Steam-circuit Model for the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector , G. L. Morrison1
Steam-circuit Model for the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector Prototype J. D. Pye1 , G. L. Morrison1.pye@student.unsw.edu.au Abstract The Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) is a linear-concentrating solar thermal energy system The Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) was first conceived of in 1992-1993 and was patented in 1995
MODELLING OF CAVITY RECEIVER HEAT TRANSFER COMPACT LINEAR FRESNEL REFLECTOR
. This approach allows an affordable entry into renewable energy for existing coal-power producers, and allows them to meet the mandatory renewable energy targets set by the government of New South Wales . (Hu et) linear absorbers, achieving higher ground area efficiency. · Receiver is an inverted, trapezoidal, linear
Tilting mirror strips in a linear Fresnel reector Gang Xiao (University of Nice, France)
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Tilting mirror strips in a linear Fresnel reector Gang Xiao (University of Nice, France) February 29, 2012 Abstract When a linear Fresnel reector solar concentrator is installed in a site with high of the linear Fresnel reector. Technical restrictions and diculties of this method are also discussed
MODELLING OF CAVITY RECEIVER HEAT TRANSFER COMPACT LINEAR FRESNEL REFLECTOR
planned to be 0.8 to avoid instability problems associated with superheated steam at outlet is a concept for a large-scale solar thermal power plant. Its goal is to provide high-pressure steam from may be configured to pass up and down the absorber several times if desired. · Exit quality of steam
Results and Comparison from the SAM Linear Fresnel Technology Performance Model: Preprint
Wagner, M. J.
2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents the new Linear Fresnel technology performance model in NREL's System Advisor Model. The model predicts the financial and technical performance of direct-steam-generation Linear Fresnel power plants, and can be used to analyze a range of system configurations. This paper presents a brief discussion of the model formulation and motivation, and provides extensive discussion of the model performance and financial results. The Linear Fresnel technology is also compared to other concentrating solar power technologies in both qualitative and quantitative measures. The Linear Fresnel model - developed in conjunction with the Electric Power Research Institute - provides users with the ability to model a variety of solar field layouts, fossil backup configurations, thermal receiver designs, and steam generation conditions. This flexibility aims to encompass current market solutions for the DSG Linear Fresnel technology, which is seeing increasing exposure in fossil plant augmentation and stand-alone power generation applications.
Favaro, Alberto
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Geometrical optics describes, with good accuracy, the propagation of high-frequency plane waves through an electromagnetic medium. Under such approximation, the behaviour of the electromagnetic fields is characterised by just three quantities: the temporal frequency $\\omega$, the spatial wave (co)vector $k$, and the polarisation (co)vector $a$. Numerous key properties of a given optical medium are determined by the Fresnel surface, which is the visual counterpart of the equation relating $\\omega$ and $k$. For instance, the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a uniaxial crystal, such as calcite, is represented by two light-cones. Kummer, whilst analysing quadratic line complexes as models for light rays in an optical apparatus, discovered in the framework of projective geometry a quartic surface that is linked to the Fresnel one. Given an arbitrary dispersionless linear (meta)material or vacuum, we aim to establish whether the resulting Fresnel surface is equivalent to, or is more general than, a Kummer su...
Alberto Favaro; Friedrich W. Hehl
2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z
Geometrical optics describes, with good accuracy, the propagation of high-frequency plane waves through an electromagnetic medium. Under such approximation, the behaviour of the electromagnetic fields is characterised by just three quantities: the temporal frequency $\\omega$, the spatial wave (co)vector $k$, and the polarisation (co)vector $a$. Numerous key properties of a given optical medium are determined by the Fresnel surface, which is the visual counterpart of the equation relating $\\omega$ and $k$. For instance, the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a uniaxial crystal, such as calcite, is represented by two light-cones. Kummer, whilst analysing quadratic line complexes as models for light rays in an optical apparatus, discovered in the framework of projective geometry a quartic surface that is linked to the Fresnel one. Given an arbitrary dispersionless linear (meta)material or vacuum, we aim to establish whether the resulting Fresnel surface is equivalent to, or is more general than, a Kummer surface.
Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces
Peinke, Joachim
Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro & Friedrich W. Hehl Outline Linear media Linear media-you. Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces: geometrical optics in dispersionless linear (meta)materials and vacuum, 19Â23 November 2012 Email: favaro@thp.uni-koeln.de #12;Fresnel versus Kummer surfaces Alberto Favaro
Linear algorithms for phase retrieval in the Fresnel region: validity conditions
Gureyev, T E
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We describe the relationship between different forms of linearized expressions for the spatial distribution of intensity of X-ray projection images obtained in the Fresnel region. We prove that under the natural validity conditions some of the previously published expressions can be simplified without a loss of accuracy. We also introduce modified validity conditions which are likely to be fulfilled in many relevant practical cases, and which lead to a further significant simplification of the expression for the image-plane intensity, permitting simple non-iterative linear algorithms for the phase retrieval.
Media with no Fresnel equation
Peinke, Joachim
Media with no Fresnel equation Alberto Favaro & Ismo V. Lindell Outline Part 1: Local linear media Part 2: Jump conditions Part 3: media with no G(q) Conclusions Electromagnetic media with no Fresnel with no Fresnel equation Alberto Favaro & Ismo V. Lindell Outline Part 1: Local linear media Part 2: Jump
Direct-Steam Linear Fresnel Performance Model for NREL's System Advisor Model
Wagner, M. J.; Zhu, G.
2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents the technical formulation and demonstrated model performance results of a new direct-steam-generation (DSG) model in NREL's System Advisor Model (SAM). The model predicts the annual electricity production of a wide range of system configurations within the DSG Linear Fresnel technology by modeling hourly performance of the plant in detail. The quasi-steady-state formulation allows users to investigate energy and mass flows, operating temperatures, and pressure drops for geometries and solar field configurations of interest. The model includes tools for heat loss calculation using either empirical polynomial heat loss curves as a function of steam temperature, ambient temperature, and wind velocity, or a detailed evacuated tube receiver heat loss model. Thermal losses are evaluated using a computationally efficient nodal approach, where the solar field and headers are discretized into multiple nodes where heat losses, thermal inertia, steam conditions (including pressure, temperature, enthalpy, etc.) are individually evaluated during each time step of the simulation. This paper discusses the mathematical formulation for the solar field model and describes how the solar field is integrated with the other subsystem models, including the power cycle and optional auxiliary fossil system. Model results are also presented to demonstrate plant behavior in the various operating modes.
Solar receiver heliostat reflector having a linear drive and position information system
Horton, Richard H. (Schenectady, NY)
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A heliostat for a solar receiver system comprises an improved drive and control system for the heliostat reflector assembly. The heliostat reflector assembly is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e., heat receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The improved drive system includes linear stepping motors which comprise low weight, low cost, electronic pulse driven components. One embodiment comprises linear stepping motors controlled by a programmed, electronic microprocessor. Another embodiment comprises a tape driven system controlled by a position control magnetic tape.
Guillermo F. Rubilar; Yuri N. Obukhov; Friedrich W. Hehl
2002-03-25T23:59:59.000Z
We study the {\\em propagation of electromagnetic waves} in a spacetime devoid of a metric but equipped with a {\\em linear} electromagnetic spacetime relation $H\\sim\\chi\\cdot F$. Here $H$ is the electromagnetic excitation $({\\cal D},{\\cal H})$ and $F$ the field strength $(E,B)$, whereas $\\chi$ (36 independent components) characterizes the electromagnetic permittivity/permeability of spacetime. We derive analytically the corresponding Fresnel equation and show that it is always quartic in the wave covectors. We study the `Fresnel tensor density' ${\\cal G}^{ijkl}$ as (cubic) function of $\\chi$ and identify the leading part of $\\chi$ (20 components) as indispensable for light propagation. Upon requiring electric/magnetic reciprocity of the spacetime relation, the leading part of $\\chi$ induces the {\\em light cone} structure of spacetime (9 components), i.e., the spacetime metric up to a function. The possible existence of an Abelian {\\em axion} field (1 component of $\\chi$) and/or of a {\\em skewon} field (15 components) and their effect on light propagation is discussed in some detail. The newly introduced skewon field is expected to be T-odd and related to dissipation.
Comprehensive focusing analysis of various Fresnel zone plates
Jahns, Jürgen
Comprehensive focusing analysis of various Fresnel zone plates Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Optische and the linear superposition principle, of the focusing performances of various Fresnel zone plates. Many similarity between Fresnel zone plates and multilevel diffractive lenses, most of the obtained results
Linear Fresnel | Department of Energy
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Department ofFormerCommittee: Notice ofJoshuavii ACRONYMS ANDEnergy Efficiency in
FINCH: Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Hologram
Rosen, Joseph
6 FINCH: Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Hologram Joseph Rosen1, Barak Katz1 and Gary Brooker2 1Ben, there are various types of holograms, including Fourier (Stroke & Restrick, 1965; Breckinridge, 1974) and Fresnel a pattern of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) scans the object such that at each and every scanning position
Optical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes
Naulleau, Patrick
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of 12 nm Resolution Fresnel Zone Plate Lens based Soft X-rayOptical modeling of Fresnel zoneplate microscopes Patrick P.the development of Fresnel zoneplate based microscopes.
Kirchhoff integrals and Fresnel zones Ludek Klimes
Cerveny, Vlastislav
Kirchhoff integrals and Fresnel zones LudÅ¸ek KlimeÅ¸s Department of Geophysics, Charles University of discrete values necessary for the numerical quadraÂ ture. The Fresnel zones are then derived as the minimum of Fresnel zones is purely local, independent of the reference travel times. The definition of Fresnel zones
Dispersion-compensated Fresnel lens
Johnson, K.C.
1992-11-03T23:59:59.000Z
A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4[times]10[sup [minus]5] inch and a profile width of at least 10[sup [minus]3] inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight. 10 figs.
Dispersion-compensated fresnel lens
Johnson, Kenneth C. (1215 Brewster Dr., El Cerrito, CA 94530)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A transmission grating is used to reduce chromatic aberration in a Fresnel lens, wherein the lens chromatic dispersion is offset and substantially canceled by the grating's diffraction-induced dispersion. The grating comprises a Fresnel-type pattern of microscopic facets molded directly into the lens surface. The facets would typically have a profile height of around 4.multidot.10.sup.-5 inch and a profile width of at least 10.sup.-3 inch. In its primary intended application, the invention would function to improve the optical performance of a Fresnel lens used to concentrate direct sunlight.
Fresnel phase plates as reconfigurable microfluidic lenses
Tsikata, Sedina, 1981-
2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this study, Fresnel phase plates were tested as reconfigurable lenses. The lenses were constructed from a Fresnel pattern which was transferred to a silicon substrate via photolithography. A layer of PDMS was spin-coated ...
Project Profile: Commercial Development of an Advanced Linear...
Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site
Profile: Commercial Development of an Advanced Linear-Fresnel-Based CSP Concept SkyFuel logo SkyFuel, under the CSP R&D FOA, is developing a commercial linear-Fresnel-based...
A programmable Fresnel transform pulse shaper
Purdue University
A programmable Fresnel transform pulse shaper G. M´inguez-Vega1, J.D. McKinney2 and A.M. Weiner2 1@purdue.edu Abstract: We demonstrate the first reprogrammable Fresnel transform pulse shaper based on a modified direct a free-space Fresnel transform which causes quadratic dispersion of the output temporal waveform. When
Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography Joseph Rosen*
Rosen, Joseph
Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography Joseph Rosen* Department of Biology, Integrated, such that the result is a complex-valued Fresnel hologram. When this hologram is reconstructed in the computer, the 3D types of holograms,1,39 including Fourier1,4 and Fresnel holograms.5,6 The process of beam interfering
Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors
Angel, Roger [University of Arizona
2014-12-17T23:59:59.000Z
The main project objective has been to develop an advanced gravity sag method for molding large glass solar reflectors with either line or point focus, and with long or short focal length. The method involves taking standard sized squares of glass, 1.65 m x 1.65 m, and shaping them by gravity sag into precision steel molds. The method is designed for high volume manufacture when incorporated into a production line with separate pre-heating and cooling. The performance objectives for the self-supporting glass mirrors made by this project include mirror optical accuracy of 2 mrad root mean square (RMS), requiring surface slope errors <1 mrad rms, a target not met by current production of solar reflectors. Our objective also included development of new methods for rapidly shaping glass mirrors and coating them for higher reflectivity and soil resistance. Reflectivity of 95% for a glass mirror with anti-soil coating was targeted, compared to the present ~94% with no anti-soil coating. Our mirror cost objective is ~$20/m2 in 2020, a significant reduction compared to the present ~$35/m2 for solar trough mirrors produced for trough solar plants. During the first year a custom batch furnace was built to develop the method with high power radiative heating to simulate transfer of glass into a hot slumping zone in a production line. To preserve the original high polish of the float glass on both front and back surfaces, as required for a second surface mirror, the mold surface is machined to the required shape as grooves which intersect the glass at cusps, reducing the mold contact area to significantly less than 1%. The mold surface is gold-plated to reflect thermal radiation. Optical metrology of glass replicas made with the system has been carried out with a novel, custom-built test system. This test provides collimated, vertically-oriented parallel beams from a linear array of co-aligned lasers translated in a perpendicular direction across the reflector. Deviations of each reflected beam from the paraboloid focus give a direct measure of surface slope error. Key findings • A gravity sag method for large (2.5 m2) second surface glass solar reflectors has been developed and demonstrated to a uniquely high level of accuracy. Mirror surface slope accuracy of 0.65 mrad in one dimension, 0.85 mrad in 2 dimensions (point focus) has been demonstrated by commercial partner REhnu using this process. This accuracy exceeds by a factor of two current solar reflector accuracy. Our replicas meet the Sunshot accuracy objective of 2 mrad optical, which requires better than 1 mrad rms slope error. • Point-focus as well as line-focus mirrors have been demonstrated at 1.65 m x 1.65 m square – a unique capability. • The new process using simple molds is economical. The molds for the 1.65 m square reflectors are bent and machined steel plates on a counter-weighted flotation support. To minimize thermal coupling by radiative heat transfer, the mold surface is grooved and gilded. The molds are simple to manufacture, and have minimal thermal stresses and distortion in use. Lapping and bending techniques have been developed to obtain better than 1 mrad rms surface mold accuracy. Float glass is sagged into the molds by rapid radiative heating, using a custom high power (350 kW) furnace. The method of manufacture is well suited for small as well as large volume production, and as it requires little capital investment and no high technology, it could be used anywhere in the world to make solar concentrating reflectors. • A novel slope metrology method for full 1.65 aperture has been demonstrated, with 25 mm resolution across the face of the replicas. The method is null and therefore inherently accurate: it can easily be reproduced without high-tech equipment and does not need sophisticated calibration. We find by cross calibration with reference trough reflectors from RioGlass that our null-test laser system yields a measurement accuracy better than 0.4 mrad rms slope error. Our system is inexpensive and could have broad application for test
Hopkins, R.J.; Land, J.T.; Misvel, M.C.
1994-06-07T23:59:59.000Z
A nuclear reactor reflector is disclosed that comprises a stack of reflector blocks with vertical water flow passages to cool the reflector. The interface between blocks is opposite support points for reactor fuel rods. Water flows between the reflector and the reactor barrel from passages in a bottom block. The top block contains a flange to limit this flow and the flange has a slot to receive an alignment pin that is welded to the barrel. The pin is held in the slot by two removable shims. Alignment bars extend the length of the stack in slots machined in each block when the stack is assembled. 12 figs.
Goldberg, Kenneth A.
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Commissioning a new EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imagingimaging system relies on Fresnel zoneplate lenses, which
Engineering Alumni Society Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President
Plotkin, Joshua B.
Engineering Alumni Society May 2013 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President http), Farnia Fresnel (President), and Matt Quale (Secretary), Dane Carswell (Director) as they celebrate approach to alumni : alumni relations. #12;Engineering Alumni Society May 2013 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel
FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL-
Collings, Iain B.
FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL- POLARIZED METEOROLOGICAL RADAR ANTENNA D.B. HaymanBi gain Horizontal and vertical polarizations #12;Range Length 4 m9 2 3 4 = D Fresnel Zone Criterion Data Corrected Fresnel Zone Data Aperture Data Far Field Data Raw Fresnel Zone Data Mask D+2 Fourier
Advanced Manufacture of Reflectors
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The Advance Manufacture of Reflectors fact sheet describes a SunShot Initiative project being conducted research team led by the University of Arizona, which is working to develop a novel method for shaping float glass. The technique developed by this research team can drastically reduce the time required for the shaping step. By enabling mass production of solar concentrating mirrors at high speed, this project should lead to improved performance and as much as a 40% reduction in manufacturing costs for reflectors made in very high volume.
Fresnel diffraction patterns as accelerating beams
Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Wu, Zhenkun; Li, Yuanyuan; Lu, Keqing; Zhang, Yanpeng
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate that beams originating from Fresnel diffraction patterns are self-accelerating in free space. In addition to accelerating and self-healing, they also exhibit parabolic deceleration property, which is in stark contrast to other accelerating beams. We find that the trajectory of Fresnel paraxial accelerating beams is similar to that of nonparaxial Weber beams. Decelerating and accelerating regions are separated by a critical propagation distance, at which no acceleration is present. During deceleration, the Fresnel diffraction beams undergo self-smoothing, in which oscillations of the diffracted waves gradually focus and smooth out at the critical distance.
Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization
Palffy-Muhoray, Peter
Chapter 9 Fresnel Reflection 9.0.3 polarization: iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 i that n1 sin i = n2 sin t (9.2) 45 #12;46 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION Boundary conditions iH rH tH #12;48 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION and here Ei + Er = Et (9.16) or Hi Z-1 1 + Hr Z-1 1
Automated Fresnel lens tester system
Phipps, G.S.
1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
An automated data collection system controlled by a desktop computer has been developed for testing Fresnel concentrators (lenses) intended for solar energy applications. The system maps the two-dimensional irradiance pattern (image) formed in a plane parallel to the lens, whereas the lens and detector assembly track the sun. A point detector silicon diode (0.5-mm-dia active area) measures the irradiance at each point of an operator-defined rectilinear grid of data positions. Comparison with a second detector measuring solar insolation levels results in solar concentration ratios over the image plane. Summation of image plane energies allows calculation of lens efficiencies for various solar cell sizes. Various graphical plots of concentration ratio data help to visualize energy distribution patterns.
Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy
Chao, W.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
of 12 nm Resolution Fresnel Zone Plate Lens based Soft X-raynanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. Theoptical performance of Fresnel zone plate lens based imaging
S. De Nicola; R. Fedele; M. A. Man'ko; V. I. Man'ko
2005-03-03T23:59:59.000Z
New type of tomographic probability distribution, which contains complete information on the density matrix (wave function) related to the Fresnel transform of the complex wave function, is introduced. Relation to symplectic tomographic probability distribution is elucidated. Multimode generalization of the Fresnel tomography is presented. Examples of applications of the present approach are given.
A next-generation EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope
Goldberg, Kenneth A.
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A next-generation EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaginghigh-magnification all-EUV Fresnel zoneplate microscope, the
Fresnel Reection 9.0.1 polarization
Palffy-Muhoray, Peter
Chapter 9 Fresnel Reection 9.0.1 polarization: iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH r t (9.2) 1 #12;2 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION Boundary conditions for the tangential components of H For polarization, we have #12;4 CHAPTER 9. FRESNEL REFLECTION iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH rH tH iE rE tE i r t 1 2 iH r
Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate
Jahns, Jürgen
Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and Jürgen Jahns A conventional Fresnel zone plate (FZP) consists of concentric rings with an alternating binary transmission of zero and one. In an azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate (aFZP), the light transmission
Fresnel approximations for acoustic fields of rectangularly symmetric sources
Mast, T. Douglas
Fresnel approximations for acoustic fields of rectangularly symmetric sources T. Douglas Masta for determining the acoustic fields of rectangularly symmetric, baffled, time-harmonic sources under the Fresnel. The expressions presented are generalized to three different Fresnel approximations that correspond, respectively
POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH1
Peters, Achim
1 POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH1 , V. SEMET1 and N. GARCIA2 1 exploited in a compact low-energy electron microscope: the Fresnel Projection Microscope. Images size of the sources. The result is a high-resolution, low-energy electron microscope, the "Fresnel
From Panopticon to Fresnel, Dispelling a False Sense of Security
Hand, Steven
From Panopticon to Fresnel, Dispelling a False Sense of Security Jon Crowcroft1 and Ian Brown2 1 challenges. In this paper, we describe the Fresnel project's technology[ELMC10] that addresses Panopticon to Fresnel, Dispelling a False Sense of Security 239 afford a view onto human activities2
Fresnel Incoherent Digital Holograms Directly Recorded by Multiple Viewpoint Projections
Rosen, Joseph
Fresnel Incoherent Digital Holograms Directly Recorded by Multiple Viewpoint Projections Natan T a modified Fresnel hologram under incoherent illumination by directly processing the projections of the three by presenting a new and direct method of synthesizing a modified Fresnel hologram using the MVPs. In Refs. [2
Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye-doped liquid crystals
Wu, Shin-Tson
Polarization controllable Fresnel lens using dye- doped liquid crystals Tsung-Hsien Lin,1,2 Yuhua controllable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a photo-induced alignment of the dye-doped liquid. X. Ren, S. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Fabrication of off-axis holographic Fresnel lens used as multiplexer
Phase Retrieval for Fresnel Measurements Using a Shearlet Sparsity Constraint
Plonka, Gerlind
Phase Retrieval for Fresnel Measurements Using a Shearlet Sparsity Constraint Stefan Loock Gerlind Plonka March 25, 2014 Abstract We consider the problem of phase retrieval in the Fresnel regime be used for phase reconstruction with Fresnel data. As it turns out, the shearlet sparsity constraint
Enhanced resolution and throughput of Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH)
Rosen, Joseph
Enhanced resolution and throughput of Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) using dual Montgomery County Campus, Rockville, Maryland 20850, USA * barakk@ee.bgu.ac.il Abstract: Fresnel incoherent Fresnel holography," Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912914 (2007). 7. J. Rosen and G. Brooker, "Fluorescence
Recovery of partially occluded objects by applying compressive Fresnel holography
Rosen, Joseph
Recovery of partially occluded objects by applying compressive Fresnel holography Yair Rivenson,1, 2012; posted March 2, 2012 (Doc. ID 161160); published May 15, 2012 A compressive Fresnel holography, and is given by px. This may be regarded as a subsampling of the object's Fresnel field; hence the motivation
Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy
Rosen, Joseph
Optimal resolution in Fresnel incoherent correlation holographic fluorescence microscopy Gary, Israel 4 rosen@ee.bgu.ac.il *gbrooker@jhu.edu Abstract: Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holography (FINCH. Rosen and G. Brooker, "Digital spatially incoherent Fresnel holography," Opt. Lett. 32(8), 912914 (2007
INTERPRTATION GOMTRIQUE DES INTGRALES DE FRESNEL ; Par M. N. OUMOFF.
Boyer, Edmond
281 INTERPRÉTATION GÉOMÉTRIQUE DES INTÉGRALES DE FRESNEL ; Par M. N. OUMOFF. I. - Pour représenter ', a pour valeur : Elle représente toujours l'intégrale A de Fresnel si l'on compte les boucles de -1 3) représente l'intégrale B de Fresnel sous des conditions analogues. Les maximum de B sont
Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals
Wu, Shin-Tson
Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals Yun-Hsing Fan, Hongwen Ren@mail.ucf.edu http:/lcd.creol.ucf.edu Abstract: A switchable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using a polymer controllable liquid crystal Fresnel lens," Proc. SPIE 1168, 352-357 (1989). 2. J. S. Patel and K. Rastani
Fresnel: A Browser-Independent Presentation Vocabulary for RDF
Boyer, Edmond
Fresnel: A Browser-Independent Presentation Vocabulary for RDF Emmanuel Pietriga1 , Christian Bizer knowledge, we designed Fresnel as a browser-independent vocabulary of core RDF display con- cepts. In this paper we describe Fresnel's main concepts and present several RDF browsers and visualization tools
Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots
Jahns, Jürgen
Modified Fresnel zone plates that produce sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Ju¨rgen Jahns Fresnel zone plate that can produce an approximate Gaussian focal spot is proposed for the focusing of 7.7 nm can be produced by a modified Fresnel zone plate with a minimum structure size of 30 nm
Contour mode resonators with acoustic reflectors
Olsson, Roy H. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Tuck, Melanie R. (Albuquerque, NM)
2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z
A microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator is disclosed which has a linear or ring-shaped acoustic resonator suspended above a substrate by an acoustic reflector. The acoustic resonator can be formed with a piezoelectric material (e.g. aluminum nitride, zinc oxide or PZT), or using an electrostatically-actuated material. The acoustic reflector (also termed an acoustic mirror) uses alternating sections of a relatively low acoustic impedance Z.sub.L material and a relatively high acoustic impedance Z.sub.H material to isolate the acoustic resonator from the substrate. The MEM resonator, which can be formed on a silicon substrate with conventional CMOS circuitry, has applications for forming oscillators, rf filters, and acoustic sensors.
Relation between quantum tomography and optical Fresnel transform
Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu
2008-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
Corresponding to optical Fresnel transformation characteristic of ray transfer matrix elements (A;B;C;D); AD-BC = 1, there exists Fresnel operator F(A;B;C;D) in quantum optics, we show that under the Fresnel transformation the pure position density |x>_rs,rs__rs,rs_Fresnel quadrature phase is the tomography (Radon transform of Wigner function), and the tomogram of a state |phi> is just the wave function of its Fresnel transformed state F|phi>, i.e. rs_= . Similarly, we find F|p>_rs,rs_
Gamma Ray Fresnel lenses - why not?
G. K. Skinner
2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z
Fresnel lenses offer the possibility of concentrating the flux of X-rays or gamma-rays flux falling on a geometric area of many square metres onto a focal point which need only be a millimetre or so in diameter (and which may even be very much smaller). They can do so with an efficiency that can approach 100%, and yet they are easily fabricated and have no special alignment requirements. Fresnel lenses can offer diffraction-limited angular resolution, even in a domain where that limit corresponds to less than a micro second of arc. Given all these highly desirable attributes, it is natural to ask why Fresnel gamma ray lenses are not already being used, or at least why there is not yet any mission that plans to use the technology. Possible reasons (apart from the obvious one that nobody thought of doing so) include the narrow bandwidth of simple Fresnel lenses, their very long focal length, and the problems of target finding. It is argued that none of these is a "show stopper" and that this technique should be seriously considered for nuclear astrophysics.
Richmond, Michael W.
#$ Fresnel Fringes & Penumbra [Raymond Dusser provided a major contribution to the following discussion.] Fresnel diffraction is the diffraction of light at the edge of an obstruction object. Fresnel outline of Fresnel diffraction The mathematics of Fresnel Diffraction The following is the mathematics
Effects of Fresnel fringes on TEM images of interfaces in X-ray multil ayers
Nguyen, Tai D.; O'Keefe, Michael A.; Kilaas, Roar; Gronsky, Ronald; Kortright, Jeffrey B.
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
and J.B. Kortright, Fresnel Fringe Effects at Interfaces ofand T.F. Page, A TEM Fresnel Diffraction-Based Method forW/Si Multilayers Using The Fresnel Method, Ultramicroscopy
Enhancing the Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) Method Using a Fresnel Lens
Awad, Christina
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
6. WORKS CITED 1. Advantages of Fresnel Lenses. 2012.optics/advantages-of- fresnel-lenses/? &pagenum=1 (accessedSODIS) Method Using a Fresnel Lens A Thesis submitted in
Is Fresnel Optics Quantum Mechanics in Phase Space?
O. Crasser; H. Mack; W. P. Schleich
2004-02-17T23:59:59.000Z
We formulate and argue in favor of the following conjecture: There exists an intimate connection between Wigner's quantum mechanical phase space distribution function and classical Fresnel optics.
Reflector system for a lighting fixture
Siminovitch, Michael J. (El Sobrante, CA); Page, Erik (Berkeley, CA); Gould, Carl T. (Medford, OR)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Disclosed herein is a reflector system for a lighting fixture having a illumination source surrounded by an envelope. The reflector system includes a first reflector surrounding the illumination source. The reflector system also includes a second reflector which is non-contiguous with the first reflector and which surrounds the illumination source. The illumination source creates light rays which are reflected by the first and second reflectors. The first reflector directs light rays toward the center line of the fixture. However, the reflected rays despite being so reflected do not substantially intersect the envelope. The reflected light rays from the second reflector being directed so that they diverge from the center line of the fixture avoiding intersection with the semi-transparent envelope.
Reflector system for a lighting fixture
Siminovitch, Michael J. (829 Manor Rd., El Sobrante, CA 94803); Page, Erik (Berkeley, CA); Gould, Carl T. (Medford, OR)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Disclosed herein is a reflector system for a lighting fixture having a illumination source surrounded by an envelope. The reflector system includes a first reflector surrounding the illumination source. The reflector system also includes a second reflector which is non-contiguous with the first reflector and which surrounds the illumination source. The illumination source creates light rays which are reflected by the first and second reflectors. The first reflector directs light rays toward the center line of the fixture. However, the reflected rays despite being so reflected do not substantially intersect the envelope. The reflected light rays from the second reflector being directed so that they diverge from the center line of the fixture avoiding intersection with the semi-transparent envelope.
Reflector system for a lighting fixture
Siminovitch, M.J.; Page, E.; Gould, C.T.
1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z
Disclosed herein is a reflector system for a lighting fixture having a illumination source surrounded by an envelope. The reflector system includes a first reflector surrounding the illumination source. The reflector system also includes a second reflector which is non-contiguous with the first reflector and which surrounds the illumination source. The illumination source creates light rays which are reflected by the first and second reflectors. The first reflector directs light rays toward the center line of the fixture. However, the reflected rays despite being so reflected do not substantially intersect the envelope. The reflected light rays from the second reflector being directed so that they diverge from the center line of the fixture avoiding intersection with the semi-transparent envelope. 5 figs.
Application of the OPTEX method for computing reflector parameters
Hebert, A. [Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal, C.P. 6079 suce. Centre-Ville, Montreal QC. H3C 3A7 (Canada); Leroyer, H. [EDF - R and D, SINETICS, 1 Avenue du General de Gaulle, 92141 Clamart (France)
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
We are investigating the OPTEX reflector model for obtaining few-group reflector parameters consistent with a reference power distribution in the core. In our study, the reference power distribution is obtained using a 142,872-region calculation defined over a 2D eighth-of-core pressurized water reactor and performed with the method of characteristics. The OPTEX method is based on generalized perturbation theory and uses an optimization algorithm known as parametric linear complementarity pivoting. The proposed model leads to few-group diffusion coefficients or P1-weighted macroscopic total cross sections that can be used to represent the reflector in full-core calculations. These few-group parameters can be spatially heterogeneous in order to correctly represent steel baffles present in modern pressurized water reactors. The optimal reflector parameters are compared to those obtained with a flux-volume weighting of the reflector cross sections recovered from the reference calculation. Important improvements in full-core power distribution are observed when the optimal parameters are used. (authors)
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report : October 2010 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President
Plotkin, Joshua B.
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report : October 2010 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President http The 2010 - 2011 Executive EAS Board includes: President Farnia Fresnel, SYS 1998 Vice President Hank
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report : May 2011 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President
Plotkin, Joshua B.
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report : May 2011 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President http included representation from the SEAS classes from 1961 to 2003: President Farnia Fresnel, SYS Vice
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report: May 2012 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President
Plotkin, Joshua B.
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report: May 2012 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President http Engineering Alumni Society Report: May 2012 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President http
Lamp bulb with integral reflector
Levin, Izrail (Silver Spring, MD); Shanks, Bruce (Gaithersburg, MD); Sumner, Thomas L. (Wheaton, MD)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An improved electrodeless discharge lamp bulb includes an integral ceramic reflector as a portion of the bulb envelope. The bulb envelope further includes two pieces, a reflector portion or segment is cast quartz ceramic and a light transmissive portion is a clear fused silica. In one embodiment, the cast quartz ceramic segment includes heat sink fins or stubs providing an increased outside surface area to dissipate internal heat. In another embodiment, the quartz ceramic segment includes an outside surface fused to eliminate gas permeation by polishing.
Huygens-Fresnel Principle in Superspace
Henrique de A. Gomes
2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z
We first roughly present a summary of the optico-mechanical analogy, which has always been so profitable in physics. Then we put forward a geometrodynamical formulation of gravity suitable to our intentions, both formally and conceptually. We present difficulties in some approaches to canonically quantize gravity which can be amended by the idea put forward in this paper, which we introduce in the last section. It consists basically in trying to find an intermediary between the quantization step going from the classical superhamiltonian constraint to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. This is accomplished by inputting interference beyond the WKB approximation, through a type of Huygens-Fresnel Principle (HFP) in superspace.
Effect of Height (Fresnel Clearance) on Signal Strength and Throughput for
Liblit, Ben
Effect of Height (Fresnel Clearance) on Signal Strength and Throughput for Medium and Long Distance obstruction height · Ignoring Fresnel Clearance For 20Km long Wireless Link, Fresnel Clearance requires around, height 4 m at Q ensures 100% Fresnel Clearance On Physical Inspection: No LOS even at 8 meters Distance
Nanofocusing of soft X-ray laser pulses with Fresnel zone plate and its applications
x Nanofocusing of soft X-ray laser pulses with Fresnel zone plate and its applications 699220056 #12;#12;i keep the faith #12;ii 200 0.16 (Fresnel zone plate) X 100.3 ................................................ 37 40 #12;1 1.1 NA X X (Fresnel zone plate) X (Fresnel zone plate) X #12;2 1
Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Usefulness of the Interface Fresnel zone for simulating the seismic reflected amplitudes Nathalie.favretto@univ-pau.fr 211 route du Bourg, 64230 Beyrie-en-Béarn, France Keywords Fresnel volume, Interface Fresnel zone Abstract The aim of the paper is to emphasize the importance of accounting for the Fresnel volume (FV
The Interface Fresnel Zone revisited Nathalie Favretto-Cristini, Paul Cristini and Eric de Bazelaire
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
The Interface Fresnel Zone revisited Nathalie Favretto-Cristini, Paul Cristini and Eric de, and for seismic resolution. We reformulate the concepts of Fresnel volumes (FV) and Interface Fresnel zones (IFZ ray path (i.e., the 1st Fresnel volume) contributes to the received wavefield for each frequency
Determination of electromagnetic medium from the Fresnel surface
Matias F. Dahl
2011-03-16T23:59:59.000Z
We study Maxwell's equations on a 4-manifold where the electromagnetic medium is described by an antisymmetric $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. In this setting, the Tamm-Rubilar tensor density determines a polynomial surface of fourth order in each cotangent space. This surface is called the Fresnel surface and acts as a generalisation of the light-cone determined by a Lorentz metric; the Fresnel surface parameterises electromagnetic wave-speed as a function of direction. Favaro and Bergamin have recently proven that if $\\kappa$ has only a principal part and if the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ coincides with the light cone for a Lorentz metric $g$, then $\\kappa$ is proportional to the Hodge star operator of $g$. That is, under additional assumptions, the Fresnel surface of $\\kappa$ determines the conformal class of $\\kappa$. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, we provide a new proof of this result using Gr\\"obner bases. Second, we describe a number of cases where the Fresnel surface does not determine the conformal class of the original $2\\choose 2$-tensor $\\kappa$. For example, if $\\kappa$ is invertible we show that $\\kappa$ and $\\kappa^{-1}$ have the same Fresnel surfaces.
Development and Testing of Solar Reflectors
Kennedy, C.; Terwilliger, K.; Milbourne, M.
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
To make concentrating solar power technologies more cost competitive, it is necessary to develop advanced reflector materials that are low in cost and maintain high reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. The Advanced Materials Team performs durability testing of candidate solar reflectors at outdoor test sites and in accelerated weathering chambers. Several materials being developed by industry have been submitted for evaluation. These include silvered glass mirrors, aluminized reflectors, and front-surface mirrors. In addition to industry-supplied materials, NREL is funding the development of new, innovative reflectors, including a new commercial laminate reflector and an advanced solar reflective mirror (ASRM). To help commercialize the ASRM, a cost analysis was performed; it shows the total production cost could meet the goal. The development, performance, and durability of these candidate solar reflectors and cost analysis results will be described.
Lamp with a truncated reflector cup
Li, Ming; Allen, Steven C.; Bazydola, Sarah; Ghiu, Camil-Daniel
2013-10-15T23:59:59.000Z
A lamp assembly, and method for making same. The lamp assembly includes first and second truncated reflector cups. The lamp assembly also includes at least one base plate disposed between the first and second truncated reflector cups, and a light engine disposed on a top surface of the at least one base plate. The light engine is configured to emit light to be reflected by one of the first and second truncated reflector cups.
Advanced Reflector and Absorber Materials (Fact Sheet)
Not Available
2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of advanced reflector and absorber materials: evaluating performance, determining degradation rates and lifetime, and developing new coatings.
Fresnel zone effects in the scattering of sound by cylinders of various lengths
Stanton, Tim
Fresnel zone effects in the scattering of sound by cylinders of various lengths DanielT. Di-source/point-receivercombination.Numerically evaluatingthisexpressionshowedthescatteringcharacteristicstobedominatedbyFresnel zoneeffects·scillationsin thebackscatterversuslengthcurvecausedbyconstructiveand
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report : November 2011 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President
Plotkin, Joshua B.
Penn Engineering Alumni Society Report : November 2011 Submitted by Farnia Fresnel, President http Fresnel, President http://www.seas.upenn.edu/alumni/alumnisociety A new Alumni liaison committee has been
Fresnel analysis of the wave propagation in nonlinear electrodynamics
Yuri N. Obukhov; Guillermo F. Rubilar
2002-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
We study the wave propagation in nonlinear electrodynamical models. Particular attention is paid to the derivation and the analysis of the Fresnel equation for the wave covectors. For the class of general nonlinear Lagrangian models, we demonstrate how the originally quartic Fresnel equation factorizes, yielding the generic birefringence effect. We show that the closure of the effective constitutive (or jump) tensor is necessary and sufficient for the absence of birefringence, i.e., for the existence of a unique light cone structure. As another application of the Fresnel approach, we analyze the light propagation in a moving isotropic nonlinear medium. The corresponding effective constitutive tensor contains non-trivial skewon and axion pieces. For nonmagnetic matter, we find that birefringence is induced by the nonlinearity, and derive the corresponding optical metrics.
Development of Ground-testable Phase Fresnel Lenses in Silicon
John Krizmanic; Brian Morgan; Robert Streitmatter; Neil Gehrels; Keith Gendreau; Zaven Arzoumanian; Reza Ghodssi; Gerry Skinner
2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
Diffractive/refractive optics, such as Phase Fresnel Lenses (PFL's), offer the potential to achieve excellent imaging performance in the x-ray and gamma-ray photon regimes. In principle, the angular resolution obtained with these devices can be diffraction limited. Furthermore, improvements in signal sensitivity can be achieved as virtually the entire flux incident on a lens can be concentrated onto a small detector area. In order to verify experimentally the imaging performance, we have fabricated PFL's in silicon using gray-scale lithography to produce the required Fresnel profile. These devices are to be evaluated in the recently constructed 600-meter x-ray interferometry testbed at NASA/GSFC. Profile measurements of the Fresnel structures in fabricated PFL's have been performed and have been used to obtain initial characterization of the expected PFL imaging efficiencies.
Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation Holograms
Rosen, Joseph
010103-1 Review of Three-Dimensional Holographic Imaging by Fresnel Incoherent Correlation our recently proposed single-channel optical system for generating digital Fresnel holograms of 3-D of spherical beams creates the Fresnel hologram of the observed 3-D object. When this hologram is reconstructed
Defining the Fresnel zone for broadband radiation Jeremy Pearce and Daniel Mittleman*
Mittleman, Daniel
Defining the Fresnel zone for broadband radiation Jeremy Pearce and Daniel Mittleman* Department of the Fresnel zone is central to many areas of imaging. In tomographic imaging, the transverse spatial resolution can be limited by the size of the first Fresnel zone, usually defined only for monochromatic
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1353 Diffraction de Fresnel des electrons diffusés élastiquement et inélastiquement par des écrans 1980) Résumé. 2014 L'application du principe de Huygens-Fresnel à l'étude de la diffraction par le bord légèrement divergent rend compte de l'allure générale des franges de Fresnel observées en microscopie
Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal
Rosen, Joseph
Optical sectioning using a digital Fresnel incoherent-holography-based confocal imaging system ROY We propose a new type of confocal microscope using Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH. In this Letter, we present, for the first time to our knowledge, a confocal configuration of Fresnel incoherent
The application of Fresnel zone plate based projection in optofluidic microscopy
Yang, Changhuei
The application of Fresnel zone plate based projection in optofluidic microscopy Jigang Wu the use of the Fresnel zone plate (FZP) based projection in OFM as a cost- effective and compact means objects with a Fresnel-zone-plate aperture," J. Opt. Soc. Am. 64, 134-137 (1974). 9. M. Young, "Zone
Fresnel Effect in Radiation Transfer in Biological Tissues Kyunghan Kim and Zhixiong Guo*
Guo, Zhixiong "James"
Fresnel Effect in Radiation Transfer in Biological Tissues Kyunghan Kim and Zhixiong Guo* MAE Method (DOM) to incorporate Fresnel's boundary in laser radiation transport in biological tissues is calculated by the use of Snell's law and Fresnel's equation. The radiation fields, including the radiative
Metal-Slit Array Fresnel-Lens for Optical Coupling Young Jin Jung1
Park, Namkyoo
Metal-Slit Array Fresnel-Lens for Optical Coupling Young Jin Jung1 , Dongwon Park1 , Sunkyu Yu1, for the first time, to utilize metal-slits array Fresnel lens for the optical coupling form free space into silicon slab waveguide while overcoming near focal length limit of the conventional dielectric Fresnel
Electrically switchable Fresnel lens using a polymer-separated composite film
Wu, Shin-Tson
Electrically switchable Fresnel lens using a polymer-separated composite film Yun-Hsing Fan, Florida 32816 swu@mail.ucf.edu http://lcd.creol.ucf.edu Abstract: A Fresnel lens with electrically. Liu, and X. Zhang, "Fabrication of off-axis holographic Fresnel lens used as multiplexer
Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Fresnel diffraction in an interferometer: application to MATISSE S. Robbe-Dubois*a , Y. Bressonb in a collimated beam thus introducing Fresnel diffraction. We study the instrumental contrast taking into account, but this study can apply to any other instrument concerned with Fresnel diffraction. Keywords: Interferometer
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Figure 5 : Inversed attenuation tomography The Fresnel volume thus defined, also called Fréchet system with the LSQR algorithm : Because the size of the Fresnel volume thus defined is dependent propose to compute the Fresnel weights for a monochromatic wave, increasing its frequency at each step
Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens
Pitsianis, Nikos P.
Path-dependent human identification using a pyroelectric infrared sensor and Fresnel lens arrays) sensor whose visibility is modulated by a Fresnel lens array. The optimal element number of the lens," Proc. of IEEE. Signals, Systems and Computers 1, 843-838 (2001). 11. Fresnel Technologies Inc., http
Super-resolution in incoherent optical imaging using synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements
Rosen, Joseph
Super-resolution in incoherent optical imaging using synthetic aperture with Fresnel elements Barak the Rayleigh limit of the system is obtained by tiling digitally several Fresnel holographic elements into a complete Fresnel hologram of the observed object. Each element is acquired by the limited-aperture system
Volume Fresnel zone plates fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing Pornsak Srisungsitthisunti
Xu, Xianfan
Volume Fresnel zone plates fabricated by femtosecond laser direct writing Pornsak October 2006; accepted 29 November 2006; published online 2 January 2007 In this letter, volume Fresnel. A volume zone plate consists of a number of layers of Fresnel zone plates designed to focus light together
Inverse electronic scattering from shifted projections within the Fresnel-Kirchhoff formalism
Mayer, Alexandre
Inverse electronic scattering from shifted projections within the Fresnel-Kirchhoff formalism A is that of Fresnel-Kirchhoff, which describes the sample as a two-dimensional mask. By processing simultaneously-dimensional nanometric sample that is observed in Fresnel conditions with an electron energy of 40 eV. The parameters
Accurate and fast simulation of Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses
Jahns, Jürgen
Accurate and fast simulation of Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses Qing Cao, such as various Fresnel zone plates [1, 2] and muti-level diffractive lenses [3], can be used for focusing and fast simulation of various Fresnel zone plates and multi-level diffractive lenses. As two tests, we
FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL-POLARIZED METEOROLOGICAL RADAR ANTENNA
Collings, Iain B.
FRESNEL-ZONE MEASUREMENT AND ANALYSIS OF A DUAL- POLARIZED METEOROLOGICAL RADAR ANTENNA D.B. Hayman Fresnel-zone holographic technique was used to obtain the radiation pattern for the upgraded antenna in the measurement of this antenna and the analysis of the results. Keywords: Antenna measurements, Fresnel zone
Modified Fresnel zone plates with sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and Jurgen Jahns
Jahns, Jürgen
Modified Fresnel zone plates with sharp Gaussian focal spots Qing Cao and J¨urgen Jahns Traditional Fresnel zone plates (TFZPs) and photon sieves [1, 2, 3] can be used for the focusing and imaging of soft x.e. a modified Fresnel zone plate, MFZP) can realized the same functions as a photon sieve. In particular, we
Specular highlights of plastic surfaces and the Fresnel Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou*
Angelopoulou, Elli
Specular highlights of plastic surfaces and the Fresnel Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou* and Sofya of the Fresnel reflec- tance coefficient and its dependence on wavelength. Our theoretical analysis establishes that the sensitivity of the Fresnel term to the wavelength variations of the refractive index can be at least as large
Scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate
Scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate Ethan Schonbrun,* Winnie N. Ye demonstrate a form of scanning microscopy using a short-focal-length Fresnel zone plate and a low-NA relay. In this scheme, parallel scanning microscopy using a Fresnel zone-plate array would require only a single spatial
Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou
Angelopoulou, Elli
Specular Highlight Detection Based on the Fresnel Reflection Coefficient Elli Angelopoulou a new, physics-based specularity detection method, which de- pends on the Fresnel term of the specular to the Fresnel term at various wave- lengths. We then use mean-shift analysis to segment the im- age based
Optimal noise suppression in Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) configured for
Rosen, Joseph
Optimal noise suppression in Fresnel incoherent correlation holography (FINCH) configured 131543); published 14 October 2010 An optimal setup in the sense of imaging resolution for the Fresnel of America OCIS codes: 090.1995, 030.6140, 110.4280. 1. Introduction Fresnel incoherent correlation
Modified composite Fresnel zone plates with high numerical apertures Qing Cao and Jurgen Jahns
Jahns, Jürgen
Modified composite Fresnel zone plates with high numerical apertures Qing Cao and J¨urgen Jahns Traditional Fresnel zone plates (TFZPs) can be used for the focusing and imaging of soft x-rays and EUV proposed the modified Fresnel zone plates that can produce sharp Gaussian focal spots (we call them
Metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling to nanophotonic waveguides
Park, Namkyoo
Metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength-scale optical coupling to nanophotonic waveguides a novel metal slit array Fresnel lens for wavelength- scale optical coupling into a nanophotonic waveguide. Using the plasmonic waveguide structure in Fresnel lens form, a much wider beam acceptance angle
van Tiggelen, Bart
- Institut Langevin - © Institut Fresnel, équipe CON Un workshop organisé par l'Institut des sciences de l Fresnel Laurent Nicolas, directeur adjoint scientifique à l'INSIS Inscriptions avant le 17 novembre 2014 : www.fresnel.fr/optique-electromagnetique/ #12;Programme 9h15-9h30 Accueil 9h30-10h10 La dispersion en
An EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm
An EUV Fresnel zoneplate mask-imaging microscope for lithography generations reaching 8 nm Kenneth lithography design rules. The proposed microscope features an array of user-selectable Fresnel zoneplate-EUV, Fresnel zoneplate microscope, the AIT has been in the vanguard of high-resolution EUV mask imaging
Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and Jurgen Jahns
Jahns, Jürgen
Diffraction theory for azimuthally structured Fresnel zone plate Thordis Vierke and J¨urgen Jahns on the classical Fresnel zone plate (FZP) [1]. A simple FZP consists of alternating opaque and transparent rings Fresnel zone plate but to add bridges that hold the zones in place [4], see Fig. 1 right. We refer
Modified Fresnel computer-generated hologram directly recorded by multiple-viewpoint projections
Rosen, Joseph
Modified Fresnel computer-generated hologram directly recorded by multiple-viewpoint projections February 2008 An efficient method for obtaining modified Fresnel holograms of real existing three, this one is able to calculate the Fresnel hologram of the 3-D scene directly rather than calculating
Rosen, Joseph
Fourier, Fresnel and Image CGHs of three-dimensional objects observed from many different of synthesizing three types of computer-generated hologram (CGH); Fourier, Fresnel and image CGHs. These holograms in the computer as a Fourier hologram. Then, it can be converted to either Fresnel or image holograms by computing
Fresnel-transform's quantum correspondence and quantum optical ABCD Law
Fan Hongyi; Hu Liyun
2007-05-29T23:59:59.000Z
Corresponding to Fresnel transform there exists a unitary operator in quantum optics theory, which could be named Fresnel operator (FO). We show that the multiplication rule of FO naturally leads to the quantum optical ABCD law. The canonical operator methods as mapping of ray-transfer ABCD matrix is explicitly shown by FO's normally ordered expansion through the coherent state representation and the technique of integration within an ordered product of operators. We show that time evolution of the damping oscillator embodies the quantum optical ABCD law.
Optical loss due to diffraction by concentrator Fresnel lenses
Hornung, Thorsten, E-mail: thorsten.hornung@ise.fraunhofer.de; Nitz, Peter, E-mail: thorsten.hornung@ise.fraunhofer.de [Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE, Heidenhofstr. 2, 79110 Freiburg (Germany)
2014-09-26T23:59:59.000Z
Fresnel lenses are widely used in concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) systems as a primary optical element. They focus sunlight on small solar cells or on the entrance apertures of secondary optical elements. A Fresnel lens consists of several prism rings and diffraction by these prism rings is unavoidable. Some of the light that would reach a designated target area according to geometric optics will miss it due to diffraction. This diffraction loss may be of relevant magnitude for CPV applications. The results of published analytical calculations are evaluated, discussed, and compared to computer simulations and measurements.
Distributed Bragg Reflectors With Reduced Optical Absorption
Klem, John F. (Albuquerque, NM)
2005-08-16T23:59:59.000Z
A new class of distributed Bragg reflectors has been developed. These distributed Bragg reflectors comprise interlayers positioned between sets of high-index and low-index quarter-wave plates. The presence of these interlayers is to reduce photon absorption resulting from spatially indirect photon-assisted electronic transitions between the high-index and low-index quarter wave plates. The distributed Bragg reflectors have applications for use in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for use at 1.55 .mu.m and at other wavelengths of interest.
Aizenberg, Igor
Fresnel Functions and Transforms in an Arbitrary Discrete Basis Igor Aizenberg, Senior Member, IEEE, and Jaakko T. Astola, Fellow, IEEE Abstract--The idea of generalized Fresnel functions, which traces back discrete Fresnel functions and the generalized discrete Fresnel transforms for an arbitrary basis
Solar central receiver heliostat reflector assembly
Horton, Richard H. (Schenectady, NY); Zdeb, John J. (Clifton Park, NY)
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A heliostat reflector assembly for a solar central receiver system comprises a light-weight, readily assemblable frame which supports a sheet of stretchable reflective material and includes mechanism for selectively applying tension to and positioning the sheet to stretch it to optical flatness. The frame is mounted on and supported by a pipe pedestal assembly that, in turn, is installed in the ground. The frame is controllably driven in a predetermined way by a light-weight drive system so as to be angularly adjustable in both elevation and azimuth to track the sun and efficiently continuously reflect the sun's rays to a focal zone, i.e. central receiver, which forms part of a solar energy utilization system, such as a solar energy fueled electrical power generation system. The frame may include a built-in system for testing for optical flatness of the reflector. The preferable geometric configuration of the reflector is octagonal; however, it may be other shapes, such as hexagonal, pentagonal or square. Several different embodiments of means for tensioning and positioning the reflector to achieve optical flatness are disclosed. The reflector assembly is based on the stretch frame concept which provides an extremely light-weight, simple, low-cost reflector assembly that may be driven for positioning and tracking by a light-weight, inexpensive drive system.
Fresnel interferometric arrays for space-based imaging: testbed results
Denis Serre; Laurent Koechlin; Paul Deba
2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents the results of a Fresnel Interferometric Array testbed. This new concept of imager involves diffraction focussing by a thin foil, in which many thousands of punched subapertures form a pattern related to a Fresnel zone plate. This kind of array is intended for use in space, as a way to realizing lightweight large apertures for high angular resolution and high dynamic range observations. The chromaticity due to diffraction focussing is corrected by a small diffractive achromatizer placed close to the focal plane of the array. The laboratory test results presented here are obtained with an 8 centimeter side orthogonal array, yielding a 23 meter focal length at 600 nm wavelength. The primary array and the focal optics have been designed and assembled in our lab. This system forms an achromatic image. Test targets of various shapes, sizes, dynamic ranges and intensities have been imaged. We present the first images, the achieved dynamic range, and the angular resolution.
Formation flying for a Fresnel lens observatory mission
John Krizmanic; Gerry Skinner; Neil Gehrels
2006-01-03T23:59:59.000Z
The employment of a large area Phase Fresnel Lens (PFL) in a gamma-ray telescope offers the potential to image astrophysical phenomena with micro-arcsecond angular resolution. In order to assess the feasibility of this concept, two detailed studies have been conducted of formation flying missions in which a Fresnel lens capable of focussing gamma-rays and the associated detector are carried on two spacecraft separated by up to 10$^6$ km. These studies were performed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center Integrated Mission Design Center (IMDC) which developed spacecraft, orbital dynamics, and mission profiles. The results of the studies indicated that the missions are challenging but could be accomplished with technologies available currently or in the near term. The findings of the original studies have been updated taking account of recent advances in ion thruster propulsion technology.
Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL; Proctor, Larry Duane [ORNL
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The High Flux Isotope Reactor located at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory utilizes a large cylindrical beryllium reflector that is subdivided into three concentric regions and encompasses the compact reactor core. Nuclear transmutations caused by neutron activation occur in the beryllium reflector regions, which leads to unwanted neutron absorbing and radiation emitting isotopes. During the past year, two topics related to the HFIR beryllium reflector were reviewed. The first topic included studying the neutron poison (helium-3 and lithium-6) buildup in the reflector regions and its affect on beginning-of-cycle reactivity. A new methodology was developed to predict the reactivity impact and estimated symmetrical critical control element positions as a function of outage time between cycles due to helium-3 buildup and was shown to be in better agreement with actual symmetrical critical control element position data than the current methodology. The second topic included studying the composition of the beryllium reflector regions at discharge as well as during decay to assess the viability of transporting, storing, and ultimately disposing the reflector regions currently stored in the spent fuel pool. The post-irradiation curie inventories were used to determine whether the reflector regions are discharged as transuranic waste or become transuranic waste during the decay period for disposal purposes and to determine the nuclear hazard category, which may affect the controls invoked for transportation and temporary storage. Two of the reflector regions were determined to be transuranic waste at discharge and the other region was determined to become transuranic waste in less than 2 years after being discharged due to the initial uranium content (0.0044 weight percent uranium). It was also concluded that all three of the reflector regions could be classified as nuclear hazard category 3 (potential for localized consequences only).
Relation between Optical Fresnel transformation and quantum tomography in two-mode entangled case
Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu
2009-11-09T23:59:59.000Z
Similar in spirit to the preceding work [Opt. Commun. 282 (2009) 3734] where the relation between optical Fresnel transformation and quantum tomography is revealed, we study this kind of relationship in the two-mode entangled case. We show that under the two-mode Fresnel transformation the bipartite entangled state density |eta>_{r,s}Fresnel operator in quantum optics, and s,r are the complex-value expression of (A, B, C,D). So the probability distribution for the Fresnel quadrature phase is the {tomography (Radon transform of the two-mode Wigner function), correspondingly, {s,r}_=. Similarly, we find a simial conclusion in the `frequency` domain.
Experimental Investigation of the Fresnel Drag Effect in RF Coaxial Cables
Reginald T Cahill; David Brotherton
2010-09-29T23:59:59.000Z
An experiment that confirms the Fresnel drag formalism in RF coaxial cables is reported. The Fresnel `drag' in bulk dielectrics and in optical fibers has previously been well established. An explanation for this formalism is given, and it is shown that there is no actual drag phenomenon, rather that the Fresnel drag effect is merely the consequence of a simplified description of EM scattering within a dielectric in motion wrt the dynamical 3-space. The Fresnel drag effect plays a critical role in the design of various light-speed anisotropy detectors.
S. ZIMMER -Arts et Mtiers ParisTech Metz 4, rue Augustin Fresnel-57070 Metz cedex 3
Boyer, Edmond
____________________ S. ZIMMER -Arts et Métiers ParisTech Metz 4, rue Augustin Fresnel- 57070 Metz-C. Goussain2 , P. Martin1 , R. Bigot1 1 Arts et Metiers ParisTech, LCFC, 4 rue Augustin Fresnel, 57070 METZ
Light propagation in generally covariant electrodynamics and the Fresnel equation
Friedrich W. Hehl; Yuri N. Obukhov; Guillermo F. Rubilar
2002-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
Within the framework of generally covariant (pre-metric) electrodynamics, we specify a local vacuum spacetime relation between the excitation $H=({\\cal D},{\\cal H})$ and the field strength $F=(E,B)$. We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in such a spacetime by Hadamard's method and arrive, with the constitutive tensor density $\\kappa\\sim\\partial H/\\partial F$, at a Fresnel equation which is algebraic of 4th order in the wave covector. We determine how the different pieces of $\\kappa$, in particular the axion and the skewon pieces, affect the propagation of light.
A Geant4 based engineering tool for Fresnel lenses
João Costa; Mário Pimenta; Bernardo Tomé
2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z
Geant4 is a Monte Carlo radiation transport toolkit that is becoming a tool of generalized application in areas such as high-energy physics, nuclear physics, astroparticle physics, or medical physics. Geant4 provides an optical physics process category, allowing the simulation of the production and propagation of light. Its capabilities are well tailored for the simulation of optics systems namely in cosmic-rays experiments based in the detection of Cherenkov and fluorescence light. The use of Geant4 as an engineering tool for the optics design and simulation of Fresnel lens systems is discussed through a specific example.
Haddadi, Hamed
Novel Fresnel-zoned microstructured fibre for light waveguiding and efficient coupling between SMF, Universit y of Essex Abstract: We describe a low refractive-index contrast (RIC) Fresnel to efficiently couple light between SMF and PhC using a novel Fresnel-zoned (FZ) MSF waveguide lens. Figure 1(a
POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH 1 , V. SEMET 1 and N. GARCIA 2
Peters, Achim
1 POLYMER IMAGING WITH FRESNEL PROJECTION MICROSCOPY VU THIEN BINH 1 , V. SEMET 1 and N. GARCIA 2 1 exploited in a compact lowenergy electron microscope: the Fresnel Projection Microscope. Images size of the sources. The result is a highresolution, lowenergy electron microscope, the "Fresnel
Principles of Bragg-Fresnel multilayer optics V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko and V. V. Martynov
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
1623 Principles of Bragg-Fresnel multilayer optics V. V. Aristov, A. I. Erko and V. V. Martynov utilisant à la fois la diffraction de Bragg et celle de Fresnel. La diffraction de Bragg sur les plans miroirs conventionnels plans ou courbes. Les optiques de Bragg-Fresnel combinent les avantages de la bonne
Fresnel Representation of the Wigner Function: An Operational Approach
P. Lougovski; E. Solano; Z. M. Zhang; H. Walther; H. Mack; W. P. Schleich
2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z
We present an operational definition of the Wigner function. Our method relies on the Fresnel transform of measured Rabi oscillations and applies to motional states of trapped atoms as well as to field states in cavities. We illustrate this technique using data from recent experiments in ion traps [D. M. Meekhof et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1796 (1996)] and in cavity QED [B. Varcoe et al., Nature 403, 743 (2000)]. The values of the Wigner functions of the underlying states at the origin of phase space are W(0)=+1.75 for the vibrational ground state and W(0)=-1.4 for the one-photon number state. We generalize this method to wave packets in arbitrary potentials.
Compact directed percolation with movable partial reflectors
Ronald Dickman; Daniel ben-Avraham
2002-07-08T23:59:59.000Z
We study a version of compact directed percolation (CDP) in one dimension in which occupation of a site for the first time requires that a "mine" or antiparticle be eliminated. This process is analogous to the variant of directed percolation with a long-time memory, proposed by Grassberger, Chate and Rousseau [Phys. Rev. E 55, 2488 (1997)] in order to understand spreading at a critical point involving an infinite number of absorbing configurations. The problem is equivalent to that of a pair of random walkers in the presence of movable partial reflectors. The walkers, which are unbiased, start one lattice spacing apart, and annihilate on their first contact. Each time one of the walkers tries to visit a new site, it is reflected (with probability r) back to its previous position, while the reflector is simultaneously pushed one step away from the walker. Iteration of the discrete-time evolution equation for the probability distribution yields the survival probability S(t). We find that S(t) \\sim t^{-delta}, with delta varying continuously between 1/2 and 1.160 as the reflection probability varies between 0 and 1.
Impact of HFIR LEU Conversion on Beryllium Reflector Degradation Factors
Ilas, Dan [ORNL
2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
An assessment of the impact of low enriched uranium (LEU) conversion on the factors that may cause the degradation of the beryllium reflector is performed for the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). The computational methods, models, and tools, comparisons with previous work, along with the results obtained are documented and discussed in this report. The report documents the results for the gas and neutronic poison production, and the heating in the beryllium reflector for both the highly enriched uranium (HEU) and LEU HFIR configurations, and discusses the impact that the conversion to LEU may have on these quantities. A time-averaging procedure was developed to calculate the isotopic (gas and poisons) production in reflector. The sensitivity of this approach to different approximations is gauged and documented. The results show that the gas is produced in the beryllium reflector at a total rate of 0.304 g/cycle for the HEU configuration; this rate increases by ~12% for the LEU case. The total tritium production rate in reflector is 0.098 g/cycle for the HEU core and approximately 11% higher for the LEU core. A significant increase (up to ~25%) in the neutronic poisons production in the reflector during the operation cycles is observed for the LEU core, compared to the HEU case, for regions close to the core s horizontal midplane. The poisoning level of the reflector may increase by more than two orders of magnitude during long periods of downtime. The heating rate in the reflector is estimated to be approximately 20% lower for the LEU core than for the HEU core. The decrease is due to a significantly lower contribution of the heating produced by the gamma radiation for the LEU core. Both the isotopic (gas and neutronic poisons) production and the heating rates are spatially non-uniform throughout the beryllium reflector volume. The maximum values typically occur in the removable reflector and close to the midplane.
Imaging with Spherically Bent Crystals or Reflectors
Bitter, M; Hill, K W; Scott, S; Ince-Cushman, A; Reinke, M; Podpaly, Y; Rice, J E; Beiersdorfer, P
2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper consists of two parts: Part I describes the working principle of a recently developed x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, where the astigmatism of spherically bent crystals is being used with advantage to record spatially resolved spectra of highly charged ions for Doppler measurements of the ion-temperature and toroidal plasmarotation- velocity profiles in tokamak plasmas. This type of spectrometer was thoroughly tested on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod, and its concept was recently adopted for the design of the ITER crystal spectrometers. Part II describes imaging schemes, where the astigmatism has been eliminated by the use of matched pairs of spherically bent crystals or reflectors. These imaging schemes are applicable over a wide range of the electromagnetic radiation, which includes microwaves, visible light, EUV radiation, and x-rays. Potential applications with EUV radiation and x-rays are the diagnosis of laserproduced plasmas, imaging of biological samples with synchrotron radiation, and lithography.
Optical Durability of Candidate Solar Reflectors for Concentrating Solar Power
Kennedy, C. E.; Terwilliger, K.
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Concentrating solar power (CSP) technologies use large mirrors to collect sunlight to convert thermal energy to electricity. The viability of CSP systems requires the development of advanced reflector materials that are low in cost and maintain high specular reflectance for extended lifetimes under severe outdoor environments. The long-standing goals for a solar reflector are specular reflectance above 90% into a 4 mrad half-cone angle for at least 10 years outdoors with a cost of less than $13.8/m{sup 2} (the 1992 $10.8/m{sup 2} goal corrected for inflation to 2002 dollars) when manufactured in large volumes. Durability testing of a variety of candidate solar reflector materials at outdoor test sites and in laboratory accelerated weathering chambers is the main activity within the Advanced Materials task of the CSP Program at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, Colorado. Test results to date for several candidate solar reflector materials will be presented. These include the optical durability of thin glass, thick glass, aluminized reflectors, front-surface mirrors, and silvered polymer mirrors. The development, performance, and durability of these materials will be discussed. Based on accelerated exposure testing the glass, silvered polymer, and front-surface mirrors may meet the 10 year lifetime goals, but at this time because of significant process changes none of the commercially available solar reflectors and advanced solar reflectors have demonstrated the 10 year or more aggressive 20 year lifetime goal.
Neutronic evaluation of GCFR core diluents and reflectors
Yu, Kun, 1974-
2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Materials are evaluated for use as in-core diluents and as peripheral reflectors for Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) service, using coupled Monte Carlo (MCNP) and isotopics (ORIGEN) codes. The principal performance indices ...
Promising Technology: Parabolic Aluminized Reflector Light-Emitting Diodes
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Parabolic aluminized reflectors, or PARs, are directional lamps typically used in recessed lighting. In contrast to CFLs, LEDs offer additional advantages including no warm up time, improved dimming and control capabilities, and for some products much greater efficacy ratings.
The Effect of Reflectors and Delamping Upon Light Levels
Pashkevich, P. A.
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the 1987 Georgia Institutional Conservation Program ICP), recommendations for installation of reflectors in fluorescent fixtures accompanied by delamping totaled $5.4 million. Concerned with that effects of these recommendations on light levels...
Barrash, Warren
A field comparison of Fresnel zone and ray-based GPR attenuation-difference tomography for time the medium. These sensitivities occupy the first Fresnel zone, account for the finite frequency nature
Solar cell comprising a plasmonic back reflector and method therefor
Ding, I-Kang; Zhu, Jia; Cui, Yi; McGehee, Michael David
2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
A method for forming a solar cell having a plasmonic back reflector is disclosed. The method includes the formation of a nanoimprinted surface on which a metal electrode is conformally disposed. The surface structure of the nanoimprinted surface gives rise to a two-dimensional pattern of nanometer-scale features in the metal electrode enabling these features to collectively form the plasmonic back reflector.
Recursion relations for generalized Fresnel coefficients: Casimir force in a planar cavity
Marin-Slobodan Tomas
2010-04-06T23:59:59.000Z
We emphasize and demonstrate that, besides using the usual recursion relations involving successive layers, generalized Fresnel coefficients of a multilayer can equivalently be calculated using the recursion relations involving stacks of layers, as introduced some time ago [M. S. Tomas, Phys. Rev. A 51, 2545 (1995)]. Moreover, since the definition of the generalized Fresnel coefficients employed does not imply properties of the stacks, these nonstandard recursion relations can be used to calculate Fresnel coefficients not only for local systems but also for a general multilayer consisting of various types (local, nonlocal, inhomogeneous etc.) of layers. Their utility is illustrated by deriving a few simple algorithms for calculating the reflectivity of a Bragg mirror and extending the formula for the Casimir force in a planar cavity to arbitrary media.
Fresnel operator, squeezed state and Wigner function for Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian
Shuai Wang; Hong-Yi Fan; Hong-Chun Yuan
2010-12-03T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the technique of integration within an ordered product (IWOP) of operators we introduce the Fresnel operator for converting Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian into time-independent harmonic oscillator Hamiltonian. The Fresnel operator with the parameters A,B,C,D corresponds to classical optical Fresnel transformation, these parameters are the solution to a set of partial differential equations set up in the above mentioned converting process. In this way the exact wavefunction solution of the Schr\\"odinger equation governed by the Caldirola-Kanai Hamiltonian is obtained, which represents a squeezed number state. The corresponding Wigner function is derived by virtue of the Weyl ordered form of the Wigner operator and the order-invariance of Weyl ordered operators under similar transformations. The method used here can be suitable for solving Schr\\"odinger equation of other time-dependent oscillators.
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
294. DÉTERMINATION GRAPHIQUE DES COEFFICIENTS DE FRESNEL EN INCIDENCE OBLIQUE A LA SURFACE DE coefficients de Fresnel ainsi obtenus, on a également déterminé pour diverses incidences le facteur de. Cette précision atteint I/I000 en valeur relative pour les coefficients de Fresnel et quelques millièmes
Wu, Shin-Tson
Tunable Fresnel lens using nanoscale polymer-dispersed liquid crystals Hongwen Ren, Yun-Hsing Fan May 2003; accepted 27 June 2003 An electrically tunable Fresnel zone plate lens is demonstrated using by voltage. The major advantages of such a Fresnel lens are simple fabrication, large aperture size
Jun, Kawai
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
-Ray Waveguide Using Fresnel Diffraction Yusuke MORIKAWA and Jun KAWAI #12;#12;41 145 X Adv. X-Ray. Chem. Anal., Japan 41, pp.145-150 (2010) 606-8501 X Theoretical Analysis of X-Ray Waveguide Using Fresnel Diffraction symmetrical pattern. We regard it as a slit and calculated the Fresnel diffraction. We find
Boyer, Edmond
Huygens-Fresnel principle for surface plasmons T. V. Teperik1,2,, A. Archambault1, F. Marquier1 propa- gator. Its form has the structure of a vectorial Huygens-Fresnel principle. The propagator by a slit and focusing of surface plasmons by a Fresnel lens. © 2009 Optical Society of America OCIS codes
Siewert, Charles E.
subject to Fresnel boundary and interface conditions R.D.M. Garcia a,Ã, C.E. Siewert b a Instituto de: Radiative transfer Nascent delta function Fresnel conditions Discrete-ordinates method a b s t r a c in a plane-parallel, multi-layer medium subject to Fresnel boundary and interface conditions. As a result
Wide band Fresnel super-resolution applied to capillary break up of viscoelastic fluids
Fiscina, Jorge E; Sattler, Rainer; Wagner, Christian
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report a technique based on Fresnel diffraction with white illumination that permits the resolution of capillary surface patterns of less than 100 nanometers. We investigate Rayleigh Plateaux like instability on a viscoelastic capillary bridge and show that we can overcome the resolution limit of optical microscopy. The viscoelastic filaments are approximately 20 microns thick at the end of the thinning process when the instability sets in. The wavy distortions grow exponentially in time and the pattern is resolved by an image treatment that is based on an approximation of the measured rising flank of the first Fresnel peak.
The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI
M., Kopeikin S
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.
One dimensional surface profilometry by analyzing the Fresnel diffraction pattern from a step
Osanloo, Soghra
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
When a coherent quasi-monochromatic light is reflected from a step, a diffraction pattern is formed that can be described by Fresnel-Kirchhoff integral and visibility of the fringes depends on the height of the step. In this paper, it is shown that the Fresnel diffraction from a step can be described by an interference-like formula. A relationship is derived between the visibility of the diffraction pattern from 1D step and the step height. Finally, a novel method is presented for 1D surface testing. The theoretical and experimental results are presented.
The Fresnel-Fizeau effect and the atmospheric time delay in geodetic VLBI
Kopeikin S. M.; Han W. -B.
2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z
The Fresnel-Fizeau effect is a special relativistic effect that makes the speed of light dependent on the velocity of a transparent, moving medium. We present a theoretical formalism for discussing propagation of electromagnetic signals through the moving Earth atmosphere with taking into account the Fresnel-Fizeau effect. It provides the rigorous relativistic derivation of the atmospheric time delay equation in the consensus model of geodetic VLBI observations which was never published before. The paper confirms the atmospheric time delay of the consensus VLBI model used in IERS Standards, and provides a firm theoretical basis for calculation of even more subtle relativistic corrections.
Wide band Fresnel super-resolution applied to capillary break up of viscoelastic fluids
Jorge E. Fiscina; Pierre Fromholz; Rainer Sattler; Christian Wagner
2013-10-05T23:59:59.000Z
We report a technique based on Fresnel diffraction with white illumination that permits the resolution of capillary surface patterns of less than 100 nanometers. We investigate Rayleigh Plateaux like instability on a viscoelastic capillary bridge and show that we can overcome the resolution limit of optical microscopy. The viscoelastic filaments are approximately 20 microns thick at the end of the thinning process when the instability sets in. The wavy distortions grow exponentially in time and the pattern is resolved by an image treatment that is based on an approximation of the measured rising flank of the first Fresnel peak.
Project Profile: Commercial Development of an Advanced Linear-Fresnel-Based
Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports to3,1,50022,3,,0,,6,1,Separation 23 362Transmission:portion5 ,Portsmouth GaseousEnergy THENetworkSWRI logo The SouthwestANL logoofCSP
Bremer, James
whenever |z| > (which is deep in the Fresnel regime), as opposed to the standard expansions. On the asymptotics of Bessel functions in the Fresnel regime Z. Heitman , J. Bremer , V. Rokhlin , B. VioreanuFast summation, Fresnel regime 1 #12;On the asymptotics of Bessel functions in the Fresnel regime Given
A powerful reflector in relativistic backward wave oscillator
Cao, Yibing, E-mail: caoyibing@nint.ac.cn; Sun, Jun; Teng, Yan; Zhang, Yuchuan; Zhang, Lijun; Shi, Yanchao; Ye, Hu; Chen, Changhua [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an, Shaanxi 710024 (China)
2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
An improved TM{sub 021} resonant reflector is put forward. Similarly with most of the slow wave structures used in relativistic backward wave oscillator, the section plane of the proposed reflector is designed to be trapezoidal. Compared with the rectangular TM{sub 021} resonant reflector, such a structure can depress RF breakdown more effectively by weakening the localized field convergence and realizing good electrostatic insulation. As shown in the high power microwave (HPM) generation experiments, with almost the same output power obtained by the previous structure, the improved structure can increase the pulse width from 25?ns to over 27?ns and no obvious surface damage is observed even if the generated HPM pulses exceed 1000 shots.
Dual annular rotating [open quotes]windowed[close quotes] nuclear reflector reactor control system
Jacox, M.G.; Drexler, R.L.; Hunt, R.N.M.; Lake, J.A.
1994-03-29T23:59:59.000Z
A nuclear reactor control system is provided in a nuclear reactor having a core operating in the fast neutron energy spectrum where criticality control is achieved by neutron leakage. The control system includes dual annular, rotatable reflector rings. There are two reflector rings: an inner reflector ring and an outer reflector ring. The reflectors are concentrically assembled, surround the reactor core, and each reflector ring includes a plurality of openings. The openings in each ring are capable of being aligned or non-aligned with each other. Independent driving means for each of the annular reflector rings is provided so that reactor criticality can be initiated and controlled by rotation of either reflector ring such that the extent of alignment of the openings in each ring controls the reflection of neutrons from the core. 4 figures.
Step-Stress Accelerated Degradation Testing for Solar Reflectors: Preprint
Jones, W.; Elmore, R.; Lee, J.; Kennedy, C.
2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
To meet the challenge to reduce the cost of electricity generated with concentrating solar power (CSP) new low-cost reflector materials are being developed including metalized polymer reflectors and must be tested and validated against appropriate failure mechanisms. We explore the application of testing methods and statistical inference techniques for quantifying estimates and improving lifetimes of concentrating solar power (CSP) reflectors associated with failure mechanisms initiated by exposure to the ultraviolet (UV) part of the solar spectrum. In general, a suite of durability and reliability tests are available for testing a variety of failure mechanisms where the results of a set are required to understand overall lifetime of a CSP reflector. We will focus on the use of the Ultra-Accelerated Weathering System (UAWS) as a testing device for assessing various degradation patterns attributable to accelerated UV exposure. Depending on number of samples, test conditions, degradation and failure patterns, test results may be used to derive insight into failure mechanisms, associated physical parameters, lifetimes and uncertainties. In the most complicated case warranting advanced planning and statistical inference, step-stress accelerated degradation (SSADT) methods may be applied.
Switchable Fresnel lens using polymer-stabilized liquid crystals
Wu, Shin-Tson
volts with fast response time. Such a device works well for a linearly polarized light. 2003 Optical-terminal adaptive Nematic liquid-crystal lens device," Opt. Lett. 19, 1013-1015 (1994). 6. A. F. Naumov, M. Yu. Loktev, I. R. Guralnik, and G. Vdovin, "Liquid-crystal adaptive lenses with modal control," Opt. Lett. 23
Huygens-Fresnel principle for N-photon states of light
E. Brainis
2010-11-29T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the propagation of a N-photon field in space and time can be described by a generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral. Using two examples, we then demonstrate how familiar Fourier optics techniques applied to a N-photon wave function can be used to engineer the propagation of entanglement and to design the way the detection of one photon shapes the state of the others.
Fresnel lenses for X-ray and Gamma-ray Astronomy
Gerry Skinner; Peter von Ballmoos; Neil Gehrels; John Krizmanic
2003-08-25T23:59:59.000Z
Phase Fresnel lenses have the same imaging properties as zone plates, but with the possibility of concentrating all of the incident power into the primary focus, increasing the maximum theoretical efficiency from 11% to close to 100%. For X-rays, and in particular for gamma-rays, large, diffraction-limited phase Fresnel lenses can be made relatively easily. The focal length is very long - for example up to a million kms. However, the correspondingly high `plate-scale' of the image means that the ultra-high (sub-micro-arc-second) angular resolution possible with a diffraction limited gamma-ray lens a few metres in diameter can be exploited with detectors having \\~mm spatial resolution. The potential of such systems for ultra-high angular resolution astronomy, and for attaining the sensitivity improvements desperately needed for certain other studies, are reviewed and the advantages and disadvantages vis-a-vis alternative approaches are discussed. We report on reduced-scale 'proof-of-principle tests' which are planned and on mission studies of the implementation of a Fresnel telescope on a space mission with lens and detector on two spacecraft separated by one million km. Such a telescope would be capable of resolving emission from super-massive black holes on the scale of their event horizons and would have the sensitivity necessary to detect gamma-ray lines from distant supernovae. We show how diffractive/refractive optics leads to a continuum of possible system designs between filled aperture lenses and wideband interferometric arrays.
Gerald K. Skinner
2004-07-21T23:59:59.000Z
Achromatic combinations of a diffractive Phase Fresnel Lens and a refractive correcting element have been proposed for X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy and for microlithography, but considerations of absorption often dictate that the refractive component be given a stepped profile, resulting in a double Fresnel lens. The imaging performance of corrected Fresnel lenses, with and without `stepping' is investigated and the trade-off between resolution and useful bandwidth in different circumstances is discussed. Provided the focal ratio is large, correction lenses made of low atomic number materials can be used with X-rays in the range approximately 10--100 keV without stepping. The use of stepping extends the possibility of correction to higher aperture systems, to energies as low as a few kilo electron volts and to gamma-rays of $\\sim$ mega electron volt energy.
Wavelength-Scale Imaging of Trapped Ions using a Phase Fresnel lens
A. Jechow; E. W. Streed; B. G. Norton; M. J. Petrasiunas; D. Kielpinski
2011-01-24T23:59:59.000Z
A microfabricated phase Fresnel lens was used to image ytterbium ions trapped in a radio frequency Paul trap. The ions were laser cooled close to the Doppler limit on the 369.5 nm transition, reducing the ion motion so that each ion formed a near point source. By detecting the ion fluorescence on the same transition, near diffraction limited imaging with spot sizes of below 440 nm (FWHM) was achieved. This is the first demonstration of imaging trapped ions with a resolution on the order of the transition wavelength.
Arseni Goussev
2012-01-06T23:59:59.000Z
We address the phenomenon of diffraction of non-relativistic matter waves on openings in absorbing screens. To this end, we expand the full quantum propagator, connecting two points on the opposite sides of the screen, in terms of the free particle propagator and spatio-temporal properties of the opening. Our construction, based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle, describes the quantum phenomena of diffraction in space and diffraction in time, as well as the interplay between the two. We illustrate the method by calculating diffraction patterns for localized wave packets passing through various time-dependent openings in one and two spatial dimensions.
Generalized Arago-Fresnel laws: The EME-flow-line description
M. Bozic; M. Davidovic; T. L. Dimitrova; S. Miret-Artes; A. S. Sanz; A. Weis
2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z
We study experimentally and theoretically the influence of light polarization on the interference patterns behind a diffracting grating. Different states of polarization and configurations are been considered. The experiments are analyzed in terms of electromagnetic energy (EME) flow lines, which can be eventually identified with the paths followed by photons. This gives rise to a novel trajectory interpretation of the Arago-Fresnel laws for polarized light, which we compare with interpretations based on the concept of "which-way" (or "which-slit") information.
Extraordinary optical transmission and vortex excitation by periodic arrays of Fresnel zone plates
Roszkiewicz, A
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Extraordinary optical transmission and good focusing properties of a two-dimensional scattering structure is presented. The structure is made of Fresnel zone plates periodically arranged along two orthogonal directions. Each plate consists of two ring-shaped waveguides supporting modes that match the symmetry of a circularly polarized incident plane wave. High field concentration at the focal plane is obtained with short transverse and long longitudinal foci diameters. Optical vortex excitation in a paraxial region of the transmitted field is also observed and analysed in terms of cross-polarisation coupling. The structure presented may appear useful in visualization, trapping and precise manipulations of nanoparticles.
High resolution imaging with Fresnel interferometric arrays: suitability for exoplanet detection
L. Koechlin; D. Serre; P. Duchon
2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a new kind of interferometric array that yields images of high dynamic range and large field. The numerous individual apertures in this array form a pattern related to a Fresnel zone plate. This array can be used for astrophysical imaging over a broad spectral bandwidth spanning from the U.V. (50 nanometers) to the I.R. (20 microns). Due to the long focal lengths involved, this instrument requires formation-flying of two space borne vessels. We present the concept and study the S/N ratio in different situations, then apply these results to probe the suitability of this concept to detect exoplanets.
Fractal Weyl law for chaotic microcavities: Fresnel's laws imply multifractal scattering
Jan Wiersig; Jörg Main
2007-12-21T23:59:59.000Z
We demonstrate that the harmonic inversion technique is a powerful tool to analyze the spectral properties of optical microcavities. As an interesting example we study the statistical properties of complex frequencies of the fully chaotic microstadium. We show that the conjectured fractal Weyl law for open chaotic systems [W. T. Lu, S. Sridhar, and M. Zworski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 154101 (2003)] is valid for dielectric microcavities only if the concept of the chaotic repeller is extended to a multifractal by incorporating Fresnel's laws.
Fresnel filtering in lasing emission from scarred modes of wave-chaotic optical resonators
N. B. Rex; H. E. Tureci; H. G. L. Schwefel; R. K. Chang; A. Douglas Stone
2001-07-25T23:59:59.000Z
We study lasing emission from asymmetric resonant cavity (ARC) GaN micro-lasers. By comparing far-field intensity patterns with images of the micro-laser we find that the lasing modes are concentrated on three-bounce unstable periodic ray orbits, i.e. the modes are scarred. The high-intensity emission directions of these scarred modes are completely different from those predicted by applying Snell's law to the ray orbit. This effect is due to the process of ``Fresnel filtering'' which occurs when a beam of finite angular spread is incident at the critical angle for total internal reflection.
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
' precipitate in A1-4wt%Cu: Fresnel fringe analysis applied to an atomically abrupt interface R.E. Dunin of the work presented here is to establish whether Fresnel contrast analysis can be used to characterise with matching experiment and theory are discussed. I. Introduction The Fresnel method appears to be a powerful
Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance Bragg reflectors
Lear, K.L.
1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z
A compound-semiconductor optical device and method are disclosed. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors. 16 figs.
Optical device with low electrical and thermal resistance bragg reflectors
Lear, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)
1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A compound-semiconductor optical device and method. The optical device is provided with one or more asymmetrically-graded heterojunctions between compound semiconductor layers for forming a distributed Bragg reflector mirror having an improved electrical and thermal resistance. Efficient light-emitting devices such as light-emitting diodes, resonant-cavity light-emitting diodes, and vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers may be formed according to the present invention, which may be applied to the formation of resonant-cavity photodetectors.
Reflector and Shield Material Properties for Project Prometheus
J. Nash
2005-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
This letter provides updated reflector and shield preliminary material property information to support reactor design efforts. The information provided herein supersedes the applicable portions of Revision 1 to the Space Power Program Preliminary Reactor Design Basis (Reference (a)). This letter partially answers the request in Reference (b) to provide unirradiated and irradiated material properties for beryllium, beryllium oxide, isotopically enriched boron carbide ({sup 11}B{sub 4}C) and lithium hydride. With the exception of {sup 11}B{sub 4}C, the information is provided in Attachments 1 and 2. At the time of issuance of this document, {sup 11}B{sub 4}C had not been studied.
Scalable, efficient ion-photon coupling with phase Fresnel lenses for large-scale quantum computing
E. W. Streed; B. G. Norton; J. J. Chapman; D. Kielpinski
2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z
Efficient ion-photon coupling is an important component for large-scale ion-trap quantum computing. We propose that arrays of phase Fresnel lenses (PFLs) are a favorable optical coupling technology to match with multi-zone ion traps. Both are scalable technologies based on conventional micro-fabrication techniques. The large numerical apertures (NAs) possible with PFLs can reduce the readout time for ion qubits. PFLs also provide good coherent ion-photon coupling by matching a large fraction of an ion's emission pattern to a single optical propagation mode (TEM00). To this end we have optically characterized a large numerical aperture phase Fresnel lens (NA=0.64) designed for use at 369.5 nm, the principal fluorescence detection transition for Yb+ ions. A diffraction-limited spot w0=350+/-15 nm (1/e^2 waist) with mode quality M^2= 1.08+/-0.05 was measured with this PFL. From this we estimate the minimum expected free space coherent ion-photon coupling to be 0.64%, which is twice the best previous experimental measurement using a conventional multi-element lens. We also evaluate two techniques for improving the entanglement fidelity between the ion state and photon polarization with large numerical aperture lenses.
Reflector for efficient coupling of a laser beam to air or other fluids
Kare, Jordin T. (Pleasanton, CA)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A reflector array is disclosed herein that provides a controlled region or regions of plasma breakdowns from a laser beam produced at a remotely-based laser source. The plasma may be applied to produce thrust to propel a spacecraft, or to diagnose a laser beam, or to produce shockwaves. The spacecraft propulsion system comprises a reflector array attached to the vehicle. The reflector array comprises a plurality of reflectors spaced apart on a reflective surface, with each reflector acting as an independent focusing mirror. The reflectors are spaced closely together to form a continuous or partially-continuous surface. The reflector array may be formed from a sheet of reflective material, such as copper or aluminum. In operation, a beam of electromagnetic energy, such as a laser beam, is directed at the reflectors which focus the reflected electromagnetic energy at a plurality of regions off the surface. The energy concentrated in the focal region causes a breakdown of the air or other fluid in the focal region, creating a plasma. Electromagnetic energy is absorbed in the plasma and it grows in volume, compressing and heating the adjacent fluid thereby providing thrust. Laser pulses may be applied repetitively. After each such thrust pulse, fresh air can be introduced next to the surface either laterally, or through a perforated surface. If air or some other gas or vapor is supplied, for example from a tank carried on board a vehicle, this invention may also be used to provide thrust in a vacuum environment.
Reflector for efficient coupling of a laser beam to air or other fluids
Kare, J.T.
1992-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
A reflector array is disclosed herein that provides a controlled region or regions of plasma breakdowns from a laser beam produced at a remotely-based laser source. The plasma may be applied to produce thrust to propel a spacecraft, or to diagnose a laser beam, or to produce shock waves. The spacecraft propulsion system comprises a reflector array attached to the vehicle. The reflector array comprises a plurality of reflectors spaced apart on a reflective surface, with each reflector acting as an independent focusing mirror. The reflectors are spaced closely together to form a continuous or partially-continuous surface. The reflector array may be formed from a sheet of reflective material, such as copper or aluminum. In operation, a beam of electromagnetic energy, such as a laser beam, is directed at the reflectors which focus the reflected electromagnetic energy at a plurality of regions off the surface. The energy concentrated in the focal region causes a breakdown of the air or other fluid in the focal region, creating a plasma. Electromagnetic energy is absorbed in the plasma and it grows in volume, compressing and heating the adjacent fluid thereby providing thrust. Laser pulses may be applied repetitively. After each such thrust pulse, fresh air can be introduced next to the surface either laterally, or through a perforated surface. If air or some other gas or vapor is supplied, for example from a tank carried on board a vehicle, this invention may also be used to provide thrust in a vacuum environment. 10 figs.
DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS
Sites, James R.
DISSERTATION ELECTRON-REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS Submitted by Kuo-Jui Hsiao ELECTRON- REFLECTOR STRATEGY FOR CdTe THIN-FILM SOLAR CELLS BE ACCEPTED AS FULFILLING IN PART REQUIREMENTS-FILM SOLAR CELLS The CdTe thin-film solar cell has a large absorption coefficient and high theoretical
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Advanced Manufacture of Second-Surface, Silvered Glass Reflectors for High-Performance, Low-Cost CSP Collector Systems
Distributed bragg reflector using AIGaN/GaN
Waldrip, Karen E.; Lee, Stephen R.; Han, Jung
2004-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
A supported distributed Bragg reflector or superlattice structure formed from a substrate, a nucleation layer deposited on the substrate, and an interlayer deposited on the nucleation layer, followed by deposition of (Al,Ga,B)N layers or multiple pairs of (Al,Ga,B)N/(Al,Ga,B)N layers, where the interlayer is a material selected from AlN, Al.sub.x Ga.sub.1-x N, and AlBN with a thickness of approximately 20 to 1000 angstroms. The interlayer functions to reduce or eliminate the initial tensile growth stress, thereby reducing cracking in the structure. Multiple interlayers utilized in an AlGaN/GaN DBR structure can eliminate cracking and produce a structure with a reflectivity value greater than 0.99.
Self-detection of x-ray Fresnel transmittivity using photoelectron-induced gas ionization
Stoupin, Stanislav
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Electric response of an x-ray mirror enclosed in a gas flow ionization chamber was studied under the conditions of total external reflection for hard x-rays. It is shown that the electric response of the system as a function of the incidence angle is defined by x-ray Fresnel transmittivity and photon-electron attenuation properties of the mirror material. A simple interpretation of quantum yield of the system is presented. The approach provides non-invasive in-situ diagnostics of hard x-ray optics, easy access to complementary x-ray transmittivity data in x-ray reflectivity experiments and can also pave the way to novel schemes for angle and energy resolving x-ray detectors.
Herrero, R.; Miller, D. C.; Kurtz, S. R.; Anton, I.; Sala, G.
2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A system dedicated to the optical transmittance characterization of Fresnel lenses has been developed at NREL, in collaboration with the UPM. The system quantifies the optical efficiency of the lens by generating a performance map. The shape of the focused spot may also be analyzed to understand change in the lens performance. The primary instrument components (lasers and CCD detector) have been characterized to confirm their capability for performing optical transmittance measurements. Measurements performed on SoG and PMMA lenses subject to a variety of indoor conditions (e.g., UV and damp heat) identified differences in the optical efficiency of the evaluated lenses, demonstrating the ability of the Scanning Lens Instrument (SLI) to distinguish between the aged lenses.
What is a seismic reflector like? Nathalie Favretto-Cristini1
Boyer, Edmond
-tracing procedure in complex 2D and 3D structures. The first method, called Fresnel vol- ume ray tracing Cervený into the wave reflection process, this study might have significant implications for seismic interpretation using amplitude-variation-with-angle methodologies. INTRODUCTION The basis of many seismic studies
Acoustic Bragg Reflectors for Q-Enhancement of Unreleased MEMS Resonators
Wang, Wentao
This work presents the design of acoustic Bragg reflectors (ABRs) for unreleased MEMS resonators through analysis and simulation. Two of the greatest challenges to the successful implementation of MEMS are those of packaging ...
Acoustic Bragg reflectors for Q-enhancement of unreleased MEMS resonators
Wang, Wentao, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this thesis, the author introduces the first fully unreleased Micro-Electro-Mechanical (MEM) resonator, and the design of acoustic Bragg reflectors (ABRs) for energy localization and quality factor (Q)- enhancement for ...
Aygun, M., E-mail: murata.25@gmail.com [Bitlis Eren University, Department of Physics (Turkey); Boztosun, I. [Akdeniz University, Department of Physics (Turkey); Sahin, Y. [Ataturk University, Department of Physics (Turkey)
2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
The elastic scattering of the halo nucleus {sup 6}He from heavy targets such as {sup 197}Au and {sup 208}Pb has been investigated in order to explain the Coulomb rainbow peak due to the Fresnel-type diffraction observed in the experimental data. In order to examine the role of nuclear potential to describe {sup 6}He + {sup 197}Au and {sup 6}He + {sup 208}Pb systems, we have used the no-core shell model, few-body and Gaussian-shaped density distributions at various energies. The microscopic real parts of the complex nuclear potential have been obtained by using the double-folding model for each of the density distribution and the phenomenological imaginary potentials have been taken as the standard Woods-Saxon shape. We have observed that fewbody and Gaussian-shaped density distributions have given standard Fresnel-type diffraction results, a classical scattering pattern with Coulomb rainbow peak whereas the nuclear potential obtained by using the no-core shell-model density distribution has provided the reduction at Fresnel peak and has given more consistent results with the experimental data.
Photodetector with absorbing region having resonant periodic absorption between reflectors
Bryan, R.P.; Olbright, G.R.; Brennan, T.M.; Tsao, J.Y.
1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z
A photodetector is disclosed that is responsive to a wavelength or wavelengths of interest which have heretofore been unrealized. The photodetector includes a resonant cavity structure bounded by first and second reflectors, the resonant cavity structure being resonant at the wavelength or wavelengths of interest for containing a plurality of standing waves therein. The photodetector further includes a radiation absorbing region disposed within the resonant cavity structure, the radiation absorbing region including a plurality of radiation absorbing layers spaced apart from one another by a distance substantially equal to a distance between antinodes of adjacent ones of the standing waves. Each of radiation absorbing layers is spatially positioned at a location of one of the antinodes of one of the standing waves such that radiation absorption is enhanced. The radiation absorbing layers may be either bulk layers or quantum wells includes a plurality of layers, each of which is comprised of a strained layer of InGaAs. Individual ones of the InGaAs layers are spaced apart from one another by a GaAs barrier layer. 11 figs.
Jr, Peter Chien; Rosenman, Karla; Cheung, Wang; Wang, Nadia; Sanchez, Miguel
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
type 1/type 2 mosaic of psoriasis? Dermatology 2006; 212:Magalhaes RF, et al. Linear psoriasis in Brazilian childrensuffering from linear psoriasis along lines of Blaschko. Br
Heavy reflector experiments in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor: Stainless steel, carbon steel and nickel
Santos, Adimir dos; Andrade e Silva, Graciete Simoes de; Jerez, Rogerio; Liambos Mura, Luis Felipe; Fuga, Rinaldo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN-CNEN/SP Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 2242 - CEP 05508-000 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)
2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z
New experiments devoted to the measurements of physical parameters of a light water core surrounded by a heavy reflector were performed in the IPEN/MB-01 research reactor facility. These experiments comprise three sets of heavy reflector (SS-304, Carbon Steel, and Nickel) in a form of laminates around 3 mm thick. Each set was introduced individually in the west face of the core of the IPEN/MB-01 reactor. The aim here is to provide high quality experimental data for the interpretation and validation of the SS-304 heavy reflector calculation methods. The experiments of Carbon Steel, which is composed mainly of iron, and Nickel were performed to provide a consistent and an interpretative check for the SS-304 reflector experiment. The experimental results comprise critical control bank positions, temperatures and reactivities as a function of the number of the plates. Particularly to the case of Nickel, the experimental data are unique of its kind. The theoretical analysis was performed by MCNP-5 with the nuclear data library ENDF/B-VII.0. It was shown that this nuclear data library has a very good performance up to thirteen plates and overestimates the reactivity for higher number of plates independently of the type of the reflector.
Long-range, full-duplex, modulated-reflector cell phone for voice/data transmission
Neagley, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM); Briles, Scott D. (Los Alamos, NM); Coates, Don M. (Santa Fe, NM); Freund, Samuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)
2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A long-range communications apparatus utilizing modulated-reflector technology is described. The apparatus includes an energy-transmitting base station and remote units that do not emit radiation in order to communicate with the base station since modulated-reflector technology is used whereby information is attached to an RF carrier wave originating from the base station which is reflected by the remote unit back to the base station. Since the remote unit does not emit radiation, only a low-power power source is required for its operation. Information from the base station is transmitted to the remote unit using a transmitter and receiver, respectively. The range of such a communications system is determined by the properties of a modulated-reflector half-duplex link.
Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu
2008-08-21T23:59:59.000Z
We prove a new theorem about the relationship between optical field Wigner function's Radon transform and optical Fresnel transform of the field, i.e., when an input field Phi(x') propagates through an optical [D(-B)(-C)A] system, the energy density of the output field is equal to the Radon transform of the Wigner function of the input field, where the Radon transform parameters are D,B. We prove this theorem in both spatial-domain and frequency-domain.
Carlos Navarrete-Benlloch; Germán J. de Valcárcel; Eugenio Roldán
2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z
We theoretically describe the quantum properties of a large Fresnel number degenerate optical parametric oscillator with spherical mirrors that is pumped by a Gaussian beam. The resonator is tuned so that the resonance frequency of a given transverse mode family coincides with the down-converted frequency. After demonstrating that only the lower orbital angular momentum (OAM) Laguerre-Gauss modes are amplified above threshold, we focus on the quantum properties of the rest of (classically empty) modes. We find that combinations of opposite OAM (Hybrid Laguerre-Gauss modes) can exhibit arbitrary large quadrature squeezing for the lower OAM non amplified modes.
Performance improvements of symmetry-breaking reflector structures in nonimaging devices
Winston, Roland
2004-01-13T23:59:59.000Z
A structure and method for providing a broken symmetry reflector structure for a solar concentrator device. The component of the optical direction vector along the symmetry axis is conserved for all rays propagated through a translationally symmetric optical device. This quantity, referred to as the translational skew invariant, is conserved in rotationally symmetric optical systems. Performance limits for translationally symmetric nonimaging optical devices are derived from the distributions of the translational skew invariant for the optical source and for the target to which flux is to be transferred. A numerically optimized non-tracking solar concentrator utilizing symmetry-breaking reflector structures can overcome the performance limits associated with translational symmetry.
Design and performance of a low-cost acrylic reflector for a ~7x concentrating photovoltaic module
Rollins, Andrew M.
Design and performance of a low-cost acrylic reflector for a ~7x concentrating photovoltaic module OH 44106 ABSTRACT Replex Plastics aims to develop a low-cost, low-concentration photovoltaic module concentrator; CPC; low concentration photovoltaics, CPV, LCPV, acrylic reflector 1. INTRODUCTION The recent
Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems
oil recovery project called STEOR in the early 1980s (Romero 2002), and a solar tower projectPressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham.pye@anu.edu.au New two-phase flow modelling undertaken for the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector solar steam generator
interior surface of the cavity is the focus of the incident concentrated solar radiation, and is compose. INTRODUCTION The Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) is a design concept for low -cost collection of solar Renewable Energy Targets of the State government. These Targets require power generators to produce 2
Chung, Il-Sug
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A theoretical study of differences in broadband high-index-contrast grating (HCG) reflectors for TM and TE polarizations is presented, covering various grating parameters and properties of HCGs. It is shown that the HCG reflectors for TM polarization (TM HCG reflectors) have much thicker grating thicknesses and smaller grating periods than the TE HCG reflectors. This difference is found to originate from the different boundary conditions met for the electric field of each polarization. Due to this difference, the TM HCG reflectors have much shorter evanescent extension of HCG modes into low-refractive-index media surrounding the HCG. This enables to achieve a very short effective cavity length for VCSELs, which is essential for ultrahigh speed VCSELs and MEMS-tunable VCSELs. The obtained understandings on polarization dependences will be able to serve as important design guidelines for various HCG-based devices.
A Generalized Adjoint Approach for Quantifying Reflector Assembly Discontinuity Factor Uncertainties
Yankov, Artem [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; Collins, Benjamin [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; Jessee, Matthew Anderson [ORNL] [ORNL; Downar, Thomas [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Sensitivity-based uncertainty analysis of assembly discontinuity factors (ADFs) can be readily performed using adjoint methods for infinite lattice models. However, there is currently no adjoint-based methodology to obtain uncertainties for ADFs along an interface between a fuel and reflector region. To accommodate leakage effects in a reflector region, a 1D approximation is usually made in order to obtain the homogeneous interface flux required to calculate the ADF. Within this 1D framework an adjoint-based method is proposed that is capable of efficiently calculating ADF uncertainties. In the proposed method the sandwich rule is utilized to relate the covariance of the input parameters of 1D diffusion theory in the reflector region to the covariance of the interface ADFs. The input parameters covariance matrix can be readily obtained using sampling-based codes such as XSUSA or adjoint-based codes such as TSUNAMI. The sensitivity matrix is constructed using a fixed-source adjoint approach for inputs characterizing the reflector region. An analytic approach is then used to determine the sensitivity of the ADFs to fuel parameters using the neutron balance equation. A stochastic approach is used to validate the proposed adjoint-based method.
A SOLAR STILL AUGMENTED WITH A FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR AND A REFLECTOR
A SOLAR STILL AUGMENTED WITH A FLAT-PLATE COLLECTOR AND A REFLECTOR A. Saleh A. Badran Mechanical Jordan Amman Jordan e-mail: asaleh@philadelphia.edu.jo e-mail: badran@ju.edu.jo ABSTRACT A solar distillation system was built and tested to study the effect of increasing the solar radiation incident
Deployable Tensegrity Reflectors for Small Satellites1 A.G. Tibert2 and S. Pellegrino3
Pellegrino, Sergio
of Cambridge, Trumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, U.K. Abstract Future small satellite missions require low-cost, precision reflector structures with large aperture that can be packaged in a small envelope. Existing that deploys two identical cable nets (front and rear nets) interconnected by tension ties; the reflecting mesh
Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction
Nehorai, Arye
Analysis of large reflector antennas using CSP fringe formulation and higher-order diffraction- tric conductor (PEC) objects when illuminated by a Complex Source Points (CSP) beam expansion (S of a CSP-expansion illumination. In this work we discuss an application of the CSP fringe formulation
Thomas Clerc; Alain Hébert; Hadrien Leroyer; Jean-Philippe Argaud; Bertrand Bouriquet; Agélique Ponçot
2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a computational scheme for the determination of equivalent 2D multi-group heterogeneous reflectors in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The proposed strategy is to define a full-core calculation consistent with a reference lattice code calculation such as the Method Of Characteristics (MOC) as implemented in APOLLO2 lattice code. The computational scheme presented here relies on the data assimilation module known as "Assimilation de donn\\'{e}es et Aide \\`{a} l'Optimisation (ADAO)" of the SALOME platform developed at \\'{E}lectricit\\'{e} De France (EDF), coupled with the full-core code COCAGNE and with the lattice code APOLLO2. A first validation of the computational scheme is made using the OPTEX reflector model developed at \\'{E}cole Polytechnique de Montr\\'{e}al (EPM). As a result, we obtain 2D multi-group, spatially heterogeneous 2D reflectors, using both diffusion or $\\text{SP}_{\\text{N}}$ operators. We observe important improvements of the power discrepancies distribution over the core when using reflectors computed with the proposed computational scheme, and the $\\text{SP}_{\\text{N}}$ operator enables additional improvements.
Linear Dependence and Linear Independence
PRETEX (Halifax NS) #1 1054 1999 Mar 05 10:59:16
2010-02-12T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 16, 2007 ... Observe that the vector (1, 2) is already a linear combination of (1, 0) and (0, 1), and therefore it does not add any new vectors to the linear span ...
Photovoltaic generator with a spherical imaging lens for use with a paraboloidal solar reflector
Angel, Roger P
2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z
The invention is a generator for photovoltaic conversion of concentrated sunlight into electricity. A generator according to the invention incorporates a plurality of photovoltaic cells and is intended for operation near the focus of a large paraboloidal reflector pointed at the sun. Within the generator, the entering concentrated light is relayed by secondary optics to the cells arranged in a compact, concave array. The light is delivered to the cells at high concentration, consistent with high photovoltaic conversion efficiency and low cell cost per unit power output. Light enters the generator, preferably first through a sealing window, and passes through a field lens, preferably in the form of a full sphere or ball lens centered on the paraboloid focus. This lens forms a concentric, concave and wide-angle image of the primary reflector, where the intensity of the concentrated light is stabilized against changes in the position of concentrated light entering the generator. Receiving the stabilized light are flat photovoltaic cells made in different shapes and sizes and configured in a concave array corresponding to the concave image of a given primary reflector. Photovoltaic cells in a generator are also sized and interconnected so as to provide a single electrical output that remains high and stable, despite aberrations in the light delivered to the generator caused by, for example, mispointing or bending of the primary reflector. In some embodiments, the cells are set back from the image formed by the ball lens, and part of the light is reflected onto each cell small secondary reflectors in the form of mirrors set around its perimeter.
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Gleber, Sophie -Charlotte; Wojcik, Michael; Liu, Jie; Roehrig, Chris; Cummings, Marvin; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Li, Kenan; Lai, Barry; Shu, Deming; Vogt, Stefan
2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z
Focusing efficiency of Fresnel zone plates (FZPs) for X-rays depends on zone height, while the achievable spatial resolution depends on the width of the finest zones. FZPs with optimal efficiency and sub-100-nm spatial resolution require high aspect ratio structures which are difficult to fabricate with current technology especially for the hard X-ray regime. A possible solution is to stack several zone plates. To increase the number of FZPs within one stack, we first demonstrate intermediate-field stacking and apply this method by stacks of up to five FZPs with adjusted diameters. Approaching the respective optimum zone height, we maximized efficiencies formore »high resolution focusing at three different energies, 10, 11.8, and 25 keV.« less
Nabanja, Sheila P
2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis focuses on the realization of two photonic devices; 1) semiconductor lasers and 2) large area broadband Saturable Bragg Reflectors (SBRs). Semiconductor lasers explore the use of 3D and 2D quantum confinement ...
Qi, Zumin; Zhang, Jun; Zhong, Huihuang; Zhang, Qiang; Zhu, Danni [College of Optoelectric Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
Suppression of the transverse-electromagnetic (TEM) mode leakage is crucial in the design of a triaxial klystron amplifier with high gain, because a small microwave leakage from the buncher or the output cavity could overwhelm the input signal with low power. In this paper, a specially designed reflector is proposed to suppress the TEM mode leakage, whose axial electric field is approximately zero at the beam radial position. Theoretical analysis indicates that the reflector introduces little influence on the normal modulation of the beam while keeping a high reflection coefficient. By using two such reflectors with different eigen frequencies located in front of the buncher cavity and the output cavity, respectively, an improved triaxial klystron amplifier is presented. The simulation results show that the reflectors substantially decrease the TEM mode leakage power and achieve very good isolation among the cavities. The improved triaxial klystron amplifier can operate normally with 10's kW microwave injection without self-oscillations.
Advanced ultraviolet-resistant silver mirrors for use in solar reflectors
Jorgensen, Gary J. (Pine, CO); Gee, Randy (Arvada, CO)
2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z
A silver mirror construction that maintains a high percentage of hemispherical reflectance throughout the UV and visible spectrum when used in solar reflectors, comprising:a) a pressure sensitive adhesive layer positioned beneath a silver overlay;b) a polymer film disposed on the silver overlay;c) an adhesive layer positioned on the polymer film; andd) a UV screening acrylic film disposed on the adhesive layer.
Method of manufacturing large dish reflectors for a solar concentrator apparatus
Angel, Roger P (Tucson, AZ); Olbert, Blain H (Tucson, AZ)
2011-12-27T23:59:59.000Z
A method of manufacturing monolithic glass reflectors for concentrating sunlight in a solar energy system is disclosed. The method of manufacturing allows large monolithic glass reflectors to be made from float glass in order to realize significant cost savings on the total system cost for a solar energy system. The method of manufacture includes steps of heating a sheet of float glass positioned over a concave mold until the sheet of glass sags and stretches to conform to the shape of the mold. The edges of the dish-shaped glass are rolled for structural stiffening around the periphery. The dish-shaped glass is then silvered to create a dish-shaped mirror that reflects solar radiation to a focus. The surface of the mold that contacts the float glass preferably has a grooved surface profile comprising a plurality of cusps and concave valleys. This grooved profile minimizes the contact area and marring of the specular glass surface, reduces parasitic heat transfer into the mold and increases mold lifetime. The disclosed method of manufacture is capable of high production rates sufficiently fast to accommodate the output of a conventional float glass production line so that monolithic glass reflectors can be produced as quickly as a float glass production can make sheets of float glass to be used in the process.
Clerc, Thomas; Leroyer, Hadrien; Argaud, Jean-Philippe; Bouriquet, Bertrand; Ponçot, Agélique
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents a computational scheme for the determination of equivalent 2D multi-group heterogeneous reflectors in a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The proposed strategy is to define a full-core calculation consistent with a reference lattice code calculation such as the Method Of Characteristics (MOC) as implemented in APOLLO2 lattice code. The computational scheme presented here relies on the data assimilation module known as "Assimilation de donn\\'{e}es et Aide \\`{a} l'Optimisation (ADAO)" of the SALOME platform developed at \\'{E}lectricit\\'{e} De France (EDF), coupled with the full-core code COCAGNE and with the lattice code APOLLO2. A first validation of the computational scheme is made using the OPTEX reflector model developed at \\'{E}cole Polytechnique de Montr\\'{e}al (EPM). As a result, we obtain 2D multi-group, spatially heterogeneous 2D reflectors, using both diffusion or $\\text{SP}_{\\text{N}}$ operators. We observe important improvements of the power discrepancies distribution over the cor...
Garcia, I.; Geisz, J.; Steiner, M.; Olson, J.; Friedman, D.; Kurtz, S.
2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
State-of-the-art multijunction cell designs have the potential for significant improvement before going to higher number of junctions. For example, the Voc can be substantially increased if the photon recycling taking place in the junctions is enhanced. This has already been demonstrated (by Alta Devices) for a GaAs single-junction cell. For this, the loss of re-emitted photons by absorption in the underlying layers or substrate must be minimized. Selective back surface reflectors are needed for this purpose. In this work, different architectures of semiconductor distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) are assessed as the appropriate choice for application in monolithic multijunction solar cells. Since the photon re-emission in the photon recycling process is spatially isotropic, the effect of the incident angle on the reflectance spectrum is of central importance. In addition, the DBR structure must be designed taking into account its integration into the monolithic multijunction solar cells, concerning series resistance, growth economics, and other issues. We analyze the tradeoffs in DBR design complexity with all these requirements to determine if such a reflector is suitable to improve multijunction solar cells.
Multiple-shot laser damage thresholds of ultraviolet reflectors at 248 and 308 nanometers
Foltyn, S.R.; Newnam, B.E.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Multiple-shot damage thresholds of dielectric reflectors have been measured at 248 and 308 nm. Standard irradiation conditions were a 10-ns pulsewidth, 0.6-mm spot diameter and 35-Hz pulse repetition frequency. The reflectors, from various sources, were composed of oxide and fluoride films. Although damage was generally initiated at visible film defects, there was no correlation between damage susceptibility and the appearance of these defects. At levels near threshold, damage was most often observed as an increase in white-light scatter of a site with no growth upon continued irradiation; at higher levels, the damage site grew with successive shots. Test sites were subjected to at least 10/sup 3/ shots and some sites received as many as 2.5 x 10/sup 4/ shots; however, with only one exception damage was found to occur within the first few shots or not at all. Reflectors at 248 nm typically had damage thresholds in the 1.0 to 1.8 J/cm/sup 2/ range with two samples exhibiting unexpectedly high thresholds of 2.8 and 3.0 J/cm/sup 2/. In some cases, a subthreshold pre-irradiation treatment resulted in a 20 to 25% enhancement in damage resistance.
Miller, Michael K [ORNL] [ORNL; Parish, Chad M [ORNL] [ORNL
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Helium accumulation negatively impacts structural materials used in neutron-irradiated environments, such as fission and fusion reactors. Next-generation fission and fusion reactors will require structural materials, such as steels, resistant to large neutron doses yet see service temperatures in the range most affected by helium embrittlement. Previous work has indicated the difficulty of experimentally differentiating nanometer-sized helium bubbles from the Ti-Y-O rich nanoclustsers (NCs) in radiation-tolerant nanostructured ferritic alloys (NFAs). Because the NCs are expected to sequester helium away from grain boundaries and reduce embrittlement, experimental methods to study simultaneously the NC and bubble populations are needed. In this study, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) results combining high-collection-efficiency X-ray spectrum images (SIs), multivariate statistical analysis (MVSA), and Fresnel-contrast bright-field STEM imaging have been used for such a purpose. Results indicate that Fresnel-contrast imaging, with careful attention to TEM-STEM reciprocity, differentiates bubbles from NCs, and MVSA of X-ray SIs unambiguously identifies NCs. Therefore, combined Fresnel-contrast STEM and X-ray SI is an effective STEM-based method to characterize helium-bearing NFAs.
Raimondi, Lorenzo
2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The imaging sharpness of an X-ray telescope is chiefly determined by the optical quality of its focusing optics, which in turn mostly depends on the shape accuracy and the surface finishing of the grazing incidence X-ray mirrors that compose the optical modules. In order to ensure the imaging performance during the mirror manufacturing, a fundamental step is represented by the prediction of the mirror Point Spread Function (PSF) from the metrology of its surface. Traditionally, the PSF computation in X-rays is assumed to be different depending on whether the surface defects are classified as figure errors or roughness [...] The aim of this work is to overcome this limit, providing analytical formulae, valid at any light wavelength, to compute the PSF of an X-ray mirror shell from the measured longitudinal profiles and the roughness Power Spectral Density (PSD), without distinguishing spectral ranges with different treatments. The method we adopted is based on the Huygens-Fresnel principle to compute the diffr...
Project Profile: Next-Generation Low-Cost Reflector | Department of Energy
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Seismic wave propagation in thinly-layered media with steep reflectors
Deng, H.L.
1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Seismic waves reflected from steep reflectors in the earth`s subsurface spend a significant amount of time travelling more or less horizontally. Therefore, accurate imaging of steep geologic structure requires knowledge of the behavior of these horizontally propagating waves. In particular, the effect of tunneling on seismic waves propagating in thinly-layered media must be understood. I describe a method for modeling seismic waves traveling in thinly-layered media. This method, a frequency-wavenumber finite-difference scheme coupled with the Born approximation, is useful in studying seismic waves reflected from steep geologic structures.
Lamp system with conditioned water coolant and diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene(PTFE)
Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd (Livermore, CA)
1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A lamp system with a very soft high-intensity output is provided over a large area by water cooling a long-arc lamp inside a diffuse reflector of polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and titanium dioxide (TiO.sub.2) white pigment. The water is kept clean and pure by a one micron particulate filter and an activated charcoal/ultraviolet irradiation system that circulates and de-ionizes and biologically sterilizes the coolant water at all times, even when the long-arc lamp is off.
Damage thresholds of thin film materials and high reflectors at 248 nm
Rainer, F.; Lowdermilk, W.H.; Milam, D.; Carniglia, C.K.; Hart, T.T.; Lichtenstein, T.L.
1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Twenty-ns, 248-nm KrF laser pulses were used to measure laser damage thresholds for halfwave-thick layers of 15 oxide and fluoride coating materials, and for high reflectance coatings made with 13 combinations of these materials. The damage thresholds of the reflectors and single-layer films were compared to measurements of several properties of the halfwave-thick films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films to determine whether measurements of these properties of single-layer films were useful for identifying materials for fabrication of damage resistant coatings.
Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver
Kirpich, Aaron S. (Broomall, PA)
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.
Liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver
Kirpich, A.S.
1983-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
Separate structures for electrical insulation and thermal conduction are established within a liquid cooled, linear focus solar cell receiver for use with parabolic or Fresnel optical concentrators. The receiver includes a V-shaped aluminum extrusion having a pair of outer faces each formed with a channel receiving a string of solar cells in thermal contact with the extrusion. Each cell string is attached to a continuous glass cover secured within the channel with spring clips to isolate the string from the external environment. Repair or replacement of solar cells is effected simply by detaching the spring clips to remove the cover/cell assembly without interrupting circulation of coolant fluid through the receiver. The lower surface of the channel in thermal contact with the cells of the string is anodized to establish a suitable standoff voltage capability between the cells and the extrusion. Primary electrical insulation is provided by a dielectric tape disposed between the coolant tube and extrusion. Adjacent solar cells are soldered to interconnect members designed to accommodate thermal expansion and mismatches. The coolant tube is clamped into the extrusion channel with a releasably attachable clamping strip to facilitate easy removal of the receiver from the coolant circuit.
Yang, Yang [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada)] [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); O’Brien, Paul G. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada) [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada); Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Ozin, Geoffrey A., E-mail: gozin@chem.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [Materials Chemistry Research Group, Department of Chemistry, University of Toronto, 80 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H6 (Canada); Kherani, Nazir P., E-mail: gozin@chem.utoronto.ca, E-mail: kherani@ecf.utoronto.ca [The Edward S. Rogers Sr. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Room GB254B, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3G4 (Canada); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Toronto, 184 College Street, Room 140, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E4 (Canada)
2013-11-25T23:59:59.000Z
Thin semi-transparent hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells with selectively transparent and conducting photonic crystal (STCPC) back-reflectors are demonstrated. Short circuit current density of a 135?nm thick a-Si:H cell with a given STCPC back-reflector is enhanced by as much as 23% in comparison to a reference cell with an ITO film functioning as its rear contact. Concurrently, solar irradiance of 295?W/m{sup 2} and illuminance of 3480 lux are transmitted through the cell with a given STCPC back reflector under AM1.5 Global tilt illumination, indicating its utility as a source of space heating and lighting, respectively, in building integrated photovoltaic applications.
MHD compressor---expander conversion system integrated with GCR inside a deployable reflector
Tuninetti, G. (Ansaldo S.p.A., Genoa (Italy). Research Div.); Botta, E.; Criscuolo, C.; Riscossa, P. (Ansaldo S.p.A., Genoa (Italy). Nuclear Div.); Giammanco, F. (Pisa Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica); Rosa-Clot, M. (Florence Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica)
1989-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
This work originates from the proposal MHD Compressor-Expander Conversion System Integrated with a GCR Inside a Deployable Reflector''. The proposal concerned an innovative concept of nuclear, closed-cycle MHD converter for power generation on space-based systems in the multi-megawatt range. The basic element of this converter is the Power Conversion Unit (PCU) consisting of a gas core reactor directly coupled to an MHD expansion channel. Integrated with the PCU, a deployable reflector provides reactivity control. The working fluid could be either uranium hexafluoride or a mixture of uranium hexafluoride and helium, added to enhance the heat transfer properties. The original Statement of Work, which concerned the whole conversion system, was subsequently redirected and focused on the basic mechanisms of neutronics, reactivity control, ionization and electrical conductivity in the PCU. Furthermore, the study was required to be inherently generic such that the study was required to be inherently generic such that the analysis an results can be applied to various nuclear reactor and/or MHD channel designs''.
Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E.
in amorphous, microcrystalline and micromorph thin-film Si solar cells is an important and active field-reflector of thin-film Si solar cells. 1 INTRODUCTION The study of light trapping in thin-film Si solar cells for an optimized back reflector structure in a microcrystalline thin film Si solar cell, when compared with the use
Gray, M.
2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
3M is currently developing silvered polymeric mirror reflectors as low-cost replacements for glass mirrors in concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This effort is focused on development of reflectors comprising both metallized polymeric mirror films based on improved versions of ECP-305+ or other durable mirror film concepts and appropriate mechanically robust substrates. The objectives for this project are to reduce the system capital and operating costs and to lower the levelized cost of energy for CSP installations. The development of mirror reflectors involves work on both full reflectors and mirror films with and without coatings. Mirror reflectors must meet rigid optical specifications in terms of radius of curvature, slope errors and specularity. Mirror films must demonstrate long-term durability and maintain high reflectivity. 3M would like to augment internal capabilities to validate product performance with methods and tools developed at NREL to address these areas.
Sandahl, Linda J.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Ledbetter, Marc R.; McCullough, Jeffrey J.
2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z
This report describes a project sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and implemented by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), from 2000 to 2007 to improve the performance of reflector type (R-lamp) compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) and increase their availability throughout the United States by means of a technology development and procurement strategy. In 2000, at the request of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Emerging Technologies Program and its predecessors, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory undertook a technology procurement seeking R-CFLs that were specifically designed for use in ICAT recessed can fixtures and that met other minimum performance criteria including minimum light output and size restrictions (to ensure they fit in standard residential recessed cans). The technology procurement included two phases. In Phase I, requests for proposals (RFPs) were issued in October 2002 and five manufacturers responded with 12 lamp models. Eight of these models met the minimum requirements and passed the 6-hour short-term test in a simulated ICAT environment. These eight models were subjected to long-term tests of 6,000 or more hours in a simulated ICAT environment. Three of these models passed the short- and long-term tests and were promoted through the program website (www.pnl.gov/rlamps), press releases, and fliers. To increase the number of qualifying models, a second RFP was issued in June 2005. In April 2007, DOE announced that 16 reflector CFL (R-CFL) models by four manufacturers had met all the minimum requirements of Phase 2 of the R-CFL Technology Innovation Competition. PNNL developed both the criteria and the test apparatus design for Elevated Temperature Life Testing (ETLT), which has been included by DOE in its draft ENERGY STAR specifications for the reflector category of CFLs. PNNL promoted the winning lamps through a program website, press releases, and fliers as well as through program partners. PNNL also helped engage distributors including Costco, the Home Depot, Bonneville Power Administration, and utility organizations.
INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS
Atwater, Harry
INCREASED CELL EFFICIENCY IN InGaAs THIN FILM SOLAR CELLS WITH DIELECTRIC AND METAL BACK REFLECTORS solar cells enable very high photovoltaic efficiencies by virtue of employing different band gap materials in series- connected tandem cells to access the full solar spectrum. Researchers focused
Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors
Polman, Albert
Improved red-response in thin film a-Si:H solar cells with soft-imprinted plasmonic back reflectors is a critical component of solar cell development. In typical thin film cells the thickness of the absorbing of photovoltaic power. Thin film Si solar cells using hydrogenated amorphous Si a-Si:H and nano- crystalline Si nc
Ultracold neutron accumulation in a superfluid-helium converter with magnetic multipole reflector
O. Zimmer; R. Golub
2015-03-04T23:59:59.000Z
We analyze accumulation of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a superfluid-helium converter vessel surrounded by a magnetic multipole reflector. We solved the spin-dependent rate equation, employing formulas valid for adiabatic spin transport of trapped UCN in mechanical equilibrium. Results for saturation UCN densities are obtained in dependence of order and strength of the multipolar field. The addition of magnetic storage to neutron optical potentials can increase the density and energy of the low field seeking UCN produced and serves to mitigate the effects of wall losses on the source performance. It also can provide a highly polarized sample of UCN without need to polarize the neutron beam incident on the converter. This work was performed in preparation of the UCN source project SuperSUN at the ILL.
New Method to Characterize Degradation of First Surface Aluminum Reflectors: Preprint
Sutter, F.; Heller, P.; Meyen, S.; Pitz-Paal, R.; Kennedy, C.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Schmucker, M.
2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper reports the development of a new optical instrument capable of characterizing the aging process of enhanced first surface aluminum reflectors for concentrating solar power (CSP) application. Samples were exposed outdoors at different sites and in accelerated exposure tests. All samples exposed outdoors showed localized corrosion spots. Degradation originated from points of damage in the protective coating, but propagated underneath the protective coating. The degraded samples were analyzed with a microscope and with a newly designed space-resolved specular reflectometer (SR)2 that is capable of optically detecting and characterizing the corrosion spots. The device measures the specular reflectance at three acceptance angles and the wavelengths with spatial resolution using a digital camera's CMOS sensor. It can be used to measure the corrosion growth rate during outdoor and accelerated exposure tests. These results will allow a correlation between the degraded mirror surface and its specular reflectance.
Nondestructive examination of 51 fuel and reflector elements from Fort St. Vrain Core Segment 1
Miller, C.M.; Saurwein, J.J.
1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
Fifty-one fuel and reflector elements irradiated in core segment 1 of the Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) were inspected dimensionally and visually in the Hot Service Facility at Fort St. Vrain in July 1979. Time- and volume-averaged graphite temperatures for the examined fuel elements ranged from approx. 400/sup 0/ to 750/sup 0/C. Fast neutron fluences varied from approx. 0.3 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ to 1.0 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/. Nearly all of the examined elements shrank in both axial and radial dimensions. The measured data were compared with strain and bow predictions obtained from SURVEY/STRESS, a computer code that employs viscoelastic beam theory to calculate stresses and deformations in HTGR fuel elements.
Reactivity Accountability Attributed to Reflector Poisons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor
Chandler, David [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL
2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this study is to develop a methodology to predict the reactivity impact as a function of outage time between cycles of 3He, 6Li, and other poisons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor s (HFIR) beryllium reflector. The reactivity worth at startup of the HFIR has been incorrectly predicted in the past after the reactor has been shut-down for long periods of time. The incorrect prediction was postulated to be due to the erroneous calculation of 3He buildup in the beryllium reflector. It is necessary to develop a better estimate of the start-of-cycle symmetric critical control element positions since if the estimated and actual symmetrical critical control element positions differ by more than $1.55 in reactivity (approximately one-half inch in control element startup position), HFIR is to be shutdown and a technical evaluation is performed to resolve the discrepancy prior to restart. 3He is generated and depleted during operation, but during an outage, the depletion of 3He ceases because it is a stable isotope. 3He is born from the radioactive decay of tritium, and thus the concentration of 3He increases during shutdown. SCALE, specifically the TRITON and CSAS5 control modules including the KENO V.A, COUPLE, and ORIGEN functional modules were utilized in this study. An equation relating the down time (td) to the change in symmetric control element position was generated and validated against measurements for approximately 40 HFIR operating cycles. The newly-derived correlation was shown to improve accuracy of predictions for long periods of down time.
M. Davidovic; A. S. Sanz; M. Bozic; D. Arsenovic; D. Dimic
2013-04-02T23:59:59.000Z
We present a trajectory based interpretation for Young's experiment, the Arago-Fresnel laws and the Poisson-Arago spot. This approach is based on the equation of the trajectory associated with the quantum probability current density in the case of massive particles, and the Poynting vector for the electromagnetic field in the case of photons. Both the form and properties of the evaluated photon trajectories are in good agreement with the averaged trajectories of single photons observed recently in Young's experiment by Steinberg's group at the University of Toronto. In the case of the Arago-Fresnel laws for polarized light, the trajectory interpretation presented here differs from those interpretations based on the concept of "which-way" (or "which-slit") information and quantum erasure. More specifically, the observer's information about the slit that photons went through is not relevant to the existence of interference; what is relevant is the form of the electromagnetic energy density and its evolution, which will model consequently the distribution of trajectories and their topology. Finally, we also show that the distributions of end points of a large number of evaluated photon trajectories are in agreement with the distributions measured at the screen behind a circular disc, clearly giving rise to the Poisson-Arago spot.
Performance Analysis of XCPC Powered Solar Cooling Demonstration Project
Widyolar, Bennett
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Linear Fresnel Solar Plant……………………………………………………..20 Figure5 – Linear Fresnel Solar Plant parabolic concentrators (Bermejo, 2010, Solar absorption cooling plant in Seiville,
Reflector Technology Development and System Design for Concentrating Solar Power Technologies
Adam Schaut
2011-12-30T23:59:59.000Z
Alcoa began this program in March of 2008 with the goal of developing and validating an advanced CSP trough design to lower the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) as compared to existing glass based, space-frame trough technology. In addition to showing a pathway to a significant LCOE reduction, Alcoa also desired to create US jobs to support the emerging CSP industry. Alcoa's objective during Phase I: Concept Feasibility was to provide the DOE with a design approach that demonstrates significant overall system cost savings without sacrificing performance. Phase I consisted of two major tasks; reflector surface development and system concept development. Two specific reflective surface technologies were investigated, silver metallized lamination, and thin film deposition both applied on an aluminum substrate. Alcoa prepared samples; performed test validation internally; and provided samples to the NREL for full-spectrum reflectivity measurements. The final objective was to report reflectivity at t = 0 and the latest durability results as of the completion of Phase 1. The target criteria for reflectance and durability were as follows: (1) initial (t = 0), hemispherical reflectance >93%, (2) initial spectral reflectance >90% for 25-mrad reading and >87% for 7-mrad reading, and (3) predicted 20 year durability of less than 5% optical performance drop. While the results of the reflective development activities were promising, Alcoa was unable to down-select on a reflective technology that met the target criteria. Given the progress and potential of both silver film and thin film technologies, Alcoa continued reflector surface development activities in Phase II. The Phase I concept development activities began with acquiring baseline CSP system information from both CSP Services and the DOE. This information was used as the basis to develop conceptual designs through ideation sessions. The concepts were evaluated based on estimated cost and high-level structural performance. The target criteria for the concept development was to achieve a solar field cost savings of 25%-50% thereby meeting or exceeding the DOE solar field cost savings target of $350/m2. After evaluating various structural design approaches, Alcoa down-selected to a monocoque, dubbed Wing Box, design that utilizes the reflective surface as a structural, load carrying member. The cost and performance potential of the Wing Box concept was developed via initial finite element analysis (FEA) and cost modeling. The structural members were sized through material utilization modeling when subjected to representative loading conditions including wind loading. Cost modeling was utilized to refine potential manufacturing techniques that could be employed to manufacture the structural members. Alcoa concluded that an aluminum intensive collector design can achieve significant cost savings without sacrificing performance. Based on the cost saving potential of this Concept Feasibility study, Alcoa recommended further validation of this CSP approach through the execution of Phase II: Design and Prototype Development. Alcoa Phase II objective was to provide the DOE with a validated CSP trough design that demonstrates significant overall system cost savings without sacrificing performance. Phase II consisted of three major tasks; Detail System Design, Prototype Build, and System Validation. Additionally, the reflector surface development that began in Phase I was continued in Phase II. After further development work, Alcoa was unable to develop a reflective technology that demonstrated significant performance or cost benefits compared to commercially available CSP reflective products. After considering other commercially available reflective surfaces, Alcoa selected Alano's MIRO-SUN product for use on the full scale prototype. Although MIRO-SUN has a lower specular reflectivity compared to other options, its durability in terms of handling, cleaning, and long-term reflectivity was deemed the most important attribute to successfully validate Alcoa's advanced trough archi
Harrison, T.D.
1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Polisolar Model POL solar collector, with glass reflector surfaces, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.
Harrison, T.D.
1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Thermal performance predictions based on test data are presented for the Toltec solar collector, with acrylic film reflector surface, for three output temperatures at five cities in the United States.
Non-astigmatic imaging with matched pairs of spherically bent reflectors
Bitter, Manfred Ludwig (Princeton, NJ); Hill, Kenneth Wayne (Plainsboro, NJ); Scott, Steven Douglas (Wellesley, MA); Feder, Russell (Newton, PA); Ko, Jinseok (Cambridge, MA); Rice, John E. (N. Billerica, MA); Ince-Cushman, Alexander Charles (New York, NY); Jones, Frank (Manalapan, NJ)
2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z
Arrangements for the point-to-point imaging of a broad spectrum of electromagnetic radiation and ultrasound at large angles of incidence employ matched pairs of spherically bent reflectors to eliminate astigmatic imaging errors. Matched pairs of spherically bent crystals or spherically bent multi-layers are used for X-rays and EUV radiation; and matched pairs of spherically bent mirrors that are appropriate for the type of radiation are used with microwaves, infrared and visible light, or ultrasound. The arrangements encompass the two cases, where the Bragg angle--the complement to the angle of incidence in optics--is between 45.degree. and 90.degree. on both crystals/mirrors or between 0.degree. and 45.degree. on the first crystal/mirror and between 45.degree. and 90.degree. on the second crystal/mirror, where the angles of convergence and divergence are equal. For x-rays and EUV radiation, also the Bragg condition is satisfied on both spherically bent crystals/multi-layers.
Transmission comb of a distributed Bragg reflector induced by two surface dielectric gratings
Zhao, Xiaobo; Zhang, Yongyou
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
With transfer matrix theory, we study the transmission of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) with two dielectric gratings on top and on the bottom. Owing to the diffraction of the two gratings, the transmission shows a comb-like spectrum which red shifts with increasing the grating period during the forbidden band of the DBR. The number density of the comb peaks increases with increasing the number of the DBR cells, while the ratio of the average full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the transmission peaks in the transmission comb to the corresponding average free spectral range, being about 0.04 and 0.02 for the TE and TM incident waves, is almost invariant. The average FWHM of the TM waves is about half of the TE waves, and both they could be narrower than 0.1 nm. In addition, the transmission comb peaks of the TE and TM waves can be fully separated during certain waveband. We further prove that the transmission comb is robust against the randomness of the heights of the DBR layers, even when a 15\\% randomn...
InAlN/GaN Bragg reflectors grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy
Gacevic, Z.; Fernandez-Garrido, S.; Calleja, E. [ISOM, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Avda Complutense s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Hosseini, D.; Peiro, F. [Departament d'Electronica, LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Estrade, S. [Departament d'Electronica, LENS-MIND-IN2UB, Universitat de Barcelona, Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); TEM-MAT, SCT-UB, Sole i Sabaris 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
We report on molecular beam epitaxy growth and characterization of ten-period lattice-matched InAlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors (DBRs), with peak reflectivity centered around 400 nm. Thanks to the well tuned ternary alloy composition, crack-free surfaces have been obtained, as confirmed by both optical and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Their good periodicity and well-defined interfaces have been confirmed by both x-ray diffraction and TEM measurements. Peak reflectivity values as high as 60% with stop bands of 30 nm have been demonstrated. Optical measurements revealed that discrepancy between the obtained (60%) and the theoretically expected ({approx}75%) reflectivity is a consequence of significant residual absorption ({approx}35%). TEM measurements revealed the coexistence of zinc-blende and wurtzite phases, as well as planar defects, mainly in GaN. These defects are suggested as the potential source of the undesired absorption and/or scattering effects that lowered the DBRs' peak reflectivity.
Two-port multimode interference reflectors based on aluminium mirrors in a thick SOI platform
Fandiño, Javier S; Muñoz, Pascual
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Multimode interference reflectors (MIRs) were recently introduced as a new type of photonic integrated devices for on-chip, broadband light reflection. In the original proposal, different MIRs were demonstrated based on total internal reflection mirrors made of two deep-etched facets. Although simpler to fabricate, this approach imposes certain limits on the shape of the field pattern at the reflecting facets, which in turn restricts the types of MIRs that can be implemented. In this work, we propose and experimentally demonstrate the use of aluminium-based mirrors for the design of 2-port MIRs with variable reflectivity. These mirrors do not impose any restrictions on the incident field, and thus give more flexibility at the design stage. Different devices with reflectivities between~0~and~0.5 were fabricated in a 3~um thick SOI platform, and characterization of multiple dies was performed to extract statistical data about their performance. Our measurements show that, on average, losses both in the aluminiu...
Graphite and Beryllium Reflector Critical Assemblies of UO2 (Benchmark Experiments 2 and 3)
Margaret A. Marshall; John D. Bess
2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
INTRODUCTION A series of experiments was carried out in 1962-65 at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Critical Experiments Facility (ORCEF) for use in space reactor research programs. A core containing 93.2 wt% enriched UO2 fuel rods was used in these experiments. The first part of the experimental series consisted of 252 tightly-packed fuel rods (1.27-cm triangular pitch) with graphite reflectors [1], the second part used 252 graphite-reflected fuel rods organized in a 1.506-cm triangular-pitch array [2], and the final part of the experimental series consisted of 253 beryllium-reflected fuel rods in a 1.506-cm-triangular-pitch configuration and in a 7-tube-cluster configuration [3]. Fission rate distribution and cadmium ratio measurements were taken for all three parts of the experimental series. Reactivity coefficient measurements were taken for various materials placed in the beryllium reflected core. All three experiments in the series have been evaluated for inclusion in the International Reactor Physics Experiment Evaluation Project (IRPhEP) [4] and the International Criticality Safety Benchmark Evaluation Project (ICSBEP) Handbooks, [5]. The evaluation of the first experiment in the series was discussed at the 2011 ANS Winter meeting [6]. The evaluations of the second and third experiments are discussed below. These experiments are of interest as benchmarks because they support the validation of compact reactor designs with similar characteristics to the design parameters for a space nuclear fission surface power systems [7].
VISAR (Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector): Line-imaging interferometer
Hemsing, W.F.; Mathews, A.R.; Warnes, R.H.; Whittemore, G.R.
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper describes a Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) technique that extends velocity measurements from single points to a line. Single-frequency argon laser light was focused through a cylindrical lens to illuminate a line on a surface. The initially stationary, flat surface was accelerated unevenly during the experiment. Motion produced a Doppler-shift of light reflected from the surface that was proportional to the velocity at each point. The Doppler-shifted image of the illuminated line was focused from the surface through a push-pull VISAR interferometer where the light was split into four quadrature-coded images. When the surface accelerated, the Doppler-shift caused the interference for each point on each line image to oscillate sinusoidally. Coherent fiber optic bundles transmitted images from the interferometer to an electronic streak camera for sweeping in time and recording on film. Data reduction combined the images to yield a continuous velocity and displacement history for all points on the surface that reflected sufficient light. The technique was demonstrated in an experiment where most of the surface was rapidly driven to a saddle shape by an exploding foil. Computer graphics were used to display the measured velocity history and to aid visualization of the surface motion. 6 refs., 8 figs.
T. T. Moh
2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z
goal of this course is to enable you to recognize linear algebra problems ... descriptions of other people's solutions to problems that use linear algebra and to
The Microscopic Linear Dynamics
Penny, Will
The Microscopic Brain Will Penny Linear Dynamics Exponentials Matrix Exponential Eigendecomposition Dynamical Modes Nodes State Space Saddles Oscillations Spirals Centres Offsets Retinal Circuit Nullclines Stability Spiking Neurons Fitzhugh-Nagumo Nonlinear Dynamics Linearization Nonlinear Oscillation Excitable
Zeghib, Abdelghani
Introduction Results Linear Dynamics Lorentz Dynamics Actions of discrete groups on stationary Piccione) Geodeycos Meeting, Lyon, 28-30 April 2010 Abdelghani Zeghib Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds #12;Introduction Results Linear Dynamics Lorentz Dynamics Motivations and questions Examples 1 Introduction
Generalized Linear Quadratic Control
Gattami, Ather Said
We consider the problem of stochastic finite- and infinite-horizon linear quadratic control under power constraints. The calculations of the optimal control law can be done off-line as in the classical linear quadratic ...
Chen, Changhua; Xiao, Renzhen; Sun, Jun; Song, Zhimin; Huo, Shaofei; Bai, Xianchen; Shi, Yanchao; Liu, Guozhi [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)] [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)
2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper provides a fresh insight into the effect of non-uniform slow wave structure (SWS) used in a relativistic backward wave oscillator (RBWO) with a resonant reflector. Compared with the uniform SWS, the reflection coefficient of the non-uniform SWS is higher, leading to a lower modulating electric field in the resonant reflector and a larger distance to maximize the modulation current. Moreover, for both types of RBWOs, stronger standing-wave field takes place at the rear part of the SWS. In addition, besides Cerenkov effects, the energy conversion process in the RBWO strongly depends on transit time effects. Thus, the matching condition between the distributions of harmonic current and standing wave field provides a profound influence on the beam-wave interaction. In the non-uniform RBWO, the region with a stronger standing wave field corresponds to a higher fundamental harmonic current distribution. Particle-in-cell simulations show that with a diode voltage of 1.02 MV and beam current of 13.2 kA, a microwave power of 4 GW has been obtained, compared to that of 3 GW in the uniform RBWO.
Schneider, A.R.
1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.
Introduction to Linear Relaxations
Introduction to Linear Relaxations by R. Baker Kearfott Department of Mathematics University relaxations; . discuss validation of linear relaxations. Intro. Linear Relaxations December, 2003 Taylor, . . . , m 2 , where # : R n # R and c i , g i : R n # R are guaranteed to be within one of the x # that has
Demmel, James; Holtz, Olga; Dumitriu, Ioana
2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
than other basic linear algebra subroutines. AcknowledgmentsApplied Numerical Linear Algebra. SIAM, 1997. [23] J.algorithms in numerical linear algebra. SIAM Review, 20:740–
Ling, Junpu; Zhang, Jiande; He, Juntao, E-mail: hejuntao12@163.com; Wang, Lei; Deng, Bingfang [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)
2014-08-15T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the theoretical analysis of the intense relativistic electron beam propagation in the coaxial drift-tube, a focusing electrode and a coaxial reflector is proposed to lessen the demand of the coaxial Ku-band foilless transit-time oscillator (TTO) for the guiding magnetic field. Moreover, a Ku-band TTO with the focusing electrode and the coaxial reflector is designed and studied by particle in cell simulation. When the diode voltage is 390 kV, the beam current 7.8 kA, and the guiding magnetic field is only 0.3 T, the device can output 820 MW microwave pulse at 14.25 GHz by means of the simulation. However, for the device without them, the output power is only 320 MW. The primary experiments are also carried out. When the guiding magnetic field is 0.3 T, the output power of the device with the focusing electrode and the coaxial reflector is double that of the one without them. The simulation and experimental results prove that the focusing electrode and the coaxial reflector are effective on reducing the guiding magnetic field of the device.
Fan, Shanhui
GaN-based two-dimensional surface-emitting photonic crystal lasers with AlN/GaN distributed Bragg 14 December 2007; published online 11 January 2008 GaN-based two-dimensional 2D surface-emitting photonic crystal PC lasers with AlN/GaN distributed Bragg reflectors are fabricated and demonstrated
Lin, Andrew Tien-Shun
Sediments with Gas Hydrate Reflectors in Offshore SW Taiwan, from OBS Data Tomography Win-Bin Cheng 1 be considered a result of local shallowing of the base of the gas hydrate stability zone, caused by ascending structure was ob- served and could be associated with the phenomenon of hydrate/gas phase boundary
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for general service fluorescent lamps and incandescent reflectors lamps, as issued by the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy on April 11, 2014.
Fault tolerant linear actuator
Tesar, Delbert
2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z
In varying embodiments, the fault tolerant linear actuator of the present invention is a new and improved linear actuator with fault tolerance and positional control that may incorporate velocity summing, force summing, or a combination of the two. In one embodiment, the invention offers a velocity summing arrangement with a differential gear between two prime movers driving a cage, which then drives a linear spindle screw transmission. Other embodiments feature two prime movers driving separate linear spindle screw transmissions, one internal and one external, in a totally concentric and compact integrated module.
Niknam, A. R., E-mail: a-niknam@sbu.ac.ir; Khajehmirzaei, M. R. [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Davoudi-Rahaghi, B.; Rahmani, Z.; Jazi, B.; Abdoli-Arani, A. [Department of Laser and Photonics, Faculty of Physics, University of Kashan, Kashan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
The energy distribution along the focal axis of a long metallic cylindrical parabolic reflector with a plasma layer on its surface in the presence of an external magnetic field is investigated. The effects of some physical parameters, such as the plasma frequency, the wave frequency and the thickness of plasma layer on the energy distribution and the reflected and transmitted electromagnetic fields, are simulated. These investigations for both S- and P-polarizations have been done separately. It is found that the maximum value of the reflected intensity increases by increasing the incident wave frequency and by decreasing the plasma layer thickness and the plasma frequency for both polarizations. Furthermore, the results show that the increase of the magnetic field strength can cause an increase in the reflected intensity for S-polarization and a slight decrease for P-polarization.
Lee, KyeoReh; Park, Jung-Hoon; Park, Ji-Ho; Park, YongKeun
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Rewinding the arrow of time via phase conjugation is an intriguing phenomena made possible by the wave property of light. To exploit this phenomenon, many diverse research fields have pursed the realization of an ideal phase conjugation mirror, but the ideal phase conjugation mirror - an optical system that requires a single-input and a single-output beam, like natural conventional mirrors - has never been demonstrated. Here, we demonstrate the realization of a one-wave optical time-reversal mirror using a spatial light modulator and a single-mode reflector. Our method is simple, alignment free, and fast while allowing unlimited power throughput in the time reversed wave, which have not been simultaneously demonstrated before. Using our method, we demonstrate high throughput time-reversal full-field light delivery through highly scattering biological tissue and multimode fibers, even for quantum dot fluorescence.
Using Linearity Web Copyright 2007
Rodriguez, Carlos
Using Linearity Web Rev. 2.0 May 2007 Copyright © 2007 #12;Using Linearity Web i Contents Introduction to Linearity Web.............................................................................1 Features, Benefits, and Value of Linearity Web..............................................1 Before You
Optimal design of one-dimensional photonic crystal back reflectors for thin-film silicon solar cells
Chen, Peizhuan; Hou, Guofu, E-mail: gfhou@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Jianjun, E-mail: jjzhang@nankai.edu.cn; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying [Institute of Photoelectronics and Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Thin-film Devices and Technique, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)
2014-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
For thin-film silicon solar cells (TFSC), a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1D PC) is a good back reflector (BR) because it increases the total internal reflection at the back surface. We used the plane-wave expansion method and the finite difference time domain (FDTD) algorithm to simulate and analyze the photonic bandgap (PBG), the reflection and the absorption properties of a 1D PC and to further explore the optimal 1D PC design for use in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cells. With identified refractive index contrast and period thickness, we found that the PBG and the reflection of a 1D PC are strongly influenced by the contrast in bilayer thickness. Additionally, light coupled to the top three periods of the 1D PC and was absorbed if one of the bilayers was absorptive. By decreasing the thickness contrast of the absorptive layer relative to the non-absorptive layer, an average reflectivity of 96.7% was achieved for a 1D PC alternatively stacked with a-Si:H and SiO{sub 2} in five periods. This reflectivity was superior to a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) structure with 93.5% and an Ag film with 93.4%. n-i-p a-Si:H solar cells with an optimal 1D PC-based BR offer a higher short-circuit current density than those with a DBR-based BR or an AZO/Ag-based BR. These results provide new design rules for photonic structures in TFSC.
Chandler, David [ORNL] [ORNL; Maldonado, G Ivan [ORNL] [ORNL; Primm, Trent [ORNL] [ORNL
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The objective of this study is to develop a methodology to predict the reactivity impact as a function of outage time between cycles of 3He, 6Li, and other poisons in the High Flux Isotope Reactor s (HFIR) beryllium reflector. The reactivity worth at startup of the HFIR has been incorrectly predicted in the past after the reactor has been shut-down for long periods of time. The incorrect prediction was postulated to be due to the erroneous calculation of 3He buildup in the beryllium reflector. It is necessary to develop a better estimate of the start-of-cycle symmetric critical control element positions since if the estimated and actual symmetrical critical control element positions differ by more than $1.55 in reactivity (approximately one-half inch in control element startup position), HFIR is to be shutdown and a technical evaluation is performed to resolve the discrepancy prior to restart. 3He is generated and depleted during operation, but during an outage, the depletion of 3He ceases because it is a stable isotope. 3He is born from the radioactive decay of tritium, and thus the concentration of 3He increases during shutdown. The computer program SCALE, specifically the TRITON and CSAS5 control modules including the KENO V.A, COUPLE, and ORIGEN functional modules were utilized in this study. An equation relating the down time (td) to the change in symmetric control element position was generated and validated against measurements for approximately 40 HFIR operating cycles. The newly-derived correlation was shown to improve accuracy of predictions for long periods of down time.
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache
2008-07-18T23:59:59.000Z
In this book, the authors introduce the notion of Super linear algebra and super vector spaces using the definition of super matrices defined by Horst (1963). This book expects the readers to be well-versed in linear algebra. Many theorems on super linear algebra and its properties are proved. Some theorems are left as exercises for the reader. These new class of super linear algebras which can be thought of as a set of linear algebras, following a stipulated condition, will find applications in several fields using computers. The authors feel that such a paradigm shift is essential in this computerized world. Some other structures ought to replace linear algebras which are over a century old. Super linear algebras that use super matrices can store data not only in a block but in multiple blocks so it is certainly more powerful than the usual matrices. This book has 3 chapters. Chapter one introduces the notion of super vector spaces and enumerates a number of properties. Chapter two defines the notion of super linear algebra, super inner product spaces and super bilinear forms. Several interesting properties are derived. The main application of these new structures in Markov chains and Leontief economic models are also given in this chapter. The final chapter suggests 161 problems mainly to make the reader understand this new concept and apply them.
Linearly parameterized bandits
Tsitsiklis, John N.
We consider bandit problems involving a large (possibly infinite) collection of arms, in which the expected reward of each arm is a linear function of an r-dimensional random vector Z ? ?(superscript r), where r ? 2. The ...
Linear Motor Powered Transportation
Thornton, Richard D.
This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...
The International Linear Collider
Jim Brau; Paul Grannis; Mike Harrison; Michael Peskin; Marc Ross; Harry Weerts
2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z
We present a brief summary of the International Linear Collider as documented in the 2013 Technical Design Report. The Technical Design Report has detailed descriptions of the accelerator baseline design for a 500 GeV e+e- linear collider, the R&D program that has demonstrated its feasibility, the physics goals and expected sensitivities, and the description of the ILD and SiD detectors and their capabilities.
Optimization Online - Linear-quadratic control problem with a linear ...
L Faybusovich
2003-12-19T23:59:59.000Z
Dec 19, 2003 ... Abstract: We describe a complete solution of the linear-quaratic control problem with the linear term in the objective function on a semiinfinite ...
6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone
Boyer, Edmond
ACPD 6, 74277469, 2006 Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Evaluation of linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations Linear ozone photochemistry parametrizations A. J. Geer et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction
Weiss, Jonathan D. (Albuquerque, NM)
1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival "points" constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the "points" of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor.
Weiss, J.D.
1995-08-29T23:59:59.000Z
A shock velocity and damage location sensor providing a means of measuring shock speed and damage location is disclosed. The sensor consists of a long series of time-of-arrival ``points`` constructed with fiber optics. The fiber optic sensor apparatus measures shock velocity as the fiber sensor is progressively crushed as a shock wave proceeds in a direction along the fiber. The light received by a receiving means changes as time-of-arrival points are destroyed as the sensor is disturbed by the shock. The sensor may comprise a transmitting fiber bent into a series of loops and fused to a receiving fiber at various places, time-of-arrival points, along the receiving fibers length. At the ``points`` of contact, where a portion of the light leaves the transmitting fiber and enters the receiving fiber, the loops would be required to allow the light to travel backwards through the receiving fiber toward a receiving means. The sensor may also comprise a single optical fiber wherein the time-of-arrival points are comprised of reflection planes distributed along the fibers length. In this configuration, as the shock front proceeds along the fiber it destroys one reflector after another. The output received by a receiving means from this sensor may be a series of downward steps produced as the shock wave destroys one time-of-arrival point after another, or a nonsequential pattern of steps in the event time-of-arrival points are destroyed at any point along the sensor. 6 figs.
Park, Jae-Seong; Seong, Tae-Yeon, E-mail: tyseong@korea.ac.kr [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Korea University, Seoul 136-713 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jaecheon [Department of LED Business, Chip Development Group, LG Innotek, Paju 413-901 (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jun-Seok [School of Applied Chemical Engineering, Chonnam National University, Gwangju 500-757 (Korea, Republic of)
2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z
We report on the polarity dependence of the electrical properties of Ag reflectors for high-power GaN-based light-emitting diodes. The (0001) c-plane samples become ohmic after annealing in air. However, the (11–22) semi-polar samples are non-ohmic after annealing, although the 300?°C-annealed sample shows the lowest contact resistivity. The X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) results show that the Ga 2p core level for the c-plane samples experiences larger shift toward the valence band than that for the semi-polar samples. The XPS depth profile results show that unlike the c-plane samples, the semi-polar samples contain some amounts of oxygen at the Ag/GaN interface regions. The outdiffusion of Ga atoms is far more significant in the c-plane samples than in the semi-polar samples, whereas the outdiffusion of N atoms is relatively less significant in the c-plane samples. On the basis of the electrical and XPS results, the polarity dependence of the electrical properties is described and discussed.
Linear Algebra: Ideas and Applications
Linear Algebra: Ideas and Applications. [photo]. Welcome to the web page for Linear Algebra: Idaes and Applications by Richard Penney. This web site is ...
Spectral learning of linear dynamics from generalised-linear observations
a non-linear and non-Gaussian observation process. We use this approach to obtain estimates to the generalised-linear regression model [8]), where the expected value of an observation is given by a monotonicSpectral learning of linear dynamics from generalised-linear observations with application
QPL 2005 Preliminary Version De-linearizing linearity: projective quantum
Selinger, Peter
QPL 2005 Preliminary Version De-linearizing linearity: projective quantum axiomatics from strong the linear structure of Hilbert spaces into several constituents which play different roles in quantum)famous Birkhoff- von Neumann paper [7]. The bulk of the linear structure required to reason about quantum
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache
2010-12-08T23:59:59.000Z
In this book we use only special types of intervals and introduce the notion of different types of interval linear algebras and interval vector spaces using the intervals of the form [0, a] where the intervals are from Zn or Z+ \\cup {0} or Q+ \\cup {0} or R+ \\cup {0}. A systematic development is made starting from set interval vector spaces to group interval vector spaces. Vector spaces are taken as interval polynomials or interval matrices or just intervals over suitable sets or semigroups or groups. Main feature of this book is the authors have given over 350 examples. This book has six chapters. Chapter one is introductory in nature. Chapter two introduces the notion of set interval linear algebras of type one and two. Set fuzzy interval linear algebras and their algebras and their properties are discussed in chapter three. Chapter four introduces several types of interval linear bialgebras and bivector spaces and studies them. The possible applications are given in chapter five. Chapter six suggests nearly 110 problems of all levels.
Shaon Sahoo; Soumya Kanti Ganguly
2015-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
Contrary to the actual nonlinear Glauber model (NLGM), the linear Glauber model (LGM) is exactly solvable, although the detailed balance condition is not generally satisfied. This motivates us to address the issue of writing the transition rate ($w_j$) in a best possible linear form such that the mean squared error in satisfying the detailed balance condition is least. The advantage of this work is that, by studying the LGM analytically, we will be able to anticipate how the kinetic properties of an arbitrary Ising system depend on the temperature and the coupling constants. The analytical expressions for the optimal values of the parameters involved in the linear $w_j$ are obtained using a simple Moore-Penrose pseudoinverse matrix. This approach is quite general, in principle applicable to any system and can reproduce the exact results for one dimensional Ising system. In the continuum limit, we get a linear time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (TDGL) equation from the Glauber's microscopic model of non-conservative dynamics. We analyze the critical and dynamic properties of the model, and show that most of the important results obtained in different studies can be reproduced by our new mathematical approach. We will also show in this paper that the effect of magnetic field can easily be studied within our approach; in particular, we show that the inverse of relaxation time changes quadratically with (weak) magnetic field and that the fluctuation-dissipation theorem is valid for our model.
Linear Programming Environmental
Nagurney, Anna
Linear Program to control air pollution was developed in 1968 by Teller, which minimized cost Fall 2006 #12;Topics · Introduction · Background · Air · Land · Water #12;Introduction · "The United States spends more than 2% of its gross domestic product on pollution control, and this is more than any
Automatic Linear Orders (Revised Version)
Stephan, Frank
CDMTCS Research Report Series Automatic Linear Orders and Trees (Revised Version) Bakhadyr; Automatic Linear Orders and Trees Bakhadyr Khoussainov, Sasha Rubin and Frank Stephan November 13, 2003 emphasis is on trees and linear orders. We study the relationship between automatic linear orders and trees
Becker, Jörg D
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In many European countries the growth of the real GDP per capita has been linear since 1950. An explanation for this linearity is still missing. We propose that in artificial intelligence we may find models for a linear growth of performance. We also discuss possible consequences of the fact that in systems with linear growth the percentage growth goes to zero.
Banks, R.M.
1986-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
This patent describes a linear output nitinol engine consisting of a number of integrated communicating parts. The engine has an external support framework which is described in detail. The patent further describes a wire transport mechanism, a pair of linkage levers with a loom secured to them, a number of nitinol wires strung between the looms, and a power takeoff block secured to the linkage levers. A pulley positioned in a flip-flop supporting bracket and a power takeoff modality including a tension member connected to a power output cable in order to provide linear power output transmission is described. A method for biasing the timing and the mechanism for timing the synchronization of the throw over arms and the flip-flop of the pulley are also described.
Buttram, M.T.; Ginn, J.W.
1988-06-21T23:59:59.000Z
A linear induction accelerator includes a plurality of adder cavities arranged in a series and provided in a structure which is evacuated so that a vacuum inductance is provided between each adder cavity and the structure. An energy storage system for the adder cavities includes a pulsed current source and a respective plurality of bipolar converting networks connected thereto. The bipolar high-voltage, high-repetition-rate square pulse train sets and resets the cavities. 4 figs.
Combustion powered linear actuator
Fischer, Gary J. (Albuquerque, NM)
2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention provides robotic vehicles having wheeled and hopping mobilities that are capable of traversing (e.g. by hopping over) obstacles that are large in size relative to the robot and, are capable of operation in unpredictable terrain over long range. The present invention further provides combustion powered linear actuators, which can include latching mechanisms to facilitate pressurized fueling of the actuators, as can be used to provide wheeled vehicles with a hopping mobility.
The International Linear Collider
Barish, Barry
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this article, we describe the key features of the recently completed technical design for the International Linear Collider (ILC), a 200-500 GeV linear electron-positron collider (expandable to 1 TeV) that is based on 1.3 GHz superconducting radio-frequency (SCRF) technology. The machine parameters and detector characteristics have been chosen to complement the Large Hadron Collider physics, including the discovery of the Higgs boson, and to further exploit this new particle physics energy frontier with a precision instrument. The linear collider design is the result of nearly twenty years of R&D, resulting in a mature conceptual design for the ILC project that reflects an international consensus. We summarize the physics goals and capability of the ILC, the enabling R&D and resulting accelerator design, as well as the concepts for two complementary detectors. The ILC is technically ready to be proposed and built as a next generation lepton collider, perhaps to be built in stages beginning as a Hig...
Jacques Carolan; Chris Harrold; Chris Sparrow; Enrique Martín-López; Nicholas J. Russell; Joshua W. Silverstone; Peter J. Shadbolt; Nobuyuki Matsuda; Manabu Oguma; Mikitaka Itoh; Graham D. Marshall; Mark G. Thompson; Jonathan C. F. Matthews; Toshikazu Hashimoto; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Anthony Laing
2015-05-05T23:59:59.000Z
Linear optics underpins tests of fundamental quantum mechanics and computer science, as well as quantum technologies. Here we experimentally demonstrate the longstanding goal of a single reprogrammable optical circuit that is sufficient to implement all possible linear optical protocols up to the size of that circuit. Our six-mode universal system consists of a cascade of 15 Mach-Zehnder interferometers with 30 thermo-optic phase shifters integrated into a single photonic chip that is electrically and optically interfaced for arbitrary setting of all phase shifters, input of up to six photons and their measurement with a 12 single-photon detector system. We programmed this system to implement heralded quantum logic and entangling gates, boson sampling with verification tests, and six-dimensional complex Hadamards. We implemented 100 Haar random unitaries with average fidelity 0.999 $\\pm$ 0.001. Our system is capable of switching between these and any other linear optical protocol in seconds. These results point the way to applications across fundamental science and quantum technologies.
Linear optimization Linear programming using the Simplex method
McCready, Mark J.
Linear optimization Linear programming using the Simplex method Maximize M = 40 x1 + 60 x2 subject, that increasing x2 is the way to get the biggest impact. The idea of the simplex method is to move only
Algorithms for Solving Linear Congruences and Systems of Linear Congruences
Florentin Smarandache
2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
In this article we determine several theorems and methods for solving linear congruences and systems of linear congruences, and we find the number of distinct solutions. Many examples of solving congruences are given.
Park, Joung Won
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
, and Temperature (PVT) variations and increase high power input capability. After analyzing and designing a resistive feedback LNA, novel linearization methods were applied. A highly linear broadband LNA is designed and simulated in 65nm CMOS technology. Simulation...
Park, Joung Won
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
In this work, a highly linear broadband Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is presented. The linearity issue in broadband Radio Frequency (RF) front-end is introduced, followed by an analysis of the specifications and requirements of a broadband LNA through...
The International Linear Collider
Marco Battaglia
2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is the next large scale project in accelerator particle physics. Colliding electrons with positrons at energies from 0.3 TeV up to about 1 TeV, the ILC is expected to provide the accuracy needed to complement the LHC data and extend the sensitivity to new phenomena at the high energy frontier and answer some of the fundamental questions in particle physics and in its relation to Cosmology. This paper reviews some highlights of the ILC physics program and some of the major challenges for the accelerator and detector design.
Linear Solvers 1.Introduction [1
McCalley, James D.
linear algebra packages including LAPACK, ScaLAPACK and PETSc, are built on top of BLAS. Most of standard, portable solver libraries available, including: BLAS (Basic linear algebra subprograms): Many (Automatically Tuned Linear Algebra Software package) is a version of BLAS that, upon installation, tests
Wave functions of linear systems
Tomasz Sowinski
2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z
Complete analysis of quantum wave functions of linear systems in an arbitrary number of dimensions is given. It is shown how one can construct a complete set of stationary quantum states of an arbitrary linear system from purely classical arguments. This construction is possible because for linear systems classical dynamics carries the whole information about quantum dynamics.
Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas
Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas Some Examples Least Squares Statistical View of Least Squares of Least Squares #12;Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas Some Examples Least Squares Basic Ideas Suppose #12;Simple Linear Regression Basic Ideas Some Examples Least Squares Basic Ideas Suppose we have two
Special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy linear algebra
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral
2009-12-30T23:59:59.000Z
The authors in this book introduce the notion of special set linear algebra and special set fuzzy Linear algebra, which is an extension of the notion set linear algebra and set fuzzy linear algebra. These concepts are best suited in the application of multi expert models and cryptology. This book has five chapters. In chapter one the basic concepts about set linear algebra is given in order to make this book a self contained one. The notion of special set linear algebra and their fuzzy analogue is introduced in chapter two. In chapter three the notion of special set semigroup linear algebra is introduced. The concept of special set n-vector spaces, n greater than or equal to three is defined and their fuzzy analogue is their fuzzy analogue is given in chapter four. The probable applications are also mentioned. The final chapter suggests 66 problems.
Newnam, Brian E. (Los Alamos, NM)
1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A multi-faceted mirror forms a retroreflector for a resonator loop in a free electron laser (FEL) operating in the XUV (.lambda.=10-100 nm). The number of facets is determined by the angle-of-incidence needed to obtain total external reflectance (TER) from the facet surface and the angle through which the FEL beam is to be turned. Angles-of-incidence greater than the angle for TER may be used to increase the area of the beam incident on the surface and reduce energy absorption density. Suitable surface films having TER in the 10-100 nm range may be formed from a variety of materials, including Al, single-crystal Si, Ag, and Rh. One of the facets is formed as an off-axis conic section to collimate the output beam with minimum astigmatism.
The International Linear Collider
Karsten Buesser
2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is a proposed electron-positron collider for the centre-of-mass energy range of 200 to 500 GeV and with upgrade options towards 1 TeV. The ILC would be the ideal tool to explore with high precision the properties of the new Higgs-like particle that has recently been discovered at the LHC with a mass of around 125 GeV. The ILC accelerator design is based on the mature superconducting technology that has been developed in the TESLA collaboration and that is currently being used for the European XFEL. The exploitation of the huge physics potential of the ILC is a challenge for the design of the ILC detectors.
Positrons for linear colliders
Ecklund, S.
1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
The requirements of a positron source for a linear collider are briefly reviewed, followed by methods of positron production and production of photons by electromagnetic cascade showers. Cross sections for the electromagnetic cascade shower processes of positron-electron pair production and Compton scattering are compared. A program used for Monte Carlo analysis of electromagnetic cascades is briefly discussed, and positron distributions obtained from several runs of the program are discussed. Photons from synchrotron radiation and from channeling are also mentioned briefly, as well as positron collection, transverse focusing techniques, and longitudinal capture. Computer ray tracing is then briefly discussed, followed by space-charge effects and thermal heating and stress due to showers. (LEW)
Linear Algebraic Method for Non-Linear Map Analysis
Yu,L.; Nash, B.
2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z
We present a newly developed method to analyze some non-linear dynamics problems such as the Henon map using a matrix analysis method from linear algebra. Choosing the Henon map as an example, we analyze the spectral structure, the tune-amplitude dependence, the variation of tune and amplitude during the particle motion, etc., using the method of Jordan decomposition which is widely used in conventional linear algebra.
A polynomial projection algorithm for linear programming
2013-05-03T23:59:59.000Z
We propose a polynomial algorithm for linear programming. The algorithm represents a linear optimization or decision problem in the form of a system of linear ...
International linear collider reference design report
Aarons, G.
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A. Loew, et al. , “International Linear Collider Technologyfor the International Linear Collider”, in preparation [37]for the International Linear Collider,” in PAC05,http://
Kliman, G.B.; Brynsvold, G.V.; Jahns, T.M.
1989-08-22T23:59:59.000Z
A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium are disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet. 4 figs.
Kliman, Gerald B. (Schenectady, NY); Brynsvold, Glen V. (San Jose, CA); Jahns, Thomas M. (Schenectady, NY)
1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A winding and method of winding for a submersible linear pump for pumping liquid sodium is disclosed. The pump includes a stator having a central cylindrical duct preferably vertically aligned. The central vertical duct is surrounded by a system of coils in slots. These slots are interleaved with magnetic flux conducting elements, these magnetic flux conducting elements forming a continuous magnetic field conduction path along the stator. The central duct has placed therein a cylindrical magnetic conducting core, this core having a cylindrical diameter less than the diameter of the cylindrical duct. The core once placed to the duct defines a cylindrical interstitial pumping volume of the pump. This cylindrical interstitial pumping volume preferably defines an inlet at the bottom of the pump, and an outlet at the top of the pump. Pump operation occurs by static windings in the outer stator sequentially conveying toroidal fields from the pump inlet at the bottom of the pump to the pump outlet at the top of the pump. The winding apparatus and method of winding disclosed uses multiple slots per pole per phase with parallel winding legs on each phase equal to or less than the number of slots per pole per phase. The slot sequence per pole per phase is chosen to equalize the variations in flux density of the pump sodium as it passes into the pump at the pump inlet with little or no flux and acquires magnetic flux in passage through the pump to the pump outlet.
6, 66276694, 2006 linearized ozone
Boyer, Edmond
ACPD 6, 66276694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions CHEM2D-OPP: A new linearized gas-phase ozone photochemistry.mccormack@nrl.navy.mil) 6627 #12;ACPD 6, 66276694, 2006 CHEM2D-OPP linearized ozone photochemistry J. P. McCormack et al
Linear Programming and Kantorovich Spaces
S. Kutateladze
2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
This is a brief overview of the life of Leonid Kantorovich (1912--1986) and his contribution to the fields of linear programming and ordered vector spaces.
Linear Algebra 1: Computing canonical forms in exact linear
Pernet, Clément
Linear Algebra 1: Computing canonical forms in exact linear algebra Clément PERNET, LIG, where U is invertible Reduced echelon form: E = 1 0 0 1 0 1 Gauss-Jordan elimination #12 a field: B = U-1 AU Frobenius normal form (or canonical rational form): F = CP0 CP1 ... CPk
Identifying Redundant Linear Constraints in Systems of Linear ...
2006-06-22T23:59:59.000Z
Jun 22, 2006 ... redundant linear constraints from the system (2.1) and (2.2). ... It is informative to note that in the above theorem, the optimal ..... S. Boyd and L. El Ghaoui, “Linear Matrix Inequalities in System and Control Theory”, SIAM, vol.
Chen, Peizhuan; Hou, Guofu, E-mail: gfhou@nankai.edu.cn; Huang, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun, E-mail: jjzhang@nankai.edu.cn; Ni, Jian; Zhang, Xiaodan; Zhao, Ying [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Photoelectronic Thin-Film Devices and Technique, Institute of Photoelectronics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Fan, QiHua [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, South Dakota State University, Brookings, South Dakota 57007 (United States)
2014-08-18T23:59:59.000Z
An efficient light trapping scheme named as textured conductive photonic crystal (TCPC) has been proposed and then applied as a back-reflector (BR) in n-i-p hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) solar cell. This TCPC BR combined a flat one-dimensional photonic crystal and a randomly textured surface of chemically etched ZnO:Al. Total efficiency enhancement was obtained thanks to the sufficient conductivity, high reflectivity and strong light scattering of the TCPC BR. Unwanted intrinsic losses of surface plasmon modes are avoided. An initial efficiency of 9.66% for a-Si:H solar cell was obtained with short-circuit current density of 14.74?mA/cm{sup 2}, fill factor of 70.3%, and open-circuit voltage of 0.932?V.
Acoustic emission linear pulse holography
Collins, H.D.; Busse, L.J.; Lemon, D.K.
1983-10-25T23:59:59.000Z
This device relates to the concept of and means for performing Acoustic Emission Linear Pulse Holography, which combines the advantages of linear holographic imaging and Acoustic Emission into a single non-destructive inspection system. This unique system produces a chronological, linear holographic image of a flaw by utilizing the acoustic energy emitted during crack growth. The innovation is the concept of utilizing the crack-generated acoustic emission energy to generate a chronological series of images of a growing crack by applying linear, pulse holographic processing to the acoustic emission data. The process is implemented by placing on a structure an array of piezoelectric sensors (typically 16 or 32 of them) near the defect location. A reference sensor is placed between the defect and the array.
Linear Consistency Testing Yonatan Aumann
Sudan, Madhu
of Blum, Luby and Rubinfeld [?] to check the linear-consistency of three functions f1, f2, f3 mapping and check if f1(x) + f2(y) = f3(x + y). We analyze this test for two cases: (1) G and H are arbitrary the consistency of multiple functions. Given a triple of functions f1, f2, f3 : G H, we say that they are "linear
A linear induction motor conveyer
Solinsky, Kenneth Sheldon
1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A LINEAR INCUCTION MOTOR CONVEYER A Thesis Kenneth Sheldon. Solinsky Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER 07 SCIENCE May 1973 Major Subject: Industrial.... Howie, USAMC-ITC-P/P, Red River Army Depot, Texarkana, Texas 75501. Approved owxe, xe , ro uc o uction Engineering For the Commander ne , grec or, I A LINEAR INDUCTION MOTOR CONVEYER A Thesis by Kenneth Sheldon Solinsky App ved as to style...
Algorithms for Symmetric Linear and Integer Programs
Bödi, Richard; Joswig, Michael
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper deals with exploiting symmetry for solving linear and integer programming problems. Basic properties of linear representations of finite groups can be used to reduce symmetric linear programming to solving linear programs of lower dimension. Combining this approach with knowledge of the geometry of feasible integer solutions yields an algorithm for solving highly symmetric integer linear programs which only takes time which is linear in the number of constraints and quadratic in the dimension.
Linear conic optimization for nonlinear optimal control
Didier Henrion
2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
Jul 7, 2014 ... Abstract: Infinite-dimensional linear conic formulations are described for nonlinear optimal control problems. The primal linear problem consists ...
Stochastic linear programming games with concave preferences
2014-12-04T23:59:59.000Z
We study stochastic linear programming games: a class of stochastic ... be seen as linear programming games; examples include assignment games (Shapley ...
High dimensional linear inverse modelling
Cooper, Fenwick C
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce and demonstrate two linear inverse modelling methods for systems of stochastic ODE's with accuracy that is independent of the dimensionality (number of elements) of the state vector representing the system in question. Truncation of the state space is not required. Instead we rely on the principle that perturbations decay with distance or the fact that for many systems, the state of each data point is only determined at an instant by itself and its neighbours. We further show that all necessary calculations, as well as numerical integration of the resulting linear stochastic system, require computational time and memory proportional to the dimensionality of the state vector.
Highly linear low noise amplifier
Ganesan, Sivakumar
2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z
VgVgVgi (4) Where gm1 is its transconductance, gm2 represents its second order non-linearity obtained by the second order derivative of FET transfer characteristics (Id-Vgs) and gm3 is its third order non-linearity obtained by the third order... for the above mentioned currents are given below. 3 3213 2 21211 3 3 3 3 2 21 *),,(*),(*)( xxxBAout BbB AaAaAaA VsssCVssCVsCiii Vgi VgVgVgi ++=+= = ++= (14) Where g1a represents the transconductance of the main amplifier and g2a and g3a represent the second...
Linear electric field mass spectrometry
McComas, D.J.; Nordholt, J.E.
1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
A mass spectrometer and methods for mass spectrometry are described. The apparatus is compact and of low weight and has a low power requirement, making it suitable for use on a space satellite and as a portable detector for the presence of substances. High mass resolution measurements are made by timing ions moving through a gridless cylindrically symmetric linear electric field. 8 figs.
Linear regression issues in astronomy
Babu, G. Jogesh
Linear regression issues in astronomy Eric Feigelson Summer School in astrostatistics References regression Seeking the intrinsic relationship between two properties without specifying `dependent' and `independent' variables OLS(Y|X) OLS(X|Y) (inverse regr) Four symmetrical regression lines #12;Analytical
Sikes, Derek S.
MATH F314-F71 Linear Algebra Summer 2014 Instructor: Dr. Dana E. Madison, demadison2@alaska is by email. Class Dates and Times: July 7 August 14, 12:00pm 1:50pm Textbook: Linear Algebra and its: This is a first course in linear algebra that starts with the basic objects vectors, matrices, systems of linear
Termination of Linear Programs Ashish Tiwari
Tiwari, Ashish
Termination of Linear Programs Ashish Tiwari SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA, U.S.A tiwari@csl.sri.com Abstract. We show that termination of a class of linear loop programs is decidable. Linear loop programs are discrete-time linear systems with a loop condition governing termination
Termination of Linear Programs Ashish Tiwari #
Tiwari, Ashish
Termination of Linear Programs Ashish Tiwari # SRI International, 333 Ravenswood Ave, Menlo Park, CA, U.S.A tiwari@csl.sri.com Abstract. We show that termination of a class of linear loop programs is decidable. Linear loop programs are discreteÂtime linear systems with a loop condition governing termination
Fast exact linear algebra, LinBox
Pernet, Clément
Fast exact linear algebra, LinBox Clément Pernet Introduction LinBox: an overview Principles-place eliminations Fast matrix multiplication Linear algebra over big integers Fast exact linear algebra: LinBox Clément PERNET SAGE Days 6, November 11, 2007 #12;Fast exact linear algebra, LinBox Clément Pernet
PROCESS CONTROLLABILITY ANALYSIS USING LINEAR AND NONLINEAR
Skogestad, Sigurd
PROCESS CONTROLLABILITY ANALYSIS USING LINEAR AND NONLINEAR OPTIMISATION Samara D. Chenery October linear and nonlinear dynamic optimisation techniques. For the linear case an optimal control problem is formulated to assess the best achievable performance for the set of linear time invariant (LTI) controllers
Why quantum dynamics is linear
Thomas F. Jordan
2007-02-16T23:59:59.000Z
Quantum dynamics is linear. How do we know? From theory or experiment? The history of this question is reviewed. Nonlinear generalizations of quantum mechanics have been proposed. They predict small but clear nonlinear effects, which very accurate experiments have not seen. Is there a reason in principle why nonlinearity is not found? Is it impossible? Does quantum dynamics have to be linear? Attempts to prove this have not been decisive, because either their assumptions are not compelling or their arguments are not conclusive. The question has been left unsettled. There is a simple answer, based on a simple assumption. It was found in two steps separated by 44 years. They are steps back to simpler and more compelling assumptions. A proof of the assumptions of the Wigner-Bargmann proof has been known since 1962. It assumes that the maps of density matrices in time are linear. For this step, it is also assumed that density matrices are mapped one-to-one onto density matrices. An alternative is to assume that pure states are mapped one-to-one onto pure states and that entropy does not decrease. In a step taken in 2006, it is proved that the maps of density matrices in time are linear. It is assumed, as in the earlier step, that at each time the physical quantities and states are described by the usual linear structures of quantum mechanics, so the question is only about how things change in time. Beyond that, the proof assumes only that the dynamics does not depend on anything outside the system, but must allow the system to be described as part of a larger system.
Set Linear Algebra and Set Fuzzy Linear Algebra
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache; K. Ilanthenral
2008-06-17T23:59:59.000Z
In this book, the authors define the new notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized form of vector spaces. Set vector spaces make use of the least number of algebraic operations, therefore, even a non-mathematician is comfortable working with it. It is with the passage of time, that we can think of set linear algebras as a paradigm shift from linear algebras. Here, the authors have also given the fuzzy parallels of these new classes of set linear algebras. This book is divided into seven chapters. The first chapter briefly recalls some of the basic concepts in order to make this book self-contained. Chapter two introduces the notion of set vector spaces which is the most generalized concept of vector spaces. Set vector spaces lends itself to define new classes of vector spaces like semigroup vector spaces and group vector spaces. These are also generalization of vector spaces. The fuzzy analogue of these concepts are given in Chapter three. In Chapter four, set vector spaces are generalized to biset bivector spaces and not set vector spaces. This is done taking into account the advanced information technology age in which we live. As mathematicians, we have to realize that our computer-dominated world needs special types of sets and algebraic structures. Set n-vector spaces and their generalizations are carried out in Chapter five. Fuzzy n-set vector spaces are introduced in the sixth chapter. The seventh chapter suggests more than three hundred problems.
Linear accelerator for radioisotope production
Hansborough, L.D.; Hamm, R.W.; Stovall, J.E.
1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
A 200- to 500-..mu..A source of 70- to 90-MeV protons would be a valuable asset to the nuclear medicine program. A linear accelerator (linac) can achieve this performance, and it can be extended to even higher energies and currents. Variable energy and current options are available. A 70-MeV linac is described, based on recent innovations in linear accelerator technology; it would be 27.3 m long and cost approx. $6 million. By operating the radio-frequency (rf) power system at a level necessary to produce a 500-..mu..A beam current, the cost of power deposited in the radioisotope-production target is comparable with existing cyclotrons. If the rf-power system is operated at full power, the same accelerator is capable of producing an 1140-..mu..A beam, and the cost per beam watt on the target is less than half that of comparable cyclotrons.
Linearized supergravity from Matrix theory
D. Kabat; W. Taylor
1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z
We show that the linearized supergravity potential between two objects arising from the exchange of quanta with zero longitudinal momentum is reproduced to all orders in 1/r by terms in the one-loop Matrix theory potential. The essential ingredient in the proof is the identification of the Matrix theory quantities corresponding to moments of the stress tensor and membrane current. We also point out that finite-N Matrix theory violates the equivalence principle.
Precision linear ramp function generator
Jatko, W. Bruce (Knoxville, TN); McNeilly, David R. (Maryville, TN); Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)
1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp unction which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.
Precision linear ramp function generator
Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.; Thacker, L.H.
1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
A ramp function generator is provided which produces a precise linear ramp function which is repeatable and highly stable. A derivative feedback loop is used to stabilize the output of an integrator in the forward loop and control the ramp rate. The ramp may be started from a selected baseline voltage level and the desired ramp rate is selected by applying an appropriate constant voltage to the input of the integrator.
Segmented rail linear induction motor
Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.
1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z
A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.
Cast dielectric composite linear accelerator
Sanders, David M. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen (Manteca, CA); Slenes, Kirk (Albuquerque, NM); Stoller, H. M. (Albuquerque, NM)
2009-11-10T23:59:59.000Z
A linear accelerator having cast dielectric composite layers integrally formed with conductor electrodes in a solventless fabrication process, with the cast dielectric composite preferably having a nanoparticle filler in an organic polymer such as a thermosetting resin. By incorporating this cast dielectric composite the dielectric constant of critical insulating layers of the transmission lines of the accelerator are increased while simultaneously maintaining high dielectric strengths for the accelerator.
Optimal Constructions of Fault Tolerant Optical Linear Compressors and Linear Decompressors
Chang, Cheng-Shang
1 Optimal Constructions of Fault Tolerant Optical Linear Compressors and Linear Decompressors Cheng linear compressors and linear decompressors. The basic network element for our constructions is scaled first obtain a fundamental result on the minimum con- struction complexity of a linear compressor
The Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra. A publication of the International Linear Algebra Society.
Grudsky, Sergei
The Electronic Journal of Linear Algebra. A publication of the International Linear Algebra Society. Introduction and main results. Let lp n 1 p 1 be the linear space C n with the lp norm, kxkp = X j jxjjp 1=p
Linear-quadratic control problem with a linear term on semiinfinite ...
2003-12-18T23:59:59.000Z
Dec 15, 2003 ... We describe a complete solution of the linear-quadratic control prob- lem on a semiinfinite interval with the linear term in the objective func-.
Proceedings of the International Linear Collider Workshop
Proceedings of the International Linear Collider Workshop LCWS 2007 ILC 2007 Volume 1 Edited by Ariane Frey Sabine Riemann #12;Impressum Proceedings of the International Linear Collider Workshop LCWS
Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in the Linear Regime
Wang, Jieyu
2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z
First, we investigate the Bouguer-Lambert-Beer (BLB) law as applied to the transmission of ultrashort pulses through water in the linear absorption regime. We present a linear theory for propagation of ultrashort laser ...
MANEUVER REGULATION, TRANSVERSE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION, AND ZERO
Maggiore, Manfredi
MANEUVER REGULATION, TRANSVERSE FEEDBACK LINEARIZATION, AND ZERO DYNAMICS Chris Nielsen,1 Manfredi focus is on output maneuver regulation where stabilizing transverse dynamics is a key requirement. Keywords: Maneuver regulation, path following, feedback linearization, zero dynamics, non-square systems
High speed linear induction motor efficiency optimization
Johnson, Andrew P. (Andrew Peter)
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
One of the reasons linear motors, a technology nearly a century old, have not been adopted for a large number of linear motion applications is that they have historically had poor efficiencies. This has restricted the ...
Duality for Mixed-Integer Linear Programs
2007-04-05T23:59:59.000Z
The theory of duality for linear programs is well-developed and has been successful ... methods for determining the effect of modifications to the input data on the ..... and the primal problem is bounded, since linear programming duality tells us ...
Linear Regression and Support Vector Regression
Shi, Qinfeng "Javen"
Linear Regression and Support Vector Regression Paul Paisitkriangkrai paulp@cs.adelaide.edu.au The University of Adelaide 18 August 2014 #12;Outlines · Regression overview · Linear regression · Support vector regression · Machine learning tools available #12;Regression Overview CLUSTERING CLASSIFICATION REGRESSION
Linear Accelerator | Advanced Photon Source
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:5 TablesExports(Journal Article)41clothThe Bonneville PowerTariff Pages default Sign InCenter (LMI-EFRC) Hotel & TravelLimiting FactorsProjectsLinear
Seismic response of linear accelerators
Collette, C; Guinchard, M; Hauviller, C
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This paper is divided into two parts. The first part presents recent measurements of ground motion in the LHC tunnel at CERN. From these measurements, an update of the ground motion model currently used in accelerator simulations is presented. It contains new features like a model of the lateral motion and the technical noise. In the second part, it is shown how this model can be used to evaluate the seismic response of a linear accelerator in the frequency domain. Then, the approach is validated numerically on a regular lattice, taking the dynamic behavior of the machine alignment stage and the mechanical stabilization of the quadrupoles into account.
Stochastic bridges of linear systems
Yongxin Chen; Tryphon Georgiou
2014-07-12T23:59:59.000Z
We study a generalization of the Brownian bridge as a stochastic process that models the position and velocity of inertial particles between the two end-points of a time interval. The particles experience random acceleration and are assumed to have known states at the boundary. Thus, the movement of the particles can be modeled as an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process conditioned on position and velocity measurements at the two end-points. It is shown that optimal stochastic control provides a stochastic differential equation (SDE) that generates such a bridge as a degenerate diffusion process. Generalizations to higher order linear diffusions are considered.
Linear Programming Lower Bounds for Minimum Converter ...
generation algorithm for solving the linear relaxation of the most promising ... Keywords: Optical Networks, Wavelength Assignment, Integer Programming.
Symmetries in Linear and Integer Programs
Bödi, R
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The notion of symmetry is defined in the context of Linear and Integer Programming. Symmetric linear and integer programs are studied from a group theoretical viewpoint. We show that for any linear program there exists an optimal solution in the fixed point set of its symmetry group. Using this result, we develop an algorithm that allows for reducing the dimension of any linear program having a non-trivial group of symmetries.
Reference Phase of Fresnel Zone Plates
G. W. Webb
2003-02-28T23:59:59.000Z
The standard zone plate assumes that the shortest ray connecting a radiation source and a detection point has a phase of 0 deg thereby defining a reference phase. Here we examine the experimental consequences of varying this reference phase from 0 deg to 360 deg. It is concluded that reference phase is an intrinsic and useful property of zone plates.
Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Regression Models
Cardot, Hervé
Varying-Coefficient Functional Linear Regression Models Herv´e Cardot1 and Pascal Sarda2 1, the ability of such non linear functional approaches to produce competitive estimations. Short title : Varying monograph. We propose here another generalization of the functional linear regression model in which
Computational Reality XIII Non-linear regression
Berlin,Technische Universität
Computational Reality XIII Non-linear regression Inverse analysis II B. Emek Abali @ LKM - TU Berlin Abstract Linear regression to fit and determine parameters, shown in the last tutorial, is quite useful and widely implemented, however, there are material models where parameters are coupled non-linearly
On linear programing approach to inventory control
Mayfield, John
On linear programing approach to inventory control problems Zhu received his PhD from Wayne State imbeds the inventory control problem into an infinite-dimensional linear program over a space of measures restricted classes of control policies. Additional auxiliary and dual linear programs are introduced
Depolarization of backscattered linearly polarized light
Lacoste, David
Depolarization of backscattered linearly polarized light Luis Fernando Rojas-Ochoa Department of backscattered linearly polarized light with an extended photon dif- fusion formalism taking explicitly, the characteristic depolarization length for linearly polarized light, lp , is deduced. We investigate the dependence
MINIMIZING COMMUNICATION IN NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA*
California at Berkeley, University of
MINIMIZING COMMUNICATION IN NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA* GREY BALLARD , JAMES DEMMEL , OLGA HOLTZ, i.e., essentially all direct methods of linear al- gebra. The proof works for dense or sparse our lower bound technique to compositions of linear algebra operations (like computing powers
Batch-mode Supervised Learning Linear regression
Wehenkel, Louis
Batch-mode Supervised Learning Linear regression Applied inductive learning - Lecture 3 Louis (& Pierre Geurts)AIA... (1/19) #12;Batch-mode Supervised Learning Linear regression Batch-mode Supervised Learning Linear regression Least mean square error solution Regularization and algorithmics Residual
NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2005; 12:683
NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2005; 12:683 Published Numerical Linear Algebra and its Applications The fourth workshop of the ERCIM Working Group on `Matrix Computations and Statistics' and the First International workshop on `Numerical Linear Algebra and its
ENGI 3423 Simple Linear Regression Page 12-01 Simple Linear Regression
George, Glyn
for dealing with non-linear regression are available in the course text, but are beyond the scopeENGI 3423 Simple Linear Regression Page 12-01 Simple Linear Regression Sometimes an experiment predict the value of Y for that value of x . The simple linear regression model is that the predicted
Robust Linearization of RF Amplifiers Using NonLinear Internal Model Control Method
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Robust Linearization of RF Amplifiers Using NonLinear Internal Model Control Method Smail Bachir #1, the nonlinear Internal Model Control (IMC) method is introduced and applied to linearize high frequency Power to be controlled [8]. If the model is a perfect representation of the non linear system, the controller can
Optimal Linear Quadratic Regulator for Markovian Jump Linear Systems, in the
Baras, John S.
, in the last fifteen, the classical paradigms of optimal control for Markovian jump linear systems (see CostaOptimal Linear Quadratic Regulator for Markovian Jump Linear Systems, in the presence of one time] and in the design of controllers Chizeck [1986] of controllers for Markovian jump linear systems. More specifically
Kunkel, Peter
The linear quadratic optimal control problem for linear descriptor systems with variable coefficients Peter Kunkel 3 Volker Mehrmann y 17.01.97 Abstract We study linear quadratic optimal control, 93B11, 93B40 1 Introduction In this paper we study the linearÂquadratic optimal control problem
Reticle stage based linear dosimeter
Berger, Kurt W.
2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z
A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.
Reticle stage based linear dosimeter
Berger, Kurt W. (Livermore, CA)
2007-03-27T23:59:59.000Z
A detector to measure EUV intensity employs a linear array of photodiodes. The detector is particularly suited for photolithography systems that includes: (i) a ringfield camera; (ii) a source of radiation; (iii) a condenser for processing radiation from the source of radiation to produce a ringfield illumination field for illuminating a mask; (iv) a reticle that is positioned at the ringfield camera's object plane and from which a reticle image in the form of an intensity profile is reflected into the entrance pupil of the ringfield camera, wherein the reticle moves in a direction that is transverse to the length of the ringfield illumination field that illuminates the reticle; (v) detector for measuring the entire intensity along the length of the ringfield illumination field that is projected onto the reticle; and (vi) a wafer onto which the reticle imaged is projected from the ringfield camera.
Multi-Stage Bunch Compressors for the International Linear Collider
Tenenbaum, Peter G.; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Wolski, Andrzej
2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR COLLIDER ? P. Tenenbaum † ,goals, the International Linear Collider (ILC) requires acompressors for the International Linear Collider. Each of
Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...
Office of Environmental Management (EM)
Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for Developing Non-Linear Seismic SSI Analysis Techniques Non-Linear Seismic Soil Structure Interaction (SSI) Method for...
Automating approximate Bayesian computation by local linear regression
Thornton, Kevin R
2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
computation by local linear regression Kevin R Thorntonof ABC based on using a linear regression to approximate theimplements the local linear-regression approach to ABC. The
International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010
None
2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
IWLC2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders 2010ECFA-CLIC-ILC joint meeting: Monday 18 October - Friday 22 October 2010Venue: CERN and CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva, Switzerland) This year, the International Workshop on Linear Colliders organized by the European Committee for Future Accelerators (ECFA) will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both CLIC and ILC options.Contact Workshop Secretariat IWLC2010 is hosted by CERN
JLab Supports International Linear Collider Cavity Development...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
Supports International Linear Collider Cavity Development Work NEWPORT NEWS, Va. Feb. 12, 2008 - It's not often that major-league baseball and nuclear physics get to share the...
LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...
GENERALIZED DUAL FACE ALGORITHM FOR LINEAR ...
2014-10-02T23:59:59.000Z
1991 Mathematics Subject Classification. Primary 90C05; Secondary 65K05. Key words and phrases. linear programming, dual level face, dual optimal face .
Linear conic optimization for nonlinear optimal control
2014-07-07T23:59:59.000Z
Jul 7, 2014 ... This linear transport equation is classical in fluid mechanics, statistical ... define a relaxed optimal control problem as an LP in the cone of non-.
Optimization Online - Linear, Cone and Semidefinite Programming ...
Strong duality in conic linear programming: facial reduction and extended duals ... A new semide nite programming relaxation for the quadratic assignment ...
Optimization Online - Equivalence of an Approximate Linear ...
Alejandro Toriello
2013-02-07T23:59:59.000Z
Feb 7, 2013 ... Equivalence of an Approximate Linear Programming Bound with the Held-Karp Bound for the Traveling Salesman Problem. Alejandro Toriello ...
Ultra-high vacuum photoelectron linear accelerator
Yu, David U.L.; Luo, Yan
2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z
An rf linear accelerator for producing an electron beam. The outer wall of the rf cavity of said linear accelerator being perforated to allow gas inside said rf cavity to flow to a pressure chamber surrounding said rf cavity and having means of ultra high vacuum pumping of the cathode of said rf linear accelerator. Said rf linear accelerator is used to accelerate polarized or unpolarized electrons produced by a photocathode, or to accelerate thermally heated electrons produced by a thermionic cathode, or to accelerate rf heated field emission electrons produced by a field emission cathode.
Siting the International Linear Collider at Hanford
Kouzes, Richard T.; Asner, David M.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Fast, James E.; Miley, Harry S.
2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z
Review of the proposed International Linear Collider, applications in high energy physics, and evaluation of the Hanford Site as a possible location for siting the facilityl.
Siting the International Linear Collider at Hanford
Kouzes, Richard T.; Asner, David M.; Brodzinski, Ronald L.; Fast, James E.; Miley, Harry S.
2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z
Review of the proposed International Linear Collider, applications in high energy physics, and evaluation of the Hanford Site as a possible location for siting the facility.
The Equivalence of Linear Programs and Zero-Sum Games
2012-01-15T23:59:59.000Z
In 1951, Dantzig showed the equivalence of linear programming problems and ... This note concerns the equivalence between linear programming (LP) ...
W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy; Florentin Smarandache
2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z
This book is a continuation of the book n-linear algebra of type I and its applications. Most of the properties that could not be derived or defined for n-linear algebra of type I is made possible in this new structure: n-linear algebra of type II which is introduced in this book. In case of n-linear algebra of type II we are in a position to define linear functionals which is one of the marked difference between the n-vector spaces of type I and II. However all the applications mentioned in n-linear algebras of type I can be appropriately extended to n-linear algebras of type II. Another use of n-linear algebra (n-vector spaces) of type II is that when this structure is used in coding theory we can have different types of codes built over different finite fields whereas this is not possible in the case of n-vector spaces of type I. Finally in the case of n-vector spaces of type II, we can obtain n-eigen values from distinct fields; hence, the n-characteristic polynomials formed in them are in distinct different fields. An attractive feature of this book is that the authors have suggested 120 problems for the reader to pursue in order to understand this new notion. This book has three chapters. In the first chapter the notion of n-vector spaces of type II are introduced. This chapter gives over 50 theorems. Chapter two introduces the notion of n-inner product vector spaces of type II, n-bilinear forms and n-linear functionals. The final chapter suggests over a hundred problems. It is important that the reader is well-versed not only with linear algebra but also n-linear algebra of type I.
Utility-Scale Concentrating Solar Power and Photovoltaic Projects: A Technology and Market Overview
Mendelsohn, M.; Lowder, T.; Canavan, B.
2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z
Over the last several years, solar energy technologies have been, or are in the process of being, deployed at unprecedented levels. A critical recent development, resulting from the massive scale of projects in progress or recently completed, is having the power sold directly to electric utilities. Such 'utility-scale' systems offer the opportunity to deploy solar technologies far faster than the traditional 'behind-the-meter' projects designed to offset retail load. Moreover, these systems have employed significant economies of scale during construction and operation, attracting financial capital, which in turn can reduce the delivered cost of power. This report is a summary of the current U.S. utility-scale solar state-of-the-market and development pipeline. Utility-scale solar energy systems are generally categorized as one of two basic designs: concentrating solar power (CSP) and photovoltaic (PV). CSP systems can be further delineated into four commercially available technologies: parabolic trough, central receiver (CR), parabolic dish, and linear Fresnel reflector. CSP systems can also be categorized as hybrid, which combine a solar-based system (generally parabolic trough, CR, or linear Fresnel) and a fossil fuel energy system to produce electric power or steam.
NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2011; 18:961980
De Sterck, Hans
NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2011; 18:961980 Published aggregation method of [1], and the Markov chain algebraic multigrid (MCAMG) method of [3] using the OTF
Linear Algebra Notes David A. SANTOS
California at Santa Cruz, University of
Linear Algebra Notes David A. SANTOS dsantos@ccp.edu January 2, 2010 REVISION #12;ii Contents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2 Matrices and Matrix Operations 18 2.1 The Algebra of Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.3 Diagonalisability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 7.4 Theorem of Cayley and Hamilton . . . . . 147 8 Linear Algebra
Blood Management Using Approximate Linear Programming
Shenoy, Prashant
Blood Management Using Approximate Linear Programming Marek Petrik and Shlomo Zilberstein January 13th, 2009 Marek Petrik and Shlomo Zilberstein () Blood Management Using Approximate Linear ProgrammingJanuary 13th, 2009 1 / 36 #12;Blood Inventory Management Problem Regional blood banks: Aggregate
Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators
Parsons, William M. (Santa Fe, NM)
1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Improvement in voltage regulation in a Linear Induction Accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance.
Voltage regulation in linear induction accelerators
Parsons, W.M.
1992-12-29T23:59:59.000Z
Improvement in voltage regulation in a linear induction accelerator wherein a varistor, such as a metal oxide varistor, is placed in parallel with the beam accelerating cavity and the magnetic core is disclosed. The non-linear properties of the varistor result in a more stable voltage across the beam accelerating cavity than with a conventional compensating resistance. 4 figs.
Best Linear Unbiased Estimate Motivation for BLUE
Fowler, Mark
1 Chapter 6 Best Linear Unbiased Estimate (BLUE) #12;2 Motivation for BLUE Except for Linear Model to a sub-optimal estimate BLUE is one such sub-optimal estimate Idea for BLUE: 1. Restrict estimate) Advantage of BLUE:Needs only 1st and 2nd moments of PDF Mean & Covariance Disadvantages of BLUE: 1. Sub
Thvenin's Theorem Linear two-terminal circuit
Kozick, Richard J.
Thévenin's Theorem Linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit composed at terminals with allResistance at terminals with all independent circuit sources set to zero #12;Norton's Theorem Linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalentbe replaced by an equivalent circuit
Soft materials for linear electromechanical energy conversion
Antal Jakli; Nandor Eber
2014-07-29T23:59:59.000Z
We briefly review the literature of linear electromechanical effects of soft materials, especially in synthetic and biological polymers and liquid crystals (LCs). First we describe results on direct and converse piezoelectricity, and then we discuss a linear coupling between bending and electric polarization, which maybe called bending piezoelectricity, or flexoelectricity.
Neal, R B
1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The Stanford Mark III linear accelerator and speculations concerning the multi-Bev applications of electron linear accelerators
Assumptions that imply quantum dynamics is linear
Thomas F. Jordan
2006-01-26T23:59:59.000Z
A basic linearity of quantum dynamics, that density matrices are mapped linearly to density matrices, is proved very simply for a system that does not interact with anything else. It is assumed that at each time the physical quantities and states are described by the usual linear structures of quantum mechanics. Beyond that, the proof assumes only that the dynamics does not depend on anything outside the system but must allow the system to be described as part of a larger system. The basic linearity is linked with previously established results to complete a simple derivation of the linear Schrodinger equation. For this it is assumed that density matrices are mapped one-to-one onto density matrices. An alternative is to assume that pure states are mapped one-to-one onto pure states and that entropy does not decrease.
Linear Transformations In this Chapter, we will define the notion of a linear transformation between
Carrell, Jim
Chapter 6 Linear Transformations In this Chapter, we will define the notion of a linear transformation between two vector spaces V and W which are defined over the same field and prove the most basic transformations is equivalent to matrix theory. We will also study the geometric properties of linear
Kissock, J. K.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.
2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report summarizes the results of ASHRAE Research Project 1050: Development of a Toolkit for Calculating Linear, Change-Point Linear and Multiple Linear Inverse Building Energy Analysis Models. The Inverse Modeling Toolkit (WIT) is a FORTRAN 90...
Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)
in SAM Photovoltaics Concentrating PV Solar Water Heating Geothermal Dish-Stirling Linear Fresnel Power Tower Parabolic Trough Small Wind Utility-scale Wind Biomass...
LED Linear Lamps and Troffer Lighting
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
The CALiPER program performed a series of investigations on linear LED lamps. Each report in the series covers the performance of up to 31 linear LED lamps, which were purchased in late 2012 or 2013. The first report focuses on bare lamp performance of LED T8 replacement lamps and subsequent reports examine performance in various troffers, as well as cost-effectiveness. There is also a concise guidance document that describes the findings of the Series 21 studies and provides practical advice to manufacturers, specifiers, and consumers (Report 21.4: Summary of Linear (T8) LED Lamp Testing , 5 pages, June 2014).
Optically isolated signal coupler with linear response
Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)
1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An optocoupler for isolating electrical signals that translates an electrical input signal linearly to an electrical output signal. The optocoupler comprises a light emitter, a light receiver, and a light transmitting medium. The light emitter, preferably a blue, silicon carbide LED, is of the type that provides linear, electro-optical conversion of electrical signals within a narrow wavelength range. Correspondingly, the light receiver, which converts light signals to electrical signals and is preferably a cadmium sulfide photoconductor, is linearly responsive to light signals within substantially the same wavelength range as the blue LED.
Tower systems for Linearly repetitive Delone sets
José Aliste-Prieto; Daniel Coronel
2010-03-22T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we study linearly repetitive Delone sets and prove, following the work of Bellissard, Benedetti and Gambaudo, that the hull of a linearly repetitive Delone set admits a properly nested sequence of box decompositions (tower system) with strictly positive and uniformly bounded (in size and norm) transition matrices. This generalizes a result of Durand for linearly recurrent symbolic systems. Furthermore, we apply this result to give a new proof of a classic estimation of Lagarias and Pleasants on the rate of convergence of patch-frequencies.
GROUP SPARSITY VIA LINEAR-TIME PROJECTION
2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
Jul 31, 2008 ... linear regression model subject to a bound on the l1-norm of the coefficients; .... this strategy scales poorly with the number of non-zero groups.
TIGHTER LINEAR AND SEMIDEFINITE RELAXATIONS FOR MAX ...
7 by a detailed analysis of the new relaxations. If positive ... Key words. linear relaxation, semide nite relaxation, lift and project, cut polytope, stable set. polytope ..... su ces to consider the circuit inequalities for chordless circuits [7]. Therefore ...
Photon emission within the linear sigma model
F. Wunderlich; B. Kampfer
2014-12-22T23:59:59.000Z
Soft-photon emission rates are calculated within the linear sigma model. The investigation is aimed at answering the question to which extent the emissivities map out the phase structure of this particular effective model of strongly interacting matter.
Linear Thermodynamics of Rodlike DNA Filtration
Li, Zirui
Linear thermodynamics transportation theory is employed to study filtration of rodlike DNA molecules. Using the repeated nanoarray consisting of alternate deep and shallow regions, it is demonstrated that the complex ...
QPOs: Einstein's gravity non-linear resonances
Paola Rebusco; Marek A. Abramowicz
2006-01-30T23:59:59.000Z
There is strong evidence that the observed kHz Quasi Periodic Oscillations (QPOs) in the X-ray flux of neutron star and black hole sources in LMXRBs are linked to Einstein's General Relativity. Abramowicz&Klu\\'zniak (2001) suggested a non-linear resonance model to explain the QPOs origin: here we summarize their idea and the development of a mathematical toy-model which begins to throw light on the nature of Einstein's gravity non-linear oscillations.
Photon Linear Collider Gamma-Gamma Summary
Gronberg, J
2012-02-27T23:59:59.000Z
High energy photon - photon collisions can be achieved by adding high average power short-pulse lasers to the Linear Collider, enabling an expanded physics program for the facility. The technology required to realize a photon linear collider continues to mature. Compton back-scattering technology is being developed around the world for low energy light source applications and high average power lasers are being developed for Inertial Confinement Fusion.
Lectures on Numerical Linear Algebra Yunkai Zhou
Zhou, Yunkai
University Dallas, Texas 75075 yzhou@smu.edu Spring, 2013 #12;Acknowledgements The lecture slides benefit. Y. Zhou Math-6316/CS-7366, SMU 2/210 #12;Basic Linear Algebra Spaces: Rn , Cn , Rn×n , Cn×n , Rm. Zhou Math-6316/CS-7366, SMU 3/210 #12;Basic Linear Algebra Spaces: Rn , Cn , Rn×n , Cn×n , Rm×n , Cm
Lectures on Numerical Linear Algebra Yunkai Zhou
Zhou, Yunkai
University Dallas, Texas 75075 yzhou@smu.edu Spring, 2012 #12;Acknowledgements The lecture slides benefit. Y. Zhou Math-6316/CS-7366, SMU 2/213 #12;Basic Linear Algebra Spaces: Rn , Cn , Rn×n , Cn×n , Rm. Zhou Math-6316/CS-7366, SMU 3/213 #12;Basic Linear Algebra Spaces: Rn , Cn , Rn×n , Cn×n , Rm×n , Cm
Non-linearities in the quantum multiverse
Orfeu Bertolami; Victor Herdeiro
2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z
It has been recently proposed that the multiverse of eternal inflation and the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics can be identified, yielding a new view on the measure and measurement problems. In the present note, we argue that a non-linear evolution of observables in the quantum multiverse would be an obstacle for such a description and that these non-linearities are expected from quite general arguments.
Lectures on Linear Algebra over Division Ring
Aleks Kleyn
2014-10-11T23:59:59.000Z
In this book i treat linear algebra over division ring. A system of linear equations over a division ring has properties similar to properties of a system of linear equations over a field. However, noncommutativity of a product creates a new picture. Matrices allow two products linked by transpose. Biring is algebra which defines on the set two correlated structures of the ring. As in the commutative case, solutions of a system of linear equations build up right or left vector space depending on type of system. We study vector spaces together with the system of linear equations because their properties have a close relationship. As in a commutative case, the group of automorphisms of a vector space has a single transitive representation on a frame manifold. This gives us an opportunity to introduce passive and active representations. Studying a vector space over a division ring uncovers new details in the relationship between passive and active transformations, makes this picture clearer. Considering of twin representations of division ring in Abelian group leads to the concept of D vector space and their linear map. Based on polyadditive map I considered definition of tensor product of rings and tensor product of D vector spaces.
A New Algorithm for Linear Programming
Dhananjay P. Mehendale
2015-03-28T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we propose two types of new algorithms for linear programming. The first type of these new algorithms uses algebraic methods while the second type of these new algorithms uses geometric methods. The first type of algorithms is based on treating the objective function as a parameter. In this method, we form a matrix using coefficients in the system of equations consisting objective equation and equations obtained from inequalities defining constraint by introducing slack/surplus variables. We obtain reduced row echelon form for this matrix containing only one variable, namely, the objective function itself as an unknown parameter. We analyse this matrix in the reduced row echelon form and develop a clear cut method to find the optimal solution for the problem at hand, if and when it exists. We see that the entire optimization process can be developed through the proper analysis of the said matrix in the reduced row echelon form. The second type of algorithms that we propose for linear programming are inspired by geometrical considerations. All these algorithms pursue common aim of approaching closer and closer to centroid or some centrally located interior point for speeding up the process of reaching an optimal solution! We then proceed to show that the algebraic method developed above for linear programming naturally extends to non-linear and integer programming problems. For non-linear and integer programming problems we use the technique of Grobner bases and the methods of solving linear Diophantine equations respectively.
Piecewise Linear Instrumental Variable Estimation of Causal Influence Richard Scheines
Spirtes, Peter
studies show that when the causal influence of X on Y is non-linear, the piecewise linear linear IV-estimator. In the final section, we describe an experiment comparing regular regression, linearPiecewise Linear Instrumental Variable Estimation of Causal Influence Richard Scheines Dept
AN OPTIMIZED SUPERFERRIC WIGGLER DESIGN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR COLLIDER
AN OPTIMIZED SUPERFERRIC WIGGLER DESIGN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR COLLIDER DAMPING RINGS Urban ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12;AN OPTIMIZED SUPERFERRIC WIGGLER DESIGN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. Results from optimizations of the parameters of this wiggler
AN OPTIMIZED SUPERFERRIC WIGGLER DESIGN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR COLLIDER
AN OPTIMIZED SUPERFERRIC WIGGLER DESIGN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR COLLIDER DAMPING RINGS Urban ALL RIGHTS RESERVED #12; AN OPTIMIZED SUPERFERRIC WIGGLER DESIGN FOR THE INTERNATIONAL LINEAR Linear Collider (ILC) damping rings. Results from optimizations of the parameters of this wiggler
Is there a use for linear logic? Philip Wadler
Wadler, Philip
Is there a use for linear logic Past attempts to apply Girard's linear logicihavemplemented Wadler's system [Wa* *k90 ].) either had, Wadler), but not both. Thisguage that corresponds closely t* *o linear logic; it is a paper defines
6 June 2003 M. Oreglia 1 Linear Collider prehistory
and Universities · LC Resources Towards an International Linear Collider: Mark Oreglia The University of Chicago and make choices and take political actions · Organizations: International Linear Collider Steering
EXTENSIONS OF GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELING APPROACH TO STOCHASTIC WEATHER GENERATORS
Katz, Richard
weather) -- Software R open source statistical programming language: Function glm "Family;(2) Generalized Linear Models Statistical Framework -- Multiple Regression Analysis (Linear model or LM) Response
A LINEAR TIME ALGORITHM FOR THE KOOPMANS-BECKMANN ...
2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z
said to be linearizable if there exists an instance of the linear assignment problem (LAP) .... quadratic programming formulation to a integer linear programming ...
A polynomial algorithm for linear optimization which is strongly ...
2015-01-31T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we present a new polynomial algorithm for linear programming. ... linear optimization problems having 0-1 optimal solutions (e.g., the assignment.
Knot Undulator to Generate Linearly Polarized Photons with Low...
Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)
Linearly Polarized Photons with Low on-Axis Power Density Heat load on beamline optics is a serious problem to generate pure linearly polarized photons in the third...
Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system
Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)
2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z
A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).
Test facilities for future linear colliders
Ruth, R.D.
1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z
During the past several years there has been a tremendous amount of progress on Linear Collider technology world wide. This research has led to the construction of the test facilities described in this report. Some of the facilities will be complete as early as the end of 1996, while others will be finishing up around the end 1997. Even now there are extensive tests ongoing for the enabling technologies for all of the test facilities. At the same time the Linear Collider designs are quite mature now and the SLC is providing the key experience base that can only come from a working collider. All this taken together indicates that the technology and accelerator physics will be ready for a future Linear Collider project to begin in the last half of the 1990s.
Linear and NonLinear Estimation Methods Applied to the Hemodynamic model
Schaal, Stefan
Linear and NonLinear Estimation Methods Applied to the Hemodynamic model Evangelos A. Theodorou s that controls the blood inflow. The total balloon model can be defined by the 4 differential equations the hemodynamic process of the balloon model. These equations consist of a set of deterministic highly non
NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2008; 15:115139
De Sterck, Hans
NUMERICAL LINEAR ALGEBRA WITH APPLICATIONS Numer. Linear Algebra Appl. 2008; 15:115139 Published and Ulrike Meier Yang2,, 1Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ont., Canada N2L 3G1 2Center for Applied Scientific Computing, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box
1D Regression ... estimates of the linear regression coefficients are relevant to the linear
Olive, David
Chapter 12 1D Regression ... estimates of the linear regression coefficients are relevant and look for a functional form for g(·). Brillinger (1983, p. 98) Regression is the study. The scalar Y is a random variable and x is a random vector. A special case of regression is multiple linear
1D Regression ... estimates of the linear regression coefficients are relevant to the linear
Olive, David
Chapter 15 1D Regression ... estimates of the linear regression coefficients are relevant and look for a functional form for g(·). Brillinger (1983, p. 98) Regression is the study. The scalar Y is a random variable and x is a random vector. A special case of regression is multiple linear
Linear and angular retroreflecting interferometric alignment target
Maxey, L. Curtis (Powell, TN)
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
The present invention provides a method and apparatus for measuring both the linear displacement and angular displacement of an object using a linear interferometer system and an optical target comprising a lens, a reflective surface and a retroreflector. The lens, reflecting surface and retroreflector are specifically aligned and fixed in optical connection with one another, creating a single optical target which moves as a unit that provides multi-axis displacement information for the object with which it is associated. This displacement information is useful in many applications including machine tool control systems and laser tracker systems, among others.
Linear Stability Analysis of Dynamical Quadratic Gravity
Dimitry Ayzenberg; Kent Yagi; Nicolas Yunes
2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z
We perform a linear stability analysis of dynamical, quadratic gravity in the high-frequency, geometric optics approximation. This analysis is based on a study of gravitational and scalar modes propagating on spherically-symmetric and axially-symmetric, vacuum solutions of the theory. We find dispersion relations that do no lead to exponential growth of the propagating modes, suggesting the theory is linearly stable on these backgrounds. The modes are found to propagate at subluminal and superluminal speeds, depending on the propagating modes' direction relative to the background geometry, just as in dynamical Chern-Simons gravity.
Limitations of controlling oscillators via linear augmentation
Rajat Karnatak
2015-02-15T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper, we will have a look at some examples where linear augmentation is used to control oscillatory systems towards their stationary solutions. The simplicity of linear augmentation is a big positive feature of this scheme but at the same time, questions related to the general applicability of this procedure need to be addressed. This work attempts to demonstrate some control instances where this scheme fails to stabilize the required stationary solutions. Examples from conservative as well as dissipative dynamical systems are presented in this regard and a possible application for dissipative predator--prey dynamics is also discussed.
Linear and non-linear forced response of a conical, ducted, laminar premixed flame
Karimi, Nader; Brear, Michael J.; Jin, Seong-Ho; Monty, Jason P. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Melbourne, Parkville, 3010 Vic. (Australia)
2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z
This paper presents an experimental study on the dynamics of a ducted, conical, laminar premixed flame subjected to acoustic excitation of varying amplitudes. The flame transfer function is measured over a range of forcing frequencies and equivalence ratios. In keeping with previous works, the measured flame transfer function is in good agreement with that predicted by linear kinematic theory at low amplitudes of acoustic velocity excitation. However, a systematic departure from linear behaviour is observed as the amplitude of the velocity forcing upstream of the flame increases. This non-linearity is mostly in the phase of the transfer function and manifests itself as a roughly constant phase at high forcing amplitude. Nonetheless, as predicted by non-linear kinematic arguments, the response always remains close to linear at low forcing frequencies, regardless of the forcing amplitude. The origin of this phase behaviour is then sought through optical data post-processing. (author)
Physics Case for the International Linear Collider
Keisuke Fujii; Christophe Grojean; Michael E. Peskin; Tim Barklow; Yuanning Gao; Shinya Kanemura; Hyungdo Kim; Jenny List; Mihoko Nojiri; Maxim Perelstein; Roman Poeschl; Juergen Reuter; Frank Simon; Tomohiko Tanabe; Jaehoon Yu; James D. Wells; Hitoshi Murayama; Hitoshi Yamamoto
2015-06-26T23:59:59.000Z
We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the key motivations for the ILC presented in the literature, updating the projected measurement uncertainties for the ILC experiments in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of the most recent simulation studies.
Physics Case for the International Linear Collider
Fujii, Keisuke; Peskin, Michael E; Barklow, Tim; Gao, Yuanning; Kanemura, Shinya; Kim, Hyungdo; List, Jenny; Nojiri, Mihoko; Perelstein, Maxim; Poeschl, Roman; Reuter, Juergen; Simon, Frank; Tanabe, Tomohiko; Yu, Jaehoon; Wells, James D; Murayama, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Hitoshi
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
We summarize the physics case for the International Linear Collider (ILC). We review the key motivations for the ILC presented in the literature, updating the projected measurement uncertainties for the ILC experiments in accord with the expected schedule of operation of the accelerator and the results of the most recent simulation studies.
Automatic tuning for linearly tunable filter
Huang, Sung-Ling
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
A new tuning scheme for linearly tunable high-Q filters is proposed. The tuning method is based on using the phase information for both frequency and Q factor tuning. There is no need to find out the relationship between a filter's passband...
Numerical Linear Algebra and Optimization on Facebook
Sidorov, Nikita
Numerical Linear Algebra and Optimization on Facebook: "In a relationship" or "It's complicated indicate their "relationship status" on Facebook (!!!). (I don't need to define Facebook, right?) #12;Facebook is close to ubiquitous (1.2 billion users in March 2014). 556 million people log on to Facebook
Linear Signal Reconstruction from Jittered Sampling
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Linear Signal Reconstruction from Jittered Sampling Alessandro Nordio (1) , Carla jitter, which is based on the analysis of the mean square error (MSE) between the reconstructed sig- nal of digital signal reconstruction as a function of the clock jitter, number of quantization bits, signal
Linearity -statistics 1.1B training
Linearity - statistics IPAT 1.1B training 300M training D0 resolution is evaluated using 100k single muon events (same events in all 3 plots). Red is the default 11L FTK bank trained using 300M muons on narrow beam of muons (central eta, fixed phi, high fixed pT). Using two types of training: default FTK
Robotic Motion The linear algebra of Canadarm
Murty, Ram
Robotic Motion The linear algebra of Canadarm #12;The robot arm simulation The movements of the robotic arm can be described using orthogonal matrices. #12;Six degrees of freedom The first segment the robotic arm to the position (x,y), we need to rotate the first arm by an angle and the second arm
Performance Bounds for Constrained Linear Stochastic Control
Engineering Department Stanford University Workshop on Optimization and Control with Applications, Harbin · numerical examples Workshop on Optimization and Control with Applications, Harbin, June 9 2009 1 #12;Linear is zero mean IID process noise, E wtwT t = W · state feedback control policy: ut = (xt), t = 0, 1
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS WITH REGULARIZATION A DISSERTATION
Hastie, Trevor
GENERALIZED LINEAR MODELS WITH REGULARIZATION A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED TO THE DEPARTMENT Park 2006 All Rights Reserved ii #12;I certify that I have read this dissertation and that, in my opinion, it is fully adequate in scope and quality as a dissertation for the degree of Doctor
Introduction to Statistical Linear Models Spring 2005
of multivariate data and in the language of matrices and vectors. Broad introduction to MATLAB/Octave, R (SSyllabus Introduction to Statistical Linear Models 960:577:01 Spring 2005 Instructor: Farid Statistical Analysis" Fifth edition, Prentice Hall, 2002. Other sources may be required and will be posted
MA265 Linear Algebra — Sample Exam 1
page 1. Purdue University. MA265 Linear Algebra — Sample Exam 1. Date: February 20, 2015 Duration: 50 ... 1. Determine A such that (let-(A). 7 .110 [p. 1100 O r. In. )1 A n 1. \\\\\\\\l_ he zlxrs M. \\11. '01 .... Rep'mr'ata. 1 F'ncl '3“ m muVVnN
Linear-quadratic fractional Gaussian control
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper a control problem for a linear stochastic system driven by a noise process that is an arbitrary zero mean, square integrable stochastic process with continuous sample paths and a cost functional that is quadratic in the system state...
Development of a Novel Linear Magnetostrictive Actuator
Sadighi, Ali
2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z
. ............................................................. 11 Fig. 1.9. Photograph of the extended-range linear magnetostrictive actuator with double-sided three-phase stators. ............................................................................ 12 Fig. 2.1. The overall design process...-D Slab ..........................................................................................39 3.2.2 Stator...........................................................................................................41 ix Page 3.3 Winding...
STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER DIRECTOR'S OFFICE
Wechsler, Risa H.
of these offices not listed here. PART 1: RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM MANAGEMENT RECORDS R&D Program Management records document the basis for research and development program management decisions, direction, policiesSTANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER DIRECTOR'S OFFICE RECORDS CONTROL SCHEDULE SCOPE: This schedule
STANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER RECORDS CONTROL SCHEDULE
Wechsler, Risa H.
to project justification, staffing, initiation, or execution; project management plans, records managementSTANFORD LINEAR ACCELERATOR CENTER PEP-II RECORDS CONTROL SCHEDULE SCOPE: This schedule covers records of the PEP-II project, regardless of format (paper, electronic, magnetic, photographic, etc
Automatic tuning for linearly tunable filter
Huang, Sung-Ling
2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z
A new tuning scheme for linearly tunable high-Q filters is proposed. The tuning method is based on using the phase information for both frequency and Q factor tuning. There is no need to find out the relationship between a filter's passband...
Diabetes Mellitus Glucose Prediction by Linear and
Diabetes Mellitus Glucose Prediction by Linear and Bayesian Ensemble Modeling Fredrik St was diagnosed with diabetes type 1. Being an engineer with a control and systems oriented curriculum I realized of diabetes glucose metabolism, and bringing new hope of technical solutions to support the management
Linear Algebra MATH 110 : 2006-07
Wehlau, David
MATH 110 Linear Algebra MATH 110 : 2006-07 Home Policies Fall Winter WebCT Instructor: G.G. Smith: MATH 111, 112 Lectures: (slot 014) Tuesday, 11:30-12:30 in 210 Walter Light Hall Wednesday, 13:30-14:30 in 210 Walter Light Hall Friday, 12:30-13:30 in 210 Walter Light Hall Tutorials: Wednesday, 8
Algebra Linear -Exercicios resolvidos Exercicio 1
Dias, Esmeralda Sousa
´Algebra Linear - Exerc´icios resolvidos Exerc´icio 1: Sejam E = L({(1, 1, 1), (1, 2, 2)}) e F = L~ao de E F ´e 1. Exerc´icio 2: No espa¸co dos polin´omios reais de grau menor ou igual a 3, P3
Architecture of an Automatic Tuned Linear Algebra
Cuenca, Javier
.... SPt c,z Architecture of a Self-Optimised Linear Algebra Routine (SOLAR) Installation_information n1 Current_network_availability % net1-1 ...%net1-p ... % netP-1 ..%netp-p SOLAR_manager Optimum_AP AP0 Algebra Routine of the library we want to build SOLAR_manager Manages the information and code of SOLAR
APPENDIX 475 C. Some Results from Linear Algebra
Gajic, Zoran
APPENDIX 475 C. Some Results from Linear Algebra Linear algebra plays a very important role some standard and important linear algebra results. Definite Matrices Definition C.1: A square matrix of dimensions 798A@ is the space spanned by vectors B that satisfy CDBFEHG . Systems of Linear Algebraic
Datadriven calibration of linear estimators with minimal penalties
This paper tackles the problem of selecting among several linear estimators in non parametric regression; this includes model selection for linear regression, the choice of a regularization parameter in kernel ridge classification, with linear and non linear predictors [37, 36]. A central issue common to all regularization
Data-driven calibration of linear estimators with minimal penalties
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
This paper tackles the problem of selecting among several linear estimators in non- parametric regression; this includes model selection for linear regression, the choice of a regularization parameter in kernel ridge classification, with linear and non- linear predictors [37, 36]. A central issue common to all regularization
STABILIZING SUPERVISORY CONTROL OF HYBRID SYSTEMS BASED ON PIECEWISE LINEAR
Antsaklis, Panos
STABILIZING SUPERVISORY CONTROL OF HYBRID SYSTEMS BASED ON PIECEWISE LINEAR LYAPUNOV FUNCTIONS1 Lyapunov func- tions. In particular, we consider discrete-time switched linear systems. The control problem of discrete-time piecewise linear hybrid systems is in- vestigated using piecewise linear Lyapunov functions
Controllability of Linear Systems with inner derivation on Lie Groups
Boyer, Edmond
Controllability of Linear Systems with inner derivation on Lie Groups Philippe JOUAN November 2 group of automorphisms. A control-ane system is linear if the drift is linear and the controlled vector groups are stated. The paper ends by many examples. Keywords: Lie groups; Linear systems; controllability
A Linear Programming based Satisfiability solver using a new
Rossi, Francesca
is unsatisfiable or has a satisfying assignment, we solve a linear program. The solution of the linear program a satisfying assignment or a contradiction we solve a linear program. By the above men- tioned lemmaA Linear Programming based Satisfiability solver using a new Horn-driven search tree design Hans
1. INTRODUCTION It is relatively easy to control linear systems.
Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej
of the biggest challenges in modern control theory. While linear control system theory has been well developed1. INTRODUCTION It is relatively easy to control linear systems. Unfortunately, in practice most systems are nonlinear. Some of them can be linearized and use well developed linear control theory
Integer Algorithms to Solver Diophantine Linear Equations and Systems
Florentin Smarandache
2007-11-28T23:59:59.000Z
The present work includes some of the author's original researches on integer solutions of Diophantine liner equations and systems. The notion of "general integer solution" of a Diophantine linear equation with two unknowns is extended to Diophantine linear equations with $n$ unknowns and then to Diophantine linear systems. The proprieties of the general integer solution are determined (both for a Diophantine linear equation and for a Diophantine linear system). Seven original integer algorithms (two for Diophantine linear equations, and five for Diophantine linear systems) are exposed. The algorithms are strictly proved and an example for each of them is given. These algorithms can be easily implemented on the computer.
Towards a Future Linear Collider and The Linear Collider Studies at CERN
None
2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z
During the week 18-22 October, more than 400 physicists will meet at CERN and in the CICG (International Conference Centre Geneva) to review the global progress towards a future linear collider. The 2010 International Workshop on Linear Colliders will study the physics, detectors and accelerator complex of a linear collider covering both the CLIC and ILC options. Among the topics presented and discussed will be the progress towards the CLIC Conceptual Design Report in 2011, the ILC Technical Design Report in 2012, physics and detector studies linked to these reports, and an increasing numbers of common working group activities. The seminar will give an overview of these topics and also CERN?s linear collider studies, focusing on current activities and initial plans for the period 2011-16. n.b: The Council Chamber is also reserved for this colloquium with a live transmission from the Main Auditorium.
Linear tailored gain broad area semiconductor lasers
Lindsey, C.P.; Mehuys, D.; Yariv, A.
1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
Tailored gain semiconductor lasers capable of high-power operation with single-lobed, nearly diffraction limited beamwidths only a few degrees wide have been demonstrated in proton implanted chirped arrays and ''halftone'' broad area lasers. The authors analyze lasers with a linear gain gradient, and obtain analytic approximations for their unsaturated optical eigenmodes. Unlike a uniform array, the fundamental mode of a linear tailored gain laser is the mode at threshold. Mode discrimination may be controlled by lasing the spatial gain gradient. All modes of asymmetric tailored gain waveguides have single-lobed far-field patterns offset from 0/sup 0/. Finally, they utilize tailored gain broad area lasers to make a measurement of the antiguiding parameter, and find b = 2.5 +- 0.5, in agreement with previous results.
Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator
Sampayan, S.E.; Caporaso, G.J.; Kirbie, H.C.
1998-09-22T23:59:59.000Z
A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface. 6 figs.
Partially linear models with unit roots
Juhl, Ted P.; Xiao, Z. J.
2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z
~y tH110021 * H11002 [y tH110021 * !~e t H11002 [e t H11001g~x t !H11002 [g~x t !! Zf t 2 H11001o p ~1!+ PARTIALLY LINEAR MODELS WITH UNIT ROOTS 897 The theorem holds because 1 N 2 ( tH110051 N ~y tH110021 * H11002 [y tH110021 * ! 2 Zf t 2 nE~f 2 !s v... in econometrics+ One type of these models is the following partially linear regression: y t H11005g ' z t H11001g~x t !H11001e t , tH110051,+++,N, (1.1) where g~{! is an unknown real function and g is the vector of unknown param- eters that we want to estimate...
Enhanced dielectric-wall linear accelerator
Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Kirbie, Hugh C. (Dublin, CA)
1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is enhanced by a high-voltage, fast e-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.
Linear source approximation in CASMO5
Ferrer, R.; Rhodes, J. [Studsvik Scandpower, Inc., 504 Shoup Ave., Idaho Falls, ID 83402 (United States); Smith, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Science and Engineering, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)
2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
A Linear Source (LS) approximation has been implemented in the two-dimensional Method of Characteristics (MOC) transport solver in a prototype version of CASMO5. The LS approximation, which relies on the computation of trajectory-based spatial moments over source regions to obtain the linear source expansion coefficients, improves the solution accuracy relative to the 'flat' or constant source approximation. In addition, the LS formulation is capable of treating arbitrarily-shaped source regions and is compatible with standard Coarse-Mesh Finite Difference (CMFD) acceleration. Numerical tests presented in this paper for the C5G7 MOX benchmark show that, for comparable accuracy with respect to the reference solution, the LS approximation can reduce the run time by a factor of four and the memory requirements by a factor often relative to the FS scheme. (authors)
KWIC Index for Numerical Linear Algebra
Carpenter, J.A.
1983-07-01T23:59:59.000Z
This report is a sequel to ORNL/CSD-106 in the ongoing supplements to Professor A.S. Householder's KWIC Index for Numerical Algebra. Beginning with the previous supplement, the subject has been restricted to Numerical Linear Algebra, roughly characterized by the American Mathematical Society's classification sections 15 and 65F but with little coverage of infinite matrices, matrices over fields of characteristics other than zero, operator theory, optimization and those parts of matrix theory primarily combinatorial in nature. Some consideration is given to the uses of graph theory in Numerical Linear Algebra, particularly with respect to algorithms for sparse matrix computations. The period covered by this report is roughly the calendar year 1982 as measured by the appearance of the articles in the American Mathematical Society's Contents of Mathematical Publications lagging actual appearance dates by up to nearly half a year. The review citations are limited to the Mathematical Reviews (MR).
An LED pulser for measuring photomultiplier linearity
Friend, M; Quinn, B
2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A light-emitting diode (LED) pulser for testing the low-rate response of a photomultiplier tube (PMT) to scintillator-like pulses has been designed, developed, and implemented. This pulser is intended to simulate 80 ns full width at half maximum photon pulses over the dynamic range of the PMT, in order to precisely determine PMT linearity. This particular design has the advantage that, unlike many LED test rigs, it does not require the use of multiple calibrated LEDs, making it insensitive to LED gain drifts. Instead, a finite-difference measurement is made using two LEDs which need not be calibrated with respect to one another. These measurements give a better than 1% mapping of the response function, allowing for the testing and development of particularly linear PMT bases.
CLIC e+e- Linear Collider Studies
Dominik Dannheim; Philippe Lebrun; Lucie Linssen; Daniel Schulte; Frank Simon; Steinar Stapnes; Nobukazu Toge; Harry Weerts; James Wells
2012-08-07T23:59:59.000Z
This document provides input from the CLIC e+e- linear collider studies to the update process of the European Strategy for Particle Physics. It is submitted on behalf of the CLIC/CTF3 collaboration and the CLIC physics and detector study. It describes the exploration of fundamental questions in particle physics at the energy frontier with a future TeV-scale e+e- linear collider based on the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) two-beam acceleration technique. A high-luminosity high-energy e+e- collider allows for the exploration of Standard Model physics, such as precise measurements of the Higgs, top and gauge sectors, as well as for a multitude of searches for New Physics, either through direct discovery or indirectly, via high-precision observables. Given the current state of knowledge, following the observation of a \\sim125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, and pending further LHC results at 8 TeV and 14 TeV, a linear e+e- collider built and operated in centre-of-mass energy stages from a few-hundred GeV up to a few TeV will be an ideal physics exploration tool, complementing the LHC. Two example scenarios are presented for a CLIC accelerator built in three main stages of 500 GeV, 1.4 (1.5) TeV, and 3 TeV, together with the layout and performance of the experiments and accompanied by cost estimates. The resulting CLIC physics potential and measurement precisions are illustrated through detector simulations under realistic beam conditions.
Radio frequency quadrupole resonator for linear accelerator
Moretti, Alfred (Downers Grove, IL)
1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
An RFQ resonator for a linear accelerator having a reduced level of interfering modes and producing a quadrupole mode for focusing, bunching and accelerating beams of heavy charged particles, with the construction being characterized by four elongated resonating rods within a cylinder with the rods being alternately shorted and open electrically to the shell at common ends of the rods to provide an LC parallel resonant circuit when activated by a magnetic field transverse to the longitudinal axis.
Generative Story Worlds Linear Logic Programs
Goldstein, Seth Copen
with standard logical implication: buy_soda : has(Alice, $1) ^ wants(Alice, soda) has(Alice, soda) #12;LINEAR LOGIC 13 A -o B #12;14 buy_soda : has(Alice, $1) * wants(Alice, soda) -o has(Alice, soda) #12;15 A * B/murder : anger C C' * anger C C' * anger C C' * anger C C' * at C L * at C' L * has C weapon -o {at C L * !dead C
Linear feature selection for multipopulation classification
Havens, Kathryn Anne
1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
) December 1974 ABSTRACT Linear Feature Selection for Multipopulation Classification. (December 1974) Kathryn A. Havens, B. S. , Lamar University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. L. F. Guseman, Jr. A classification procedure for n...-dimensional normally distributed observation vectors which belong to one of three populations is de- scribed. In particular, a computational procedure is presented for finding a lxn vector B which minimizes the probability of misclassification with respect...
The Next Linear Collider: NLC2001
D. Burke et al.
2002-01-14T23:59:59.000Z
Recent studies in elementary particle physics have made the need for an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider able to reach energies of 500 GeV and above with high luminosity more compelling than ever [1]. Observations and measurements completed in the last five years at the SLC (SLAC), LEP (CERN), and the Tevatron (FNAL) can be explained only by the existence of at least one particle or interaction that has not yet been directly observed in experiment. The Higgs boson of the Standard Model could be that particle. The data point strongly to a mass for the Higgs boson that is just beyond the reach of existing colliders. This brings great urgency and excitement to the potential for discovery at the upgraded Tevatron early in this decade, and almost assures that later experiments at the LHC will find new physics. But the next generation of experiments to be mounted by the world-wide particle physics community must not only find this new physics, they must find out what it is. These experiments must also define the next important threshold in energy. The need is to understand physics at the TeV energy scale as well as the physics at the 100-GeV energy scale is now understood. This will require both the LHC and a companion linear electron-positron collider. A first Zeroth-Order Design Report (ZDR) [2] for a second-generation electron-positron linear collider, the Next Linear Collider (NLC), was published five years ago. The NLC design is based on a high-frequency room-temperature rf accelerator. Its goal is exploration of elementary particle physics at the TeV center-of-mass energy, while learning how to design and build colliders at still higher energies. Many advances in accelerator technologies and improvements in the design of the NLC have been made since 1996. This Report is a brief update of the ZDR.
Direct characterization of linear-optical networks
Saleh Rahimi-Keshari; Matthew A. Broome; Robert Fickler; Alessandro Fedrizzi; Timothy C. Ralph; Andrew G. White
2013-05-31T23:59:59.000Z
We introduce an efficient method for fully characterizing multimode linear-optical networks. Our approach requires only a standard laser source and intensity measurements to directly and uniquely determine all moduli and non-trivial phases of the matrix describing a network. We experimentally demonstrate the characterization of a $6{\\times}6$ fiber-optic network and independently verify the results via nonclassical two-photon interference.
Aleks Kleyn
2015-05-08T23:59:59.000Z
Module is effective representation of ring in Abelian group. Linear map of module over commutative ring is morphism of corresponding representation. This definition is the main subject of the book. To consider this definition from more general point of view I started the book from consideration of Cartesian product of representations. Polymorphism of representations is a map of Cartesian product of representations which is a morphism of representations with respect to each separate independent variable. Reduced morphism of representations allows us to simplify the study of morphisms of representations. However a representation has to satisfy specific requirements for existence of reduced polymomorphism of representations. It is possible that Abelian group is only $\\Omega$-algebra, such that representation in this algebra admits polymorphism of representations. However, today, this statement has not been proved. Multiplicative $\\Omega$-group is $\\Omega$-algebra in which product is defined. The definition of tensor product of representations of Abelian multiplicative $\\Omega$-group is based on properties of reduced polymorphism of representations of Abelian multiplicative $\\Omega$-group. Since an algebra is a module in which the product is defined, then we can use this theory to study linear map of algebra. For instance, we can study the set of linear transformations of $D$-algebra $A$ as representation of algebra $A\\otimes A$ in algebra $A$.
Damage Identification with Linear Discriminant Operators
Farrar, C.R.; Nix, D.A.; Duffey, T.A.; Cornwell, P.J.; Pardoen, G.C.
1999-02-08T23:59:59.000Z
This paper explores the application of statistical pattern recognition and machine learning techniques to vibration-based damage detection. First, the damage detection process is described in terms of a problem in statistical pattern recognition. Next, a specific example of a statistical-pattern-recognition-based damage detection process using a linear discriminant operator, ''Fisher's Discriminant'', is applied to the problem of identifying structural damage in a physical system. Accelerometer time histories are recorded from sensors attached to the system as that system is excited using a measured input. Linear Prediction Coding (LPC) coefficients are utilized to convert the accelerometer time-series data into multi-dimensional samples representing the resonances of the system during a brief segment of the time series. Fisher's discriminant is then used to find the linear projection of the LPC data distributions that best separates data from undamaged and damaged systems. The method i s applied to data from concrete bridge columns as the columns are progressively damaged. For this case, the method captures a clear distinction between undamaged and damaged vibration profiles. Further, the method assigns a probability of damage that can be used to rank systems in order of priority for inspection.
Tunnel current across linear homocatenated germanium chains
Matsuura, Yukihito, E-mail: matsuura@chem.nara-k.ac.jp [Department of Chemical Engineering, Nara National College of Technology Yatacho 22, Yamato-koriyama, Nara 539-1080 (Japan)
2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z
The electronic transport properties of germanium oligomers catenating into linear chains (linear Ge chains) have been theoretically studied using first principle methods. The conduction mechanism of a Ge chain sandwiched between gold electrodes was analyzed based on the density of states and the eigenstates of the molecule in a two-probe environment. Like that of silicon chains (Si chains), the highest occupied molecular orbital of Ge chains contains the extended ?-conjugation of Ge 4p orbitals at energy levels close to the Fermi level; this is in contrast to the electronic properties of linear carbon chains. Furthermore, the conductance of a Ge chain is expected to decrease exponentially with molecular length L. The decay constant ?, which is defined as e{sup ??L}, of a Ge chain is similar to that of a Si chain, whereas the conductance of the Ge chains is higher than that of Si chains even though the Ge–Ge bond length is longer than the Si–Si bond length.
Linear Collider Physics Resource Book Snowmass 2001
Ronan (Editor), M.T.
2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z
The American particle physics community can look forward to a well-conceived and vital program of experimentation for the next ten years, using both colliders and fixed target beams to study a wide variety of pressing questions. Beyond 2010, these programs will be reaching the end of their expected lives. The CERN LHC will provide an experimental program of the first importance. But beyond the LHC, the American community needs a coherent plan. The Snowmass 2001 Workshop and the deliberations of the HEPAP subpanel offer a rare opportunity to engage the full community in planning our future for the next decade or more. A major accelerator project requires a decade from the beginning of an engineering design to the receipt of the first data. So it is now time to decide whether to begin a new accelerator project that will operate in the years soon after 2010. We believe that the world high-energy physics community needs such a project. With the great promise of discovery in physics at the next energy scale, and with the opportunity for the uncovering of profound insights, we cannot allow our field to contract to a single experimental program at a single laboratory in the world. We believe that an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider is an excellent choice for the next major project in high-energy physics. Applying experimental techniques very different from those used at hadron colliders, an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider will allow us to build on the discoveries made at the Tevatron and the LHC, and to add a level of precision and clarity that will be necessary to understand the physics of the next energy scale. It is not necessary to anticipate specific results from the hadron collider programs to argue for constructing an e{sup +}e{sup -} linear collider; in any scenario that is now discussed, physics will benefit from the new information that e{sup +}e{sup -} experiments can provide. This last point merits further emphasis. If a new accelerator could be designed and built in a few years, it would make sense to wait for the results of each accelerator before planning the next one. Thus, we would wait for the results from the Tevatron before planning the LHC experiments, and wait for the LHC before planning any later stage. In reality accelerators require a long time to construct, and they require such specialized resources and human talent that delay can cripple what would be promising opportunities. In any event, we believe that the case for the linear collider is so compelling and robust that we can justify this facility on the basis of our current knowledge, even before the Tevatron and LHC experiments are done. The physics prospects for the linear collider have been studied intensively for more than a decade, and arguments for the importance of its experimental program have been developed from many different points of view. This book provides an introduction and a guide to this literature. We hope that it will allow physicists new to the consideration of linear collider physics to start from their own personal perspectives and develop their own assessments of the opportunities afforded by a linear collider.
Rotary-linear axes for high speed machining
Liebman, Michael Kevin, 1974-
2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents the design, analysis, fabrication, and control of a rotary-linear axis; this axis is a key subsystem for high speed, 5-axis machine tools intended for fabricating centimeter-scale parts. The rotary-linear ...
A Bayesian Approach to Empirical Local Linearization For Robotics
Ting, Jo-Anne; D'Souza, Aaron; Vijayakumar, Sethu; Schaal, Stefan
2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Local linearizations are ubiquitous in the control of robotic systems. Analytical methods, if available, can be used to obtain the linearization, but in complex robotics systems where the dynamics and kinematics are ...
Repetitive Control of a Novel Linear Magnetostrictive Actuator
Zhu, Ruikang
2014-08-10T23:59:59.000Z
This thesis presents the repetitive control (RC) design of a novel linear magnetostrictive actuator. A repetitive controller is developed and tested on a novel linear magnetostrictive actuator to improve the tracking accuracy of the actuator to a...
Controller Synthesis of Discrete Linear Plants Using MATTEO SLANINA
Sankaranarayanan, Sriram
Controller Synthesis of Discrete Linear Plants Using Polyhedra MATTEO SLANINA Stanford University controllers for linear discrete systems with disturbances. Given a plant description and a safety We study techniques for synthesizing synchronous controllers for affine plants with disturbances
Trajectory Optimization using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming
Trajectory Optimization using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming by Arthur George Richards Master Optimization using Mixed-Integer Linear Programming by Arthur George Richards Submitted to the Department subjected to avoidance and assignment requirements. The former include avoidance of collisions
Noncommercial Software for Mixed-Integer Linear Programming
2004-12-23T23:59:59.000Z
Dec 23, 2004 ... A mixed-integer linear program (MILP) is a mathematical program with linear ...... In addition to defining new template classes of constraints and .... This management must be performed by all MILP solvers, but it can be ...
Thoughts on Incorporating HPRF in a Linear Cooling Channel
Gallardo, Juan C.
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), in.of using HPRF in a linear cooling channel. A hybrid channelHPRF In A Linear Cooling Channel Juan C. Gallardo a and
Physics at the International Linear Collider
J. List
2006-05-18T23:59:59.000Z
The International Linear Collider (ILC) is the next large project in accelerator based particle physics. It is complementary to the LHC in many aspects. Measurements from both machines together will finally shed light onto the known deficiencies of the Standard Model of particle physics and allow to unveil a possible underlying more fundamental theory. Here, the possibilities of the ILC will be discussed with special emphasis on the Higgs sector and on topics with a strong connection to cosmological questions like extra dimensions or dark matter candidates.
Positron Polarization at the International Linear Collider
P. Osland; N. Paver
2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z
We review some recent arguments supporting the upgrade of the International Linear Collider by a polarized positron beam, in addition to the polarized electron beam. The examples presented here mainly focus on the impact of positron polarization on items relevant to new physics searches, such as the identification of novel interactions in fermion-pair production and the formulation of new CP-sensitive observables. In particular, in addition to the benefits from positron and electron longitudinal polarizations, the advantages in this field of having transverse polarization of both beams are emphasized.
Beyond linear gyrocenter polarization in gyrokinetic theory
Brizard, Alain J. [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Saint Michael's College, Colchester, Vermont 05439 (United States)
2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z
The concept of polarization in gyrokinetic theory is clarified and generalized to include contributions from the guiding-center (zeroth-order) polarization as well as the nonlinear (second-order) gyrocenter polarization. The guiding-center polarization, which appears as the antecedent (zeroth-order) of the standard linear (first-order) gyrocenter polarization, is obtained from a modified guiding-center transformation. The nonlinear gyrocenter polarization is derived either variationally from the third-order gyrocenter Hamiltonian or directly by gyrocenter push-forward method.
Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing
Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM)
1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.
Microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion trap
Mangan, Michael A. (Albuquerque, NM); Blain, Matthew G. (Albuquerque, NM); Tigges, Chris P. (Albuquerque, NM); Linker, Kevin L. (Albuquerque, NM)
2011-04-19T23:59:59.000Z
An array of microfabricated linear Paul-Straubel ion traps can be used for mass spectrometric applications. Each ion trap comprises two parallel inner RF electrodes and two parallel outer DC control electrodes symmetric about a central trap axis and suspended over an opening in a substrate. Neighboring ion traps in the array can share a common outer DC control electrode. The ions confined transversely by an RF quadrupole electric field potential well on the ion trap axis. The array can trap a wide array of ions.
Sums in linear algebraic lambda-calculus
Díaz-Caro, Alejandro
2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In this paper we define the confluent additive fragment of the linear-algebraic lambda-calculus. We also define a fine-grained type system which includes sums of types as a reflection of those in the terms. After proving the subject reduction and strong normalisation properties, we study the role of sums within the calculus by interpreting our system into System F with pairs. We show that this calculus can be interpreted as System F with an associative and commutative pair constructor, which is distributive under application.
Parallel ion strings in linear multipole traps
Mathieu Marciante; Caroline Champenois; J. Pedregosa-Gutierrez; Annette Calisti; Martina Knoop
2011-03-13T23:59:59.000Z
Additional radio-frequency (rf) potentials applied to linear multipole traps create extra field nodes in the radial plane which allow one to confine single ions, or strings of ions, in totally rf field-free regions. The number of nodes depends on the order of the applied multipole potentials and their relative distance can be easily tuned by the amplitude variation of the applied voltages. Simulations using molecular dynamics show that strings of ions can be laser cooled down to the Doppler limit in all directions of space. Once cooled, organized systems can be moved with very limited heating, even if the cooling process is turned off.
Physics at the $e^+ e^-$ Linear Collider
DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)
Moortgat-Picka, G.; Kronfeld, A. S.
2015-08-14T23:59:59.000Z
A comprehensive review of physics at an e+e? linear collider in the energy range of s?=92 GeV–3 TeV is presented in view of recent and expected LHC results, experiments from low-energy as well as astroparticle physics. The report focusses in particular on Higgs-boson, top-quark and electroweak precision physics, but also discusses several models of beyond the standard model physics such as supersymmetry, little Higgs models and extra gauge bosons. The connection to cosmology has been analysed as well.
Linearized Non-Minimal Higher Curvature Supergravity
Farakos, Fotis; Koutrolikos, Konstantinos
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
In the framework of linearized non-minimal supergravity (20/20), we present the embedding of the $R + R^2$ model and we analyze its field spectrum. As usual, the auxiliary fields of the Einstein theory now become propagating, giving rise to additional degrees of freedom, which organize themselves into on-shell irreducible supermultiplets. By performing the analysis both in component and superspace formulations we identify the new supermultiplets. On top of the two massive chiral superfields reminiscent of the old-minimal supergravity embedding, the spectrum contains also a consistent physical, massive, vector supermultiplet and a tachyonic ghost, massive, vector supermultiplet.
Linearized Non-Minimal Higher Curvature Supergravity
Fotis Farakos; Alex Kehagias; Konstantinos Koutrolikos
2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z
In the framework of linearized non-minimal supergravity (20/20), we present the embedding of the $R + R^2$ model and we analyze its field spectrum. As usual, the auxiliary fields of the Einstein theory now become propagating, giving rise to additional degrees of freedom, which organize themselves into on-shell irreducible supermultiplets. By performing the analysis both in component and superspace formulations we identify the new supermultiplets. On top of the two massive chiral superfields reminiscent of the old-minimal supergravity embedding, the spectrum contains also a consistent physical, massive, vector supermultiplet and a tachyonic ghost, massive, vector supermultiplet.
Szyszka, A., E-mail: szyszka@ihp-microelectronics.com, E-mail: adam.szyszka@pwr.wroc.pl [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Faculty of Microsystem Electronics and Photonics, Wroclaw University of Technology, Janiszewskiego 11/17, 50-372 Wroclaw (Poland); Lupina, L.; Lupina, G.; Schubert, M. A.; Zaumseil, P. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B. [Siltronic, Hanns-Seidel-Platz 4, 81737 München (Germany); Schroeder, T. [IHP, Im Technologiepark 25, 15236 Frankfurt (Oder) (Germany); BTU Cottbus-Senftenberg, Konrad-Zuse-Strasse 1, 03046 Cottbus (Germany)
2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z
Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated that—with respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBR—the insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.
Druid, displaying root module used for linear collider detectors
Ruan, M
2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z
Based on the ROOT TEve/TGeo classes and the standard linear collider data structure, a dedicated linear collider event display has been developed. It supports the latest detector models for both International Linear Collider and Compact Linear Collider as well as the CALICE test beam prototypes. It can be used to visualise event information at the generation, simulation and reconstruction levels. Many options are provided in an intuitive interface. It has been heavily employed in a variety of analyses.
Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps
Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]
Below is the text-alternative version of the "LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps" webcast, held June 20, 2011.
Exploiting separability in large-scale linear support vector machine ...
2009-04-20T23:59:59.000Z
Aug 7, 2007 ... universum classification, ordinal regression and ?-insensitive regression. .... ear, quadratic and non-linear optimization programmes.
A Dynamic Near-Optimal Algorithm for Online Linear Programming
Ye, Yinyu
-time forward dynamic pricing for PEVs charging/discharging on smart-grid; Yinyu Ye Online Linear Program 2009
Efficient scalable algorithms for solving dense linear systems with ...
2013-12-11T23:59:59.000Z
superfast direct solvers for both dense and sparse linear systems. ... Introduction. .... parallel HSS algorthms, taking into account communication latency and ...
Kernel Density Based Linear Regression Estimate and Zhibiao Zhao
Zhao, Zhibiao
Kernel Density Based Linear Regression Estimate Weixin Yao and Zhibiao Zhao Abstract For linear regression models with non-normally distributed errors, the least squares estimate (LSE) will lose some words: EM algorithm, Kernel density estimate, Least squares estimate, Linear regression, Maximum
Non-linear regression models for Approximate Bayesian Computation
Robert, Christian P.
Non-linear regression models for Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) Michael Blum Olivier ABC #12;Blum and OF (2009) suggest the use of non-linear conditional heteroscedastic regression models) Linear regression-based ABC can sometimes be improved #12;abc of ABC Using stochastic simulations
PROBABILISTIC AUTO-ASSOCIATIVE MODELS AND SEMI-LINEAR PCA
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
to this family of approaches, non-linear transformation of the original data set [7, 3] too. The auto-associative neural networks can also be view as a non-linear PCA model [2, 27, 4, 19]. In [13] we propose the auto that the projection function is linear and let the regression function be arbitrary. We call the resulting AAM
Math 261A -Spring 2012 M. Bremer Multiple Linear Regression
Keinan, Alon
called non-linear regression models or polynomial regression models, as the regression curveMath 261A - Spring 2012 M. Bremer Multiple Linear Regression So far, we have seen the concept of simple linear regression where a single predictor variable X was used to model the response variable Y
STATISTICAL MODEL OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS: LINEAR ERROR MODEL
Rudnyi, Evgenii B.
to apply. The algorithm to maximize a likelihood function in the case of a non-linear physico - the same variances of errors 3.1. One-way classification 3.2. Linear regression 4. Real case (vaporizationSTATISTICAL MODEL OF SYSTEMATIC ERRORS: LINEAR ERROR MODEL E.B. Rudnyi Department of Chemistry
Transforming A Linear Algebra Core to An FFT Accelerator
Batory, Don
Transforming A Linear Algebra Core to An FFT Accelerator Ardavan Pedram, John McCalpin, Andreas the modifications required to transform a highly-efficient, specialized linear algebra core into an efficient engine computations and propose extensions to the micro-architecture of the baseline linear algebra core. Along
Evolutionary Non-linear Great Deluge for University Course Timetabling
Landa-Silva, Dario
Evolutionary Non-linear Great Deluge for University Course Timetabling Dario Landa-Silva and Joe-linear great deluge algorithm in which evolutionary opera- tors are incorporated. First, we generate of the evo- lutionary operators. Our results show that the hybrid between non-linear great deluge
Boundary approximate controllability of some linear parabolic April 5, 2013
Paris-Sud XI, Université de
Boundary approximate controllability of some linear parabolic systems April 5, 2013 Guillaume Olive controllability of two classes of linear parabolic systems, namely a system of n heat equations coupled through are the only ones concerning the boundary controllability of linear parabolic systems of heat-type. For more
Control structures in linear and stack-based Genetic Programming
Fernandez, Thomas
Control structures in linear and stack-based Genetic Programming Elko B. Tchernev and Dhananjay S condition, the if and else sections, etc.) are all subtrees of the flow- control node. Linear and stack implementation issues in linear and stack-based GP. A set of flow- control nodes is presented, and examples given
HIERARCHICAL CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF UNCERTAIN PIECEWISE LINEAR HYBRID
Antsaklis, Panos
HIERARCHICAL CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF UNCERTAIN PIECEWISE LINEAR HYBRID DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS Hai Lin ,1 for illustration. Keywords: Hybrid Systems, Piecewise Linear Systems, Hierarchical Control, Uncertainty 1, X.D. Koutsoukos and P.J. Antsaklis, "Hierarchical Control for A Class of Uncertain Piecewise Linear
LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS OVER ORE ALGEBRAS: EFFECTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR
Robertz, Daniel
LINEAR CONTROL SYSTEMS OVER ORE ALGEBRAS: EFFECTIVE ALGORITHMS FOR THE COMPUTATION@momo.math.rwth-aachen.de. Abstract: In this paper, we study linear control systems over Ore algebras. Within this mathematical framework, we can simultaneously deal with different classes of linear control systems such as time
HIERARCHICAL CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF UNCERTAIN PIECEWISE LINEAR HYBRID
Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.
HIERARCHICAL CONTROL FOR A CLASS OF UNCERTAIN PIECEWISE LINEAR HYBRID DYNAMICAL SYSTEMS Hai Lin ,1 for illustration. Keywords: Hybrid Systems, Piecewise Linear Systems, Hierarchical Control, Uncertainty 1 of the appropriate controller. In this paper we consider uncertain piecewise linear hybrid dynamical systems
Upcoming Numerical Linear Algebra Issues in Systems and Control Theory
Upcoming Numerical Linear Algebra Issues in Systems and Control Theory Paul Van Dooren University in the interdisciplinary area of numerical linear algebra and systems and control theory. Although we do not claimto, and normalized coprime factorizations in robust control. Key words. Numerical algorithms, linear algebra, sparse
Nonlinear Flight Control Using Neural Networks and Feedback Linearization
Nonlinear Flight Control Using Neural Networks and Feedback Linearization Byoung So0 Kim1, Anthony approaches to aircraft flight control involve linearization of these dynamicsabout a set of pre eliminate many of the undesirable features of linear control. Control of nonlinear systems by inverting
Linearization of affine connection control system David R. Tyner
Lewis, Andrew D.
Linearization of affine connection control system David R. Tyner 22/09/2002 Abstract A simple system. If these systems are underactuated then they do not provide a control- lable linearization about their equilibrium points. Without a controllable linearization it is not entirely clear how one should deriving
Optimal linear control systems with input derivative constraints
Moore, John Barratt
. Optimal linear control systems with input derivative constraints J. B. Moore, Ph. D., and Prof. B-loss-function minimisation problem is linear. The "paper applies the results of this optimal control theory to a class of performance desired. For linear, finite-dimensional, completely controllable systems, Kalmanl has shown
Adaptive continuous-time linear quadratic Gaussian control
Duncan, Tyrone E.; Guo, L.; Pasik-Duncan, Bozenna
1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z
The adaptive linear quadratic Gaussian control problem, where the linear transformation of the state A and the linear transformation of the control B are unknown, is solved assuming only that (A, B) is controllable and (A, Q(1)(1/2)) is observable...
Stability and Controllability of Planar, Conewise Linear Systems
Broucke, Mireille E.
Stability and Controllability of Planar, Conewise Linear Systems Ari Arapostathis a,2 and Mireille and controllability of piecewise-linear systems defined on a conic partition of R2. This includes necessary. Key words: switched systems, piecewise linear systems, stability, controllability 1 Introduction
Effect of linear lumping on controllability and observability
TÃ³th, JÃ¡nos
Effect of linear lumping on controllability and observability ZsÂ´ofia HorvÂ´ath October 2006 Email to reduce the number of state variables on controllability and observability of linear differential the effect of linear lumping on such properties of the system as controllability and observability and apply
Upcoming Numerical Linear Algebra Issues in Systems and Control Theory
Upcoming Numerical Linear Algebra Issues in Systems and Control Theory Paul Van Dooren University in the interdisciplinary area of numerical linear algebra and systems and control theory. Although we do not claim, and normalized coprime factorizations in robust control. Key words. Numerical algorithms, linear algebra, sparse
Infinite-dimensional linear systems: a distributional approach
Opmeer, Mark
resolvent linear system and solve the linear quadratic optimal control problem for this class of systems contributions to the linear quadratic optimal control problem for operators on infinite-dimensional spaces. We quadratic optimal control problem on a finite time horizon for this class 1 #12;of systems. The infinite
FREQUENCY SHAPED LINEAR OPTIMAL CONTROL WXTH TRANSFER FUNCTION RICCATI EQUATIONS*
Moore, John Barratt
and numerical tool in optimal control problems associated with linear systems having state space descriptions optimal controllers for known multivariable linear stochastic systems. There are some inherent robustnessFREQUENCY SHAPED LINEAR OPTIMAL CONTROL WXTH TRANSFER FUNCTION RICCATI EQUATIONS* John B. Moore** D
Efficiency Mapping for a Linear Hydraulic-Actuator
Manring, Noah D.
Efficiency Mapping for a Linear Hydraulic-Actuator Noah D. Manring Mechanical and Aerospace at generating an efficiency map for a linear hydraulic-actuator that is controlled using an open-centered 4- way- ing the efficiency improvements that may be gained for linear hydraulic-actuators that use this type