the capital costs by 28%, increased coal consumption efficiency by 14%. Further, using the Ohio State Chemical Looping Gasification technology resulted in a methanol required selling price which was lower than the reference non-capture case.

  1. Clean Hydrogen Producers Ltd CHP | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Producers Ltd CHP Jump to: navigation, search Name: Clean Hydrogen Producers Ltd (CHP) Place: Geneva, Switzerland Zip: 1209 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen, Solar Product: Swiss...

  2. India National Hydrogen Energy Board NHEB | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Energy Board NHEB Jump to: navigation, search Name: India National Hydrogen Energy Board (NHEB) Place: New Delhi, India Zip: 110 003 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Set...

  3. Spanish Hydrogen Association AeH | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Association AeH Jump to: navigation, search Name: Spanish Hydrogen Association (AeH) Place: Madrid, Spain Zip: 28760 Sector: Hydro, Hydrogen Product: Spanish conference...

  4. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 2 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  5. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 3 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  6. Production of High-Hydrogen Content Coal-Derived Liquids [Part 1 of 3

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stephen Bergin

    2011-03-30

    The primary goal of this project has been to evaluate and compare the effect of the intrinsic differences between cobalt (Co) and iron (Fe) catalysts for Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis using coal-derived syngas. Crude oil, especially heavy, high-sulfur crude, is no longer the appropriate source for the additional, or marginal, amounts of middle-distillate fuels needed to meet growing US and world demand for diesel and jet fuels. Only about 1/3 of the marginal crude oil barrel can be made into diesel and jet fuels. The remaining 2/3 contributes further to global surpluses of by-products. FT can produce these needed marginal, low-sulfur middle-distillate fuels more efficiently, with less environmental impact, and from abundant US domestic resources. Cobalt FT catalyst is more efficient, and less expensive overall, than iron FT catalyst. Mechanisms of cobalt FT catalyst functioning, and poisoning, have been elucidated. Each of these primary findings is amplified by several secondary findings, and these are presented, and verified in detail. The most effective step the United States can take to begin building toward improved long-term national energy security, and to reduce dependence, over time, on imported crude oil from unfriendly and increasingly unstable areas of the world, is to begin producing additional, or marginal amounts of, middle-distillate-type fuels, such as ultralow sulfur diesel (ULSD) and jet fuel (not gasoline) from US domestic resources other than petroleum. FT synthesis of these middle distillate fuels offers the advantage of being able to use abundant and affordable US coal and biomass as the primary feedstocks. Use of the cobalt FT catalyst system has been shown conclusively to be more effective and less expensive than the use of iron FT catalyst with syngas derived from coal, or from coal and biomass combined. This finding is demonstrated in detail for the initial case of a relatively small FT plant of about 2000 barrels per day based upon coal and biomass. The primary feature of such a plant, in the current situation in which no commercial FT plants are operating in the US, is that it requires a relatively modest capital investment, meaning that such a plant could actually be built, operated, and replicated in the near term. This is in contrast to the several-billion dollar investment, and accompanying risk, that would be required for a plant of more than an order of magnitude greater capacity, which has been referred to in the technical literature on fuel production as the capacity required to be considered "commercial-scale." The effects of more than ten different potential poisons for cobalt FT catalyst have been studied extensively and in detail using laboratory continuous-stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) and bottled laboratory syngas "spiked" with precisely controlled amounts of the poisons, typically at the levels of 10s or 100s of parts per billion. This data set has been generated and interpreted by world-renowned experts on FT catalysis at the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research (UK-CAER), and has enabled unprecedented insight regarding the many molecular-scale mechanisms that can play a role in the "poisoning" of cobalt FT catalyst.

  7. Edge-terminated molybdenum disulfide with a 9.4-Å interlayer spacing for electrochemical hydrogen production

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Min -Rui; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Sun, Yugang

    2015-07-03

    In this study, layered molybdenum disulfide has demonstrated great promise as a low-cost alternative to platinum-based catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen production from water. Research effort on this material has focused mainly on synthesizing highly nanostructured molybdenum disulfide that allows the exposure of a large fraction of active edge sites. Here we report a promising microwave-assisted strategy for the synthesis of narrow molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with edge-terminated structure and a significantly expanded interlayer spacing, which exhibit striking kinetic metrics with onset potential of -103 mV, Tafel slope of 49 mV per decade and exchange current density of 9.62 × 10-3 mAmore » cm-2, performing among the best of current molybdenum disulfide catalysts. Besides benefits from the edge-terminated structure, the expanded interlayer distance with modified electronic structure is also responsible for the observed catalytic improvement, which suggests a potential way to design newly advanced molybdenum disulfide catalysts through modulating the interlayer distance.« less

  8. Edge-terminated molybdenum disulfide with a 9.4-Å interlayer spacing for electrochemical hydrogen production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Min -Rui; Chan, Maria K. Y.; Sun, Yugang

    2015-07-03

    In this study, layered molybdenum disulfide has demonstrated great promise as a low-cost alternative to platinum-based catalysts for electrochemical hydrogen production from water. Research effort on this material has focused mainly on synthesizing highly nanostructured molybdenum disulfide that allows the exposure of a large fraction of active edge sites. Here we report a promising microwave-assisted strategy for the synthesis of narrow molybdenum disulfide nanosheets with edge-terminated structure and a significantly expanded interlayer spacing, which exhibit striking kinetic metrics with onset potential of -103 mV, Tafel slope of 49 mV per decade and exchange current density of 9.62 × 10-3 mA cm-2, performing among the best of current molybdenum disulfide catalysts. Besides benefits from the edge-terminated structure, the expanded interlayer distance with modified electronic structure is also responsible for the observed catalytic improvement, which suggests a potential way to design newly advanced molybdenum disulfide catalysts through modulating the interlayer distance.

  9. Ligand iron catalysts for selective hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Casey, Charles P.; Guan, Hairong

    2010-11-16

    Disclosed are iron ligand catalysts for selective hydrogenation of aldehydes, ketones and imines. A catalyst such as dicarbonyl iron hydride hydroxycyclopentadiene) complex uses the OH on the five member ring and hydrogen linked to the iron to facilitate hydrogenation reactions, particularly in the presence of hydrogen gas.

  10. Hydrogen Fuel Initiative | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Jump to: navigation, search Contents 1 Introduction 2 Cost 3 Hydrogen Production Strategy 4 Objectives 5 Manufacturing Challenges 6 References Introduction...

  11. NREL: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Research - Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    NREL scientist tests a photoelectrochemical water-splitting system used for renewable hydrogen production. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL NREL hydrogen and fuel cell research...

  12. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (via Enhanced Oil Recovery) from a Hydrogen Production Facility in an Oil Refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart Mehlman

    2010-06-16

    The project proposed a commercial demonstration of advanced technologies that would capture and sequester CO2 emissions from an existing hydrogen production facility in an oil refinery into underground formations in combination with Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). The project is led by Praxair, Inc., with other project participants: BP Products North America Inc., Denbury Onshore, LLC (Denbury), and Gulf Coast Carbon Center (GCCC) at the Bureau of Economic Geology of The University of Texas at Austin. The project is located at the BP Refinery at Texas City, Texas. Praxair owns and operates a large hydrogen production facility within the refinery. As part of the project, Praxair would construct a CO2 capture and compression facility. The project aimed at demonstrating a novel vacuum pressure swing adsorption (VPSA) based technology to remove CO2 from the Steam Methane Reformers (SMR) process gas. The captured CO2 would be purified using refrigerated partial condensation separation (i.e., cold box). Denbury would purchase the CO2 from the project and inject the CO2 as part of its independent commercial EOR projects. The Gulf Coast Carbon Center at the Bureau of Economic Geology, a unit of University of Texas at Austin, would manage the research monitoring, verification and accounting (MVA) project for the sequestered CO2, in conjunction with Denbury. The sequestration and associated MVA activities would be carried out in the Hastings field at Brazoria County, TX. The project would exceed DOE’s target of capturing one million tons of CO2 per year (MTPY) by 2015. Phase 1 of the project (Project Definition) is being completed. The key objective of Phase 1 is to define the project in sufficient detail to enable an economic decision with regard to proceeding with Phase 2. This topical report summarizes the administrative, programmatic and technical accomplishments completed in Phase 1 of the project. It describes the work relative to project technical and design activities (associated with CO2 capture technologies and geologic sequestration MVA), and Environmental Information Volume. Specific accomplishments of this Phase include: 1. Finalization of the Project Management Plan 2. Development of engineering designs in sufficient detail for defining project performance and costs 3. Preparation of Environmental Information Volume 4. Completion of Hazard Identification Studies 5. Completion of control cost estimates and preparation of business plan During the Phase 1 detailed cost estimate, project costs increased substantially from the previous estimate. Furthermore, the detailed risk assessment identified integration risks associated with potentially impacting the steam methane reformer operation. While the Phase 1 work identified ways to mitigate these integration risks satisfactorily from an operational perspective, the associated costs and potential schedule impacts contributed to the decision not to proceed to Phase 2. We have concluded that the project costs and integration risks at Texas City are not commensurate with the potential benefits of the project at this time.

  13. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). Its made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  14. Hydrogen Data Book from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Hydrogen Data Book contains a wide range of factual information on hydrogen and fuel cells (e.g., hydrogen properties, hydrogen production and delivery data, and information on fuel cells and fuel cell vehicles), and it also provides other data that might be useful in analyses of hydrogen infrastructure in the United States (e.g., demographic data and data on energy supply and/or infrastructure). ItÆs made available from the Hydrogen Analysis Resource Center along with a wealth of related information. The related information includes guidelines for DOE Hydrogen Program Analysis, various calculator tools, a hydrogen glossary, related websites, and analysis tools relevant to hydrogen and fuel cells. [From http://hydrogen.pnl.gov/cocoon/morf/hydrogen

  15. Mechanistic details for cobalt catalyzed photochemical hydrogen production in aqueous solution: Efficiencies of the photochemical and non-photochemical steps

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shan, Bing; Baine, Teera; Ma, Xuan Anh N.; Zhao, Xuan; Schmehl, Russell H.

    2013-04-17

    The use of sunlight to drive chemical reactions that lead to the reduction of water to produce hydrogen is a potential avenue of solar energy utilization. There are many individual steps that take place in this process. This paper reports the investigation of a particular system that involves light absorbing molecules, electron donating agents and a catalyst for water reduction to hydrogen. We evaluated the efficiency of the light induced formation of a strong electron donor, the use of this donor to reduce the catalyst and finally the efficiency of the catalyst to produce hydrogen from water. From this, themore » sources of loss of efficiency could be clearly identified and used in the design of better systems to produce hydrogen from water.« less

  16. NREL Photoelectrode Research Advances Hydrogen Production Efforts (Fact Sheet), Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Scientists have created a high-performing photo- electrode that boosts the ability of solar water-splitting to produce hydrogen. Scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have taken an innovative approach to solving a drawback in the photo- electrochemical (PEC) process, which uses solar energy to split water into hydrogen and oxygen. The standard approach uses precious metals such as platinum, ruthenium, and iridium as catalysts attached to a semiconductor. The downside of

  17. High capacity hydrogen storage nanocomposite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zidan, Ragaiy; Wellons, Matthew S

    2015-02-03

    A novel hydrogen absorption material is provided comprising a mixture of a lithium hydride with a fullerene. The subsequent reaction product provides for a hydrogen storage material which reversibly stores and releases hydrogen at temperatures of about 270.degree. C.

  18. Costs of Storing and Transporting Hydrogen

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An analysis was performed to estimate the costs associated with storing and transporting hydrogen. These costs can be added to a hydrogen production cost to determine the total delivered cost of hydrogen.

  19. Optimized Hydrogen and Electricity Generation from Wind

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Several optimizations can be employed to create hydrogen and electricity from a wind energy source. The key element in hydrogen production from an electrical source is an electrolyzer to convert water and electricity into hydrogen and oxygen.

  20. Process for producing organic products containing silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon by the direct reaction between elemental silicon and organic amines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pugar, Eloise A.; Morgan, Peter E. D.

    1990-04-03

    A process is disclosed for producing, at a low temperature, a high purity organic reaction product consisting essentially of silicon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and carbon. The process comprises reacting together a particulate elemental high purity silicon with a high purity reactive amine reactant in a liquid state at a temperature of from about 0.degree. C. up to about 300.degree. C. A high purity silicon carbide/silicon nitride ceramic product can be formed from this intermediate product, if desired, by heating the intermediate product at a temperature of from about 1200.degree.-1700.degree. C. for a period from about 15 minutes up to about 2 hours or the organic reaction product may be employed in other chemical uses.

  1. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Basics to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Hydrogen Basics on AddThis.com... More in this section... Hydrogen Basics Production

  2. Engineering Ralstonia eutropha for Production of Isobutanol (IBT) Motor Fuel from Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Project Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinskey, Anthony J.; Worden, Robert Mark; Brigham, Christopher; Lu, Jingnan; Quimby, John Westlake; Gai, Claudia; Speth, Daan; Elliott, Sean; Fei, John Qiang; Bernardi, Amanda; Li, Sophia; Grunwald, Stephan; Grousseau, Estelle; Maiti, Soumen; Liu, Chole

    2013-12-16

    This research project is a collaboration between the Sinskey laboratory at MIT and the Worden laboratory at Michigan State University. The goal of the project is to produce Isobutanol (IBT), a branched-chain alcohol that can serve as a drop-in transportation fuel, through the engineered microbial biosynthesis of Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen using a novel bioreactor. This final technical report presents the findings of both the biological engineering work at MIT that extended the native branched-chain amino acid pathway of the wild type Ralstonia eutropha H16 to perform this biosynthesis, as well as the unique design, modeling, and construction of a bioreactor for incompatible gasses at Michigan State that enabled the operational testing of the complete system. This 105 page technical report summarizing the three years of research includes 72 figures and 11 tables of findings. Ralstonia eutropha (also known as Cupriavidus necator) is a Gram-negative, facultatively chemolithoautotrophic bacteria. It has been the principle organism used for the study of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) polymer biosynthesis. The wild-type Ralstonia eutropha H16 produces PHB as an intracellular carbon storage material while under nutrient stress in the presence of excess carbon. Under this stress, it can accumulate approximately 80 % of its cell dry weight (CDW) as this intracellular polymer. With the restoration of the required nutrients, the cells are then able to catabolize this polymer. If extracted from the cell, this PHB polymer can be processed into biodegradable and biocompatible plastics, however for this research, it is the efficient metabolic pathway channeling the captured carbon that is of interest. R. eutropha is further unique in that it contains two carbon-fixation Calvin–Benson–Bassham cycle operons, two oxygen-tolerant hydrogenases, and several formate dehydrogenases. It has also been much studied for its ability in the presence of oxygen, to fix carbon dioxide into complex cellular molecules using the energy from hydrogen. In this research project, engineered strains of R. eutropha redirected the excess carbon from PHB storage into the production of isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol (branched-chain higher alcohols). These branched-chain higher alcohols can be used directly as substitutes for fossil-based fuels and are seen as alternative biofuels to ethanol and biodiesel. Importantly, these alcohols have approximately 98 % of the energy content of gasoline, 17 % higher than the current gasoline additive ethanol, without impacting corn market production for feed or food. Unlike ethanol, these branched-chain alcohols have low vapor pressure, hygroscopicity, and water solubility, which make them readily compatible with the existing pipelines, gasoline pumps, and engines in our transportation infrastructure. While the use of alternative energies from solar, wind, geothermal, and hydroelectric has spread for stationary power applications, these energy sources cannot be effectively or efficiently employed in current or future transportation systems. With the ongoing concerns of fossil fuel availability and price stability over the long term, alternative biofuels like branched-chain higher alcohols hold promise as a suitable transportation fuel in the future. We showed in our research that various mutant strains of R. eutropha with isobutyraldehyde dehydrogenase activity, in combination with the overexpression of plasmid-borne, native branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis pathway genes and the overexpression of heterologous ketoisovalerate decarboxylase gene, would produce isobutanol and 3-methyl-1-butanol when initiated during nitrogen or phosphorus limitation. Early on, we isolated one mutant R. eutropha strain which produced over 180 mg/L branched-chain alcohols in flask culture while being more tolerant of isobutanol toxicity. After the targeted elimination of genes encoding several potential carbon sinks (ilvE, bkdAB, and aceE), the production titer of the improved to 270 mg/L isobutanol and 40 mg/L 3-methyl-1-butanol. Semicontinuous flask cultivation supplied the cells with sufficient nutrients while minimizing the toxicity caused by isobutanol. Under this cultivation, the R. eutropha mutant grew and produced more than 14 g/L branched-chain alcohols over the duration of 50 days. These results demonstrate that R. eutropha carbon flux can be redirected from PHB to branched-chain alcohols and that engineered R. eutropha can be cultivated over prolonged periods of time for product biosynthesis. While this bioengineering work was being done at the Sinskey laboratory at MIT, the researchers at the Worden laboratory at Michigan State were working on the design and construction of the required specialty bioreactor for incompatible gasses (BIG) that would allow the safe feeding of microbes on Carbon Dioxide, Hydrogen, and Oxygen without explosive results. The early design and assembly work in year 1 incorporated a novel microbubble generator to maximize the bioavailability of gasses within the system comprised of small scale hollow fiber reactors. The early success of the microbubble generator eliminated the need to investigate potentially toxic surfactants within the system. For operational control, the system design incorporated a Opto22-based control network. The researchers also selected the specific hollow fiber material suitable for the bioreactor application. A variety of commercially available hollow fiber membranes were compared with regard to their pore sizes, cell affinity, and potential interference to cell viability assays. The selected membrane with its spongy layer was then tested for diffusivity of O2 and CO2. The instrumented system was then fully assembled for experimentally measuring the heterotrophic growth rate of immobilized R. eutropha cells. The requisite procedures for inoculation, measurement, and cleaning were established enabling the system performance to be validated under controlled laboratory conditions. In year 2, the researchers completed the Opto22 based cross-platform control network, and the system’s communications across the Sartorius fermentation system and Bruker gas chromatograph was established via open platform communications (OPC) protocol. Using the revised system, measurements were taken of the R.eutropha cell growth rate and substrate mass transfer rate in the hollow fiber membrane. Several IBT recovery strategies were explored and resin adsorption was determined to be optimal solution for lab scale operations. The adsorption capacity of the resin column was then measured and IBT desorption using methanol has been demonstrated. With the growing body of experimental data in hand, mathematical models were constructed to demonstrate and map the cellular kinetics, mass transfer of heterotrophic and autotrophic substrates in the hollow fiber, and the adsorption process in the resin column. A structured kinetic model was constructed to describe the competition between cell mass generation and IBT production. The reactor was then scaled up from single fiber to a membrane area of 180 cm2 and then further to 1 ft2. In Year 3 of the research, the IBT mass transfer across the membrane was characterized within the system with experiments to empirically measure the IBT diffusion coefficient in the BIG spongy layer. Using the refined mathematical models, the researchers are now able to explain the experimental observations and predict bioreactor performance under a wide range of experimental conditions. The Big system is able to demonstrate continuous controlled operations with the integrated IBT recovery system. Both heterotrophic and autotrophic production have been shown during continuous operation with heterotrophic and autotrophic stages. Performance of BIG system has been measured during continuous run with alternating heterotrophic growth on fructose and autotrophic product formation on H2, CO2, and O2. Volumetric productivities of IBT at 325 mg/(L day) and of 3M1B at 50 mg/(L day) were achieved, which were comparable to that achieved under heterotrophic conditions. Using the mathematical model, researchers are able to predict system performance for scaled-up BIG system. The apparent diffusion coefficient of IBT in the spongy layer of XM-50 hollow fiber membranes has been measured at various lumen liquid flow rates. The experiment is simulated in COMSOL to validate the results. The constructed COMSOL model is able to simulate BIG system performance in both batch and continuous mode. Mathematical simulations of the system performance have been run to identify the most crucial operational conditions, identifying the rate-limiting factors in autotrophic production of IBT, and quantitating the rate of IBT catabolism. Investigations of the productivity of the production system have suggested and the modeling of the system has revealed a particular sensitivity to the catabolism of the produced IBT by the engineered R. eutropha. Experiments have been designed and executed to quantify the IBT catabolism of R. eutropha, which open up possibilities for further system improvements through future, targeted bioengineering of the strain. Finally, the researchers at Michigan State performed an economic analysis of the system, based on the collective results, and their findings are presented in full within the report.

  3. Related Links - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Links Hanford Advisory Board Convening Report SSAB Guidance Memorandum of Understanding Membership Nomination and Appointment Process Operating Ground Rules Calendars Advice and Responses Full Board Meeting Information Committee Meeting Information Outgoing Board Correspondence Key Board Products and Special Reports HAB Annual Report HAB and Committee Lists Points of Contact Related Links Related Links Email Email Page | Print Print Page |Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size

  4. Fuel Cells Related Links | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Cells » Fuel Cells Related Links Fuel Cells Related Links The following resources provide details about U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)-funded fuel cell activities, research plans and roadmaps, partnerships, and additional related links. DOE-Funded Fuel Cell Activities Each year, hydrogen and fuel cell projects funded by DOE's Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program are reviewed for their merit during an Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting. View posters and presentations from the

  5. Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (2009) Techno-Economic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production (2009) ...

  6. Microbial Electrolysis Cells (MECs) for High Yield Hydrogen ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Microbial Electrochemical Technology (MxCs): Challenges and Opportunities 2013 Biological Hydrogen Production Workshop Summary Report Hydrogen and Biogas Production using Microbial ...

  7. Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Technoeconomic Boundary Analysis of Biological Pathways to Hydrogen Production Report documenting the ...

  8. Cool Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cool Links Cool Links Can't get enough science? Click on these links to learn more about science and innovations at the Lab and beyond! More science and learning activities Los Alamos National Laboratory links Los Alamos National Laboratory Homepage A list of Los Alamos National Laboratory publications Los Alamos National Laboratory's periodic table website Los Alamos National Laboratory History LANL Community Programs Office STEM education programs What kind of science are we doing at Los

  9. Transport of thermal neutrons in different forms of liquid hydrogen and the production of intense beams of cold neutrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swaminathan, K.; Tewari, S.P.

    1982-10-01

    From their studies the authors find that the thermal neutron inelastic scattering kernel incorporating the chemical binding energy in liquid hydrogen is able to successfully explain various neutron transport studies such as pulsed neutron and steady-state neutron spectra. For an infinite-sized assembly, D/sub 2/ at 4 K yields a very intense flux of cold and ultracold neutrons. For the practicable finite assembly corresponding to B/sup 2/ = 0.0158 cm/sup -2/, it is found that liquid hydrogen at 11 K gives the most intense beam of cold neutrons.

  10. Macro-System Model: A Federated Object Model for Cross-Cutting Analysis of Hydrogen Production, Delivery, Consumption and Associated Emissions; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Goldsby, M. E.; Sa, T. J.

    2010-12-01

    It is commonly accepted that the introduction of hydrogen as an energy carrier for light-duty vehicles involves concomitant technological development of infrastructure elements, such as production, delivery, and consumption, all associated with certain emission levels. To analyze these at a system level, the suite of corresponding models developed by the United States Department of Energy and involving several national laboratories is combined in one macro-system model (MSM). The macro-system model is being developed as a cross-cutting analysis tool that combines a set of hydrogen technology analysis models. Within the MSM, a federated simulation framework is used for consistent data transfer between the component models. The framework is built to suit cross-model as well as cross-platform data exchange and involves features of 'over-the-net' computation.

  11. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  12. Theoretical Studies in Heterogenous Catalysis: Towards a Rational Design of Novel Catalysts for Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrogen Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez,J.A.; Liu, P.

    2008-10-01

    Traditionally, knowledge in heterogeneous catalysis has come through empirical research. Nowadays, there is a clear interest to change this since millions of dollars in products are generated every year in the chemical and petrochemical industries through catalytic processes. To obtain a fundamental knowledge of the factors that determine the activity of heterogeneous catalysts is a challenge for modern science since many of these systems are very complex in nature. In principle, when a molecule adsorbs on the surface of a heterogeneous catalyst, it can interact with a large number of bonding sites. It is known that the chemical properties of these bonding sites depend strongly on the chemical environment around them. Thus, there can be big variations in chemical reactivity when going from one region to another in the surface of a heterogeneous catalyst. A main objective is to understand how the structural and electronic properties of a surface affect the energetics for adsorption processes and the paths for dissociation and chemical reactions. In recent years, advances in instrumentation and experimental procedures have allowed a large series of detailed works on the surface chemistry of heterogeneous catalysts. In many cases, these experimental studies have shown interesting and unique phenomena. Theory is needed to unravel the basic interactions behind these phenomena and to provide a general framework for the interpretation of experimental results. Ideally, theoretical calculations based on density-functional theory have evolved to the point that one should be able to predict patterns in the activity of catalytic surfaces. As in the case of experimental techniques, no single theoretical approach is able to address the large diversity of phenomena occurring on a catalyst. Catalytic surfaces are usually modeled using either a finite cluster or a two-dimensionally periodic slab. Many articles have been published comparing the results of these two approaches. An important advantage of the cluster approach is that one can use the whole spectrum of quantum-chemical methods developed for small molecules with relatively minor modifications. On the other hand, the numerical effort involved in cluster calculations increases rather quickly with the size of the cluster. This problem does not exist when using slab models. Due to the explicit incorporation of the periodicity of the crystal lattice through the Bloch theorem, the actual dimension of a slab calculation depends only on the size of the unit cell. In practical terms, the slab approach is mainly useful for investigating the behavior of adsorbates at medium and high coverages. Very large unit cells are required at the limit of low to zero coverage, or when examining the properties and chemical behavior of isolated defect sites in a surface. In these cases, from a computational viewpoint, the cluster approach can be much more cost effective than the slab approach. Slab and cluster calculations can be performed at different levels of sophistication: semi-empirical methods, simple ab initio Hartree-Fock, ab initio post-Hartree-Fock (CI, MP2, etc), and density functional theory. Density-functional (DF) based calculations frequently give adsorption geometries with a high degree of accuracy and predict reliable trends for the energetics of adsorption reactions. This article provides a review of recent theoretical studies that deal with the behavior of novel catalysts used for hydrodesulfurization (HDS) reactions and the production of hydrogen (i.e. catalytic processes employed in the generation of clean fuels). These studies involve a strong coupling of theory and experiment. A significant fraction of the review is focused on the importance of size-effects and correlations between the electronic and chemical properties of catalytic materials. The article begins with a discussion of results for the desulfurization of thiophene on metal carbides and phosphides, systems which have the potential to become the next generation of industrial HDS catalysts. Then, systematic studies con

  13. Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team | Department of Energy Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), Hydrogen Separation and Purification Working Group (PURIWG) & Hydrogen Production Technical Team 2007 Annual and Merit Review Reports compiled for the

  14. Hydrogenation of carbonaceous materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Friedman, Joseph (Encino, CA); Oberg, Carl L. (Canoga Park, CA); Russell, Larry H. (Agoura, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A method for reacting pulverized coal with heated hydrogen-rich gas to form hydrocarbon liquids suitable for conversion to fuels wherein the reaction involves injection of pulverized coal entrained in a minimum amount of gas and mixing the entrained coal at ambient temperature with a separate source of heated hydrogen. In accordance with the present invention, the hydrogen is heated by reacting a small portion of the hydrogen-rich gas with oxygen in a first reaction zone to form a gas stream having a temperature in excess of about 1000.degree. C. and comprising a major amount of hydrogen and a minor amount of water vapor. The coal particles then are reacted with the hydrogen in a second reaction zone downstream of the first reaction zone. The products of reaction may be rapidly quenched as they exit the second reaction zone and are subsequently collected.

  15. Hydrogen Filling Station

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen future. Project partners also conducted a workshop on hydrogen safety and permitting. This provided an opportunity for the various permitting agencies and end users to gather to share experiences and knowledge. As a result of this workshop, the permitting process for the hydrogen filling station on the Las Vegas Valley Water District’s land was done more efficiently and those who would be responsible for the operation were better educated on the safety and reliability of hydrogen production and storage. The lessons learned in permitting the filling station and conducting this workshop provided a basis for future hydrogen projects in the region. Continuing efforts to increase the working pressure of electrolysis and efficiency have been pursued. Research was also performed on improving the cost, efficiency and durability of Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) hydrogen technology. Research elements focused upon PEM membranes, electrodes/catalysts, membrane-electrode assemblies, seals, bipolar plates, utilization of renewable power, reliability issues, scale, and advanced conversion topics. Additionally, direct solar-to-hydrogen conversion research to demonstrate stable and efficient photoelectrochemistry (PEC) hydrogen production systems based on a number of optional concepts was performed. Candidate PEC concepts included technical obstacles such as inefficient photocatalysis, inadequate photocurrent due to non-optimal material band gap energies, rapid electron-hole recombination, reduced hole mobility and diminished operational lifetimes of surface materials exposed to electrolytes. Project Objective 1: Design, build, operate hydrogen filling station Project Objective 2: Perform research and development for utilizing solar technologies on the hydrogen filling station and convert two utility vehicles for use by the station operators Project Objective 3: Increase capacity of hydrogen filling station; add additional vehicle; conduct safety workshop; develop a roadmap for hydrogen development; accelerate the development of photovoltaic components Project Objective 4: Perform research on the Proton Exchange membrane

  16. BizLink Technology | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    BizLink Technology Jump to: navigation, search Name: BizLink Technology Place: Fremont, California Zip: 94538 Sector: Solar Product: California-based manufacturer of solar modules,...

  17. External Links

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    External Links External Links This page contains links to web sites and pages having to do with the Federal Energy Technology Network, Department of Energy, and Energy related Internet resources. The information is divided into the following categories: Table of Contents Department of Energy Support Offices Within the Department of Energy Office of Small & Disadvantaged Business Utilization (OSDBU) General Information Sources about Government Non-Government Energy and Environmental Related

  18. Additive for lubricants and hydrocarbon fuels comprising reaction products of olefins, sulfur, hydrogen sulfide and nitrogen containing polymeric compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horodysky, A.G.; Law, D.A.

    1987-04-28

    A process is described for making an additive for lubricant compositions comprising co-reacting: a monoolefin selected from the group consisting of butenes, propenes, pentenes, and mixtures of two or more thereof; sulfur; hydrogen sulfide; polymeric nitrogen-containing compound selected from the group consisting of succinimides, amides, imides, polyoxyazoline polymers and alkyl imidazoline compounds; and a catalytic amount of an amine selected from the group consisting of polyethylene amines and hydroxyl-containing amines; at a temperature between about 130/sup 0/C and about 200/sup 0/C and a pressure of about 0 psig to about 900 psig, the reactants being reacted in a molar ratio of olefin, polymeric nitrogen-containing compound, and hydrogen sulfide to sulfur of 2 to 0.5, 0.001 to 0.4, and 0.5 to 0.7, respectively, and the concentration of amine being between 0.5 and 10 percent of the total weight of reactants.

  19. More accurate predictions for harvesting hydrogen with iridium oxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    nanoparticles | Argonne National Laboratory Contact Us For more information, contact Jared Sagoff at (630) 252-5549 or media@anl.gov. Connect Find an Argonne expert by subject. Follow Argonne on Twitter, Facebook, Google+ and LinkedIn. For inquiries on commercializing Argonne technology or partnering with Argonne to solve your R&D or production challenges, contact partners@anl.gov. More accurate predictions for harvesting hydrogen with iridium oxide nanoparticles By Katie Elyce Jones *

  20. Hydrogen Fuel Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicles & Fuels » Fuels » Hydrogen Fuel Basics Hydrogen Fuel Basics August 19, 2013 - 5:45pm Addthis Hydrogen (H2) is a potentially emissions-free alternative fuel that can be produced from domestic resources. Although not widely used today as a transportation fuel, government and industry research and development are working toward the goal of clean, economical, and safe hydrogen production and hydrogen-powered fuel cell vehicles. Hydrogen is the simplest and most abundant element in the