Sample records for linear measured flux

  1. Beta ray flux measuring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Impink, Jr., Albert J. (Murrysville, PA); Goldstein, Norman P. (Murrysville, PA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A beta ray flux measuring device in an activated member in-core instrumentation system for pressurized water reactors. The device includes collector rings positioned about an axis in the reactor's pressure boundary. Activated members such as hydroballs are positioned within respective ones of the collector rings. A response characteristic such as the current from or charge on a collector ring indicates the beta ray flux from the corresponding hydroball and is therefore a measure of the relative nuclear power level in the region of the reactor core corresponding to the specific exposed hydroball within the collector ring.

  2. ARM - Measurement - Soil moisture flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  3. ARM - Measurement - Soil heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  4. Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System (ECOR) Handbook

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, DR

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The eddy correlation (ECOR) flux measurement system provides in situ, half-hour measurements of the surface turbulent fluxes of momentum, sensible heat, latent heat, and carbon dioxide (CO2) (and methane at one Southern Great Plains extended facility (SGP EF) and the North Slope of Alaska Central Facility (NSA CF). The fluxes are obtained with the eddy covariance technique, which involves correlation of the vertical wind component with the horizontal wind component, the air temperature, the water vapor density, and the CO2 concentration.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Sensible heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  6. ARM - Measurement - Latent heat flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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  7. Dual neutron flux/temperature measurement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalczo, J.T.; Simpson, M.L.; McElhaney, S.A.

    1994-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Simultaneous measurement of neutron flux and temperature is provided by a single sensor which includes a phosphor mixture having two principal constituents. The first constituent is a neutron sensitive 6LiF and the second is a rare-earth activated Y203 thermophosphor. The mixture is coated on the end of a fiber optic, while the opposite end of the fiber optic is coupled to a light detector. The detected light scintillations are quantified for neutron flux determination, and the decay is measured for temperature determination. 3 figs.

  8. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, Fulvio (Rome, IT); Cohen, Samuel A. (Hopewell, NJ); Bennett, Timothy (Princeton, NJ); Timberlake, John R. (Allentown, NJ)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Invention comprises an instrument in which momentum flux onto a biasable target plate is transferred via a suspended quartz tube onto a sensitive force transducer--a capacitance-type pressure gauge. The transducer is protected from thermal damage, arcing and sputtering, and materials used in the target and pendulum are electrically insulating, rigid even at elevated temperatures, and have low thermal conductivity. The instrument enables measurement of small forces (10.sup.-5 to 10.sup.3 N) accompanied by high heat fluxes which are transmitted by energetic particles with 10's of eV of kinetic energy in a intense magnetic field and pulsed plasma environment.

  9. Suggestions for the measurement and derivation of fluxes and flux divergences from a satellite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Man-Li C. Wu (NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States))

    1990-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical studies shown here indicate that the best bands to measure and derive the total outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), surface downward flux (SDF), and cooling rates (CRs) using linear regression are (1) the band between 800 and 1,200 cm{sup {minus}1} for OLR, (2) the band between 500 and 660 cm{sup {minus}1} or 660 and 800 cm{sup {minus}1} for SDF, and (3) the band between 660 and 800 cm{sup {minus}1} for CRs. These results are obtained from scatter plots of total fluxes and cooling rates associated with the various bands. The advanced very high resolution radiometer OLR is damped compared with the Nimbus 7 Earth radiation budget (ERB) OLR, which is derived from the broadband, narrow field of view ERB instrument, owing to its use of only one narrow band (centered around the 11-{mu}m window region) measurement.

  10. DIRECT MEASUREMENT OF HEAT FLUX FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Robert Kurzeja, R; Malcolm Pendergast, M; Timothy Brown, T; Saleem Salaymeh, S

    2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory experiments show a linear relationship between the total heat flux from a water surface to air and the standard deviation of the surface temperature field, {sigma}, derived from thermal images of the water surface over a range of heat fluxes from 400 to 1800 Wm{sup -2}. Thermal imagery and surface data were collected at two power plant cooling lakes to determine if the laboratory relationship between heat flux and {sigma} exists in large heated bodies of water. The heat fluxes computed from the cooling lake data range from 200 to 1400 Wm{sup -2}. The linear relationship between {sigma} and Q is evident in the cooling lake data, but it is necessary to apply band pass filtering to the thermal imagery to remove camera artifacts and non-convective thermal gradients. The correlation between {sigma} and Q is improved if a correction to the measured {sigma} is made that accounts for wind speed effects on the thermal convection. Based on more than a thousand cooling lake images, the correlation coefficients between {sigma} and Q ranged from about 0.8 to 0.9.

  11. Airborne flux measurements of Biogenic Isoprene over California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misztal, P.; Karl, Thomas G.; Weber, Robin; Jonsson, H. H.; Guenther, Alex B.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound (BVOC) fluxes were measured onboard the CIRPAS Twin Otter aircraft as part of the California Airborne BVOC Emission Research in Natural Ecosystem Transects (CABERNET) campaign during June 2011. The airborne virtual disjunct eddy covariance (AvDEC) approach used measurements from a PTR-MS and a wind radome probe to directly determine fluxes of isoprene, MVK+MAC, methanol, monoterpenes, and MBO over ~10,000-km of flight paths focusing on areas of California predicted to have the largest emissions of isoprene. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) approach was used to calculate fluxes over long transects of more than 15 km, most commonly between 50 and 150 km. The Continuous Wavelet Transformation (CWT) approach was used over the same transects to also calculate "instantaneous" fluxes with localization of both frequency and time independent of non-stationarities. Vertical flux divergence of isoprene is expected due to its relatively short lifetime and was measured directly using "racetrack" profiles at multiple altitudes. It was found to be linear and in the range 5% to 30% depending on the ratio of aircraft altitude to PBL height (z/zi). Fluxes were generally measured by flying consistently 1 at 400 m ±50 m (a.g.l.) altitude, and extrapolated to the surface according to the determined flux divergence. The wavelet-derived surface fluxes of isoprene averaged to 2 km spatial resolution showed good correspondence to Basal Emission Factor (BEF) landcover datasets used to drive biogenic VOC (BVOC) emission models. The surface flux of isoprene was close to zero over Central Valley crops and desert shrublands, but was very high (up to 15 mg m-2 h-1) above oak woodlands, with clear dependence of emissions on temperature and oak density. Isoprene concentrations of up to 8 ppb were observed at aircraft height on the hottest days and over the dominant source regions. While isoprene emissions from agricultural crop regions, shrublands, and coniferous forests were extremely low, high concentrations of methanol and monoterpenes were found above some of these regions. These observations demonstrate the ability to measure fluxes from specific sources by eddy covariance from an aircraft, and suggest the utility of measurements using fast response chemical sensors to constrain emission inventories and map out source distributions for a much broader array of trace gases than was observed in this study. This paper reports the first regional direct eddy covariance fluxes of isoprene. The emissions of VOCs measured from aircraft with 2 km spatial resolution can quantify the distribution of major sources providing the observations required for testing statewide emission inventories of these important trace gases. These measurements will be used in a future study to assess BVOC emission models and their driving variable datasets.

  12. Plasma momentum meter for momentum flux measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zonca, F.; Cohen, S.A.; Bennett, T.; Timberlake, J.R.

    1993-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for measuring momentum flux from an intense plasma stream, comprising: refractory target means oriented normal to the flow of said plasma stream for bombardment by said plasma stream where said bombardment by said plasma stream applies a pressure to said target means, pendulum means for communicating a translational displacement of said target to a force transducer where said translational displacement of said target is transferred to said force transducer by an elongated member coupled to said target, where said member is suspended by a pendulum configuration means and where said force transducer is responsive to said translational displacement of said member, and force transducer means for outputting a signal representing pressure data corresponding to said displacement.

  13. NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NIST Measurement Services: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration NIST Special Publication 250-65 Benjamin K Special Publication 250-65 NIST MEASUREMENT SERVICES: Heat-Flux Sensor Calibration Benjamin K. Tsai GAITHERSBURG, MD: 2004 #12;iii PREFACE The calibration and related measurement services of the National

  14. antineutrino flux measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Terrestrial Antineutrino Flux Measurements CERN Preprints Summary: Uranium and thorium are the main heat producing elements in the earth. Their quantities and...

  15. airborne flux measurements: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmospheresurface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to...

  16. Characterization of radial turbulent fluxes in the Santander linear plasma machine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mier, J. A., E-mail: mierja@unican.es; Anabitarte, E.; Sentíes, J. M. [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)] [Departamento de Física Aplicada, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Sánchez, R. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain)] [Departamento de Física, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, 28911 Leganés, Madrid (Spain); Newman, D. E. [Department of Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-5920 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Alaska, Fairbanks, Alaska 99775-5920 (United States); Castellanos, O. F. [Instituto de Hidráulica Ambiental, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain)] [Instituto de Hidráulica Ambiental, Universidad de Cantabria, 39005 Santander (Spain); Milligen, B. Ph. van [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Asociación EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)] [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, Asociación EURATOM-CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that the statistical and correlation properties of the local turbulent flux measured at different radial locations of the cold, weakly ionized plasmas inside the Santander Linear Plasma Machine [Castellanos et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 47, 2067 (2005)] are consistent with diffusive-like transport dynamics. This is in contrast to the dynamical behavior inferred from similar measurements taken in hotter, fully ionized tokamak and stellarator edge plasmas, in which long-term correlations and other features characteristic of complex, non-diffusive transport dynamics have been reported in the past. These results may shed some light on a recent controversy regarding the possible universality of the dynamics of turbulent transport in magnetized plasmas.

  17. AmeriFlux Measurement Network: Science Team Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, B E

    2012-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Research involves analysis and field direction of AmeriFlux operations, and the PI provides scientific leadership of the AmeriFlux network. Activities include the coordination and quality assurance of measurements across AmeriFlux network sites, synthesis of results across the network, organizing and supporting the annual Science Team Meeting, and communicating AmeriFlux results to the scientific community and other users. Objectives of measurement research include (i) coordination of flux and biometric measurement protocols (ii) timely data delivery to the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center (CDIAC); and (iii) assurance of data quality of flux and ecosystem measurements contributed by AmeriFlux sites. Objectives of integration and synthesis activities include (i) integration of site data into network-wide synthesis products; and (ii) participation in the analysis, modeling and interpretation of network data products. Communications objectives include (i) organizing an annual meeting of AmeriFlux investigators for reporting annual flux measurements and exchanging scientific information on ecosystem carbon budgets; (ii) developing focused topics for analysis and publication; and (iii) developing data reporting protocols in support of AmeriFlux network goals.

  18. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  19. Measurement of advective soil gas flux: Results of field and...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    at a high chamber-flushing rate, are likely to yield flux measurements closer to the true values. Citation: Amonette JE, JL Barr, RL Erikson, LM Dobeck, JL Barr, and JA...

  20. An LED pulser for measuring photomultiplier linearity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friend, M; Quinn, B

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light-emitting diode (LED) pulser for testing the low-rate response of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to scintillator-like pulses has been designed, developed, and implemented. This pulser is intended to simulate 80 ns full width at half maximum photon pulses over the dynamic range of the PMT, in order to precisely determine PMT linearity. This particular design has the advantage that, unlike many LED test rigs, it does not require the use of multiple calibrated LEDs, making it insensitive to LED gain drifts. Instead, a finite-difference measurement is made using two LEDs which need not be calibrated with respect to one another. These measurements give a better than 1% mapping of the response function, allowing for the testing and development of particularly linear PMT bases.

  1. Solar Model Parameters and Direct Measurements of Solar Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhijit Bandyopadhyay; Sandhya Choubey; Srubabati Goswami; S. T. Petcov

    2006-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We explore a novel possibility of determining the solar model parameters, which serve as input in the calculations of the solar neutrino fluxes, by exploiting the data from direct measurements of the fluxes. More specifically, we use the rather precise value of the $^8B$ neutrino flux, $\\phi_B$ obtained from the global analysis of the solar neutrino and KamLAND data, to derive constraints on each of the solar model parameters on which $\\phi_B$ depends. We also use more precise values of $^7Be$ and $pp$ fluxes as can be obtained from future prospective data and discuss whether such measurements can help in reducing the uncertainties of one or more input parameters of the Standard Solar Model.

  2. Uncertainty of calorimeter measurements at NREL's high flux solar furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, C.E.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainties of the calorimeter and concentration measurements at the High Flux Solar Furnace (HFSF) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are discussed. Two calorimeter types have been used to date. One is an array of seven commercially available circular foil calorimeters (gardon or heat flux gages) for primary concentrator peak flux (up to 250 W/cm{sup 2}). The second is a cold-water calorimeter designed and built by the University of Chicago to measure the average exit power of the reflective compound parabolic secondary concentrator used at the HFSF (over 3.3 kW across a 1.6cm{sup {minus}2} exit aperture, corresponding to a flux of about 2 kW/cm{sup 2}). This paper discussed the uncertainties of the calorimeter and pyrheliometer measurements and resulting concentration calculations. The measurement uncertainty analysis is performed according to the ASME/ANSI standard PTC 19.1 (1985). Random and bias errors for each portion of the measurement are analyzed. The results show that as either the power or the flux is reduced, the uncertainties increase. Another calorimeter is being designed for a new, refractive secondary which will use a refractive material to produce a higher average flux (5 kW/cm{sup 2}) than the reflective secondary. The new calorimeter will use a time derivative of the fluid temperature as a key measurement of the average power out of the secondary. A description of this calorimeter and test procedure is also presented, along with a pre-test estimate of major sources of uncertainty. 8 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snieder, Roel

    Extracting the Green's function from measurements of the energy flux Roel Sniedera) Center for Wave, Cambridge CB3 0EL, United Kingdom ivasconc@gmail.com Abstract: Existing methods for Green's function extraction give the Green's function from the correlation of field fluctuations recorded at those points

  4. Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mcdonough, William F.

    Estimating terrestrial uranium and thorium by antineutrino flux measurements Stephen T. Dye, and approved November 16, 2007 (received for review July 11, 2007) Uranium and thorium within the Earth produce of uranium and thorium concentrations in geological reservoirs relies largely on geochemi- cal model

  5. A Novel Detector for High Neutron Flux Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singo, T. D.; Wyngaardt, S. M. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Papka, P. [Department of Physics, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa); Nuclear Physics group, iThemba labs, P. O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Dobson, R. T. [Department of Mechanical and Mechatronic Engineering, University of Stellenbosch, Private bag X1, Matieland, Stellenbosch (South Africa)

    2010-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring alpha particles from a neutron induced break-up reaction with a mass spectrometer can be an excellent tool for detecting neutrons in a high neutron flux environment. Break-up reactions of {sup 6}Li and {sup 12}C can be used in the detection of slow and fast neutrons, respectively. A high neutron flux detection system that integrates the neutron energy sensitive material and helium mass spectrometer has been developed. The description of the detector configuration is given and it is soon to be tested at iThemba LABS, South Africa.

  6. Measuring the Magnetic Flux Density in the CMS Steel Yoke

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. I. Klyukhin; N. Amapane; A. Ball; B. Curé; A. Gaddi; H. Gerwig; A. Hervé; M. Mulders; R. Loveless

    2012-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a general purpose detector, designed to run at the highest luminosity at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Its distinctive features include a 4 T superconducting solenoid with 6-m-diameter by 12.5-m-length free bore, enclosed inside a 10000-ton return yoke made of construction steel. The return yoke consists of five dodecagonal three-layered barrel wheels and four end-cap disks at each end comprised of steel blocks up to 620 mm thick, which serve as the absorber plates of the muon detection system. Accurate characterization of the magnetic field everywhere in the CMS detector is required. To measure the field in and around the steel, a system of 22 flux-loops and 82 3-D Hall sensors is installed on the return yoke blocks. Fast discharges of the solenoid (190 s time-constant) made during the CMS magnet surface commissioning test at the solenoid central fields of 2.64, 3.16, 3.68 and 4.01 T were used to induce voltages in the flux-loops. The voltages are measured on-line and integrated off-line to obtain the magnetic flux in the steel yoke close to the muon chambers at full excitations of the solenoid. The 3-D Hall sensors installed on the steel-air interfaces give supplementary information on the components of magnetic field and permit to estimate the remanent field in steel to be added to the magnetic flux density obtained by the voltages integration. A TOSCA 3-D model of the CMS magnet is developed to describe the magnetic field everywhere outside the tracking volume measured with the field-mapping machine. The results of the measurements and calculations are presented, compared and discussed.

  7. Determining heat fluxes from temperature measurements made in massive walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Hedstrom, J.C.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique is described for determining heat fluxes at the surfaces of masonry walls or floors using temperature data measured at two points within the wall, usually near the surfaces. The process consists of solving the heat diffusion equation in one dimension using finite difference techniques given two measured temperatures as input. The method is fast and accurate and also allows for an in-situ measurement of wall thermal diffusivity if a third temperature is measured. The method is documented in sufficient detail so that it can be readily used by the reader. Examples are given for heat flow through walls. Annual results for two cases are presented. The method has also been used to determine heat flow into floors.

  8. The AmeriFlux Network of Long-Term CO{sub 2} Flux Measurement Stations: Methodology and Intercomparability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, D. Y.; Evans, R. S.

    2003-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A portable flux measurement system has been used within the AmeriFlux network of CO{sub 2} flux measurement stations to enhance the comparability of data collected across the network. No systematic biases were observed in a comparison between portable system and site H, LE, or CO{sub 2} flux values although there were biases observed between the portable system and site measurement of air temperature and PPFD. Analysis suggests that if values from two stations differ by greater than 26% for H, 35% for LE, and 32% for CO{sub 2} flux they are likely to be significant. Methods for improving the intercomparability of the network are also discussed.

  9. System having unmodulated flux locked loop for measuring magnetic fields

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Blue Springs, MO)

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system (10) for measuring magnetic fields, wherein the system (10) comprises an unmodulated or direct-feedback flux locked loop (12) connected by first and second unbalanced RF coaxial transmission lines (16a, 16b) to a superconducting quantum interference device (14). The FLL (12) operates for the most part in a room-temperature or non-cryogenic environment, while the SQUID (14) operates in a cryogenic environment, with the first and second lines (16a, 16b) extending between these two operating environments.

  10. Measurement of the Atmospheric $?_e$ flux in IceCube

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IceCube Collaboration; M. G. Aartsen; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; M. Ackermann; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; D. Altmann; K. Andeen; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; V. Baum; R. Bay; K. Beattie; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. Becker Tjus; K. -H. Becker; M. Bell; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; S. Bohaichuk; C. Bohm; D. Bose1; S. Boser; O. Botner; L. Brayeur; A. M. Brown; R. Bruijn; J. Brunner; S. Buitink; M. Carson; J. Casey; M. Casier; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; K. Clark; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; D. F. Cowen; A. H. Cruz Silva; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; S. De Ridder; F. Descamps; P. Desiati; G. de Vries-Uiterweerd; T. DeYoung; J. C. Diaz-Velez; J. Dreyer; J. P. Dumm; M. Dunkman; R. Eagan; B. Eberhardt; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; O. Engdegard; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; J. Feintzeig; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; S. Flis; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; K. Frantzen; T. Fuchs; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glusenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; G. Golup; J. A. Goodman; D. Gora; D. Grant; A. Gross; S. Grullon; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Haj Ismail; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Hanson; D. Heereman; P. Heimann; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; R. Hellauer; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; R. Hoffmann; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; W. Huelsnitz; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; E. Jacobi; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; O. Jlelati; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; J. Klas; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Kohne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Kopke; C. Kopper; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; M. Krasberg; G. Kroll; J. Kunnen; N. Kurahashi; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; R. Lauer; M. Lesiak-Bzdak; J. Lunemann; J. Madsen; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; F. McNally; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Meszaros; T. Meures; S. Miarecki; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; L. Mohrmann; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; R. Nahnhauer; U. Naumann; S. C. Nowicki; D. R. Nygren; A. Obertacke; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; S. Panknin; L. Paul; J. A. Pepper; C. Perez de los Heros; D. Pieloth; N. Pirk; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; G. T. Przybylski; L. Radel; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; M. Richman; B. Riedel; J. P. Rodrigues; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; S. M. Saba; T. Salameh; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; M. Scheel; F. Scheriau; T. Schmidt; M. Schmitz; S. Schoenen; S. Schoneberg; L. Schonherr; A. Schonwald; A. Schukraft; L. Schulte; O. Schulz; D. Seckel; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; C. Sheremata; M. W. E. Smith; M. Soiron; D. Soldin; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; A. Stasik; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; A. Stoss; E. A. Strahler; R. Strom; G. W. Sullivan; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; M. Usner; D. van der Drift; N. van Eijndhoven; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge1; M. Vraeghe; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; M. Walter; R. Wasserman; Ch. Weaver; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; T. R. Wood; K. Woschnagg; C. Xu; D. L. Xu; X. W. Xu; J. P. Yanez; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky; J. Ziemann; S. Zierke; A. Zilles; M. Zoll

    2013-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first measurement of the atmospheric electron neutrino flux in the energy range between approximately 80 GeV and 6 TeV, using data recorded during the first year of operation of IceCube's DeepCore low energy extension. Techniques to identify neutrinos interacting within the DeepCore volume and veto muons originating outside the detector are demonstrated. A sample of 1029 events is observed in 281 days of data, of which 496 $\\pm$ 66(stat.) $\\pm$ 88(syst.) are estimated to be cascade events, including both electron neutrino and neutral current events. The rest of the sample includes residual backgrounds due to atmospheric muons and charged current interactions of atmospheric muon neutrinos. The flux of the atmospheric electron neutrinos is consistent with models of atmospheric neutrinos in this energy range. This constitutes the first observation of electron neutrinos and neutral current interactions in a very large volume neutrino telescope optimized for the TeV energy range.

  11. Electronic Non-Contacting Linear Position Measuring System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-contacting linear position location system employs a special transmission line to encode and transmit magnetic signals to a receiver on the object whose position is to be measured. The invention is useful as a non-contact linear locator of moving objects, e.g., to determine the location of a magnetic-levitation train for the operation of the linear-synchronous motor drive system.

  12. Model Error Correction for Linear Methods in PET Neuroreceptor Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renaut, Rosemary

    Model Error Correction for Linear Methods in PET Neuroreceptor Measurements Hongbin Guo address: hguo1@asu.edu (Hongbin Guo) Preprint submitted to NeuroImage December 11, 2008 #12;reached. A new

  13. The flux measure of influence in engineering networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schwing, Kyle Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to characterize the influence of individual nodes in complex networks. The flux metric developed here achieves this goal by considering the difference between the weighted outdegree and ...

  14. FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE FLUX OF SOLAR NEUTRINOS FROM THE SUN AT THE SUDBURY NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Waltham, Chris

    FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE FLUX OF SOLAR NEUTRINOS FROM THE SUN AT THE SUDBURY NEUTRINO OBSERVATORY for approaching problems that I found to be more generally useful. Godwin Mayers, Chuck Alexander, Jim Cook and with me. v #12; ABSTRACT FIRST MEASUREMENT OF THE FLUX OF SOLAR NEUTRINOS FROM THE SUN AT THE SUDBURY

  15. Supplement Table 1. Mean environmental drivers at Brasil flux sites. Precipitation (Prec) from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), for site-specific tower measurement years and a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malhi, Yadvinder

    Supplement Table 1. Mean environmental drivers at Brasil flux sites. Precipitation (Prec) from #12;Supplement Table 2. Brasil flux sites instrumentation and measuring methods. *: non aspirated

  16. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, R.V.

    1993-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infrared sensing devices.

  17. Quantitative method for measuring heat flux emitted from a cryogenic object

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, Robert V. (Tijeras, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a quantitative method for measuring the total heat flux, and of deriving the total power dissipation, of a heat-fluxing object which includes the steps of placing an electrical noise-emitting heat-fluxing object in a liquid helium bath and measuring the superfluid transition temperature of the bath. The temperature of the liquid helium bath is thereafter reduced until some measurable parameter, such as the electrical noise, exhibited by the heat-fluxing object or a temperature-dependent resistive thin film in intimate contact with the heat-fluxing object, becomes greatly reduced. The temperature of the liquid helum bath is measured at this point. The difference between the superfluid transition temperature of the liquid helium bath surrounding the heat-fluxing object, and the temperature of the liquid helium bath when the electrical noise emitted by the heat-fluxing object becomes greatly reduced, is determined. The total heat flux from the heat-fluxing object is determined as a function of this difference between these temperatures. In certain applications, the technique can be used to optimize thermal design parameters of cryogenic electronics, for example, Josephson junction and infra-red sensing devices.

  18. Non-linear numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in small-scale flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. Khomenko; M. Collados; T. Felipe

    2008-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of non-linear, 2D, numerical simulations of magneto-acoustic wave propagation in the photosphere and chromosphere of small-scale flux tubes with internal structure. Waves with realistic periods of three to five minutes are studied, after applying horizontal and vertical oscillatory perturbations to the equilibrium model. Spurious reflections of shock waves from the upper boundary are minimized thanks to a special boundary condition. This has allowed us to increase the duration of the simulations and to make it long enough to perform a statistical analysis of oscillations. The simulations show that deep horizontal motions of the flux tube generate a slow (magnetic) mode and a surface mode. These modes are efficiently transformed into a slow (acoustic) mode in the vA propagates vertically along the field lines, forms shocks and remains always within the flux tube. It might deposit effectively the energy of the driver into the chromosphere. When the driver oscillates with a high frequency, above the cut-off, non-linear wave propagation occurs with the same dominant driver period at all heights. At low frequencies, below the cut-off, the dominant period of oscillations changes with height from that of the driver in the photosphere to its first harmonic (half period) in the chromosphere. Depending on the period and on the type of the driver, different shock patterns are observed.

  19. Enhancing the precision and accuracy within and among AmeriFlux site measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Bev

    2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report for AmeriFlux QA/QC at Oregon State University. The major objective of this project is to contribute to the AmeriFlux network by continuing to build consistency in AmeriFlux measurements by addressing objectives stated in the AmeriFlux strategic plan and self evaluation, the North American Carbon Program, and the US Carbon Cycle Science Program. The project directly contributes to NACP and CCSP goals to establish an integrated, near-real time network of observations to inform climate change science.

  20. Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Velasco, Erik

    Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

  1. A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 A multi-site analysis of random error2 in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes3 4 Forest Service, 271 Mast Road, Durham, NH 03824 USA.25 #12;RANDOM ERRORS IN ENERGY AND CO2 FLUX MEASUREMENTS Richardson et al. 1 January 13, 2006 Abstract1 Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy

  2. Coherent versus measurement feedback: Linear systems theory for quantum information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    To control a quantum system via feedback, we generally have two options in choosing control scheme. One is the coherent feedback, which feeds the output field of the system, through a fully quantum device, back to manipulate the system without involving any measurement process. The other one is the measurement-based feedback, which measures the output field and performs a real-time manipulation on the system based on the measurement results. Both schemes have advantages/disadvantages, depending on the system and the control goal, hence their comparison in several situation is important. This paper considers a general open linear quantum system with the following specific control goals; back-action evasion (BAE), generation of a quantum non-demolished (QND) variable, and generation of a decoherence-free subsystem (DFS), all of which have important roles in quantum information science. Then some no-go theorems are proven, clarifying that those goals cannot be achieved by any measurement-based feedback control. On the other hand it is shown that, for each control goal, there exists a coherent feedback controller accomplishing the task. The key idea to obtain all the results is system theoretic characterizations of BAE, QND, and DFS in terms of controllability and observability properties or transfer functions of linear systems, which are consistent with their standard definitions.

  3. The Lyman-? forest in three dimensions: measurements of large scale flux correlations from BOSS 1st-year data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slosar, Anže [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Blgd 510, Upton NY 11375 (United States); Font-Ribera, Andreu [Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Fac. Ciències, torre C5 parell 2, Bellaterra, Catalonia (Spain); Pieri, Matthew M. [Center for Astrophysics and Space Astronomy, University of Colorado, 389 UCB, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Rich, James; Goff, Jean-Marc Le; Charlassier, Romain [CEA, Centre de Saclay, IRFU, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Aubourg, Éric; Busca, Nicolas; Hamilton, Jean-Christophe [APC, Université Paris Diderot-Paris 7, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA, Observatoire de Paris, 10, rue A. Domon and L. Duquet, Paris (France); Brinkmann, Jon [Apache Point Observatory, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM 88349 (United States); Carithers, Bill; Cortês, Marina; Ho, Shirley; McDonald, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Croft, Rupert [Bruce and Astrid McWilliams Center for Cosmology, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Dawson, Kyle S. [University of Utah, Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, 115 S 1400 E, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Eisenstein, Daniel [Harvard College Observatory, 60 Garden St., Cambridge MA 02138 (United States); Lee, Khee-Gan; Lupton, Robert [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Medolin, Bumbarija, E-mail: anze@bnl.gov [104-20 Queens Blvd 17A, Forest Hills, NY 11375 (United States); and others

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using a sample of approximately 14,000 z > 2.1 quasars observed in the first year of the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS), we measure the three-dimensional correlation function of absorption in the Lyman-? forest. The angle-averaged correlation function of transmitted flux (F = e{sup ??}) is securely detected out to comoving separations of 60 h{sup ?1}Mpc, the first detection of flux correlations across widely separated sightlines. A quadrupole distortion of the redshift-space correlation function by peculiar velocities, the signature of the gravitational instability origin of structure in the Lyman-? forest, is also detected at high significance. We obtain a good fit to the data assuming linear theory redshift-space distortion and linear bias of the transmitted flux, relative to the matter fluctuations of a standard ?CDM cosmological model (inflationary cold dark matter with a cosmological constant). At 95% confidence, we find a linear bias parameter 0.16 < b < 0.24 and redshift-distortion parameter 0.44 < ? < 1.20, at central redshift z = 2.25, with a well constrained combination b(1+?) = 0.336±0.012. The errors on ? are asymmetric, with ? = 0 excluded at over 5? confidence level. The value of ? is somewhat low compared to theoretical predictions, and our tests on synthetic data suggest that it is depressed (relative to expectations for the Lyman-? forest alone) by the presence of high column density systems and metal line absorption. These results set the stage for cosmological parameter determinations from three-dimensional structure in the Lyman-? forest, including anticipated constraints on dark energy from baryon acoustic oscillations.

  4. Flux Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds from an Urban Tower Platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chang Hyoun

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    11. INTRODUCTION Air quality studies overwhelmingly focus on the concentration of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) criteria air pollutants using monitoring and numerical modeling. While the latter uses surface fluxes from emission... chemistry and public health. Urban air pollution sources are related to a multitude of land-uses and human-made structures, which, together with natural and introduced vegetation, make up the urban fabric. To measure pollutant flux over urban terrain, a...

  5. First measurements of the flux integral with the NIST-4 watt balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haddad, D; Chao, L S; Cao, A; Sineriz, G; Pratt, J R; Newell, D B; Schlamminger, S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In early 2014, construction of a new watt balance, named NIST-4, has started at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). In a watt balance, the gravitational force of an unknown mass is compensated by an electromagnetic force produced by a coil in a magnet system. The electromagnetic force depends on the current in the coil and the magnetic flux integral. Most watt balances feature an additional calibration mode, referred to as velocity mode, which allows one to measure the magnetic flux integral to high precision. In this article we describe first measurements of the flux integral in the new watt balance. We introduce measurement and data analysis techniques to assess the quality of the measurements and the adverse effects of vibrations on the instrument.

  6. Uncertainty analysis of steady state incident heat flux measurements in hydrocarbon fuel fires.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakos, James Thomas

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this report is to develop uncertainty estimates for three heat flux measurement techniques used for the measurement of incident heat flux in a combined radiative and convective environment. This is related to the measurement of heat flux to objects placed inside hydrocarbon fuel (diesel, JP-8 jet fuel) fires, which is very difficult to make accurately (e.g., less than 10%). Three methods will be discussed: a Schmidt-Boelter heat flux gage; a calorimeter and inverse heat conduction method; and a thin plate and energy balance method. Steady state uncertainties were estimated for two types of fires (i.e., calm wind and high winds) at three times (early in the fire, late in the fire, and at an intermediate time). Results showed a large uncertainty for all three methods. Typical uncertainties for a Schmidt-Boelter gage ranged from {+-}23% for high wind fires to {+-}39% for low wind fires. For the calorimeter/inverse method the uncertainties were {+-}25% to {+-}40%. The thin plate/energy balance method the uncertainties ranged from {+-}21% to {+-}42%. The 23-39% uncertainties for the Schmidt-Boelter gage are much larger than the quoted uncertainty for a radiative only environment (i.e ., {+-}3%). This large difference is due to the convective contribution and because the gage sensitivities to radiative and convective environments are not equal. All these values are larger than desired, which suggests the need for improvements in heat flux measurements in fires.

  7. DETECTION AND FLUX DENSITY MEASUREMENTS OF THE MILLISECOND PULSAR J2145–0750 BELOW 100 MHz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dowell, J.; Taylor, G. B.; Craig, J.; Henning, P. A.; Schinzel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States)] [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 (United States); Ray, P. S. [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [Space Science Division, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Blythe, J. N. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 3033 (United States)] [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 3033 (United States); Clarke, T.; Helmboldt, J. F. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)] [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States); Ellingson, S. W.; Wolfe, C. N. [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States)] [Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24061 (United States); Lazio, T. J. W. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)] [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Stovall, K., E-mail: jdowell@unm.edu [Center for Gravitational Wave Astronomy and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)

    2013-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present flux density measurements and pulse profiles for the millisecond pulsar PSR J2145–0750 spanning 37 to 81 MHz using data obtained from the first station of the Long Wavelength Array. These measurements represent the lowest frequency detection of pulsed emission from a millisecond pulsar to date. We find that the pulse profile is similar to that observed at 102 MHz. We also find that the flux density spectrum between ?40 MHz to 5 GHz is suggestive of a break and may be better fit by a model that includes spectral curvature with a rollover around 730 MHz rather than a single power law.

  8. IR OPTICS MEASUREMENT WITH LINEAR COUPLING'S ACTION-ANGLE PARAMETERIZATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LUO, Y.; BAI, M.; PILAT, R.; SATOGATA, T.; TRBOJEVIC, D.

    2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A parameterization of linear coupling in action-angle coordinates is convenient for analytical calculations and interpretation of turn-by-turn (TBT) beam position monitor (BPM) data. We demonstrate how to use this parameterization to extract the twiss and coupling parameters in interaction regions (IRs), using BPMs on each side of the long IR drift region. The example of TBT BPM analysis was acquired at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), using an AC dipole to excite a single eigenmode. Besides the full treatment, a fast estimate of beta*, the beta function at the interaction point (IP), is provided, along with the phase advance between these BPMs. We also calculate and measure the waist of the beta function and the local optics.

  9. Methane efflux from boreal wetlands: Theory and testing of the ecosystem model Ecosys with chamber and tower flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roulet, Nigel T.

    and tower flux measurements R. F. Grant Department of Renewable Resources, University of Alberta, Edmonton tower at a beaver pond in the BOREAS Northern Study Area. Spatial and temporal variation of CH4 effluxes in the model encompassed that measured by surface chambers and the flux tower. Both modeled and measured CH4

  10. Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silver, Whendee

    Tropospheric ozone reduces carbon assimilation in trees: estimates from analysis of continuous flux Abstract High ground-level ozone concentrations are typical of Mediterranean climates. Plant exposure to this oxidant is known to reduce carbon assimilation. Ozone damage has been traditionally measured through

  11. Shipboard Measurements and Estimations of AirSea Fluxes in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Irvine, University of

    Ship­board Measurements and Estimations of Air­Sea Fluxes in the Western Tropical Pacific Ocean E dur­ ing the Tropical Ocean Global Atmosphere (TOGA) Coupled Ocean and Atmospheric Response of the surface­layer turbulence properties are compared with those from previous land and ocean results. Momentum

  12. A NOVEL MICROMEGAS DETECTOR FOR IN-CORE NUCLEAR REACTOR NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 A NOVEL MICROMEGAS DETECTOR FOR IN-CORE NUCLEAR REACTOR NEUTRON FLUX MEASUREMENTS S. ANDRIAMONJE Talence Cedex, France Future fast nuclear reactors designed for energy production and transmutation to neutron detection inside nuclear reactor is given. The advantage of this detector over conventional

  13. The Measurement, interpretation and use of unsteady momentum fluxes in two-phase flow.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yih, Tien Sieh

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady and unsteady components of the momentum flux in a two-phase flow have been measured at the exit of a vertical pipe by means of an impulse technique using a turning tee and beam. Different electrical filters have ...

  14. Impulsive observer-based control for linear systems using irregularly sampled measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Impulsive observer-based control for linear systems using irregularly sampled measurements Y linear state feedback controller and an impulsive observer to provide an estimate the non-measured states, which are subsequently fed back in the control algorithm. We consider linear systems that can

  15. Trapped proton fluxes at low Earth orbits measured by the PAMELA experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adriani, O; Bazilevskaya, G A; Bellotti, R; Boezio, M; Bogomolov, E A; Bongi, M; Bonvicini, V; Bottai, S; Bruno, A; Cafagna, F; Campana, D; Carbone, R; Carlson, P; Casolino, M; Castellini, G; Danilchenko, I A; De Donato, C; De Santis, C; De Simone, N; Di Felice, V; Formato, V; Galper, A M; Karelin, A V; Koldashov, S V; Koldobskiy, S; Krutkov, S Y; Kvashnin, A N; Leonov, A; Malakhov, V; Marcelli, L; Martucci, M; Mayorov, A G; Menn, W; Mergé, M; Mikhailov, V V; Mocchiutti, E; Monaco, A; Mori, N; Munini, R; Osteria, G; Palma, F; Panico, B; Papini, P; Pearce, M; Picozza, P; Ricci, M; Ricciarini, S B; Sarkar, R; Scotti, V; Simon, M; Sparvoli, R; Spillantini, P; Stozhkov, Y I; Vacchi, A; Vannuccini, E; Vasilyev, G I; Voronov, S A; Yurkin, Y T; Zampa, G; Zampa, N; Zverev, V G

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an accurate measurement of the geomagnetically trapped proton fluxes for kinetic energy above > 70 MeV performed by the PAMELA mission at low Earth orbits (350-610 km). Data were analyzed in the frame of the adiabatic theory of charged particle motion in the geomagnetic field. Flux properties were investigated in detail, providing a full characterization of the particle radiation in the South Atlantic Anomaly region, including locations, energy spectra and pitch angle distributions. PAMELA results significantly improve the description of the Earth's radiation environment at low altitudes placing important constraints on the trapping and interaction processes, and can be used to validate current trapped particle radiation models.

  16. Measuring proton energies and fluxes using EIT (SOHO) CCD areas outside the solar disk images

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. V. Didkovsky; D. L. Judge; A. R. Jones; E. J. Rhodes, Jr.; J. B. Gurman

    2006-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An indirect proton flux measuring tool based on discrimination of the energy deposited by protons in 128 x 128 pixel EIT CCD areas outside the solar disk images is presented. Single pixel intensity events are converted into proton incident energy flux using modeled energy deposition curves for angles of incidence 60 deg in four EIT spatial areas with different proton stopping power. The extracted proton flux is corrected for both the loss of one-pixel events in the range of angles of incidence as well as for the contribution to the single pixel events resulting from scattered middle-energy protons (low-energy or high-energy particles are stopped by the EIT components or pass through them, accordingly). A simple geometrical approach was found and applied to correct for a non-unique relation between the proton-associated CCD output signal and the incident proton energy. With this geometrical approximation four unique proton incident energy ranges were determined as 45--49, 145--154, 297--335, and 390--440 MeV. The indirect proton flux measuring tool has been tested by comparing Solar Energetic Particles (SEP) flux temporal profiles extracted from the EIT CCD frames and downloaded from the GOES database for the Bastille Day (BD) of 2000 July 14 and the more recent 2005 January 20 events. The SEP flux temporal profiles and proton spectra extracted from the EIT in the relatively narrow energy ranges between 45 and 440 MeV reported here are consistent with the related GOES profiles. The four additional EIT extracted ranges provide higher energy resolution of the SEP data.

  17. A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A multi-site analysis of random error in tower-based measurements of carbon and energy fluxes 2006 Abstract Measured surface-atmosphere fluxes of energy (sensible heat, H, and latent heat, LE of which include ``tall tower'' instrumentation), one grassland site, and one agricultural site, to conduct

  18. Measurement of Neutron and Muon Fluxes 100~m Underground with the SciBath Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, Lance

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SciBath detector is an 80 liter liquid scintillator detector read out by a three dimensional grid of 768 wavelength-shifting fibers. Initially conceived as a fine-grained charged particle detector for neutrino studies that could image charged particle tracks in all directions, it is also sensitive to fast neutrons (15-200 MeV). In fall of 2011 the apparatus performed a three month run to measure cosmic-induced muons and neutrons 100~meters underground in the FNAL MINOS near-detector area. Data from this run has been analyzed and resulted in measurements of the cosmic muon flux as \

  19. Environmental chamber measurements of mercury flux from coal utilization by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pekney, N.J.; Martello, D.V.; Schroeder, K.T.; Granite, E.J.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An environmental chamber was constructed to measure the mercury flux from coal utilization by-product (CUB) samples. Samples of fly ash, FGD gypsum, and wallboard made from FGD gypsum were tested under both dark and illuminated conditions with or without the addition of water to the sample. Mercury releases varied widely, with 7-day experiment averages ranging from -6.8 to 73 ng/m2 h for the fly ash samples and -5.2 to 335 ng/m2 h for the FGD/wallboard samples. Initial mercury content, fly ash type, and light exposure had no observable consistent effects on the mercury flux. For the fly ash samples, the effect of a mercury control technology was to decrease the emission. For three of the four pairs of FGD gypsum and wallboard samples, the wallboard sample released less (or absorbed more) mercury than the gypsum.

  20. Spatially resolved temperature and heat flux measurements for slow evaporating droplets heated by a microfabricated heater array

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paik, Sokwon

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    flux datum per one droplet. No spatial or temporal heat flux information was given. Klassen et al. [12] and di Marzo et al. [13] were the first to use an infrared thermography technique to attempt to measure the spatially and temporally resolved... infrared thermography. Because of the aforementioned limitation of the IR thermography, measurements were only possible outside of the droplets. Michiyoshi and Makino [15] used a dual beam synchroscope to measure the variation of the heater supply...

  1. Electron and Positron Fluxes in Primary Cosmic Rays Measured with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Ulrich J.

    Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. ...

  2. 84Unit Conversions Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what property is being

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    kilowatt- hour (1 kWh)? Problem 4 ­ How many ergs of energy are collected from a solar panel on a roof, if the sunlight provides a flux of 300 Joules/sec/meter 2 , the solar panels have an area of 27 square feet84Unit Conversions ­ Energy, Power, Flux Energy is measured in a number of ways depending on what

  3. \\EVIDENCE FOR ELECTRON NEUTRINO FLAVOR CHANGE THROUGH MEASUREMENT OF THE 8 B SOLAR NEUTRINO FLUX AT THE SUDBURY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    \\EVIDENCE FOR ELECTRON NEUTRINO FLAVOR CHANGE THROUGH MEASUREMENT OF THE 8 B SOLAR NEUTRINO FLUX have had in Sudbury. Godwin Mayers, Ron Pearce, and Jim Cook for the wonderful job they have done

  4. Measurement of the Crab Flux Above 60 GeV with the CELESTE Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. De Naurois; J. Holder; R. Bazer-Bachi; H. Bergeret; P. Bruel; A. Cordier; G. Debiais; J-P. Dezalay; D. Dumora; E. Durand; P. Eschstruth; P. Espigat; B. Fabre; P. Fleury; N. Herault; M. Hrabovsky; S. Incerti; R. Le Gallou; F. Munz; A. Musquere; J-F. Olive; E. Pare; J. Quebert; R. C. Rannot; T. Reposeur; L. Rob; P. Roy; T. Sako; P. Schovanek; D. A. Smith; P. Snabre; A. Volte

    2001-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We have converted the former solar electrical plant THEMIS (French Pyrenees) into an atmospheric Cherenkov detector called CELESTE, which records gamma rays above 30 GeV (7E24 Hz). Here we present the first sub-100 GeV detection by a ground based telescope of a gamma ray source, the Crab nebula, in the energy region between satellite measurements and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. At our analysis threshold energy of 60 +/- 20 GeV we measure a gamma ray rate of 6.1 +/- 0.8 per minute. Allowing for 30% systematic uncertainties and a 30% error on the energy scale yields an integral gamma ray flux of I(E>60 GeV) = 6.2^{+5.3}_{-2.3} E-6 photons m^-2 s^-1. The analysis methods used to obtain the gamma ray signal from the raw data are detailed. In addition, we determine the upper limit for pulsed emission to be <12% of the Crab flux at the 99% confidence level, in the same energy range. Our result indicates that if the power law observed by EGRET is attenuated by a cutoff of form e^{-E/E_0} then E_0 < 26 GeV. This is the lowest energy probed by a Cherenkov detector and leaves only a narrow range unexplored beyond the energy range studied by EGRET.

  5. Measurement of the Crab Flux Above 60 GeV with the CELESTE Cherenkov Telescope

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Naurois, Mathieu; Bazer-Bachi, R; Bergeret, H; Bruel, P; Cordier, A; Debiais, G; Dezalay, J P; Dumora, D; Durand, E; Eschstruth, P T; Espigat, P; Fabre, B; Fleury, P; Herault, N; Hrabovsky, M; Incerti, S; Le Gallou, R; Munz, F; Musquere, A; Olive, J F; Paré, E; Quebert, J; Rannot, R C; Reposeur, T; Rob, L; Roy, P; Sako, T; Schovanek, P; Smith, D A; Snabre, P; Volte, A

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have converted the former solar electrical plant THEMIS (French Pyrenees) into an atmospheric Cherenkov detector called CELESTE, which records gamma rays above 30 GeV (7E24 Hz). Here we present the first sub-100 GeV detection by a ground based telescope of a gamma ray source, the Crab nebula, in the energy region between satellite measurements and imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes. At our analysis threshold energy of 60 +/- 20 GeV we measure a gamma ray rate of 6.1 +/- 0.8 per minute. Allowing for 30% systematic uncertainties and a 30% error on the energy scale yields an integral gamma ray flux of I(E>60 GeV) = 6.2^{+5.3}_{-2.3} E-6 photons m^-2 s^-1. The analysis methods used to obtain the gamma ray signal from the raw data are detailed. In addition, we determine the upper limit for pulsed emission to be <12% of the Crab flux at the 99% confidence level, in the same energy range. Our result indicates that if the power law observed by EGRET is attenuated by a cutoff of form e^{-E/E_0} then E_0 &l...

  6. Summary We analyzed assumptions and measurement er-rors in estimating canopy transpiration (EL) from sap flux (JS)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ewers, Brent E.

    - tively. Sap flux measured in stems did not lag JS measured in branches, and time and frequency domain. Introduction Stomata respond to environmental variation, regulate water loss and carbon dioxide gain, and thus biosphere­atmosphere exchange of mass and energy. From porometry measure- ments, leaf conductance (gS) can

  7. Spectroscopic measurement of ion temperature and ion velocity distributions in the flux-coil generated FRC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, D.; Gota, H.; Hayashi, R.; Kiyashko, V.; Morehouse, M.; Primavera, S. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Bolte, N. [Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Marsili, P. [Department of Physics, University of Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Roche, T. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Wessel, F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Tri Alpha Energy, Inc., Rancho Santa Margarita, California 92688 (United States)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    One aim of the flux-coil generated field reversed configuration at Tri Alpha Energy (TAE) is to establish the plasma where the ion rotational energy is greater than the ion thermal energy. To verify this, an optical diagnostic was developed to simultaneously measure the Doppler velocity-shift and line-broadening using a 0.75 m, 1800 groves/mm, spectrometer. The output spectrum is magnified and imaged onto a 16-channel photomultiplier tube (PMT) array. The individual PMT outputs are coupled to high-gain, high-frequency, transimpedance amplifiers, providing fast-time response. The Doppler spectroscopy measurements, along with a survey spectrometer and photodiode-light detector, form a suite of diagnostics that provide insights into the time evolution of the plasma-ion distribution and current when accelerated by an azimuthal-electric field.

  8. Precision measurement of a particle mass at the linear collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milstene, C.; /Fermilab; Freitas, A.; /Zurich U.; Schmitt, M.; /Northwestern U.; Sopczak, A.; /Lancaster U.

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Precision measurement of the stop mass at the ILC is done in a method based on cross-sections measurements at two different center-of-mass energies. This allows to minimize both the statistical and systematic errors. In the framework of the MSSM, a light stop, compatible with electro-weak baryogenesis, is studied in its decay into a charm jet and neutralino, the Lightest Supersymmetric Particle (LSP), as a candidate of dark matter. This takes place for a small stop-neutralino mass difference.

  9. Measurement of the flux and zenith-angle distribution of upward through-going muons by Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    1999-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A total of 614 upward through-going muons of minimum energy 1.6 GeV are observed by Super-Kamiokande during 537 detector live days. The measured muon flux is 1.74+/-0.07(stat.)+/-0.02(sys.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1} compared to an expected flux of 1.97+/-0.44(theo.)x10^{-13}cm^{-2}s^{-1}sr^{-1}. The absolute measured flux is in agreement with the prediction within the errors. However, the zenith angle dependence of the observed upward through-going muon flux does not agree with no-oscillation predictions. The observed distortion in shape is consistent with the \

  10. Monte Carlo Method for Calculating Oxygen Abundances and Their Uncertainties from Strong-Line Flux Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianco, Federica B; Oh, Seung Man; Fierroz, David; Liu, Yuqian; Kewley, Lisa; Graur, Or

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the open-source Python code pyMCZ that determines oxygen abundance and its distribution from strong emission lines in the standard metallicity scales, based on the original IDL code of Kewley & Dopita (2002) with updates from Kewley & Ellison (2008), and expanded to include more recently developed scales. The standard strong-line diagnostics have been used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium through various emission line ratios in many areas of astrophysics, including galaxy evolution and supernova host galaxy studies. We introduce a Python implementation of these methods that, through Monte Carlo (MC) sampling, better characterizes the statistical reddening-corrected oxygen abundance confidence region. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, our code produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 13 metallicity scales simultaneously, as well as for E(B-V), and estimates their median values and their 66% confidence regions. In additi...

  11. Remote Sensing and Sea-Truth Measurements of Methane Flux to the Atmosphere (HYFLUX project)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ian MacDonald

    2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-disciplinary investigation of distribution and magnitude of methane fluxes from seafloor gas hydrate deposits in the Gulf of Mexico was conducted based on results obtained from satellite synthetic aperture radar (SAR) remote sensing and from sampling conducted during a research expedition to three sites where gas hydrate occurs (MC118, GC600, and GC185). Samples of sediments, water, and air were collected from the ship and from an ROV submersible using sediments cores, niskin bottles attached to the ROV and to a rosette, and an automated sea-air interface collector. The SAR images were used to quantify the magnitude and distribution of natural oil and gas seeps that produced perennial oil slicks on the ocean surface. A total of 176 SAR images were processed using a texture classifying neural network algorithm, which segmented the ocean surface into oil-free and oil-covered water. Geostatistical analysis indicates that there are a total of 1081 seep formations distributed over the entire Gulf of Mexico basin. Oil-covered water comprised an average of 780.0 sq. km (sd 86.03) distributed with an area of 147,370 sq. km. Persistent oil and gas seeps were also detected with SAR sampling on other ocean margins located in the Black Sea, western coast of Africa, and offshore Pakistan. Analysis of sediment cores from all three sites show profiles of sulfate, sulfide, calcium and alkalinity that indicated anaerobic oxidation of methane with precipitation of authigenic carbonates. Difference among the three sampling sites may reflect the relative magnitude of methane flux. Methane concentrations in water column samples collected by ROV and rosette deployments from MC118 ranged from {approx}33,000 nM at the seafloor to {approx}12 nM in the mixed layer with isolated peaks up to {approx}13,670 nM coincident with the top of the gas hydrate stability field. Average plume methane, ethane, and propane concentrations in the mixed layer are 7, 630, and 9,540 times saturation, respectively. Based on the contemporaneous wind speeds at this site, contemporary estimates of the diffusive fluxes from the mixed layer to the atmosphere for methane, ethane, and propane are 26.5, 2.10, and 2.78 {micro}mol/m{sup 2}d, respectively. Continuous measurements of air and sea surface concentrations of methane were made to obtain high spatial and temporal resolution of the diffusive net sea-to-air fluxes. The atmospheric methane fluctuated between 1.70 ppm and 2.40 ppm during the entire cruise except for high concentrations (up to 4.01 ppm) sampled during the end of the occupation of GC600 and the transit between GC600 and GC185. Results from interpolations within the survey areas show the daily methane fluxes to the atmosphere at the three sites range from 0.744 to 300 mol d-1. Considering that the majority of seeps in the GOM are deep (>500 m), elevated CH{sub 4} concentrations in near-surface waters resulting from bubble-mediated CH4 transport in the water column are expected to be widespread in the Gulf of Mexico.

  12. Optical Measurement of the Non-linear Focusing of Sound in Liquid Helium 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caupin, Frédéric

    Optical Measurement of the Non-linear Focusing of Sound in Liquid Helium 4 X. Chavanne, S. Balibar have measured the amplitude of 1MHz acoustic waves focused in liquid helium 4. Our resolution is 10 the reflec- tion of light at the glass/helium interface, which depends on the refractive index of the liquid

  13. Data Envelopment Analysis: A Linear Programming Application to Measure the Relative Efficiencies of Internal Business Divisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shockley, Laura

    2014-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    that an A/E/C firm may want to evaluate include: 1. Customer Satisfaction Data Envelopment Analysis: A Linear Programming Application to Measure the Relative Efficiencies of Internal Business Divisions Laura Shockley 26 2. Percent Repeat Customer... the Relative Efficiencies of Internal Business Divisions Laura Shockley 1 Executive Summary Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) is a non-parametric linear programming model used to determine relative efficiencies of similar decision making units based...

  14. Measurement of isotope ratio of Ca{sup +} ions in a linear Paul Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hashimoto, Y.; Minamino, K.; Nagamoto, D.; Hasegawa, S. [Department of Quantum Engineering and Systems Science, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2009-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of isotope ratios of Calcium is very useful in many fields. So we demonstrated the measurement of isotope ratios of {sup 40}Ca{sup +}(abundance 96.4%) to {sup 44}Ca{sup +}(2.09%) ions in a linear Paul trap with several laser lights tuning to the isotope shifts. And we found that the experimental parameters had large influences on the measurement of the isotope ratios.

  15. Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quantifying the flux of CaCO3 and organic carbon from the surface ocean using in situ measurements attention on the importance of understanding the rates and mechanisms of CaCO3 formation so that changes can be monitored and feedbacks predicted. We present a method for determining the rate of CaCO3 production using

  16. Measurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High Resolution Fly's Eye

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Physics and Nevis Laboratory, New York, New York, USA 6) University of New Mexico, Department of PhysicsMeasurement of the Flux of Ultrahigh Energy Cosmic Rays from Monocular Observations by the High of Utah, Department of Physics and High Energy Astrophysics Institute, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA 2

  17. Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Persson, Ola

    Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C10Measurements near the Atmospheric Surface Flux Group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget P. Ola G. Persson,1 Christopher W. Fairall,2 Edgar L. Andreas,3 Peter S. Guest,4

  18. Measurements of fluxes of water vapour, CO2 and pCO2 are obtained from a coastal site in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Measurements of fluxes of water vapour, CO2 and pCO2 are obtained from a coastal site in Sweden study national reports UK The first eleven SOLAS projects supported by the Natural Environment Research the atmosphere, including biological interactions affecting DMS production and the role of upwelling in trace gas

  19. Effect of aerosols and NO2 concentration on ultraviolet actinic flux near Mexico City during MILAGRO: Measurements and model calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palancar, Gustavo G.; Lefer, Barry; Hall, Samual R.; Shaw, William J.; Corr, Chelsea A.; Herndon, Scott C.; Slusser, J. R.; Madronich, Sasha

    2013-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) actinic ?uxes (AF) measured with three Scanning Actinic Flux Spectroradiometers (SAFS) are compared with the Tropospheric Ultraviolet-Visible (TUV) model v.5 in order to assess the effects of aerosols and NO2 concentrations on the radiation. Measurements were made during the MILAGRO campaign near Mexico City in March 2006, at a ground-based station near Mexico City (the T1 supersite) and from the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft. At the surface, measurements are typically smaller by up to 25 % in the morning, 10% at noon, and 40% in the afternoon, than actinic flux modeled for clean, cloud-free conditions. When measurements of PBL height, NO2 concentration and aerosols optical properties are included in the model, the agreement improves to within ±10% in the morning and afternoon, and ±3% at noon. Based on daily averages, aerosols account for 68%, NO2 for 25%, and residual uncertainties for 7% of these AF reductions observed at the surface. Several overpasses from the C-130 aircraft provided the opportunity to examine the actinic flux perturbations aloft, and also show better agreement with the model when aerosol and NO2 effects are included above and below the flight altitude. TUV model simulations show that the vertical structure of the actinic flux is sensitive to the choice of the aerosol single scattering albedo (SSA) at UV wavelengths. Typically, aerosols caused enhanced AF above the PBL and reduced AF near the surface. However, for highly scattering aerosols (SSA > 0.95), enhancements can penetrate well into the PBL, while for strongly absorbing aerosols (SSA<0.7) reductions in AF are computed in the free troposphere as well as in the PBL. Additional measurements of the SSA at these wavelengths are needed to better constrain the effect of aerosols on the vertical structure of the actinic flux.

  20. Field measurements of a swell band, shore normal, flux divergence reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Link, Shmuel G

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout this thesis we will discuss the theoretical background and empirical observation of a swell band shore normal flux divergence reversal. Specifically, we will demonstrate the existence and persistence of the ...

  1. Investigation of Flux Linkage Profile Measurement Methods for Switched Reluctance Motors and Permanent Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Kaiyuan

    motors without starting cages, changing stator current, induces no rotor current. This implies that most with the winding inductance to determine the instantaneous flux linkage profile. Comparison with the static torque

  2. A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A nonparametric method for separating photosynthesis and respiration components in CO2 flux dependence of photosynthesis and respiration. This observation provides empirical validation of efforts consideration of the temperature dependence of respiration and photosynthesis are likely to carry significant

  3. Blade dynamics and flux measurements for model seagrass blades in waves and currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Connor, Erin Grace

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex interactions between flow conditions, blade posture, and mass transport processes, represent a challenge to fully understanding the influence of hydrodynamic conditions on the flux of nutrients to the blade surface ...

  4. Advances in measurements of particle cycling and fluxes in the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Owens, Stephanie Anne

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The sinking flux of particles is an important removal mechanism of carbon from the surface ocean as part of the biological pump and can play a role in cycling of other chemical species. This work dealt with improving methods ...

  5. Fast flux locked loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganther, Jr., Kenneth R. (Olathe, KS); Snapp, Lowell D. (Independence, MO)

    2002-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A flux locked loop for providing an electrical feedback signal, the flux locked loop employing radio-frequency components and technology to extend the flux modulation frequency and tracking loop bandwidth. The flux locked loop of the present invention has particularly useful application in read-out electronics for DC SQUID magnetic measurement systems, in which case the electrical signal output by the flux locked loop represents an unknown magnetic flux applied to the DC SQUID.

  6. Observation of the proton aurora with IMAGE FUV imager and simultaneous ion flux in situ measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Observation of the proton aurora with IMAGE FUV imager and simultaneous ion flux in situ satellite images the aurora in three different spectral regions. One of the channels of the spectrographic to spectrally discriminate between the proton and electron FUV aurora and to globally map the energetic protons

  7. Linear Polarization Measurements for High-Spin States in 146Gd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishichayan; Rajashri Bhattacherjee; S. K. Basu; R. K. Bhowmik; A. Chakraborty; L. Chaturvedi; A. Dhal; U. Garg; S. S. Ghugre; R. Goswami; A. Jhingan; N. Madhvan; P. V. Madhusudhana Rao; S. Mukhopadhyay; S. Muralithar; S. Nath; N. S. Pattabiraman; S. Ray; S. Saha; M. Saha Sarkar; S. Sarkar; R. Singh; R. P. Singh; A. K. Sinha; R. K. Sinha; P. Sugathan; B. K. Yogi

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A {\\gamma}-ray linear polarization measurement has been performed to directly determine the parities for the levels in 146Gd nucleus. High-spin states in this nucleus were populated in a reaction 115In + 34S at 140 MeV incident energy. Linearly polarized {\\gamma} - rays emitted from oriented states were measured using a Compton polarimeter consisting of an array of 8 Compton-suppressed Clover detectors. Unambiguous assignments of the spin and parity have been made for most of the observed levels and changes made in the previously reported spin-parity assignments for a few levels. Shell model calculations performed with judicious truncation over the {\\pi}(gdsh) valence space interpret the structure of only the low-lying levels up to J{\\pi} = 19+ and 9-. N = 82 neutron-core breaking is found to be essential for high spin states with excitation energies Ex > 7 MeV.

  8. Measurement of the Higgs Boson Mass with a Linear e+e- Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Garcia-Abia; W. Lohmann; A. Raspereza

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential of a linear e+e- collider operated at a centre-of-mass energy of 350 GeV is studied for the measurement of the Higgs boson mass. An integrated luminosity of 500 fb-1 is assumed. For Higgs boson masses of 120, 150 and 180 GeV the uncertainty on the Higgs boson mass measurement is estimated to be 40, 65 and 70 MeV, respectively. The effects of beam related systematics, namely a bias in the beam energy measurement, the beam energy spread and the luminosity spectrum due to beamstrahlung, on the precision of the Higgs boson mass measurement are investigated. In order to keep the systematic uncertainty on the Higgs boson mass well below the level of the statistical error, the beam energy measurement must be controlled with a relative precision better than 10-4.

  9. Systematic Uncertainties in the Spectroscopic Measurements of Neutron-Star Masses and Radii from Thermonuclear X-ray Bursts. III. Absolute Flux Calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guver, Tolga; Marshall, Herman; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Guainazzi, Matteo; Diaz-Trigo, Maria

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many techniques for measuring neutron star radii rely on absolute flux measurements in the X-rays. As a result, one of the fundamental uncertainties in these spectroscopic measurements arises from the absolute flux calibrations of the detectors being used. Using the stable X-ray burster, GS 1826-238, and its simultaneous observations by Chandra HETG/ACIS-S and RXTE/PCA as well as by XMM-Newton EPIC-pn and RXTE/PCA, we quantify the degree of uncertainty in the flux calibration by assessing the differences between the measured fluxes during bursts. We find that the RXTE/PCA and the Chandra gratings measurements agree with each other within their formal uncertainties, increasing our confidence in these flux measurements. In contrast, XMM-Newton EPIC-pn measures 14.0$\\pm$0.3% less flux than the RXTE/PCA. This is consistent with the previously reported discrepancy with the flux measurements of EPIC-pn, compared to EPIC-MOS1, MOS2 and ACIS-S detectors. We also address the calibration uncertainty in the RXTE/PCA int...

  10. Distinguishability of hyperentangled Bell states by linear evolution and local projective measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisenti, N.; Gaebler, C. P. E.; Lynn, T. W. [Department of Physics, Harvey Mudd College, 301 Platt Blvd., Claremont, California 91711 (United States)

    2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Measuring an entangled state of two particles is crucial to many quantum communication protocols. Yet Bell-state distinguishability using a finite apparatus obeying linear evolution and local measurement is theoretically limited. We extend known bounds for Bell-state distinguishability in one and two variables to the general case of entanglement in n two-state variables. We show that at most 2{sup n+1}-1 classes out of 4{sup n} hyper-Bell states can be distinguished with one copy of the input state. With two copies, complete distinguishability is possible. We present optimal schemes in each case.

  11. Measurements of Neutron Induced Cross Sections at the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guber, K.H.; Harvey, J.A.; Hill, N.W.; Koehler, P.E.; Leal, L.C.; Sayer, R.O.; Spencer, R.R.

    1999-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We have used the Oak Ridge Electron Linear Accelerator (ORELA) to measure neutron total and the fission cross sections of 233U in the energy range from 0.36 eV to ~700 keV. We report average fission and total cross sections. Also, we measured the neutron total cross sections of 27Al and Natural chlorine as well as the capture cross section of Al over an energy range from 100 eV up to about 400 keV.

  12. Transient Non-linear Thermal FEM Simulation of Smart Power Switches and Verification by Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Kosel; R. Sleik; M. Glavanovics

    2008-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal FEM (Finite Element Method) simulations can be used to predict the thermal behavior of power semiconductors in application. Most power semiconductors are made of silicon. Silicon thermal material properties are significantly temperature dependent. In this paper, validity of a common non-linear silicon material model is verified by transient non-linear thermal FEM simulations of Smart Power Switches and measurements. For verification, over-temperature protection behavior of Smart Power Switches is employed. This protection turns off the switch at a pre-defined temperature which is used as a temperature reference in the investigation. Power dissipation generated during a thermal overload event of two Smart Power devices is measured and used as an input stimulus to transient thermal FEM simulations. The duration time of the event together with the temperature reference is confronted with simulation results and thus the validity of the silicon model is proved. In addition, the impact of non-linear thermal properties of silicon on the thermal impedance of power semiconductors is shown.

  13. Summary We measured net carbon flux (FCO2 ) and net H2O

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    .) Sarg.) sites located in the Wind River Valley of southern Washington State, USA. Stands were States has been converted to other land uses (Turner et al. 1993, Nemani and Running 1995-use effi- ciency (WUE). We used the Landsberg equation, a logarithmic power function and linear regression

  14. Depositional fluxes of metals and phytoplankton in Windermere as measured by sediment traps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton-Taylor, J.; Willis, M.; Reynolds, C.S.

    1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Monthly sediment trap samples collected from a deep water station (42 m) in Windermere for a period of 1 year were analyzed for 0.5 M HCl extractable and total Fe, Mn, Al, Pb, Cu, Zn, total C, N, and total solids. Concomitant algal counts showed the year to be fairly typical in terms of the known sequence of phytoplankton. The annual depositional fluxes are compared with previously determined values based on sediment studies. The ratio of the annual trap to sediment flux for Al indicates the absence of local sediment resuspension. The ratios for Fe, Pb, and Zn suggest some possible biogeochemical cycling at the sediment-water interface. The deposition of Fe, Al, and Pb is predominantly associated with detrital material and occurs mainly during winter. The behavior of Zn is largely independent of other variables examined. The ratios for C, total solids, and Cu are all significantly >1. The major influence on the deposition and recycling of Mn is its well-known redox cycle involving oxidative precipitation and reductive remobilization. Cu undergoes an independent deposition-remobilization cycle, probably related to uptake by diatoms and their rapid microbial decomposition after sedimentation.

  15. A Measurement of the Flux of Cosmic Ray Iron at 5 x 10^13 eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Clem; W. Droege; P. A. Evenson; H. Fischer; G. Green; D. Huber; H. Kunow; D. Seckel

    2001-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results from the initial flight of our Balloon Air CHerenkov (BACH) payload. BACH detects air Cherenkov radiation from cosmic ray nuclei as coincident flashes in two optical modules. The flight (dubbed PDQ BACH) took place on April 22, 1998 from Ft. Sumner, New Mexico. During an exposure of 2.75 hours, with a typical threshold energy for iron nuclei of 2.2$\\times10^{13}$ eV, we observed several events cleanly identifiable as iron group nuclei. Analysis of the data yields a new flux measurement that is fully consistent with that reported by other investigations.

  16. The measurement of non-linear damping in metal-matrix composites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ray, Sourav

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    K. Kinra (Chair of Committee) Alan Wolfenden (Member) Thomas W. Strganac (Member) Walter E. Haisler (Head of Department) December 1994 Major Subject: Aerospace Engineering ABSTRACT The Measurement of Non-Linear Damping in Metal...-decrement method (LDM) for Mg- 0. 6%Zr Alloy (f = 89 Hz) . . . . 27 Figure 6b: Frequency dependence of P for Mg-0. 6%Zr (er = 70 pe). . . . . . . . . . 29 Figure 6c: Strain-dependent damping for a P55Gr/Mg-0. 6%Zr Composite (f = 51 Hz). . . . . . 30 Figure 7a...

  17. Differences between measured and linearly interpolated synoptic variables over a 12-h period during AVE IV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dupuis, Leonard Raymond

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , Z4 April 1975. (after Fucik and Turner, 1975). 590 440 1D 1Dy ~ m 9 soo 530 560 18~ 530 I 22 ? g --' I / '3 22 0 590 20 338 530 16 850 mb 4 4 090 8 m 2D ? ? ? 6 ( ', -k 5 150 8 I '30 ~ 8O '4 210 210 700 BIb Fig. 6. (Cont3nued...DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MEASURED AND LINEARLY INTERPOLATED SYNOPTIC VARIABLES OVER A 12-h PERIOD DURING AVE IV A Thesis by LEONARD RAYMOND DUPUIS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial ful. fillment...

  18. A MULTI-ELEMENT SILICON DETECTOR FOR X-RAY FLUX MEASUREMENTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, A.C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    P, Wilson S, Rubenstein E, Thompson A C and Walton 0 T, IEEEFLUX MEASUREMENTS A.C. Thompson, F.S. Goulding, H.A. Sommer,MEASUREMENTS LBL-12746 A. C. Thompson, F.S. Goulding» H» A.

  19. Direct measurements of the energy flux due to chemical reactions at the surface of a silicon sample interacting with a SF6 plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dussart, Remi; Pichon, Laurianne E; Bedra, Larbi; Semmar, Nadjib; Lefaucheux, Philippe; Mathias, Jacky; Tessier, Yves; 10.1063/1.2995988

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy exchanges due to chemical reactions between a silicon surface and a SF6 plasma were directly measured using a heat flux microsensor (HFM). The energy flux evolution was compared with those obtained when only few reactions occur at the surface to show the part of chemical reactions. At 800 W, the measured energy flux due to chemical reactions is estimated at about 7 W.cm\\^{-2} against 0.4 W.cm\\^{-2} for ion bombardment and other contributions. Time evolution of the HFM signal is also studied. The molar enthalpy of the reaction giving SiF4 molecules was evaluated and is consistent with values given in literature.

  20. A measurement of the atmospheric neutrino flux and oscillation parameters at the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sonley, Thomas John

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Through-going muon events are analyzed as a function of their direction of travel through the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory. Based on simulations and previous measurements, muons with a zenith angle of 1 < cos([theta]zenith) ...

  1. Measurements with the high flux lead slowing-down spectrometer at LANL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danon, Yaron

    slow down by scattering interactions with the lead and thus enable measurements of neutron.40.Sc Keywords: Lead-slowing-down spectrometer; Lithium; Alpha; Cross section; Neutron reactions 1.elsevier.com/locate/nimb Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 261 (2007) 953­955 NIM BBeam Interactions

  2. Atmospheric Neutrino Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas K. Gaisser

    2005-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Starting with an historical review, I summarize the status of calculations of the flux of atmospheric neutrinos and how they compare to measurements.

  3. 31. 4-GHz flux density measurements of a complete sample of sources from the 5-GHz S5 survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Kuehr, H.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements at 31.4-GHz (9.5-mm) are presented for the complete sample of 66 radio sources with declinations greater than +70/sup 0/ and 5-GHz flux densities greater than 0.5 Jy. About half the sources have the flat radio spectra characteristic of objects with compact components radiating most strongly in the mid-centimeter wavelength range, and about one third show evidence of very compact components (theta< or approx. =0.//0001) radiating at short centimeter wavelengths regardless of morphological type. The median spectral index of all the sources, the quasars alone, and the galaxies alone tends to flatten with increasing frequency for steep spectrum sources, whereas a steepening was found with increasing frequency for the flat spectrum sources.

  4. Method and apparatus for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux for analysis of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Denton, M. Bonner (Tucson, AZ); Sperline, Roger (Tucson, AZ), Koppenaal, David W. (Richland, WA), Barinaga, Charles J. (Richland, WA), Hieftje, Gary (Bloomington, IN), Barnes, IV, James H. (Santa Fe, NM); Atlas, Eugene (Irvine, CA)

    2009-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle detector and method are disclosed providing for simultaneous detection and measurement of charged particles at one or more levels of particle flux in a measurement cycle. The detector provides multiple and independently selectable levels of integration and/or gain in a fully addressable readout manner.

  5. A Numerical Study of the Influence of a Clearcut on Eddy-Covariance Fluxes of CO2 Measured Above a Forest

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weiguo; Davis, Kenneth J.

    2008-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the contributions of unit source fluxes over a clear-cutting area in a forest and over the contiguous forested area to the eddy-covariance (EC) flux of CO2 measured at a tower standing in the center of the clearcut under daytime convective conditions. The large-eddy simulation (LES) technique is used to simulate the dispersion and transport of two conservative and passive tracers that are released from the clearcut and from the forested area, respectively. The time series of the LES-generated vertical velocity and the mixing ratios of both tracers on all the levels at the tower location are recorded every model time step during the last hour of each LES run; this somewhat mimics real EC flux measurements at the tower. The contribution of the unit surface flux over the clearcut relative to that over the forested area decreases exponentially with increasing measurement height, decreasing convective boundary layer depth, increasing atmospheric stability, and decreasing size of the clearcut. LES-derived results are fitted to an empirical relation and applied to flux measurements at the 447-m tall tower in Wisconsin, USA. The contribution of the unit flux over the clearcut on the EC flux measured at the 30-m level of the tower is larger than 50% of that over the forested area under most unstable conditions, while smaller than 2.5% at the 396-m level. Existing analytical footprint models are inappropriate to address the clearcut influence due to clearcut-induced heterogeneity of the turbulent flow in the tower area.

  6. Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose-zone VOC Sources: Flow-cell Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mainhagu, Jon; Morrison, C.; Truex, Michael J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Brusseau, Mark

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method termed vapor-phase tomography has recently been proposed to characterize the distribution of volatile organic contaminant mass in vadose-zone source areas, and to measure associated three-dimensional distributions of local contaminant mass discharge. The method is based on measuring the spatial variability of vapor flux, and thus inherent to its effectiveness is the premise that the magnitudes and temporal variability of vapor concentrations measured at different monitoring points within the interrogated area will be a function of the geospatial positions of the points relative to the source location. A series of flow-cell experiments was conducted to evaluate this premise. A well-defined source zone was created by injection and extraction of a non-reactive gas (SF6). Spatial and temporal concentration distributions obtained from the tests were compared to simulations produced with a mathematical model describing advective and diffusive transport. Tests were conducted to characterize both areal and vertical components of the application. Decreases in concentration over time were observed for monitoring points located on the opposite side of the source zone from the local–extraction point, whereas increases were observed for monitoring points located between the local–extraction point and the source zone. The results illustrate that comparison of temporal concentration profiles obtained at various monitoring points gives a general indication of the source location with respect to the extraction and monitoring points.

  7. Ice-rafted debris in the Southern Ocean : potential uses and limitations of ²³?Th-normalized fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fujimori, Jessica E. (Jessica Eileen)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We measured IRD fluxes from 22-5 ka BP in two sediment cores from the Scotia Sea using two different methods. The first, commonly used method, uses the linear sedimentation rate (LSR), dry bulk density, and weight percent ...

  8. Measurement of changes in linear accelerator photon energy through flatness variation using an ion chamber array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao Song; Balter, Peter A. [Department of Radiation Physics, Unit 94, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Boulevard, Houston, Texas 77030 (United States); Rose, Mark; Simon, William E. [Sun Nuclear Corporation, 425-A Pineda Court, Melbourne, Florida 32940 (United States)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare the use of flatness versus percent depth dose (PDD) for determining changes in photon beam energy for a megavoltage linear accelerator. Methods: Energy changes were accomplished by adjusting the bending magnet current by up to {+-}15% in 5% increments away from the value used clinically. Two metrics for flatness, relative flatness in the central 80% of the field (Flat) and average maximum dose along the diagonals normalized by central axis dose (F{sub DN}), were measured using a commercially available planner ionization chamber array. PDD was measured in water at depths of 5 and 10 cm in 3 Multiplication-Sign 3 cm{sup 2} and 10 Multiplication-Sign 10 cm{sup 2} fields using a cylindrical chamber. Results: PDD was more sensitive to changes in energy when the beam energy was increased than when it was decreased. For the 18-MV beam in particular, PDD was not sensitive to energy reductions below the nominal energy. The value of Flat was found to be more sensitive to decreases in energy than to increases, with little sensitivity to energy increases above the nominal energy for 18-MV beams. F{sub DN} was the only metric that was found to be sensitive to both increases and reductions of energy for both the 6- and 18-MV beams. Conclusions: Flatness based metrics were found to be more sensitive to energy changes than PDD, In particular, F{sub DN} was found to be the most sensitive metric to energy changes for photon beams of 6 and 18 MV. The ionization chamber array allows this metric to be conveniently measured as part of routine accelerator quality assurance.

  9. Harmonic Analysis of Time Variations Observed in the Solar Radio Flux Measured at 810 MHz from 1957 to 2004

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Zieba; J. Maslowski; A. Michalec; G. Michalek; A. Kulak

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Long-running measurements of the solar radio flux density at 810 MHz were processed. Based on the least-squares method and using modified periodograms and an iterative technique of fitting and subtracting sinusoids in the time domain, frequency, amplitude, and phase characteristics of any analyzed time series were obtained. Solar cycles 20, 21, and 22 and shorter segments around solar minima and maxima were examined separately. Also, dynamic studies with 405, 810, and 1620 day windows were undertaken. The harmonic representations obtained for all these time series indicate large differences among solar cycles and their segments. We show that the solar radio flux at 810 MHz violates the Gnevyshev-Ohl rule for the pair of cycles 22-23. Analyzing the period 1957-2004, the following spectral periods longer than 1350 days were detected: 10.6, 8.0, 28.0, 5.3, 55.0, 3.9, 6.0, 4.4, and 14.6 yr. For spectral periods between 270 and 1350 days the 11 yr cycle is not recognized. We think that these harmonics form ``impulses of activity'' or a quasi-biennial cycle defined in the Benevolenskaya model of the ``double magnetic cycle.'' The value of about 0.09 is proposed for the interaction parameter (between the low- and high-frequency components) of this model. We confirm the intermittent behavior of the periodicity near 155 days. Correlation coefficients between the radio emission at 810 MHz and sunspot numbers, as well as the radio emission at 2800 MHz calculated for 540 day intervals, depend on the solar cycle phase.

  10. Evaluation of the Initial Isothermal Physics Measurements at the Fast Flux Test Facility, a Prototypic Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John D. Bess

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was a 400-MWt, sodium-cooled, low-pressure, high-temperature, fast-neutron flux, nuclear fission reactor plant designed for the irradiation testing of nuclear reactor fuels and materials for the development of liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs). The FFTF was fueled with plutonium-uranium mixed oxide (MOX) and reflected by Inconel-600. Westinghouse Hanford Company operated the FFTF as part of the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL) for the U.S. Department of Energy on the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Although the FFTF was a testing facility not specifically designed to breed fuel or produce electricity, it did provide valuable information for LMFBR projects and base technology programs in the areas of plant system and component design, component fabrication, prototype testing, and site construction. The major objectives of the FFTF were to provide a strong, disciplined engineering base for the LMFBR program, provide fast flux testing for other U.S. programs, and contribute to the development of a viable self-sustaining competitive U.S. LMFBR industry. During its ten years of operation, the FFTF acted as a national research facility to test advanced nuclear fuels, materials, components, systems, nuclear power plant operating and maintenance procedures, and active and passive reactor safety technologies; it also produced a large number of isotopes for medical and industrial users, generated tritium for the U.S. fusion research program, and participated in cooperative, international research work. Prior to the implementation of the reactor characterization program, a series of isothermal physics measurements were performed; this acceptance testing program consisted of a series of control rod worths, critical rod positions, subcriticality measurements, maximum reactivity addition rates, shutdown margins, excess reactivity, and isothermal temperature coefficient reactivity. The results of these experiments were of particular importance because they provide extensive information which can be directly applied to the design of large LMFBR’s. It should be recognized that the data presented in the initial report were evaluated only to the extent necessary to ensure that adequate data were obtained. Later reports provided further interpretation and detailed comparisons with prediction techniques. The conclusion of the isothermal physics measurements was that the FFTF nuclear characteristics were essentially as designed and all safety requirements were satisfied. From a nuclear point of view, the FFTF was qualified to proceed into power operation mode. The FFTF was completed in 1978 and first achieved criticality on February 9, 1980. Upon completion of the isothermal physics and reactor characterization programs, the FFTF operated for ten years from April 1982 to April 1992. Reactor operations of the FFTF were terminated and the reactor facility was then defueled, deactivated, and placed into cold standby condition. Deactivation of the reactor was put on hold from 1996 to 2000 while the U.S. Department of Energy examined alternative uses for the FFTF but then announced the permanent deactivation of the FFTF in December 2001. Its core support basket was later drilled in May 2005, so as to remove all remaining sodium coolant. On April 17, 2006, the American Nuclear Society designated the FFTF as a “National Nuclear Historic Landmark”.

  11. Validation of a Monte Carlo based depletion methodology via High Flux Isotope Reactor HEU post-irradiation examination measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to validate a Monte Carlo based depletion methodology by comparing calculated post-irradiation uranium isotopic compositions in the fuel elements of the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) core to values measured using uranium mass-spectrographic analysis. Three fuel plates were analyzed: two from the outer fuel element (OFE) and one from the inner fuel element (IFE). Fuel plates O-111-8, O-350-1, and I-417-24 from outer fuel elements 5-O and 21-O and inner fuel element 49-I, respectively, were selected for examination. Fuel elements 5-O, 21-O, and 49-1 were loaded into HFIR during cycles 4, 16, and 35, respectively (mid to late 1960s). Approximately one year after each of these elements were irradiated, they were transferred to the High Radiation Level Examination Laboratory (HRLEL) where samples from these fuel plates were sectioned and examined via uranium mass-spectrographic analysis. The isotopic composition of each of the samples was used to determine the atomic percent of the uranium isotopes. A Monte Carlo based depletion computer program, ALEPH, which couples the MCNP and ORIGEN codes, was utilized to calculate the nuclide inventory at the end-of-cycle (EOC). A current ALEPH/MCNP input for HFIR fuel cycle 400 was modified to replicate cycles 4, 16, and 35. The control element withdrawal curves and flux trap loadings were revised, as well as the radial zone boundaries and nuclide concentrations in the MCNP model. The calculated EOC uranium isotopic compositions for the analyzed plates were found to be in good agreement with measurements, which reveals that ALEPH/MCNP can accurately calculate burn-up dependent uranium isotopic concentrations for the HFIR core. The spatial power distribution in HFIR changes significantly as irradiation time increases due to control element movement. Accurate calculation of the end-of-life uranium isotopic inventory is a good indicator that the power distribution variation as a function of space and time is accurately calculated, i.e. an integral check. Hence, the time dependent heat generation source terms needed for reactor core thermal hydraulic analysis, if derived from this methodology, have been shown to be accurate for highly enriched uranium (HEU) fuel.

  12. Noninterceptive method to measure longitudinal Twiss parameters of a beam in a hadron linear accelerator using beam position monitors

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shishlo, A.; Aleksandrov, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new method of measuring of the rms longitudinal Twiss parameters of a beam in linear accelerators is presented. It is based on using sum signals from beam position monitors sensitive to the longitudinal charge distribution in the bunch. The applicability of the method is demonstrated on the superconducting section of the Oak Ridge Spallation Neutron Source linear accelerator. The results are compared to a direct measurement of the bunch longitudinal profiles using an interceptive bunch shape monitor in the linac warm section of the same accelerator. Limitations of the method are discussed. The method is fast and simple, and can be used to obtain the initial parameters for the longitudinal matching in linear accelerators where interceptive diagnostics are not desirable.

  13. Constraints on neutrino oscillation parameters from the measurement of day-night solar neutrino fluxes at Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Super-Kamiokande Collaboration; :; Y. Fukuda; T. Hayakawa; E. Ichihara; K. Inoue

    1998-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A search for day-night variations in the solar neutrino flux resulting from neutrino oscillations has been carried out using the 504 day sample of solar neutrino data obtained at Super-Kamiokande. The absence of a significant day-night variation has set an absolute flux independent exclusion region in the two neutrino oscillation parameter space.

  14. ARM - Measurement - Actinic flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhen Floating Ice

  15. ARM - Measurement - Methane flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowband upwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery

  16. Assessing net ecosystem carbon exchange of U S terrestrial ecosystems by integrating eddy covariance flux measurements and satellite observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Qianlai [Purdue University; Law, Beverly E. [Oregon State University; Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley; Ma, Siyan [University of California, Berkeley; Chen, Jiquan [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Richardson, Andrew [Harvard University; Melillo, Jerry [Marine Biological Laboratory; Davis, Ken J. [Pennsylvania State University; Hollinger, D. [USDA Forest Service; Wharton, Sonia [University of California, Davis; Falk, Matthias [University of California, Davis; Paw, U. Kyaw Tha [University of California, Davis; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Katulk, Gabriel G. [Duke University; Noormets, Asko [North Carolina State University; Fischer, Marc [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Verma, Shashi [University of Nebraska; Suyker, A. E. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Cook, David R. [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Sun, G. [USDA Forest Service; McNulty, Steven G. [USDA Forest Service; Wofsy, Steve [Harvard University; Bolstad, Paul V [University of Minnesota; Burns, Sean [University of Colorado, Boulder; Monson, Russell K. [University of Colorado, Boulder; Curtis, Peter [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Drake, Bert G. [Smithsonian Environmental Research Center, Edgewater, MD; Foster, David R. [Harvard University; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL; Hadley, Julian L. [Harvard University; Litvak, Marcy [University of New Mexico, Albuquerque; Martin, Timothy A. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Matamala, Roser [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Meyers, Tilden [NOAA, Oak Ridge, TN; Oechel, Walter C. [San Diego State University; Schmid, H. P. [Indiana University; Scott, Russell L. [USDA ARS; Torn, Margaret S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More accurate projections of future carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere and associated climate change depend on improved scientific understanding of the terrestrial carbon cycle. Despite the consensus that U.S. terrestrial ecosystems provide a carbon sink, the size, distribution, and interannual variability of this sink remain uncertain. Here we report a terrestrial carbon sink in the conterminous U.S. at 0.63 pg C yr 1 with the majority of the sink in regions dominated by evergreen and deciduous forests and savannas. This estimate is based on our continuous estimates of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) with high spatial (1 km) and temporal (8-day) resolutions derived from NEE measurements from eddy covariance flux towers and wall-to-wall satellite observations from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). We find that the U.S. terrestrial ecosystems could offset a maximum of 40% of the fossil-fuel carbon emissions. Our results show that the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink varied between 0.51 and 0.70 pg C yr 1 over the period 2001 2006. The dominant sources of interannual variation of the carbon sink included extreme climate events and disturbances. Droughts in 2002 and 2006 reduced the U.S. carbon sink by 20% relative to a normal year. Disturbances including wildfires and hurricanes reduced carbon uptake or resulted in carbon release at regional scales. Our results provide an alternative, independent, and novel constraint to the U.S. terrestrial carbon sink.

  17. Measurement and Partitioning of in situ Carbon Fluxes in Turfgrasses D.J. Bremer*, J.M. Ham, and K. Su*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    procedure was developed that accounted for this small soil flux. Licor6400 Custom Chamber FlowMeter Voltage) that illustrate the design of a pressurized chamber system. A variable flow air pump and manometer were used. 1). · Measurements collected at Rocky Ford Turfgrass Research Center, Manhattan, KS. · Soil type

  18. A Microfluidic Device with a Linear Temperature Gradient for Parallel and Combinatorial Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . If a hot reservoir and a cold sink are separated by a straight wall of thickness L within the plane of position. The principle we adopt for designing linear temperature control into an on-chip device15 rests

  19. Depletion, quantum jumps, and temperature measurements of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul Trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richerme, Philip J

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the design and construction of two laser systems to probe the 674nm transition of ??Sr? ions in a linear Paul trap. The first laser system made use of a molecular transition in Iodine to stabilize the ...

  20. Fission-chamber-compensated self-powered detector for in-core flux measurement and reactor control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neissel, J.P.

    1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for in-core flux measurement and nuclear reactor control consisting of: a self-powered rhodium neutron detector for producing an output signal corresponding to reactor power level; first amplifier means having an input for receiving the neutron detector output signal, and the first amplifier means producing a corresponding first amplifier output signal (V/sub 1/); a fission chamber for producing an output signal corresponding to reactor power level; second amplifier means having an input for receiving the fission chamber output signal, the second amplifier means producing a corresponding second amplifier output signal; first differentiating means coupled to the output of the second amplifier means including a resistor and a capacitor coupled to provide a time constant T/sub 1//1n 2 where T/sub 1/ is the half-life of the ground state of Rh/sup 104/; third amplifier means having an input for receiving the second amplifier means output signal, the third amplifier means having a voltage gain of (1-c)/c; second differentiating means coupled to the output of the third amplifying means and including a capacitor and resistor providing a time constant T/sub 2//1n 2 where T/sub 2/ is the half-life of the isomeric state of Rh/sup 104/; and fourth amplifier means including corresponding inputs for receiving the output of the first amplifier means, a processed output from the first differentiating circuit, and a processed output from the second differentiating circuit, and for producing a corresponding summed output signal.

  1. Compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam probe system for measurement of two-dimensional electron density profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibata, Y., E-mail: shibata.yoshihide@jaea.go.jp; Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M. [Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Kajita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8603 (Japan); Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ?4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup ?2} s{sup ?1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.

  2. A Continuous Measure of Gross Primary Production for the Conterminous U.S. Derived from MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Law, Beverly E.; Chen, Jiquan; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Cook, David R.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Wharton, Sonia; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Verma, Shashi B.; Suyker, Andrew E.; Scott, Russell L.; Monson, Russell K.; Litvak, Marcy; Hollinger, David Y.; Sun, Ge; Davis, Kenneth J.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Starr, Gregory; Torn, Margaret S.; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2009-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The quantification of carbon fluxes between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is of scientific importance and also relevant to climate-policy making. Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of ecosystem-level exchange of carbon dioxide spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. However, these measurements only represent the fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to upscale gross primary productivity (GPP) data from eddy covariance flux towers to the continental scale. We first combined GPP and MODIS data for 42 AmeriFlux towers encompassing a wide range of ecosystem and climate types to develop a predictive GPP model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained using observed GPP over the period 2000-2004, and was validated using observed GPP over the period 2005-2006 and leave-one-out cross-validation. Our model predicted GPP fairly well at the site level. We then used the model to estimate GPP for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the U.S. for each 8-day interval over the period from February 2000 to December 2006 using MODIS data. Our GPP estimates provide a spatially and temporally continuous measure of gross primary production for the U.S. that is a highly constrained by eddy covariance flux data. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for upscaling eddy flux GPP data to the continental scale and producing continuous GPP estimates across multiple biomes. With these estimates, we then examined the patterns, magnitude, and interannual variability of GPP. We estimated a gross carbon uptake between 6.91 and 7.33 Pg C yr{sup -1} for the conterminous U.S. Drought, fires, and hurricanes reduced annual GPP at regional scales and could have a significant impact on the U.S. net ecosystem carbon exchange. The sources of the interannual variability of U.S. GPP were dominated by these extreme climate events and disturbances.

  3. Improved Pressure Sensitive Paint Measurement using Natural Feature Tracking and Piecewise Linear Resection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitehead, Anthony

    Slide Improved Pressure Sensitive Paint Measurement using Natural Feature Tracking and Piecewise #12;Slide Surface Pressure Measurement: Model Taps Delta wing model Pressure Taps 3 #12;Slide Surface #12;Slide Surface Pressure Measurement: Surface Data Higher Pressure Lower Pressure Complete Pressure

  4. Linear line spectropolarimetry as a new window to measure 2D and 3D wind geometries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vink, Jorick S

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Various theories have been proposed to predict how mass loss depends on the stellar rotation rate, both in terms of its strength, as well as its latitudinal dependence, crucial for our understanding of angular momentum evolution. Here we discuss the tool of linear spectropolarimetry that can probe the difference between mass loss from the pole versus the equator. Our results involve several groups of O stars and Wolf-Rayet stars, involving Oe stars, Of?p stars, Onfp stars, as well as the best candidate gamma-ray burst progenitors identified to date.

  5. What Is a Good Linear Finite Element? Interpolation, Conditioning, Anisotropy, and Quality Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, Pascal

    -9875170, CMS-9980063, CCR-0204377, and EIA- 9802069, and in part by a gift from the Okawa Foundation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 6.3 A Brief Survey of Quality Measures

  6. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (??,??)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity ? of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from ?(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that themore »glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although ? elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.« less

  7. Gluon correlations from a glasma flux-tube model compared to measured hadron correlations on transverse momentum (pt,pt) and angular differences (??,??)

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Trainor, Thomas A.; Ray, R. L.

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A glasma flux-tube model has been proposed to explain strong elongation on pseudorapidity ? of the same-side two-dimensional (2D) peak in minimum-bias angular correlations from ?(sNN)=200 GeV Au-Au collisions. The same-side peak or “soft ridge” is said to arise from coupling of flux tubes to radial flow whereby gluons radiated transversely from flux tubes are boosted by radial flow to form a narrow structure or ridge on azimuth. In this study we test the theory conjecture by comparing measurements to predictions for particle production, spectra, and correlations from the glasma model and from conventional fragmentation processes. We conclude that the glasma model is contradicted by measured hadron yields, spectra, and correlations, whereas a two-component model of hadron production, including minimum-bias parton fragmentation, provides a quantitative description of most features of the data, although ? elongation of the same-side 2D peak remains undescribed.

  8. Precision Measurement of the Proton Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from Rigidity 1 GV to 1.8 TV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, M.

    A precise measurement of the proton flux in primary cosmic rays with rigidity (momentum/charge) from 1 GV to 1.8 TV is presented based on 300 million events. Knowledge of the rigidity dependence of the proton flux is ...

  9. Determining Reactor Neutrino Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jun Cao

    2012-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Flux is an important source of uncertainties for a reactor neutrino experiment. It is determined from thermal power measurements, reactor core simulation, and knowledge of neutrino spectra of fuel isotopes. Past reactor neutrino experiments have determined the flux to (2-3)% precision. Precision measurements of mixing angle $\\theta_{13}$ by reactor neutrino experiments in the coming years will use near-far detector configurations. Most uncertainties from reactor will be canceled out. Understanding of the correlation of uncertainties is required for $\\theta_{13}$ experiments. Precise determination of reactor neutrino flux will also improve the sensitivity of the non-proliferation monitoring and future reactor experiments. We will discuss the flux calculation and recent progresses.

  10. Radiative Flux Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Long, Chuck [NOAA

    The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

  11. A Method for the Precision Mass Measurement of the Stop Quark at the International Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freitas, Ayres; /Chicago U. /Argonne /Zurich U.; Milstene, Caroline; /Fermilab /Wayne State U.; Schmitt, Michael; /Northwestern U.; Sopczak, Andre; /Lancaster U.

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many supersymmetric models predict new particles within the reach of the next generation of colliders. For an understanding of the model structure and the mechanism(s) of symmetry breaking, it is important to know the masses of the new particles precisely. In this article the measurement of the mass of the scalar partner of the top quark (stop) at an e+e- collider is studied. A relatively light stop is motivated by attempts to explain electroweak baryogenesis and can play an important role in dark matter relic density. A method is presented which makes use of cross-section measurements near the pair-production threshold as well as at higher center-of-mass energies. It is shown that this method not only increases the statistical precision, but also greatly reduces the systematic uncertainties, which can be important. Numerical results are presented, based on a realistic event simulation, for two signal selection strategies: using conventional selection cuts, and using an Iterative Discriminant Analysis (IDA). Our studies indicate that a precision of {Delta}m{tilde t}{sub 1} = 0.42 GeV can be achieved, representing a major improvement over previous studies. While the analysis of stops is particularly challenging due to the possibility of stop hadronization, the general procedure could be applied to the mass measurement of other particles as well. We also comment on the potential of the IDA to discover a stop quark in this scenario, and we revisit the accuracy of the theoretical predictions for the neutralino relic density

  12. Measurement of the nue and Total 8B Solar Neutrino Fluxes with the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory Phase I Data Set

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    were checked by re- running the signal-loss measurement withrunning—is not used for solar neutrino analysis. Other losses

  13. SYNOPTIC MAPPING OF CHROMOSPHERIC MAGNETIC FLUX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, C. L. [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Harvey, J. W.; Pietarila, A., E-mail: cljin@nao.cas.cn, E-mail: jharvey@nso.edu, E-mail: apietarila@nso.edu [National Solar Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States)

    2013-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We used daily full-disk Ca II 854.2 nm magnetograms from the Synoptic Optical Long Term Investigations of the Sun (SOLIS) facility to study the chromospheric magnetic field from 2006 April through 2009 November. We determined and corrected previously unidentified zero offsets in the SOLIS magnetograms. By tracking the disk passages of stable unipolar regions, the measured net flux densities were found to systematically decrease from the disk center to the limb by a factor of about two. This decrease was modeled using a thin flux tube model with a difference in signal formation height between the center and limb sides. Comparison of photospheric and chromospheric observations shows that their differences are largely due to horizontal spreading of magnetic flux with increasing height. The north polar magnetic field decreased nearly linearly with time during our study period while the south polar field was nearly constant. We used the annual change in the viewing angle of the polar regions to estimate the radial and meridional components of the polar fields and found that the south polar fields were tilted away from the pole. Synoptic maps of the chromospheric radial flux density distribution were used as boundary conditions for extrapolation of the field from the chromosphere into the corona. A comparison of modeled and observed coronal hole boundaries and coronal streamer positions showed better agreement when using the chromospheric rather than the photospheric synoptic maps.

  14. Early-Time Flux Measurements of SN 2014J Obtained with Small Robotic Telescopes: Extending the AAVSO Light Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poppe, B; Zheng, W; Shivvers, I; Itagaki, K; Filippenko, A V; Kunz, J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, early-time photometry of supernova (SN) 2014J is presented, extending the AAVSO CCD database to prediscovery dates. The applicability of NASA's small robotic MicroObservatory Network telescopes for photometric measurements is evaluated. Prediscovery and postdiscovery photometry of SN 2014J is measured from images taken by two different telescopes of the network, and is compared to measurements from the Katzman Automatic Imaging Telescope and the Itagaki Observatory. In the early light-curve phase (which exhibits stable spectral behavior with constant color indices), these data agree with reasonably high accuracy (better than 0.05 mag around maximum brightness, and 0.15 mag at earlier times). Owing to the changing spectral energy distribution of the SN and the different spectral characteristics of the systems used, differences increase after maximum light. We augment light curves of SN 2014J downloaded from the American Association of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO) online database with these dat...

  15. Physics of Intrinsic Rotation in Flux-Driven ITG Turbulence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ku, S; Dimond, P H; Dif-Pradalier, G; Kwon, J M; Sarazin, Y; Hahm, T S; Garbet, X; Chang, C S; Latu, G; Yoon, E S; Ghendrih, Ph; Yi, S; Strugarek, A; Solomon, W

    2012-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Global, heat flux-driven ITG gyrokinetic simulations which manifest the formation of macroscopic, mean toroidal flow profiles with peak thermal Mach number 0.05, are reported. Both a particle-in-cell (XGC1p) and a semi-Lagrangian (GYSELA) approach are utilized without a priori assumptions of scale-separation between turbulence and mean fields. Flux-driven ITG simulations with different edge flow boundary conditions show in both approaches the development of net unidirectional intrinsic rotation in the co-current direction. Intrinsic torque is shown to scale approximately linearly with the inverse scale length of the ion temperature gradient. External momentum input is shown to effectively cancel the intrinsic rotation profile, thus confirming the existence of a local residual stress and intrinsic torque. Fluctuation intensity, intrinsic torque and mean flow are demonstrated to develop inwards from the boundary. The measured correlations between residual stress and two fluctuation spectrum symmetry breakers, namely E x B shear and intensity gradient, are similar. Avalanches of (positive) heat flux, which propagate either outwards or inwards, are correlated with avalanches of (negative) parallel momentum flux, so that outward transport of heat and inward transport of parallel momentum are correlated and mediated by avalanches. The probability distribution functions of the outward heat flux and the inward momentum flux show strong structural similarity

  16. au flux diffus: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    contribution of the GRB prompt and scattered emissions to the measured extragalactic gamma-ray flux. To estimate this contribution we optimistically require that the energy flux...

  17. High dynamic range measurement of spectral responsivity and linearity of a radiation thermometer using a super-continuum laser and LEDs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Y. S.; Lee, D. H.; Park, C. W.; Park, S. N. [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)] [Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science 209 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejon 305-340 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    To realize the temperature scale above the freezing point of silver according to the definition of ITS-90, the dynamic range of the spectral responsivity is one of the most important factors which limit its uncertainty. When the residual spectral response at both side bands of a spectral band is not negligible, a significant uncertainty can be caused by a low dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement. In general, incandescent lamps are used to measure the spectral responsivity and the linearity. The dynamic range of the spectral responsivity measurement is often limited by a trade-off with the desired spectral resolution, which is less than 6 decades. Nonlinearity is another limiting fact of uncertainties of the temperature scale. Tungsten lamps have disadvantage in the nonlinearity measurements in terms of adjustability of radiance level and spectral selectivity. We report spectral responsivity measurements of which the measurable dynamic range is enhanced 50 times after replacing a QTH lamp with a super continuum laser. We also present a spectrally selected linearity measurement over a wide dynamic range using high-brightness light emitting diode arrays to observe a slight saturation of linearity.

  18. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Doncker, R.W.A.A.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other. 3 figs.

  19. High speed flux feedback for tuning a universal field oriented controller capable of operating in direct and indirect field orientation modes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Doncker, Rik W. A. A. (Schenectady, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The direct (d) and quadrature (q) components of flux, as sensed by flux sensors or determined from voltage and current measurements in a direct field orientation scheme, are processed rapidly and accurately to provide flux amplitude and angular position values for use by the vector rotator of a universal field-oriented (UFO) controller. Flux amplitude (linear or squared) is provided as feedback to tune the UFO controller for operation in direct and indirect field orientation modes and enables smooth transitions from one mode to the other.

  20. The Ability of MM5 to Simulate Ice Clouds: Systematic Comparison between Simulated and Measured Fluxes and Lidar/Radar Profiles at SIRTA Atmospheric Observatory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiriaco, M.; Vautard, R.; Chepfer, H.; Haeffelin, M.; Wanherdrick, Y.; Morille, Y.; Protat, A.; Dudhia, J.

    2005-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Ice clouds play a major role in the radiative energy budget of the Earth-atmosphere system (Liou 1986). Their radiative effect is governed primarily by the equilibrium between their albedo and greenhouse effects. Both macrophysical and microphysical properties of ice clouds regulate this equilibrium. For quantifying the effect of these clouds onto climate and weather systems, they must be properly characterized in atmospheric models. In this paper we use remote-sensing measurements from the SIRTA ground based atmospheric observatory (Site Instrumental de Recherche par Teledetection Atmospherique, http://sirta.lmd.polytechnique.fr). Lidar and radar observations taken over 18 months are used, in order to gain statistical confidence in the model evaluation. Along this period of time, 62 days are selected for study because they contain parts of ice clouds. We use the ''model to observations'' approach by simulating lidar and radar signals from MM5 outputs. Other more classical variables such as shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes are also used. Four microphysical schemes, among which that proposed by Reisner et al. (1998) with original or modified parameterizations of particle terminal fall velocities (Zurovac-Jevtic and Zhang 2003, Heymsfield and Donner 1990), and the simplified Dudhia (1989) scheme are evaluated in this study.

  1. Precision Measurement of the (e[superscript +] + e[superscript ?) Flux in Primary Cosmic Rays from 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar, M.

    We present a measurement of the cosmic ray (e[superscript +] + e[superscript -]) flux in the range 0.5 GeV to 1 TeV based on the analysis of 10.6 million (e[superscript +] + e[superscript -]) events collected by AMS. The ...

  2. The Solar Wind Energy Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chat, G Le; Meyer-Vernet, N

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar-wind energy flux measured near the ecliptic is known to be independent of the solar-wind speed. Using plasma data from Helios, Ulysses, and Wind covering a large range of latitudes and time, we show that the solar-wind energy flux is independent of the solar-wind speed and latitude within 10%, and that this quantity varies weakly over the solar cycle. In other words the energy flux appears as a global solar constant. We also show that the very high speed solar-wind (VSW > 700 km/s) has the same mean energy flux as the slower wind (VSW < 700 km/s), but with a different histogram. We use this result to deduce a relation between the solar-wind speed and density, which formalizes the anti-correlation between these quantities.

  3. Ozone fluxes in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem are dominated by non-stomatal processes: Evidence from long-term continuous measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstein, Allen

    Ozone fluxes in a Pinus ponderosa ecosystem are dominated by non-stomatal processes: Evidence from and Atmospheric Research Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands 1. Introduction Ozone is considered one of the most dangerous oxidant molecules for plants (UNECE, 2004; EPA, 2007). Ozone concentra- tion

  4. Using model analyses and surface-atmosphere exchange measurements from the Howland AmeriFlux Site in Maine, USA, to improve understanding of forest ecosystem C cycling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollinger, David Y.; Davidson, Eric A.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Dail, D. B.; Scott, N.

    2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Summary of research carried out under Interagency Agreement DE-AI02-07ER64355 with the USDA Forest Service at the Howland Forest AmeriFlux site in central Maine. Includes a list of publications resulting in part or whole from this support.

  5. Winding for linear pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.

    1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.

  6. Winding for linear pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kliman, Gerald B. (Schenectady, NY); Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Jahns, Thomas M. (Schenectady, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.

  7. Non-Linear Dynamics of Continuously Measured Bose-Einstein Condensates in One-Dimensional Harmonic Traps

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Yu. Ivanova; M. S. Samoylova; D. A. Ivanov

    2011-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Continuous center-of-mass position measurements performed on an interacting harmonically trapped Bose-gas are considered. Using both semi-analytical mean-field approach and completely quantum numerical technique based on positive P-representation, it is demonstrated that the atomic delocalization due to the measurement back action is smaller for a strongly interacting gas. The numerically calculated second-order correlation functions demonstrate appearance of atomic bunching as a result of the center-of-mass measurement. Though being rather small the bunching is present also for strongly interacting gas which is in contrast with the case of unperturbed gas. The performed analysis allows to speculate that for relatively strong interactions the size of atomic cloud determined with a single snapshot measurement can become smaller than the ground-state cloud size.

  8. Measurements of photon scattering lengths in scintillator and a test of the linearity of light yield as a function of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of - Department of Physics, Electroweak Interaction Research Group

    neutrinoless double beta decay and measure solar neutrinos and geoneutrinos. The type of particle by ap- proximately 9500 PMTs. For detections of neutrinoless double beta decay, the liquid scintillator double beta decay, low energy solar neutrinos, geo- neutrinos and supernova neutrinos using scintillation

  9. Laser induced fluorescence measurements of ion velocity and temperature of drift turbulence driven sheared plasma flow in a linear helicon plasma device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chakraborty Thakur, S.; Fedorczak, N.; Manz, P.; Tynan, G. R.; Xu, M. [Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States); McCarren, D.; Scime, E. E. [Department of Physics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Lee, T. [Center for Energy Research, University of California at San Diego, San Diego, California 92093 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Using laser induced fluorescence (LIF), radial profiles of azimuthal ion fluid velocity and ion temperature are measured in the controlled shear de-correlation experiment (CSDX) linear helicon plasma device. Ion velocities and temperatures are derived from the measured Doppler broadened velocity distribution functions of argon ions. The LIF system employs a portable, high power (>300 mW), narrowband ({approx}1 MHz) tunable diode laser-based system operating at 668.614 nm. Previous studies in CSDX have shown the existence of a radially sheared azimuthal flow as measured with time delay estimation methods and Mach probes. Here, we report the first LIF measurements of sheared plasma fluid flow in CSDX. Above a critical magnetic field, the ion fluid flow profile evolves from radially uniform to peaked on axis with a distinct reversed flow region at the boundary, indicating the development of a sheared azimuthal flow. Simultaneously, the ion temperature also evolves from a radially uniform profile to a profile with a gradient. Measurements in turbulent and coherent drift wave mode dominated plasmas are compared.

  10. Measurement of the neutron leakage from a dedicated intraoperative radiation therapy electron linear accelerator and a conventional linear accelerator for 9, 12, 15(16), and 18(20) MeV electron energies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaradat, Adnan K.; Biggs, Peter J. [Department of Physics, University of Massachusetts Lowell, One University Avenue, Lowell, Massachusetts 01854 (United States); Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The issue of neutron leakage has recently been raised in connection with dedicated electron-only linear accelerators used for intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT). In particular, concern has been expressed about the degree of neutron production at energies of 10 MeV and higher due to the need for additional, perhaps permanent, shielding in the room in which the device is operated. In particular, three mobile linear accelerators available commercially offer electron energies at or above the neutron threshold, one at 9 MeV, one at 10 MeV, and the third at 12 MeV. To investigate this problem, neutron leakage has been measured around the head of two types of electron accelerators at a distance of 1 m from the target at azimuthal angles of 0 deg., 45 deg., 90 deg., 135 deg., and 180 deg. The first is a dedicated electron-only (nonmobile) machine with electron energies of 6 (not used here), 9, 12, 15, and 18 MeV and the second a conventional machine with electron energies of 6 (also not used here), 9, 12, 16, and 20 MeV. Measurements were made using neutron bubble detectors and track-etch detectors. For electron beams from a conventional accelerator, the neutron leakage in the forward direction in Sv/Gy is 2.1x10{sup -5} at 12 MeV, 1.3x10{sup -4} at 16 MeV, and 4.2x10{sup -4} at 20 MeV, assuming a quality factor (RBE) of 10. For azimuthal angles >0 deg., the leakage is almost angle independent [2x10{sup -6} at 12 MeV; (0.7-1.6)x10{sup -5} at 16 MeV, and (1.6-2.9)x10{sup -5} at 20 MeV]. For the electron-only machine, the neutron leakage was lower than for the conventional linac, but also independent of azimuthal angle for angles >0 deg. : ([0 deg. : 7.7x10{sup -6} at 12 MeV; 3.0x10{sup -5} at 15 MeV; 1.0x10{sup -4} at 18 MeV]; [other angles: (2.6-5.9)x10{sup -7} at 12 MeV; (1.4-2.2)x10{sup -6} at 15 MeV; (2.7-4.7)x10{sup -6} at 18 MeV]). Using the upper limit of 6x10{sup -7} Sv/Gy at 12 MeV for the IORT machine for azimuthal angles >0 deg. and assuming a workload of 200 Gy/wk and an inverse square factor of 10, the neutron dose equivalent is calculated to be 0.012 mSv/wk. For the primary beam at 12 MeV (0 deg. ), the 10x higher dose would be compensated by the attenuation of a primary beam stopper in a mobile linear accelerator. These neutron radiation levels are below regulatory values (National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements, 'Limitation of exposure to ionizing radiation', NCRP Report No. 116, NCRP Bethesda, MD, 1993)

  11. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    designs (relatively) Photovoltaic Solar P a n e l AtmosphereCALIFORNIA, SAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A ThesisABSTRACT OF T H E THESIS Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux by

  12. Noise-Produced Patterns in Images Constructed from Magnetic Flux Leakage Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V; Levesley, Jeremy; Elkington, Peter; Bacciarelli, Mark

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic flux leakage measurements help identify the position, size and shape of corrosion-related defects in steel casings used to protect boreholes drilled into oil and gas reservoirs. Images constructed from magnetic flux leakage data contain patterns related to noise inherent in the method. We investigate the patterns and their scaling properties for the case of delta-correlated input noise, and consider the implications for the method's ability to resolve defects. The analytical evaluation of the noise-produced patterns is made possible by model reduction facilitated by large-scale approximation. With appropriate modification, the approach can be employed to analyze noise-produced patterns in other situations where the data of interest are not measured directly, but are related to the measured data by a complex linear transform involving integrations with respect to spatial coordinates.

  13. Heisenberg groups and noncommutative fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freed, Daniel S. [Department of Mathematics, University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712 (United States)]. E-mail: dafr@math.utexas.edu; Moore, Gregory W. [Department of Physics, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854-8019 (United States); Segal, Graeme [All Souls College, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a group-theoretical approach to the formulation of generalized abelian gauge theories, such as those appearing in string theory and M-theory. We explore several applications of this approach. First, we show that there is an uncertainty relation which obstructs simultaneous measurement of electric and magnetic flux when torsion fluxes are included. Next, we show how to define the Hilbert space of a self-dual field. The Hilbert space is Z{sub 2}-graded and we show that, in general, self-dual theories (including the RR fields of string theory) have fermionic sectors. We indicate how rational conformal field theories associated to the two-dimensional Gaussian model generalize to (4k+2)-dimensional conformal field theories. When our ideas are applied to the RR fields of string theory we learn that it is impossible to measure the K-theory class of a RR field. Only the reduction modulo torsion can be measured.

  14. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine and return irradiated samples for each measurement make this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated under pressurized water reactor coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL’s High Temperature Test Laboratory.

  15. Linear variable differential transformer (LVDT)-based elongation measurements in Advanced Test Reactor high temperature irradiation testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. L. Knudson; J. L. Rempe

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New materials are being considered for fuel, cladding, and structures in next generation and existing nuclear reactors. These materials can undergo significant dimensional and physical changes during high temperature irradiations. Currently, such changes are determined by repeatedly irradiating a specimen for a specified period of time in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and then removing it from the reactor for evaluation. The labor and time to remove, examine, and return irradiated samples for each measurement makes this approach very expensive. In addition, such techniques provide limited data and may disturb the phenomena of interest. To resolve these issues, an instrumented creep testing capability is being developed for specimens irradiated in pressurized water reactor (PWR) coolant conditions in the ATR at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This paper reports the status of INL efforts to develop this testing capability. In addition to providing an overview of in-pile creep test capabilities available at other test reactors, this paper focuses on efforts to design and evaluate a prototype test rig in an autoclave at INL's High Temperature Test Laboratory (HTTL).

  16. Apparatus and method for detecting and measuring changes in linear relationships between a number of high frequency signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bittner, John W. (Shoreham, NY); Biscardi, Richard W. (Ridge, NY)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic measurement circuit for high speed comparison of the relative amplitudes of a predetermined number of electrical input signals independent of variations in the magnitude of the sum of the signals. The circuit includes a high speed electronic switch that is operably connected to receive on its respective input terminals one of said electrical input signals and to have its common terminal serve as an input for a variable-gain amplifier-detector circuit that is operably connected to feed its output to a common terminal of a second high speed electronic switch. The respective terminals of the second high speed electronic switch are operably connected to a plurality of integrating sample and hold circuits, which in turn have their outputs connected to a summing logic circuit that is operable to develop first, second and third output voltages, the first output voltage being proportional to a predetermined ratio of sums and differences between the compared input signals, the second output voltage being proportional to a second summed ratio of predetermined sums and differences between said input signals, and the third output voltage being proportional to the sum of signals to the summing logic circuit. A servo system that is operably connected to receive said third output signal and compare it with a reference voltage to develop a slowly varying feedback voltage to control the variable-gain amplifier in said common amplifier-detector circuit in order to make said first and second output signals independent of variations in the magnitude of the sum of said input signals.

  17. Apparatus and method for detecting and measuring changes in linear relationships between a number of high frequency signals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bittner, J.W.; Biscardi, R.W.

    1991-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic measurement circuit is disclosed for high speed comparison of the relative amplitudes of a predetermined number of electrical input signals independent of variations in the magnitude of the sum of the signals. The circuit includes a high speed electronic switch that is operably connected to receive on its respective input terminals one of said electrical input signals and to have its common terminal serve as an input for a variable-gain amplifier-detector circuit that is operably connected to feed its output to a common terminal of a second high speed electronic switch. The respective terminals of the second high speed electronic switch are operably connected to a plurality of integrating sample and hold circuits, which in turn have their outputs connected to a summing logic circuit that is operable to develop first, second and third output voltages, the first output voltage being proportional to a predetermined ratio of sums and differences between the compared input signals, the second output voltage being proportional to a second summed ratio of predetermined sums and differences between said input signals, and the third output voltage being proportional to the sum of signals to the summing logic circuit. A servo system that is operably connected to receive said third output signal and compare it with a reference voltage to develop a slowly varying feedback voltage to control the variable-gain amplifier in said common amplifier-detector circuit in order to make said first and second output signals independent of variations in the magnitude of the sum of said input signals. 2 figures.

  18. Measurement of the B0 ---> Psi (2S) Lambda0 Branching Fraction on BaBar at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (Abstract Only)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olivas, Alexander Raymond, Jr.; /Colorado U.

    2005-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The decays of B{sup 0} mesons to hadronic final states remains a rich area of physics on BaBar. Not only do the c{bar c}-K final states (e.g. B{sup 0} {yields} {psi}(2S)K{sup 0}) allow for the measurement of CP Violation, but the branching fractions provide a sensitive test of the theoretical methods used to account for low energy non-perturbative QCD effects. They present the measurement of the branching fraction for the decay B{sup 0} {yields} {psi}(2S)K{sub s}. The data set consists of 88.8 {+-} 1.0 x 10{sup 6} B{bar b} pairs collected on the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {Upsilon}(4S) resonance on BaBar/PEP-II at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). This analysis features a modification of present cuts, with respect to those published so far on BaBar, on the K{sub S} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and {psi}(2S) {yields} J/{psi}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -} which aim at reducing the background while keeping the signal intact. Various data selection criteria are studied for the lepton modes (e{sup +}e{sup -} and {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}) of the J/{psi} and {psi}(2S) to improve signal purity as well as study the stability of the resultant branching fractions.

  19. Polarimetric Properties of Flux-Ropes and Sheared Arcades in Coronal Prominence Cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachmeler, L A; Dove, J B; DeVore, C R; Fan, Y

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The coronal magnetic field is the primary driver of solar dynamic events. Linear and circular polarization signals of certain infrared coronal emission lines contain information about the magnetic field, and to access this information, either a forward or an inversion method must be used. We study three coronal magnetic configurations that are applicable to polar-crown filament cavities by doing forward calculations to produce synthetic polarization data. We analyze these forward data to determine the distinguishing characteristics of each model. We conclude that it is possible to distinguish between cylindrical flux ropes, spheromak flux ropes, and sheared arcades using coronal polarization measurements. If one of these models is found to be consistent with observational measurements, it will mean positive identification of the magnetic morphology that surrounds certain quiescent filaments, which will lead to a greater understanding of how they form and why they erupt.

  20. Photovoltaic roof heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samady, Mezhgan Frishta

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    e l Atmosphere ceiling, back panel roof, exposed roof insideSAN DIEGO Photovoltaic Roof Heat Flux A Thesis submitted i no n Convection Exposed Roof Temperature Seasonal Temperature

  1. Unsteady momentum fluxes in two-phase flow and the vibration of nuclear reactor components

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yih, Tien Sieh

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The steady and unsteady components of the momentum flux in a twophase flow have been measured at the exit of a vertical pipe. Measured momentum flux data has been machine processed by standard random vibration techniques ...

  2. Linear Accelerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)Integrated Codes |Is Your HomeLatestCenter (LMI-EFRC) -Choices toLeeLinear Accelerator

  3. Production flux of sea spray aerosol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    de Leeuw, G.; Lewis, E.; Andreas, E. L.; Anguelova, M. D.; Fairall, C. W.; O’Dowd, C.; Schulz, M.; Schwartz, S. E.

    2011-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the size- and composition-dependent production flux of primary sea spray aerosol (SSA) particles and its dependence on environmental variables is required for modeling cloud microphysical properties and aerosol radiative influences, interpreting measurements of particulate matter in coastal areas and its relation to air quality, and evaluating rates of uptake and reactions of gases in sea spray drops. This review examines recent research pertinent to SSA production flux, which deals mainly with production of particles with r{sub 80} (equilibrium radius at 80% relative humidity) less than 1 {micro}m and as small as 0.01 {micro}m. Production of sea spray particles and its dependence on controlling factors has been investigated in laboratory studies that have examined the dependences on water temperature, salinity, and the presence of organics and in field measurements with micrometeorological techniques that use newly developed fast optical particle sizers. Extensive measurements show that water-insoluble organic matter contributes substantially to the composition of SSA particles with r{sub 80} < 0.25 {micro}m and, in locations with high biological activity, can be the dominant constituent. Order-of-magnitude variation remains in estimates of the size-dependent production flux per white area, the quantity central to formulations of the production flux based on the whitecap method. This variation indicates that the production flux may depend on quantities such as the volume flux of air bubbles to the surface that are not accounted for in current models. Variation in estimates of the whitecap fraction as a function of wind speed contributes additional, comparable uncertainty to production flux estimates.

  4. QPOs: Einstein's gravity non-linear resonances

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paola Rebusco; Marek A. Abramowicz

    2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    There is strong evidence that the observed kHz Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the X-ray flux of neutron star and black hole sources in LMXRBs are linked to Einstein's General Relativity. Abramowicz&Klu\\'zniak (2001) suggested a non-linear resonance model to explain the QPOs origin: here we summarize their idea and the development of a mathematical toy-model which begins to throw light on the nature of Einstein's gravity non-linear oscillations.

  5. ARM - Measurement - Carbon dioxide (CO2) flux

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDC documentationBarrow, AlaskaWhenimageconcentration ARM Dataflux

  6. Benchmarking gyrokinetic simulations in a toroidal flux-tube

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Y.; Parker, S. E.; Wan, W. [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Bravenec, R. [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)] [Fourth-State Research, Austin, Texas 78704 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A flux-tube model is implemented in the global turbulence code GEM [Y. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comput. Phys. 220, 839 (2007)] in order to facilitate benchmarking with Eulerian codes. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. The initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ?B, etc.) to be equal to the values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. This implementation shows disagreement with Eulerian codes in linear simulations. An alternative flux-tube model based on a complete local equilibrium solution of the Grad-Shafranov equation [J. Candy, Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 51, 105009 (2009)] is then implemented. This results in better agreement between Eulerian codes and the particle-in-cell (PIC) method. The PIC algorithm based on the v{sub ||}-formalism [J. Reynders, Ph.D. dissertation, Princeton University, 1992] and the gyrokinetic ion/fluid electron hybrid model with kinetic electron closure [Y. Chan and S. E. Parker, Phys. Plasmas 18, 055703 (2011)] are also implemented in the flux-tube geometry and compared with the direct method for both the ion temperature gradient driven modes and the kinetic ballooning modes.

  7. Laser Wire Scanner Compton Scattering Techniques for the Measurement of the Transverse Beam Size of Particle Beams at Future Linear Colliders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agapov, I; Blair, G A; Bosser, J; Braun, H H; Bravin, E; Boorman, G; Boogert, S T; Carter, J; D'amico, E; Delerue, N; Howell, D F; Doebert, S; Driouichi, C; Frisch, J; Hutchins, K Honkavaaram S; Kamps, T; Lefevre, T; Lewin, H; Paris, T; Poirier, F; Price, M T; Maccaferi, R; Malton, S; Penn, G; Ross, I N; Ross, M; Schlarb, H; Schmueser, P; Schreiber, S; Sertore, D; Walker, N; Wendt, M; Wittenburg, K

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This archive summarizes a working paper and conference proceedings related to laser wire scanner development for the Future Linear Collider (FLC) in the years 2001 to 2006. In particular the design, setup and data taking for the laser wire experiments at PETRA II and CT2 are described. The material is focused on the activities undertaken by Royal Holloway University of London (RHUL).

  8. Curl flux, coherence, and population landscape of molecular systems: Nonequilibrium quantum steady state, energy (charge) transport, and thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Wang, J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); Department of Chemistry, SUNY Stony Brook, New York 11794 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Electroanalytical Chemistry, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun, Jilin 130022 (China)

    2014-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We established a theoretical framework in terms of the curl flux, population landscape, and coherence for non-equilibrium quantum systems at steady state, through exploring the energy and charge transport in molecular processes. The curl quantum flux plays the key role in determining transport properties and the system reaches equilibrium when flux vanishes. The novel curl quantum flux reflects the degree of non-equilibriumness and the time-irreversibility. We found an analytical expression for the quantum flux and its relationship to the environmental pumping (non-equilibriumness quantified by the voltage away from the equilibrium) and the quantum tunneling. Furthermore, we investigated another quantum signature, the coherence, quantitatively measured by the non-zero off diagonal element of the density matrix. Populations of states give the probabilities of individual states and therefore quantify the population landscape. Both curl flux and coherence depend on steady state population landscape. Besides the environment-assistance which can give dramatic enhancement of coherence and quantum flux with high voltage at a fixed tunneling strength, the quantum flux is promoted by the coherence in the regime of small tunneling while reduced by the coherence in the regime of large tunneling, due to the non-monotonic relationship between the coherence and tunneling. This is in contrast to the previously found linear relationship. For the systems coupled to bosonic (photonic and phononic) reservoirs the flux is significantly promoted at large voltage while for fermionic (electronic) reservoirs the flux reaches a saturation after a significant enhancement at large voltage due to the Pauli exclusion principle. In view of the system as a quantum heat engine, we studied the non-equilibrium thermodynamics and established the analytical connections of curl quantum flux to the transport quantities such as energy (charge) transfer efficiency, chemical reaction efficiency, energy dissipation, heat and electric currents observed in the experiments. We observed a perfect transfer efficiency in chemical reactions at high voltage (chemical potential difference). Our theoretical predicted behavior of the electric current with respect to the voltage is in good agreements with the recent experiments on electron transfer in single molecules.

  9. Optical heat flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.; Borella, H.M.; Cates, M.R.; Turley, W.D.; MacArthur, C.D.; Cala, G.C.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat flux gauge is disclosed comprising first and second thermographic phosphor layers separated by a layer of a thermal insulator, wherein each thermographic layer comprises a plurality of respective thermographic sensors in a juxtaposed relationship with respect to each other. The gauge may be mounted on a surface with the first thermographic phosphor in contact with the surface. A light source is directed at the gauge, causing the phosphors to luminesce. The luminescence produced by the phosphors is collected and its spectra analyzed in order to determine the heat flux on the surface. First and second phosphor layers must be different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. 9 figures.

  10. Six-Week Time Series Of Eddy Covariance Co2 Flux At Mammoth Mountain...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flux At Mammoth Mountain, California- Performance Evaluation And Role Of Meteorological Forcing Abstract CO2 and heat fluxes were measured over a six-week period (09082006 to 10...

  11. Stabilization of moduli by fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behrndt, Klaus [Albert-Einstein-Institute, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany)

    2004-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to fix the moduli, non-trivial fluxes might the essential input. We summarize different aspects of compactifications in the presence of fluxes, as there is the relation to generalized Scherk-Schwarz reductions and gauged supergravity but also the description of flux-deformed geometries in terms of G-structures and intrinsic torsion.

  12. atmospheric muon flux: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    I. Sarcevic 1997-10-15 9 Measurement of the atmospheric muon flux with the ANTARES detector CERN Preprints Summary: ANTARES is a submarine neutrino telescope deployed in the...

  13. The Momentum flux in two-phase flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andeen, Gerry B.

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average momentum flux at a section of a pipe with twophase upflow has been measured by the impulse technique. Steamwater and air-water mixtures were tested in one-inch and onehalf inch nominal pipes. Homogeneous ...

  14. Investigation of magnetic spin glass property in La{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} sample using non-linear AC susceptibility measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Punith V., E-mail: drvldayal@gmail.com; Manju, M. R., E-mail: drvldayal@gmail.com; Dayal, Vijaylakshmi, E-mail: drvldayal@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Maharaja Institute of Technology, Mysore-571438, Karnataka (India)

    2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a comprehensive study on origin of Spin Glass (SG) property in polycrystalline La{sub 0.5}Bi{sub 0.5}MnO{sub 3} perovskite oxide using linear and higher order ac susceptibility (?) measurements. The third order harmonic susceptibility (?{sub 3}) vs. temperature (K) with varying magnetic fields from 0.95 to 9.45 Oe and the divergence in their ?{sub 3} (max) allows us to infer the SG behavior occurring in the sample possibly due to co-operative freezing of the spins.

  15. Energy flux fluctuations in a finite volume of turbulent flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahesh Bandi; Walter Goldburg; John Cressman Jr.; Alain Pumir

    2006-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The flux of turbulent kinetic energy from large to small spatial scales is measured in a small domain B of varying size R. The probability distribution function of the flux is obtained using a time-local version of Kolmogorov's four-fifths law. The measurements, made at a moderate Reynolds number, show frequent events where the flux is backscattered from small to large scales, their frequency increasing as R is decreased. The observations are corroborated by a numerical simulation based on the motion of many particles and on an explicit form of the eddy damping.

  16. Universal Linear Optics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacques Carolan; Chris Harrold; Chris Sparrow; Enrique Martín-López; Nicholas J. Russell; Joshua W. Silverstone; Peter J. Shadbolt; Nobuyuki Matsuda; Manabu Oguma; Mikitaka Itoh; Graham D. Marshall; Mark G. Thompson; Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Toshikazu Hashimoto; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Anthony Laing

    2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear optics underpins tests of fundamental quantum mechanics and computer science, as well as quantum technologies. Here we experimentally demonstrate the longstanding goal of a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons and their measurement with a 12 single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with average fidelity 0.999 $\\pm$ 0.001. Our system is capable of switching between these and any other linear optical protocol in seconds. These results point the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies.

  17. Extreme hydrogen plasma densities achieved in a linear plasma generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooij, G. J. van; Veremiyenko, V. P.; Goedheer, W. J.; de Groot, B.; Kleyn, A. W.; Smeets, P. H. M.; Versloot, T. W.; Whyte, D. G.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D. C.; Cardozo, N. J. Lopes [FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Uthrecht 3430BE (Netherlands); Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139-4307 (United States); FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics Rijnhuizen, Association EURATOM-FOM, Trilateral Euregio Cluster, Nieuwegein, Uthrecht 3430BE (NL) and Eindhoven University of Technology, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetized hydrogen plasma beam was generated with a cascaded arc, expanding in a vacuum vessel at an axial magnetic field of up to 1.6 T. Its characteristics were measured at a distance of 4 cm from the nozzle: up to a 2 cm beam diameter, 7.5x10{sup 20} m{sup -3} electron density, {approx}2 eV electron and ion temperatures, and 3.5 km/s axial plasma velocity. This gives a 2.6x10{sup 24} H{sup +} m{sup -2} s{sup -1} peak ion flux density, which is unprecedented in linear plasma generators. The high efficiency of the source is obtained by the combined action of the magnetic field and an optimized nozzle geometry. This is interpreted as a cross-field return current that leads to power dissipation in the beam just outside the source.

  18. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque:C6, supplt+mentau no8,Tome 39,aotit 1978,page ~6-614 AC FLUX PENETRATION MEASUREMENTS ON FORCE FREE CONFIGURATIONS IN REVERSIBLE TYPE I 1 SUPER-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    centres. A sufficient condition 4 turn coil wound on the specimen and from voltage for force free flow du flux est tout B fait incompatible avec le deplacement d1h61ices compls- Ces. Les formes des ondes and the factors that tector and also plotted using a boxcar detector. determine the form of a in a given situation

  19. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  20. Physics of String Flux Compactifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frederik Denef; Michael R. Douglas; Shamit Kachru

    2007-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a qualitative review of flux compactifications of string theory, focusing on broad physical implications and statistical methods of analysis.

  1. Fluxes, Gaugings and Gaugino Condensates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. -P. Derendinger; C. Kounnas; P. M. Petropoulos

    2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on the correspondence between the N = 1 superstring compactifications with fluxes and the N = 4 gauged supergravities, we study effective N = 1 four-dimensional supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates in the framework of orbifold limits of (generalized) Calabi-Yau compactifications. We give examples in heterotic and type II orientifolds in which combined fluxes and condensates lead to vacua with small supersymmetry breaking scale. We clarify the respective roles of fluxes and condensates in supersymmetry breaking, and analyze the scaling properties of the gravitino mass.

  2. MATH 511: Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. T. Moh

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    goal of this course is to enable you to recognize linear algebra problems ... descriptions of other people's solutions to problems that use linear algebra and to

  3. AmeriFlux Network Data from the ORNL AmeriFlux Website

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The AmeriFlux network was established in 1996 to provide continuous observations of ecosystem level exchanges of CO2, water, energy and momentum spanning diurnal, synoptic, seasonal, and interannual time scales. It is fed by sites from North America, Central America, and South America. DOE's CDIAC stores and maintains AmeriFlux data, and this web site explains the different levels of data available there, with links to the CDIAC ftp site. A separate web-based data interface is also provided; it allows users to graph, query, and download Level 2 data for up to four sites at a time. Data may be queried by site, measurement period, or parameter. More than 550 site-years of level 2 data are available from AmeriFlux sites through the interface.

  4. Linear electric field mass spectrometry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.

    1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.

  5. PHELIX for flux compression studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turchi, Peter J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rousculp, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reinovsky, Robert E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Reass, William A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Griego, Jeffrey R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Oro, David M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Merrill, Frank E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    PHELIX (Precision High Energy-density Liner Implosion eXperiment) is a concept for studying electromagnetic implosions using proton radiography. This approach requires a portable pulsed power and liner implosion apparatus that can be operated in conjunction with an 800 MeV proton beam at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center. The high resolution (< 100 micron) provided by proton radiography combined with similar precision of liner implosions driven electromagnetically can permit close comparisons of multi-frame experimental data and numerical simulations within a single dynamic event. To achieve a portable implosion system for use at high energy-density in a proton laboratory area requires sub-megajoule energies applied to implosions only a few cms in radial and axial dimension. The associated inductance changes are therefore relatively modest, so a current step-up transformer arrangement is employed to avoid excessive loss to parasitic inductances that are relatively large for low-energy banks comprising only several capacitors and switches. We describe the design, construction and operation of the PHELIX system and discuss application to liner-driven, magnetic flux compression experiments. For the latter, the ability of strong magnetic fields to deflect the proton beam may offer a novel technique for measurement of field distributions near perturbed surfaces.

  6. Measurement Measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Catch Composition - Pelagic codes M Male F Female I Indeterminate U Unknown (not inspected) #12;Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Type Measurement Photos Comment Length 1 Version 1.2 6/2011 HookNo. Species name

  7. Final report on the project entitled "The Effects of Disturbance & Climate on Carbon Storage & the Exchanges of CO2 Water Vapor & Energy Exchange of Evergreen Coniferous Forests in the Pacific Northwest: Integration of Eddy Flux, Plant and Soil Measurements at a Cluster of Supersites"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly E. Law (PI), Christoph K. Thomas (CoI)

    2011-09-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final technical report containing a summary of all findings with regard to the following objectives of the project: (1) To quantify and understand the effects of wildfire on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in a chronosequence of ponderosa pine (disturbance gradient); (2) To investigate the effects of seasonal and interannual variation in climate on carbon storage and the exchanges of energy, CO2, and water vapor in mature conifer forests in two climate zones: mesic 40-yr old Douglas-fir and semi-arid 60-yr old ponderosa pine (climate gradient); (3) To reduce uncertainty in estimates of CO2 feedbacks to the atmosphere by providing an improved model formulation for existing biosphere-atmosphere models; and (4) To provide high quality data for AmeriFlux and the NACP on micrometeorology, meteorology, and biology of these systems. Objective (1): A study integrating satellite remote sensing, AmeriFlux data, and field surveys in a simulation modeling framework estimated that the pyrogenic carbon emissions, tree mortality, and net carbon exchange associated with four large wildfires that burned ~50,000 hectares in 2002-2003 were equivalent to 2.4% of Oregon statewide anthropogenic carbon emissions over the same two-year period. Most emissions were from the combustion of the forest floor and understory vegetation, and only about 1% of live tree mass was combusted on average. Objective (2): A study of multi-year flux records across a chronosequence of ponderosa pine forests yielded that the net carbon uptake is over three times greater at a mature pine forest compared with young pine. The larger leaf area and wetter and cooler soils of the mature forest mainly caused this effect. A study analyzing seven years of carbon and water dynamics showed that interannual and seasonal variability of net carbon exchange was primarily related to variability in growing season length, which was a linear function of plant-available soil moisture in spring and early summer. A multi-year drought (2001-2003) led to a significant reduction of net ecosystem exchange due to carry-over effects in soil moisture and carbohydrate reserves in plant-tissue. In the same forest, the interannual variability in the rate carbon is lost from the soil and forest floor is considerable and related to the variability in tree growth as much as it is to variability in soil climatic conditions. Objective (3): Flux data from the mature ponderosa pine site support a physical basis for filtering nighttime data with friction velocity above the canopy. An analysis of wind fields and heat transport in the subcanopy at the mesic 40-year old Douglas site yielded that the non-linear structure and behavior of spatial temperature gradients and the flow field require enhanced sensor networks to estimate advective fluxes in the subcanopy of forest to close the surface energy balance in forests. Reliable estimates for flux uncertainties are needed to improve model validation and data assimilation in process-based carbon models, inverse modeling studies and model-data synthesis, where the uncertainties may be as important as the fluxes themselves. An analysis of the time scale dependence of the random and flux sampling error yielded that the additional flux obtained by increasing the perturbation timescale beyond about 10 minutes is dominated by random sampling error, and therefore little confidence can be placed in its value. Artificial correlation between gross ecosystem productivity (GEP) and ecosystem respiration (Re) is a consequence of flux partitioning of eddy covariance flux data when GEP is computed as the difference between NEE and computed daytime Re (e.g. using nighttime Re extrapolated into daytime using soil or air temperatures). Tower-data must be adequately spatially averaged before comparison to gridded model output as the time variability of both is inherently different. The eddy-covariance data collected at the mature ponderosa pine site and the mesic Douglas fir site were used to develop and evaluate a new method to extra

  8. High precision photon flux determination for photon tagging experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teymurazyan, A.; Ahmidouch, A.; Ambrozewicz, P.; Asratyan, A.; Baker, K.; Benton, L.; Burkert, V.; Clinton, E.; Cole, P.; Collins, P.; Dale, D.; Danagoulian, S.; Davidenko, G.; Demirchyan, R.; Deur, A.; Dolgolenko, A.; Dzyubenko, G.; Ent, R.; Evdokimov, A.; Feng, J.; Gabrielyan, M.; Gan, L.; Gasparian, A.; Glamazdin, A.; Goryachev, V.; Hardy, K.; He, J.; Ito, M.; Jiang, L.; Kashy, D.; Khandaker, M.; Kolarkar, A.; Konchatnyi, M.; Korchin, A.; Korsch, W.; Kosinov, O.; Kowalski, S.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubarovsky, V.; Larin, I.; Lawrence, D.; Li, X.; Martel, P.; Matveev, V.; McNulty, D.; Mecking, B.; Milbrath, B.; Minehart, R.; Miskimen, R.; Mochalov, V.; Nakagawa, I.; Overby, S.; Pasyuk, E.; Payen, M.; Pedroni, R.; Prok, Y.; Ritchie, B.; Salgado, C.; Shahinyan, A.; Sitnikov, A.; Sober, D.; Stepanyan, S.; Stevens, W.; Underwood, J.; Vasiliev, A.; Vishnyakov, V.; Wood, M.; Zhou, S.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Jefferson Laboratory PrimEx Collaboration has developed and implemented a method to control the tagged photon flux in photoproduction experiments at the 1% level over the photon energy range from 4.9 to 5.5 GeV. This method has been successfully implemented in a high precision measurement of the neutral pion lifetime. Here, we outline the experimental equipment and the analysis techniques used to accomplish this. These include the use of a total absorption counter for absolute flux calibration, a pair spectrometer for online relative flux monitoring, and a new method for post-bremsstrahlung electron counting.

  9. Constructing a database of terrestrial radiocarbon measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trumbore, Susan; Torn, Margaret; Smith, Lydia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    towers that measures carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energymodels to energy exchange mod- els, scaling up tower dataand Energy Fluxes With Optical Measurements FLUXNET and Remote Sensing Open Workshop: Towards Upscaling Flux Information From Towers

  10. High Heat Flux Components Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitley, J.B.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose is the development of the technologies necessary to design, build and operate high heat flux components such as actively cooled limiters, divertor collector plates, R.F. antennas, mirror end cells, mirror halo collectors, direct convertor collectors, and neutral beam dumps. These components require an integrated design that considers the plasma-materials interaction (PMI) issues, heat removal problems and materials issues (including possible low Z coatings and claddings). As a general definition, high heat flux components see heat fluxes ranging from 1 to 100 MW/m/sup 2/. Suitable materials include copper and copper alloys.

  11. As-Run Thermal Analysis of the GTL-1 Experiment Irradiated in the ATR South Flux Trap

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donna P. Guillen

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The GTL-1 experiment was conducted to assess corrosion the performance of the proposed Boosted Fast Flux Loop booster fuel at heat flux levels {approx}30% above the design operating condition. Sixteen miniplates fabricated from 25% enriched, high-density U3Si2/Al dispersion fuel with 6061 aluminum cladding were subjected to peak beginning of cycle (BOC) heat fluxes ranging from 411 W/cm2 to 593 W/cm2. Miniplates fabricated with three different fuel variations (without fines, annealed, and with standard powder) performed equally well, with negligible irradiation-induced swelling and a normal fission density gradient. Both the standard and the modified prefilm procedures produced hydroxide films that adequately protected the miniplates from failure. A detailed finite element model was constructed to calculate temperatures and heat flux for an as-run cycle average effective south lobe power of 25.4 MW(t). Results of the thermal analysis are given at four times during the cycle: BOC at 0 effective full power days (EFPD), middle of cycle (MOC) at 18 EFPD, MOC at 36 EFPD, and end of cycle at 48.9 EFPD. The highest temperatures and heat fluxes occur at the BOC and decrease in a linear manner throughout the cycle. Miniplate heat flux levels and fuel, cladding, hydroxide, and coolant-hydroxide interface temperatures were calculated using the average measured hydroxide thickness on each miniplate. The hydroxide layers are the largest on miniplates nearest to the core midplane, where heat flux and temperature are highest. The hydroxide layer thickness averages 20.4 {mu}m on the six hottest miniplates (B3, B4, C1, C2, C3, and C4). This tends to exacerbate the heating of these miniplates, since a thicker hydroxide layer reduces the heat transfer from the fuel to the coolant. These six hottest miniplates have the following thermal characteristics at BOC: (1) Peak fuel centerline temperature >300 C; (2) Peak cladding temperature >200 C; (3) Peak hydroxide temperature >190 C; (4) Peak hydroxide-water interface temperature >140 C; and (5) Peak heat flux >565 W/cm2.

  12. Characterization of local heat fluxes around ICRF antennas on JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campergue, A.-L. [Ecole Nationale des Ponts et Chaussées, F77455 Marne-la-Vallée (France); Jacquet, P.; Monakhov, I.; Arnoux, G.; Brix, M.; Sirinelli, A. [Euratom/CCFE Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Bobkov, V. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM-Assoziation, Garching (Germany); Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Department of Electronics, Torino (Italy); Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-Lez-Durance (France); Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    When using Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating, enhanced power deposition on Plasma-Facing Components (PFCs) close to the antennas can occur. Experiments have recently been carried out on JET with the new ITER-Like-Wall (ILW) to characterize the heat fluxes on the protection of the JET ICRF antennas, using Infra-Red (IR) thermography measurement. The measured heat flux patterns along the poloidal limiters surrounding powered antennas were compared to predictions from a simple RF sheath rectification model. The RF electric field, parallel to the static magnetic field in front of the antenna, was evaluated using the TOPICA code, integrating a 3D flattened model of the JET A2 antennas. The poloidal density variation in front of the limiters was obtained from the mapping of the Li-beam or edge reflectometry measurements using the flux surface geometry provided by EFIT equilibrium reconstruction. In many cases, this simple model can well explain the position of the maximum heat flux on the different protection limiters and the heat-flux magnitude, confirming that the parallel RF electric field and the electron plasma density in front of the antenna are the main driving parameters for ICRF-induced local heat fluxes.

  13. On linear programing approach to inventory control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mayfield, John

    On linear programing approach to inventory control problems Zhu received his PhD from Wayne State with inventory control problems under the discounted criterion. The objective is to minimize the discounted total imbeds the inventory control problem into an infinite-dimensional linear program over a space of measures

  14. Generalized Linear Quadratic Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gattami, Ather Said

    We consider the problem of stochastic finite- and infinite-horizon linear quadratic control under power constraints. The calculations of the optimal control law can be done off-line as in the classical linear quadratic ...

  15. The Microscopic Linear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penny, Will

    The Microscopic Brain Will Penny Linear Dynamics Exponentials Matrix Exponential Eigendecomposition Dynamical Modes Nodes State Space Saddles Oscillations Spirals Centres Offsets Retinal Circuit Nullclines Stability Spiking Neurons Fitzhugh-Nagumo Nonlinear Dynamics Linearization Nonlinear Oscillation Excitable

  16. Introduction Linear Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeghib, Abdelghani

    Introduction Results Linear Dynamics Lorentz Dynamics Actions of discrete groups on stationary Piccione) Geodeycos Meeting, Lyon, 28-30 April 2010 Abdelghani Zeghib Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds #12;Introduction Results Linear Dynamics Lorentz Dynamics Motivations and questions Examples 1 Introduction

  17. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D A; Menard, J E; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Kaita, R; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Mueller, D

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for both ITER and spherical torus-based devices with compact high power density divertors. Significant reduction of heat flux to the divertor plate has been achieved simultaneously with favorable core and pedestal confinement and stability properties in a highly-shaped lower single null configuration in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 2000] using high magnetic flux expansion at the divertor strike point and the radiative divertor technique. A partial detachment of the outer strike point was achieved with divertor deuterium injection leading to peak flux reduction from 4-6 MW m{sup -2} to 0.5-2 MW m{sup -2} in small-ELM 0.8-1.0 MA, 4-6 MW neutral beam injection-heated H-mode discharges. A self-consistent picture of outer strike point partial detachment was evident from divertor heat flux profiles and recombination, particle flux and neutral pressure measurements. Analytic scrape-off layer parallel transport models were used for interpretation of NSTX detachment experiments. The modeling showed that the observed peak heat flux reduction and detachment are possible with high radiated power and momentum loss fractions, achievable with divertor gas injection, and nearly impossible to achieve with main electron density, divertor neutral density or recombination increases alone.

  18. Rms-flux relation in the optical fast variability data of BL Lacertae object S5 0716+714

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mocanu, Gabriela Raluca

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The possibility that Bl Lac S5 0716+714 exhibits a linear rms-flux relation in its IntraDay Variability is analyzed. The results may be used as an argument in the existing debate regarding the source of optical IDV in Active Galactic Nuclei. 63 timeseries in different optical bands were used. A linear rms-flux relation at a confidence level higher than 65% was recovered for less than 8% of the cases.

  19. Introduction to Linear Relaxations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Introduction to Linear Relaxations by R. Baker Kearfott Department of Mathematics University relaxations; . discuss validation of linear relaxations. Intro. Linear Relaxations December, 2003 Taylor, . . . , m 2 , where # : R n # R and c i , g i : R n # R are guaranteed to be within one of the x # that has

  20. Growing season methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes at a sub-arctic wetland in Sweden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hardacre, Catherine J.; Blei, Emanuel; Heal, Mathew R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methyl bromide and methyl chloride fluxes were measured at several sites in a sub-arctic wetland near Abisko, Sweden (68°28?N 18°49?E) throughout the 2008 growing season. Averaged over 92 flux measurements the sub-arctic wetland was found to be a...

  1. Observations of O (1S) and O (1D) in Spectra of C/1999 S4 (LINEAR)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anita L. Cochran; William D. Cochran

    2001-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on high spectral resolution observations of comet C/1999 S4 (LINEAR) obtained at McDonald Observatory in June and July 2000. We report unequivocal detections of the O (1S) and O (1D) metastable lines in emission in the cometary spectrum. These lines are well separated from any telluric or cometary emission features. We have derived the ratio of the two red doublet lines and show they are consistent with the predictions of the branching ratio. We also derived a ratio of 0.06+/-0.01 for the green line flux to the sum of the red line fluxes. This ratio is consistent with H2O as the dominant parent for atomic oxygen. We have measured the widths of the lines and show that the widths imply that there must be some parent of atomic oxygen in addition to the H2O.

  2. Reactor Neutrino Flux Uncertainty Suppression on Multiple Detector Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cucoanes, Andi; Cabrera, Anatael; Fallot, Muriel; Onillon, Anthony; Obolensky, Michel; Yermia, Frederic

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides a coherent treatment for the reactor neutrino flux uncertainties suppression, specially focussed on the latest $\\theta_{13}$ measurement. The treatment starts with single detector in single reactor site, most relevant for all reactor experiments beyond $\\theta_{13}$. We demonstrate there is no trivial error cancellation, thus the flux systematic error can remain dominant even after the adoption of multi-detector configurations. However, three mechanisms for flux error suppression have been identified and calculated in the context of Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO sites. Our analysis computes the error {\\it suppression fraction} using simplified scenarios to maximise relative comparison among experiments. We have validated the only mechanism exploited so far by experiments to improve the precision of the published $\\theta_{13}$. The other two newly identified mechanisms could lead to total error flux cancellation under specific conditions and are expected to have major implications o...

  3. Non-linearities in the quantum multiverse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orfeu Bertolami; Victor Herdeiro

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been recently proposed that the multiverse of eternal inflation and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics can be identified, yielding a new view on the measure and measurement problems. In the present note, we argue that a non-linear evolution of observables in the quantum multiverse would be an obstacle for such a description and that these non-linearities are expected from quite general arguments.

  4. Comparison of co-expression measures: mutual information, correlation, and model based indices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Lin; Langfelder, Peter; Horvath, Steve

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that non- linear association measures, especially regressioncontrast, regression models capture non-linear gene pairwiseand spline regression models to measure non-linear

  5. Finite ballooning angle effects on ion temperature gradient driven mode in gyrokinetic flux tube simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, Rameswar, E-mail: rameswar.singh@lpp.polytechnique.fr [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India) [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, Route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Brunner, S. [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)] [CRPP, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Ganesh, R. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India)] [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 2382 428 (India); Jenko, F. [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)] [Max-Planck-Institut fur Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents effects of finite ballooning angles on linear ion temperature gradient (ITG) driven mode and associated heat and momentum flux in Gyrokinetic flux tube simulation GENE. It is found that zero ballooning angle is not always the one at which the linear growth rate is maximum. The ITG mode acquires a short wavelength (SW) branch (k{sub ?}?{sub i}?>?1) when growth rates maximized over all ballooning angles are considered. However, the SW branch disappears on reducing temperature gradient showing characteristics of zero ballooning angle SWITG in case of extremely high temperature gradient. Associated heat flux is even with respect to ballooning angle and maximizes at nonzero ballooning angle while the parallel momentum flux is odd with respect to the ballooning angle.

  6. Materials Compatibility and Aging for Flux and Cleaner Combinations.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Archuleta, Kim; Piatt, Rochelle

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A materials study of high reliability electronics cleaning is presented here. In Phase 1, mixed type substrates underwent a condensed contaminants application to view a worst- case scenario for unremoved flux with cleaning agent residue for parts in a silicone oil filled environment. In Phase 2, fluxes applied to copper coupons and to printed wiring boards underwent gentle cleaning then accelerated aging in air at 65% humidity and 30 O C. Both sets were aged for 4 weeks. Contaminants were no-clean (ORL0), water soluble (ORH1 liquid and ORH0 paste), and rosin (RMA; ROL0) fluxes. Defluxing agents were water, solvents, and engineered aqueous defluxers. In the first phase, coupons had flux applied and heated, then were placed in vials of oil with a small amount of cleaning agent and additional coupons. In the second phase, pairs of copper coupons and PWB were hand soldered by application of each flux, using tin-lead solder in a strip across the coupon or a set of test components on the PWB. One of each pair was cleaned in each cleaning agent, the first with a typical clean, and the second with a brief clean. Ionic contamination residue was measured before accelerated aging. After aging, substrates were removed and a visual record of coupon damage made, from which a subjective rank was applied for comparison between the various flux and defluxer combinations; more corrosion equated to higher rank. The ORH1 water soluble flux resulted in the highest ranking in both phases, the RMA flux the least. For the first phase, in which flux and defluxer remained on coupons, the aqueous defluxers led to worse corrosion. The vapor phase cleaning agents resulted in the highest ranking in the second phase, in which there was no physical cleaning. Further study of cleaning and rinsing parameters will be required.

  7. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplkment au no 8, Tome 39, aolit 1978, page C6-654 BARRIERS TO FLUX ENTRY AND EXIT IN SEMI-REVERSIBLE TYPE I 1 SUPERCONDUCTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    TO FLUX ENTRY AND EXIT IN SEMI-REVERSIBLE TYPE I 1 SUPERCONDUCTORS M.A.R.Leblanc, H.G. MattesX liniversity pulse induced flux expulsion, a bar- rier against flux exit comparable to that opposing flux entry the contributions of the barrier to entry and exit of flux but measure the sum of these. Data ob- tained where H

  8. Thermality of the Hawking flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matt Visser

    2015-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Is the Hawking flux "thermal"? Unfortunately, the answer to this seemingly innocent question depends on a number of often unstated, but quite crucial, technical assumptions built into modern (mis-)interpretations of the word "thermal". The original 1850's notions of thermality --- based on classical thermodynamic reasoning applied to idealized "black bodies" or "lamp black surfaces" --- when supplemented by specific basic quantum ideas from the early 1900's, immediately led to the notion of the black-body spectrum, (the Planck-shaped spectrum), but "without" any specific assumptions or conclusions regarding correlations between the quanta. Many (not all) modern authors (often implicitly and unintentionally) add an extra, and quite unnecessary, assumption that there are no correlations in the black-body radiation; but such usage is profoundly ahistorical and dangerously misleading. Specifically, the Hawking flux from an evaporating black hole, (just like the radiation flux from a leaky furnace or a burning lump of coal), is only "approximately" Planck-shaped over a bounded frequency range. Standard physics (phase space and adiabaticity effects) explicitly bound the frequency range over which the Hawking flux is "approximately" Planck-shaped from both above and below --- the Hawking flux is certainly not exactly Planckian, and there is no compelling physics reason to assume the Hawking photons are uncorrelated.

  9. Linear phase distribution of acoustical vortices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Lu; Zheng, Haixiang [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics of Jiangsu Province, School of Physics Science and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Xianlin District, Nanjing 210023 (China); Ma, Qingyu, E-mail: maqingyu@njnu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronics of Jiangsu Province, School of Physics Science and Technology, Nanjing Normal University, 1 Wenyuan Road, Xianlin District, Nanjing 210023 (China); Laboratory of Modern Acoustics of MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Tu, Juan; Zhang, Dong [Laboratory of Modern Acoustics of MOE, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2014-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Linear phase distribution of phase-coded acoustical vortices was theoretically investigated based on the radiation theory of point source, and then confirmed by experimental measurements. With the proposed criterion of positive phase slope, the possibility of constructing linear circular phase distributions is demonstrated to be determined by source parameters. Improved phase linearity can be achieved at larger source number, lower frequency, smaller vortex radius, and/or longer axial distance. Good agreements are observed between numerical simulations and measurement results for circular phase distributions. The favorable results confirm the feasibility of precise phase control for acoustical vortices and suggest potential applications in particle manipulation.

  10. DRIVING CURRENTS FOR FLUX ROPE CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramanian, Prasad [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Sai Trinity Building, Pashan, Pune 411021 (India); Vourlidas, Angelos [Code 7663, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375 (United States)], E-mail: p.subramanian@iiserpune.ac.in

    2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method for measuring electrical currents enclosed by flux rope structures that are ejected within solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Such currents are responsible for providing the Lorentz self-force that propels CMEs. Our estimates for the driving current are based on measurements of the propelling force obtained using data from the LASCO coronagraphs aboard the SOHO satellite. We find that upper limits on the currents enclosed by CMEs are typically around 10{sup 10} A. We estimate that the magnetic flux enclosed by the CMEs in the LASCO field of view is a few times 10{sup 21} Mx.

  11. Fast linear algebra is stable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demmel, James; Holtz, Olga; Dumitriu, Ioana

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    than other basic linear algebra subroutines. AcknowledgmentsApplied Numerical Linear Algebra. SIAM, 1997. [23] J.algorithms in numerical linear algebra. SIAM Review, 20:740–

  12. Magnetic field-line lengths inside interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qiang; Krucker, Sam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the detailed and systematic study of field-line twist and length distributions within magnetic flux ropes embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). The Grad-Shafranov reconstruction method is utilized together with a constant-twist nonlinear force-free (Gold-Hoyle) flux rope model to reveal the close relation between the field-line twist and length in cylindrical flux ropes, based on in-situ Wind spacecraft measurements. We show that the field-line twist distributions within interplanetary flux ropes are inconsistent with the Lundquist model. In particular we utilize the unique measurements of magnetic field-line lengths within selected ICME events as provided by Kahler et al. (2011) based on energetic electron burst observations at 1 AU and the associated type III radio emissions detected by the Wind spacecraft. These direct measurements are compared with our model calculations to help assess the flux-rope interpretation of the embedded magnetic structures. By using the differen...

  13. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, Roland (Chicago, IL); Gleckman, Philip L. (Chicago, IL); O'Gallagher, Joseph J. (Flossmoor, IL)

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes.

  14. High flux solar energy transformation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Winston, R.; Gleckman, P.L.; O'Gallagher, J.J.

    1991-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are multi-stage systems for high flux transformation of solar energy allowing for uniform solar intensification by a factor of 60,000 suns or more. Preferred systems employ a focusing mirror as a primary concentrative device and a non-imaging concentrator as a secondary concentrative device with concentrative capacities of primary and secondary stages selected to provide for net solar flux intensification of greater than 2000 over 95 percent of the concentration area. Systems of the invention are readily applied as energy sources for laser pumping and in other photothermal energy utilization processes. 7 figures.

  15. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibilityMeasurements

  16. Fault tolerant linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tesar, Delbert

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.

  17. Using Linearity Web Copyright 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rodriguez, Carlos

    Using Linearity Web Rev. 2.0 May 2007 Copyright © 2007 #12;Using Linearity Web i Contents Introduction to Linearity Web.............................................................................1 Features, Benefits, and Value of Linearity Web..............................................1 Before You

  18. Modification of flux profiles using a faceted concentrator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewandowski, A; Scholl, K; Bingham, C

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of a faceted solar concentrator allows for some flexibility in aiming strategy and in the intensity of the resulting flux profile at the target. This can be an advantage when considering applications that do not necessarily require maximum concentration, particularly emerging, new applications in solar processed advanced materials. This paper will describe both an analysis of predicted flux profiles for several different aiming strategies using the SOLFUR computer code and experiments to characterize the actual flux profiles realized with a selected aiming strategy. The SOLFUR code models each of the furnace components explicitly. Aim points for each facet can be specified. Thus many strategies for adjusting aim points can be easily explored. One strategy calls for creating as uniform a flux over as large an area as possible. We explored this strategy analytically and experimentally. The experimental data consist of flux maps generated by a video imaging system calibrated against absolute flux measurements taken with circular foil calorimeters. Results from the analytical study and a comparison with the experimental data indicate that uniform profiles can be produced over fairly large areas.

  19. In-core flux sensor evaluations at the ATR critical facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Benjamin Chase; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Todd Sherman; Jean-Francois Villard

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flux detector evaluations were completed as part of a joint Idaho State University (ISU) / Idaho National Laboratory (INL) / French Atomic Energy commission (CEA) ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project to compare the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of several flux detectors. Special fixturing developed by INL allows real-time flux detectors to be inserted into various ATRC core positions and perform lobe power measurements, axial flux profile measurements, and detector cross-calibrations. Detectors initially evaluated in this program include the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers; specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) developed by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA); specially developed commercial SPNDs from Argonne National Laboratory. As shown in this article, data obtained from this program provides important insights related to flux detector accuracy and resolution for subsequent ATR and CEA experiments and flux data required for bench-marking models in the ATR V&V Upgrade Initiative.

  20. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  1. Quantum Fusion of Domain Walls with Fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Bolognesi; M. Shifman; M. B. Voloshin

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study how fluxes on the domain wall world volume modify quantum fusion of two distant parallel domain walls into a composite wall. The elementary wall fluxes can be separated into parallel and antiparallel components. The parallel component affects neither the binding energy nor the process of quantum merger. The antiparallel fluxes, instead, increase the binding energy and, against naive expectations, suppress quantum fusion. In the small flux limit we explicitly find the bounce solution and the fusion rate as a function of the flux. We argue that at large (antiparallel) fluxes there exists a critical value of the flux (versus the difference in the wall tensions), which switches off quantum fusion altogether. This phenomenon of flux-related wall stabilization is rather peculiar: it is unrelated to any conserved quantity. Our consideration of the flux-related all stabilization is based on substantiated arguments that fall short of complete proof.

  2. Super Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    In this book, the authors introduce the notion of Super linear algebra and super vector spaces using the definition of super matrices defined by Horst (1963). This book expects the readers to be well-versed in linear algebra. Many theorems on super linear algebra and its properties are proved. Some theorems are left as exercises for the reader. These new class of super linear algebras which can be thought of as a set of linear algebras, following a stipulated condition, will find applications in several fields using computers. The authors feel that such a paradigm shift is essential in this computerized world. Some other structures ought to replace linear algebras which are over a century old. Super linear algebras that use super matrices can store data not only in a block but in multiple blocks so it is certainly more powerful than the usual matrices. This book has 3 chapters. Chapter one introduces the notion of super vector spaces and enumerates a number of properties. Chapter two defines the notion of super linear algebra, super inner product spaces and super bilinear forms. Several interesting properties are derived. The main application of these new structures in Markov chains and Leontief economic models are also given in this chapter. The final chapter suggests 161 problems mainly to make the reader understand this new concept and apply them.

  3. Improvement of the magnetic core for eddy current losses decreasing in cylindrical linear actuators.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Improvement of the magnetic core for eddy current losses decreasing in cylindrical linear actuators the power) increases, the iron losses become high [1]. One classical method for reducing the eddy current the eddy current losses in a longitudinal flux multi-rod actuator and to compute improvement. 2 The linear

  4. An Analysis of Fluxes by Duality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul S. Aspinwall

    2005-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    M-theory on K3xK3 with non-supersymmetry-breaking G-flux is dual to M-theory on a Calabi-Yau threefold times a 2-torus without flux. This allows for a thorough analysis of the effects of flux without relying on supergravity approximations. We discuss several dual pairs showing that the usual rules of G-flux compactifications work well in detail. We discuss how a transition can convert M2-branes into G-flux. We see how new effects can arise at short distances allowing fluxes to obstruct more moduli than one expects from the supergravity analysis.

  5. Center vortices as composites of monopole fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deldar, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the relation between the flux of a center vortex obtained from the center vortex model and the flux formed between monopoles obtained from the Abelian gauge fixing method. Motivated by the Monte Carlo simulations which have shown that almost all monopoles are sitting on the top of vortices, we construct the fluxes of center vortices for $SU(2)$ and $SU(3)$ gauge groups using fractional fluxes of monopoles. Then, we compute the potentials in the fundamental representation induced by center vortices and fractional fluxes of monopoles. We show that by combining the fractional fluxes of monopoles one can produce the center vortex fluxes for $SU(3)$ gauge group in a "center vortex model". Comparing the potentials, we conclude that the fractional fluxes of monopoles attract each other.

  6. Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium bombardment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    P1-030 Suppressed gross erosion of high-temperature lithium films under high-flux deuterium) and thick (~500 m) lithium films under high-flux deuterium and neon plasma bombardment were studied. For Ne plasmas, Li erosion rates inferred from measurements of Li-I radiation are consistent

  7. Computing flux upper-limits for non-detections F. Masci, 10/25/2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masci, Frank

    to "real" detections (e.g., in a spectrum), the quoted upper limits often lack probabilistic power. One in the first place, i.e., has flux measurement > some threshold set according to some maximum tolerable interval) that probably contains the true flux can then be assigned using the uncertainties. If a source

  8. Spatial variability in soil heat flux at three Inner Mongolia steppe ecosystems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Jiquan

    Spatial variability in soil heat flux at three Inner Mongolia steppe ecosystems Changliang Shao a-covariance Grassland Inner Mongolia a b s t r a c t Closing the energy budget at flux measurement sites is problematic system within the footprints of three Eddy-covariance towers located in the steppe of Inner Mongolia

  9. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  10. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, B.W.

    1993-12-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge. 3 figures.

  11. Remote high-temperature insulatorless heat-flux gauge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Noel, Bruce W. (Espanola, NM)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote optical heat-flux gauge for use in extremely high temperature environments is described. This application is possible because of the use of thermographic phosphors as the sensing media, and the omission of the need for an intervening layer of insulator between phosphor layers. The gauge has no electrical leads, but is interrogated with ultraviolet or laser light. The luminescence emitted by the two phosphor layers, which is indicative of the temperature of the layers, is collected and analyzed in order to determine the heat flux incident on the surface being investigated. The two layers of thermographic phosphor must be of different materials to assure that the spectral lines collected will be distinguishable. Spatial heat-flux measurements can be made by scanning the light across the surface of the gauge.

  12. Fate of False Vacuum in Superconducting Flux Qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ali Izadi Rad; Hesam Zandi; Mehdi Fardmanesh

    2014-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a similarity between the scenario of fate of false vacuum in cosmology at early universe and the situation in where the quantum state decays in superconducting Flux qubit. This is due to the fact that both cases have two homogeneous stable equilibrium states in scalar field, which in quantum theory, could penetrate through the barrier in different possibilities and hence considered unstable decaying in time. In quantum computation, decay rate is among the most important factors in characteristics of the system like coherency, reliability, measurement fidelity, etc. In this considered potential, the decay rate from the penetrating (False vacuum) state to the stable (absolute minimum) state is achieved to leading order in Planck constant by the approach of Instanton model. In case of the superconducting flux qubit having thin barrier potential, the decay rate is calculated and its relations with actual set of parameters in flux qubit design are introduced.

  13. Identification of boundary heat fluxes in a falling film experiment using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , regularization, conjugate gradient method, falling film, heat flux estimation, anisotropic finite elements, model problems must be solved. We apply a one step -method and piecewise linear finite elements on a tetrahedral of Process Systems Engineering, RWTH Aachen University c Chair of Heat Transfer and Air Conditioning, RWTH

  14. COMPUTING INTRINSIC LY{alpha} FLUXES OF F5 V TO M5 V STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linsky, Jeffrey L. [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States)] [JILA, University of Colorado and NIST, 440UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0440 (United States); France, Kevin; Ayres, Tom, E-mail: jlinsky@jilau1.colorado.edu [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)] [CASA, University of Colorado, 593UCB Boulder, CO 80309-0593 (United States)

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Ly{alpha} emission line dominates the far-ultraviolet spectra of late-type stars and is a major source for photodissociation of important molecules including H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and CO{sub 2} in exoplanet atmospheres. The incident flux in this line illuminating an exoplanet's atmosphere cannot be measured directly as neutral hydrogen in the interstellar medium (ISM) attenuates most of the flux reaching the Earth. Reconstruction of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} line has been accomplished for a limited number of nearby stars, but is not feasible for distant or faint host stars. We identify correlations connecting the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with the flux in other emission lines formed in the stellar chromosphere, and find that these correlations depend only gradually on the flux in the other lines. These correlations, which are based on Hubble Space Telescope spectra, reconstructed Ly{alpha} line fluxes, and irradiance spectra of the quiet and active Sun, are required for photochemical models of exoplanet atmospheres when intrinsic Ly{alpha} fluxes are not available. We find a tight correlation of the intrinsic Ly{alpha} flux with stellar X-ray flux for F5 V to K5 V stars, but much larger dispersion for M stars. We also show that knowledge of the stellar effective temperature and rotation rate can provide reasonably accurate estimates of the Ly{alpha} flux for G and K stars, and less accurate estimates for cooler stars.

  15. Stochastic bridges of linear systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yongxin Chen; Tryphon Georgiou

    2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a generalization of the Brownian bridge as a stochastic process that models the position and velocity of inertial particles between the two end-points of a time interval. The particles experience random acceleration and are assumed to have known states at the boundary. Thus, the movement of the particles can be modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process conditioned on position and velocity measurements at the two end-points. It is shown that optimal stochastic control provides a stochastic differential equation (SDE) that generates such a bridge as a degenerate diffusion process. Generalizations to higher order linear diffusions are considered.

  16. A development of MOS linear active load schemes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallett, Robert Alan

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    resistor. A solution to this problem is to use a single or multiply interconnected MOS transistors to simulate resistors. These simulated resistors are termed "active loads". The advantages of using MOSFETs over passive monolithic resistors are the high...'s inverted parallel load . General description of the fully linear active block Fully linear active block Three transistor fully linear block Cktl Ckt2 Ckt3 Ckt4 Complex single transistor loads IPL DEPR FLAB I ? V measuring system THD measuring...

  17. QUANTIFICATION OF HEAT FLUX FROM A REACTING THERMITE SPRAY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Nixon; Michelle Pantoya

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Characterizing the combustion behaviors of energetic materials requires diagnostic tools that are often not readily or commercially available. For example, a jet of thermite spray provides a high temperature and pressure reaction that can also be highly corrosive and promote undesirable conditions for the survivability of any sensor. Developing a diagnostic to quantify heat flux from a thermite spray is the objective of this study. Quick response sensors such as thin film heat flux sensors can not survive the harsh conditions of the spray, but more rugged sensors lack the response time for the resolution desired. A sensor that will allow for adequate response time while surviving the entire test duration was constructed. The sensor outputs interior temperatures of the probes at known locations and utilizes an inverse heat conduction code to calculate heat flux values. The details of this device are discussed and illustrated. Temperature and heat flux measurements of various thermite spray conditions are reported. Results indicate that this newly developed energetic material heat flux sensor provides quantitative data with good repeatability.

  18. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design...

  19. Estimation of advective fluxes from CO2 flux profile observations at the Cabauw Tower

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stoffelen, Ad

    Estimation of advective fluxes from CO2 flux profile observations at the Cabauw Tower Kasper O profile observations at the Cabauw Tower Version 1.0 Date April 2012 Status Final #12;#12;Estimation of Advective Fluxes from CO2 Flux Profile Observations at the Cabauw Tower Master of Science Thesis Kasper O

  20. Optimization Online - Linear-quadratic control problem with a linear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L Faybusovich

    2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 19, 2003 ... Abstract: We describe a complete solution of the linear-quaratic control problem with the linear term in the objective function on a semiinfinite ...

  1. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility ARMProject

  2. ARM - Measurements

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility

  3. 6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 7427­7469, 2006 Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  4. Precision Reactor e Spectrum Measurements: Recent Results and PROSPECTs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Precision Reactor e Spectrum Measurements: Recent Results and PROSPECTs Bryce Littlejohn Illinois;Outline · Intro: Reactor e Flux and Spectrum Predictions · Reactor Anomaly and recent flux for PROSPECT 2 #12;Outline · Intro: Reactor e Flux and Spectrum Predictions · Reactor Anomaly and recent flux

  5. Robust Linear Optimization With Recourse

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose an approach to two-stage linear optimization with recourse that does ... Linear optimization with recourse was first introduced by Dantzig in [17] as a ...

  6. Organic carbon flux at the mangrove soil-water column interface in the Florida Coastal Everglades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romigh, Melissa Marie

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Coastal outwelling of organic carbon from mangrove wetlands contributes to near-shore productivity and influences biogeochemical cycling of elements. I used a flume to measure fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between ...

  7. ARM: Short Wave Flux Analysis: 15-min resolution on SIRS data, Long algorithm

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Stoffel, Tom; Kay, Bev; Habte, Aron; Anderberg, Mary; Kutchenreiter, Mark

    Short Wave Flux Analysis: 15-min resolution on SIRS data, Long algorithm. Measurements began in January, 1994, and have continued to the present time. Data collected are from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) location.

  8. E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric neutrino flux Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a prediction of a measurable flux of extragalactic high-energy neutrinos from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs... used the result from the SuperKamiokande ... Source: Bahcall, John -...

  9. Reticle stage based linear dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.

  10. Reticle stage based linear dosimeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.

  11. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Biewer, Theodore M [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Owen, Larry W [ORNL; Sparks, Dennis O [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes Gamma(p) > 10(23) M-3 s(-1), and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of similar to 10 MW/m(2). An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength vertical bar B vertical bar in the antenna region up to similar to 0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3 x 10(19) M-3 in He and 2.5 x 10(19) m(-3) in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial vertical bar B vertical bar profile.

  12. Operation of the ORNL High Particle Flux Helicon Plasma Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulding, R. H.; Biewer, T. M.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Chen, G. C.; Owen, L. W.; Sparks, D. O. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States)

    2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, high particle flux rf-based helicon plasma source has been constructed at ORNL and operated at power levels up to 30 kW. High-density hydrogen and helium plasmas have been produced. The source has been designed as the basis for a linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) test facility that will generate particle fluxes {Gamma}{sub p}10{sup 23} m{sup -3} s{sup -1}, and utilize additional ion and electron cyclotron heating to produce high parallel (to the magnetic field) heat fluxes of {approx}10 MW/m{sup 2}. An rf-based source for PMI research is of interest because high plasma densities are generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. The ORNL helicon source has a diameter of 15 cm and to-date has operated at a frequency f = 13.56 MHz, with magnetic field strength |B| in the antenna region up to {approx}0.15 T. Maximum densities of 3x10{sup 19} m{sup -3} in He and 2.5x10{sup 19} m{sup -3} in H have been achieved. Radial density profiles have been seen to be dependent on the axial |B| profile.

  13. Spectral learning of linear dynamics from generalised-linear observations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    a non-linear and non-Gaussian observation process. We use this approach to obtain estimates to the generalised-linear regression model [8]), where the expected value of an observation is given by a monotonicSpectral learning of linear dynamics from generalised-linear observations with application

  14. Linear Quantum Feedback Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Gough; R. Gohm; M. Yanagisawa

    2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The mathematical theory of quantum feedback networks has recently been developed for general open quantum dynamical systems interacting with bosonic input fields. In this article we show, for the special case of linear dynamical systems Markovian systems with instantaneous feedback connections, that the transfer functions can be deduced and agree with the algebraic rules obtained in the nonlinear case. Using these rules, we derive the the transfer functions for linear quantum systems in series, in cascade, and in feedback arrangements mediated by beam splitter devices.

  15. Integral Fluxes, Day-Night, and Spectrum Results from SNO's 391-Day Salt Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juergen Wendland; for the SNO collaboration

    2005-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is a 1000t heavy water Cherenkov detector observing neutrinos from the Sun and other astrophysical sources. Measurements of the integral solar neutrino fluxes of charged current, neutral current and elastic scattering events are reported for 391 days of live data from the salt phase of SNO operation. In this phase 2t of salt were dissolved in the heavy water, which enhanced and differentiated the detection of neutral current events. Day-night asymmetries in these fluxes were also determined. The measured electron spectrum from the charged-current channel is compatible with the undistorted spectrum of the solar 8B neutrino flux.

  16. Reactor Neutrino Flux Uncertainty Suppression on Multiple Detector Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andi Cucoanes; Pau Novella; Anatael Cabrera; Muriel Fallot; Anthony Onillon; Michel Obolensky; Frederic Yermia

    2015-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication provides a coherent treatment for the reactor neutrino flux uncertainties suppression, specially focussed on the latest $\\theta_{13}$ measurement. The treatment starts with single detector in single reactor site, most relevant for all reactor experiments beyond $\\theta_{13}$. We demonstrate there is no trivial error cancellation, thus the flux systematic error can remain dominant even after the adoption of multi-detector configurations. However, three mechanisms for flux error suppression have been identified and calculated in the context of Double Chooz, Daya Bay and RENO sites. Our analysis computes the error {\\it suppression fraction} using simplified scenarios to maximise relative comparison among experiments. We have validated the only mechanism exploited so far by experiments to improve the precision of the published $\\theta_{13}$. The other two newly identified mechanisms could lead to total error flux cancellation under specific conditions and are expected to have major implications on the global $\\theta_{13}$ knowledge today. First, Double Chooz, in its final configuration, is the only experiment benefiting from a negligible reactor flux error due to a $\\sim$90\\% geometrical suppression. Second, Daya Bay and RENO could benefit from their partial geometrical cancellation, yielding a potential $\\sim$50\\% error suppression, thus significantly improving the global $\\theta_{13}$ precision today. And third, we illustrate the rationale behind further error suppression upon the exploitation of the inter-reactor error correlations, so far neglected. So, our publication is a key step forward in the context of high precision neutrino reactor experiments providing insight on the suppression of their intrinsic flux error uncertainty, thus affecting past and current experimental results, as well as the design of future experiments.

  17. Long-Term Assessment of Isotopic Exchange of Carbon Dioxide in a Subalpine Forest (Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux Site)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowling, David [University of Utah

    2014-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2005 we began a long-term measurement program of CO{sub 2} and its stable isotopes at the Niwot Ridge AmeriFlux site. Measurements are ongoing.

  18. Columbia University flow instability experimental program: Volume 7. Single tube tests, critical heat flux test program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dougherty, T.; Maciuca, C.; McAssey, E.V. Jr.; Reddy, D.G.; Yang, B.W.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report deals with critical heat flux (CHF) measurements in vertical down flow of water at low pressures in a round Inconel tube, 96 inches long and 0.62 inch inside diameter. A total of 28 CHF points were obtained. These data were found to correlate linearly with the single variable q, defined as the heat flux required to raise the enthalpy from the inlet value to the saturation value. These results were compared to the published results of Swedish investigators for vertical upflow of water at low pressures in round tubes of similar diameters and various lengths. The parameter q depends on the inlet enthalpy and is a nonlocal variable, thus this correlation is nonlocal unless the coefficients depend upon tube length in a particular prescribed manner. For the low pressure Swedish data, the coefficients are practically independent of length and hence the correlation is nonlocal. In the present investigation only one length was employed, so it is not possible to determine whether the correlation for these data is local or nonlocal, although there is reason to believe that it is local. The same correlation was applied to a large data base (thousands of CHF points) compiled from the published data of a number of groups and found to apply, with reasonable accuracy over a wide range of conditions, yielding sometimes local and sometimes nonlocal correlations. The basic philosophy of data analysis here was not to generate a single correlation which would reproduce all data, but to search for correlations which apply adequately over some range and which might have some mechanistic significance. The tentative conclusion is that at least two mechanisms appear operative, leading to two types of correlations, one local, the other nonlocal.

  19. Optimal linear Glauber model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaon Sahoo; Soumya Kanti Ganguly

    2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Contrary to the actual nonlinear Glauber model (NLGM), the linear Glauber model (LGM) is exactly solvable, although the detailed balance condition is not generally satisfied. This motivates us to address the issue of writing the transition rate ($w_j$) in a best possible linear form such that the mean squared error in satisfying the detailed balance condition is least. The advantage of this work is that, by studying the LGM analytically, we will be able to anticipate how the kinetic properties of an arbitrary Ising system depend on the temperature and the coupling constants. The analytical expressions for the optimal values of the parameters involved in the linear $w_j$ are obtained using a simple Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse matrix. This approach is quite general, in principle applicable to any system and can reproduce the exact results for one dimensional Ising system. In the continuum limit, we get a linear time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation from the Glauber's microscopic model of non-conservative dynamics. We analyze the critical and dynamic properties of the model, and show that most of the important results obtained in different studies can be reproduced by our new mathematical approach. We will also show in this paper that the effect of magnetic field can easily be studied within our approach; in particular, we show that the inverse of relaxation time changes quadratically with (weak) magnetic field and that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is valid for our model.

  20. Linear Programming Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    Linear Program to control air pollution was developed in 1968 by Teller, which minimized cost Fall 2006 #12;Topics · Introduction · Background · Air · Land · Water #12;Introduction · "The United States spends more than 2% of its gross domestic product on pollution control, and this is more than any

  1. Interval Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In this book we use only special types of intervals and introduce the notion of different types of interval linear algebras and interval vector spaces using the intervals of the form [0, a] where the intervals are from Zn or Z+ \\cup {0} or Q+ \\cup {0} or R+ \\cup {0}. A systematic development is made starting from set interval vector spaces to group interval vector spaces. Vector spaces are taken as interval polynomials or interval matrices or just intervals over suitable sets or semigroups or groups. Main feature of this book is the authors have given over 350 examples. This book has six chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature. Chapter two introduces the notion of set interval linear algebras of type one and two. Set fuzzy interval linear algebras and their algebras and their properties are discussed in chapter three. Chapter four introduces several types of interval linear bialgebras and bivector spaces and studies them. The possible applications are given in chapter five. Chapter six suggests nearly 110 problems of all levels.

  2. Solar wind driven plasma fluxes from the Venus ionosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez-de-Tejada, H; Barabash, S; Zhang, T L; Sauvaud, J A; Durand-Manterola, H J; Reyes-Ruiz, M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements conducted with the ASPERA-4 instrument and the magnetometer of the Venus Express spacecraft show that the dynamic pressure of planetary O+ ion fluxes measured in the Venus wake can be significantly larger than the local magnetic pressure and, as a result, those ions are not being driven by magnetic forces but by the kinetic energy of the solar wind. Beams of planetary O+ ions with those properties have been detected in several orbits of the Venus Express through the wake as the spacecraft traverses by the noon-midnight plane along its near polar trajectory. The momentum flux of the O+ ions leads to superalfvenic flow conditions. It is suggested that such O+ ion beams are produced in the vicinity of the magnetic polar regions of the Venus ionosphere where the solar wind erodes the local plasma leading to plasma channels that extend downstream from those regions.

  3. Atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, Morihiro [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan)

    2011-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    To illustrate the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux, we briefly explain our calculation scheme and important components, such as primary cosmic ray spectra, interaction model, and geomagnetic model. Then, we calculate the atmospheric neutrino flux at INO site in our calculation scheme. We compare the calculated atmospheric neutrino fluxes predicted at INO with those at other major neutrino detector sites, especially that at SK site.

  4. On solar neutrino fluxes in radiochemical experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. N. Ikhsanov; Yu. N. Gnedin; E. V. Miletsky

    2005-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze fluctuations of the solar neutrino flux using data from the Homestake, GALLEX, GNO, SAGE and Super Kamiokande experiments. Spectral analysis and direct quantitative estimations show that the most stable variation of the solar neutrino flux is a quasi-five-year periodicity. The revised values of the mean solar neutrino flux are presented in Table 4. They were used to estimate the observed pp-flux of the solar electron neutrinos near the Earth. We consider two alternative explanations for the origin of a variable component of the solar neutrino deficit.

  5. Fluxing agent for metal cast joining

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gunkel, Ronald W. (Lower Burrell, PA); Podey, Larry L. (Greensburg, PA); Meyer, Thomas N. (Murrysville, PA)

    2002-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of joining an aluminum cast member to an aluminum component. The method includes the steps of coating a surface of an aluminum component with flux comprising cesium fluoride, placing the flux coated component in a mold, filling the mold with molten aluminum alloy, and allowing the molten aluminum alloy to solidify thereby joining a cast member to the aluminum component. The flux preferably includes aluminum fluoride and alumina. A particularly preferred flux includes about 60 wt. % CsF, about 30 wt. % AlF.sub.3, and about 10 wt. % Al.sub.2 O.sub.3.

  6. DC and RF Measurements of Serial Bi-SQUID Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prokopenko, G V; de Escobar, A Leese; Taylor, B; de Andrade, M C; Berggren, S; Longhini, P; Palacios, A; Nisenoff, M; Fagaly, R L

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SQUID arrays are promising candidates for low profile antennas and low noise amplifier applications. We present the integrated circuit designs and results of DC and RF measurements of the wideband serial arrays based on integration of linear bi-SQUID cells forming a Superconducting Quantum Interference Filter (bi-SQUID SQIF). Various configurations of serial arrays designs are described. The measured linearity, power gain, and noise temperature are analyzed and compared. The experimental results are matched to results of mathematical modeling. A serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays are mounted into a coplanar waveguide (CPW) and symmetrically grounded to corresponding sides of CPW. The RF output comes out from the central common line, which is also used for DC biasing and forms a symmetrical balanced output. The signal and DC flux biasing line is designed as coplanar lines passed in parallel over each bi-SQUID cell in a bidirectional fashion concentrating magnetic flux inside of each cell. Serial bi-SQUID SQIF arrays ...

  7. Comparison of the high temperature heat flux sensor to traditional heat flux gages under high heat flux conditions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanchat, Thomas K.; Hanks, Charles R.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Four types of heat flux gages (Gardon, Schmidt-Boelter, Directional Flame Temperature, and High Temperature Heat Flux Sensor) were assessed and compared under flux conditions ranging between 100-1000 kW/m2, such as those seen in hydrocarbon fire or propellant fire conditions. Short duration step and pulse boundary conditions were imposed using a six-panel cylindrical array of high-temperature tungsten lamps. Overall, agreement between all gages was acceptable for the pulse tests and also for the step tests. However, repeated tests with the HTHFS with relatively long durations at temperatures approaching 1000%C2%B0C showed a substantial decrease (10-25%) in heat flux subsequent to the initial test, likely due to the mounting technique. New HTHFS gages have been ordered to allow additional tests to determine the cause of the flux reduction.

  8. Duality in linearized gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henneaux, Marc; Teitelboim, Claudio [Physique Theorique et Mathematique and International Solvay Institutes, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Campus Plaine C. P. 231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium) and Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile); Centro de Estudios Cientificos (CECS), Valdivia (Chile)

    2005-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that duality transformations of linearized gravity in four dimensions, i.e., rotations of the linearized Riemann tensor and its dual into each other, can be extended to the dynamical fields of the theory so as to be symmetries of the action and not just symmetries of the equations of motion. Our approach relies on the introduction of two superpotentials, one for the spatial components of the spin-2 field and the other for their canonically conjugate momenta. These superpotentials are two-index, symmetric tensors. They can be taken to be the basic dynamical fields and appear locally in the action. They are simply rotated into each other under duality. In terms of the superpotentials, the canonical generator of duality rotations is found to have a Chern-Simons-like structure, as in the Maxwell case.

  9. Measuring Spatial Variability of Vapor Flux to Characterize Vadose...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    different monitoring points within the interrogated area will be a function of the geospatial positions of the points relative to the source location. A series of flow-cell...

  10. Transcriptional profiling and flux measurements of polyhydroxybutyrate production in Synechocystis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Saliya Sudharshana, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    (cont.) to determine the CO? uptake rates and PHB production rates of strains engineered for enhanced CO? fixation and PHB production respectively.

  11. Measurements and model calculations of radiative fluxes for the Cabauw

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from a NewCuneo Matthew1, 20121 H( 7radialMHD

  12. Technical Sessions Measurements of Surface Heat Flux Over Contrasting Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposedPAGESafety Tag:8,, 20153 To.T. J. Kulp

  13. Determining Reactor Flux from Xenon-136 and Cesium-135 in Spent Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Hayes; Gerard Jungman

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to infer the reactor flux from spent fuel or seized fissile material would enhance the tools of nuclear forensics and nuclear nonproliferation significantly. We show that reactor flux can be inferred from the ratios of xenon-136 to xenon-134 and cesium-135 to cesium-137. If the average flux of a reactor is known, the flux inferred from measurements of spent fuel could help determine whether that spent fuel was loaded as a blanket or close to the mid-plane of the reactor. The cesium ratio also provides information on reactor shutdowns during the irradiation of fuel, which could prove valuable for identifying the reactor in question through comparisons with satellite reactor heat monitoring data. We derive analytic expressions for these correlations and compare them to experimental data and to detailed reactor burn simulations. The enrichment of the original uranium fuel affects the correlations by up to 3 percent, but only at high flux.

  14. Linear induction accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.

    1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.

  15. Combustion powered linear actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.

  16. The International Linear Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barish, Barry

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we describe the key features of the recently completed technical design for the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 200-500 GeV linear electron-positron collider (expandable to 1 TeV) that is based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) technology. The machine parameters and detector characteristics have been chosen to complement the Large Hadron Collider physics, including the discovery of the Higgs boson, and to further exploit this new particle physics energy frontier with a precision instrument. The linear collider design is the result of nearly twenty years of R&D, resulting in a mature conceptual design for the ILC project that reflects an international consensus. We summarize the physics goals and capability of the ILC, the enabling R&D and resulting accelerator design, as well as the concepts for two complementary detectors. The ILC is technically ready to be proposed and built as a next generation lepton collider, perhaps to be built in stages beginning as a Hig...

  17. Design of a high particle flux hydrogen helicon plasma source for used in plasma materials interaction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulding, Richard Howell [ORNL; Chen, Guangye [ORNL; Meitner, Steven J [ORNL; Baity Jr, F Wallace [ORNL; Caughman, John B [ORNL; Owen, Larry W [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) facilities all use plasma sources with internal electrodes. An rf-based helicon source is of interest because high plasma densities can be generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. Work has begun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a large (15 cm) diameter helicon source producing hydrogen plasmas with parameters suitable for use in a linear PMI device: n(e) >= 10(19)m(-3), T(e) = 4-10 eV, particle flux Gamma(p) > 10(23) m(-3) s(-1), and magnetic field strength |B| up to I T in the source region. The device, whose design is based on a previous hydrogen helicon source operated at ORNL[1], will operate at rf frequencies in the range 10 - 26 MHz, and power levels up to similar to 100 kW. Limitations in cooling will prevent operation for pulses longer than several seconds, but a major goal will be the measurement of power deposition on device structures so that a later steady state version can be designed. The device design, the diagnostics to be used, and results of rf modeling of the device will be discussed. These include calculations of plasma loading, resulting currents and voltages in antenna structures and the matching network, power deposition profiles, and the effect of high |B| operation on power absorption.

  18. Design of a high particle flux hydrogen helicon plasma source for used in plasma materials interaction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goulding, R. H.; Chen, G.; Meitner, S.; Baity, F. W.; Caughman, J. B. O.; Owen, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States)

    2009-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Existing linear plasma materials interaction (PMI) facilities all use plasma sources with internal electrodes. An rf-based helicon source is of interest because high plasma densities can be generated with no internal electrodes, allowing true steady state operation with minimal impurity generation. Work has begun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop a large (15 cm) diameter helicon source producing hydrogen plasmas with parameters suitable for use in a linear PMI device: n{sub e}{>=}10{sup 19} m{sup -3}, T{sub e} = 4-10 eV, particle flux {gamma}{sub p}>10{sup 23}m{sup -3} s{sup -1}, and magnetic field strength |B| up to 1 T in the source region. The device, whose design is based on a previous hydrogen helicon source operated at ORNL[1], will operate at rf frequencies in the range 10-26 MHz, and power levels up to {approx}100 kW. Limitations in cooling will prevent operation for pulses longer than several seconds, but a major goal will be the measurement of power deposition on device structures so that a later steady state version can be designed. The device design, the diagnostics to be used, and results of rf modeling of the device will be discussed. These include calculations of plasma loading, resulting currents and voltages in antenna structures and the matching network, power deposition profiles, and the effect of high |B| operation on power absorption.

  19. Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.

  20. Data system for automatic flux mapping applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Couch, R.D.; Kasinoff, A.M.; Neuner, J.A.; Oates, R.M.

    1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    In an automatic flux mapping system utilizing a microprocessor for control and data information processing, signals from the incore detectors providing the flux mapping operation are converted to a frequency link and are made available to the microprocessor via a programmable timer thus minimizing the participation of the microprocessor so that the microprocessor can be made more available to satisfy other tasks.

  1. URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    URANIUM MILL TAILINGS RADON FLUX CALCULATIONS PIÃ?ON RIDGE PROJECT MONTROSE COUNTY, COLORADO Inc. (Golder) was commissioned by EFRC to evaluate the operations of the uranium mill tailings storage in this report were conducted using the WISE Uranium Mill Tailings Radon Flux Calculator, as updated on November

  2. A road map to solar neutrino fluxes, neutrino oscillation parameters, and tests for new physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John N. Bahcall; Carlos Pena-Garay

    2003-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze all available solar and related reactor neutrino experiments, as well as simulated future 7Be, p-p, pep, and ^8B solar neutrino experiments. We treat all solar neutrino fluxes as free parameters subject to the condition that the total luminosity represented by the neutrinos equals the observed solar luminosity (the `luminosity constraint'). Existing experiments show that the p-p solar neutrino flux is 1.02 +- 0.02 (1 sigma) times the flux predicted by the BP00 standard solar model; the 7Be neutrino flux is 0.93^{+0.25}_{-0.63} the predicted flux; and the ^8B flux is 1.01 +- 0.04 the predicted flux. The neutrino oscillation parameters are: Delta m^2 = 7.3^{+0.4}_{-0.6}\\times 10^{-5} eV^2 and tan^2 theta_{12} = 0.41 +- 0.04. We evaluate how accurate future experiments must be to determine more precisely neutrino oscillation parameters and solar neutrino fluxes, and to elucidate the transition from vacuum-dominated to matter-dominated oscillations at low energies. A future 7Be nu-e scattering experiment accurate to +- 10 % can reduce the uncertainty in the experimentally determined 7Be neutrino flux by a factor of four and the uncertainty in the p-p neutrino flux by a factor of 2.5 (to +- 0.8 %). A future p-p experiment must be accurate to better than +- 3 % to shrink the uncertainty in tan^2 theta_{12} by more than 15 %. The idea that the Sun shines because of nuclear fusion reactions can be tested accurately by comparing the observed photon luminosity of the Sun with the luminosity inferred from measurements of solar neutrino fluxes. Based upon quantitative analyses of present and simulated future experiments, we answer the question: Why perform low-energy solar neutrino experiments?

  3. Linear optimization Linear programming using the Simplex method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCready, Mark J.

    Linear optimization Linear programming using the Simplex method Maximize M = 40 x1 + 60 x2 subject, that increasing x2 is the way to get the biggest impact. The idea of the simplex method is to move only

  4. An empirical model of electron and ion fluxes derived from observations at geosynchronous orbit

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Denton, M. H.; Thomsen, M. F.; Jordanova, V. K.; Henderson, M. G.; Borovsky, J. E.; Denton, J. S.; Pitchford, D.; Hartley, D. P.

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the plasma fluxes at geosynchronous orbit is important to both scientific and operational investigations. We present a new empirical model of the ion flux and the electron flux at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) in the energy range ~1 eV to ~40 keV. The model is based on a total of 82 satellite-years of observations from the Magnetospheric Plasma Analyzer instruments on Los Alamos National Laboratory satellites at GEO. These data are assigned to a fixed grid of 24 local-times and 40 energies, at all possible values of Kp. Bi-linear interpolation is used between grid points to provide the ionmore »flux and the electron flux values at any energy and local-time, and for given values of geomagnetic activity (proxied by the 3-hour Kp index), and also for given values of solar activity (proxied by the daily F10.7 index). Initial comparison of the electron flux from the model with data from a Compact Environmental Anomaly Sensor II (CEASE-II), also located at geosynchronous orbit, indicate a good match during both quiet and disturbed periods. The model is available for distribution as a FORTRAN code that can be modified to suit user-requirements.« less

  5. Advanced Online Flux Mapping of CANDU PHWR by Least-Squares Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, In Seob [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Hyo [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Ho Chun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A least-squares method that solves both the core neutronics design equations and the in-core detector response equations on the least-squares principle is presented as a new advanced online flux-mapping method for CANada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) pressurized heavy water reactors (PHWRs). The effectiveness of the new flux-mapping method is examined in terms of online flux-mapping calculations with numerically simulated true flux distribution and detector signals and those with the actual core-follow data for the Wolsong CANDU PHWRs in Korea. The effects of core neutronics models as well as the detector failures and uncertainties of measured detector signals on the effectiveness of the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are also examined.The following results are obtained. The least-squares method predicts the flux distribution in better agreement with the simulated true flux distribution than the standard core neutronics calculations by the finite difference method (FDM) computer code without using the detector signals. The adoption of the nonlinear nodal method based on the unified nodal method formulation instead of the FDM results in a significant improvement in prediction accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations. The detector signals estimated from the least-squares flux-mapping calculations are much closer to the measured detector signals than those from the flux synthesis method (FSM), the current online flux-mapping method for CANDU reactors. The effect of detector failures is relatively small so that the plant can tolerate up to 25% of detector failures without seriously affecting the plant operation. The detector signal uncertainties aggravate accuracy of the flux-mapping calculations, yet the effects of signal uncertainties of the order of 1% standard deviation can be tolerable without seriously degrading the prediction accuracy of the least-squares method. The least-squares method is disadvantageous because it requires longer CPU time than the existing FSM. Considering ever-increasing computer speed and the improved operational safety margin of CANDU reactors gained by accurate flux-mapping calculations, however, it is concluded that the least-squares method presents an effective alternative to the existing flux-mapping method for CANDU reactors.

  6. The linear power spectrum of observed source number counts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Challinor, Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We relate the observable number of sources per solid angle and redshift to the underlying proper source density and velocity, background evolution and line-of-sight potentials. We give an exact result in the case of linearized perturbations assuming general relativity. This consistently includes contributions of the source density perturbations and redshift distortions, magnification, radial displacement, and various additional linear terms that are small on sub-horizon scales. In addition we calculate the effect on observed luminosities, and hence the result for sources observed as a function of flux, including magnification bias and radial-displacement effects. We give the corresponding linear result for a magnitude-limited survey at low redshift, and discuss the angular power spectrum of the total count distribution. We also calculate the cross-correlation with the CMB polarization and temperature including Doppler source terms, magnification, redshift distortions and other velocity effects for the sources...

  7. A Highly Linear Broadband LNA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Joung Won

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, a highly linear broadband Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is presented. The linearity issue in broadband Radio Frequency (RF) front-end is introduced, followed by an analysis of the specifications and requirements of a broadband LNA through...

  8. Wave functions of linear systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomasz Sowinski

    2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Complete analysis of quantum wave functions of linear systems in an arbitrary number of dimensions is given. It is shown how one can construct a complete set of stationary quantum states of an arbitrary linear system from purely classical arguments. This construction is possible because for linear systems classical dynamics carries the whole information about quantum dynamics.

  9. Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral

    2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analogue is introduced in chapter two. In chapter three the notion of special set semigroup linear algebra is introduced. The concept of special set n-vector spaces, n greater than or equal to three is defined and their fuzzy analogue is their fuzzy analogue is given in chapter four. The probable applications are also mentioned. The final chapter suggests 66 problems.

  10. Neutron-flux profile monitor for use in a fission reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopp, M.K.; Valentine, K.H.

    1981-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutron flux monitor is provided which consists of a plurality of fission counters arranged as spaced-apart point detectors along a delay line. As a fission event occurs in any one of the counters, two delayed current pulses are generated at the output of the delay line. The time separation of the pulses identifies the counter in which the particular fission event occurred. Neutron flux profiles of reactor cores can be more accurately measured as a result.

  11. 14 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Bernard

    Hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes in boreal Québec produce greenhouse gases (GHG) mainly in the form of CO214 Diffusive CO2 Flux at the Air-Water Interface of the Robert-Bourassa Hydroelectric Reservoir. No method exists, however, which can directly measure the flux of CO2 across the air-water interface

  12. High-Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a high-flux, microchannel solar receiver project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by Oregon State University, is working to demonstrate a microchannel-based solar receiver capable of absorbing high solar flux, while using a variety of liquid and gaseous working fluids. High-flux microchannel receivers have the potential to dramatically reduce the size and cost of a solar receiver by minimizing re-radiation and convective losses.

  13. Role of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition reactor wall conditions on radical and ion substrate fluxes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sowa, Mark J., E-mail: msowa@ultratech.com [Ultratech/Cambridge NanoTech, 130 Turner Street, Building 2, Waltham, Massachusetts 02453 (United States)

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Chamber wall conditions, such as wall temperature and film deposits, have long been known to influence plasma source performance on thin film processing equipment. Plasma physical characteristics depend on conductive/insulating properties of chamber walls. Radical fluxes depend on plasma characteristics as well as wall recombination rates, which can be wall material and temperature dependent. Variations in substrate delivery of plasma generated species (radicals, ions, etc.) impact the resulting etch or deposition process resulting in process drift. Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition is known to depend strongly on substrate radical flux, but film properties can be influenced by other plasma generated phenomena, such as ion bombardment. In this paper, the chamber wall conditions on a plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition process are investigated. The downstream oxygen radical and ion fluxes from an inductively coupled plasma source are indirectly monitored in temperature controlled (25–190?°C) stainless steel and quartz reactors over a range of oxygen flow rates. Etch rates of a photoresist coated quartz crystal microbalance are used to study the oxygen radical flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Plasma density estimates from Langmuir probe ion saturation current measurements are used to study the ion flux dependence on reactor characteristics. Reactor temperature was not found to impact radical and ion fluxes substantially. Radical and ion fluxes were higher for quartz walls compared to stainless steel walls over all oxygen flow rates considered. The radical flux to ion flux ratio is likely to be a critical parameter for the deposition of consistent film properties. Reactor wall material, gas flow rate/pressure, and distance from the plasma source all impact the radical to ion flux ratio. These results indicate maintaining chamber wall conditions will be important for delivering consistent results from plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition systems.

  14. Modeling of the recycling particle flux and electron particle transport in the DIII-D tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.R.; Jackson, G.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Inc., TN (United States); Owen, L.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Porter, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most difficult aspects of performing an equilibrium particle transport analysis in a diverted tokamak is the determination of the particle flux which enters the plasma after recycling from the divertor plasma, the divertor target plates or the vessel wall. An approach which has been utilized in the past is to model the edge, scrape-off layer (SOL), and divertor plasma to match measured plasma parameters and then use a neutral transport code to obtain an edge recycling flux while trying to match the measured divertor D(x emissivity. Previous simulations were constrained by electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}), ion temperature (T{sub i}) data at the outer midplane, divertor heat flux from infrared television cameras, and n{sub e}, T{sub e} and particle flux at the target from fixed Langmuir probes, along with the divertor D{sub {alpha}} emissivity. In this paper, we present results of core fueling calculations from the 2-D modeling for ELM-free discharges, constrained by data from the new divertor diagnostics. In addition, we present a simple technique for estimating the recycling flux just after the L-H transition and demonstrate how this technique is supported by the detailed modeling. We will show the effect which inaccuracies in the recycling flux have on the calculated particle flux in the plasma core. For some specific density profiles, it is possible to separate the convective flux from the conductive flux. The diffusion coefficients obtained show a sharp decrease near a normalized radius of 0.9 indicating the presence of a transport barrier.

  15. Positrons for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ecklund, S.

    1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)

  16. Tetrakis-amido high flux membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McCray, S.B.

    1989-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Composite RO membranes of a microporous polymeric support and a polyamide reaction product of a tetrakis-aminomethyl compound and a polyacylhalide are disclosed, said membranes exhibiting high flux and good chlorine resistance.

  17. A low cost high flux solar simulator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Codd, Daniel S.

    A low cost, high flux, large area solar simulator has been designed, built and characterized for the purpose of studying optical melting and light absorption behavior of molten salts. Seven 1500 W metal halide outdoor ...

  18. Linear ParameterVarying versus Linear TimeInvariant Control Design for a Pressurized Water Reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodenheimer, Bobby

    . The plant can thus have widely varying dynamics over the operating range. The controllers designed perform to a description of the problem statement. Section 4 describes the identification and modelling of the plant. Se the worst­case time variation of a measurable parameter which enters the plant in a linear fractional manner

  19. MEASUREMENT OF WIND SPEED FROM COOLING LAKE THERMAL IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A; Robert Kurzeja, R; Eliel Villa-Aleman, E; Cary Tuckfield, C; Malcolm Pendergast, M

    2009-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) collected thermal imagery and ground truth data at two commercial power plant cooling lakes to investigate the applicability of laboratory empirical correlations between surface heat flux and wind speed, and statistics derived from thermal imagery. SRNL demonstrated in a previous paper [1] that a linear relationship exists between the standard deviation of image temperature and surface heat flux. In this paper, SRNL will show that the skewness of the temperature distribution derived from cooling lake thermal images correlates with instantaneous wind speed measured at the same location. SRNL collected thermal imagery, surface meteorology and water temperatures from helicopters and boats at the Comanche Peak and H. B. Robinson nuclear power plant cooling lakes. SRNL found that decreasing skewness correlated with increasing wind speed, as was the case for the laboratory experiments. Simple linear and orthogonal regression models both explained about 50% of the variance in the skewness - wind speed plots. A nonlinear (logistic) regression model produced a better fit to the data, apparently because the thermal convection and resulting skewness are related to wind speed in a highly nonlinear way in nearly calm and in windy conditions.

  20. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Merit Review and Peer Evaluation ape034hsu2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter Novel Flux Coupling...

  1. CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor Contractor ORR...

  2. CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor CRAD, Engineering - Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor February 2007 A section of Appendix C to DOE G...

  3. Constraints on the ionizing flux emitted by T Tauri stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. D. Alexander; C. J. Clarke; J. E. Pringle

    2005-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the results of an analysis of ultraviolet observations of T Tauri Stars (TTS). By analysing emission measures taken from the literature we derive rates of ionizing photons from the chromospheres of 5 classical TTS in the range ~10^41-10^44 photons/s, although these values are subject to large uncertainties. We propose that the HeII/CIV line ratio can be used as a reddening-independent indicator of the hardness of the ultraviolet spectrum emitted by TTS. By studying this line ratio in a much larger sample of objects we find evidence for an ionizing flux which does not decrease, and may even increase, as TTS evolve. This implies that a significant fraction of the ionizing flux from TTS is not powered by the accretion of disc material onto the central object, and we discuss the significance of this result and its implications for models of disc evolution. The presence of a significant ionizing flux in the later stages of circumstellar disc evolution provides an important new constraint on disc photoevaporation models.

  4. A high-flux BEC source for mobile atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Rudolph; Waldemar Herr; Christoph Grzeschik; Tammo Sternke; Alexander Grote; Manuel Popp; Dennis Becker; Hauke Müntinga; Holger Ahlers; Achim Peters; Claus Lämmerzahl; Klaus Sengstock; Naceur Gaaloul; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel

    2015-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum sensors based on coherent matter-waves are precise measurement devices whose ultimate accuracy is achieved with Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in extended free fall. This is ideally realized in microgravity environments such as drop towers, ballistic rockets and space platforms. However, the transition from lab-based BEC machines to robust and mobile sources with comparable performance is a challenging endeavor. Here we report on the realization of a miniaturized setup, generating a flux of $4 \\times 10^5$ quantum degenerate $^{87}$Rb atoms every 1.6$\\,$s. Ensembles of $1 \\times 10^5$ atoms can be produced at a 1$\\,$Hz rate. This is achieved by loading a cold atomic beam directly into a multi-layer atom chip that is designed for efficient transfer from laser-cooled to magnetically trapped clouds. The attained flux of degenerate atoms is on par with current lab-based BEC experiments while offering significantly higher repetition rates. Additionally, the flux is approaching those of current interferometers employing Raman-type velocity selection of laser-cooled atoms. The compact and robust design allows for mobile operation in a variety of demanding environments and paves the way for transportable high-precision quantum sensors.

  5. Measurements of cosmic ray antiprotons with PAMELA and studies of propagation models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Juan Wu

    2012-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Studying the acceleration and propagation mechanisms of Galactic cosmic rays can provide information regarding astrophysical sources, the properties of our Galaxy, and possible exotic sources such as dark matter. To understand cosmic ray acceleration and propagation mechanisms, accurate measurements of different cosmic ray elements over a wide energy range are needed. The PAMELA experiment is a satellite-borne apparatus which allows different cosmic ray species to be identified over background. Measurements of the cosmic ray antiproton flux and the antiproton-to-proton flux ratio from 1.5 GeV to 180 GeV are presented in this thesis. Compared to previous experiments, PAMELA extends the energy range of antiproton measurements and provides significantly higher statistics. The derived antiproton flux and antiproton-to-proton flux ratio are consistent with previous measurements and generally considered to be produced as secondary products when cosmic ray protons and helium nuclei interact with the interstellar medium. To constrain cosmic ray acceleration and propagation models, the antiproton data measured by PAMELA were further used together with the proton spectrum reported by PAMELA, as well as the B/C data provided by other experiments. Statistical tools were interfaced with the cosmic ray propagation package GALPROP to perform the constraining analyses. Diffusion models with a linear diffusion coefficient and modified diffusion models with a low energy dependence of the diffusion coefficient were studied in the $\\chi^{2}$ study. Uncertainties on the parameters and the goodness of fit of each model were given. Some models are further studied using the Bayesian inference. Posterior means and errors of the parameters base on our prior knowledge on them were obtained in the Bayesian framework. This method also allowed us to understand the correlation between parameters and compare models.

  6. Measurement of \

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A A; Bazarko, A O; Brice, S J; Brown, B C; Bugel, L; Cao, J; Coney, L; Conrad, J M; Cox, D C; Curioni, A; Djurcic, Z; Finley, D A; Fleming, B T; Ford, R; Garcia, F G; Garvey, G T; Gonzales, J; Grange, J; Green, C; Green, J A; Hart, T L; Hawker, E; Imlay, R; Johnson, R A; Karagiorgi, G; Kasper, P; Katori, T; Kobilarcik, T; Kourbanis, I; Koutsoliotas, S; Laird, E M; Linden, S K; Link, J M; Liu, Y; Louis, W C; Mahn, K B M; Marsh, W; Mauger, C; McGary, V T; McGregor, G; Metcalf, W; Meyers, P D; Mills, F; Mills, G B; Monroe, J; Moore, C D; Mousseau, J; Nelson, R H; Nienaber, P; Nowak, J A; Osmanov, B; Ouedraogo, S; Patterson, R B; Pavlovic, Z; Perevalov, D; Polly, C C; Prebys, E; Raaf, J L; Ray, H; Roe, B P; Russell, A D; Sandberg, V; Schirato, R; Schmitz, D; Shaevitz, M H; Shoemaker, F C; Smith, D; Soderberg, M; Sorel, M; Spentzouris, P; Spitz, J; Stancu, I; Stefanski, R J; Sung, M; Tanaka, H A; Tayloe, R; Tzanov, M; Van de Water, R G; Wascko, M O; White, D H; Wilking, M J; Yang, H J; Zeller, G P; Zimmerman, E D

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    MiniBooNE reports the first absolute cross sections for neutral current single \\pi^0 production on CH_2 induced by neutrino and antineutrino interactions measured from the largest sets of NC \\pi^0 events collected to date. The principal result consists of differential cross sections measured as functions of \\pi^0 momentum and \\pi^0 angle averaged over the neutrino flux at MiniBooNE. We find total cross sections of (4.76+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.40_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =808 MeV and (1.48+/-0.05_{stat}+/-0.14_{sys})*10^{-40} cm^2/nucleon at a mean energy of =664 MeV for \

  7. Energy and potential enstrophy flux constraints in quasi-geostrophic models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eleftherios Gkioulekas

    2013-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate an inequality constraining the energy and potential enstrophy flux spectra in two-layer and multi-layer quasi-geostrophic models. Its physical significance is that it can diagnose whether any given multi-layer model that allows co-existing downscale cascades of energy and potential enstrophy can allow the downscale energy flux to become large enough to yield a mixed energy spectrum where the dominant $k^{-3}$ scaling is overtaken by a subdominant $k^{-5/3}$ contribution beyond a transition wavenumber $k_t$ situated in the inertial range. The validity of the flux inequality implies that this scaling transition cannot occur within the inertial range, whereas a violation of the flux inequality beyond some wavenumber $k_t$ implies the existence of a scaling transition near that wavenumber. This flux inequality holds unconditionally in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence, however, it is far from obvious that it continues to hold in multi-layer quasi-geostrophic models, because the dissipation rate spectra for energy and potential enstrophy no longer relate in a trivial way, as in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes. We derive the general form of the energy and potential enstrophy dissipation rate spectra for a generalized symmetrically coupled multi-layer model. From this result, we prove that in a symmetrically coupled multi-layer quasi-geostrophic model, where the dissipation terms for each layer consist of the same Fourier-diagonal linear operator applied on the streamfunction field of only the same layer, the flux inequality continues to hold. It follows that a necessary condition to violate the flux inequality is the use of asymmetric dissipation where different operators are used on different layers. etc.

  8. Study of cosmic ray interaction model based on atmospheric muons for the neutrino flux calculation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanuki, T.; Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [International Center for Elementary Particle Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Shibaura Institute of Technology, 307 Fukasaku, Minuma-ku, Saitama 337-8570 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, 2-3-1 Kobata, Aomori, Aomori 030-0943 (Japan)

    2007-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied the hadronic interaction for the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux by summarizing the accurately measured atmospheric muon flux data and comparing with simulations. We find the atmospheric muon and neutrino fluxes respond to errors in the {pi}-production of the hadronic interaction similarly, and compare the atmospheric muon flux calculated using the HKKM04 [M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 70, 043008 (2004).] code with experimental measurements. The {mu}{sup +}+{mu}{sup -} data show good agreement in the 1{approx}30 GeV/c range, but a large disagreement above 30 GeV/c. The {mu}{sup +}/{mu}{sup -} ratio shows sizable differences at lower and higher momenta for opposite directions. As the disagreements are considered to be due to assumptions in the hadronic interaction model, we try to improve it phenomenologically based on the quark parton model. The improved interaction model reproduces the observed muon flux data well. The calculation of the atmospheric neutrino flux will be reported in the following paper [M. Honda et al., Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).].

  9. FFTF (Fast Flux Test Facility) cobalt test assembly results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawlins, J.A.; Wootan, D.W.; Carter, L.L.; Brager, H.R.; Schenter, R.E.

    1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cobalt test assembly containing yttrium hydride pins for neutron moderation was irradiated in the Fast Flux Test Facility during Cycle 9A for 137.7 equivalent full power days at a power level of 291 MW. The 36 test pins consisted of a batch of 32 pins containing cobalt metal to produce Co-60, and a set of 4 pins with europium oxide to produce Gd-153, a radioisotope used in detection of the bone disease Osteoporosis. Post-irradiation examination of the cobalt pins determined the Co-60 produced with an accuracy of about 5%. The measured Co-60 spatially distributed concentrations were within 20% of the calculated concentrations. The assembly average Co-60 measured activity was 4% less than the calculated value. The europium oxide pins were gamma scanned for the europium isotopes Eu-152 and Eu-154 to an absolute accuracy of about 10%. The measured europium radioisotope and Gd-153 concentrations were within 20% of calculated values. In conclusion, the hydride assembly performed well and is an excellent vehicle for many Fast Flux Test Facility isotope production applications. The results also demonstrate that the calculational methods developed by the Westinghouse Hanford Company are very accurate. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 6, 66276694, 2006 linearized ozone

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry.mccormack@nrl.navy.mil) 6627 #12;ACPD 6, 6627­6694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al

  11. Improvement of low energy atmospheric neutrino flux calculation using the JAM nuclear interaction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Honda, M.; Kajita, T.; Kasahara, K.; Midorikawa, S. [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, and Institute for the Physics and Mathematical of the Universe, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8582 (Japan); Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Faculty of Software and Information Technology, Aomori University, Aomori, 030-0943 Japan (Japan)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the calculation of the atmospheric neutrino fluxes with an interaction model named JAM, which is used in PHITS (Particle and Heavy-Ion Transport code System) [K. Niita et al., Radiation Measurements 41, 1080 (2006).]. The JAM interaction model agrees with the HARP experiment [H. Collaboration, Astropart. Phys. 30, 124 (2008).] a little better than DPMJET-III[S. Roesler, R. Engel, and J. Ranft, arXiv:hep-ph/0012252.]. After some modifications, it reproduces the muon flux below 1 GeV/c at balloon altitudes better than the modified DPMJET-III, which we used for the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux in previous works [T. Sanuki, M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, and S. Midorikawa, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043005 (2007).][M. Honda, T. Kajita, K. Kasahara, S. Midorikawa, and T. Sanuki, Phys. Rev. D 75, 043006 (2007).]. Some improvements in the calculation of atmospheric neutrino flux are also reported.

  12. Quantization of general linear electrodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P. [Albert Einstein Institute, Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Am Muehlenberg 1, 14476 Potsdam (Germany)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    General linear electrodynamics allow for an arbitrary linear constitutive relation between the field strength 2-form and induction 2-form density if crucial hyperbolicity and energy conditions are satisfied, which render the theory predictive and physically interpretable. Taking into account the higher-order polynomial dispersion relation and associated causal structure of general linear electrodynamics, we carefully develop its Hamiltonian formulation from first principles. Canonical quantization of the resulting constrained system then results in a quantum vacuum which is sensitive to the constitutive tensor of the classical theory. As an application we calculate the Casimir effect in a birefringent linear optical medium.

  13. Identifying Redundant Linear Constraints in Systems of Linear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Jun 22, 2006 ... redundant linear constraints from the system (2.1) and (2.2). ... It is informative to note that in the above theorem, the optimal ..... S. Boyd and L. El Ghaoui, “Linear Matrix Inequalities in System and Control Theory”, SIAM, vol.

  14. Linear Algebra 1: Computing canonical forms in exact linear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernet, Clément

    Linear Algebra 1: Computing canonical forms in exact linear algebra Clément PERNET, LIG, where U is invertible Reduced echelon form: E = 1 0 0 1 0 1 Gauss-Jordan elimination #12 a field: B = U-1 AU Frobenius normal form (or canonical rational form): F = CP0 CP1 ... CPk

  15. A FLUX SCALE FOR SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE 21 cm EPOCH OF REIONIZATION EXPERIMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobs, Daniel C.; Bowman, Judd [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ (United States); Parsons, Aaron R.; Ali, Zaki; Pober, Jonathan C. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Aguirre, James E.; Moore, David F. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Bradley, Richard F. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Carilli, Chris L. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM (United States); DeBoer, David R.; Dexter, Matthew R.; MacMahon, Dave H. E. [Radio Astronomy Lab., University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Gugliucci, Nicole E.; Klima, Pat [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Manley, Jason R.; Walbrugh, William P. [Square Kilometer Array, South Africa Project, Cape Town (South Africa); Stefan, Irina I. [Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a catalog of spectral measurements covering a 100-200 MHz band for 32 sources, derived from observations with a 64 antenna deployment of the Donald C. Backer Precision Array for Probing the Epoch of Reionization (PAPER) in South Africa. For transit telescopes such as PAPER, calibration of the primary beam is a difficult endeavor and errors in this calibration are a major source of error in the determination of source spectra. In order to decrease our reliance on an accurate beam calibration, we focus on calibrating sources in a narrow declination range from –46° to –40°. Since sources at similar declinations follow nearly identical paths through the primary beam, this restriction greatly reduces errors associated with beam calibration, yielding a dramatic improvement in the accuracy of derived source spectra. Extrapolating from higher frequency catalogs, we derive the flux scale using a Monte Carlo fit across multiple sources that includes uncertainty from both catalog and measurement errors. Fitting spectral models to catalog data and these new PAPER measurements, we derive new flux models for Pictor A and 31 other sources at nearby declinations; 90% are found to confirm and refine a power-law model for flux density. Of particular importance is the new Pictor A flux model, which is accurate to 1.4% and shows that between 100 MHz and 2 GHz, in contrast with previous models, the spectrum of Pictor A is consistent with a single power law given by a flux at 150 MHz of 382 ± 5.4 Jy and a spectral index of –0.76 ± 0.01. This accuracy represents an order of magnitude improvement over previous measurements in this band and is limited by the uncertainty in the catalog measurements used to estimate the absolute flux scale. The simplicity and improved accuracy of Pictor A's spectrum make it an excellent calibrator in a band important for experiments seeking to measure 21 cm emission from the epoch of reionization.

  16. Multi-scale comparative spectral analysis of satellite total solar irradiance measurements from 2003 to 2013 reveals a planetary modulation of solar activity and its non-linear dependence on the 11-year solar cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicola Scafetta; Richard C. Willson

    2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein we adopt a multi-scale dynamical spectral analysis technique to compare and study the dynamical evolution of the harmonic components of the overlapping ACRIMSAT/ACRIM3, SOHO/VIRGO and SORCE/TIM total solar irradiance (TSI) records during 2003.15 to 2013.16 in solar cycles 23 and 24. The three TSI time series present highly correlated patterns. Significant power spectral peaks are common to these records and are observed at the following periods: 0.070 year, 0.097 year, 0.20 year, 0.25 year, 0.30-0.34 year, 0.39 year. Less certain spectral peaks occur at about 0.55 year, 0.60-0.65 year and 0.7-0.9 year. Four main frequency periods at 24.8 days (0.068 year), 27.3 days (0.075 year), at 34-35 days (0.093-0.096 year) and 36-38 days (0.099-0.104 year) characterize the solar rotation cycle. The amplitude of these oscillations, in particular of those with periods larger than 0.5 year, appears to be modulated by the 11-year solar cycle. Similar harmonics have been found in other solar indices. The observed periodicities are found highly coherent with the spring, orbital and synodic periods of Mercury, Venus, Earth and Jupiter. We conclude that solar activity is likely modulated by planetary gravitational and electromagnetic forces acting on the sun. The strength of the sun's response to planetary forcing depends non-linearly on the state of internal solar dynamics: planetary-sun coupling effects are enhanced during solar activity maxima and attenuated during minima.

  17. Non Linear Beam Dynamics Studies at SPEAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Terebilo, A.; Pellegrini, C.; /UCLA; Cornacchia, M.; Corbett, J.; Martin, D.; /SLAC

    2011-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The frequency map analysis of a Hamiltonian system recently introduced to accelerators physics in combination with turn-by-turn phase space measurements opens new experimental opportunities for studying non linear dynamic in storage rings. In this paper we report on the experimental program at SPEAR having the goal of measuring the frequency map of the machine. In this paper we discuss the accuracy of the instantaneous tune extraction from experimental data and demonstrate the possibility of the frequency map measurement. The instantaneous tune extraction technique can be applied to experimental tracking data with reasonable accuracy. Frequency map can be experimentally determined using the existing turn-by-turn phase space measurement techniques and NAFF instantaneous tune extraction.

  18. Coronal mass ejections and magnetic flux buildup in the heliosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    electron heat flux. The first panel shows the preeruption heliospheric flux, which consists of the an open the observed doubling in the magnetic field intensity at 1 AU over the solar cycle. Such timescales signatures; no flux buildup results. The dynamic simulation yields a solar cycle flux variation with high

  19. FLUX SENSOR EVALUATIONS AT THE ATR CRITICAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Troy Unruh; Joy Rempe; David Nigg; George Imel; Jason Harris; Eric Bonebrake

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) and the ATR Critical (ATRC) facilities lack real-time methods for detecting thermal neutron flux and fission reaction rates for irradiation capsules. Direct measurements of the actual power deposited into a test are now possible without resorting to complicated correction factors. In addition, it is possible to directly measure minor actinide fission reaction rates and to provide time-dependent monitoring of the fission reaction rate or fast/thermal flux during transient testing. A joint Idaho State University /Idaho National Laboratory ATR National Scientific User Facility (ATR NSUF) project was recently initiated to evaluate new real-time state-of-the-art in-pile flux detection sensors. Initially, the project is comparing the accuracy, response time, and long duration performance of French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA)-developed miniature fission chambers, specialized self-powered neutron detectors (SPNDs) by the Argentinean National Energy Commission (CNEA), specially developed commercial SPNDs, and back-to-back fission (BTB) chambers developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). As discussed in this paper, specialized fixturing and software was developed by INL to facilitate these joint ISU/INL evaluations. Calculations were performed by ISU to assess the performance of and reduce uncertainties in flux detection sensors and compare data obtained from these sensors with existing integral methods employed at the ATRC. Ultimately, project results will be used to select the detector that can provide the best online regional ATRC power measurement. It is anticipated that project results may offer the potential to increase the ATRC’s current power limit and its ability to perform low-level irradiation experiments. In addition, results from this effort will provide insights about the viability of using these detectors in the ATR. Hence, this effort complements current activities to improve ATR software tools, computational protocols and in-core instrumentation under the ATR Modeling, Simulation and V&V Upgrade initiative, as well as the work to replace nuclear instrumentation under the ATR Life Extension Project (LEP) and provide support to the ATR NSUF.

  20. Uniform flux dish concentrators for photovoltaic application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jorgensen, G; Wendelin, T

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have designed a unique and innovative molded dish concentrator capable of producing a uniform flux profile on a flat target plane. Concentration levels of 100--200 suns, which are uniform over an area of several square inches, can be directly achieved for collection apertures of a reasonable size ({approximately}1.5-m diameter). Such performance would be immediately applicable to photovoltaic (PV) use. Economic concerns have shown that the proposed approach would be less expensive thatn Fresnel lens concepts or other dish concentrator designs that require complicated and costly receivers to mix the flux to obtain a uniform distribution. 12 refs.

  1. Linear tailored gain broad area semiconductor lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindsey, C.P.; Mehuys, D.; Yariv, A.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tailored gain semiconductor lasers capable of high-power operation with single-lobed, nearly diffraction limited beamwidths only a few degrees wide have been demonstrated in proton implanted chirped arrays and ''halftone'' broad area lasers. The authors analyze lasers with a linear gain gradient, and obtain analytic approximations for their unsaturated optical eigenmodes. Unlike a uniform array, the fundamental mode of a linear tailored gain laser is the mode at threshold. Mode discrimination may be controlled by lasing the spatial gain gradient. All modes of asymmetric tailored gain waveguides have single-lobed far-field patterns offset from 0/sup 0/. Finally, they utilize tailored gain broad area lasers to make a measurement of the antiguiding parameter, and find b = 2.5 +- 0.5, in agreement with previous results.

  2. KWIC Index for Numerical Linear Algebra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carpenter, J.A.

    1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a sequel to ORNL/CSD-106 in the ongoing supplements to Professor A.S. Householder's KWIC Index for Numerical Algebra. Beginning with the previous supplement, the subject has been restricted to Numerical Linear Algebra, roughly characterized by the American Mathematical Society's classification sections 15 and 65F but with little coverage of infinite matrices, matrices over fields of characteristics other than zero, operator theory, optimization and those parts of matrix theory primarily combinatorial in nature. Some consideration is given to the uses of graph theory in Numerical Linear Algebra, particularly with respect to algorithms for sparse matrix computations. The period covered by this report is roughly the calendar year 1982 as measured by the appearance of the articles in the American Mathematical Society's Contents of Mathematical Publications lagging actual appearance dates by up to nearly half a year. The review citations are limited to the Mathematical Reviews (MR).

  3. Linear harmonic analysis of Stirling engine thermodynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, N.C.J.; Griffin, F.P.; West, C.D.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The analysis involves linearization of the pressure waveform and represents each term in the conservation equations by a truncated Fourier series, including enthalpy flux discontinuity. Second-Law analysis is presented of four important loss mechanisms that result from adiabatic cylinders, transient heat transfer in semiadiabatic cylinders, pressure drop through the heat exchangers, and gas leakage from the compression space. The four loss mechanisms, all leading to efficiency reduction below the Carnot level, are characterized by irreversible thermodynamic processes that occur when heat is transferred across a finite temperature difference; when gases at two different temperatures are mixed; or when there is a mass flow through a pressure difference. The allocation of each individual loss mechanism is derived precisely in terms of entropy production but evaluated by use of pressure, temperature, and mass oscillations calculated from the linear harmonic approximation. When the theory is applied to an engine of Sunpower's RE-1000 dimensions, it reveals clearly that the adiabatic loss (due to temperature fluctuations in the cylinders) consists of two components: gas mixing and heat transfer across a temperature difference. The theory further shows that the adiabatic effect is more important than the transient heat transfer loss if the gas-to-cylinder heat transfer rate is small (i.e., nearly adiabatic conditions); the reverse is true for intermediate heat transfer rates; and both losses vanish at very high heat transfer rates. In addition, entropy analyses of pressure drop and mass leakage for isothermal cylinders shed some light on coupling between the different individual loss mechanisms.

  4. New solar opacities, abundances, helioseismology, and neutrino fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John N. Bahcall; Aldo M. Serenelli; Sarbani Basu

    2005-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct solar models with the newly calculated radiative opacities from the Opacity Project (OP) and recently determined (lower) heavy element abundances. We compare results from the new models with predictions of a series of models that use OPAL radiative opacities, older determinations of the surface heavy element abundances, and refinements of nuclear reaction rates. For all the variations we consider, solar models that are constructed with the newer and lower heavy element abundances advocated by Asplund et al. (2005) disagree by much more than the estimated measuring errors with helioseismological determinations of the depth of the solar convective zone, the surface helium composition, the internal sound speeds, and the density profile. Using the new OP radiative opacities, the ratio of the 8B neutrino flux calculated with the older and larger heavy element abundances (or with the newer and lower heavy element abundances) to the total neutrino flux measured by the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory is 1.09 (0.87) with a 9% experimental uncertainty and a 16% theoretical uncertainty, 1 sigma errors.

  5. Linearization and Efficiency Enhancement Techniques for RF and Baseband Analog Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mobarak, Mohamed Salah Mohamed

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    operation is verified with the measurement results of a 400 MHz class D power amplifier. Chapter IV presents a study of class A power amplifier dynamic biasing and its effect on the amplifier linearity. High efficiency and high linearity operation... to low power supply rejection ratio (PSRR). The filter in [7] achieves high linearity with relatively low power but higher noise. Trade-offs between linearity, noise, power, and operating frequency are common and have been incorporated into figures...

  6. Remote sensing of soil radionuclide fluxes in a tropical ecosystem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, B.; Koranda, J.; Robinson, W.; Holladay, G.

    1980-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We are using a transponding geostationary satellite to collect surface environmental data to describe the fate of soil-borne radionuclides. The remote, former atomic testing grounds at the Eniwetok and Bikini Atolls present a difficult environment in which to collect continuous field data. Our land-based, solar-powered microprocessor and environmental data systems remotely acquire measurements of net and total solar radiation, rain, humidity, temperature, and soil-water potentials. For the past year, our water flux model predicts wet season plant transpiration rates nearly equal to the 6 to 7 mm/d evaporation pan rate, which decreases to 2 to 3 mm/d for the dry season. Radioisotopic analysis confirms the microclimate-estimated 1:3 to 1:20 soil to plant /sup 137/Cs dry matter concentration ratio. This ratio exacerbates the dose to man from intake of food plants. Nephelometer measurements of airborne particulates presently indicate a minimum respiratory radiological dose.

  7. Divertor heat and particle flux due to ELMs in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, A.W.; Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Suttrop, W. [Max Planck Inst. for Plasma Physics, Garching (Germany)] [and others

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors characterize the divertor target plate heat and particle fluxes that occur due to Edge-Localized-Modes (ELMs) during H-mode in DIII-D and ASDEX-Upgrade. During steady-state ELMing H-mode the fraction of main plasma stored energy lost with each ELM varies from 6% to 2% as input power increases above the H-mode power threshold. The ELM energy is deposited near the strikepoints on the divertor target plates in a fast time scale of {le} 1 ms. The spatial profile of the ELM heat pulse is flatter and broader, up to about a factor of 2, than that of the heat flux between ELMs. On ASDEX-Upgrade the inboard strike-point receives the greatest fraction, {ge} 75%, of ELM divertor heat flux, while on DIII-D the in/out split is nearly equal. The toroidal asymmetry of the heat pulse has produced a peaking factor on DIII-D of no more than 1.5. The particle flux, as measured by Langmuir probes, has also been found to be localized near the divertor strike-points. The increased particle flux during ELMs is a significant fraction of the total time-integrated divertor plate particle flux.

  8. Magnetic flux noise in q-bits and SQUIDS from primordial density fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christian Beck

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The understanding of the origin of $1/f$ magnetic flux noise commonly observed in superconducting devices such as SQUIDS and q-bits is still a major unsolved puzzle. Here we show that a significant part of the flux noise in superconducting Josephson devices may have a cosmological origin: As the Earth moves through a surrounding axionic dark matter condensate that has conserved the primordial power spectrum of density fluctuations, spatial fluctuations of the axion misalignment angle generate mirror temporal fluctuations of the superconducting phase difference in the junction. Our theory predicts the existence of flux noise with a power spectrum given by an $1/f^{2-n_s}$ spectrum, where $n_s=0.96$ is the spectral index of the near-scale invariant primordial density fluctuations. For the typical amplitude of this cosmologically generated universal flux noise we theoretically calculate the average value $\\delta \\Phi /\\Phi_0 =3.37 \\cdot 10^{-6}$ at 1Hz. These theoretical predictions are in excellent agreement with recent low-frequency flux noise measurements of various experimental groups. Magnetic flux noise, so far mainly considered as a nuisance for electronic devices, may thus contain valuable information about fluctuation spectra in the very early universe.

  9. A charged particle in a homogeneous magnetic field accelerated by a time periodic Aharonov-Bohm flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kalvoda; P. Stovicek

    2011-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a nonrelativistic quantum charged particle moving on a plane under the influence of a uniform magnetic field and driven by a periodically time-dependent Aharonov-Bohm flux. We observe an acceleration effect in the case when the Aharonov-Bohm flux depends on time as a sinusoidal function whose frequency is in resonance with the cyclotron frequency. In particular, the energy of the particle increases linearly for large times. An explicit formula for the acceleration rate is derived with the aid of the quantum averaging method, and then it is checked against a numerical solution with a very good agreement.

  10. Testing non-linear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations with the Titov-Demoulin equilibrium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Wiegelmann; Bernd Inhester; Bernhard Kliem; Gherardo Valori; Thomas Neukirch

    2006-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    CONTEXT: As the coronal magnetic field can usually not be measured directly, it has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements into the corona. AIMS: We test the quality of a non-linear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolation code with the help of a known analytical solution. METHODS: The non-linear force-free equations are numerically solved with the help of an optimization principle. The method minimizes an integral over the force-free and solenoidal condition. As boundary condition we use either the magnetic field components on all six sides of the computational box in Case I or only on the bottom boundary in Case II. We check the quality of the reconstruction by computing how well force-freeness and divergence-freeness are fulfilled and by comparing the numerical solution with the analytical solution. The comparison is done with magnetic field line plots and several quantitative measures, like the vector correlation, Cauchy Schwarz, normalized vector error, mean vector error and magnetic energy. RESULTS: For Case I the reconstructed magnetic field shows good agreement with the original magnetic field topology, whereas in Case II there are considerable deviations from the exact solution. This is corroborated by the quantitative measures, which are significantly better for Case I. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the strong nonlinearity of the considered force-free equilibrium, the optimization method of extrapolation is able to reconstruct it; however, the quality of reconstruction depends significantly on the consistency of the input data, which is given only if the known solution is provided also at the lateral and top boundaries, and on the presence or absence of flux concentrations near the boundaries of the magnetogram.

  11. EUV mirror based absolute incident flux detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berger, Kurt W.

    2004-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for the in-situ monitoring of EUV radiation flux includes an integrated reflective multilayer stack. This device operates on the principle that a finite amount of in-band EUV radiation is transmitted through the entire multilayer stack. This device offers improvements over existing vacuum photo-detector devices since its calibration does not change with surface contamination.

  12. Energies of Quantum QED Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H Weigel

    2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In this talk I present recent studies on vacuum polarization energies and energy densities induced by QED flux tubes. I focus on comparing three and four dimensional scenarios and the discussion of various approximation schemes in view of the exact treatment.

  13. Flux tubes in the SU(3) vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario S. Cardaci; Paolo Cea; Leonardo Cosmai; Rossella Falcone; Alessandro Papa

    2011-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the distribution of the chromoelectric field generated by a static quark-antiquark pair in the SU(3) vacuum. We find that the transverse profile of the flux tube resembles the dual version of the Abrikosov vortex field distribution and give an estimate of the London penetration length in the confined vacuum.

  14. BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY'S HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ohta, Shigemi

    1 BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY'S HIGH FLUX BEAM REACTOR Compiled by S. M. Shapiro I. PICTORIAL with fiberglass insulation and a protective aluminum skin. The reactor vessel is shaped somewhat like a very large at the spherical end. It is located at the center of the reactor building and is surrounded by a lead and steel

  15. Flux Exclusion Superconducting Quantum Metamaterial: Towards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zheludev, Nikolay

    Flux Exclusion Superconducting Quantum Metamaterial: Towards Quantum-level Switching V. Savinov1, they require extremely high levels of nanofabrication. Here we introduce a new quantum superconducting properties of the mac- roscopic quantum state of superconducting carriers1 , and essentially plasmonic nature

  16. Neutrino and antineutrino inclusive charged-current cross section measurement with the MINOS near detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharya, Debdatta; /Pittsburgh U.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the measurement of energy dependence of the neutrino-nucleon inclusive charged current cross section on an isoscalar target in the range 3-50 GeV for neutrinos and 5-50 GeV energy range for antineutrinos. The data set was collected with the MINOS Near Detector using the wide band NuMI beam at Fermilab. The size of the charged current sample is 1.94 x 10{sup 6} neutrino events and 1.60 x 10{sup 5} antineutrino events. The flux has been extracted using a low hadronic energy sub-sample of the charged current events. The energy dependence of the cross section is obtained by dividing the charged current sample with the extracted flux. The neutrino and antineutrino cross section exhibits a linear dependence on energy at high energy but shows deviations from linear behavior at low energy. We also present a measurement of the ratio of antineutrino to neutrino inclusive cross section.

  17. CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Margaret Torn

    This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

  18. Effects of soil rewetting and thawing on soil gas fluxes: a review of current literature and suggestions for future research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Gill; Vargas, Rodrigo; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Turetsky, Merritt

    2012-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Rewetting of dry soils and thawing of frozen soils are short-term, transitional phenomena in terms of hydrology and thermodynamics in soil systems. The impact of these short-term phenomena on larger-scale ecosystem fluxes has only recently been fully appreciated, and a growing number of studies show that these events affect various biogeochemical processes including fluxes of biogenic gases such as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), ammonia (NH{sub 3}) and nitric oxide (NO). Global climate models predict that future climatic change is likely to alter the frequency and intensity of drying-rewetting events and thawing of frozen soils, highlighting the importance of understanding how rewetting and thawing will influence biogenic gas fluxes. Here we summarize findings in an acquired database from 338 studies conducted from 1956-2010, and propose future research questions. Studies have reported conflicting results, ranging from large increases in gas fluxes to non-significant changes following rewetting and thawing in various terrestrial ecosystems. An analysis of published data revealed that CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, N{sub 2}O, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes increase 7.6 (standard error 1.1) times following rewetting and thawing with no significant difference between these events. We explore possible mechanisms and controls that regulate flux responses, and note that there is a lack of studies on variation of CH{sub 4}, NO and NH{sub 3} fluxes following rewetting and thawing events. High temporal resolution of flux measurements is critical to capture rapid changes in the gas fluxes after these soil perturbations. Finally, we propose that future studies should investigate the interactions between biological (i.e., microbial community) and physical (i.e., gas production, flux, and dissolution) changes in biogenic gas fluxes, and explore synergistic experimental and modelling approaches.

  19. The effect of nonuniform axial heat flux distribution on the critical heat flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Todreas, Neil E.

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A systematic experimental and analytic investigation of the effect of nonuniform axial heat flux distribution on critical heat rilux was performed with water in the quality condition. Utilizing a model which ascribes the ...

  20. Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Oxygen permeation in bismuth-based materials part I: Sintering and oxygen permeation fluxes E;2 Abstract Oxygen permeation measurements were performed on two layered bismuth based oxide ceramics. Oxygen permeability for these systems was compared to permeability of the cubic fluorite type structure

  1. Inferring surface heat flux distributions guided by a global seismic model: particular application to Antarctica

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Nikolai

    -flow measurements are rare or entirely absent. This will result in a smooth global heat-flow map that may proveInferring surface heat flux distributions guided by a global seismic model: particular application to Antarctica Nikolai M. Shapiro*, Michael H. Ritzwoller Department of Physics, Center for Imaging the Earth

  2. Cutoff-Free Propagation of Torsional Alfvén Waves Along Thin Magnetic Flux Tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. E. Musielak; S. Routh; R. Hammer

    2007-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Propagation of torsional Alfv\\'en waves along magnetic flux tubes has been extensively studied for many years but no conclusive results regarding the existence of a cutoff frequency for these waves have been obtained. The main purpose of this paper is to derive new wave equations that describe the propagation of linear torsional Alfv\\'en waves along thin and isothermal magnetic flux tubes, and use these wave equations to demonstrate that the torsional wave propagation is not affected by any cutoff frequency. It is also shown that this cutoff-free propagation is independent of different choices of the coordinate systems and wave variables adopted in the previous studies. A brief discussion of implications of this cutoff-free propagation of torsional tube waves on theories of wave heating of the solar and stellar atmospheres is also given.

  3. The Next Linear Collider: NLC2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. Burke et al.

    2002-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider. A first Zeroth-Order Design Report (ZDR) [2] for a second-generation electron-positron linear collider, the Next Linear Collider (NLC), was published five years ago. The NLC design is based on a high-frequency room-temperature rf accelerator. Its goal is exploration of elementary particle physics at the TeV center-of-mass energy, while learning how to design and build colliders at still higher energies. Many advances in accelerator technologies and improvements in the design of the NLC have been made since 1996. This Report is a brief update of the ZDR.

  4. A high-flux BEC source for mobile atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jan Rudolph; Waldemar Herr; Christoph Grzeschik; Tammo Sternke; Alexander Grote; Manuel Popp; Dennis Becker; Hauke Müntinga; Holger Ahlers; Achim Peters; Claus Lämmerzahl; Klaus Sengstock; Naceur Gaaloul; Wolfgang Ertmer; Ernst M. Rasel

    2015-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum sensors based on coherent matter-waves are precise measurement devices whose ultimate accuracy is achieved with Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in extended free fall. This is ideally realized in microgravity environments such as drop towers, ballistic rockets and space platforms. However, the transition from lab-based BEC machines to robust and mobile sources with comparable performance is a technological challenge. Here we report on the realization of a miniaturized setup, generating a flux of $4 \\times 10^5$ quantum degenerate $^{87}$Rb atoms every 1.6 s. Ensembles of $1 \\times 10^5$ atoms can be produced at a 1 Hz rate. This is achieved by loading a cold atomic beam directly into a multi-layer atom chip that is designed for efficient transfer from laser-cooled to magnetically trapped clouds. The attained flux of degenerate atoms is on par with current lab-based experiments while offering significantly higher repetition rates. The compact and robust design allows for mobile operation in a variety of demanding environments and paves the way for portable high-precision quantum sensors.

  5. A high-flux BEC source for mobile atom interferometers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rudolph, Jan; Grzeschik, Christoph; Sternke, Tammo; Grote, Alexander; Popp, Manuel; Becker, Dennis; Müntinga, Hauke; Ahlers, Holger; Peters, Achim; Lämmerzahl, Claus; Sengstock, Klaus; Gaaloul, Naceur; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum sensors based on coherent matter-waves are precise measurement devices whose ultimate accuracy is achieved with Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC) in extended free fall. This is ideally realized in microgravity environments such as drop towers, ballistic rockets and space platforms. However, the transition from lab-based BEC machines to robust and mobile sources with comparable performance is a technological challenge. Here we report on the realization of a miniaturized setup, generating a flux of $4 \\times 10^5$ quantum degenerate $^{87}$Rb atoms every 1.6 s. Ensembles of $1 \\times 10^5$ atoms can be produced at a 1 Hz rate. This is achieved by loading a cold atomic beam directly into a multi-layer atom chip that is designed for efficient transfer from laser-cooled to magnetically trapped clouds. The attained flux of degenerate atoms is on par with current lab-based experiments while offering significantly higher repetition rates. The compact and robust design allows for mobile operation in a variety of...

  6. ARM - PI Product - Radiative Flux Analysis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheatProductsISDACProductsRadiative Flux Analysis ARM

  7. Leptophilic Dark Matter and AMS-02 Cosmic-ray Positron Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qing-Hong Cao; Chuan-Ren Chen; Ti Gong

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    With the measurement of positron flux published recently by AMS-02 collaboration, we show how the leptophilic dark matter fits the observation. We obtain the percentages of different products of dark matter annihilation that can best describe the flux of high energy positrons observed by AMS. We show that dark matter annihilates predominantly into $\\tau\\tau$ pair, while both $ee$ and $\\mu\\mu$ final states should be less than $20\\%$. When gauge boson final states are included, the best branching ratio of needed $\\tau\\tau$ mode reduces.

  8. Algorithms for Symmetric Linear and Integer Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bödi, Richard; Joswig, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with exploiting symmetry for solving linear and integer programming problems. Basic properties of linear representations of finite groups can be used to reduce symmetric linear programming to solving linear programs of lower dimension. Combining this approach with knowledge of the geometry of feasible integer solutions yields an algorithm for solving highly symmetric integer linear programs which only takes time which is linear in the number of constraints and quadratic in the dimension.

  9. Surface Magnetic Flux Maintenance In Quiet Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Iida

    2012-12-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate surface processes of magnetic patches, namely merging, splitting, emergence, and cancellation, by using an auto-detection technique. We find that merging and splitting are locally predominant in the surface level, while the frequencies of the other two are less by one or two orders of magnitude. The frequency dependences on flux con- tent of surface processes are further investigated. Based on these observations, we discuss a possible whole picture of the maintenance. Our conclusion is that the photospheric magnetic field structure, especially its power-law nature, is maintained by the processes locally in the surface not by the interactions between different altitudes. We suggest a scenario of the flux maintenance as follows: The splitting and merging play a crucial role for the generation of the power-law distribution, not the emergence nor cancellation do. This power-law distribution results in another power-law one of the cancellation with an idea of the random convective transport. The cancellation and emergence have a common value for the power-law indices in their frequency distributions, which may suggest a "recycle of fluxes by submergence and re-emergence".

  10. Coupling spin ensembles via superconducting flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yueyin Qiu; Wei Xiong; Lin Tian; J. Q. You

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a hybrid quantum system consisting of spin ensembles and superconducting flux qubits, where each spin ensemble is realized using the nitrogen-vacancy centers in a diamond crystal and the nearest-neighbor spin ensembles are effectively coupled via a flux qubit.We show that the coupling strengths between flux qubits and spin ensembles can reach the strong and even ultrastrong coupling regimes by either engineering the hybrid structure in advance or tuning the excitation frequencies of spin ensembles via external magnetic fields. When extending the hybrid structure to an array with equal coupling strengths, we find that in the strong-coupling regime, the hybrid array is reduced to a tight-binding model of a one-dimensional bosonic lattice. In the ultrastrong-coupling regime, it exhibits quasiparticle excitations separated from the ground state by an energy gap. Moreover, these quasiparticle excitations and the ground state are stable under a certain condition that is tunable via the external magnetic field. This may provide an experimentally accessible method to probe the instability of the system.

  11. A study of short-time periodic variation of the B8 solar neutrino flux at Super-Kamiokande

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Yoo; for the Super-Kamiokande Collaboration

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Super-Kamiokande(SK) is a real-time detector capable of measuring the exact time of solar neutrino events. This, combined with a relatively high yield of these events of roughly 15 per day, allows a search for short-time variations in the observed flux. Using all 1496 days of SK-I's solar data, we looked for periodic variations of the observed solar neutrino flux, and found no significant periodicity.

  12. High Flux Isotope Reactor named Nuclear Historic Landmark | ornl...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    High Flux Isotope Reactor named Nuclear Historic Landmark The High Flux Isotope Reactor vessel at Oak Ridge National Laboratory resides in a pool of water illuminated by the blue...

  13. International Lige Colloquium on Ocean Dynamics, GAS TRANSFER AT WATER SURFACES, May 2 -6 2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehne, Bernd

    2005 Estimation of air-sea gas and heat fluxes from infrared imagery and surface wave measurements and much higher heat fluxes. In addition, the infrared imagery analysis reveals potentially significant the infrared images. It is also shown that the difference in the surface boundary conditions for heat and gas

  14. Estimation of net ecosystem carbon exchange for the conterminous United States by combining MODIS and AmeriFlux data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Chen, Jiquan; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Law, Beverly E.; Litvak, Marcy; Ma, Siyan; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Noormets, Asko; Oechel, Walter C.; Oren, Ram; Richardson, Andrew D.; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Starr, Gregory; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.; Paw, Kyaw; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.

    2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a modified regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using eddy flux NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE well (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day interval in 2005 using spatially explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE as determined from measurements and the literature. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets over large areas.

  15. Linear conic optimization for nonlinear optimal control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Didier Henrion

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 7, 2014 ... Abstract: Infinite-dimensional linear conic formulations are described for nonlinear optimal control problems. The primal linear problem consists ...

  16. Method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of geothermal field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poppendiek, Heinz F. (LaJolla, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for determining vertical heat flux of a geothermal field, and mapping the entire field, is based upon an elongated heat-flux transducer (10) comprised of a length of tubing (12) of relatively low thermal conductivity with a thermopile (20) inside for measuring the thermal gradient between the ends of the transducer after it has been positioned in a borehole for a period sufficient for the tube to reach thermal equilibrium. The transducer is thermally coupled to the surrounding earth by a fluid annulus, preferably water or mud. A second transducer comprised of a length of tubing of relatively high thermal conductivity is used for a second thermal gradient measurement. The ratio of the first measurement to the second is then used to determine the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., from a precalculated graph, and using the value of thermal conductivity thus determined, then determining the vertical earth temperature gradient, b, from predetermined steady state heat balance equations which relate the undisturbed vertical earth temperature distributions at some distance from the borehole and earth thermal conductivity to the temperature gradients in the transducers and their thermal conductivity. The product of the earth's thermal conductivity, k.sub..infin., and the earth's undisturbed vertical temperature gradient, b, then determines the earth's vertical heat flux. The process can be repeated many times for boreholes of a geothermal field to map vertical heat flux.

  17. Spheromak reactor with poloidal flux-amplifying transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Furth, Harold P. (Princeton, NJ); Janos, Alan C. (East Windsor, NJ); Uyama, Tadao (Osaka, JP); Yamada, Masaaki (Lawrenceville, NJ)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inductive transformer in the form of a solenoidal coils aligned along the major axis of a flux core induces poloidal flux along the flux core's axis. The current in the solenoidal coil is then reversed resulting in a poloidal flux swing and the conversion of a portion of the poloidal flux to a toroidal flux in generating a spheromak plasma wherein equilibrium approaches a force-free, minimum Taylor state during plasma formation, independent of the initial conditions or details of the formation. The spheromak plasma is sustained with the Taylor state maintained by oscillating the currents in the poloidal and toroidal field coils within the plasma-forming flux core. The poloidal flux transformer may be used either as an amplifier stage in a moving plasma reactor scenario for initial production of a spheromak plasma or as a method for sustaining a stationary plasma and further heating it. The solenoidal coil embodiment of the poloidal flux transformer can alternately be used in combination with a center conductive cylinder aligned along the length and outside of the solenoidal coil. This poloidal flux-amplifying inductive transformer approach allows for a relaxation of demanding current carrying requirements on the spheromak reactor's flux core, reduces plasma contamination arising from high voltage electrode discharge, and improves the efficiency of poloidal flux injection.

  18. The Roles of Reconnected Flux and Overlying Fields in CME Speeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deng, Minda

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The standard model of eruptive, two-ribbon flares involves reconnection of over- lying magnetic fields beneath a rising ejection. Numerous observers have reported evidence linking this reconnection, indicated by photospheric flux swept out by flare ribbons, to coronal mass ejection (CME) acceleration. This acceleration might be caused by reconnected fields that wrap around the ejection producing an increased outward hoop force. Other observations have linked stronger over- lying fields, measured by the power-law index of the fitted decay rate of field strength overlying eruption sites, to slower CME speeds. This might be caused by greater downward magnetic tension in stronger overlying fields. So overlying fields might both help and hinder the acceleration of CMEs: reconnection that converts overlying fields into flux winding about the ejection might help, but unreconnected overlying fields might hurt. Here, we investigate the roles of both ribbon fluxes and the decay rates of overlying fields in a set of 16 ...

  19. Cyclotrons as Drivers for Precision Neutrino Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adelmann, A.

    As we enter the age of precision measurement in neutrino physics, improved flux sources are required. These must have a well defined flavor content with energies in ranges where backgrounds are low and cross-section ...

  20. Biholomorphic maps with linear parts having Jordan blocks: linearization and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jordan block. Our main result proves convergence of the linearizing transformation of maps for which the Jordan part of the spectrum lies inside the unit circle and the spectrum satis#12;es a R in (C [x]) n , (1.2) where C [x] stands for the set of all formal power series with complex coe

  1. High dimensional linear inverse modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cooper, Fenwick C

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce and demonstrate two linear inverse modelling methods for systems of stochastic ODE's with accuracy that is independent of the dimensionality (number of elements) of the state vector representing the system in question. Truncation of the state space is not required. Instead we rely on the principle that perturbations decay with distance or the fact that for many systems, the state of each data point is only determined at an instant by itself and its neighbours. We further show that all necessary calculations, as well as numerical integration of the resulting linear stochastic system, require computational time and memory proportional to the dimensionality of the state vector.

  2. Contribution of GRB Emission to the GeV Extragalactic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Casanova; B. L. Dingus; Bing Zhang

    2006-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    TeV gamma rays emitted by GRBs are converted into electron-positron pairs via interactions with the extragalactic infrared radiation fields. In turn the pairs produced, whose trajectories are randomized by magnetic fields, will inverse Compton scatter off the cosmic microwave background photons. The beamed TeV gamma ray flux from GRBs is thus transformed into a GeV isotropic gamma ray flux, which contributes to the total extragalactic gamma-ray background emission. Assuming a model for the extragalactic radiation fields, for the GRB redshift distribution and for the GRB luminosity function, we evaluate the contribution of the GRB prompt and scattered emissions to the measured extragalactic gamma-ray flux. To estimate this contribution we optimistically require that the energy flux at TeV energies is about 10 times stronger than the energy flux at MeV energies. The resulting gamma-ray diffuse background is only a small fraction of what is observed, allowing blazars and other sources to give the dominant contribution.

  3. Fluxes, dynamics and chemistry of suspended particulate matter in a southeast Alaskan fjord

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, G.H.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The weighted mean fluxes over the June 1982-October 1983 were 290, 519, 812, 1124 g m/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/, respectively, determined using sediment traps deployed at 40, 120, 300 and 375 m depth in the 380 m water column. The long-term sedimentation rate was estimated at average 589 g m/sup -2/ yr/sup -1/ from sediment /sup 210/Pb profiles. Substantial SPM input to mid-depths (below 100 m) from the side arms was noted. Thus, the flux measured at 120 m depth was designated as the primary flux of the SPM to the basin. The sediment focusing resulting from the V shaped basin does not appear to be important. Using particulate Al as a tracer, resuspension rate was estimated at some 30-80% of the vertical flux below 280 m depth. Based on the SPM dynamics, the non-conservative behavior of particulate biogenic matter, Mn and Fe was investigated using a primary-resuspended-altered flux model.

  4. A linear, temperature compensated, high frequency salinity measuring device

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kelly, Minton Jones

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bmole tu'oe an% fil. l 8~, 'ith BeraLlry 48re GSB(1 31Tlce tae 81 1ctroL 8 81 818 Could( 18 c(+i '" -2 ui l 11 i ~ '8 p o jt1$'v] v . luce, e' 8& f col &1, lee ir i OE 1 conn::ct'on ie . ". '~B to tho n~: o; ry. . he "1". Oo;&o11 betuesn the l lc 'C'iry...

  5. Angular momentum transport modeling: achievements of a gyrokinetic quasi-linear approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cottier, P; Camenen, Y; Gurcan, O D; Casson, F J; Garbet, X; Hennequin, P; Tala, T

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    QuaLiKiz, a model based on a local gyrokinetic eigenvalue solver is expanded to include momentum flux modeling in addition to heat and particle fluxes. Essential for accurate momentum flux predictions, the parallel asymmetrization of the eigenfunctions is successfully recovered by an analytical fluid model. This is tested against self-consistent gyrokinetic calculations and allows for a correct prediction of the ExB shear impact on the saturated potential amplitude by means of a mixing length rule. Hence, the effect of the ExB shear is recovered on all the transport channels including the induced residual stress. Including these additions, QuaLiKiz remains ~10 000 faster than non-linear gyrokinetic codes allowing for comparisons with experiments without resorting to high performance computing. The example is given of momentum pinch calculations in NBI modulation experiments.

  6. Linearized theory of peridynamic states.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silling, Stewart Andrew

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-based peridynamic material model describes internal forces acting on a point in terms of the collective deformation of all the material within a neighborhood of the point. In this paper, the response of a state-based peridynamic material is investigated for a small deformation superposed on a large deformation. The appropriate notion of a small deformation restricts the relative displacement between points, but it does not involve the deformation gradient (which would be undefined on a crack). The material properties that govern the linearized material response are expressed in terms of a new quantity called the modulus state. This determines the force in each bond resulting from an incremental deformation of itself or of other bonds. Conditions are derived for a linearized material model to be elastic, objective, and to satisfy balance of angular momentum. If the material is elastic, then the modulus state is obtainable from the second Frechet derivative of the strain energy density function. The equation of equilibrium with a linearized material model is a linear Fredholm integral equation of the second kind. An analogue of Poincare's theorem is proved that applies to the infinite dimensional space of all peridynamic vector states, providing a condition similar to irrotationality in vector calculus.

  7. PROCESS CONTROLLABILITY ANALYSIS USING LINEAR AND NONLINEAR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    PROCESS CONTROLLABILITY ANALYSIS USING LINEAR AND NONLINEAR OPTIMISATION Samara D. Chenery October linear and nonlinear dynamic optimisation techniques. For the linear case an optimal control problem is formulated to assess the best achievable performance for the set of linear time invariant (LTI) controllers

  8. MATH F314-F71 Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikes, Derek S.

    MATH F314-F71 Linear Algebra Summer 2014 Instructor: Dr. Dana E. Madison, demadison2@alaska is by email. Class Dates and Times: July 7 ­ August 14, 12:00pm ­ 1:50pm Textbook: Linear Algebra and its: This is a first course in linear algebra that starts with the basic objects ­ vectors, matrices, systems of linear

  9. SU(2) Flux Distributions on Finite Lattices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Y; Peng, Yingcai; Haymaker, Richard W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We studied SU(2) flux distributions on four dimensional euclidean lattices with one dimension very large. By choosing the time direction appropriately we can study physics in two cases: one is finite volume in the zero temperature limit, another is finite temperature in the the intermediate to large volume limit. We found that for cases of beta > beta crit there is no intrinsic string formation. Our lattices with beta > beta crit belong to intermediate volume region, and the string tension in this region is due to finite volume effects. In large volumes we found evidence for intrinsic string formation.

  10. Semiconducting glasses with flux pinning inclusions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, William L. (Pasadena, CA); Poon, Siu-Joe (Palo Alto, CA); Duwez, Pol E. (Pasadena, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of amorphous superconducting glassy alloys containing 1% to 10% by volume of flux pinning crystalline inclusions have been found to have potentially useful properties as high field superconducting magnet materials. The alloys are prepared by splat cooling by the piston and anvil technique. The alloys have the composition (TM).sub.90-70 (M).sub.10-30 where TM is a transition metal selected from at least one metal of Groups IVB, VB, VIB, VIIB or VIIIB of the Periodic Table such as Nb, Mo, Ru, Zr, Ta, W or Re and M is at least one metalloid such as B, P, C, N, Si, Ge or Al.

  11. Resonant absorption in dissipative flux tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safari, H; Karami, K; Sobouti, Y

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oscillations of coronal loops are believed to be the primary cause of the solar corona heating. We study the resonant absorbtion of MHD waves in magnetized flux tubes with graded densities across the cross section of the tube. Within the approximation that resistive and viscous processes are operative in thin layers surrounding the singularities of the MHD equations, we give the full spectrum of the eigenfrequencies, damping rates, as well as, the eigenfields of the normal MHD modes of the tube. Both surface and body modes are analyzed and the contribution of each class to heating of the corona is commented on.

  12. Cosmic-ray Muon Flux In Belgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banjanac, R.; Dragic, A.; Jokovic, D.; Udovicic, V. [Institute of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Puzovic, J.; Anicin, I. [Faculty of Physics, University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Two identical plastic scintillator detectors, of prismatic shape (50x23x5)cm similar to NE102, were used for continuous monitoring of cosmic-ray intensity. Muon {delta}E spectra have been taken at five minute intervals, simultaneously from the detector situated on the ground level and from the second one at the depth of 25 m.w.e in the low-level underground laboratory. Sum of all the spectra for the years 2002-2004 has been used to determine the cosmic-ray muon flux at the ground level and in the underground laboratory.

  13. Contactless heat flux control with photonic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to control electric currents in solids using diodes and transistors is undoubtedly at the origin of the main developments in modern electronics which have revolutionized the daily life in the second half of 20th century. Surprisingly, until the year 2000 no thermal counterpart for such a control had been proposed. Since then, based on pioneering works on the control of phononic heat currents new devices were proposed which allow for the control of heat fluxes carried by photons rather than phonons or electrons. The goal of the present paper is to summarize the main advances achieved recently in the field of thermal energy control with photons.

  14. Flux Power Incorporated | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489Information Hydro IncEnergyInformationOpenOpenFlux Power

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - ISDAC - Hemispheric Flux Spectroradiometer

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del(ANL-IN-03-032)8LigovCampaignsCLEX-5govCampaignsFall- Hemispheric Flux

  16. Why quantum dynamics is linear

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas F. Jordan

    2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum dynamics is linear. How do we know? From theory or experiment? The history of this question is reviewed. Nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics have been proposed. They predict small but clear nonlinear effects, which very accurate experiments have not seen. Is there a reason in principle why nonlinearity is not found? Is it impossible? Does quantum dynamics have to be linear? Attempts to prove this have not been decisive, because either their assumptions are not compelling or their arguments are not conclusive. The question has been left unsettled. There is a simple answer, based on a simple assumption. It was found in two steps separated by 44 years. They are steps back to simpler and more compelling assumptions. A proof of the assumptions of the Wigner-Bargmann proof has been known since 1962. It assumes that the maps of density matrices in time are linear. For this step, it is also assumed that density matrices are mapped one-to-one onto density matrices. An alternative is to assume that pure states are mapped one-to-one onto pure states and that entropy does not decrease. In a step taken in 2006, it is proved that the maps of density matrices in time are linear. It is assumed, as in the earlier step, that at each time the physical quantities and states are described by the usual linear structures of quantum mechanics, so the question is only about how things change in time. Beyond that, the proof assumes only that the dynamics does not depend on anything outside the system, but must allow the system to be described as part of a larger system.

  17. Bedforms in a turbulent stream.Part 2: Formation of ripples by primary linear instability and of dunes by non-linear pattern coarsening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Fourrière; P. Claudin; B. Andreotti

    2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    It is widely accepted that both ripples and dunes form in rivers by primary linear instability, the wavelength of the former scaling on the grain size, that of the latter being controled by the water depth. We revisit here this problem, using the computation of the turbulent flow over a wavy bottom performed in Part 1. The details of the different mechanisms controlling sediment transport are encoded into three quantities: the saturated flux, the saturation length and the threshold shear stress. Theses quantities are modelled in the case of erosion and momentum limited bed loads. This framework allows to give a clear picture of the instability in terms of dynamical mechanisms. The relation between the wavelength at which ripples form and the flux saturation length is quantitatively derived. Inverting the problem, experimental data is used to determine the saturation length as a function of grain size and shear velocity. Finally, using the systematic expansion of the flow field with respect to the corrugation amplitude, we discuss the non-linear selection of ripple aspect ratio. Investingating the effect of a free surface on the linear instability, we show that the excitation of standing waves at the surface has a stabilising effect, independently of the details of the flow and sediment transport models. Consequently, the shape of the dispersion relation is such that dunes can not result from a primary linear instability. We present the results of field experiments performed in the natural sandy Leyre river, which evidence the formation of ripples by a linear instability and the formation of dunes by a non-linear pattern coarsening limited by the free surface. We show that mega-dunes form when the sand bed presents heterogeneities such as a wide distribution of grain sizes.

  18. On the Ergodic Theorem for non-linear wave propagation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luiz C. L. Botelho

    2012-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a complete study of the ergodic theorem for the difficult problem of non-linear wave propagations through cylindrical measures /path integrals and the famous Ruelle-Amrein-Geogerscu-Enss (R.A.G.E.) theorem on the caracterization of continuous spectrum of self-adjoint operators.

  19. ARM - Measurement - Vertical velocity

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM Data DiscoverygovMeasurementsVertical

  20. Measurement-Measurement-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jeong, Jaehoon "Paul"

    Internet Measurement- System A Measurement- System B Control System GPS Satellite GPS Satellite GPS Receiver GPS Receiver 2) measurement 3) data1) command Methodology for One-way IP Performance Measurement This paper proposes a methodology for measurement of one-way IP performance metrics such as one-way delay

  1. Development of probes for assessment of ion heat transport and sheath heat flux in the boundary of the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brunner, Daniel Frederic

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress towards a viable fusion reactor will require comprehensive understanding of boundary plasma physics. Knowledge in this area has been growing, yet there are critical gaps. Measurements of the sheath heat flux ...

  2. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CRITICAL HEAT FLUX WITH ALUMINA-WATER NANOFLUIDS IN DOWNWARD-FACING CHANNELS FOR IN-VESSEL RETENTION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, R.J.

    The Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of water with dispersed alumina nanoparticles was measured for the geometry and flow conditions relevant to the In-Vessel Retention (IVR) situation which can occur during core melting sequences ...

  3. Self-potential, soil co2 flux, and temperature on masaya volcano, nicaragua

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J.L.; Connor, C.; St-Amand, K.; Stix, J.; Spinner, W.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the spatial relationship between self-potential (SP), soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature and the mechanisms that produce SP anomalies on the flanks of Masaya volcano, Nicaragua. We measured SP, soil CO{sub 2} fluxes (<1 to 5.0 x 10{sup 4} g m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), and temperatures (26 to 80 C) within an area surrounding a normal fault, adjacent to Comalito cinder cone (2002-2003). These variables are well spatially correlated. Wavelengths of SP anomalies are {le}100 m, and high horizontal SP gradients flank the region of elevated flux and temperature. Carbon isotopic compositions of soil CO{sub 2} ({delta}{sup 13}C = -3.3 to -1.1{per_thousand}) indicate a deep gas origin. Given the presence of a deep water table (100 to 150 m), high gas flow rates, and subsurface temperatures above liquid boiling points, we suggest that rapid fluid disruption is primarily responsible for positive SP anomalies here. Concurrent measurement of SP, soil CO{sub 2} flux, and temperature may be a useful tool to monitor intrusive activity.

  4. Set Linear Algebra and Set Fuzzy Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral

    2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    In this book, the authors define the new notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized form of vector spaces. Set vector spaces make use of the least number of algebraic operations, therefore, even a non-mathematician is comfortable working with it. It is with the passage of time, that we can think of set linear algebras as a paradigm shift from linear algebras. Here, the authors have also given the fuzzy parallels of these new classes of set linear algebras. This book is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter briefly recalls some of the basic concepts in order to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces the notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized concept of vector spaces. Set vector spaces lends itself to define new classes of vector spaces like semigroup vector spaces and group vector spaces. These are also generalization of vector spaces. The fuzzy analogue of these concepts are given in Chapter three. In Chapter four, set vector spaces are generalized to biset bivector spaces and not set vector spaces. This is done taking into account the advanced information technology age in which we live. As mathematicians, we have to realize that our computer-dominated world needs special types of sets and algebraic structures. Set n-vector spaces and their generalizations are carried out in Chapter five. Fuzzy n-set vector spaces are introduced in the sixth chapter. The seventh chapter suggests more than three hundred problems.

  5. Overview of observations from the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger. Part 2: Radiative fluxes and divergences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slingo, A.; White, H. E.; Bharmal, N.; Robinson, G. J.

    2009-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Broadband shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes observed both at the surface and from space during the RADAGAST experiment in Niamey, Niger in 2006 are presented. The surface fluxes were measured by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Mobile Facility (AMF) at Niamey airport, while the fluxes at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) are from the Geostationary Earth Radiation Budget (GERB) instrument on the Meteosat-8 satellite. The data are analyzed as daily averages, in order to minimise sampling differences between the surface and top of atmosphere instruments, while retaining the synoptic and seasonal changes that are the main focus of this study. A cloud mask is used to identify days with cloud from those with predominantly clear skies. The influence of temperature, water vapor, aerosols and clouds is investigated. Aerosols are ubiquitous throughout the year and have a significant impact on both the shortwave and longwave fluxes. The large and systematic seasonal changes in temperature and column integrated water vapor (CWV) through the dry and wet seasons are found to exert strong influences on the longwave fluxes. These influences are often in opposition to each other, because the highest temperatures occur at the end of the dry season when the CWV is lowest, while in the wet season the lowest temperatures are associated with the highest values of CWV. Apart from aerosols, the shortwave fluxes are also affected by clouds and by the seasonal changes in CWV. The fluxes are combined to provide estimates of the divergence of radiation across the atmosphere throughout 2006. The longwave divergence is remarkably constant through the year, because of a compensation between the seasonal variations in the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) and surface net longwave radiation. A simple model of the greenhouse effect is used to interpret this result in terms of the dependence of the normalized greenhouse effect at the TOA and of the effective emissivity of the atmosphere at the surface on the CWV. It is shown that, as the CWV increases, the atmosphere loses longwave energy to the surface with about the same increasing efficiency with which it traps the OLR, thus keeping the atmospheric longwave divergence roughly constant. The shortwave divergence is mainly determined by the CWV and aerosol loadings and the effect of clouds is much smaller than on the component fluxes.

  6. A parameterisation of the flux and energy spectrum of single and multiple muons in deep water/ice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Bazzotti; S. Biagi; G. Carminati; S. Cecchini; T. Chiarusi; G. Giacomelli; A. Margiotta; M. Sioli; M. Spurio

    2009-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper parametric formulas are presented to evaluate the flux of atmospheric muons in the range of vertical depth between 1.5 to 5 km of water equivalent (km w.e.) and up to 85^o for the zenith angle. We take into account their arrival in bundles with different muon multiplicities. The energy of muons inside bundles is then computed considering the muon distance from the bundle axis. This parameterisation relies on a full Monte Carlo simulation of primary Cosmic Ray (CR) interactions, shower propagation in the atmosphere and muon transport in deep water [1]. The primary CR flux and interaction models, in the range in which they can produce muons which may reach 1.5 km w.e., suffer from large experimental uncertainties. We used a primary CR flux and an interaction model able to correctly reproduce the flux, the multiplicity distribution, the spatial distance between muons as measured by the underground MACRO experiment.

  7. Monsoon-driven vertical fluxes of organic pollutants in the western Arabian Sea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dachs, J.; Bayona, J.M.; Ittekkot, V.; Albaiges, J.

    1999-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A time series of sinking particles from the western Arabian Sea was analyzed for aliphatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, 4,4{prime}-DDT and 4,4{prime}-DDE, to assess the role of monsoons on their vertical flux in the Indian Ocean. Concurrently, molecular markers such as sterols and linear and branched alkanes were analyzed enabling the characterization of the biogenic sources and biogeochemical processes occurring during the sampling period. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) of the data set of concentrations and fluxes of these compounds confirmed a seasonal variability driven by the SW and NE monsoons. Moreover, the influence of different air masses is evidenced by the occurrence of higher concentrations of DDT, PCBs, and pyrolytic PAHs during the NE monsoon and of fossil hydrocarbons during the SW monsoon. Total annual fluxes to the deep Arabian Sea represent an important removal contribution of persistent organic pollutants, thus not being available for the global distillation process (volatilization and atmospheric transport from low or mid latitudes to cold areas). Therefore, monsoons may play a significant role on the global cycle of organic pollutants.

  8. Optimal Constructions of Fault Tolerant Optical Linear Compressors and Linear Decompressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    1 Optimal Constructions of Fault Tolerant Optical Linear Compressors and Linear Decompressors Cheng linear compressors and linear decompressors. The basic network element for our constructions is scaled first obtain a fundamental result on the minimum con- struction complexity of a linear compressor

  9. Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.

  10. Linearized supergravity from Matrix theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Kabat; W. Taylor

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that the linearized supergravity potential between two objects arising from the exchange of quanta with zero longitudinal momentum is reproduced to all orders in 1/r by terms in the one-loop Matrix theory potential. The essential ingredient in the proof is the identification of the Matrix theory quantities corresponding to moments of the stress tensor and membrane current. We also point out that finite-N Matrix theory violates the equivalence principle.

  11. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, W. Bruce (Knoxville, TN); McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  12. Precision linear ramp function generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.

    1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.

  13. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  14. A linear induction motor conveyer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Solinsky, Kenneth Sheldon

    1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    wave 14. Fundamentals of inducing a magnetic field. 25 15. Dsr made of conducting material placed above six current carrying wire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 16. Change in conductor's magnetic field with time. 27 17. Origin of. forces..., it is pos- sible to design a mears of moving certain objects, such that the arly moving parts of the entire convey- ing system are the items to be moved. Such a system can be used to move any item made of a nonmagnetic conductor. A linear inductior...

  15. Generation of a permanent linear electro-optic effect in an optical fiber by poling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xiaochao

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    was carried out. The maximum poling efficiency has been achieved at the applied poling temperature well be- low the fiber melting point. The linear electro- optic coefficient was measured to be 6X10 M/V at room temperature after application of an electric... Before Poling. . . . Fig. 9 Linear-Optic Coefficient vs Poling Temperature. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Fig. 10 Linear-Optic Coefficient vs Poling Field. . . . . INTRODUCTION Fast switches and modulators are key elements in fiber optical signal...

  16. Method and apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pokrywka, Robert J. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A calibration apparatus for calibrating a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT) having an armature positioned in au LVDT armature orifice, and the armature able to move along an axis of movement. The calibration apparatus includes a heating mechanism with an internal chamber, a temperature measuring mechanism for measuring the temperature of the LVDT, a fixture mechanism with an internal chamber for at least partially accepting the LVDT and for securing the LVDT within the heating mechanism internal chamber, a moving mechanism for moving the armature, a position measurement mechanism for measuring the position of the armature, and an output voltage measurement mechanism. A method for calibrating an LVDT, including the steps of: powering the LVDT; heating the LVDT to a desired temperature; measuring the position of the armature with respect to the armature orifice; and measuring the output voltage of the LVDT.

  17. System identification for passive linear quantum systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madalin Guta; Naoki Yamamoto

    2014-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    System identification is a key enabling component for the implementation of quantum technologies, including quantum control. In this paper, we consider the class of passive linear input-output systems, and investigate several basic questions: (1) which parameters can be identified? (2) Given sufficient input-output data, how do we reconstruct system parameters? (3) How can we optimize the estimation precision by preparing appropriate input states and performing measurements on the output? We show that minimal systems can be identified up to a unitary transformation on the modes, and systems satisfying a Hamiltonian connectivity condition called "infecting" are completely identifiable. We propose a frequency domain design based on a Fisher information criterion, for optimizing the estimation precision for coherent input state. As a consequence of the unitarity of the transfer function, we show that the Heisenberg limit with respect to the input energy can be achieved using non-classical input states.

  18. A linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics approach to optimization of thermoelectric devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ouerdane, H; Apertet, Y; Michot, A; Abbout, A

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improvement of thermoelectric systems in terms of performance and range of applications relies on progress in materials science and optimization of device operation. In this chapter, we focuse on optimization by taking into account the interaction of the system with its environment. For this purpose, we consider the illustrative case of a thermoelectric generator coupled to two temperature baths via heat exchangers characterized by a thermal resistance, and we analyze its working conditions. Our main message is that both electrical and thermal impedance matching conditions must be met for optimal device performance. Our analysis is fundamentally based on linear nonequilibrium thermodynamics using the force-flux formalism. An outlook on mesoscopic systems is also given.

  19. Optimal Unravellings for Feedback Control in Linear Quantum Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. M . Wiseman; A. C. Doherty

    2005-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    For quantum systems with linear dynamics in phase space much of classical feedback control theory applies. However, there are some questions that are sensible only for the quantum case, such as: given a fixed interaction between the system and the environment what is the optimal measurement on the environment for a particular control problem? We show that for a broad class of optimal (state-based) control problems (the stationary Linear-Quadratic-Gaussian class), this question is a semi-definite program. Moreover, the answer also applies to Markovian (current-based) feedback.

  20. Turbulent Fluxes in Stably Stratified Boundary Layers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L'vov, Victor S; Rudenko, Oleksii; 10.1088/0031-8949/2008/T132/014010

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an extended version of an invited talk given on the International Conference "Turbulent Mixing and Beyond". The dynamical and statistical description of stably stratified turbulent boundary layers with the important example of the stable atmospheric boundary layer in mind is addressed. Traditional approaches to this problem, based on the profiles of mean quantities, velocity second-order correlations, and dimensional estimates of the turbulent thermal flux run into a well known difficulty, predicting the suppression of turbulence at a small critical value of the Richardson number, in contradiction with observations. Phenomenological attempts to overcome this problem suffer from various theoretical inconsistencies. Here we present an approach taking into full account all the second-order statistics, which allows us to respect the conservation of total mechanical energy. The analysis culminates in an analytic solution of the profiles of all mean quantities and all second-order correlations removing t...

  1. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  2. Tracking heat flux sensors for concentrating solar applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Andraka, Charles E; Diver, Jr., Richard B

    2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Innovative tracking heat flux sensors located at or near the solar collector's focus for centering the concentrated image on a receiver assembly. With flux sensors mounted near a receiver's aperture, the flux gradient near the focus of a dish or trough collector can be used to precisely position the focused solar flux on the receiver. The heat flux sensors comprise two closely-coupled thermocouple junctions with opposing electrical polarity that are separated by a thermal resistor. This arrangement creates an electrical signal proportional to heat flux intensity, and largely independent of temperature. The sensors are thermally grounded to allow a temperature difference to develop across the thermal resistor, and are cooled by a heat sink to maintain an acceptable operating temperature.

  3. Estimation of Net Ecosystem Carbon Exchange for the Conterminous UnitedStates by Combining MODIS and AmeriFlux Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Jingfeng; Zhuang, Qianlai; Baldocchi, Dennis D.; Law, Beverly E.; Richardson, Andrew D.; Chen, Jiquan; Oren, Ram; Starr, Gregory; Noormets, Asko; Ma, Siyan; Verma, Shashi B.; Wharton, Sonia; Wofsy, Steven C.; Bolstad, Paul V.; Burns, Sean P.; Cook, David R.; Curtis, Peter S.; Drake, Bert G.; Falk, Matthias; Fischer, Marc L.; Foster, David R.; Gu, Lianhong; Hadley, Julian L.; Hollinger, David Y.; Katul, Gabriel G.; Litvak, Marcy; Martin, Timothy A.; Matamala, Roser; McNulty, Steve; Meyers, Tilden P.; Monson, Russell K.; Munger, J. William; Oechel, Walter C.; U, Kyaw Tha Paw; Schmid, Hans Peter; Scott, Russell L.; Sun, Ge; Suyker, Andrew E.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2009-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Eddy covariance flux towers provide continuous measurements of net ecosystem carbon exchange (NEE) for a wide range of climate and biome types. However, these measurements only represent the carbon fluxes at the scale of the tower footprint. To quantify the net exchange of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere for regions or continents, flux tower measurements need to be extrapolated to these large areas. Here we used remotely-sensed data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) instrument on board NASA's Terra satellite to scale up AmeriFlux NEE measurements to the continental scale. We first combined MODIS and AmeriFlux data for representative U.S. ecosystems to develop a predictive NEE model using a regression tree approach. The predictive model was trained and validated using NEE data over the periods 2000-2004 and 2005-2006, respectively. We found that the model predicted NEE reasonably well at the site level. We then applied the model to the continental scale and estimated NEE for each 1 km x 1 km cell across the conterminous U.S. for each 8-day period in 2005 using spatially-explicit MODIS data. The model generally captured the expected spatial and seasonal patterns of NEE. Our study demonstrated that our empirical approach is effective for scaling up eddy flux NEE measurements to the continental scale and producing wall-to-wall NEE estimates across multiple biomes. Our estimates may provide an independent dataset from simulations with biogeochemical models and inverse modeling approaches for examining the spatiotemporal patterns of NEE and constraining terrestrial carbon budgets for large areas.

  4. Flux avalanches in superconducting films with periodic arrays of holes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, V.; Welp, U.; Metlushko, V.; Crabtree, G. W.; Materials Science Division; Inst. of Solid State Physics RAS

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The magnetic flux dynamics in Nb films with periodic hole arrays is studied magneto-optically. Flux motion in the shape of microavalanches along {l_brace}100{r_brace} and {l_brace}110{r_brace} directions of the hole lattice is observed. At lower temperatures anisotropic large scale thermo-magnetic avalanches dominate flux entry and exit. At T-T{sub c} critical-state-like field patterns periodically appear at fractions of the matching field.

  5. Characteristics of a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) Conformed Longitudinally Around a Cylinder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    Characteristics of a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) Conformed Longitudinally Around a Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna (LTSA) conformed longitudinally around a cylinder. Measured and simulated are presented. Fig. 1: Schematic of LTSA with dimensions in cm. Fig. 2: LTSA wrapped around 90º curve. LTSA

  6. Delayed neutrons measurement at the MEGAPIE target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefano Panebianco; Pavel Bokov; Diane Dore; Xavier Ledoux; Alain Letourneau; Aurelien Prevost; Danas Ridikas

    2007-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the Neutronic and Nuclear Assessment Task Group of the MEGAPIE experiment we measured the delayed neutron (DN) flux at the top of the target. The measurement was proposed mainly for radioprotection purposes since the DN flux at the top of the target has been estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the prompt neutron flux. Given the strong model-dependence of DN predictions, the measurement of DN contribution to the total neutron activity at the top of the target was thus desired. Moreover, this measurement is complementary to the DN experiments performed at PNPI (Gatchina) on solid lead and bismuth targets. The DN measurement at MEGAPIE was performed during the start-up phase of the target. In this paper we present a detailed description of the experimental setup and some preliminary results on decay spectra.

  7. Delayed neutrons measurement at the MEGAPIE target

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Panebianco, Stefano; Dore, Diane; Ledoux, Xavier; Letourneau, Alain; Prevost, Aurelien; Ridikas, Danas

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of the Neutronic and Nuclear Assessment Task Group of the MEGAPIE experiment we measured the delayed neutron (DN) flux at the top of the target. The measurement was proposed mainly for radioprotection purposes since the DN flux at the top of the target has been estimated to be of the same order of magnitude as the prompt neutron flux. Given the strong model-dependence of DN predictions, the measurement of DN contribution to the total neutron activity at the top of the target was thus desired. Moreover, this measurement is complementary to the DN experiments performed at PNPI (Gatchina) on solid lead and bismuth targets. The DN measurement at MEGAPIE was performed during the start-up phase of the target. In this paper we present a detailed description of the experimental setup and some preliminary results on decay spectra.

  8. Evaluation of heat flux through blast furnace shell with attached sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, J.W. [Kyonggi Univ., Suwon, Kyonggi (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Materials Engineering; Lee, J.H.; Suh, Y.K. [POSCO, Kwangyang, Cheonnam (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Plant trials to evaluate heat fluxes through a lining/cooling system of a blast furnace were conducted in order to realize the cooling efficiency of the blast furnace under operation. For this purpose, several experiments to measure the in-furnace gas temperatures were cautiously made, and numerical simulations for the temperature distributions over the blast furnace shell and cooling/lining systems were also carried out.

  9. Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current Source Inverters for HEVs and FCVs Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wireless Charging Integration of Novel Flux Coupling Motor and Current Source Inverter...

  10. Examining How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    How Radiative Fluxes Are Affected by Cloud and Particle Characteristics Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights...

  11. analyze magnetic flux: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the cracks are the objective of the inversion process. The proposed procedure Reilly, James P. 47 Quantitative observation of magnetic flux distribution in new magnetic...

  12. achieve high flux: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of mass immunization William M. Weiss; Gilbert Burnham; Peter J. Winch 2 Ultra-High Energy Neutrino Fluxes and Their Constraints HEP - Phenomenology (arXiv) Summary: Applying...

  13. axial flux permanent: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    de 13 Design and analysis aspects of radial flux air-cored permanent magnet wind generator system for direct battery charging applications. Open Access Theses and...

  14. ambipolar particle flux: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a cascade Wehrli, Bernhard 32 Earth Planets Space, 62, 333345, 2010 Cosmic ray and solar energetic particle flux in paleomagnetospheres Biology and Medicine Websites Summary:...

  15. annual particle flux: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a cascade Wehrli, Bernhard 20 Earth Planets Space, 62, 333345, 2010 Cosmic ray and solar energetic particle flux in paleomagnetospheres Biology and Medicine Websites Summary:...

  16. as4 flux morfologiya: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Guido D'Amico; Roberto Gobbetti; Matthew Kleban; Marjorie Schillo 2012-11-14 11 Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes CERN Preprints Summary: The most probable initial magnetic...

  17. Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Lewicki, Et Al., 2008) Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Exploration Activity: Gas Flux Sampling At Long Valley Caldera Geothermal Area (Lewicki, Et Al.,...

  18. Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Elevated carbon dioxide flux at the Dixie Valley geothermal field, Nevada- relations between surface phenomena and the geothermal reservoir Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  19. Ising interaction between capacitively-coupled superconducting flux qubits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahiko Satoh; Yuichiro Matsuzaki; Kosuke Kakuyanagi; Koichi Semba; Hiroshi Yamaguchi; Shiro Saito

    2015-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Here, we propose a scheme to generate a controllable Ising interaction between superconducting flux qubits. Existing schemes rely on inducting couplings to realize Ising interactions between flux qubits, and the interaction strength is controlled by an applied magnetic field On the other hand, we have found a way to generate an interaction between the flux qubits via capacitive couplings. This has an advantage in individual addressability, because we can control the interaction strength by changing an applied voltage that can be easily localized. This is a crucial step toward the realizing superconducting flux qubit quantum computation.

  20. Gaugino Condensates and Fluxes in N = 1 Effective Superpotentials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean-Pierre Derendinger; Costas Kounnas; P. Marios Petropoulos

    2008-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In the framework of orbifold compactifications of heterotic and type II orientifolds, we study effective N = 1 supergravity potentials arising from fluxes and gaugino condensates. These string solutions display a broad phenomenology which we analyze using the method of N = 4 supergravity gaugings. We give examples in type II and heterotic compactifications of combined fluxes and condensates leading to vacua with naturally small supersymmetry breaking scale controlled by the condensate, cases where the supersymmetry breaking scale is specified by the fluxes even in the presence of a condensate and also examples where fluxes and condensates conspire to preserve supersymmetry.

  1. Linear-quadratic control problem with a linear term on semiinfinite ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Dec 15, 2003 ... We describe a complete solution of the linear-quadratic control prob- lem on a semiinfinite interval with the linear term in the objective func-.

  2. High speed linear induction motor efficiency optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Andrew P. (Andrew Peter)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the reasons linear motors, a technology nearly a century old, have not been adopted for a large number of linear motion applications is that they have historically had poor efficiencies. This has restricted the ...

  3. MANEUVER REGULATION, TRANSVERSE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION, AND ZERO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maggiore, Manfredi

    MANEUVER REGULATION, TRANSVERSE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION, AND ZERO DYNAMICS Chris Nielsen,1 Manfredi focus is on output maneuver regulation where stabilizing transverse dynamics is a key requirement. Keywords: Maneuver regulation, path following, feedback linearization, zero dynamics, non-square systems

  4. Duality for Mixed-Integer Linear Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The theory of duality for linear programs is well-developed and has been successful ... methods for determining the effect of modifications to the input data on the ..... and the primal problem is bounded, since linear programming duality tells us ...

  5. Flux and energy analysis of species in hollow cathode magnetron ionized physical vapor deposition of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, L.; Ko, E.; Dulkin, A.; Park, K. J.; Fields, S.; Leeser, K. [Novellus Systems, Inc., 4000 North 1st St., San Jose, California 95134 (United States); Meng, L.; Ruzic, D. N. [Center for Plasma-Material Interactions, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 201 South Goodwin, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet the stringent requirements of interconnect metallization for sub-32 nm technologies, an unprecedented level of flux and energy control of film forming species has become necessary to further advance ionized physical vapor deposition technology. Such technology development mandates improvements in methods to quantify the metal ion fraction, the gas/metal ion ratio, and the associated ion energies in the total ion flux to the substrate. In this work, a novel method combining planar Langmuir probes, quartz crystal microbalance (QCM), and gridded energy analyzer (GEA) custom instrumentation is developed to estimate the plasma density and temperature as well as to measure the metal ion fraction and ion energy. The measurements were conducted in a Novellus Systems, Inc. Hollow Cathode Magnetron (HCM{sup TM}) physical vapor deposition source used for deposition of Cu seed layer for 65-130 nm technology nodes. The gridded energy analyzer was employed to measure ion flux and ion energy, which was compared to the collocated planar Langmuir probe data. The total ion-to-metal neutral ratio was determined by the QCM combined with GEA. The data collection technique and the corresponding analysis are discussed. The effect of concurrent resputtering during the deposition process on film thickness profile is also discussed.

  6. Symmetries in Linear and Integer Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bödi, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The notion of symmetry is defined in the context of Linear and Integer Programming. Symmetric linear and integer programs are studied from a group theoretical viewpoint. We show that for any linear program there exists an optimal solution in the fixed point set of its symmetry group. Using this result, we develop an algorithm that allows for reducing the dimension of any linear program having a non-trivial group of symmetries.

  7. Linear Programming Lower Bounds for Minimum Converter ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    generation algorithm for solving the linear relaxation of the most promising ... Keywords: Optical Networks, Wavelength Assignment, Integer Programming.

  8. Optimization Online - Vector Space Decomposition for Linear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jean Bertrand Gauthier

    2015-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 26, 2015 ... Abstract: This paper describes a vector space decomposition algorithmic framework for linear programming guided by dual feasibility ...

  9. Absolute Calibration of the Radio Astronomy Flux Density Scale at 22 to 43 GHz Using Planck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partridge, B; Perley, R A; Stevens, J; Butler, B J; Rocha, G; Walter, B; Zacchei, A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Planck mission detected thousands of extragalactic radio sources at frequencies from 28 to 857 GHz. Planck's calibration is absolute (in the sense that it is based on the satellite's annual motion around the Sun and the temperature of the cosmic microwave background), and its beams are well characterized at sub-percent levels. Thus Planck's flux density measurements of compact sources are absolute in the same sense. We have made coordinated VLA and ATCA observations of 65 strong, unresolved Planck sources in order to transfer Planck's calibration to ground-based instruments at 22, 28, and 43 GHz. The results are compared to microwave flux density scales currently based on planetary observations. Despite the scatter introduced by the variability of many of the sources, the flux density scales are determined to 1-2% accuracy. At 28 GHz, the flux density scale used by the VLA runs 3.6% +- 1.0% below Planck values; at 43 GHz, the discrepancy increases to 6.2% +- 1.4% for both ATCA and the VLA.

  10. Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Regression Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cardot, Hervé

    Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Regression Models Herv´e Cardot1 and Pascal Sarda2 1, the ability of such non linear functional approaches to produce competitive estimations. Short title : Varying monograph. We propose here another generalization of the functional linear regression model in which

  11. Computational Reality XIII Non-linear regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Computational Reality XIII Non-linear regression Inverse analysis II B. Emek Abali @ LKM - TU Berlin Abstract Linear regression to fit and determine parameters, shown in the last tutorial, is quite useful and widely implemented, however, there are material models where parameters are coupled non-linearly

  12. (Parallel Linear Algebra Package) Jess Cmara Moreno

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giménez, Domingo

    álgebra lineal (Linear Algebra Objects). También permite la utilización de vistas (objetos referenciadosPLAPACK (Parallel Linear Algebra Package) Jesús Cámara Moreno Programación Paralela y Computación Reducción de Vectores Inicialización de PLAPACK. Funciones. Templates. Funciones. Linear Algebra Objects

  13. Linear Dimensionality Reduction for Margin-Based Classification: High-Dimensional Data and Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Varshney, Kush R.

    Low-dimensional statistics of measurements play an important role in detection problems, including those encountered in sensor networks. In this work, we focus on learning low-dimensional linear statistics of high-dimensional ...

  14. CO2 and CH4 Fluxes across Polygon Geomorphic Types, Barrow, Alaska, 2006-2010

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tweedie,Craig; Lara, Mark

    Carbon flux data are reported as Net Ecosystem Exchange (NEE), Gross Ecosystem Exchange (GEE), Ecosystem Respiration (ER), and Methane (CH4) flux. Measurements were made at 82 plots across various polygon geomorphic classes at research sites on the Barrow Environmental Observatory (BEO), the Biocomplexity Experiment site on the BEO, and the International Biological Program (IBP) site a little west of the BEO. This product is a compilation of data from 27 plots as presented in Lara et al. (2012), data from six plots presented in Olivas et al. (2010); and from 49 plots described in (Lara et al. 2014). Measurements were made during the peak of the growing seasons during 2006 to 2010. At each of the measurement plots (except Olivas et al., 2010) four different thicknesses of shade cloth were used to generate CO2 light response curves. Light response curves were used to normalize photosynthetically active radiation that is diurnally variable to a peak growing season average ~400 umolm-2sec-1. At the Olivas et al. (2010) plots, diurnal patterns were characterized by repeated sampling. CO2 measurements were made using a closed-chamber photosynthesis system and CH4 measurements were made using a photo-acoustic multi-gas analyzer. In addition, plot-level measurements for thaw depth (TD), water table depth (WTD), leaf area index (LAI), and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) are summarized by geomorphic polygon type.

  15. Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    US Army Corps of Engineers

    Wave momentum flux parameter: a descriptor for nearshore waves Steven A. Hughes* US Army Engineer Available online 7 October 2004 Abstract A new parameter representing the maximum depth-integrated wave momentum flux occurring over a wave length is proposed for characterizing the wave contribution

  16. Anomaly-free representations of the holonomy-flux algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SangChul Yoon

    2008-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We work on the uniqueness, gr-qc/0504147, of representations of the holonomy-flux algebra in loop quantum gravity. We argue that for analytic diffeomorphisms, the flux operators can be only constants as functions on the configuration space in representations with no anomaly, which are zero in the standard representation.

  17. Advanced methods of flux identification for clarifierthickener simulation models q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bürger, Raimund

    with mathematical models for the batch and continuous sedimentation of finely divided solid par- ticles dispersed: Solid­liquid separation Thickener simulation Batch sedimentation Flux identification Mathematical modelAdvanced methods of flux identification for clarifier­thickener simulation models q Fernando

  18. Extraction of Neutrino Flux from the Inclusive Muon Cross Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murata, Tomoya

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied a method to extract neutrino flux from the data of neutrino-nucleus reaction by using maximum entropy method. We demonstrate a promising example to extract neutrino flux from the inclusive cross section of muon production without selecting a particular reaction process such as quasi-elastic nucleon knockout.

  19. Extraction of Neutrino Flux from the Inclusive Muon Cross Section

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomoya Murata; Toru Sato

    2015-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We have studied a method to extract neutrino flux from the data of neutrino-nucleus reaction by using maximum entropy method. We demonstrate a promising example to extract neutrino flux from the inclusive cross section of muon production without selecting a particular reaction process such as quasi-elastic nucleon knockout.

  20. The Variation of the Solar Neutrino Fluxes over Time in the Homestake, GALLEX(GNO) and Super-Kamiokande Experiments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Sakurai; H. J. Haubold; T. Shirai

    2011-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the records of the fluxes of solar neutrinos from the Homestake, GALLEX (GNO), and Super-Kamiokande experiments, their statistical analyses were performed to search for whether there existed a time variation of these fluxes. The results of the analysis for the three experiments indicate that these fluxes are varying quasi-biennially. This means that both efficiencies of the initial p-p and the pp-III reactions of the proton-proton chain are varying quasi-biennially together with a period of about 26 months. Since this time variation prospectively generated by these two reactions strongly suggests that the efficiency of the proton-proton chain as the main energy source of the Sun has a tendency to vary quasi-biennially due to some chaotic or non-linear process taking place inside the gravitationally stabilized solar fusion reactor. It should be, however, remarked that, at the present moment, we have no theoretical reasoning to resolve this mysterious result generally referred to as the quasi-biennial periodicity in the time variation of the fluxes of solar neutrinos. There is an urgent need to search for the reason why such a quasi-biennial periodicity is caused through some physical process as related to nuclear fusion deep inside the Sun.

  1. Measurement of the absolute \

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aunion, Jose Luis Alcaraz; /Barcelona, IFAE

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the measurement of the charged current quasi-elastic (CCQE) neutrino-nucleon cross section at neutrino energies around 1 GeV. This measurement has two main physical motivations. On one hand, the neutrino-nucleon interactions at few GeV is a region where existing old data are sparse and with low statistics. The current measurement populates low energy regions with higher statistics and precision than previous experiments. On the other hand, the CCQE interaction is the most useful interaction in neutrino oscillation experiments. The CCQE channel is used to measure the initial and final neutrino fluxes in order to determine the neutrino fraction that disappeared. The neutrino oscillation experiments work at low neutrino energies, so precise measurement of CCQE interactions are essential for flux measurements. The main goal of this thesis is to measure the CCQE absolute neutrino cross section from the SciBooNE data. The SciBar Booster Neutrino Experiment (SciBooNE) is a neutrino and anti-neutrino scattering off experiment. The neutrino energy spectrum works at energies around 1 GeV. SciBooNE was running from June 8th 2007 to August 18th 2008. In that period, the experiment collected a total of 2.65 x 10{sup 20} protons on target (POT). This thesis has used full data collection in neutrino mode 0.99 x 10{sup 20} POT. A CCQE selection cut has been performed, achieving around 70% pure CCQE sample. A fit method has been exclusively developed to determine the absolute CCQE cross section, presenting results in a neutrino energy range from 0.2 to 2 GeV. The results are compatible with the NEUT predictions. The SciBooNE measurement has been compared with both Carbon (MiniBoonE) and deuterium (ANL and BNL) target experiments, showing a good agreement in both cases.

  2. Robust Linearization of RF Amplifiers Using NonLinear Internal Model Control Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Robust Linearization of RF Amplifiers Using NonLinear Internal Model Control Method Smail Bachir #1, the nonlinear Internal Model Control (IMC) method is introduced and applied to linearize high frequency Power to be controlled [8]. If the model is a perfect representation of the non linear system, the controller can

  3. Optimal Linear Quadratic Regulator for Markovian Jump Linear Systems, in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baras, John S.

    , in the last fifteen, the classical paradigms of optimal control for Markovian jump linear systems (see CostaOptimal Linear Quadratic Regulator for Markovian Jump Linear Systems, in the presence of one time] and in the design of controllers Chizeck [1986] of controllers for Markovian jump linear systems. More specifically

  4. The linear quadratic optimal control problem for linear descriptor systems with variable coefficients

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Peter

    The linear quadratic optimal control problem for linear descriptor systems with variable coefficients Peter Kunkel 3 Volker Mehrmann y 17.01.97 Abstract We study linear quadratic optimal control, 93B11, 93B40 1 Introduction In this paper we study the linear­quadratic optimal control problem

  5. ENGI 3423 Simple Linear Regression Page 12-01 Simple Linear Regression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    George, Glyn

    for dealing with non-linear regression are available in the course text, but are beyond the scopeENGI 3423 Simple Linear Regression Page 12-01 Simple Linear Regression Sometimes an experiment predict the value of Y for that value of x . The simple linear regression model is that the predicted

  6. NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2005; 12:683

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2005; 12:683 Published Numerical Linear Algebra and its Applications The fourth workshop of the ERCIM Working Group on `Matrix Computations and Statistics' and the First International workshop on `Numerical Linear Algebra and its

  7. Protostellar Accretion Flows Destabilized by Magnetic Flux Redistribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasnopolsky, Ruben; Shang, Hsien; Zhao, Bo

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic flux redistribution lies at the heart of the problem of star formation in dense cores of molecular clouds that are magnetized to a realistic level. If all of the magnetic flux of a typical core were to be dragged into the central star, the stellar field strength would be orders of magnitude higher than the observed values. This well-known "magnetic flux problem" can in principle be resolved through non-ideal MHD effects. Two dimensional (axisymmetric) calculations have shown that ambipolar diffusion, in particular, can transport magnetic flux outward relative to matter, allowing material to enter the central object without dragging the field lines along. We show through simulations that such axisymmetric protostellar accretion flows are unstable in three dimensions to magnetic interchange instability in the azimuthal direction. The instability is driven by the magnetic flux redistributed from the matter that enters the central object. It typically starts to develop during the transition from the pres...

  8. In-Depth Temperature Measurements of Timber in Fires 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reszka, Pedro; Torero, Jose L

    specimen to various heat fluxes in a Cone Calorimeter. The aim of this research is to develop a sound temperature measurement methodology in wood samples exposed to high heat fluxes and to build a data-base in order to evaluate different wood pyrolysis...

  9. Geophysical and geochemical constraints on geoneutrino fluxes from Earth's mantle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ond?ej Šrámek; William F. McDonough; Edwin S. Kite; Vedran Leki?; Steve Dye; Shijie Zhong

    2012-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of the amount and distribution of radiogenic heating in the mantle is crucial for understanding the dynamics of the Earth, including its thermal evolution, the style and planform of mantle convection, and the energetics of the core. Although the flux of heat from the surface of the planet is robustly estimated, the contributions of radiogenic heating and secular cooling remain poorly defined. Constraining the amount of heat-producing elements in the Earth will provide clues to understanding nebula condensation and planetary formation processes in early Solar System. Mantle radioactivity supplies power for mantle convection and plate tectonics, but estimates of mantle radiogenic heat production vary by a factor of more than 20. Recent experimental results demonstrate the potential for direct assessment of mantle radioactivity through observations of geoneutrinos, which are emitted by naturally occurring radionuclides. Predictions of the geoneutrino signal from the mantle exist for several established estimates of mantle composition. Here we present novel analyses, illustrating surface variations of the mantle geoneutrino signal for models of the deep mantle structure, including those based on seismic tomography. These variations have measurable differences for some models, allowing new and meaningful constraints on the dynamics of the planet. An ocean based geoneutrino detector deployed at several strategic locations will be able to discriminate between competing compositional models of the bulk silicate Earth.

  10. Test of In-core Flux Detectors in KNK II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoppe, P

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of in-core detectors for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) is still in an early stage, and little operation experience is available. Therefore self-powered neutron and gamma detectors and neutron sensitive ionization chambers -especially developed for LMFBRs- have been tested in the Fast Sodium Cooled Test Reactor KNK II. Seven flux detectors have been installed in the core of KNK II by means of a special test rig. Five of them failed already within the first week during operation in the reactor. Due to measurements of electrical resistances and capacities, sodium penetrating into the detectors or cables probably seems to be the cause. As tests prior to the installation in the core proved the tightness of all detectors, it is suspected that small cracks have developed in the detector casings or in the outer cable sheaths during their exposure to the hot coolant. Two ionization chambers did not show these faults. However, one of them failed because the saturation current plateau disap...

  11. Control of Induction Motor with Cbrientation on Rotor Flux or on Stator Flux in a very wide Field Weakening Regiori -

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    inductance of stator and rotor winding (Ls = L, = L,,, +Lo is assumed here). Rotor speed. Number of pole pairs. Resistances of stator and rotor winding. Rotor time constant. Electromagnetic torque. Load torqueControl of Induction Motor with Cbrientation on Rotor Flux or on Stator Flux in a very wide Field

  12. A comparative study on a non-linear turbulent heat transfer model for separating and reattaching flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, S.; Chung, B.T.F. [Univ. of Akron, OH (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on a previously proposed non-linear turbulence model, a turbulent heat transfer model is formulated in the present study using the concept of Generalized Gradient Diffusion (GGD) hypothesis. Under this hypothesis, an anisotropic thermal diffusivity can be obtained through the proposed non-linear turbulent model which is applied to the turbulent flow and heat transfer in a sudden expansion pipe with a constant heat flux through the pipe wall. The numerical results are compared with the available experimental data for both turbulent and thermal quantities, with an emphasis on the non-linear heat transfer predictions. The improved results are obtained for the bulk temperature distribution showing that the present non-linear heat transfer model is capable of predicting the anisotropic turbulent heat transfer for the pipe expansion flow. Some limits of the proposed model are also identified and discussed.

  13. Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...

  14. A FLUX ROPE ERUPTION TRIGGERED BY JETS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo Juan; Zhang Hongqi; Deng Yuanyong; Lin Jiaben; Su Jiangtao [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Beijing 100012 (China); Liu Yu, E-mail: guojuan@bao.ac.c [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatories, Kunming 650011 (China)

    2010-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an observation of a filament eruption caused by recurrent chromospheric plasma injections (surges/jets) on 2006 July 6. The filament eruption was associated with an M2.5 two-ribbon flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME). There was a light bridge in the umbra of the main sunspot of NOAA 10898; one end of the filament was terminated at the region close to the light bridge, and recurrent surges were observed to be ejected from the light bridge. The surges occurred intermittently for about 8 hr before the filament eruption, and finally a clear jet was found at the light bridge to trigger the filament eruption. We analyzed the evolutions of the relative darkness of the filament and the loaded mass by the continuous surges quantitatively. It was found that as the occurrence of the surges, the relative darkness of the filament body continued growing for about 3-4 hr, reached its maximum, and kept stable for more than 2 hr until it erupted. If suppose 50% of the ejected mass by the surges could be trapped by the filament channel, then the total loaded mass into the filament channelwill be about 0.57x10{sup 16} g with a momentum of 0.57x10{sup 22} g cm s{sup -1} by 08:08 UT, which is a non-negligible effect on the stability of the filament. Based on the observations, we present a model showing the important role that recurrent chromospheric mass injection play in the evolution and eruption of a flux rope. Our study confirms that the surge activities can efficiently supply the necessary material for some filament formation. Furthermore, our study indicates that the continuous mass with momentum loaded by the surge activities to the filament channel could make the filament unstable and cause it to erupt.

  15. PROMINENCE FORMATION ASSOCIATED WITH AN EMERGING HELICAL FLUX ROPE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Takenori J.; Tsuneta, Saku; Katsukawa, Yukio; Suematsu, Yoshinori [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588 (Japan); Lites, Bruce W.; Kubo, Masahito [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, P.O. Box 3000, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States); Yokoyama, Takaaki [Department of Earth and Planetary Science, School of Science, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo, Tokyo, 113-0033 (Japan); Berger, Thomas E.; Shine, Richard A.; Tarbell, Theodore D.; Title, Alan M. [Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, B/252, 3251 Hanover St., Palo Alto, CA 94304 (United States); Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Nagata, Shin'ichi; Shibata, Kazunari [Kwasan and Hida Observatories, Kyoto University, Yamashina, Kyoto, 607-8471 (Japan); Shimizu, Toshifumi [ISAS/JAXA, Sagamihara, Kanagawa, 229-8510 (Japan)], E-mail: joten.okamoto@nao.ac.jp

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and evolution process and magnetic configuration of solar prominences remain unclear. In order to study the formation process of prominences, we examine continuous observations of a prominence in NOAA AR 10953 with the Solar Optical Telescope on the Hinode satellite. As reported in our previous Letter, we find a signature suggesting that a helical flux rope emerges from below the photosphere under a pre-existing prominence. Here we investigate more detailed properties and photospheric indications of the emerging helical flux rope, and discuss their relationship to the formation of the prominence. Our main conclusions are: (1) a dark region with absence of strong vertical magnetic fields broadens and then narrows in Ca II H-line filtergrams. This phenomenon is consistent with the emergence of the helical flux rope as photospheric counterparts. The size of the flux rope is roughly 30,000 km long and 10,000 km wide. The width is larger than that of the prominence. (2) No shear motion or converging flows are detected, but we find diverging flows such as mesogranules along the polarity inversion line. The presence of mesogranules may be related to the emergence of the helical flux rope. (3) The emerging helical flux rope reconnects with magnetic fields of the pre-existing prominence to stabilize the prominence for the next several days. We thus conjecture that prominence coronal magnetic fields emerge in the form of helical flux ropes that contribute to the formation and maintenance of the prominence.

  16. Lyman Alpha Flux Power Spectrum and Its Covariance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu Zhan; Romeel Dave; Daniel Eisenstein; Neal Katz

    2005-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the flux power spectrum and its covariance using simulated Lyman alpha forests. We find that pseudo-hydro techniques are good approximations of hydrodynamical simulations at high redshift. However, the pseudo-hydro techniques fail at low redshift because they are insufficient for characterizing some components of the low-redshift intergalactic medium, notably the warm-hot intergalactic medium. Hence, to use the low-redshift Lyman alpha flux power spectrum to constrain cosmology, one would need realistic hydrodynamical simulations. By comparing one-dimensional mass statistics with flux statistics, we show that the nonlinear transform between density and flux quenches the fluctuations so that the flux power spectrum is much less sensitive to cosmological parameters than the one-dimensional mass power spectrum. The covariance of the flux power spectrum is nearly Gaussian. As such, the uncertainties of the underlying mass power spectrum could still be large, even though the flux power spectrum can be precisely determined from a small number of lines of sight.

  17. Colour flux-tubes in static Pentaquark systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedro Bicudo; Nuno Cardoso; Marco Cardoso

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The colour fields created by the static tetraquark and pentaquark systems are computed in quenched SU(3) lattice QCD, with gauge invariant lattice operators, in a 24^3 x 48 lattice at beta=6.2 . We generate our quenched configurations with GPUs, and detail the respective benchmanrks in different SU(N) groups. While at smaller distances the coulomb potential is expected to dominate, at larger distances it is expected that fundamental flux tubes, similar to the flux-tube between a quark and an antiquark, emerge and confine the quarks. In order to minimize the potential the fundamental flux tubes should connect at 120o angles. We compute the square of the colour fields utilizing plaquettes, and locate the static sources with generalized Wilson loops and with APE smearing. The tetraquark system is well described by a double-Y-shaped flux-tube, with two Steiner points, but when quark-antiquark pairs are close enough the two junctions collapse and we have an X-shaped flux-tube, with one Steiner point. The pentaquark system is well described by a three-Y-shaped flux-tube where the three flux the junctions are Steiner points.

  18. Bounded limit for the Monte Carlo point-flux-estimator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimesey, R.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Monte Carlo random walk the kernel K(R,E) is used as an expected value estimator at every collision for the collided flux phi/sub c/ r vector,E) at the detector point. A limiting value for the kernel is derived from a diffusion approximation for the probability current at a radius R/sub 1/ from the detector point. The variance of the collided flux at the detector point is thus bounded using this asymptotic form for K(R,E). The bounded point flux estimator is derived. (WHK)

  19. ARM - Measurement - Visibility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadap Documentation TDMADAP : XDCnarrowbandheat flux ARM DatagovMeasurementsVisibility ARM Data

  20. International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat  IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN

  1. Summer 2012 Mathematics 317, Linear Algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Nicholas

    or download a .pdf version for use on a Kindle or Sony Reader or a printable .pdf version. You do not need://linear.ups.edu/xml/latest/fcla-xml-latest.xml Amazon Kindle DX format (optimized PDF): http://linear.ups.edu/download/fcla-kindleDX-2.30.pdf SONY Reader format (optimized PDF for PRS-500, PRS-505): http://linear.ups.edu/download/fcla-sony505-2.30.pdf

  2. VERTIGO (VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean): A study of particle sources and flux attenuation in the North Pacific

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buesseler, K.O.; Trull, T.W.; Steinberg, D.K.; Silver, M.W.; Siegel, D.A.; Saitoh, S.-I.; Lamborg, C.H.; Lam, P.J.; Karl, D.M.; Jiao, N.Z.; Honda, M.C.; Elskens, M.; Dehairs, F.; Brown, S.L.; Boyd, P.W.; Bishop, J.K.B.; Bidigare, R.R.

    2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The VERtical Transport In the Global Ocean (VERTIGO) study examined particle sources and fluxes through the ocean's 'twilight zone' (defined here as depths below the euphotic zone to 1000 m). Interdisciplinary process studies were conducted at contrasting sites off Hawaii (ALOHA) and in the NW Pacific (K2) during 3 week occupations in 2004 and 2005, respectively. We examine in this overview paper the contrasting physical, chemical and biological settings and how these conditions impact the source characteristics of the sinking material and the transport efficiency through the twilight zone. A major finding in VERTIGO is the considerably lower transfer efficiency (T{sub eff}) of particulate organic carbon (POC), POC flux 500/150 m, at ALOHA (20%) vs. K2 (50%). This efficiency is higher in the diatom-dominated setting at K2 where silica-rich particles dominate the flux at the end of a diatom bloom, and where zooplankton and their pellets are larger. At K2, the drawdown of macronutrients is used to assess export and suggests that shallow remineralization above our 150 m trap is significant, especially for N relative to Si. We explore here also surface export ratios (POC flux/primary production) and possible reasons why this ratio is higher at K2, especially during the first trap deployment. When we compare the 500 m fluxes to deep moored traps, both sites lose about half of the sinking POC by >4000 m, but this comparison is limited in that fluxes at depth may have both a local and distant component. Certainly, the greatest difference in particle flux attenuation is in the mesopelagic, and we highlight other VERTIGO papers that provide a more detailed examination of the particle sources, flux and processes that attenuate the flux of sinking particles. Ultimately, we contend that at least three types of processes need to be considered: heterotrophic degradation of sinking particles, zooplankton migration and surface feeding, and lateral sources of suspended and sinking materials. We have evidence that all of these processes impacted the net attenuation of particle flux vs. depth measured in VERTIGO and would therefore need to be considered and quantified in order to understand the magnitude and efficiency of the ocean's biological pump.

  3. GENERALIZED DUAL FACE ALGORITHM FOR LINEAR ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 90C05; Secondary 65K05. Key words and phrases. linear programming, dual level face, dual optimal face .

  4. Stochastic linear programming games with concave preferences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We study stochastic linear programming games: a class of stochastic ... which include minimum cost spanning trees (Granot and Huberman 1981) as a special

  5. Optimization Online - Equivalence of an Approximate Linear ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Toriello

    2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 7, 2013 ... Equivalence of an Approximate Linear Programming Bound with the Held-Karp Bound for the Traveling Salesman Problem. Alejandro Toriello ...

  6. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  7. Linear conic optimization for nonlinear optimal control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Jul 7, 2014 ... This linear transport equation is classical in fluid mechanics, statistical ... define a relaxed optimal control problem as an LP in the cone of non-.

  8. Elastic Wave Behavior Across Linear Slip Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schoenberg, M.

    plane waves incident at arbitrary angles upon a plane linear slip interface are computed ... Also included in these sections is an analysis ... ish, Ut is of the form.

  9. Linear dependence of exponentials - Department of Mathematics ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    in the books of the Russian mathematician A. Leontiev. Dear Steven and Sherman,. I recently saw the problem on “linear independence of exponentials”.

  10. Siting the International Linear Collider at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Asner, David M.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Fast, James E.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Review of the proposed International Linear Collider, applications in high energy physics, and evaluation of the Hanford Site as a possible location for siting the facilityl.

  11. Siting the International Linear Collider at Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kouzes, Richard T.; Asner, David M.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Fast, James E.; Miley, Harry S.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Review of the proposed International Linear Collider, applications in high energy physics, and evaluation of the Hanford Site as a possible location for siting the facility.

  12. Optimization Online - Linear equalities in blackbox optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles Audet

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    May 28, 2014 ... ... neither in theory nor in practice. The present work proposes extensions to treat problems with linear equalities whose expression is known.

  13. Optimization Online - Linear, Cone and Semidefinite Programming ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strong duality in conic linear programming: facial reduction and extended duals ... A new semide nite programming relaxation for the quadratic assignment ...

  14. Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan

    2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.

  15. The Linear Complementarity Problem, Lemke Algorithm ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    graphs [4], [14], [9] and the research articles in their reference lists. One of the interesting ..... The Linear Complementarity Problem, Academic-Press,. Inc., 1992

  16. A Module for Radiation Hydrodynamic Calculations With ZEUS-2D Using Flux-Limited Diffusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. J. Turner; J. M. Stone

    2001-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A module for the ZEUS-2D code is described which may be used to solve the equations of radiation hydrodynamics to order unity in v/c, in the flux-limited diffusion (FLD) approximation. In this approximation, the tensor Eddington factor f which closes the radiation moment equations is chosen to be an empirical function of radiation energy density. This is easier to implement and faster than full-transport techniques, in which f is computed by solving the transfer equation. However, FLD is less accurate when the flux has a component perpendicular to the gradient in radiation energy density, and in optically thin regions when the radiation field depends strongly on angle. The material component of the fluid is here assumed to be in local thermodynamic equilibrium. The energy equations are operator-split, with transport terms, radiation diffusion term, and other source terms evolved separately. Transport terms are applied using the same consistent transport algorithm as in ZEUS-2D. The radiation diffusion term is updated using an alternating-direction implicit method with convergence checking. Remaining source terms are advanced together implicitly using numerical root-finding. However when absorption opacity is zero, accuracy is improved by treating compression and expansion source terms using time-centered differencing. Results are discussed for test problems including radiation-damped linear waves, radiation fronts propagating in optically-thin media, subcritical and supercritical radiating shocks, and an optically-thick shock in which radiation dominates downstream pressure.

  17. GLOBAL AND LOCAL CUTOFF FREQUENCIES FOR TRANSVERSE WAVES PROPAGATING ALONG SOLAR MAGNETIC FLUX TUBES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Routh, S. [Department of Physics, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India)] [Department of Physics, R. V. College of Engineering, Bangalore (India); Musielak, Z. E. [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Hammer, R., E-mail: routhswati@rvce.edu.in, E-mail: zmusielak@uta.edu, E-mail: hammer@kis.uni-freiburg.de [Kiepenheuer-Institut fuer Sonnenphysik, Schoeneckstr. 6, Freiburg, D-79104 Germany (Germany)

    2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    It is a well-established result that the propagation of linear transverse waves along a thin but isothermal magnetic flux tube is affected by the existence of the global cutoff frequency, which separates the propagating and non-propagating waves. In this paper, the wave propagation along a thin and non-isothermal flux tube is considered and a local cutoff frequency is derived. The effects of different temperature profiles on this local cutoff frequency are studied by considering different power-law temperature distributions, as well as the semi-empirical VAL C model of the solar atmosphere. The obtained results show that the conditions for wave propagation strongly depend on the temperature gradients. Moreover, the local cutoff frequency calculated for the VAL C model gives constraints on the range of wave frequencies that are propagating in different parts of the solar atmosphere. These theoretically predicted constraints are compared to observational data and are used to discuss the role played by transverse tube waves in the atmospheric heating and dynamics, and in the excitation of solar atmospheric oscillations.

  18. Temperture and composition dependence of the high flux plasma sputtering yield of Cu-Li binary alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krauss, A.R.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Gruen, D.M.; Conn, R.W.; Goebel, D.M.; Hirooka, Y.; Leung, W.K.; Bohdansky, J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High flux deuterium plasma sputtering and ion beam experiments have been performed on Cu-Li alloys to determine if the reduction in copper erosion previously predicted and observed in low flux ion beam experiments occurs at particle fluxes representative of an RFP first wall or tokamak limiter. Partial sputtering yields of the copper and lithium components have been measured as a function of alloy composition and sample temperature using optical plasma emission spectroscopy, weight loss and catcher foil techniques. It is found that the lithium sputtering yield increases with increasing sample temperature while the copper yield decreases by as much as two orders of magnitude. The temperature required to obtain the reduction in copper erosion is found to be a function of bulk lithium concentration. Consequences of these experimental results for anticipated erosion/redeposition properties are calculated, and the Cu-Li alloy in found to compare favorably with conventional low-Z materials.

  19. Constraints on GRB TeV Emission from the GeV Extragalactic Diffuse Gamma-Ray Flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casanova, S; Zhang, B; Zhang, Bing

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TeV gamma rays emitted by GRBs are converted into electron-positron pairs via interactions with the extragalactic infrared radiation fields. In turn the pairs produced, whose trajectories are randomized by magnetic fields, will inverse Compton scatter off the cosmic microwave background photons. The beamed TeV gamma ray flux from GRBs is thus transformed into a GeV isotropic gamma ray flux, which contributes to the total extragalactic gamma-ray background emission. Assuming a model for the extragalactic radiation fields, for the GRB redshift distribution and for the GRB luminosity function, we use the measured GeV extragalactic gamma-ray flux to set upper limits on the GRB emission in TeV gamma rays that is predicted in several models.

  20. Above- and below-ground methane fluxes and methanotrophic activity in a landfill-cover soil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schroth, M.H., E-mail: martin.schroth@env.ethz.ch [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Eugster, W. [Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gomez, K.E. [Institute of Biogeochemistry and Pollutant Dynamics, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 16, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Gonzalez-Gil, G. [Laboratory for Environmental Biotechnology, EPF Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Niklaus, P.A. [Institute of Agricultural Sciences, ETH Zuerich, Universitaetstrasse 2, 8092 Zuerich (Switzerland); Oester, P. [Oester Messtechnik, Bahnhofstrasse 3, 3600 Thun (Switzerland)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We quantify above- and below-ground CH{sub 4} fluxes in a landfill-cover soil. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} loading from the waste body. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Methane loading and emissions are highly variable in space and time. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Eddy covariance measurements yield largest estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Potential methanotrophic activity is high at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. - Abstract: Landfills are a major anthropogenic source of the greenhouse gas methane (CH{sub 4}). However, much of the CH{sub 4} produced during the anaerobic degradation of organic waste is consumed by methanotrophic microorganisms during passage through the landfill-cover soil. On a section of a closed landfill near Liestal, Switzerland, we performed experiments to compare CH{sub 4} fluxes obtained by different methods at or above the cover-soil surface with below-ground fluxes, and to link methanotrophic activity to estimates of CH{sub 4} ingress (loading) from the waste body at selected locations. Fluxes of CH{sub 4} into or out of the cover soil were quantified by eddy-covariance and static flux-chamber measurements. In addition, CH{sub 4} concentrations at the soil surface were monitored using a field-portable FID detector. Near-surface CH{sub 4} fluxes and CH{sub 4} loading were estimated from soil-gas concentration profiles in conjunction with radon measurements, and gas push-pull tests (GPPTs) were performed to quantify rates of microbial CH{sub 4} oxidation. Eddy-covariance measurements yielded by far the largest and probably most representative estimates of overall CH{sub 4} emissions from the test section (daily mean up to {approx}91,500 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}), whereas flux-chamber measurements and CH{sub 4} concentration profiles indicated that at the majority of locations the cover soil was a net sink for atmospheric CH{sub 4} (uptake up to -380 {mu}mol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}) during the experimental period. Methane concentration profiles also indicated strong variability in CH{sub 4} loading over short distances in the cover soil, while potential methanotrophic activity derived from GPPTs was high (v{sub max} {approx} 13 mmol L{sup -1}(soil air) h{sup -1}) at a location with substantial CH{sub 4} loading. Our results provide a basis to assess spatial and temporal variability of CH{sub 4} dynamics in the complex terrain of a landfill-cover soil.

  1. PROPOSED MEASUREMENTS AND MODELING Plant community composition, growth, physiology, and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    factors that affect carbon stocks and solute yields. MERCURY PROCESSES UNDER ELEVATED CARBON DIOXIDE drainage from chambers, measurement of water vapor fluxes. · Biogeochemical cycling of nitrogen, carbon). · Peat physical properties and geophysical imaging of the surface and subsurface environments

  2. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase Ag/Ag2O deposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Atomic oxygen flux determined by mixed-phase AgAg2O deposition. Abstract: The flux of atomic oxygen generated in a...

  3. The Equivalence of Linear Programs and Zero-Sum Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1951, Dantzig showed the equivalence of linear programming problems and ... This note concerns the equivalence between linear programming (LP) ...

  4. Solar Active Region Flux Fragmentation, Subphotospheric Flows, and Flaring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canfield, Richard

    flux is thought to be generated below the convection zone and rise buoy- antly in loops of shape range > 1019 Mx; neither exponential nor power law functions provided a consistent fit

  5. affecting carbon fluxes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (IFN) (2 Paris-Sud XI, Universit de 43 High Heat Flux Erosion of Carbon Fibre Composite Materials in the TEXTOR Tokamak* Plasma Physics and Fusion Websites Summary: ,. 1. *...

  6. Blade Motion and Nutrient Flux to the Kelp, Eisenia arborea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denny, Mark

    , 1988; Hurd and Stevens, 1997). Simple boundary-layer theory also assumes that the plate is rigid- plore the effect of oscillatory pitching on the flux to a flat plate and to two morphologies of the kelp

  7. New constraints on Northern Hemisphere growing season net flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AL. : LARGER NORTH HEMISPHERE NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE L12807AL. : LARGER NORTH HEMISPHERE NET ECOSYSTEM EXCHANGE Levin,Northern Hemisphere growing season net flux Z. Yang, 1 R. A.

  8. Coherence characterization with a superconducting flux qubit through NMR approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Fei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis discusses a series of experimental studies that investigate the coherence properties of a superconducting persistent-current or flux qubit, a promising candidate for developing a scalable quantum processor. A ...

  9. Fast Flux Test Facility project plan. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hulvey, R.K.

    1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Transition Project Plan, Revision 2, provides changes to the major elements and project baseline for the deactivation activities necessary to transition the FFTF to a radiologically and industrially safe shutdown condition.

  10. Magnetic Flux Dynamics in Horizontally Cooled Superconducting Cavities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinello, M; Grassellino, A; Crawford, A C; Melnychuk, O; Romanenko, A; Sergatkov, D A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous studies on magnetic flux expulsion as a function of cooling details have been performed for superconducting niobium cavities with the cavity beam axis placed parallel respect to the helium cooling flow, and findings showed that for sufficient cooling thermogradients all magnetic flux could be expelled and very low residual resistance could be achieved. In this paper we investigate the flux trapping and its impact on radio frequency surface resistance when the resonators are positioned perpendicularly to the helium cooling flow, which is representative of how superconducting radio-frequency (SRF) cavities are cooled in an accelerator. We also extend the studies to different directions of applied magnetic field surrounding the resonator. Results show that in the cavity horizontal configuration there is a different impact of the various field components on the final surface resistance, and that several parameters have to be considered to understand flux dynamics. A newly discovered phenomenon of concent...

  11. Determination of pool boiling Critical Heat Flux enhancement in nanofluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Truong, Bao H. (Bao Hoai)

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluids are engineered colloids composed of nano-size particles dispersed in common fluids such as water or refrigerants. Using an electrically controlled wire heater, pool boiling Critical Heat Flux (CHF) of Alumina ...

  12. Designing, testing, and analyzing coupled, flux transformer heat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renzi, Kimberly Irene

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed research involves designing, testing, and ics. analyzing a coupled, flux transformer heat pipe system following the patent of Oktay and Peterson (1997). Experiments were conducted utilizing four copper heat pipes, lined with copper mesh...

  13. Divertor Heat Flux Mitigation in High-Performance H-mode Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Maingi, R; Gates, D; Menard, J; Paul, S F; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, R E; Bush, C; Kaita, R

    2008-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments conducted in high-performance 1.0-1.2 MA 6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with a high flux expansion radiative divertor in NSTX demonstrate that significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and access to detachment may be facilitated naturally in a highly-shaped spherical torus (ST) configuration. Improved plasma performance with high {beta}{sub p} = 15-25%, a high bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} = 45-50%, longer plasma pulses, and an H-mode regime with smaller ELMs has been achieved in the lower single null configuration with higher-end elongation 2.2-2.4 and triangularity 0.6-0.8. Divertor peak heat fluxes were reduced from 6-12 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5-2 MW/m{sup 2} in ELMy H-mode discharges using high magnetic flux expansion and partial detachment of the outer strike point at several D{sub 2} injection rates, while good core confinement and pedestal characteristics were maintained. The partially detached divertor regime was characterized by a 30-60% increase in divertor plasma radiation, a peak heat flux reduction by up to 70%, measured in a 10 cm radial zone, a five-fold increase in divertor neutral pressure, and a significant volume recombination rate increase.

  14. Optimal Measurement and Control in Quantum Dynamical Systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belavkin, Viacheslav P.

    Optimal Measurement and Control in Quantum Dynamical Systems. V P Belavkin Institute of Physics-dimensional linear Markovian dynamical system with a quantum linear transmission line is studied. The optimal quantum multi-stage decision rule consisting of the classical linear optimal control strategy and quantum

  15. Measurements of thermal accommodation coefficients.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rader, Daniel John; Castaneda, Jaime N.; Torczynski, John Robert; Grasser, Thomas W.; Trott, Wayne Merle

    2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A previously-developed experimental facility has been used to determine gas-surface thermal accommodation coefficients from the pressure dependence of the heat flux between parallel plates of similar material but different surface finish. Heat flux between the plates is inferred from measurements of temperature drop between the plate surface and an adjacent temperature-controlled water bath. Thermal accommodation measurements were determined from the pressure dependence of the heat flux for a fixed plate separation. Measurements of argon and nitrogen in contact with standard machined (lathed) or polished 304 stainless steel plates are indistinguishable within experimental uncertainty. Thus, the accommodation coefficient of 304 stainless steel with nitrogen and argon is estimated to be 0.80 {+-} 0.02 and 0.87 {+-} 0.02, respectively, independent of the surface roughness within the range likely to be encountered in engineering practice. Measurements of the accommodation of helium showed a slight variation with 304 stainless steel surface roughness: 0.36 {+-} 0.02 for a standard machine finish and 0.40 {+-} 0.02 for a polished finish. Planned tests with carbon-nanotube-coated plates will be performed when 304 stainless-steel blanks have been successfully coated.

  16. n-Linear Algebra of type II

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This book is a continuation of the book n-linear algebra of type I and its applications. Most of the properties that could not be derived or defined for n-linear algebra of type I is made possible in this new structure: n-linear algebra of type II which is introduced in this book. In case of n-linear algebra of type II we are in a position to define linear functionals which is one of the marked difference between the n-vector spaces of type I and II. However all the applications mentioned in n-linear algebras of type I can be appropriately extended to n-linear algebras of type II. Another use of n-linear algebra (n-vector spaces) of type II is that when this structure is used in coding theory we can have different types of codes built over different finite fields whereas this is not possible in the case of n-vector spaces of type I. Finally in the case of n-vector spaces of type II, we can obtain n-eigen values from distinct fields; hence, the n-characteristic polynomials formed in them are in distinct different fields. An attractive feature of this book is that the authors have suggested 120 problems for the reader to pursue in order to understand this new notion. This book has three chapters. In the first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II, n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader is well-versed not only with linear algebra but also n-linear algebra of type I.

  17. Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graaf, Martin de

    Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland M. de Graaf #12;Heat transfer in katabatic flow Measurements on the Morteratsch glacier, Switzerland Martin de is used to calculate surface heat fluxes over glaciers. As determination of surface fluxes still

  18. RR Flux on Calabi-Yau and Partial Supersymmetry Breaking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. R. Taylor; C. Vafa

    2000-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how turning on Flux for RR (and NS-NS) field strengths on non-compact Calabi-Yau 3-folds can serve as a way to partially break supersymmetry from N=2 to N=1 by mass deformation. The freezing of the moduli of Calabi-Yau in the presence of the flux is the familiar phenomenon of freezing of fields in supersymmetric theories upon mass deformations.

  19. Company Name: Linear Technology Corporation Web Site: www.linear.com

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    Company Name: Linear Technology Corporation Web Site: www.linear.com Industry: Semiconductor Brief worldwide for three decades. The Company's products provide an essential bridge between our analog world

  20. NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2011; 18:961980

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Sterck, Hans

    NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2011; 18:961­980 Published aggregation method of [1], and the Markov chain algebraic multigrid (MCAMG) method of [3] using the OTF