National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for line switch replacements

  1. Forties oil line replacement overcomes sandwave challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steel, W.J.M.; Imglis, R. )

    1991-03-06

    A major new 36-in., oil-export pipeline has been installed in the North Sea between the Forties field and Cruden Bay on the U.K. mainland. Designing and installing the line involved solving problems caused by sandwaves in the nearshore segment of the route. The Forties pipeline system covers offshore and land pipelines between the Forties field and the Firth of Forth tanker loading terminal and incorporates oil transportation, stabilization-gas separation, processing, and storage. The pipeline is used as part of an integrated oil and gas liquid gathering system from the central North Sea. Oil and gas liquids from other offshore fields are connected by subsea pipelines and riser to the Forties Charlie platform. Inspection of the existing 32-in. offshore pipeline had indicated signs of corrosion which would prevent the system from operating economically as future demands increased. In addition, when the line was commissioned in 1975, it was not envisioned that it would eventually carry crude from several other fields, which will come onstream this decade. The decision to lay a new 36-in. sealine reflects this need for increased capacity to ensure that the Forties pipeline system continues as a major carrier of oil and gas liquids well into the next century. Corrosion monitoring and inspection of the 32-in. line led to sections of the topside pipework being replaced in 1985 and the top section of the rise in 1987. The corrosion also resulted in the pipeline maximum allowable operating pressure (MAOP) being limited to 115 barg (1,668 psig) from 129 barg (1,871 psig).

  2. Replacement of alloy 800H superheated steam line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbier, R.A.; Bullock, J.W. [Sterling Chemicals, Texas City, TX (United States)

    1996-07-01

    Sterling Chemicals utilizes alloy 800HT (UNS N08811) piping for superheated steam service in its styrene dehydrogenation unit. An engineering project to replace these lines was recently completed. Material acquisition, shop fabrication, inspection requirements, and field erection will be highlighted in this paper.

  3. Multi-line triggering and interdigitated electrode structure for photoconductive semiconductor switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-02-06

    An improved photoconductive semiconductor switch comprises multiple-line optical triggering of multiple, high-current parallel filaments between the switch electrodes. The switch can also have a multi-gap, interdigitated electrode for the generation of additional parallel filaments. Multi-line triggering can increase the switch lifetime at high currents by increasing the number of current filaments and reducing the current density at the contact electrodes in a controlled manner. Furthermore, the improved switch can mitigate the degradation of switching conditions with increased number of firings of the switch.

  4. EA-1679: Grand Coulee's Third Powerplant 500-kV Transmission Line Replacement Project, Grant and Okanogon Counties, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates potential environmental impacts from the construction and operation of six new 500-kV overhead transmission lines to replace six existing underground lines at Grand Coulee Dam. DOE’s Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), a cooperating agency, was asked by the U. S. Department of the Interior’s Bureau of Reclamation to design and construct the proposed new transmission lines. A Finding of No Significant Impact was issued by BPA in December 2011.

  5. On-line PWR RHR pump performance testing following motor and impeller replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiMarzo, J.T.

    1996-12-01

    On-line maintenance and replacement of safety-related pumps requires the performance of an inservice test to determine and confirm the operational readiness of the pumps. In 1995, major maintenance was performed on two Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) Residual Heat Removal (RHR) Pumps. A refurbished spare motor was overhauled with a new mechanical seal, new motor bearings and equipped with pump`s `B` impeller. The spare was installed into the `B` train. The motor had never been run in the system before. A pump performance test was developed to verify it`s operational readiness and determine the in-situ pump performance curve. Since the unit was operating, emphasis was placed on conducting a highly accurate pump performance test that would ensure that it satisfied the NSSS vendors accident analysis minimum acceptance curve. The design of the RHR System allowed testing of one train while the other was aligned for normal operation. A test flow path was established from the Refueling Water Storage Tank (RWST) through the pump (under test) and back to the RWST. This allowed staff to conduct a full flow range pump performance test. Each train was analyzed and an expression developed that included an error vector term for the TDH (ft), pressure (psig), and flow rate (gpm) using the variance error vector methodology. This method allowed the engineers to select a test instrumentation system that would yield accurate readings and minimal measurement errors, for data taken in the measurement of TDH (P,Q) versus Pump Flow Rate (Q). Test results for the `B` Train showed performance well in excess of the minimum required. The motor that was originally in the `B` train was similarly overhauled and equipped with `A` pump`s original impeller, re-installed in the `A` train, and tested. Analysis of the `A` train results indicate that the RHR pump`s performance was also well in excess of the vendors requirements.

  6. Switch Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Switch Switch Run end at 6pm at 6pm at 6am 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue ...

  7. Triggered plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1988-01-01

    A triggerable opening switch for a very high voltage and current pulse includes a transmission line extending from a source to a load and having an intermediate switch section including a plasma for conducting electrons between transmission line conductors and a magnetic field for breaking the plasma conduction path and magnetically insulating the electrons when it is desired to open the switch.

  8. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, Bernard T.; Dreifuerst, Gary R.

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  9. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  10. Switch wear leveling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Hunter; Sealy, Kylee; Gilchrist, Aaron

    2015-09-01

    An apparatus for switch wear leveling includes a switching module that controls switching for two or more pairs of switches in a switching power converter. The switching module controls switches based on a duty cycle control technique and closes and opens each switch in a switching sequence. The pairs of switches connect to a positive and negative terminal of a DC voltage source. For a first switching sequence a first switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than a second switch of the pair of switches. The apparatus includes a switch rotation module that changes the switching sequence of the two or more pairs of switches from the first switching sequence to a second switching sequence. The second switch of a pair of switches has a higher switching power loss than the first switch of the pair of switches during the second switching sequence.

  11. Optical Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    seven wonders / optical switch Optical Switch A key component in the laser chain, an optical switch called a plasma electrode Pockels cell (PEPC), was invented and developed at LLNL. A Pockels cell rotates the polarization of a laser beam when a voltage is applied across an electro-optic crystal. Depending on the voltage applied, the Pockels cell either allows light to pass through or to reflect off a polarizer, creating an optical switch. For each of NIF's 192 beamlines, a PEPC allows the laser

  12. Optical switches and switching methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doty, Michael

    2008-03-04

    A device and method for collecting subject responses, particularly during magnetic imaging experiments and testing using a method such as functional MRI. The device comprises a non-metallic input device which is coupled via fiber optic cables to a computer or other data collection device. One or more optical switches transmit the subject's responses. The input device keeps the subject's fingers comfortably aligned with the switches by partially immobilizing the forearm, wrist, and/or hand of the subject. Also a robust nonmetallic switch, particularly for use with the input device and methods for optical switching.

  13. Plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, Mark E.; Mendel, Jr., Clifford W.

    2001-01-01

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  14. ION SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, B.

    1959-02-10

    An ion switch capable of transferring large magnitudes of power is described. An ion switch constructed in accordance with the invention includes a pair of spaced control electrodes disposed in a highly evacuated region for connection in a conventional circuit to control the passing of power therethrough. A controllable ionic conduction path is provided directiy between the control electrodes by a source unit to close the ion switch. Conventional power supply means are provided to trigger the source unit and control the magnitude, durations and pulse repetition rate of the aforementioned ionic conduction path.

  15. ARRANGEMENT FOR REPLACING FILTERS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blomgren, R.A.; Bohlin, N.J.C.

    1957-08-27

    An improved filtered air exhaust system which may be continually operated during the replacement of the filters without the escape of unfiltered air is described. This is accomplished by hermetically sealing the box like filter containers in a rectangular tunnel with neoprene covered sponge rubber sealing rings coated with a silicone impregnated pneumatic grease. The tunnel through which the filters are pushed is normal to the exhaust air duct. A number of unused filters are in line behind the filters in use, and are moved by a hydraulic ram so that a fresh filter is positioned in the air duct. The used filter is pushed into a waiting receptacle and is suitably disposed. This device permits a rapid and safe replacement of a radiation contaminated filter without interruption to the normal flow of exhaust air.

  16. Line Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grand Coulee Transmission Line Replacement Project Hooper Springs McNary-John Day Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project - M2W Olympia-Grand Coulee No. 1...

  17. Acceleration switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Devaney, H.F.; Hake, L.W.

    1979-08-29

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  18. Acceleration switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Devaney, Howard F.; Hake, Lewis W.

    1982-08-17

    The disclosure relates to an improved integrating acceleration switch of the type having a mass suspended within a fluid filled chamber, with the motion of the mass initially opposed by a spring and subsequently not so opposed.

  19. Acceleration switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, J.P. Jr.; Middleton, J.N.; Schildknecht, H.E.

    1979-08-20

    An improved acceleration switch is described which is of the type having a mass suspended within a chamber, having little fluid damping at low g levels and high fluid damping at high g levels.

  20. Acceleration switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abbin, Jr., Joseph P.; Middleton, John N.; Schildknecht, Harold E.

    1981-01-01

    The disclosure relates to an improved acceleration switch, of the type having a mass suspended within a chamber, having little fluid damping at low g levels and high fluid damping at high g levels.

  1. B Plant process piping replacement feasibility study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howden, G.F.

    1996-02-07

    Reports on the feasibility of replacing existing embedded process piping with new more corrosion resistant piping between cells and between cells and a hot pipe trench of a Hanford Site style canyon facility. Provides concepts for replacement piping installation, and use of robotics to replace the use of the canyon crane as the primary means of performing/supporting facility modifications (eg, cell lining, pipe replacement, equipment reinstallation) and operational maintenenace.

  2. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    An optical switching device (10) is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber (16) or a second glass fiber (14) may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber (18). Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system (26, 28, 30). In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber (16) is reflected by a planar mirror (36) into the third glass fiber (18). In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber (14) passes directly into the third glass fiber (18). The planar mirror (36) is attached to a rotatable table (32) which is rotated to provide the optical switching.

  3. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  4. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and ...

  5. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle ...

  6. THYRATRON SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Creveling, R.; Bourgeois, N.A. Jr.

    1959-04-21

    An arrangement for utilizing a thyratron as a noise free switch is described. It has been discovered that the voltage between plate and cathode of a thyratron will oscillate, producing voltage spikes, if the tube carries only a fraction of its maximum rated current. These voltage spikes can produce detrimental effects where the thyratron is used in critical timing circuits. To alleviate this problem the disclosed circuit provides a charged capacitor and a resistor in parallel with the tube and of such value that the maximum current will flow from the capacitor through the thyratron when it is triggered. During this time the signal current is conducted through the tube, before the thyratron voltage starts to oscillate, and the signal current output is free of noise spikes.

  7. Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under the Energy Replacement Generation Tax Exemption, the following facilities are exempt from the replacement tax:

  8. Interconnecting network for switching data packets and method for switching data packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, Alan Frederic; Minkenberg, Cyriel Johan Agnes; Stunkel, Craig Brian

    2010-05-25

    The interconnecting network for switching data packets, having data and flow control information, comprises a local packet switch element (S1) with local input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, a remote packet switch element (S2) with remote input buffers (I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, and data lines (L) for interconnecting the local and the remote packet switch elements (S1, S2). The interconnecting network further comprises a local and a remote arbiter (A1, A2) which are connected via control lines (CL) to the input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y), I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)), and which are formed such that they can provide that the flow control information is transmitted via the data lines (L) and the control lines (CL).

  9. Latching relay switch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes at least one permanent magnet and at least one electromagnet. The respective sections are, generally, arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch is latched by a permanent magnet assembly and selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly.

  10. Ion replacement electrorefining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willit, J.L.; Tomczuk, Z.; Miller, W.E.; Laidler, J.J.

    1994-04-01

    We are developing a two-step electrochemical process for purifying and separating metals called ion replacement electrorefining. In each step, metal cations formed by oxidation at an electrode replace other metal cations that are reduced at another elecmae. Using this approach, we have separated or purified uranium, dysprosium, and lanthanum on a laboratory scale. This paper explains the ion replacement concept and presents results of these demonstration experiments.

  11. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-03-06

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  12. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1990-01-01

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  13. Nashville Gas treads carefully to replace pipe

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-06-01

    The private gas utility, Nashville Gas, was responsible for replacing damaged or inadequate 2- and 4-inch steel gas lines beneath Music City, USA. The line replacements required either size for size or upsizing. The first choice was directional drilling, which was quickly determined to be unpractical because of rocky soil conditions. The second option was open trenching. Undoubtedly, trenching would mean having to contend with angry residents and tourists, since gas lines ran beneath yards, mature trees, sidewalks, roadways, and railways. In addition to the negative social factors, trenching would require additional funds for substantial landscaping and pavement replacement. It at all possible, a no-dig alternative was desired. Nashville Gas found Grundomat piercing tools which create a bore, then pushes pipe back through it. These same tools can simultaneously pull in pipe. These tools were customized for the Nashville project.

  14. Switched-capacitor isolated LED driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth R.; Kline, Mitchell

    2016-03-22

    A switched-capacitor voltage converter which is particularly well-suited for receiving a line voltage from which to drive current through a series of light emitting diodes (LEDs). Input voltage is rectified in a multi-level rectifier network having switched capacitors in an ascending-bank configuration for passing voltages in uniform steps between zero volts up to full received voltage V.sub.DC. A regulator section, operating on V.sub.DC, comprises switched-capacitor stages of H-bridge switching and flying capacitors. A current controlled oscillator drives the states of the switched-capacitor stages and changes its frequency to maintain a constant current to the load. Embodiments are described for isolating the load from the mains, utilizing an LC tank circuit or a multi-primary-winding transformer.

  15. Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

    2010-12-01

    This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

  16. Latching micro optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  17. HIGH VOLTAGE, HIGH CURRENT SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dike, R.S.; Lier, D.W.; Schofield, A.E.; Tuck, J.L.

    1962-04-17

    A high voltage and current spark gap switch comprising two main electrodes insulatingly supported in opposed spaced relationship and a middle electrode supported medially between the main electrodes and symmetrically about the median line of the main electrodes is described. The middle electrode has a perforation aligned with the median line and an irradiation electrode insulatingly supported in the body of the middle electrode normal to the median line and protruding into the perforation. (AEC)

  18. Remote switch actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  19. REMOTE CONTROLLED SWITCHING DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hobbs, J.C.

    1959-02-01

    An electrical switching device which can be remotely controlled and in which one or more switches may be accurately operated at predetermined times or with predetermined intervening time intervals is described. The switching device consists essentially of a deck, a post projecting from the deck at right angles thereto, cam means mounted for rotation around said posts and a switch connected to said deck and actuated by said cam means. Means is provided for rotating the cam means at a constant speed and the switching apparatus is enclosed in a sealed container with external adjusting means and electrical connection elements.

  20. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  1. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Andexler, George; Silberkleit, Lee I.

    1993-01-19

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  2. Effective switching frequency multiplier inverter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Su, Gui-Jia (Oak Ridge, TN); Peng, Fang Z. (Okemos, MI)

    2007-08-07

    A switching frequency multiplier inverter for low inductance machines that uses parallel connection of switches and each switch is independently controlled according to a pulse width modulation scheme. The effective switching frequency is multiplied by the number of switches connected in parallel while each individual switch operates within its limit of switching frequency. This technique can also be used for other power converters such as DC/DC, AC/DC converters.

  3. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M.; Shires, Charles D.

    1988-01-01

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  4. Thermally actuated thermionic switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, D.M.; Shires, C.D.

    1982-09-30

    A thermally actuated thermionic switch which responds to an increase of temperature by changing from a high impedance to a low impedance at a predictable temperature set point. The switch has a bistable operation mode switching only on temperature increases. The thermionic material may be a metal which is liquid at the desired operation temperature and held in matrix in a graphite block reservoir, and which changes state (ionizes, for example) so as to be electrically conductive at a desired temperature.

  5. Alarm toe switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganyard, Floyd P.

    1982-01-01

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  6. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  7. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  8. Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replace frequently used bulbs with more energy efficient options to save money and energy. Replace...

  9. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. ape011_lai_2010_o.pdf (4.46 MB) More Documents & Publications Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Electro-thermal-mechanical Simulation and Reliability

  10. Manually operated coded switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barnette, Jon H.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a manually operated recodable coded switch in which a code may be inserted, tried and used to actuate a lever controlling an external device. After attempting a code, the switch's code wheels must be returned to their zero positions before another try is made.

  11. Reflective HTS switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Hohenwarter, Gert K. G.

    1994-01-01

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  12. Reflective HTS switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  13. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Jason Lai Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University June 10, 2010 This presentation does not ...

  14. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  15. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self?funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois Universitys aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty?three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  16. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois Universitys aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  17. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University's aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  18. Power Plant Replacement Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reed, Gary

    2010-09-30

    This report represents the final report for the Eastern Illinois University power plant replacement study. It contains all related documentation from consideration of possible solutions to the final recommended option. Included are the economic justifications associated with the chosen solution along with application for environmental permitting for the selected project for construction. This final report will summarize the results of execution of an EPC (energy performance contract) investment grade audit (IGA) which lead to an energy services agreement (ESA). The project includes scope of work to design and install energy conservation measures which are guaranteed by the contractor to be self-funding over its twenty year contract duration. The cost recovery is derived from systems performance improvements leading to energy savings. The prime focus of this EPC effort is to provide a replacement solution for Eastern Illinois University’s aging and failing circa 1925 central steam production plant. Twenty-three ECMs were considered viable whose net impact will provide sufficient savings to successfully support the overall project objectives.

  19. Photoconductive switch package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.

    2015-10-27

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  20. Photoconductive switch package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ca[rasp, George J

    2013-10-22

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  1. Photoconductive switch package

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J

    2015-11-05

    A photoconductive switch is formed of a substrate that has a central portion of SiC or other photoconductive material and an outer portion of cvd-diamond or other suitable material surrounding the central portion. Conducting electrodes are formed on opposed sides of the substrate, with the electrodes extending beyond the central portion and the edges of the electrodes lying over the outer portion. Thus any high electric fields produced at the edges of the electrodes lie outside of and do not affect the central portion, which is the active switching element. Light is transmitted through the outer portion to the central portion to actuate the switch.

  2. Silicon Carbide JFET Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5kV Enhancement-Model Silicon Carbide JFET Switch The novel 6.5kV SiC device and power module represent the world's highest-voltage module based on reliable, normally-off SiC JFETs. It reduces switching losses over that of Si-IGBTs by a factor of 20 and exhibits the fastest turn- on and turn-off of any 6.5kV-rated power module. Another major aspect of what makes this product unique is USCi's development and manufacturing approach. JFETs are simple transistor switches, yet for SiC materials, a

  3. SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, R.B.

    1957-12-17

    An improved triggered spark gap switch is described, capable of precisely controllable firing time while switching very large amounts of power. The invention in general comprises three electrodes adjustably spaced and adapted to have a large potential impressed between the outer electrodes. The central electrode includes two separate elements electrically connected togetaer and spaced apart to define a pair of spark gaps between the end electrodes. Means are provided to cause the gas flow in the switch to pass towards the central electrode, through a passage in each separate element, and out an exit disposed between the two separate central electrode elements in order to withdraw ions from the spark gap.

  4. Atomic Sandblasters Could Replace Silicon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Scientists at the National Labs may have found a cheaper, lighter more efficient replacement for silicon in computer chips.

  5. An optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  6. A radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1988-07-19

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

  7. Thermionic gas switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  8. Multiple switch actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beyer, Edward T.

    1976-01-06

    The present invention relates to switches and switch actuating devices to be operated for purposes of arming a bomb or other missile as it is dropped or released from an aircraft. The particular bomb or missile in which this invention is applied is one in which there is a plurality of circuits which are to be armed by the closing of switches upon dropping or releasing of the bomb. The operation of the switches to closed position is normally accomplished by means of a pull-out wire; that is, a wire which is withdrawn from the bomb or missile at the time of release of the bomb, one end of the wire being attached to the aircraft. The conditions to be met are that the arming switches must be positively and surely maintained in open position until the bomb is released and the arming action is effected. The action of the pull-out wire in achieving the arming action must be sure and positive with minimum danger of malfunctioning, jamming or binding.

  9. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  10. WIPP Workers Perform Filter Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 10, 2015 WIPP Workers Perform Filter Replacement As recovery operations at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant continue, increased work activity in the underground results in higher levels of airborne salt dust, increasing the frequency with which filters are replaced. Last week, workers performed a filter replacement on WIPP's Underground Ventilation System. WIPP's ventilation system has two filter units. Each unit has 84 separate filters arranges in four layers- moderate efficiency

  11. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  12. FAST ACTING CURRENT SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Batzer, T.H.; Cummings, D.B.; Ryan, J.F.

    1962-05-22

    A high-current, fast-acting switch is designed for utilization as a crowbar switch in a high-current circuit such as used to generate the magnetic confinement field of a plasma-confining and heat device, e.g., Pyrotron. The device particularly comprises a cylindrical housing containing two stationary, cylindrical contacts between which a movable contact is bridged to close the switch. The movable contact is actuated by a differential-pressure, airdriven piston assembly also within the housing. To absorb the acceleration (and the shock imparted to the device by the rapidly driven, movable contact), an adjustable air buffer assembly is provided, integrally connected to the movable contact and piston assembly. Various safety locks and circuit-synchronizing means are also provided to permit proper cooperation of the invention and the high-current circuit in which it is installed. (AEC)

  13. Switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  14. Magnetic switches and circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nunnally, W.C.

    1982-05-01

    This report outlines the use of saturable inductors as switches in lumped-element, magnetic-pulse compression circuits is discussed and the characteristic use of each is defined. In addition, the geometric constraints and magnetic pulse compression circuits used in short-pulse, low-inductance systems are considered. The scaling of presaturation leakage currents, magnetic energy losses, and switching times with geometrical and material parameters are developed to aid in evaluating magnetic pulse compression systems in a particular application. Finally, a scheme for increasing the couping coefficient in saturable stripline transformers is proposed to enable their use in the short-pulse, high-voltage regime.

  15. Dedication of Ethernet Switch | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dedication of Ethernet Switch Dedication of Ethernet Switch A presentation of how Nuclear Logistics Inc. performed CGD on the RuggedCom Ethernet Switches. The presentation lays out ...

  16. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser activated diffuse discharge switch Title: Laser activated diffuse discharge switch The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing ...

  17. Replacement Cost of Domestic Crude

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    The DEEPWATER model forecasts the replacement cost of domestic crude oil for 13 offshore regions in the lower 48 states. The replacement cost of domestic crude oil is the constant or levelized selling price that will recover the full expense of exploration, development, and productions with a reasonable return on capital.

  18. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian

    1983-01-01

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  19. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  20. Electrical Breakdown Physics in Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches (PCSS).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J.; Vawter, Gregory A.; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Gallegos, Richard Joseph; Bigman, Verle Howard

    2016-01-01

    Advanced switching devices with long lifetime will be critical components for Linear Transformer Drivers (LTDs) in next-generation accelerators. LTD designs employ high switch counts. With current gas switch technology at %7E10e3 shot life, a potential game-changer would be the development of a reliable low-impedance (%3C35nh) optically-triggered compact solid-state switch capable of switching 200kV and 50kA with 10e5 shotlife or better. Other applications of this technology, are pulse shaping programmable systems for dynamic material studies (Z-next, Genesis), efficient pulsed power systems for biofuel feedstock, short pulse (10 ns) accelerator designs for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and sprytron replacements in NW firing sets. This LDRD project has succeeded in developing new optically-triggered photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) designs that show great promise for scaling to modules capable of 200kV (DC) and 5kA current that can be stacked in parallel to achieve 100's of kA with 10e5 shot lifetime. . Executive Summary Advanced switching devices with long lifetime will be critical components for Linear Transformer Drivers (LTDs) in next-generation accelerators. LTD designs employ high switch counts. With current gas switch technology at %7E10e3 shot life, a potential game-changer would be the development of a reliable low-impedance (%3C35nh) optically-triggered compact solid-state switch capable of switching 200kV and 50kA with 10e5 shotlife or better. Other applications of this technology, are pulse shaping programmable systems for dynamic material studies (Z-next, Genesis), efficient pulsed power systems for biofuel feedstock, short pulse (10 ns) accelerator designs for the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA), and sprytron replacements in NW firing sets. This LDRD project has succeeded in developing new optically-triggered photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) designs that show great promise for scaling to modules capable

  1. MULTIPLE SPARK GAP SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schofield, A.E.

    1958-07-22

    A multiple spark gap switch of unique construction is described which will permit controlled, simultaneous discharge of several capacitors into a load. The switch construction includes a disc electrode with a plurality of protuberances of generally convex shape on one surface. A firing electrode is insulatingly supponted In each of the electrode protuberances and extends substantially to the apex thereof. Individual electrodes are disposed on an insulating plate parallel with the disc electrode to form a number of spark gaps with the protuberances. These electrodes are each connected to a separate charged capacitor and when a voltage ls applied simultaneously between the trigger electrodes and the dlsc electrode, each spark gap fires to connect its capacitor to the disc electrode and a subsequent load.

  2. Optical fiber switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, James W.; Lester, Charles S.

    2002-01-01

    Optical fiber switches operated by electrical activation of at least one laser light modulator through which laser light is directed into at least one polarizer are used for the sequential transport of laser light from a single laser into a plurality of optical fibers. In one embodiment of the invention, laser light from a single excitation laser is sequentially transported to a plurality of optical fibers which in turn transport the laser light to separate individual remotely located laser fuel ignitors. The invention can be operated electro-optically with no need for any mechanical or moving parts, or, alternatively, can be operated electro-mechanically. The invention can be used to switch either pulsed or continuous wave laser light.

  3. Automatic switching matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlecht, Martin F.; Kassakian, John G.; Caloggero, Anthony J.; Rhodes, Bruce; Otten, David; Rasmussen, Neil

    1982-01-01

    An automatic switching matrix that includes an apertured matrix board containing a matrix of wires that can be interconnected at each aperture. Each aperture has associated therewith a conductive pin which, when fully inserted into the associated aperture, effects electrical connection between the wires within that particular aperture. Means is provided for automatically inserting the pins in a determined pattern and for removing all the pins to permit other interconnecting patterns.

  4. CREE: Making the Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-03-06

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  5. CREE: Making the Switch

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-04-09

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  6. Neutron activated switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A switch for reacting quickly to a neutron emission. A rod consisting of fissionable material is located inside a vacuum tight body. An adjustable contact is located coaxially at an adjustable distance from one end of the rod. Electrical leads are connected to the rod and to the adjustable contact. With a vacuum drawn inside the body, a neutron bombardment striking the rod causes it to heat and expand longitudinally until it comes into contact with the adjustable contact. This circuit closing occurs within a period of a few microseconds.

  7. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  8. Do You Have Windows That Need Replacing?

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Do you have windows that need replacing, too? Do you have any plans to replace them with newer, more efficient windows?

  9. Sensor Switch's Bright Manufacturing Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The switch helps with cost effective energy savings by turning off the lights when an occupancy sensor says the room is empty.

  10. Switch LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Maryland Zip: 20886 Sector: Solar Product: Installer and distributor of small-scale solar passive, PV, fuel cell, and other distributed energy systems. References: Switch...

  11. Data center coolant switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Parida, Pritish R.; Schultz, Mark D.

    2015-10-06

    A data center cooling system is operated in a first mode; it has an indoor portion wherein heat is absorbed from components in the data center, and an outdoor heat exchanger portion wherein outside air is used to cool a first heat transfer fluid (e.g., water) present in at least the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the cooling system during the first mode. The first heat transfer fluid is a relatively high performance heat transfer fluid (as compared to the second fluid), and has a first heat transfer fluid freezing point. A determination is made that an appropriate time has been reached to switch from the first mode to a second mode. Based on this determination, the outdoor heat exchanger portion of the data cooling system is switched to a second heat transfer fluid, which is a relatively low performance heat transfer fluid, as compared to the first heat transfer fluid. It has a second heat transfer fluid freezing point lower than the first heat transfer fluid freezing point, and the second heat transfer fluid freezing point is sufficiently low to operate without freezing when the outdoor air temperature drops below a first predetermined relationship with the first heat transfer fluid freezing point.

  12. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  13. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  14. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  15. Battery switch for downhole tools

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boling, Brian E.

    2010-02-23

    An electrical circuit for a downhole tool may include a battery, a load electrically connected to the battery, and at least one switch electrically connected in series with the battery and to the load. The at least one switch may be configured to close when a tool temperature exceeds a selected temperature.

  16. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A.; Chen, Dong; Coteus, Paul W.

    2010-02-23

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  17. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, John P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure.

  18. High voltage coaxial switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rink, J.P.

    1983-07-19

    A coaxial high voltage, high current switch having a solid cylindrical cold cathode coaxially surrounded by a thin hollow cylindrical inner electrode and a larger hollow cylindrical outer electrode. A high voltage trigger between the cathode and the inner electrode causes electrons to be emitted from the cathode and flow to the inner electrode preferably through a vacuum. Some of the electrons penetrate the inner electrode and cause a volumetric discharge in the gas (which may be merely air) between the inner and outer electrodes. The discharge provides a low impedance path between a high voltage charge placed on the outer electrode and a load (which may be a high power laser) coupled to the inner electrode. For high repetition rate the gas between the inner and outer electrodes may be continuously exchanged or refreshed under pressure. 3 figs.

  19. FAST OPENING SWITCH

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, M.; Bennett, F.K.; Kuckes, A.F.

    1963-09-17

    A fast-acting electric switch is described for rapidly opening a circuit carrying large amounts of electrical power. A thin, conducting foil bridges a gap in this circuit and means are provided for producing a magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil, whereby the foil is rapidly broken to open the circuit across the gap. Advantageously the foil has a hole forming two narrow portions in the foil and the means producing the magnetic field and eddy currents comprises an annular coil having its annulus coaxial with the hole in the foil and turns adjacent the narrow portions of the foil. An electrical current flows through the coil to produce the magnetic field and eddy currents in the foil. (AEC)

  20. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2007-12-04

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  1. "Smart" watchdog safety switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1991-01-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals.

  2. ''Smart'' watchdog safety switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-10-01

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 21 figures.

  3. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  4. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  5. Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electricity & Fuel » Lighting » Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replacing Lightbulbs and Ballasts Replace frequently used bulbs with more energy efficient options to save money and energy. Replace frequently used bulbs with more energy efficient options to save money and energy. Matching replacement lightbulbs to existing fixtures and ballasts can be tricky, especially with older fixtures. Using new fixtures made for new lightbulbs gives you the greatest energy savings, reliability, and

  6. Modifications to Replacement Costs System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godec, M. [ICF Resources, Inc., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1989-05-18

    The purpose of this memorandum is to document the improvements and modifications made to the Replacement Costs of Crude Oil (REPCO) Supply Analysis System. While some of this work was performed under our previous support contract to DOE/ASFE, we are presenting all modifications and improvements are presented here for completeness. The memo primarily documents revisions made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model. Revisions and modifications made to other components and models in the REPCO system which are documented elsewhere are only highlighted in this memo. Generally, the modifications made to the Lower-48 Onshore Model reflect changes that have occurred in domestic drilling, oil field costs, and reserves since 1982, the date of the most recent available data used for the original Replacement Costs report, published in 1985.

  7. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virent 2014 Virent is Replacing Crude Oil. Biomass 2014 July 30, 2014 Randy D. Cortright, Ph.D. CTO/Founder © Virent 2014 Slide 2 Virent at a Glance The global leader in catalytic biorefinery research, development, and commercialization Employees Technology Infrastructure 25x Development Pilot Plants 2x Process Plants Partners & Investors Converting plant-based feedstocks to fuels and chemicals 75 Employees © Virent 2014 Slide 3 Energy Cost Comparison Heating Value Data Sources: GREET and

  8. Dielectric liquid pulsed-power switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Faidas, Homer

    1990-01-01

    This disclosure identifies dielectric liquids for use as opening and closing switching media in pulsed power technology, and describes a dielectric-liquid-pulsed-power switch empolying flashlamps.

  9. Soft Switching Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Soft Switching Technologies Jump to: navigation, search Name: Soft Switching Technologies Place: Wisconsin Product: Supplier of power quality solutions for delivery of highly...

  10. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  11. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  12. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, J.D.

    1998-06-02

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a series combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electrically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided. 14 figs.

  13. Regenerative switching CMOS system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Welch, James D.

    1998-01-01

    Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) Schottky barrier Field Effect Transistor systems, which are a seriesed combination of N and P-Channel MOSFETS, in which Source Schottky barrier junctions of the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS are electically interconnected, (rather than the Drains as in conventional diffused junction CMOS), which Schottky barrier MOSFET system demonstrates Regenerative Inverting Switching Characteristics in use are disclosed. Both the N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFET devices are unique in that they provide operational Drain Current vs. Drain to Source voltage as a function of Gate voltage only where the polarities of the Drain voltage and Gate voltage are opposite, referenced to the Source as a common terminal, and where the polarity of the voltage applied to the Gate is appropriate to cause Channel inversion. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate and verify the operation of N and P-Channel Schottky barrier MOSFETS actually fabricated on P and N-type Silicon respectively, by a common procedure using vacuum deposited Chromium as a Schottky barrier forming metal, are also provided.

  14. Low impedance switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hornig, Donald F.

    1976-01-01

    1. A low inductance switch comprising a pair of spaced apart, annularly shaped, plate members of conducting material supported in substantially parallel, insulated relationship, said plate members being provided with a plurality of radially extending, spoke-like extensions whereby said members may be connected into a plurality of electrical circuits, and an electrical discharge means connected across said spaced plate members for effecting the simultaneous closing of the electrical circuits connected thereto, said electrical discharge means including an elongated, sealed envelope which contains an ionizable gas and which is supported on one of said plate members with the major axis of said envelope extending generally perpendicular to the plane of said plate members, a pair of elongated, spaced apart, insulated electrodes supported within said envelope and extending axially thereof, one of said electrodes being connected to each of said plate members, and a third, firing or trigger electrode supported within said envelope intermediate said main electrodes and being insulated from said main electrodes.

  15. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J S

    2012-01-17

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  16. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L.; Hutcherson, R. Kenneth

    1990-03-27

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  17. Botas line repaired ahead of schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    This paper reports on damaged sections of Botas' dual 30-in. gas line carrying USSR gas across the Marmara Sea to Turkey that were replaced 30 days ahead of contract schedule. Tefken Construction and Installation Co., Inc., Istanbul, working under a $4-million contract, replaced two sections on one of the dual lines near Ambarli, Turkey, within a two-month period. The offshore system stretches 33-mi under the Marmara Sea with some pipe laid at 262-ft maximum water depths. The scope of the project was to replace a 426-ft offshore approach to the northern shoreline and a 984-ft onshore section, which were damaged by a submarine landslide.

  18. Nanomechanical switch for integration with CMOS logic.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordquist, Christopher Daniel; Wolfley, Steven L.; Baker, Michael Sean; Czaplewski, David A.; Wendt, Joel Robert; Kraus, Garth Merlin; de Boer, Maarten Pieter; Patrizi, Gary A.

    2008-11-01

    We designed, fabricated and measured the performance of nanoelectromechanical (NEMS) switches. Initial data are reported with one of the switch designs having a measured switching time of 400 ns and an operating voltage of 5 V. The switches operated laterally with unmeasurable leakage current in the 'off' state. Surface micromachining techniques were used to fabricate the switches. All processing was CMOS compatible. A single metal layer, defined by a single mask step, was used as the mechanical switch layer. The details of the modeling, fabrication and testing of the NEMS switches are reported.

  19. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  20. Non-latching relay switch assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duimstra, Frederick A.

    1991-01-01

    A non-latching relay switch assembly which includes a coil section and a switch or contact section. The coil section includes a permanent magnet and an electromagnet. The respective sections are arranged in separate locations or cavities in the assembly. The switch has a "normal" position and is selectively switched by an overriding electromagnetic assembly. The switch returns to the "normal" position when the overriding electromagnetic assembly is inactive.

  1. Passive Q-switching of a diode-pumped neodymium:YAG laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    Compact diode-pumped neodymium:YAG lasers are becoming common commercial devices. Such lasers are often Q-switched to enhance peak power or to allow greater harmonic conversion efficiency. Active electrooptic or acoustooptic modulators are usually used to Q-switch YAG lasers. While these techniques work well, they do require expensive and bulky modulators and driving electronics. For some applications a simpler technique, such as passive Q-switching, could replace these active Q-switches. This thesis investigates the suitability of two color center materials as possible saturable absorbers for compact Nd:YAG lasers. The first material, lithium fluoride with F{sub 2}{sup {minus}} defects, has been used previously as a Q-switch for flashlamp-pumped Nd:YAG lasers. The second material, sodium chloride with F{sub 2}{sup +} defects, has not, to the author's knowledge, been used as a saturable absorber in a YAG laser. Lithium fluoride was found to be an excellent Q-switch material for a small diode-pumped YAG laser. The passively Q-switched pulses were comparable to the best results using active Q-switches. The LiF saturable absorber material is compact, inexpensive, and easy to prepare. The only discovered drawback to this material is the observation of a gradual bleaching of the saturable absorption with extended use at high peak powers. This thesis describes the properties and preparation of the LiF Q-switch material. The use of colored sodium chloride as a Q-switch material is also described. This material has the unique property that the amount of saturable loss in a particular crystal direction can be dynamically adjusted through the action of polarized light incident on the crystal.

  2. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex; Pocha, Michael D.

    1994-01-01

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

  3. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, R.; Pocha, M.D.

    1994-08-23

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium. 10 figs.

  4. Method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor environment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aridor, Yariv; Domany, Tamar; Frachtenberg, Eitan; Gal, Yoav; Shmueli, Edi; Stockmeyer, legal representative, Robert E.; Stockmeyer, Larry Joseph

    2008-07-15

    A method for wiring allocation and switch configuration in a multiprocessor computer, the method including employing depth-first tree traversal to determine a plurality of paths among a plurality of processing elements allocated to a job along a plurality of switches and wires in a plurality of D-lines, and selecting one of the paths in accordance with at least one selection criterion.

  5. Optical Switch Using Risley Prisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2005-02-22

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  6. Optical switch using Risley prisms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-04-15

    An optical switch using Risley prisms and rotary microactuators to independently rotate the wedge prisms of each Risley prism pair is disclosed. The optical switch comprises an array of input Risley prism pairs that selectively redirect light beams from a plurality of input ports to an array of output Risley prism pairs that similarly direct the light beams to a plurality of output ports. Each wedge prism of each Risley prism pair can be independently rotated by a variable-reluctance stepping rotary microactuator that is fabricated by a multi-layer LIGA process. Each wedge prism can be formed integral to the annular rotor of the rotary microactuator by a DXRL process.

  7. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Hybrid switch for resonant power converters Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Hybrid switch for resonant power converters A hybrid switch comprising two ...

  8. Retail Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CALiPER Testing » Application Reports » Retail Replacement Lamps Retail Replacement Lamps Annual CALiPER testing of A19, G25, candelabra, night light, MR16/PAR16, PAR20, and PAR30 replacement lamps - purchased directly from store shelves - offers insights on performance trends from year to year. The report findings offer valuable insights for manufacturers and retailers alike. Retail Lamps Study 3 (48 pages, February 2014) Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality

  9. Brooklyn Union develops tool for replacing steel, cast iron mains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marazzo, J.J. )

    1994-12-01

    Over the last 10 years, Brooklyn Union Gas Co. has undergone significant changes in the methods it has used to install gas service and gas main systems. Recently, Brooklyn Union engineers developed a user friendly method of replacing steel and cast iron gas mains and service lines with same size or larger polyethylene pipe without using conventional trench excavation. The system, known as the ''Bullet'' pipe replacement system, involves splitting steel and cast iron pipe using a series of rolling cutter wheels. After consecutive cutting wheels completely penetrate both pipe and fittings, both pipe and soil are spread with an expander and new polyethylene pipe is inserted. The ''Bullet'' pipe splitting system for 1[1/4] in. (32 mm) through 6 in. (150 mm) diameter has been developed.

  10. Anode initiated surface flashover switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P.; Koss, Robert J.

    2003-04-29

    A high voltage surface flashover switch has a pair of electrodes spaced by an insulator. A high voltage is applied to an anode, which is smaller than the opposing, grounded, cathode. When a controllable source of electrons near the cathode is energized, the electrons are attracted to the anode where they reflect to the insulator and initiate anode to cathode breakdown.

  11. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  12. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  13. Grand Coulee & Hungry Horse SCADA Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    extensive maintenance and repairs. The turbine hubs on these units have experienced chronic oil leaks. The history of problems led to a decision to replace the turbine runners...

  14. LED Replacements for Linear Fluorescent Lamps Webcast

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this June 20, 2011 webcast on LED products marketed as replacements for linear fluorescent lamps, Jason Tuenge of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) discussed current Lighting...

  15. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This tip sheet discusses the reasoning behind trimming or replacing impellers on oversized pumps and describes how it works to improve pumping system efficiency.

  16. Ni Clusterbank Replacement Project | Argonne Leadership Computing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ni Clusterbank Replacement Project Event Sponsor: Argonne Leadership Computing Facility Seminar Start Date: Oct 20 2015 - 12:00pm BuildingRoom: Building 241Room D173...

  17. Spark gap switch with spiral gas flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brucker, John P.

    1989-01-01

    A spark gap switch having a contaminate removal system using an injected gas. An annular plate concentric with an electrode of the switch defines flow paths for the injected gas which form a strong spiral flow of the gas in the housing which is effective to remove contaminates from the switch surfaces. The gas along with the contaminates is exhausted from the housing through one of the ends of the switch.

  18. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  19. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosette, Dario B.

    1994-01-01

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  20. Electronic logic to enhance switch reliability in detecting openings and closures of redundant switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, James A.

    1986-01-01

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and failsafe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  1. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Michael E.

    2009-01-13

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  2. Switch for Good Community Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

    2013-11-19

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective.

  3. Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser Micro-Machining System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messaoud, S.; Allam, A.; Siserir, F.; Bouceta, Y.; Kerdja, T.; Ouadjaout, D.

    2008-09-23

    In this paper, we present the design of a low cost Q-switched Nd: YAG laser micro-machining system for photo masks fabrication. It consists of: Nd:YAG laser source, beam delivery system, X-Y table, PC, The CCD camera and TV monitor. The synchronization between the laser source and the X-Y table is realised by NI PCI-7342, the two axis MID-7602 and LabVIEW based program. The first step of this work consists of engraving continuous and discontinuous lines on a thin film metal with a 100 {mu}m resolution by using the YG 980 Quantel Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.

  4. Vacuum-surface flashover switch with cantilever conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Kirbie, Hugh C.

    2001-01-01

    A dielectric-wall linear accelerator is improved by a high-voltage, fast rise-time switch that includes a pair of electrodes between which are laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators. A high voltage is placed between the electrodes sufficient to stress the voltage breakdown of the insulator on command. A light trigger, such as a laser, is focused along at least one line along the edge surface of the laminated alternating layers of isolated conductors and insulators extending between the electrodes. The laser is energized to initiate a surface breakdown by a fluence of photons, thus causing the electrical switch to close very promptly. Such insulators and lasers are incorporated in a dielectric wall linear accelerator with Blumlein modules, and phasing is controlled by adjusting the length of fiber optic cables that carry the laser light to the insulator surface.

  5. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goren, Y.; Mahale, N.K.

    1996-08-06

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles. 6 figs.

  6. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goren, Yehuda; Mahale, Narayan K.

    1996-01-01

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  7. SunLine Transit Agency | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Validation » SunLine Transit Agency SunLine Transit Agency SunLine Transit Agency logo SunLine Transit Agency provides public transit and community services to California's Coachella Valley. The service area is more than 1,100 square miles and includes nine member cities, as well as Riverside County. Over the years, SunLine has pursued an aggressive strategy for implementing clean technologies into its fleet. SunLine began by switching its fleet to compressed natural gas (CNG), then

  8. Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Molnar, Linda K.; Hatton, T. Alan; Buchwald, Stephen L.

    2001-05-15

    Replacement solvents for use in chemical synthesis include polymer-immobilized solvents having a flexible polymer backbone and a plurality of pendant groups attached onto the polymer backbone, the pendant groups comprising a flexible linking unit bound to the polymer backbone and to a terminal solvating moiety. The polymer-immobilized solvent may be dissolved in a benign medium. Replacement solvents for chemical reactions for which tetrahydrofuran or diethyl may be a solvent include substituted tetrahydrofurfuryl ethers and substituted tetrahydro-3-furan ethers. The replacement solvents may be readily recovered from the reaction train using conventional methods.

  9. Conceptual Design Plan SM-43 Replacement Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    University of California, Los Alamos National Laboratory, SCC Project Office

    2000-11-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory Conceptual Design Plan for the SM-43 Replacement Project outlines plans for replacing the SM-43 Administration Building. Topics include the reasons that replacement is considered a necessity; the roles of the various project sponsors; and descriptions of the proposed site and facilities. Also covered in this proposal is preliminary information on the project schedule, cost estimates, acquisition strategy, risk assessment, NEPA strategy, safety strategy, and safeguards and security. Spreadsheets provide further detail on space requirements, project schedules, and cost estimates.

  10. Marin County- Wood Stove Replacement Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Homes in the San Geronimo Valley (Forest Knolls, Lagunitas, San Geronimo, and Woodacre) can receive a rebate of $1,500 for the removal and replacement of non-certified wood burning appliances with...

  11. Grand Coulee & Hungry Horse SCADA Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gates Replacement This project is part of the Third Powerplant overhaul at Grand Coulee Dam. The full overhaul effort involves a mechanical overhaul of units G19 - G24. The...

  12. Annual report for Ion Replacement Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomczuk, Z.; Willit, J.L.; Fischer, A.K.

    1993-07-01

    Ion replacement electrorefining is an innovative electrochemical approach to purifying and separating metals. This approach overcomes the shortcomings of conventional electrorefining and has the potential for processing a wider range of metals and metal halide salts. Salt waste is also minimized with this approach. The key element of ion replacement electrorefining is the ion replacement electrode. This electrode allows a decoupling of the electrotransport process into two separate steps, anodic dissolution and cathodic deposition. Three key accomplishments described in this report that demonstrate the feasibility of ion replacement electrorefining are: (1) we have identified a suitable sodium/{beta}{double_prime}-alumina/molten salt electrolyte system that functions reproducibly at 723 K, (2) we have oxidized and deposited dysprosium, lanthanum, uranium, and titanium by using a sodium ion replacement electrode. In several experiments, an actual separation of dysprosium and lanthanum was observed, and (3) we have identified a metal alloy, Li{sub x}Sb, as an alternative ion replacement electrode. The next stage in the program is the design, construction, and testing of a laboratory-scale electrorefiner. Follow-on development with funding from industrial and federal sponsors is being pursued.

  13. Stable nonlinear Mach-Zehnder fiber switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Digonnet, Michel J. F.; Shaw, H. John; Pantell, Richard H.; Sadowski, Robert W.

    1999-01-01

    An all-optical fiber switch is implemented within a short Mach-Zehnder interferometer configuration. The Mach-Zehnder switch is constructed to have a high temperature stability so as to minimize temperature gradients and other thermal effects which result in undesirable instability at the output of the switch. The Mach-Zehnder switch of the preferred embodiment is advantageously less than 2 cm in length between couplers to be sufficiently short to be thermally stable, and full switching is accomplished by heavily doping one or both of the arms between the couplers so as to provide a highly nonlinear region within one or both of the arms. A pump input source is used to affect the propagation characteristics of one of the arms to control the output coupling ratio of the switch. Because of the high nonlinearity of the pump input arm, low pump powers can be used, thereby alleviating difficulties and high cost associated with high pump input powers.

  14. Optical switching system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranganathan, Radha; Gal, Michael; Taylor, P. Craig

    1992-01-01

    An optically bistable device is disclosed. The device includes a uniformly thick layer of amorphous silicon to constitute a Fabry-Perot chamber positioned to provide a target area for a probe beam. The probe beam has a maximum energy less than the energy band gap of the amorphous semiconductor. In a preferred embodiment, a multilayer dielectric mirror is positioned on the Fabry-Perot chamber to increase the finesse of switching of the device. The index of refraction of the amorphous material is thermally altered to alter the transmission of the probe beam.

  15. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  16. Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-03-11

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

  17. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brannon, P.J.; Cowgill, D.F.

    1990-12-18

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable. 10 figs.

  18. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brannon, Paul J.; Cowgill, Donald F.

    1990-01-01

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  19. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  20. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.

    1984-01-01

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  1. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  2. A magnetically switched kicker for proton extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

    1989-03-01

    The application of magnetic current amplification and switching techniques to the generation of precise high current pulses for switching magnets is described. The square loop characteristic of Metglas tape wound cores at high excitation levels provides excellent switching characteristics for microsecond pulses. The rugged and passive nature of this type pulser makes it possible to locate the final stages of amplification at the load for maximum efficiency. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  3. Mechanical control of electroresistive switching (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Mechanical control of electroresistive switching Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mechanical control of electroresistive ...

  4. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, K.W.; Kiekel, P.

    1999-04-27

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches is disclosed. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself. 13 figs.

  5. Multi-megavolt low jitter multistage switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D.R.; Penn, K.J. Jr.

    1985-06-19

    It is one object of the present invention to provide a multistage switch capable of holding off numerous megavolts, until triggered, from a particle beam accelerator of the type used for inertial confinement fusion. The invention provides a multistage switch having low timing jitter and capable of producing multiple spark channels for spreading current over a wider area to reduce electrode damage and increase switch lifetime. The switch has fairly uniform electric fields and a short spark gap for laser triggering and is engineered to prevent insulator breakdowns.

  6. Magnetic switch coupling to synchronize magnetic modulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, Kim W.; Kiekel, Paul

    1999-01-01

    Apparatus for synchronizing the output pulses from a pair of magnetic switches. An electrically conductive loop is provided between the pair of switches with the loop having windlings about the core of each of the magnetic switches. The magnetic coupling created by the loop removes voltage and timing variations between the outputs of the two magnetic switches caused by any of a variety of factors. The only remaining variation is a very small fixed timing offset caused by the geometry and length of the loop itself.

  7. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  8. Valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Evan R.; Tanner, David E.

    1980-01-01

    A valve assembly having remotely replaceable bearings is disclosed wherein a valve disc is supported within a flow duct for rotation about a pair of axially aligned bearings, one of which is carried by a spindle received within a diametral bore in the valve disc, and the other of which is carried by a bearing support block releasably mounted on the duct circumferentially of an annular collar on the valve disc coaxial with its diametrical bore. The spindle and bearing support block are adapted for remote removal to facilitate servicing or replacement of the valve disc support bearings.

  9. Ames Lab 101: Ultrafast Magnetic Switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jigang Wang

    2013-04-08

    Ames Laboratory physicists have found a new way to switch magnetism that is at least 1000 times faster than currently used in magnetic memory technologies. Magnetic switching is used to encode information in hard drives, magnetic random access memory and other computing devices. The discovery potentially opens the door to terahertz and faster memory speeds.

  10. WAP Memorandum 011: Clarification on Fuel Switching

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    As the WAP continually develops skilled and technically proficient program personnel at the state and local levels, the DOE has decided to revise its current policy related to fuel switching in eligible homes served by the Program. WAP Grantees are now provided two options regarding the decision-making process for fuel switching to occur, detailed in WAP Memo 011.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Ultrafast Magnetic Switching

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jigang Wang

    2013-06-05

    Ames Laboratory physicists have found a new way to switch magnetism that is at least 1000 times faster than currently used in magnetic memory technologies. Magnetic switching is used to encode information in hard drives, magnetic random access memory and other computing devices. The discovery potentially opens the door to terahertz and faster memory speeds.

  12. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; McCorkle, Dennis L.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1988-01-01

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches.

  13. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; McCorkle, D.L.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-02-20

    Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low molecular weight, inert buffer gases. To this can be added a third gas having a low ionization potential relative to the buffer gas. The gas mixtures presented possess properties that optimized the efficiency spark gap closing switches. 6 figs.

  14. Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 Avoiding a Train Wreck: Replacing Old Coal Plants with Energy Efficiency, August 2011 This ...

  15. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile … Window Replacement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guide TOP INNOVATOR: BSC Old single-glazed ... * Modifying the window sash - remove single- pane glass from the sash and replace ...

  16. Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-2-A Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Replacement Energy System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public...

  17. Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Applications of molecular replacement to G protein-coupled receptors ...

  18. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provides states with the approval to include refrigerator and electric water heater replacements as an allowable measure. PDF icon WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators ...

  19. Virent is Replacing Crude Oil | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Virent is Replacing Crude Oil Breakout Session 2A-Conversion Technologies II: Bio-Oils, Sugar Intermediates, Precursors, Distributed Models, and ...

  20. Molecular replacement and model-building using distant homology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Molecular replacement and model-building using distant homology models as templates Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Molecular replacement and model-building using...

  1. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving 90 Percent of Annual Costs A ... program managers decided to drop the web tool, eventually replacing it with a ...

  2. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, Julius; Henesian, Mark A.

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure gas electrode utilizing ionized gas in a glow discharge regime forms a transparent electrode for electro-optical switches. The transparent electrode comprises a low pressure gas region on both sides of the crystal. When the gas is ionized, e.g., by a glow discharge in the low pressure gas, the plasma formed is a good conductor. The gas electrode acts as a highly uniform conducting electrode. Since the plasma is transparent to a high energy laser beam passing through the crystal, the electrode is a transparent electrode. A crystal exposed from two sides to such a plasma can be charged up uniformly to any desired voltage. The plasma can be created either by the main high voltage pulser used to charge up the crystal or by auxiliary discharges or external sources of ionization. A typical configuration utilizes 10 torr argon in the discharge region adjacent to each crystal face.

  3. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  4. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, Philip E. (Oakley, CA); Rodgers, Peter W. (Santa Barbara, CA); Ewert, Daniel W. (Patterson, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  5. Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches Title: Gas mixtures for spark gap closing switches Gas mixtures for use in spark gap closing switches comprised of fluorocarbons and low ...

  6. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch Title: Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to ...

  7. Measure Guideline: Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  8. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in ...

  9. Fundamental New Insight Into Material for Optical-Switching ...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Fundamental New Insight Into Material for Optical-Switching Basic Energy Sciences (BES) ... Fundamental New Insight Into Material for Optical-Switching A triple point, where three ...

  10. A Guide to AC Motor Repair and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2004-03-01

    This booklet provides helpful information for making informed repair or replace decisions for electric motors.

  11. Package-interface thermal switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, N.L.

    1995-05-24

    The package-interface thermal switch (PITS) is an active temperature control device for modulating the flow of thermal energy from satellite equipment, such as electronic modules or batteries, to the satellite mounting deck which serves as a heat sink. PITS comprises a mounting bolt made of a shaped memory alloy (SMA) actuating bolt and a non-metallic rod with a helical spring surrounding it forming a mounting bolt for a satellite equipment package. At least four mounting bolts are used for installing the equipment package and are preloaded to a predetermined stress representing the desired thermal conductance between the heat sink and the package. The SMA actuating bolt is in thermal contact with the component or package and expands or contracts as the result of changing package temperature and the helical return spring forces against the SMA actuating bolt portion of the PITS, increasing (hot-on`1 condition) or decreasing (cold-off condition) the pressure of the package against the mounting deck. As the PITS changes its total length, the thermal conductance between the two objects is increased or decreased. Thus thermal conductance changes as a direct function of package temperature, resulting in active temperature control. The simple design of the PITS reduces the cost and weight of the thermal control subsystem in satellites and its high reliability eliminates the requirement for thermal design verification testing.

  12. Electrically Switched Cesium Ion Exchange

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JPH Sukamto; ML Lilga; RK Orth

    1998-10-23

    This report discusses the results of work to develop Electrically Switched Ion Exchange (ESIX) for separations of ions from waste streams relevant to DOE site clean-up. ESIX combines ion exchange and electrochemistry to provide a selective, reversible method for radionuclide separation that lowers costs and minimizes secondary waste generation typically associated with conventional ion exchange. In the ESIX process, an electroactive ion exchange film is deposited onto. a high surface area electrode, and ion uptake and elution are controlled directly by modulating the potential of the film. As a result, the production of secondary waste is minimized, since the large volumes of solution associated with elution, wash, and regeneration cycles typical of standard ion exchange are not needed for the ESIX process. The document is presented in two parts: Part I, the Summary Report, discusses the objectives of the project, describes the ESIX concept and the approach taken, and summarizes the major results; Part II, the Technology Description, provides a technical description of the experimental procedures and in-depth discussions on modeling, case studies, and cost comparisons between ESIX and currently used technologies.

  13. Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor This fact sheet will assist in decisions regarding replacement of over-sized and under-loaded motors. It includes a discussion of how the MotorMaster+ software can be used to conduct motor replacement analyses. Replacing an Oversized and Underloaded Electric Motor (September 1996) (161.65 KB) More Documents & Publications MotorMaster+ User Manual Buying an Energy-Efficient

  14. Replacement Power Facility site selection report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wike, L.D.; Toole, G.L.; Specht, W.L.

    1992-06-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has proposed the construction and operation of a Replacement Power Facility (RPF) for supplementing and replacing existing sources of steam and possibly electricity at the Savannah River Site (SRS). DOE is preparing an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for this project As part of the impact analysis of the proposed action, the EIS will include a detailed description of the environment where the RPF will be constructed. This description must be specific to the recommended site at SRS, which contains more than 300 square miles of land including streams, lakes, impoundments, wetlands, and upland areas. A formal site-selection process was designed and implemented to identify the preferred RPF site.

  15. Replaces EIA-459E OMB Control No.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5 (04-94) Replaces EIA-459E OMB Control No. 1910-0400 U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY FEDERAL ASSISTANCE MANAGEMENT SUMMARY REPORT Page of Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 3.38 hours per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, search- ing existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing the collection of information. Send comments regarding this burden estimate or any other aspect of this

  16. Delayed switching applied to memristor neural networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Frank Z.; Yang Xiao; Lim Guan; Helian Na; Wu Sining; Guo Yike; Rashid, Md Mamunur

    2012-04-01

    Magnetic flux and electric charge are linked in a memristor. We reported recently that a memristor has a peculiar effect in which the switching takes place with a time delay because a memristor possesses a certain inertia. This effect was named the ''delayed switching effect.'' In this work, we elaborate on the importance of delayed switching in a brain-like computer using memristor neural networks. The effect is used to control the switching of a memristor synapse between two neurons that fire together (the Hebbian rule). A theoretical formula is found, and the design is verified by a simulation. We have also built an experimental setup consisting of electronic memristive synapses and electronic neurons.

  17. Mercury switch with non-wettable electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karnowsky, Maurice M.; Yost, Frederick G.

    1987-01-01

    A mercury switch device comprising a pool of mercury and a plurality of electrical contacts made of or coated with a non-wettable material such as titanium diboride.

  18. Script for Monitoring Infiniband Switch Links

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-09-08

    This script ingests a configuration file and parses it to determine an Infiniband network topology, specifically the port information for switches. It then loops over the fabric to determine which, if any, ports do not meet their desired configuration.

  19. Industrial process fuel switching analysis. Topical report, September 1990-March 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    The study was undertaken to develop accurate, up-to-date profiles of process heat energy consumption and assess the fuel switching capability from natural gas to No. 6 oil for the industrial sector. Energy profiles of drying, calcining, clay firing, petroleum refining, copper smelting, chemical fluid heating, steel heating, iron melting, iron smelting, and ferrous heat treating processes were developed. The natural gas capacity switchable to No. 6 residual oil was also determined. It was determined that 18% (262 trillion Btu) of the natural gas capacity was convertible to No. 6 oil in these processes. Fuel switching capability of No. 6 oil is on the decline in many of the industrial processes. This is due to: replacement of aging equipment capable to burning both natural gas and No. 6 oil, availability and cost effectiveness of natural gas utilization, and emission standards set by amendments to the Clean Air Act and other environmental regulations.

  20. Grand Coulee & Hungry Horse SCADA Replacement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    rebuild based on performance (outage reports), type of conductor and condition of the poles. The condition is evidenced by the fact that over 60 of the line's 366 poles have been...

  1. Electron-Beam Switches For A High Peak Power Sled-II Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay, L.

    2015-12-02

    Omega-P demonstrated triggered electron-beam switches on the L=2 m dual-delay-line X-band pulse compressor at Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). In those experiments, with input pulses of up to 9 MW from the Omega-P/NRL X-band magnicon, output pulses having peak powers of 140-165 MW and durations of 16-20 ns were produced, with record peak power gains M of 18-20. Switch designs are described based on the successful results that should be suitable for use with the existing SLAC SLED-II delay line system, to demonstrate C=9, M=7, and n>>78%, yielding 173ns compressed pulses with peak powers up to 350MW with input of a single 50-MW.

  2. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Dyer Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Sheila Beck Plains and Eastern Clean Line ...

  3. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Change.org Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Leftwich Plains and Eastern Clean Line ...

  4. Optimization of magnetic switches for single particle and cell transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Yellen, Benjamin B.; Murdoch, David M.; Kim, CheolGi

    2014-06-28

    The ability to manipulate an ensemble of single particles and cells is a key aim of lab-on-a-chip research; however, the control mechanisms must be optimized for minimal power consumption to enable future large-scale implementation. Recently, we demonstrated a matter transport platform, which uses overlaid patterns of magnetic films and metallic current lines to control magnetic particles and magnetic-nanoparticle-labeled cells; however, we have made no prior attempts to optimize the device geometry and power consumption. Here, we provide an optimization analysis of particle-switching devices based on stochastic variation in the particle's size and magnetic content. These results are immediately applicable to the design of robust, multiplexed platforms capable of transporting, sorting, and storing single cells in large arrays with low power and high efficiency.

  5. Commissioning and Operation of the FNAL Front end Injection Line and Ion Sources.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karns, Patrick R.

    2015-09-01

    This thesis documents the efforts made in commissioning and operating the RFQ Injection Line (RIL) as a replacement for the Cockcroft Walton front end. The Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) was assembled and tested with multiwire position and emittance monitor measurements. The Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) commissioning was completed with the same measurements as well as output beam energy measurements that showed it initially accelerated beam only to 700 keV, which was 50 keV lower than the design energy. Working with the manufacturer solutions were found and instituted to continue testing. The Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) was then connected as the RIL was installed as the new front end of Linac. Testing gave way to operation when the new front end was used as the source of all High Energy Physics (HEP) beam for Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL). The magnetron ion source that provides the H- beam for the front end required several changes and eventual upgrades to operate well; such as new source operating points for vacuum pressure and cesium admixture, and new materials for critical source components. Further research was conducted on the cathode geometry and nitrogen doping of the hydrogen gas as well as using solid state switches for the extractor system high voltage.

  6. Development of an automated high temperature valveless injection system for on-line gas chromatography

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kreisberg, N. M.; Worton, D. R.; Zhao, Y.; Isaacman, G.; Goldstein, A. H.; Hering, S. V.

    2014-07-23

    A reliable method of sample introduction is presented for on-line gas chromatography with a special application to in-situ field portable atmospheric sampling instruments. A traditional multi-port valve is replaced with a controlled pressure switching device that offers the advantage of long term reliability and stable sample transfer efficiency. An engineering design model is presented and tested that allows customizing the interface for other applications. Flow model accuracy is within measurement accuracy (1%) when parameters are tuned for an ambient detector and 15% accurate when applied to a vacuum based detector. Laboratory comparisons made between the two methods of sample introductionmore » using a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) show approximately three times greater reproducibility maintained over the equivalent of a week of continuous sampling. Field performance results for two versions of the valveless interface used in the in-situ instrument demonstrate minimal trending and a zero failure rate during field deployments ranging up to four weeks of continuous sampling. Extension of the VLI to dual collection cells is presented with less than 3% cell-to-cell carry-over.« less

  7. Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 Engine to Effect Cost-Effective Mass Reduction Magnesium Replacement of Aluminum Cast Components in a Production V6 ...

  8. California: SQAMD Replaces Drayage Trucks with CNG | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    California: SQAMD Replaces Drayage Trucks with CNG California: SQAMD Replaces Drayage Trucks with CNG November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2008, the South Coast Air Quality ...

  9. LED T8 Replacement Lamps | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    T8 Replacement Lamps LED T8 Replacement Lamps This documents provides an overview of LED T8 replacement lamps and helps define a reasonable minimum performance level for the purpose of plant-wide improvement. LED T8 Replacement Lamps (April 2010) (809.84 KB) More Documents & Publications Emerging Lighting Technology General Service LED Lamps Guiding Market Introduction of High-Performance SSL Products

  10. Quality Assurance Plan for site electrical replacements at substation line item subproject: 69 KV Substation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohler, C.K.

    1991-05-21

    The 69 KV Substation Project is based on the recognized need to provide a continuous, reliable source of power and to improve the firm capacity of the electrical service to all production facilities at Mound. The project consists of the following major element: 69 KV Substation: (1) Install a 69 KV Substation and associated equipment with two parallel 18 MVA transformers. (2) Install duct bank as required and provide 15 KV feeder cable from new substation to existing Substation 95 for connection to Mound`s existing primary distribution system. (3) Install duct bank for underground routing of the 15 KV feeder cable from Manhole 5C to the existing power house cable pit. (4) Reconfigure existing Dayton Power and Light Co. 15 KV switchgear in P Building. The purpose of this Quality Assurance Plan (QA Plan) is to assure that the objectives of the United States Department of Energy (D.O.E.) and EG&G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, Ohio (Mound) are met for this non-weapons project relative to health and safety, protection of the environment, reliability and continuity of operations, and documentation of quality efforts. This QA Plan identifies the activities and responsibilities which are necessary in the design, procurement, fabrication, installation, and start up of this project in order to meet these objectives.

  11. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H.

    1986-01-01

    A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  12. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  13. Nanoeletromechanical switch and logic circuits formed therefrom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nordquist, Christopher D.; Czaplewski, David A.

    2010-05-18

    A nanoelectromechanical (NEM) switch is formed on a substrate with a source electrode containing a suspended electrically-conductive beam which is anchored to the substrate at each end. This beam, which can be formed of ruthenium, bows laterally in response to a voltage applied between a pair of gate electrodes and the source electrode to form an electrical connection between the source electrode and a drain electrode located near a midpoint of the beam. Another pair of gate electrodes and another drain electrode can be located on an opposite side of the beam to allow for switching in an opposite direction. The NEM switch can be used to form digital logic circuits including NAND gates, NOR gates, programmable logic gates, and SRAM and DRAM memory cells which can be used in place of conventional CMOS circuits, or in combination therewith.

  14. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  15. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  16. Business Case Analysis for Replacing the Mazak 30Y Mill-Turn Machine in SM-39. Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Booth, Steven Richard; Dinehart, Timothy Grant; Benson, Faith Ann

    2015-03-19

    Business case studies are being looked at to support procurement of new machines and capital equipment in the SM-39 and TA-03-0102 machine shops. The first effort conducted economic analysis of replacing the Mazak 30Y Mill-Turn Machine located in SM-39. To determine the value of switching machinery, a baseline scenario was compared with a future scenario where new machinery was purchased and installed. The conditions under the two scenarios were defined via interviews with subject matter experts in terms of one-time and periodic costs. The results of the analysis were compiled in a life-cycle cost/benefit table. The costs of procuring, installing, and maintaining a new machine were balanced against the costs avoided by replacing older machinery. Productivity savings were included as a measure to show the costs avoided by being able to produce parts at a quicker and more efficient pace.

  17. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, Phillip J.; Tucker, Tillman J.

    1987-01-01

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  18. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1987-07-14

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed. 7 figs.

  19. Explosive-driven, high speed, arcless switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skogmo, P.J.; Tucker, T.J.

    1986-05-02

    An explosive-actuated, fast-acting arcless switch contains a highly conductive foil to carry high currents positioned adjacent a dielectric surface within a casing. At one side of the foil opposite the dielectric surface is an explosive which, when detonated, drives the conductive foil against the dielectric surface. A pattern of grooves in the dielectric surface ruptures the foil to establish a rupture path having a pattern corresponding to the pattern of the grooves. The impedance of the ruptured foil is greater than that of the original foil to divert high current to a load. Planar and cylindrical embodiments of the switch are disclosed.

  20. Anonymous Help Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anonymous Help Line Ombuds Anonymous Help Line Committed to the fair and equitable treatment of all employees, contractors, and persons doing business with the Laboratory. Contact...

  1. Line Equipment Operator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are several Line Equipment Operator positions located in Washington and Oregon. A successful candidate in this position will perform Line Equipment Operator work operating trucks and all...

  2. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  3. Q-switched Raman laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E.V.

    Method and apparatus for use of a Raman or Brillouin switch together with a conventional laser and a saturable absorber that is rapidly bleached at a predeterimined frequency nu = nu/sub O/, to ultimately produce a Raman or Brillouin pulse at frequency nu = nu/sub O/ +- nu /sub Stokes/.

  4. Q-Switched Raman laser system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    George, E. Victor

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for use of a Raman or Brillouin switch together with a conventional laser and a saturable absorber that is rapidly bleached at a predetermined frequency .nu.=.nu..sub.0, to ultimately produce a Raman or Brillouin pulse at frequency .nu.=.nu..sub.0 .+-..nu..sub.Stokes.

  5. Optically initiated silicon carbide high voltage switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Sullivan, James S.; Sanders; David M.

    2011-02-22

    An improved photoconductive switch having a SiC or other wide band gap substrate material, such as GaAs and field-grading liners composed of preferably SiN formed on the substrate adjacent the electrode perimeters or adjacent the substrate perimeters for grading the electric fields.

  6. Bakery Switches to Propane Vans | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bakery Switches to Propane Vans By Jo Napolitano * April 21, 2016 Tweet EmailPrint A switch to propane from diesel by a major Midwest bakery fleet showed promising results, ...

  7. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  8. Nanomechanical switch for integration with CMOS logic. (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 42 ENGINEERING; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; FABRICATION; PERFORMANCE; SWITCHES; TESTING; NANOSTRUCTURES; ...

  9. The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

  10. Alternatives to proposed replacement production reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cullingford, H.S.

    1981-06-01

    To insure adequate supplies of plutonium and tritium for defense purposes, an independent evaluation was made by Los Alamos National Laboratory of the numerous alternatives to the proposed replacement production reactors (RPR). This effort concentrated on the defense fuel cycle operation and its technical implications in identifying the principal alternatives for the 1990s. The primary options were identified as (1) existing commercial reactors, (2) existing and planned government-owned facilities (not now used for defense materials production), and (3) other RPRs (not yet proposed) such as CANDU or CANDU-type heavy-water reactors (HWR) for both plutonium and tritium production. The evaluation considered features and differences of various options that could influence choice of RPR alternatives. Barring a change in the US approach to civilian and defense fuel cycles and precluding existing commercial reactors at government-owned sites, the most significant alternatives were identified as a CANDU-type HWR at Savannah River Plant (SRP) site or the Three Mile Island commercial reactor with reprocessing capability at Barnwell Nuclear Fuel Plant and at SRP.

  11. RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

    2013-09-03

    A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

  12. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comment from Mr. Garrett Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Ms. Rutherford Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Ms. Campbell

  13. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Comment submitted on ...

  14. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comment from Downwind, LLC Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Sheila Beck Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Crystal Yarbrough

  15. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Fallon Sanford Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Leftwich Plains and Eastern Clean ...

  16. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register Notice, Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register ...

  17. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Replacing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps | Department of Energy Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps In this project, the Advanced Residential Integrated Solutions team investigated the suitability of mini-split heat pumps for multifamily retrofits. Replacing Resistance Heating with Mini-Split Heat Pumps (638.84 KB) More Documents &

  18. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators This tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #20 Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators (January 2012) (451.58 KB) More Documents & Publications Consider Installing High-Pressure

  19. QUENCHING AND PARTITIONING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT TO REPLACE HOT STAMPING OF

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HIGH STRENGTH AUTOMOTIVE STEEL | Department of Energy QUENCHING AND PARTITIONING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT TO REPLACE HOT STAMPING OF HIGH STRENGTH AUTOMOTIVE STEEL QUENCHING AND PARTITIONING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT TO REPLACE HOT STAMPING OF HIGH STRENGTH AUTOMOTIVE STEEL Colorado School of Mines - Golden, CO Quenching and Partitioning (Q&P) processing allows room-temperature stamping to replace hot stamping (typically 900°C) for making advanced high strength, light-weight steels. The estimated

  20. Replacement-1 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Replacement-1 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Replacement-1 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Replacement Energy System: Georgia-Alabama-South Carolina This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and cooperatives (any one of whom is hereinafter called the Customer) in Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi, Florida, South Carolina, or North Carolina to whom power is provided pursuant to contracts between the Government and the Customer. This rate schedule shall be applicable to the sale at

  1. Monitoring Galvanic Replacement of Ag Nanoparticles by Pd using...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: Monitoring Galvanic Replacement of Ag Nanoparticles by Pd using Low Dose In Situ Liquid STEM. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Monitoring Galvanic ...

  2. Jordan Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The proposed replacement would help improve fish passage and facilitate continued ... the existing diversion dam to help improve fish passage and facilitate continued ...

  3. Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Crude Glycerol as Cost-Effective Fuel for Combined Heat and Power to Replace Fossil Fuels, Final Technical Report Roberts, William L 09 BIOMASS FUELS biofuels, glycerin, glycerol,...

  4. Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guides- Building America Top Innovation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Building America team Building Science Corporation guides contractors through several options for repairing or replacing old windows to improve air sealing and thermal performance.

  5. EA-1994: Malheur Resource Area Jonesboro Diversion Dam Replacement...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Burns Paiute Tribe for replacement of an existing diversion dam and installation of a fish passage structure. BPA's proposed action was to fund the project. PUBLIC COMMENT...

  6. QUENCHING AND PARTITIONING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT TO REPLACE HOT...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HOT STAMPING OF HIGH STRENGTH AUTOMOTIVE STEEL QUENCHING AND PARTITIONING PROCESS DEVELOPMENT TO REPLACE HOT STAMPING OF HIGH STRENGTH AUTOMOTIVE STEEL Colorado School of Mines ...

  7. "Green" Replacement for Industrial Applications of Polar Organic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Find More Like This Return to Search "Green" Replacement for Industrial Applications ... The lower volatility can lead to more energy intensive separation of the solvent; however, ...

  8. Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web Tool, Saving...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ENERGY STAR Residential Program, is part of the Case Study Series, highlighting how "Evaluation Prompts ENERGY STAR Program to Replace Web ...

  9. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  10. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James G.

    1993-01-01

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  11. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-01-01

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  12. Methods for resistive switching of memristors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mickel, Patrick R.; James, Conrad D.; Lohn, Andrew; Marinella, Matthew; Hsia, Alexander H.

    2016-05-10

    The present invention is directed generally to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) devices and systems, as well as methods of employing a thermal resistive model to understand and determine switching of such devices. In particular example, the method includes generating a power-resistance measurement for the memristor device and applying an isothermal model to the power-resistance measurement in order to determine one or more parameters of the device (e.g., filament state).

  13. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  14. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G.; Carter, James G.; Hunter, Scott R.

    1984-01-01

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF.sub.4, C.sub.2 F.sub.6, C.sub.3 F.sub.8, n-C.sub.4 F.sub.10, WF.sub.6, (CF.sub.3).sub.2 S and (CF.sub.3).sub.2 O.

  15. Multiple acousto-optic q-switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deason, Vance A.

    1993-12-07

    An improved dynamic moire interferometer comprised of a lasing medium providing a plurality of beams of coherent light, a multiple q-switch producing multiple trains of 100,000 or more pulses per second, a combining means collimating multiple trains of pulses into substantially a single train and directing beams to specimen gratings affixed to a test material, and a controller, triggering and sequencing the emission of the pulses with the occurrence and recording of a dynamic loading event.

  16. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  17. Trim or Replace Impellers on Oversized Pumps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-09-01

    One in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial pumping systems. As a result of conservative engineering practices, pumps are often substantially larger than they need to be for an industrial plant's process requirements. Centrifugal pumps can often be oversized because of ''rounding up'', trying to accommodate gradual increases in pipe surface roughness and flow resistance over time, or anticipating future plant capacity expansions. In addition, the plant's pumping requirements might not have been clearly defined during the design phase. Because of this conservative approach, pumps can have operating points completely different from their design points. The pump head is often less than expected, while the flow rate is greater. This can cause cavitation and waste energy as the flow rate typically must be regulated with bypass or throttle control. Oversized and throttled pumps that produce excess pressure are excellent candidates for impeller replacement or ''trimming'', to save energy and reduce costs. Trimming involves machining the impeller to reduce its diameter. Trimming should be limited to about 75% of a pump's maximum impeller diameter, because excessive trimming can result in a mismatched impeller and casing. As the impeller diameter decreases, added clearance between the impeller and the fixed pump casing increases internal flow recirculation, causes head loss, and lowers pumping efficiency. For manufacturing standardization purposes, pump casings and shafts are designed to accommodate impellers in a range of sizes. Many pump manufacturers provide pump performance curves that indicate how various models will perform with different impeller diameters or trims. The impeller should not be trimmed any smaller than the minimum diameter shown on the curve. Net positive suction head requirements (NPSHR) usually decrease at lower flow rates and can increase at the higher end of the pump head curve. The NPSHR at a given flow rate will

  18. Q-switched and mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped fibre laser using a single-multi-single fibre filter and piezoelectric

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji Wang; Yunjun Zhang; Aotuo Dong; Xiaoxin Xu; Youlun Ju; Baoquan Yao

    2014-04-28

    The active Q-switched and passive mode-locked Er{sup 3+}-doped all-fibre laser is presented. The fibre laser centre wavelength is located at 1563 nm and determined by the homemade singlemulti- single (SMS) in-line fibre filter. The laser spectrum width is nearly 0.1 nm. The active Q-switched mechanism relies on the polarisation state control using a piezoelectric to press a segment of passive fibre on the circular cavity. The nonlinear polarisation rotation technology is used to realise the passive self-started modelocked operation. In the passive mode-locked regimes, the output average power is 2.1 mW, repetition frequency is 11.96 MHz, and single pulse energy is 0.18 nJ. With the 100-Hz Q-switched regimes running, the output average power is 1.5 mW. The total Q-switched pulse width is 15 μs, and every Q-switched pulse is made up by several tens of mode-locked peak pulses. The calculated output pulse energy of the Q-switched fibre laser is about 15 μJ, and the energy of every mode-locked pulse is about 64–68 nJ during a Q-switched pulse taking into account the power fraction propagating between pulses. (lasers)

  19. The Development of the Electrically Controlled High Power RF Switch and Its Application to Active RF Pulse Compression Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Jiquan; /SLAC

    2009-03-20

    In the past decades, there has been increasing interest in pulsed high power RF sources for building high-gradient high-energy particle accelerators. Passive RF pulse compression systems have been used in many applications to match the available RF sources to the loads requiring higher RF power but a shorter pulse. Theoretically, an active RF pulse compression system has the advantage of higher efficiency and compactness over the passive system. However, the key component for such a system an element capable of switching hundreds of megawatts of RF power in a short time compared to the compressed pulse width is still an open problem. In this dissertation, we present a switch module composed of an active window based on the bulk effects in semiconductor, a circular waveguide three-port network and a movable short plane, with the capability to adjust the S-parameters before and after switching. The RF properties of the switch module were analyzed. We give the scaling laws of the multiple-element switch systems, which allow the expansion of the system to a higher power level. We present a novel overmoded design for the circular waveguide three-port network and the associated circular-to-rectangular mode-converter. We also detail the design and synthesis process of this novel mode-converter. We demonstrate an electrically controlled ultra-fast high power X-band RF active window built with PIN diodes on high resistivity silicon. The window is capable of handling multi-megawatt RF power and can switch in 2-300ns with a 1000A current driver. A low power active pulse compression experiment was carried out with the switch module and a 375ns resonant delay line, obtaining 8 times compression gain with a compression ratio of 20.

  20. Switch Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in LESCO 18 as a Transient Superconducting Phase is Formed Bill Schlotter or Josh Turner CXI L273 SPENCE,JOHN Dynamics of electron transfer: PSIferredoxin Sebastien Boutet...

  1. Switch Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Swimming Pool Covers Swimming Pool Covers Covering a pool when it is not in use is the single most effective means of reducing pool heating costs. | Photo courtesy of Aquatherm Industries. Covering a pool when it is not in use is the single most effective means of reducing pool heating costs. | Photo courtesy of Aquatherm Industries. You can significantly reduce swimming pool heating costs by using a pool cover. On the following pages, see the tables showing the costs of heating pools with and

  2. Fast Superconducting Switch for Superconducting Power Devices...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Strategic bursts of power can play a crucial role in maintaining grid reliability, especially with today's congested power lines and the high penetration of renewable energy ...

  3. High voltage switches having one or more floating conductor layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werne, Roger W.; Sampayan, Stephen; Harris, John Richardson

    2015-11-24

    This patent document discloses high voltage switches that include one or more electrically floating conductor layers that are isolated from one another in the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes. The presence of the one or more electrically floating conductor layers between the top and bottom switch electrodes allow the dielectric medium between the top and bottom switch electrodes to exhibit a higher breakdown voltage than the breakdown voltage when the one or more electrically floating conductor layers are not present between the top and bottom switch electrodes. This increased breakdown voltage in the presence of one or more electrically floating conductor layers in a dielectric medium enables the switch to supply a higher voltage for various high voltage circuits and electric systems.

  4. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  5. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W.; Lange, Arnold C.

    1997-01-01

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  6. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  7. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Baca, Albert G.; Zutavern, Fred J.

    1998-01-01

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  8. Elastomeric organic material for switching application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiju, K. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com Praveen, T. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com Preedep, P. E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com

    2014-10-15

    Organic Electronic devices like OLED, Organic Solar Cells etc are promising as, cost effective alternatives to their inorganic counterparts due to various reasons. However the organic semiconductors currently available are not attractive with respect to their high cost and intricate synthesis protocols. Here we demonstrate that Natural Rubber has the potential to become a cost effective solution to this. Here an attempt has been made to fabricate iodine doped poly isoprene based switching device. In this work Poly methyl methacrylate is used as dielectric layer and Aluminium are employed as electrodes.

  9. Replacing 16 mm film cameras with high definition digital cameras

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balch, K.S.

    1995-12-31

    For many years 16 mm film cameras have been used in severe environments. These film cameras are used on Hy-G automotive sleds, airborne gun cameras, range tracking and other hazardous environments. The companies and government agencies using these cameras are in need of replacing them with a more cost effective solution. Film-based cameras still produce the best resolving capability, however, film development time, chemical disposal, recurring media cost, and faster digital analysis are factors influencing the desire for a 16 mm film camera replacement. This paper will describe a new camera from Kodak that has been designed to replace 16 mm high speed film cameras.

  10. REQUEST FOR LOST/STOLEN BADGE REPLACEMENT | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    REQUEST FOR LOST/STOLEN BADGE REPLACEMENT REQUEST FOR LOST/STOLEN BADGE REPLACEMENT Form documents the circumstances surrounding the loss of the security badge, i.e., the date the badge was Iost/stolen, location where the badge may have been Iost/stolen, attempts to find the lost badge, etc. REQUEST FOR LOST/STOLEN BADGE REPLACEMENT (10.68 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE HQ F 473.1 (fillable pdf) DOE F 5634.1 DOE F 5639.2

  11. Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets Massachusetts Schools Switch to Wood Pellets August 20, 2015 - 5:22pm Addthis Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the Massachusetts schools switching their heating fuel source from petroleum based fuels to wood pellets. Art created by a student at John Briggs Elementary School as part of their recent Green Ceremony. John Briggs Elementary is one of the

  12. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, C.W.

    1987-06-29

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field. 5 figs.

  13. Current-level triggered plasma-opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mendel, Clifford W.

    1989-01-01

    An opening switch for very high power electrical pulses uses a slow magnetic field to confine a plasma across a gap between two electrodes. The plasma conducts the electric pulse across the gap while the switch is closed. A magnetic field generated by the pulse repels the slow magnetic field from the negative electrode to push the plasma from the electrode, opening the switch. A plurality of radial vanes may be used to enhance the slow magnetic field.

  14. Commute Mode Switching Impact Tool | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commute Mode Switching Impact Tool Commute Mode Switching Impact Tool Excel tool helps agencies project the impact that changes in employee commute modes would have on its employee commute emissions. The tool is designed to be used at the worksite level and summed up at the agency level. The output of this tool can help agencies establish appropriate greenhouse gas reduction targets for major worksites or clusters of worksites in common metropolitan areas. Download the Commute Mode Switching

  15. EA-1961: Kalispell-Kerr Transmission Line Rebuild Project; Kalispell and Polson, Montana

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration is preparing an EA to evaluate potential environmental impacts of rebuilding its 41-mile long 115 kilovolt (kV) wood-pole Kalispell-Kerr transmission line between Kalispell and Polson, Montana. The proposed action is to replace wood-pole structures and other line components and improve access roads.

  16. Organic solid state switches incorporating porphyrin compounds and method for producing organic solid state optical switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Gaines, G.L.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Johnson, D.G.; Gosztola, D.J.; O`Neil, M.P.

    1996-07-23

    A light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, said donors selected from porphyrins and other compounds, and a method for making said compound are disclosed. 4 figs.

  17. Organic solid state switches incorporating porphyrin compounds and method for producing organic solid state optical switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasielewski, Michael R.; Gaines, George L.; Niemczyk, Mark P.; Johnson, Douglas G.; Gosztola, David J.; O'Neil, Michael P.

    1996-01-01

    A light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, said donors selected from porphyrins and other compounds, and a method for making said compound.

  18. Organic solid state optical switches and method for producing organic solid state optical switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Gaines, G.L.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Johnson, D.G.; Gosztola, D.J.; O`Neil, M.P.

    1993-01-01

    This invention consists of a light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, and a method for making said compound.

  19. RF transmission line and drill/pipe string switching technology for down-hole telemetry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, David D.; Coates, Don M.

    2007-08-14

    A modulated reflectance well telemetry apparatus having an electrically conductive pipe extending from above a surface to a point below the surface inside a casing. An electrical conductor is located at a position a distance from the electrically conductive pipe and extending from above the surface to a point below the surface. Modulated reflectance apparatus is located below the surface for modulating well data into a RF carrier transmitted from the surface and reflecting the modulated carrier back to the surface. A RF transceiver is located at the surface and is connected between the electrically conductive pipe and the electrical conductor for transmitting a RF signal that is confined between the electrically conductive well pipe and the electrical conductor to the modulated reflectance apparatus, and for receiving reflected data on the well from the modulated reflectance apparatus.

  20. A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Motors without Permanent Magnets A New Class of Switched Reluctance Motors without Permanent Magnets 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program ...

  1. Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A specialized radio frequency (RF) micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) switch that promises enhanced capabilities for next-generation military and commercial communication ...

  2. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, R.J.

    1996-10-22

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode is disclosed. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources. 12 figs.

  3. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Rodney J.

    1996-01-01

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources.

  4. Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Malloy, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

  5. Switching phase separation mode by varying the hydrophobicity...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Switching phase separation mode by varying the hydrophobicity of polymer additives in solution-processed semiconducting small-moleculepolymer blends Citation Details In-Document ...

  6. Switching behaviors of graphene-boron nitride nanotube heterojunctions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    analogue devices but their gapless nature has hindered their use in digital switches. ... 5; Journal ID: ISSN 2045-2322 Publisher: Nature Publishing Group Research Org: Sandia ...

  7. Picture of the Week: Molecular "dimmer" switches for biomedicine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Molecular "dimmer" switches for biomedicine and bioenergy Scientists at Los Alamos ... The research has potential widespread application in biomedicine and bioenergy. August 30, ...

  8. Single-crystalline monolayer and multilayer graphene nano switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Peng; Cui, Tianhong; Jing, Gaoshan; Zhang, Bo; Sando, Shota

    2014-03-17

    Growth of monolayer, bi-layer, and tri-layer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using chemical vapor deposition method is reported. SCG's mechanical properties and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by atomic force microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Electro-mechanical switches based on mono- and bi-layer SCG were fabricated, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at pull-in voltage as low as 1 V, and high switching speed about 100 ns. These devices exhibit lifetime without a breakdown of over 5000 cycles, far more durable than any other graphene nanoelectromechanical system switches reported.

  9. DNA-mediated excitonic upconversion FRET switching

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kellis, Donald L.; Rehn, Sarah M.; Cannon, Brittany L.; Davis, Paul H.; Graugnard, Elton; Lee, Jeunghoon; Yurke, Bernard; Knowlton, William B.

    2015-11-17

    Excitonics is a rapidly expanding field of nanophotonics in which the harvesting of photons, ensuing creation and transport of excitons via Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET), and subsequent charge separation or photon emission has led to the demonstration of excitonic wires, switches, Boolean logic and light harvesting antennas for many applications. FRET funnels excitons down an energy gradient resulting in energy loss with each step along the pathway. Conversely, excitonic energy up conversion via up conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), although currently inefficient, serves as an energy ratchet to boost the exciton energy. Although FRET-based up conversion has been demonstrated, it suffersmore » from low FRET efficiency and lacks the ability to modulate the FRET. We have engineered an up conversion FRET-based switch by combining lanthanide-doped UCNPs and fluorophores that demonstrates excitonic energy up conversion by nearly a factor of 2, an excited state donor to acceptor FRET efficiency of nearly 25%, and an acceptor fluorophore quantum efficiency that is close to unity. These findings offer a promising path for energy up conversion in nanophotonic applications including artificial light harvesting, excitonic circuits, photovoltaics, nanomedicine, and optoelectronics.« less

  10. DNA-mediated excitonic upconversion FRET switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellis, Donald L.; Rehn, Sarah M.; Cannon, Brittany L.; Davis, Paul H.; Graugnard, Elton; Lee, Jeunghoon; Yurke, Bernard; Knowlton, William B.

    2015-11-17

    Excitonics is a rapidly expanding field of nanophotonics in which the harvesting of photons, ensuing creation and transport of excitons via Förster resonant energy transfer (FRET), and subsequent charge separation or photon emission has led to the demonstration of excitonic wires, switches, Boolean logic and light harvesting antennas for many applications. FRET funnels excitons down an energy gradient resulting in energy loss with each step along the pathway. Conversely, excitonic energy up conversion via up conversion nanoparticles (UCNPs), although currently inefficient, serves as an energy ratchet to boost the exciton energy. Although FRET-based up conversion has been demonstrated, it suffers from low FRET efficiency and lacks the ability to modulate the FRET. We have engineered an up conversion FRET-based switch by combining lanthanide-doped UCNPs and fluorophores that demonstrates excitonic energy up conversion by nearly a factor of 2, an excited state donor to acceptor FRET efficiency of nearly 25%, and an acceptor fluorophore quantum efficiency that is close to unity. These findings offer a promising path for energy up conversion in nanophotonic applications including artificial light harvesting, excitonic circuits, photovoltaics, nanomedicine, and optoelectronics.

  11. Replace Pressure-Reducing Valves with Backpressure Turbogenerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP steam tip sheet on replacing pressure-reducing valves provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  12. EA-0923: Winnett School District Boiler Replacement Project, Winnett, Montana

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to replace the Winnett School District complex's existing oil-fired heating system with a new coal-fired heating system with funds...

  13. Reminder: Y-12 Public Warning Siren System being replaced, tested...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    located around the Oak Ridge area is being replaced this month with a test of the new system on Sept. 26. The vendor, American Signal, will be testing the sirens Sept. 26...

  14. Washington State Department of Ecology: Replacement Wells Requiring...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ecology: Replacement Wells Requiring a Water Right Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Legal Document- OtherOther: Washington State Department of...

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of LED T8 Replacement Lamp Products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richman, Eric E.; Kinzey, Bruce R.; Miller, Naomi J.

    2011-05-23

    A report on a lab setting analysis involving LED lamps intended to directly replace T8 fluorescent lamps (4') showing light output, power, and economic comparisons with other fluorescent options.

  16. Ultrasound image guided acetabular implant orientation during total hip replacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, John; Haddad, Waleed; Kluiwstra, Jan-Ulco; Matthews, Dennis; Trauner, Kenneth

    2003-08-19

    A system for assisting in precise location of the acetabular implant during total hip replacement. The system uses ultrasound imaging for guiding the placement and orientation of the implant.

  17. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  18. Lessons learned from reheater replacements TVA Gallatin Fossil Plant units 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, P.S.; Stangarone, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    Gallatin Units 1 and 2 have experienced a long history of problems in the reheat front inlet platens and front outlet pendants. Cracks were discovered at lug welds on the reheat inlet platen assemblies after six years of operation. During the next ten years cracking at lugs continued to be a problem in both the inlet platen and front outlet assemblies. Solutions included changing tube material and spacing, and redesigning lugs. None of the solutions were successful. In 1980, a fuel switch to washed coal was made to reduce boiler slagging. Within two years of the fuel change, liquid phase corrosion began to attack the tubes. The corrosion became severe and elements were replaced at seven year intervals. During this time, EPRI sought utilities with boilers experiencing liquid phase corrosion to test new corrosion resistant materials. Gallatin Unit 2 was selected as one of the test units. Probes containing a number of different alloys were inserted into the furnace and subjected to the corrosion attacks. After a five year study, HR3C was selected as the alloy from which to build a complete set of elements for further testing. Reheat assemblies were manufactured from HR3C and installed in Unit 2 and Unit 1 Shortly after Unit 1 returned to service, swages between the front pendant and inlet platen elements failed by brittle fracture due to the cold swaging operation used in fabrication. Cracks were discovered after two years of operation at the tube to lug welds and the new elements were experiencing the same liquid phase corrosion as in the past. The attempt to resolve the liquid phase corrosion problem in Gallatin Units 1 and 2 pendant reheater revealed that past replacements did not address the root cause of the problems. HR3C is a relatively brittle material and manufacturers used traditional methods to design and fabricate the elements. Inadequate fabrication and erection procedures have led to several in-service problems not associated with liquid phase corrosion.

  19. Biomass 2011: Replace the Whole Barrel, Supply the Whole Market |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy 1: Replace the Whole Barrel, Supply the Whole Market Biomass 2011: Replace the Whole Barrel, Supply the Whole Market The New Horizons of Bioenergy Biomass 2011 July 26-27, 2011 Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center 201 Waterfront Street National Harbor, MD 20745 Thank you to everyone who attended and participated to help make Biomass 2011 a remarkable success. More than 600 speakers, moderators, sponsors, exhibitors, and attendees were able to listen to

  20. Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cobalt Discovery Replaces Precious Metals Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst Cobalt holds promise as an industrial catalyst with potential applications in such energy-related technologies such as production of biofuels and reduction of carbon dioxide. November 26, 2012 The artwork depicts the substitution of cobalt for precious metals in catalysis as a variation on the ancient alchemical theme of transmuting base metals into precious ones. The artwork depicts the

  1. Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cobalt Discovery Replaces Precious Metals Cobalt discovery replaces precious metals as industrial catalyst Cobalt holds promise as an industrial catalyst with potential applications in such energy-related technologies such as production of biofuels and reduction of carbon dioxide. November 26, 2012 The artwork depicts the substitution of cobalt for precious metals in catalysis as a variation on the ancient alchemical theme of transmuting base metals into precious ones. The artwork depicts the

  2. Dissecting the cAMP-inducible allosteric switch in protein kinase A RI alpha

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sjoberg, T.J.; Kornev, A.P.; Taylor, S.S.; /SLAC

    2012-08-23

    The regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) are the major receptors of cAMP in most eukaryotic cells. As the cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) domains release cAMP and bind to the catalytic subunit of PKA, they undergo a major conformational change. The change is mediated by the B/C helix in CNB-A, which extends into one long helix that now separates the two CNB domains and docks onto the surface of the catalytic subunit. We explore here the role of three key residues on the B/C helix that dock onto the catalytic subunit, Arg226, Leu233, and Met 234. By replacing each residue with Ala, we show that each contributes significantly to creating the R:C interface. By also deleting the second CNB domain (CNB-B), we show furthermore that CNB-B is a critical part of the cAMP-induced conformational switch that dislodges the B/C helix from the surface of the catalytic subunit. Without CNB-B the K{sub a} for activation by cAMP increases from 80 to 1000 nM. Replacing any of the key interface residues with Ala reduces the K{sub a} to 25-40 nM. Leu233 and M234 contribute to a hydrophobic latch that binds the B/C helix onto the large lobe of the C-subunit, while Arg226 is part of an electrostatic switch that couples the B/C helix to the phosphate binding cassette where the cAMP docks.

  3. Transmission Business Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Business Line Non-Federal Financing of Transmission Projects - March 2004 Critical paths on the Northwest transmission grid are congested and the system is near or at...

  4. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Marshall

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hughes | Department of Energy from Marshall Hughes Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Marshall Hughes Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. Comment from Marshall Hughes 07-10-15.pdf (14.91 KB) More Documents & Publications Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Dyer Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Sheila Beck Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Patti McCutchen

  5. On-line process control monitoring system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Van Hare, David R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An on-line, fiber-optic based apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a chemical substance at a plurality of locations in a chemical processing system comprises a plurality of probes, each of which is at a different location in the system, a light source, optic fibers for carrying light to and from the probes, a multiplexer for switching light from the source from one probe to the next in series, a diode array spectrophotometer for producing a spectrum from the light received from the probes, and a computer programmed to analyze the spectra so produced. The probes allow the light to pass through the chemical substance so that a portion of the light is absorbed before being returned to the multiplexer. A standard and a reference cell are included for data validation and error checking.

  6. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  7. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  8. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  9. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R.

    1986-01-01

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  10. High voltage photo switch package module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  11. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  12. All fiber passively Q-switched laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Soh, Daniel B. S.; Bisson, Scott E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments relate to an all fiber passively Q-switched laser. The laser includes a large core doped gain fiber having a first end. The large core doped gain fiber has a first core diameter. The laser includes a doped single mode fiber (saturable absorber) having a second core diameter that is smaller than the first core diameter. The laser includes a mode transformer positioned between a second end of the large core doped gain fiber and a first end of the single mode fiber. The mode transformer has a core diameter that transitions from the first core diameter to the second core diameter and filters out light modes not supported by the doped single mode fiber. The laser includes a laser cavity formed between a first reflector positioned adjacent the large core doped gain fiber and a second reflector positioned adjacent the doped single mode fiber.

  13. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2011-06-14

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  14. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  15. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2012-02-21

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has an outer rotor mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. First and second pluralities of permanent-magnets (PMs) are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the outer rotor. An inner stator is coupled to the shaft and has i) a stator core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second pluralities of stator poles mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the stator core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  16. Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christenson, Todd R.; Polosky, Marc A.

    2009-12-15

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

  17. Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christenson, Todd R.; Polosky, Marc A.

    2007-10-30

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

  18. Charge line quad pulser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, R.

    1996-10-08

    A quartet of parallel coupled planar triodes is removably mounted in a quadrahedron shaped PCB structure. Releasable brackets and flexible means attached to each triode socket make triode cathode and grid contact with respective conductive coatings on the PCB and a detachable cylindrical conductive element enclosing and contacting the triode anodes jointly permit quick and easy replacement of faulty triodes. By such orientation, the quad pulser can convert a relatively low and broad pulse into a very high and narrow pulse. 16 figs.

  19. Charge line quad pulser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A quartet of parallel coupled planar triodes is removably mounted in a quadrahedron shaped PCB structure. Releasable brackets and flexible means attached to each triode socket make triode cathode and grid contact with respective conductive coatings on the PCB and a detachable cylindrical conductive element enclosing and contacting the triode anodes jointly permit quick and easy replacement of faulty triodes. By such orientation, the quad pulser can convert a relatively low and broad pulse into a very high and narrow pulse.

  20. Flow line sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  1. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  3. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  4. Line Extension Alternatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Board (PSB) of Vermont developed rules regarding utility line extension requests. While the majority of the rules focus on the procedure followed (and associated fees) for the...

  5. Lineman (Live Line)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are several Lineman (Liveline) positions located in Spokane, Washington. A successful candidate in this position will perform construction and maintenance work for live-line on wood and steel...

  6. Maersk Line Equipment guide

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Maersk Line containers has an average age of less than six years and a stringent maintenance programme ensures they are always ready for service. Each container in our fleet...

  7. Reduced Switching Frequency Active Harmonic Elimination for Multilevel Converters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Zhong; Tolbert, Leon M; Chiasson, John N; Ozpineci, Burak

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a reduced switching-frequency active-harmonic-elimination method (RAHEM) to eliminate any number of specific order harmonics of multilevel converters. First, resultant theory is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate low-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for a fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Next, based on the number of harmonics to be eliminated, Newton climbing method is applied to transcendental equations to eliminate high-order harmonics and to determine switching angles for the fundamental frequency-switching scheme. Third, the magnitudes and phases of the residual lower order harmonics are computed, generated, and subtracted from the original voltage waveform to eliminate these low-order harmonics. Compared to the active-harmonic-elimination method (AHEM), which generates square waves to cancel high-order harmonics, RAHEM has lower switching frequency. The simulation results show that the method can effectively eliminate all the specific harmonics, and a low total harmonic distortion (THD) near sine wave is produced. An experimental 11-level H-bridge multilevel converter with a field-programmable gate-array controller is employed to experimentally validate the method. The experimental results show that RAHEM does effectively eliminate any number of specific harmonics, and the output voltage waveform has low switching frequency and low THD.

  8. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank Roy, Kaushik

    2014-05-07

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  9. Photo-induced micro-mechanical optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajic, Slobodan; Datskos, Panagiotis George; Egert, Charles M.

    2002-01-01

    An optical switch is formed by introducing light lengthwise to a microcantilever waveguide directed toward a second waveguide. The microcantilever is caused to bend by light emitted from a laser diode orthogonal to the microcantilever and at an energy above the band gap, which induces stress as a result of the generation of free carriers. The bending of the waveguide directs the carrier frequency light to a second receptor waveguide or to a non-responsive surface. The switch may be combined in an array to perform multiple switching functions rapidly and at low energy losses.

  10. Capacitive microelectromechanical switches with dynamic soft-landing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jain, Ankit; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful; Nair, Pradeep R.

    2015-10-13

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS)-based electrical switch. The electrical switch includes a moveable electrode, a dielectric layer positioned adjacent the moveable electrode on a first side of the dielectric layer and spaced apart from the moveable electrode when the moveable electrode is in an inactivated position and in contact with the moveable electrode when the moveable electrode is in an activated position, and a substrate attached to the dielectric layer on a second side opposite to the first side, the moveable electrode is configured to brake prior to coming in contact with the dielectric layer when the moveable electrode is switched between the inactivated state and the activated state.

  11. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  12. Spark gap device for precise switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1984-10-02

    A spark gap device for precise switching of an energy storage capacitor into an exploding bridge wire load is disclosed. Niobium electrodes having a melting point of 2,415 degrees centigrade are spaced apart by an insulating cylinder to define a spark gap. The electrodes are supported by conductive end caps which, together with the insulating cylinder, form a hermetically sealed chamber filled with an inert, ionizable gas, such as pure xenon. A quantity of solid radioactive carbon-14 within the chamber adjacent the spark gap serves as a radiation stabilizer. The sides of the electrodes and the inner wall of the insulating cylinder are spaced apart a sufficient distance to prevent unwanted breakdown initiation. A conductive sleeve may envelop the outside of the insulating member from the midpoint of the spark gap to the cap adjacent the cathode. The outer metallic surfaces of the device may be coated with a hydrogen-impermeable coating to lengthen the shelf life and operating life of the device. The device breaks down at about 1,700 volts for input voltage rates up to 570 volts/millisecond and allows peak discharge currents of up to 3,000 amperes from a 0.3 microfarad energy storage capacitor for more than 1,000 operations. 3 figs.

  13. Spark gap device for precise switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1984-01-01

    A spark gap device for precise switching of an energy storage capacitor into an exploding bridge wire load is disclosed. Niobium electrodes having a melting point of 2,415 degrees centrigrade are spaced apart by an insulating cylinder to define a spark gap. The electrodes are supported by conductive end caps which, together with the insulating cylinder, form a hermetically sealed chamber filled with an inert, ionizable gas, such as pure xenon. A quantity of solid radioactive carbon-14 within the chamber adjacent the spark gap serves as a radiation stabilizer. The sides of the electrodes and the inner wall of the insulating cylinder are spaced apart a sufficient distance to prevent unwanted breakdown initiation. A conductive sleeve may envelop the outside of the insulating member from the midpoint of the spark gap to the cap adjacent the cathode. The outer metallic surfaces of the device may be coated with a hydrogen-impermeable coating to lengthen the shelf life and operating life of the device. The device breaks down at about 1,700 volts for input voltage rates up to 570 volts/millisecond and allows peak discharge currents of up to 3,000 amperes from a 0.3 microfarad energy storage capacitor for more than 1,000 operations.

  14. Replacing the whole barrel of oil with plants and microbes

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake

    2014-06-24

    In this May 13, 2013 talk, Blake Simmons discusses how scientists are exploring how plants and microbes can be used to replace many of the everyday goods we use that are derived from petroleum. To watch the entire entire Science at the Theater event, in which seven of our scientists present BIG ideas in eight minutes each.

  15. CALiPER Exploratory Study Retail Replacement Lamps – 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-02

    In 2010, CALiPER conducted a study on LED replacement lamps found in retail stores. The results were less than satisfactory, and many products were classified as being unlikely to meet consumer expectations. In November 2011, CALiPER purchased a new sample of products for a follow-up study, with the intent of characterizing the progress of this essential market segment.

  16. Selection and Implementation of a Replacement Cutting Tool Selection Application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, Gordon

    2008-10-06

    A new commercial cutting tool software package replaced an internally created legacy system. This report describes the issues that surfaced during the migration and installation of the commercial package and the solutions employed. The primary issues discussed are restructuring the data between two drastically different database schemas and the creation of individual component graphics.

  17. CALiPER Special Summary Report: Retail Replacement Lamp Testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-04-01

    CALiPER testing has evaluated many products for commercial lighting markets and found some excellent performers. However, many of these are not available on the retail market. This special testing was undertaken to identify and test solid-state lighting (SSL) replacement lamp products that are available to the general public through retail stores and websites.

  18. HVAC & Building Management Control System Energy Efficiency Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hernandez, Adriana

    2012-09-21

    The project objective was the replacement of an aging, un-repairable HVAC system which has grown inefficient and a huge energy consumer with low energy and efficient HVAC units, and installation of energy efficient building control technologies at City's YMCA Community Center.

  19. Economics of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) machine replacement. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudderow, G.D.

    1994-09-01

    Continued use of chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) refrigerants may have a severe financial as well as operational impact on the users of air-conditioning and other refrigeration equipment as price increases continue and production is phased out. With production of CFC's coming to a halt on 31 December 1995, the two major refrigerants that have been used in commercial and industrial cooling applications will no longer be available. The phase out of production is a result of national and international agreement that these, as well as other CFC's, are a primary cause of the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer. To help the user reduce this impact, an economic model based on the time value of money and utilizing replacement analysis was developed. The model is designed to require the user to supply information on his own equipment and on the projected costs of non-CFC replacement equipment. After running the model, the point in time when the existing equipment should be replaced is indicated. By way of example, the model is applied to a centrifugal chiller application. The results of this approach indicate that the increase in CFC costs is only a small factor in the cost of chiller operation. Rather than make a replacement to avoid the high price of refrigerant, the controlling factor is the overall cost of power consumption required to provide the cooling effect.

  20. Replacing the whole barrel of oil with plants and microbes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simmons, Blake

    2013-05-29

    In this May 13, 2013 talk, Blake Simmons discusses how scientists are exploring how plants and microbes can be used to replace many of the everyday goods we use that are derived from petroleum. To watch the entire entire Science at the Theater event, in which seven of our scientists present BIG ideas in eight minutes each.

  1. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, P.; Eng, P.

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  2. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. PDF icon Comment from Dr. Contreras ...

  3. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ms. Callahan Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Ms. Callahan Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. PDF icon Comment from Ms. Callahan ...

  4. ARP/wARP and molecular replacement: the next generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, Serge X. Ben Jelloul, Marouane; Long, Fei; Vagin, Alexei; Knipscheer, Puck; Lebbink, Joyce; Sixma, Titia K.; Lamzin, Victor S.; Murshudov, Garib N.; Perrakis, Anastassis

    2008-01-01

    A systematic test shows how ARP/wARP deals with automated model building for structures that have been solved by molecular replacement. A description of protocols in the flex-wARP control system and studies of two specific cases are also presented. Automatic iterative model (re-)building, as implemented in ARP/wARP and its new control system flex-wARP, is particularly well suited to follow structure solution by molecular replacement. More than 100 molecular-replacement solutions automatically solved by the BALBES software were submitted to three standard protocols in flex-wARP and the results were compared with final models from the PDB. Standard metrics were gathered in a systematic way and enabled the drawing of statistical conclusions on the advantages of each protocol. Based on this analysis, an empirical estimator was proposed that predicts how good the final model produced by flex-wARP is likely to be based on the experimental data and the quality of the molecular-replacement solution. To introduce the differences between the three flex-wARP protocols (keeping the complete search model, converting it to atomic coordinates but ignoring atom identities or using the electron-density map calculated from the molecular-replacement solution), two examples are also discussed in detail, focusing on the evolution of the models during iterative rebuilding. This highlights the diversity of paths that the flex-wARP control system can employ to reach a nearly complete and accurate model while actually starting from the same initial information.

  5. Hypersensitive switching behavior in the Q-phase of unconventional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Hypersensitive switching behavior in the Q-phase of unconventional superconductor CeCoIn5 Authors: Kim, Duk Young 1 ; Lin, Shizeng 1 ; Weickert, Franziska 2 ; Bauer, ...

  6. Methods for resistive switching of memristors (Patent) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Methods for resistive switching of memristors The present invention is directed generally to resistive random-access memory (RRAM or ReRAM) devices and systems, as well as ...

  7. Switching behaviors of graphene-boron nitride nanotube heterojunctions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Parashar, Vyom; Durand, Corentin P.; Hao, Boyi; Amorim, Rodrigo G.; Pandey, Ravindra; Tiwari, Bishnu; Zhang, Dongyan; Liu, Yang; Li, An -Ping; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2015-07-20

    High electron mobility of graphene has enabled their application in high-frequency analogue devices but their gapless nature has hindered their use in digital switches. In contrast, the structural analogous, h-BN sheets and BN nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide band gap insulators. Here we show that the growth of electrically insulating BNNTs on graphene can enable the use of graphene as effective digital switches. These graphene-BNNT heterojunctions were characterized at room temperature by four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (4-probe STM) under real-time monitoring of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A switching ratio as high as 105 at a turn-on voltage as low as 0.5more » V were recorded. Simulation by density functional theory (DFT) suggests that mismatch of the density of states (DOS) is responsible for these novel switching behaviors.« less

  8. Get Current: Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-06-01

    Switching on clean energy technologies means strengthening the economy while protecting the environment. This activity book for all ages promotes energy awareness, with facts on different types of energy and a variety of puzzles in an energy theme.

  9. Resistive switching phenomena: A review of statistical physics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: Resistive switching phenomena: A review of ... Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email ...

  10. Electro-mechanical heat switch for cryogenic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van den Berg, Marcel L.; Batteux, Jan D.; Labov, Simon E.

    2003-01-01

    A heat switch includes two symmetric jaws. Each jaw is comprised of a link connected at a translatable joint to a flexible arm. Each arm rotates about a fixed pivot, and has an articulated end including a thermal contact pad connected to a heat sink. The links are joined together at a translatable main joint. To close the heat switch, a closing solenoid is actuated and forces the main joint to an over-center position. This movement rotates the arms about their pivots, respectively, forces each of them into a stressed configuration, and forces the thermal contact pads towards each other and into compressive contact with a cold finger. The closing solenoid is then deactivated. The heat switch remains closed due to a restoring force generated by the stressed configuration of each arm, until actuation of an opening solenoid returns the main joint to its starting open-switch position.

  11. Shuttle-promoted nano-mechanical current switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, Taegeun Kiselev, Mikhail N.; Gorelik, Leonid Y.; Shekhter, Robert I.; Kikoin, Konstantin

    2015-09-21

    We investigate electron shuttling in three-terminal nanoelectromechanical device built on a movable metallic rod oscillating between two drains. The device shows a double-well shaped electromechanical potential tunable by a source-drain bias voltage. Four stationary regimes controllable by the bias are found for this device: (i) single stable fixed point, (ii) two stable fixed points, (iii) two limit cycles, and (iv) single limit cycle. In the presence of perpendicular magnetic field, the Lorentz force makes possible switching from one electromechanical state to another. The mechanism of tunable transitions between various stable regimes based on the interplay between voltage controlled electromechanical instability and magnetically controlled switching is suggested. The switching phenomenon is implemented for achieving both a reliable active current switch and sensoring of small variations of magnetic field.

  12. Switching behaviors of graphene-boron nitride nanotube heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parashar, Vyom; Durand, Corentin P.; Hao, Boyi; Amorim, Rodrigo G.; Pandey, Ravindra; Tiwari, Bishnu; Zhang, Dongyan; Liu, Yang; Li, An -Ping; Yap, Yoke Khin

    2015-07-20

    High electron mobility of graphene has enabled their application in high-frequency analogue devices but their gapless nature has hindered their use in digital switches. In contrast, the structural analogous, h-BN sheets and BN nanotubes (BNNTs) are wide band gap insulators. Here we show that the growth of electrically insulating BNNTs on graphene can enable the use of graphene as effective digital switches. These graphene-BNNT heterojunctions were characterized at room temperature by four-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (4-probe STM) under real-time monitoring of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A switching ratio as high as 105 at a turn-on voltage as low as 0.5 V were recorded. Simulation by density functional theory (DFT) suggests that mismatch of the density of states (DOS) is responsible for these novel switching behaviors.

  13. High-voltage, low-inductance gas switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gruner, Frederick R.; Stygar, William A.

    2016-03-22

    A low-inductance, air-insulated gas switch uses a de-enhanced annular trigger ring disposed between two opposing high voltage electrodes. The switch is DC chargeable to 200 kilovolts or more, triggerable, has low jitter (5 ns or less), has pre-fire and no-fire rates of no more than one in 10,000 shots, and has a lifetime of greater than 100,000 shots. Importantly, the switch also has a low inductance (less than 60 nH) and the ability to conduct currents with less than 100 ns rise times. The switch can be used with linear transformer drives or other pulsed-power systems.

  14. Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Researchers have found a way to magnetize this material using light, an effect that persists for hours at a time. March 27, 2014 Los Alamos postdoctoral fellow William Rice holds a crystal of strontium titanate up to the light. This crystal, previously thought to be nonmagnetic, turns out to have surprising magnetic features when treated with special "circularly polarized"

  15. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.

    2012-03-27

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  16. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebel, Falko Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia; Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S.

    2014-06-30

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

  17. New Mathematical Method Reveals Where Genes Switch On or Off

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New Mathematical Method Reveals Where Genes Switch On or Off New Mathematical Method Reveals Where Genes Switch On or Off "Compressed sensing" determines atomic-level energy potentials with accuracy approaching experimental measurement February 22, 2012 John Hules, JAHules@lbl.gov, +1 510 486 6008 Figure 1. Helix-turn-helix (HTH) proteins are the most widely distributed family of DNA-binding proteins, occurring in all biological kingdoms. This image shows a lambda repressor HTH

  18. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-20_banerjee.pdf (160.26 KB) More Documents & Publications Diesel Injection Shear-Stress Advanced Nozzle (DISSAN) In-Cylinder Mechanisms of PCI Heat-Release Rate Control by Fuel Reactivity

  19. Beyond the Light Switch - Joint Center for Energy Storage Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 22, 2015, Videos Beyond the Light Switch On this edition of Beyond the Light Switch, aired on PBS in April 2015, the program focuses on the electrification of the American economy - in transportation, shipping, airlines, even in the U.S. military and its importance to our national security. Scientific American's David Biello came to Argonne (34 min. into program) to discuss the research required to meet the nation's energy storage goals.

  20. Bonneville upgrades lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-30

    A stretch of Bonneville Power Administration transmission line between Spokane and the Grand Coulee Dam is an 82-mile bottleneck as it is the last 115-kv section of [open quotes]road[close quotes] along a 500-kv transmission [open quotes]highway[close quotes]. Soon the administration will change all that. A number of independent and utility powerplants have been proposed in Idaho, Montana and the Spokane, Wash., area during the 1990s. As the operators will need to move their power, Bonneville is planning to build a $144-million, 500-kv line to upgrade the 115-kv section. The agency is planning to use its existing right-of-way.

  1. ONE NEVADA LINE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE PROJECT SUMMARY In February 2011, the Department of Energy issued a $343 million loan guarantee to finance the One Nevada Transmission Line (ON Line) project, a 235-mile, 500 kV AC transmission line capable of carrying 600 MW of power to the grid running

  2. Efficient Switches for Solar Power Conversion: Four Quadrant GaN Switch Enabled Three Phase Grid-Tied Microinverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-13

    Solar ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing power switches for new types of inverters that improve the efficiency and reliability of converting energy from solar panels into useable electricity for the grid. Transistors act as fast switches and control the electrical energy that flows in an electrical circuit. Turning a transistor off opens the circuit and stops the flow of electrical current; turning it on closes the circuit and allows electrical current to flow. In this way a transistor can be used to convert DC from a solar panel into AC for use in a home. Transphorm’s transistors will enable a single semiconductor device to switch electrical currents at high-voltage in both directions—making the inverter more compact and reliable. Transphorm is using Gallium Nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material in its transistors instead of silicon, which is used in most conventional transistors, because GaN transistors have lower losses at higher voltages and switching frequencies.

  3. PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act 2005 » PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE On March 25, 2016, U.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) will participate in the development of the Plains & Eastern Clean Line project (Project), a major clean energy infrastructure project. Through section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Congress authorized DOE to promote electric

  4. Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line - Part 2 Application |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Transmission Line - Part 2 Application Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line - Part 2 Application In addition to conducting a NEPA review of the proposed Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line project, DOE will also conduct due diligence on non-NEPA factors such as the project's technical and financial feasibility and whether the project is in the public interest. DOE will conduct a thorough review that includes making all required statutory

  5. Measure Guideline: Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, D.; Dakin, B.

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  6. Magnetic Nanoparticle Capilary Flow as a Replacement for Lateral Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chromatography - Energy Innovation Portal Magnetic Nanoparticle Capilary Flow as a Replacement for Lateral Flow Chromatography Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis invention looks at method to detect targeted analytes. DescriptionThe method most often used now is Lateral Flow Chromatography (LFC) which has many drawbacks including: the need for extensive optimization, sensitivity, specificity, lack of quantitative data and extensive

  7. OSRAM SYLVANIA Develops High-Efficiency LED Troffer Replacement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, OSRAM SYLVANIA is developing a high-efficiency LED 2'x2' troffer replacement that is expected to be commercially available in the spring of 2012 and to be cost-competitive with existing troffers of that size. It is projected to have a light output of up to 4,000 lumens, an efficacy of more than 100 lm/W, and a CCT of 3500K.

  8. Polypeptide having an amino acid replaced with N-benzylglycine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Alexander R.; Young, Janis D.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention relates to one or more polypeptides having useful biological activity in a mammal, which comprise: a polypeptide related to bradykinin of four to ten amino acid residues wherein one or more specific amino acids in the polypeptide chain are replaced with achiral N-benzylglycine. These polypeptide analogues have useful potent agonist or antagonist pharmacological properties depending upon the structure. A preferred polypeptide is (N-benzylglycine.sup.7)-bradykinin.

  9. Measure Guideline. Air Conditioner Diagnostics, Maintenance, and Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Springer, David; Dakin, Bill

    2013-03-01

    This guideline responds to the need for an efficient means of identifying, diagnosing, and repairing faults in air conditioning systems in existing homes that are undergoing energy upgrades. Inadequate airflow due to constricted ducts or undersized filters, improper refrigerant charge, and other system defects can be corrected at a fraction of the cost of equipment replacement and can yield significant savings. The guideline presents a two-step approach to diagnostics and repair.

  10. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  11. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  12. Conceptual design report for facilities capability assurance program (FCAP) roads and parking lot replacements FY 1994 line item

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-01-06

    Mound, located in Montgomery County, Miamisburg, Ohio, on the east bank of the Great Miami River, was established in 1948 by the Atomic Energy Commission to develop and manufacture explosive devices for the United States Government. Mound occupies 305 acres and at present the facility is operated by EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. It is devoted to research, development, testing and manufacturing of components for nuclear weapons systems under the auspices of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The complex employs approximately 2,200 people generating an annual payroll in excess of $75 million. Whereas Government sponsors have traditionally placed great emphasis on new technological concepts and manufacturing processes for weapons, unfortunately, such has not been the case in the maintenance of the roadway infrastructure. The roadway system which, for the most part is 40 years old, must be restored to a condition which will ensure smooth transportation of weapon component production, safe access for emergency and fire vehicles and safe ingress and egress for pedestrian personnel. This Facilities Capability Assurance Program (FCAP) project will provide this much needed restoration.

  13. Drill string transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  14. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  15. High voltage photo-switch package module having encapsulation with profiled metallized concavities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen A

    2015-05-05

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces metalized with first metallic layers formed thereon, and encapsulated with a dielectric encapsulation material such as for example epoxy. The first metallic layers are exposed through the encapsulation via encapsulation concavities which have a known contour profile, such as a Rogowski edge profile. Second metallic layers are then formed to line the concavities and come in contact with the first metal layer, to form profiled and metalized encapsulation concavities which mitigate enhancement points at the edges of electrodes matingly seated in the concavities. One or more optical waveguides may also be bonded to the substrate for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer, with the encapsulation also encapsulating the waveguides.

  16. Ferroelectric opening switches for large-scale pulsed power drivers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brennecka, Geoffrey L.; Rudys, Joseph Matthew; Reed, Kim Warren; Pena, Gary Edward; Tuttle, Bruce Andrew; Glover, Steven Frank

    2009-11-01

    Fast electrical energy storage or Voltage-Driven Technology (VDT) has dominated fast, high-voltage pulsed power systems for the past six decades. Fast magnetic energy storage or Current-Driven Technology (CDT) is characterized by 10,000 X higher energy density than VDT and has a great number of other substantial advantages, but it has all but been neglected for all of these decades. The uniform explanation for neglect of CDT technology is invariably that the industry has never been able to make an effective opening switch, which is essential for the use of CDT. Most approaches to opening switches have involved plasma of one sort or another. On a large scale, gaseous plasmas have been used as a conductor to bridge the switch electrodes that provides an opening function when the current wave front propagates through to the output end of the plasma and fully magnetizes the plasma - this is called a Plasma Opening Switch (POS). Opening can be triggered in a POS using a magnetic field to push the plasma out of the A-K gap - this is called a Magnetically Controlled Plasma Opening Switch (MCPOS). On a small scale, depletion of electron plasmas in semiconductor devices is used to affect opening switch behavior, but these devices are relatively low voltage and low current compared to the hundreds of kilo-volts and tens of kilo-amperes of interest to pulsed power. This work is an investigation into an entirely new approach to opening switch technology that utilizes new materials in new ways. The new materials are Ferroelectrics and using them as an opening switch is a stark contrast to their traditional applications in optics and transducer applications. Emphasis is on use of high performance ferroelectrics with the objective of developing an opening switch that would be suitable for large scale pulsed power applications. Over the course of exploring this new ground, we have discovered new behaviors and properties of these materials that were here to fore unknown. Some of

  17. EA-1981: Bonneville-Hood River Transmission Line Rebuild, Multnomah and Hood River Counties, Oregon

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) is preparing an EA to assess potential environmental impacts of a proposal to rebuild its 24-mile long, 115 kilovolt Bonneville-Hood River transmission line. The existing line runs between the Bonneville Powerhouse at Bonneville Dam in Multnomah County, Oregon, and BPA's existing Hood River Substation in Hood River County, Oregon. The project would include replacing structures and conductor wires, improving access roads, and constructing new access roads or trails where needed.

  18. Database Applications to Integrate Beam Line Optics Changes with the Engineering Databases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, A.; Bellomo, P.; Crane, G.R.; Emma, P.; Grunhaus, E.; Luchini, K.; MacGregor, I.A.; Marsh, D.S.; Pope, R.; Prickett, P.; Rago, C.; Ratcliffe, K.; Shab, T.; /SLAC

    2007-07-06

    The LCLS project databases provide key nomenclature information while integrating many engineering and physics processes in the building of an accelerator. Starting with the elements existing in the beam line optics files, the engineers add non-beam-line elements, and controls engineers assign ''Formal Device Names'' to these elements. Inventory, power supplies, racks, crates and cable plants are databases that are being integrated into the project database. This approach replaces individual spreadsheets and/or integrates standalone existing institutional databases.

  19. Big George to Carter Mountain 115-kV transmission line project, Park and Hot Springs Counties, Wyoming. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western) is proposing to rebuild, operate, and maintain a 115-kilovolt (kV) transmission line between the Big George and Carter Mountain Substations in northwest Wyoming (Park and Hot Springs Counties). This environmental assessment (EA) was prepared in compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) and the regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) and the Department of Energy (DOE). The existing Big George to Carter Mountain 69-kV transmission line was constructed in 1941 by the US Department of Interior, Bureau of Reclamation, with 1/0 copper conductor on wood-pole H-frame structures without an overhead ground wire. The line should be replaced because of the deteriorated condition of the wood-pole H-frame structures. Because the line lacks an overhead ground wire, it is subject to numerous outages caused by lightning. The line will be 54 years old in 1995, which is the target date for line replacement. The normal service life of a wood-pole line is 45 years. Under the No Action Alternative, no new transmission lines would be built in the project area. The existing 69-kV transmission line would continue to operate with routine maintenance, with no provisions made for replacement.

  20. Detection and characterization of multi-filament evolution during resistive switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew J.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-08-05

    We present resistive switching data in TaOx memristors displaying signatures of multi-filament switching modes, and develop a geometrically defined equivalent circuit to separate the individual resistances and powers dissipated in each filament. Using these resolved values, we compare the individual switching curves of each filament and demonstrate that the switching data of each filament collapse onto a single switching curve determined by the analytical steady-state resistive switching solution for filamentary switching. Analyzing our results in terms of this solution, we determine the switching temperature, heat flow, conductivity, and time evolving areas of each filament during resistive switching. Finally, we discuss operational modes which may limit the formation of additional conducting filaments, potentially leading to increased device endurance.

  1. Detection and characterization of multi-filament evolution during resistive switching

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Mickel, Patrick R.; Lohn, Andrew J.; Marinella, Matthew J.

    2014-08-05

    We present resistive switching data in TaOx memristors displaying signatures of multi-filament switching modes, and develop a geometrically defined equivalent circuit to separate the individual resistances and powers dissipated in each filament. Using these resolved values, we compare the individual switching curves of each filament and demonstrate that the switching data of each filament collapse onto a single switching curve determined by the analytical steady-state resistive switching solution for filamentary switching. Analyzing our results in terms of this solution, we determine the switching temperature, heat flow, conductivity, and time evolving areas of each filament during resistive switching. Finally, we discussmore » operational modes which may limit the formation of additional conducting filaments, potentially leading to increased device endurance.« less

  2. Nanoscale mechanical switching of ferroelectric polarization via flexoelectricity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Yijia; Hong, Zijian; Britson, Jason; Chen, Long-Qing

    2015-01-12

    Flexoelectric coefficient is a fourth-rank tensor arising from the coupling between strain gradient and electric polarization and thus exists in all crystals. It is generally ignored for macroscopic crystals due to its small magnitude. However, at the nanoscale, flexoelectric contributions may become significant and can potentially be utilized for device applications. Using the phase-field method, we study the mechanical switching of electric polarization in ferroelectric thin films by a strain gradient created via an atomic force microscope tip. Our simulation results show good agreement with existing experimental observations. We examine the competition between the piezoelectric and flexoelectric effects and provide an understanding of the role of flexoelectricity in the polarization switching. Also, by changing the pressure and film thickness, we reveal that the flexoelectric field at the film bottom can be used as a criterion to determine whether domain switching may happen under a mechanical force.

  3. Utilizing zero-sequence switchings for reversible converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Su, Gui-Jia; Adams, Donald J.; Nagashima, James M.; Stancu, Constantin; Carlson, Douglas S.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2004-12-14

    A method for providing additional dc inputs or outputs (49, 59) from a dc-to-ac inverter (10) for controlling motor loads (60) comprises deriving zero-sequence components (V.sub.ao, V.sub.bo, and V.sub.co) from the inverter (10) through additional circuit branches with power switching devices (23, 44, 46), transforming the voltage between a high voltage and a low voltage using a transformer or motor (42, 50), converting the low voltage between ac and dc using a rectifier (41, 51) or an H-bridge (61), and providing at least one low voltage dc input or output (49, 59). The transformation of the ac voltage may be either single phase or three phase. Where less than a 100% duty cycle is acceptable, a two-phase modulation of the switching signals controlling the inverter (10) reduces switching losses in the inverter (10). A plurality of circuits for carrying out the invention are also disclosed.

  4. Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ponath, Patrick; Fredrickson, Kurt; Posadas, Agham B.; Ren, Yuan; Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Aoki, Toshihiro; McCartney, Martha; Smith, David J; Kalinin, Sergei V; Lai, Keji; Demkov, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    The development of nonvolatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching, and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in the epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 (BTO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Ge. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BTO polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms the interface sharpness, and BTO tetragonality. Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) indicates the absence of any low permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. Using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), we confirm the presence of fully switchable, stable ferroelectric polarization in BTO that appears to be single domain. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), we clearly demonstrate a ferroelectric field effect.

  5. Enhancement of Spin-transfer torque switching via resonant tunneling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterji, Niladri; Tulapurkar, Ashwin A.; Muralidharan, Bhaskaran

    2014-12-08

    We propose the use of resonant tunneling as a route to enhance the spin-transfer torque switching characteristics of magnetic tunnel junctions. The proposed device structure is a resonant tunneling magnetic tunnel junction based on a MgO-semiconductor heterostructure sandwiched between a fixed magnet and a free magnet. Using the non-equilibrium Green's function formalism coupled self consistently with the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert-Slonczewski equation, we demonstrate enhanced tunnel magneto-resistance characteristics as well as lower switching voltages in comparison with traditional trilayer devices. Two device designs based on MgO based heterostructures are presented, where the physics of resonant tunneling leads to an enhanced spin transfer torque thereby reducing the critical switching voltage by up to 44%. It is envisioned that the proof-of-concept presented here may lead to practical device designs via rigorous materials and interface studies.

  6. Spark gap switch system with condensable dielectric gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thayer, III, William J.

    1991-01-01

    A spark gap switch system is disclosed which is capable of operating at a high pulse rate comprising an insulated switch housing having a purging gas entrance port and a gas exit port, a pair of spaced apart electrodes each having one end thereof within the housing and defining a spark gap therebetween, an easily condensable and preferably low molecular weight insulating gas flowing through the switch housing from the housing, a heat exchanger/condenser for condensing the insulating gas after it exits from the housing, a pump for recirculating the condensed insulating gas as a liquid back to the housing, and a heater exchanger/evaporator to vaporize at least a portion of the condensed insulating gas back into a vapor prior to flowing the insulating gas back into the housing.

  7. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction ofmore » the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.« less

  8. Ferroelectric Switching by the Grounded Scanning Probe Microscopy Tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ievlev, Anton; Morozovska, A. N.; Shur, Vladimir Ya.; Kalinin, Sergei V

    2015-01-01

    The process of polarization reversal by the tip of scanning probe microscope was intensively studied for last two decades. Number of the abnormal switching phenomena was reported by the scientific groups worldwide. In particularly it was experimentally and theoretically shown that slow dynamics of the surface screening controls kinetics of the ferroelectric switching, backswitching and relaxation and presence of the charges carriers on the sample surface and in the sample bulk significantly change polarization reversal dynamics. Here we experimentally demonstrated practical possibility of the history dependent polarization reversal by the grounded SPM tip. This phenomenon was attributed to induction of the slowly dissipating charges into the surface of the grounded tip that enables polarization reversal under the action of the produced electric field. Analytical and numerical electrostatic calculations allow additional insight into nontrivial abnormal switching phenomena reported earlier.

  9. PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE | Department of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE On March 25, 2016, U.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) will participate in the ...

  10. New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuels - Future Energy for Mobility |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Fuels - Future Energy for Mobility New Feedstocks and Replacement Fuels - Future Energy for Mobility Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_simnick.pdf (542.48 KB) More Documents & Publications Fuel-Cycle Energy and Emissions Analysis with the GREET Model Cross-cutting Technologies for Advanced Biofuels Well-to-Wheels Analysis

  11. Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1984-09-18

    In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge. 5 figs.

  12. Electronic-type vacuum gauges with replaceable elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edwards, Jr., David

    1984-01-01

    In electronic devices for measuring pressures in vacuum systems, the metal elements which undergo thermal deterioration are made readily replaceable by making them parts of a simple plug-in unit. Thus, in ionization gauges, the filament and grid or electron collector are mounted on the novel plug-in unit. In thermocouple pressure gauges, the heater and attached thermocouple are mounted on the plug-in unit. Plug-in units have been designed to function, alternatively, as ionization gauge and as thermocouple gauge, thus providing new gauges capable of measuring broader pressure ranges than is possible with either an ionization gauge or a thermocouple gauge.

  13. Single line reversing system capsular pneumatic freight pipelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weaver, P.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the 1800's the first Pneumatic Tube Systems sent a carrier vertically from one floor to another in a hospital using a foot-powered bellows. The carrier was returned to the starting point down the same tube using gravity. This was the first Single Line Reversing system. As the stations were moved apart horizontally the foot-powered bellows at both ends became ineffective and were replaced with a single blower or exhauster. The blower/exhauster ran continuously therefore a second line for returning carriers to the starting point, had to be installed - hence Twin Line systems. These systems were used for transporting mail, paperwork, medications, steel mill samples, parts, tools, medical lab samples, etc., in hospitals, stores and other businesses. Twin Line systems were very popular until about 1970 at which time installation labor and material costs became expensive and controls were becoming unnecessarily complicated and expensive. These reasons plus new technology forced the return to Single Line Reversing technology. Back in the 1800's three ``people transporting'' subways were built. A fourth system was built under the Pentagon in the 1950's or 1960's. It is difficult to find information on this one. All are Single Line Reversing systems. The difference between a Single Line Reversing and a Twin Line system is exactly as the names imply. The principle of the operation of these systems is covered herein. The physics for these two kinds of systems is the same. The Single Line Reversing system is technically more complex but capital and operating expense is far less costly. These costs are discussed herein.

  14. High voltage switch triggered by a laser-photocathode subsystem

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Ping; Lundquist, Martin L.; Yu, David U. L.

    2013-01-08

    A spark gap switch for controlling the output of a high voltage pulse from a high voltage source, for example, a capacitor bank or a pulse forming network, to an external load such as a high gradient electron gun, laser, pulsed power accelerator or wide band radar. The combination of a UV laser and a high vacuum quartz cell, in which a photocathode and an anode are installed, is utilized as triggering devices to switch the spark gap from a non-conducting state to a conducting state with low delay and low jitter.

  15. Charging characteritiscs of ultrananocrystalline diamond in RF MEMS capacitive switches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Goldsmith, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlisle, J.; Zheng, H.; Hwang, J. C. M.; Palego, C.; Wang, W.; Carpick, R.; Adiga, V.; Datta, A.; Gudeman, C.; O'Brien, S.; Sampath, S.

    2010-05-01

    Modifications to a standard capacitive MEMS switch process have been made to allow the incorporation of ultra-nano-crystalline diamond as the switch dielectric. The impact on electromechanical performance is minimal. However, these devices exhibit uniquely different charging characteristics, with charging and discharging time constants 5-6 orders of magnitude quicker than conventional materials. This operation opens the possibility of devices which have no adverse effects of dielectric charging and can be operated near-continuously in the actuated state without significant degradation in reliability.

  16. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1991-09-10

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch. 11 figures.

  17. Transparent selective illumination means suitable for use in optically activated electrical switches and optically activated electrical switches constructed using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1991-01-01

    A planar transparent light conducting means and an improved optically activated electrical switch made using the novel light conducting means are disclosed. The light conducting means further comprise light scattering means on one or more opposite planar surfaces thereof to transmit light from the light conducting means into adjacent media and reflective means on other surfaces of the light conducting means not containing the light scattering means. The optically activated electrical switch comprises at least two stacked photoconductive wafers, each having electrodes formed on both surfaces thereof, and separated by the planar transparent light conducting means. The light scattering means on the light conducting means face surfaces of the wafers not covered by the electrodes to transmit light from the light conducting means into the photoconductive wafers to uniformly illuminate and activate the switch.

  18. Nuclear criticality safety assessment of the proposed CFC replacement coolants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, W.C.; Dyer, H.R.

    1993-12-01

    The neutron multiplication characteristics of refrigerant-114 (R-114) and proposed replacement coolants perfluorobutane (C{sub 4}F{sub 10}) and cycloperfluorobutane C{sub 4}F{sub 8}) have been compared by evaluating the infinite media multiplication factors of UF{sub 6}/H/coolant systems and by replacement calculations considering a 10-MW freezer/sublimer. The results of these comparisons demonstrate that R-114 is a neutron absorber, due to its chlorine content, and that the alternative fluorocarbon coolants are neutron moderators. Estimates of critical spherical geometries considering mixtures of UF{sub 6}/HF/C{sub 4}F{sub 10} indicate that the flourocarbon-moderated systems are large compared with water-moderated systems. The freezer/sublimer calculations indicate that the alternative coolants are more reactive than R-114, but that the reactivity remains significantly below the condition of water in the tubes, which was a limiting condition. Based on these results, the alternative coolants appear to be acceptable; however, several follow-up tasks have been recommended, and additional evaluation will be required on an individual equipment basis.

  19. Operational Readiness Review: Savannah River Replacement Tritium Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    The Operational Readiness Review (ORR) is one of several activities to be completed prior to introducing tritium into the Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The Secretary of Energy will rely in part on the results of this ORR in deciding whether the startup criteria for RTF have been met. The RTF is a new underground facility built to safely service the remaining nuclear weapons stockpile. At RTF, tritium will be unloaded from old components, purified and enriched, and loaded into new or reclaimed reservoirs. The RTF will replace an aging facility at SRS that has processed tritium for more than 35 years. RTF has completed construction and is undergoing facility startup testing. The final stages of this testing will require the introduction of limited amounts of tritium. The US Department of Energy (DOE) ORR was conducted January 19 to February 4, 1993, in accordance with an ORR review plan which was developed considering previous readiness reviews. The plan also considered the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendations 90-4 and 92-6, and the judgements of experienced senior experts. The review covered three major areas: (1) Plant and Equipment Readiness, (2) Personnel Readiness, and (3) Management Systems. The ORR Team was comprised of approximately 30 members consisting of a Team Leader, Senior Safety Experts, and Technical Experts. The ORR objectives and criteria were based on DOE Orders, industry standards, Institute of Nuclear Power Operations guidelines, recommendations of external oversight groups, and experience of the team members.

  20. Webinar: The L Prize-Winning LED A19 Replacement-What Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The L Prize-Winning LED A19 Replacement-What Commercial Building OwnersOperators Can Expect in 2012 Webinar: The L Prize-Winning LED A19 Replacement-What Commercial Building ...

  1. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Halogen Incandescent MR16 Lamps and LED Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paget, M. L.; Lingard, R. D.; Myer, M. A.

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses the halogen MR16 lamp and its commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  2. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    as Allowable Weatherization Measures | Department of Energy 0-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters as Allowable Weatherization Measures WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water Heaters as Allowable Weatherization Measures Effective: Oct. 6, 2000 Provides states with the approval to include refrigerator and electric water heater replacements as an allowable measure. WPN 00-5: Approval of Replacement Refrigerators and Electric Water

  3. Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Drayage Truck Replacement Program | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Natural Gas Drayage Truck Replacement Program Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Drayage Truck Replacement Program 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting arravt045_ti_white_2012_o.pdf (517.25 KB) More Documents & Publications Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Drayage Truck Replacement Program Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Drayage Truck Replacement Program UPS Ontario - Las Vegas LNG Corridor Extension Project: Bridging the Gap

  4. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kobayashi, Hisashi; Bool, III, Lawrence E.; Wu, Kuang Tsai

    2004-03-02

    A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum amount of energy per unit of time is enabled to combust fuel having a lower energy content, while still obtaining at least the stated minimum energy generation rate, by replacing a small amount of the combustion air fed to the furnace by oxygen. The replacement of oxygen for combustion air also provides reduction in the generation of NOx.

  5. Ferroelastic switching in a layered-perovskite thin film

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Wang, Chuanshou; Ke, Xiaoxing; Wang, Jianjun; Liang, Renrong; Luo, Zhenlin; Tian, Yu; Yi, Di; Zhang, Qintong; Wang, Jing; Han, Xiu -Feng; et al

    2016-02-03

    Here, a controllable ferroelastic switching in ferroelectric/multiferroic oxides is highly desirable due to the non-volatile strain and possible coupling between lattice and other order parameter in heterostructures. However, a substrate clamping usually inhibits their elastic deformation in thin films without micro/nano-patterned structure so that the integration of the non-volatile strain with thin film devices is challenging. Here, we report that reversible in-plane elastic switching with a non-volatile strain of approximately 0.4% can be achieved in layeredperovskite Bi2WO6 thin films, where the ferroelectric polarization rotates by 90 within four in-plane preferred orientations. Phase-field simulation indicates that the energy barrier of ferroelasticmore » switching in orthorhombic Bi2WO6 film is ten times lower than the one in PbTiO3 films, revealing the origin of the switching with negligible substrate constraint. The reversible control of the in-plane strain in this layered-perovskite thin film demonstrates a new pathway to integrate mechanical deformation with nanoscale electronic and/or magnetoelectronic applications.« less

  6. Quantum coherent switch utilizing commensurate nanoelectrode and charge density periodicities

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrison, Neil; Singleton, John; Migliori, Albert

    2008-08-05

    A quantum coherent switch having a substrate formed from a density wave (DW) material capable of having a periodic electron density modulation or spin density modulation, a dielectric layer formed onto a surface of the substrate that is orthogonal to an intrinsic wave vector of the DW material; and structure for applying an external spatially periodic electrostatic potential over the dielectric layer.

  7. Optically-initiated silicon carbide high voltage switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J.; Sampayan, Stephen E.; Sullivan, James S.; Sanders, David M.

    2012-02-28

    An improved photoconductive switch having a SIC or other wide band gap substrate material, such as GaAs and field-grading liners composed of preferably SiN formed on the substrate adjacent the electrode perimeters or adjacent the substrate perimeters for grading the electric fields.

  8. Utility External Disconnect Switch: Practical, Legal, and Technical Reasons to Eliminate the Requirement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This report documents the safe operation of PV systems without a utility external disconnect switch in several large jurisdictions. It includes recommendations for regulators contemplating utility external disconnect switch requirements.

  9. Multiphase soft switched DC/DC converter and active control technique...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Each primary coil connects a full-bridge circuit comprising two switches on two legs, the primary coil being connected between the switches on each leg, each full-bridge circuit ...

  10. DEVELOPMENT OF REMOTE HANFORD CONNECTOR GASKET REPLACEMENT TOOLING FOR DWPF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krementz, D.; Coughlin, Jeffrey

    2009-05-05

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to develop tooling and equipment to remotely replace gaskets in mechanical Hanford connectors to reduce personnel radiation exposure as compared to the current hands-on method. It is also expected that radiation levels will continually increase with future waste streams. The equipment is operated in the Remote Equipment Decontamination Cell (REDC), which is equipped with compressed air, two master-slave manipulators (MSM's) and an electro-mechanical manipulator (EMM) arm for operation of the remote tools. The REDC does not provide access to electrical power, so the equipment must be manually or pneumatically operated. The MSM's have a load limit at full extension of ten pounds, which limited the weight of the installation tool. In order to remotely replace Hanford connector gaskets several operations must be performed remotely, these include: removal of the spent gasket and retaining ring (retaining ring is also called snap ring), loading the new snap ring and gasket into the installation tool and installation of the new gasket into the Hanford connector. SRNL developed and tested tools that successfully perform all of the necessary tasks. Removal of snap rings from horizontal and vertical connectors is performed by separate air actuated retaining ring removal tools and is manipulated in the cell by the MSM. In order install a new gasket, the snap ring loader is used to load a new snap ring into a groove in the gasket installation tool. A new gasket is placed on the installation tool and retained by custom springs. An MSM lifts the installation tool and presses the mounted gasket against the connector block. Once the installation tool is in position, the gasket and snap ring are installed onto the connector by pneumatic actuation. All of the tools are located on a custom work table with a pneumatic valve station that directs compressed air to the desired tool and

  11. Method and apparatus for line power monitoring for uninterruptible power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, R.V. Jr.; Stich, F.A.

    1993-07-20

    AC line waveform monitoring apparatus is described for detecting AC line power faults and providing a fault signal for control of an uninterruptible power supply comprising: (a) means for sampling an AC line power signal at times synchronized with the cycle of the AC line waveform; (b) means for producing a reference waveform at selected sample times during the period of the AC line signal given previous reference waveform values and a prior cycle wherein a reference waveform value at each sample time comprises a selectively weighted average of value at that sample time in the prior cycle of the AC line signal and the previous reference waveform value at that sample time; (c) an uninterruptible power supply including an auxiliary power supply battery, the uninterruptible power supply receiving the AC line power and normally providing the AC line power to a load and responsive to a fault signal to switch to provide power to the load from the battery; (d) means for comparing the AC line signal waveform with the reference waveform at corresponding times in the reference waveform and the signal waveform and providing the fault signal to the uninterruptible power supply so that it provides power to the load from the battery when a selected difference condition is exceeded.

  12. The effects of mobile ATM switches on PNNI peer group operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, L.; Sholander, P.; Tolendino, L.

    1997-04-01

    This contribution discusses why, and how, mobile networks and mobile switches might be discussed during Phase 1 of the WATM standards process. Next, it reviews mobile routers within Mobile IP. That IP mobility architecture may not apply to the proposed mobile ATM switches. Finally, it discusses problems with PNNI peer group formation and operation when mobile ATM switches are present.

  13. Final environmental assessment: Los Reales 115 kV transmission line alternative routes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-10-01

    The Central Arizona Project (CAP) was authorized as a part of the Colorado River Basin Project Act (Public Law 90-537) on September 30, 1968. The primary purpose of the CAP is to furnish water for agricultural, municipal, and industrial uses in central and southern Arizona, and western New Mexico. Due to its magnitude, the CAP is divided into several major features serving separate but interrelated functions. The Tucson Aqueduct Phase B pumping plants were designed and constructed to operate on a looped power system. The entire looped power system, including two switching stations and connecting 115-kv transmission lines, was identified in the FEIS and approved for construction in the Secretary of Interior's Record of Decision dated September 24, 1985. The loop begins in the vicinity of the Twin Peaks Pumping Plant -- the northernmost Phase B pumping station, at the Rattlesnake Switching Station. All of the looped power system has been constructed with the exception of the switching station and portion of transmission line proposed to be constructed in this project. Without construction of this final portion of the looped power system, the Phase B pumping plants will not be able to operate normally without negatively affecting nearby power sources. The CAP will also not be able to provide the reliability necessary for municipal water systems dependent upon CAP water. The purpose of this EA is to describe impacts that would result from relocating the Los Reales 115-kV transmission line, and possibly the switching station, originally identified in the FEIS. It should be mentioned the Department of Energy will complete a separate NEPA review.

  14. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register Notice,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 | Department of Energy Federal Register Notice, Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register Notice, Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 The Department of Energy (DOE) requests public comment on the first complete application submitted in response to its June 10, 2010 Request for Proposals for New or Upgraded Transmission Line Projects Under Section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 in the Federal

  15. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  16. Damage free integration of ultralow-k dielectrics by template replacement approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, L.; De Gendt, S.; Marneffe, J.-F. de; Heylen, N.; Murdoch, G.; Tokei, Z.; Boemmels, J.; Baklanov, M. R.

    2015-08-31

    Cu/low-k integration by conventional damascene approach is becoming increasingly difficult as critical dimensions scale down. An alternative integration scheme is studied based on the replacement of a sacrificial template by ultralow-k dielectric. A metal structure is first formed by patterning a template material. After template removal, a k = 2.31 spin-on type of porous low-k dielectric is deposited onto the patterned metal lines. The chemical and electrical properties of spin-on dielectrics are studied on blanket wafers, indicating that during hard bake, most porogen is removed within few minutes, but 120 min are required to achieve the lowest k-value. The effective dielectric constant of the gap-fill low-k is investigated on a 45 nm ½ pitch Meander-Fork structure, leading to k{sub eff} below 2.4. The proposed approach solves the two major challenges in conventional Cu/low-k damascene integration approach: low-k plasma damage and metal penetration during barrier deposition on porous materials.

  17. The laser switched linac and development of a high brilliance electron source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melissinos, A.C.; Bamber, C.; Blalock, T.; Fry, A.; Wilson, T.

    1991-09-01

    This task originated in 1987 to explore the possibility of accelerating short bursts of electrons by pulsed power. The principal effort of our group was to demonstrate that electrons can be accelerated by picosecond-long electrical pulses which are compressed in a radial transmission line. This goal has new been achieved and our results are presented in this paper. We have achieved a gradient of 45 MV/m across a 250 {mu}m accelerating gap and have accelerated 10{sup 6} electrons in a 1 ps long pulse. The beam emerges from a 500 {mu}m hole and can be refocused to this transverse dimension. The efficiency of the system, is of order {eta} = 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} due to the small number of electrons accelerated. If we identify the gap spacing with one half wavelength of the accelerating r.f.,''our device is equivalent to a 600 GHz structure. The principal limitation in the accelerating gradient comes from the H.V. hold-off properties of the semiconductor disks that are used as photoconductive switches. We believe that with better materials a factor of 10 can be gained in the gradient. Similarly, the electron yield can be increased by at least three orders of magnitude if proper photocathodes are used in place of the metallic surface. The more difficult problem is the engineering of a multicell structure using our present design of the single cell. Our plans for the continuation of this work are given. One of the most promising applications of laser switched acceleration is in the operation of a very low emittance electron source. Thus we have turned our attention to this subject, and in particular to building a high brilliance electron source using a superconducting cavity. Also discussed is the possibility of picosecond x-ray sources.

  18. NETL LINES OF DEMARCATION 09282012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LINES OF DEMARCATION September 28, 2012 Contact: Site Operations Division or ESS&H Division with Questions The oversight, upkeep, and segregation of NETL infrastructure components, including lines of demarcation between ORD and OIO, will be as follows: 1. Common utility headers including gas compression systems that enter or exit the site will be maintained by the Office of Institutional Operations (OIO). A line of responsibility demarcation between OIO and ORD will be established at the

  19. Spin-transfer switching of orthogonal spin-valve devices at cryogenic temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, L. Gopman, D. B.; Rehm, L.; Backes, D.; Wolf, G.; Kent, A. D.; Ohki, T.; Kirichenko, A. F.; Vernik, I. V.; Mukhanov, O. A.

    2014-05-07

    We present the quasi-static and dynamic switching characteristics of orthogonal spin-transfer devices incorporating an out-of-plane magnetized polarizing layer and an in-plane magnetized spin valve device at cryogenic temperatures. Switching at 12 K between parallel and anti-parallel spin-valve states is investigated for slowly varied current as well as for current pulses with durations as short as 200 ps. We demonstrate 100% switching probability with current pulses 0.6 ns in duration. We also present a switching probability diagram that summarizes device switching operation under a variety of pulse durations, amplitudes, and polarities.

  20. Nanosecond switching in GeSe phase change memory films by atomic force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosse, James L.; Huey, Bryan D.; Grishin, Ilya; Kolosov, Oleg V.; Gyu Choi, Yong; Cheong, Byung-ki; Lee, Suyoun

    2014-02-03

    Nanosecond scale threshold switching is investigated with conducting atomic force microscopy (AFM) for an amorphous GeSe film. Switched bits exhibit 2–3 orders of magnitude variations in conductivity, as demonstrated in phase change based memory devices. Through the nm-scale AFM probe, this crystallization was achieved with pulse durations of as low as 15 ns, the fastest reported with scanning probe based methods. Conductance AFM imaging of the switched bits further reveals correlations between the switched volume, pulse amplitude, and pulse duration. The influence of film heterogeneities on switching is also directly detected, which is of tremendous importance for optimal device performance.

  1. Electric Transmission Line Siting Compact

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... creates a method for states to site multi-state electric transmission lines. Three 4 levels of organization are provided: 5 A state project review panel within each ...

  2. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  3. Emergency pipe line repair connects subsea pipe lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerique, M.P.; Thiberge, P. ); Wright, N. )

    1990-11-01

    Emergency repair of any subsea line pipe must form a high-integrity, metal-to-metal seal. This paper presents a remote, diverless repair system that utilizes master flanges, a connector and a spool piece to repair line pipe in deep offshore waters.

  4. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  5. Combustion mode switching with a turbocharged/supercharged engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mond, Alan; Jiang, Li

    2015-09-22

    A method for switching between low- and high-dilution combustion modes in an internal combustion engine having an intake passage with an exhaust-driven turbocharger, a crankshaft-driven positive displacement supercharger downstream of the turbocharger and having variable boost controllable with a supercharger bypass valve, and a throttle valve downstream of the supercharger. The current combustion mode and mass air flow are determined. A switch to the target combustion mode is commanded when an operating condition falls within a range of predetermined operating conditions. A target mass air flow to achieve a target air-fuel ratio corresponding to the current operating condition and the target combustion mode is determined. The degree of opening of the supercharger bypass valve and the throttle valve are controlled to achieve the target mass air flow. The amount of residual exhaust gas is manipulated.

  6. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

    1983-12-29

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  7. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, Terje A.; O'Grady, William E.; Linkous, Clovis A.

    1986-01-01

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuit means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  8. Microwave pulse compression from a storage cavity with laser-induced switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolton, Paul R.

    1992-01-01

    A laser-induced switch and a multiple cavity configuration are disclosed for producing high power microwave pulses. The microwave pulses are well controlled in wavelength and timing, with a quick rise time and a variable shape and power of the pulse. In addition, a method of reducing pre-pulse leakage to a low level is disclosed. Microwave energy is directed coherently to one or more cavities that stores the energy in a single mode, represented as a standing wave pattern. In order to switch the stored microwave energy out of the main cavity and into the branch waveguide, a laser-actuated switch is provided for the cavity. The switch includes a laser, associated optics for delivering the beam into the main cavity, and a switching gas positioned at an antinode in the main cavity. When actuated, the switching gas ionizes, creating a plasma, which becomes reflective to the microwave energy, changing the resonance of the cavity, and as a result the stored microwave energy is abruptly switched out of the cavity. The laser may directly pre-ionize the switching gas, or it may pump an impurity in the switching gas to an energy level which switches when a pre-selected cavity field is attained. Timing of switching the cavities is controlled by varying the pathlength of the actuating laser beam. For example, the pathlengths may be adjusted to output a single pulse of high power, or a series of quick lower power pulses.

  9. The Usefulness of Bi-Level Switching; Original Technical Note: November 1998. Revised August, 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Building Technologies Department

    1998-11-01

    California's Title 24 Energy Efficiency Building Standard requires multiple lighting level control in all individual offices. Usually, this requirement is fulfilled using bi-level switching. With bi-level switching, each office occupant is provided with two wall switches near the doorway to control their lights. In a typical installation, one switch would control 1/3 of the fluorescent lamps in the ceiling lighting system, while the other switch would control the remaining 2/3 of the lamps. This allows four possible light levels: OFF, 1/3, 2/3 and FULL lighting. Because it has been required by building code since 1983, bi-level switching is common in California office buildings. However, there is no published evidence showing that occupants sometimes use just one switch rather than just switching on both switches when entering the room. Consequently, some have questioned whether bi-level switching is a necessary or desirable requirement for typical office buildings. In fact, the draft national standard, ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1989K apparently does not require bi-level switching at all.

  10. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, R.; Fischler, M.S.; Husby, D.E.

    1991-01-15

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured. 11 figures.

  11. Interprocessor bus switching system for simultaneous communication in plural bus parallel processing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atac, Robert; Fischler, Mark S.; Husby, Donald E.

    1991-01-01

    A bus switching apparatus and method for multiple processor computer systems comprises a plurality of bus switches interconnected by branch buses. Each processor or other module of the system is connected to a spigot of a bus switch. Each bus switch also serves as part of a backplane of a modular crate hardware package. A processor initiates communication with another processor by identifying that other processor. The bus switch to which the initiating processor is connected identifies and secures, if possible, a path to that other processor, either directly or via one or more other bus switches which operate similarly. If a particular desired path through a given bus switch is not available to be used, an alternate path is considered, identified and secured.

  12. Resistive switching phenomena: A review of statistical physics approaches

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Shinbuhm; Noh, Tae Won

    2015-08-31

    Here we report that resistive switching (RS) phenomena are reversible changes in the metastable resistance state induced by external electric fields. After discovery ~50 years ago, RS phenomena have attracted great attention due to their potential application in next-generation electrical devices. Considerable research has been performed to understand the physical mechanisms of RS and explore the feasibility and limits of such devices. There have also been several reviews on RS that attempt to explain the microscopic origins of how regions that were originally insulators can change into conductors. However, little attention has been paid to the most important factor inmore » determining resistance: how conducting local regions are interconnected. Here, we provide an overview of the underlying physics behind connectivity changes in highly conductive regions under an electric field. We first classify RS phenomena according to their characteristic current–voltage curves: unipolar, bipolar, and threshold switchings. Second, we outline the microscopic origins of RS in oxides, focusing on the roles of oxygen vacancies: the effect of concentration, the mechanisms of channel formation and rupture, and the driving forces of oxygen vacancies. Third, we review RS studies from the perspective of statistical physics to understand connectivity change in RS phenomena. We discuss percolation model approaches and the theory for the scaling behaviors of numerous transport properties observed in RS. Fourth, we review various switching-type conversion phenomena in RS: bipolar-unipolar, memory-threshold, figure-of-eight, and counter-figure-of-eight conversions. Finally, we review several related technological issues, such as improvement in high resistance fluctuations, sneak-path problems, and multilevel switching problems.« less

  13. Open Transport Switch A Software Defined Networking Architecture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Open Transport Switch - A Software Defined Networking Architecture for Transport Networks Abhinava Sadasivarao * Sharfuddin Syed * Ping Pan * Chris Liou * Andrew Lake † Chin Guok † Inder Monga † * Infinera Corporation † Energy Sciences Network Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Berkeley, CA 94720 {asadasivarao, ssyed, ppan, cliou}@infinera.com {andy, chin, inder}@es.net ABSTRACT There have been a lot of proposals to unify the control and management of packet and circuit networks but none have been

  14. Device having two optical ports for switching applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rosen, Ayre; Stabile, Paul J.

    1991-09-24

    A two-sided light-activatable semiconductor switch device having an optical port on each side thereof. The semiconductor device may be a p-i-n diode or of bulk intrinsic material. A two ported p-i-n diode, reverse-biased to "off" by a 1.3 kV dc power supply, conducted 192 A when activated by two 1 kW laser diode arrays, one for each optical port.

  15. Irreversible Low Load Genetic Switches - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irreversible Low Load Genetic Switches Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryAlthough the use of recombinases for manipulation of genomic sequences is well established, only a few recombinases have been conclusively demonstrated to work orthogonally. That is, as non-cross-reacting recombinases, they do not cause unpredictable recombination events. DescriptionResearchers at the Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI) have developed novel

  16. Boron-Lined Neutron Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Woodring, Mitchell L.

    2010-03-07

    PNNL-18938 Revision Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of a newly designed boron-lined proportional counter option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of two successive prototypes of a system manufactured by GE Reuter Stokes.

  17. Boron-Lined Neutron Detector Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2009-11-02

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of a newly designed boron-lined proportional counter option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a system manufactured by Reuter Stokes.

  18. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO? for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO?, Mo?C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo?C could be completely regenerated by H? treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo?C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Ni modified Mo?C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo?C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO?. Compared to Pd/SiO?, both Mo?C and Ni/Mo?C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.

  19. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO₂ for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO₂, Mo₂C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo₂C could be completely regenerated by H₂ treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo₂C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO₂. Compared to Pd/SiO₂, both Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.

  20. Replacing precious metals with carbide catalysts for hydrogenation reactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ruijun, Hou; Chen, Jingguang G.; Chang, Kuan; Wang, Tiefeng

    2015-03-03

    Molybdenum carbide (Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C) catalysts were compared with Pd/SiO₂ for the hydrogenation of several diene molecules, 1,3- butadiene, 1,3- and 1,4-cyclohexadiene (CHD). Compared to Pd/SiO₂, Mo₂C showed similar hydrogenation rate for 1,3-butadiene and 1,3-CHD and even higher rate for 1,4-CHD, but with significant deactivation rate for 1,3-CHD hydrogenation. However, the hydrogenation activity of Mo₂C could be completely regenerated by H₂ treatment at 723 K for the three molecules. The Ni modified Mo₂C catalysts retained similar activity for 1,3-butadiene hydrogenation with significantly enhanced selectivity for 1-butene production. The 1-butene selectivity increased with increasing Ni loading below 15%. Among the Nimore » modified Mo₂C catalysts, 8.6%Ni/Mo₂C showed the highest selectivity to 1-butene, which was even higher selectivity than that over Pd/SiO₂. Compared to Pd/SiO₂, both Mo₂C and Ni/Mo₂C showed combined advantages in hydrogenation activity and catalyst cost reduction, demonstrating the potential to use less expensive carbide catalysts to replace precious metals for hydrogenation reactions.« less

  1. High-contrast and fast electrochromic switching enabled by plasmonics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xu, Ting; Walter, Erich C.; Agrawal, Amit; Bohn, Christopher; Velmurugan, Jeyavel; Zhu, Wenqi; Lezec, Henri J.; Talin, A. Alec

    2016-01-27

    With vibrant colours and simple, room-temperature processing methods, electrochromic polymers have attracted attention as active materials for flexible, low-power-consuming devices. However, slow switching speeds in devices realized to date, as well as the complexity of having to combine several distinct polymers to achieve a full-colour gamut, have limited electrochromic materials to niche applications. Here we achieve fast, high-contrast electrochromic switching by significantly enhancing the interaction of light—propagating as deep-subwavelength-confined surface plasmon polaritons through arrays of metallic nanoslits, with an electrochromic polymer—present as an ultra-thin coating on the slit sidewalls. The switchable configuration retains the short temporal charge-diffusion characteristics of thinmore » electrochromic films, while maintaining the high optical contrast associated with thicker electrochromic coatings. In conclusion, we further demonstrate that by controlling the pitch of the nanoslit arrays, it is possible to achieve a full-colour response with high contrast and fast switching speeds, while relying on just one electrochromic polymer.« less

  2. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Charles A.; Trowbridge, Frank R.

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  3. Carrier Density Modulation in Ge Heterostructure by Ferroelectric Switching

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ponath, Patrick; Fredrickson, Kurt; Posadas, Agham B.; Ren, Yuan; Vasudevan, Rama K; Okatan, Mahmut Baris; Jesse, Stephen; Aoki, Toshihiro; McCartney, Martha; Smith, David J; et al

    2015-01-01

    The development of nonvolatile logic through direct coupling of spontaneous ferroelectric polarization with semiconductor charge carriers is nontrivial, with many issues, including epitaxial ferroelectric growth, demonstration of ferroelectric switching, and measurable semiconductor modulation. Here we report a true ferroelectric field effect carrier density modulation in an underlying Ge(001) substrate by switching of the ferroelectric polarization in the epitaxial c-axis-oriented BaTiO3 (BTO) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on Ge. Using density functional theory, we demonstrate that switching of BTO polarization results in a large electric potential change in Ge. Aberration-corrected electron microscopy confirms the interface sharpness, and BTO tetragonality. Electron-energy-lossmore » spectroscopy (EELS) indicates the absence of any low permittivity interlayer at the interface with Ge. Using piezoelectric force microscopy (PFM), we confirm the presence of fully switchable, stable ferroelectric polarization in BTO that appears to be single domain. Using microwave impedance microscopy (MIM), we clearly demonstrate a ferroelectric field effect.« less

  4. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Eddy-current drives can produce more torque at low speed than an induction motor and VFD. When switching to a VFD for a constant torque load, the motor and the drive may require ...

  5. KP-Replacement-2-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Replacement-2-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule KP-Replacement-2-B Wholesale Power Rate Schedule Area: Replacement Energy System: Kerr-Philpott This rate schedule shall be available to public bodies and cooperatives (any one of whom is hereinafter called the Customer) in North Carolina and Virginia to whom power is provided pursuant to contracts between the Government and the customer from the John H. Kerr and Philpott Projects (or Kerr-Philpott System). This rate schedule shall be applicable to

  6. LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® This May 19, 2009 webcast summarized CALiPER's recent benchmark testing of common omnidirectional incandescent lamps (e.g., A-lamps), and provided an update on ENERGY STAR criteria for LED integral replacement lamps - currently in its second draft. Robert Lingard of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) gave an

  7. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, M.K.; Hammerstrom, D.J.

    1997-05-20

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets. 14 figs.

  8. Multiple DC, single AC converter with a switched DC transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donnelly, Matthew K.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    1997-01-01

    The invention is an improvement of the PASC inverter, wherein the improvements include the reduction from two shorting gates per transformer to one shorting gate per transformer and replacement of active control of the shorting gate with passive control of the shorting gate. Further advantages are obtained through the use of anti-parallel gate sets.

  9. Feasibility/alternatives study for the planned replacement of Nuclear Material Safeguards System (NMSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McBride, K.C.; Russell, V.K.

    1994-10-04

    This document is a study which describes the NMSS replacement alternatives and provides recommended solutions. It also describes a NMSS Paradox prototype.

  10. 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fuels Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search 5-Carbon Alcohols for Drop-in Gasoline Replacement Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory...

  11. Building America Top Innovations 2013 Profile – Window Replacement, Rehabilitation, & Repair Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-09-01

    In this Top Innovation profile, Building Science Corporation guides contractors through several options for repairing or replacing old windows to improve air sealing and thermal performance.

  12. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? - Motor Tip Sheet #12

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-07-01

    New pulse-width-modulated (PWM) adjustable speed drives (ASDs) may be cost-effective replacements for aging or maintenance-intensive eddy-current drives.

  13. CALiPER Benchmark Report: Performance of Incandescent A Type and Decorative Lamps and LED Replacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lingard, R. D.; Myer, M. A.; Paget, M. L.

    2008-11-01

    This benchmark report addresses common omnidirectional incandescent lamps - A-type and small decorative, candelabra-type lamps - and their commercially available light-emitting diode (LED) replacements.

  14. Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System Steam Plant Replaces Outdated Coal-Fired System September 1, 2012 - 12:00pm Addthis A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The new plant has the capacity to heat buildings at the Portsmouth site much more efficiently than the old coal-fired steam plant. A new natural gas-fired steam plant will replace an older coal-fired steam plant shown here. The new plant has the capacity to heat buildings at

  15. Text-Alternative Version: LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR®

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text-alternative version of the LED Replacement Lamps: Current Performance and the Latest on ENERGY STAR® webcast.

  16. Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? New pulse-width-modulated (PWM) adjustable speed drives (ASDs) may be cost-effective replacements for aging or maintenance-intensive eddy-current drives. This tip sheet provides suggested actions and example energy savings calculations. Motor Systems Tip Sheet #12 Is it Cost-Effective to Replace Old Eddy-Current Drives? (November 2012) (484.3 KB) More Documents &

  17. SSRL Beam Lines Map | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SSRL Beam Lines Map Beam Line by Number | Beam Line by Techniques | Photon Source Parameters

  18. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  19. NETL LINES OF DEMARCATION 09282012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A line of responsibility demarcation between OIO and ORD will be established at the shutoff on the branch leading to or from an R&D project or laboratory area. OIO will install a ...

  20. Wigner phase space distribution via classical adiabatic switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, Amartya; Makri, Nancy

    2015-09-21

    Evaluation of the Wigner phase space density for systems of many degrees of freedom presents an extremely demanding task because of the oscillatory nature of the Fourier-type integral. We propose a simple and efficient, approximate procedure for generating the Wigner distribution that avoids the computational difficulties associated with the Wigner transform. Starting from a suitable zeroth-order Hamiltonian, for which the Wigner density is available (either analytically or numerically), the phase space distribution is propagated in time via classical trajectories, while the perturbation is gradually switched on. According to the classical adiabatic theorem, each trajectory maintains a constant action if the perturbation is switched on infinitely slowly. We show that the adiabatic switching procedure produces the exact Wigner density for harmonic oscillator eigenstates and also for eigenstates of anharmonic Hamiltonians within the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) approximation. We generalize the approach to finite temperature by introducing a density rescaling factor that depends on the energy of each trajectory. Time-dependent properties are obtained simply by continuing the integration of each trajectory under the full target Hamiltonian. Further, by construction, the generated approximate Wigner distribution is invariant under classical propagation, and thus, thermodynamic properties are strictly preserved. Numerical tests on one-dimensional and dissipative systems indicate that the method produces results in very good agreement with those obtained by full quantum mechanical methods over a wide temperature range. The method is simple and efficient, as it requires no input besides the force fields required for classical trajectory integration, and is ideal for use in quasiclassical trajectory calculations.

  1. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reindel, John

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  2. Thermally activated switching of perpendicular magnet by spin-orbit spin torque

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Ki-Seung; Lee, Seo-Won; Min, Byoung-Chul; Lee, Kyung-Jin

    2014-02-17

    We theoretically investigate the threshold current for thermally activated switching of a perpendicular magnet by spin-orbit spin torque. Based on the Fokker-Planck equation, we obtain an analytic expression of the switching current, in agreement with numerical result. We find that thermal energy barrier exhibits a quasi-linear dependence on the current, resulting in an almost linear dependence of switching current on the log-scaled current pulse-width even below 10 ns. This is in stark contrast to standard spin torque switching, where thermal energy barrier has a quadratic dependence on the current and the switching current rapidly increases at short pulses. Our results will serve as a guideline to design and interpret switching experiments based on spin-orbit spin torque.

  3. The design and analysis of multi-megawatt distributed single pole double throw (SPDT) microwave switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tantawi, S.G. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, SLAC, 2575 Sand Hill Rd. Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States)

    1999-05-01

    We present design methodology and analysis for an SPDT switch that is capable of handling hundreds of megawatts of power at X-band. The switch is designed for application in high power rf systems in particular future Linear Colliders (1). In these systems switching need to be fast in one direction only. We use this to our advantage to reach a design for a super high power switch. In our analysis we treat the problem from an abstract point of view. We introduce a unified analysis for the microwave circuits irrespective of the switching elements. The analysis is, then, suitable for different kinds of switching elements such as photoconductrs. PIN diodes, and plasma discharge in low-pressure gases. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Transparent ceramic photo-optical semiconductor high power switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Werne, Roger W.; Sullivan, James S.; Landingham, Richard L.

    2016-01-19

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch according to one embodiment includes a structure of sintered nanoparticles of a high band gap material exhibiting a lower electrical resistance when excited by light relative to an electrical resistance thereof when not exposed to the light. A method according to one embodiment includes creating a mixture comprising particles, at least one dopant, and at least one solvent; adding the mixture to a mold; forming a green structure in the mold; and sintering the green structure to form a transparent ceramic. Additional system, methods and products are also presented.

  5. Klystron switching power supplies for the Internation Linear Collider

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fraioli, Andrea; /Cassino U. /INFN, Pisa

    2009-12-01

    The International Linear Collider is a majestic High Energy Physics particle accelerator that will give physicists a new cosmic doorway to explore energy regimes beyond the reach of today's accelerators. ILC will complement the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), a proton-proton collider at the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Geneva, Switzerland, by producing electron-positron collisions at center of mass energy of about 500 GeV. In particular, the subject of this dissertation is the R&D for a solid state Marx Modulator and relative switching power supply for the International Linear Collider Main LINAC Radio Frequency stations.

  6. Prediction of Acoustic Noise in Switched Reluctance Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, CJ; Fahimi, B

    2014-03-01

    Prediction of acoustic noise distribution generated by electric machines has become an integral part of design and control in noise sensitive applications. This paper presents a fast and precise acoustic noise imaging technique for switched reluctance machines (SRMs). This method is based on distribution of radial vibration in the stator frame of the SRM. Radial vibration of the stator frame, at a network of probing points, is computed using input phase current and phase voltage waveforms. Sequentially, the acceleration of the probing network will be expanded to predict full acceleration on the stator frame surface, using which acoustic noise emission caused by the stator can be calculated using the boundary element method.

  7. The ensemble switch method for computing interfacial tensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schmitz, Fabian; Virnau, Peter

    2015-04-14

    We present a systematic thermodynamic integration approach to compute interfacial tensions for solid-liquid interfaces, which is based on the ensemble switch method. Applying Monte Carlo simulations and finite-size scaling techniques, we obtain results for hard spheres, which are in agreement with previous computations. The case of solid-liquid interfaces in a variant of the effective Asakura-Oosawa model and of liquid-vapor interfaces in the Lennard-Jones model are discussed as well. We demonstrate that a thorough finite-size analysis of the simulation data is required to obtain precise results for the interfacial tension.

  8. Test report for K Basin MK I lid removal and replacement system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omberg, R.P.; Roe, N.R.

    1996-08-21

    This report provides the results of acceptance testing of sampling equipment for use in the Hanford K Basin. The equipment, MK I Lid Removal/Replacement Tools, were designed to remove/replace MK I Spent Fuel Canister lids so that other equipment may be used to sample the canister contents. The tools were determined to be acceptable for their intended use.

  9. Letter from Deputy Secretary Poneman to Clean Line Energy Regarding...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Line: Comment from Ms. Schroeder Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Zuniga Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Cain...

  10. Next-gen RF MEMS Switch for a Smarter, Faster Internet of Things...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RF MEMS Switch for a Smarter, Faster Internet of Things Karen Lightman 2014.03.28 Big Data. Internet of Things. Quantified Self. Connected Home. Connected City. These...

  11. MEMS Switches Are XS in Size, XXL in Power | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MEMS Switches Are XS in Size, XXL in Power Click to email this to a friend (Opens in new window) Share on Facebook (Opens in new window) Click to share (Opens in new window) Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window) Click to share on Tumblr (Opens in new window) MEMS Switches Are XS in Size, XXL in Power Chris Keimel 2012.09.28 Walk into a dark room and flip a light switch on. This simple action connected an electrical circuit and caused a light to illuminate the room. That switch is a

  12. A Small Molecule That Switches a Ubiquitin Ligase From a Processive...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: A Small Molecule That Switches a Ubiquitin Ligase From a Processive to a Distributive Enzymatic Mechanism Authors: Kathman, Stefan G. ; Span, Ingrid ; Smith, Aaron T. ; Xu, ...

  13. SEP Success Story: Louisiana Company Makes Switch to CNG, Helps Transform Local Fuel Supplies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A Shreveport, Louisiana, company is switching to a locally-produced, cleaner source of fuel and helping other distribution fleets do the same. Learn more.

  14. Analysis of reliable sub-ns spin-torque switching under transverse bias magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Aquino, M.; Perna, S.; Serpico, C.; Bertotti, G.; Mayergoyz, I. D.

    2015-05-07

    The switching process of a magnetic spin-valve nanosystem subject to spin-polarized current pulses is considered. The dependence of the switching probability on the current pulse duration is investigated. The further application of a transverse field along the intermediate anisotropy axis of the particle is used to control the quasi-random relaxation of magnetization to the reversed magnetization state. The critical current amplitudes to realize the switching are determined by studying the phase portrait of the Landau-Lifshtz-Slonczewski dynamics. Macrospin numerical simulations are in good agreement with the theoretical prediction and demonstrate reliable switching even for very short (below 100 ps) current pulses.

  15. Environmental assessment: Warren Air Force Base 115-kV transmission line, Cheyenne, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), is propsoing to construct a new electrical tranmission line and substation in southeastern Wyoming. This proposed line, called the Warren Air Force Base Tranmission Line, will supply power for Western's system to Francis E.Warren Air Force Base (F.E. Warren AFB) near Cheyenne. It would allow for increased tranmission capacity to the air base. F.E. Warren AFB currently is served electrically be Western via a 13.8-kv line. It is a wood-pole, double-circuit line without an overhead ground wire, which extends from Western's Cheyenne Substation, through an urban area, and onto the air base. The Cheyenne Substation is located on the south side of the city of Cheyenne. The electrical load on the base is increasing from 4 megawatts (MW) to 11 or 12 MW, an approximate three-fold increase. Voltage problems occasionally occur at the base due to the present electrial loads and to the age and inadequacy of the 13.8-kv line, which was placed in service in 1941. The existing line has served beyond its designed service life and requires replacement. Replacement would be necessary even without an increasing load. F.E. Warren AFB has several new and expanding programs, including additional housing, shopping centers, and the Peacekeeper Missile Program. Part of this expansion already has occured; the remainder is expected by early 1988. This expansion has created the need for additional electrical service. The present 13.8-kV line is not capable of supporting the additional load. 28 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Microstructure tuning and magnetism switching of ferroelectric barium titanate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Wenliang; Deng, Hongmei; Ding, Nuofan; Yu, Lu; Yue, Fangyu; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao

    2015-09-15

    Single-crystal and polycrystal BaTiO{sub 3} (BTO) materials synthesized by the physical and chemical methods, respectively, have been studied based on microstructural characterizations and magnetic measurements. The results of X-ray diffraction and Raman scatting spectra show that a single crystal tetragonal to polycrystalline pseudo-cubic structure transformation occurs in BTO ferroelectrics, dependent of growth conditions and interface effects. High-resolution transmission electron microscope data indicate that the as-prepared BTO/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) and BTO/SrRuO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} (001) heterostructures are highly c-axis oriented with atomic sharp interfaces. Lattice defects (i.e., edge-type misfit dislocations and stacking faults) in the heterostructures could be identified clearly and showed tunable with the variations of interface strain. Furthermore, the effects of vacancy defects on magnetic properties of BTO are discussed, which shows a diamagnetism–ferromagnetism switching as intrinsic vacancies increase. This work opens up a possible avenue to prepare magnetic BTO ferroelectrics. - Highlights: • Structure of BTO is tunable, depending on growth conditions and interface strain. • STEM–EDX data indicate the presence of lattice defects in BTO ferroelectrics. • BTO magnetism could be controlled by defects showing dia-ferromagnetism switching. • BTO with more vacancies shows RTFM, as evidence of vacancy magnetism effects.

  17. Ionic switch controls the DNA state in phage λ

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Ting; Zuo, Xiaobing; Li, Tao; Qiu, Xiangyun; Evilevitch, Alex

    2015-06-19

    We have recently found that DNA packaged in phage λ undergoes a disordering transition triggered by temperature, which results in increased genome mobility. This solid-to-fluid like DNA transition markedly increases the number of infectious λ particles facilitating infection. However, the structural transition strongly depends on temperature and ionic conditions in the surrounding medium. Using titration microcalorimetry combined with solution X-ray scattering, we mapped both energetic and structural changes associated with transition of the encapsidated λ-DNA. Packaged DNA needs to reach a critical stress level in order for transition to occur. We varied the stress on DNA in the capsid bymore » changing the temperature, packaged DNA length and ionic conditions. We found striking evidence that the intracapsid DNA transition is ‘switched on’ at the ionic conditions mimicking those in vivo and also at the physiologic temperature of infection at 37°C. This ion regulated on-off switch of packaged DNA mobility in turn affects viral replication. The results suggest a remarkable adaptation of phage λ to the environment of its host bacteria in the human gut. The metastable DNA state in the capsid provides a new paradigm for the physical evolution of viruses.« less

  18. Ionic switch controls the DNA state in phage λ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dong; Liu, Ting; Zuo, Xiaobing; Li, Tao; Qiu, Xiangyun; Evilevitch, Alex

    2015-06-19

    We have recently found that DNA packaged in phage λ undergoes a disordering transition triggered by temperature, which results in increased genome mobility. This solid-to-fluid like DNA transition markedly increases the number of infectious λ particles facilitating infection. However, the structural transition strongly depends on temperature and ionic conditions in the surrounding medium. Using titration microcalorimetry combined with solution X-ray scattering, we mapped both energetic and structural changes associated with transition of the encapsidated λ-DNA. Packaged DNA needs to reach a critical stress level in order for transition to occur. We varied the stress on DNA in the capsid by changing the temperature, packaged DNA length and ionic conditions. We found striking evidence that the intracapsid DNA transition is ‘switched on’ at the ionic conditions mimicking those in vivo and also at the physiologic temperature of infection at 37°C. This ion regulated on-off switch of packaged DNA mobility in turn affects viral replication. The results suggest a remarkable adaptation of phage λ to the environment of its host bacteria in the human gut. The metastable DNA state in the capsid provides a new paradigm for the physical evolution of viruses.

  19. Boron-Lined Multichamber and Conventional Neutron Proportional Counter Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woodring, Mitchell L.; Ely, James H.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2010-09-07

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world, and thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. These technologies are: 1) Boron trifluoride (BF3)-filled proportional counters, 2) Boron-lined proportional counters, 3) Lithium-loaded glass fibers, and 4) Coated non-scintillating plastic fibers. In addition, a few other companies have detector technologies that might be competitive in the near term as an alternative technology. Reported here are the results of tests of a boron-lined, multichamber proportional counter manufactured by LND, Inc. Also reported are results obtained with an earlier design of conventional, boron-lined, proportional counters from LND. This testing measured the required performance for neutron detection efficiency and gamma-ray rejection capabilities of the detectors.

  20. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Replacement This project will upgrade the 14 governors in the McNary powerhouse with digital controls along with replacement of associated components. Governor upgrades are a...

  1. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Runner Replacements This project will refurbish the turbines and replace the turbine runners on units 1 - 16 at Chief Joseph. The drivers for this project are reliability and...

  2. Libby (FEC)-Troy 115kV Line Rebuild

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Palisades Turbine Rehabilitation and Runner Replacement This project will rehabilitate the turbines and replace the turbine runners on the four units at the Palisades powerhouse....

  3. ONE NEVADA LINE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE DOE-LPO_Project-Posters_STOR-TRSM_One-Nevada-Line.pdf (323.38 KB) More Documents & Publications STEPHENTOWN SPINDLE CX-011989: Categorical Exclusion Determination CRESCENT DUNES

  4. Sub-gigahertz beam switching of vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser with transverse coupled cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakahama, M.; Gu, X.; Sakaguchi, T.; Matsutani, A.; Ahmed, M.; Bakry, A.; Koyama, F.

    2015-08-17

    We report a high-speed electrical beam switching of vertical cavity surface emitting laser with a transverse coupled cavity. A high speed (sub-gigahertz) and large deflection angle (>30°) beam switching is demonstrated by employing the transverse mode switching. The angular switching speed of 900 MHz is achieved with narrow beam divergence of below 4° and extinction ratio of 8 dB. We also measured the near- and far-field patterns to clarify the origin of the beam switching. We present a simple one-dimensional Bragg reflector waveguide model, which well predicts the beam switching characteristic.

  5. Statistical line-by-line model for atomic spectra in intermediate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Statistical line-by-line model for atomic spectra in intermediate coupling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Statistical line-by-line model for atomic spectra in ...

  6. X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line ...

  7. Proposed methodology for combustion toxicology testing of combined halon replacement agent/jet fuel interaction. Final report, June-September 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kibert, C.J.

    1993-04-01

    An international consensus to remove Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) compounds from production and U.S. national policy to implement the resulting protocols has motivated the U.S. Air Force to embark on a program to find a suitable replacement for Halon 1211, currently used to extinguish flight line fires. This research addressed the feasibility of conducting a combustion toxicology (CT) program to assess the toxic products of the combustion interaction of JP-8 and the Group 1 or so-called Near Term candidate replacement agents for Halon 1211: HCFCs -123, -124, and -142b. A laboratory scale experiment benchmarked on large scale testing of a 150 sq ft pool fire was developed on the basis of Froude scaling of the full scale fire to a 15 x 15 cm pan fire. A prototype apparatus was developed and investigation into the use of animal behavior methods as an indicator of human incapacitation was conducted. The result is a new method which may potentially be utilized for future toxicity studies of the combustion interaction of current and future U.S. Air Force fuels with various fire extinguishants. Extinguishing agents, Halon 1211, Halon replacement, Combustion.

  8. Increasing the Capacity of Existing Power Lines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of wind cooling on transmission lines concurrent with wind power generation, identifying additional capacity and line sag and clearance concerns to the ground, or nearby object. ...

  9. EERE Success Story-California: SQAMD Replaces Drayage Trucks with CNG |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy SQAMD Replaces Drayage Trucks with CNG EERE Success Story-California: SQAMD Replaces Drayage Trucks with CNG November 6, 2013 - 12:00am Addthis In 2008, the South Coast Air Quality Management District (AQMD) Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Drayage Truck Replacement Program started to address a significant need to reduce diesel emissions and associated public health risks from goods movement at the Ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach. In 2010, the two ports processed goods worth

  10. Agents for replacement of NAD+/NADH system in enzymatic reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fish, Richard H.; Kerr, John B.; Lo, Christine H.

    2004-04-06

    Novel agents acting as co-factors for replacement of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H co-enzyme systems in enzymatic oxido-reductive reactions. Agents mimicking the action of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H system in enzymatic oxidation/reduction of substrates into reduced or oxidized products. A method for selection and preparation of the mimicking agents for replacement of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H system and a device comprising co-factors for replacement of NAD(P).sup.+ /NAD(P)H system.

  11. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma | Department of Energy Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. Comment from Block Plains & Eastern Clean Line Arkansas and Oklahoma 06-08-15.pdf (1.21 MB) More Documents & Publications Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block

  12. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. Comment from Dr. Contreras 6-10-15.pdf (608.36 KB) More Documents & Publications Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras

  13. The Finite Horizon Optimal Multi-Modes Switching Problem: The Viscosity Solution Approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    El Asri, Brahim Hamadene, Said

    2009-10-15

    In this paper we show existence and uniqueness of a solution for a system of m variational partial differential inequalities with inter-connected obstacles. This system is the deterministic version of the Verification Theorem of the Markovian optimal m-states switching problem. The switching cost functions are arbitrary. This problem is in relation with the valuation of firms in a financial market.

  14. Integration of planar transformer and/or planar inductor with power switches in power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Kanghua; Ahmed, Sayeed; Zhu, Lizhi

    2007-10-30

    A power converter integrates at least one planar transformer comprising a multi-layer transformer substrate and/or at least one planar inductor comprising a multi-layer inductor substrate with a number of power semiconductor switches physically and thermally coupled to a heat sink via one or more multi-layer switch substrates.

  15. Solid-state active switch matrix for high energy, moderate power battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Deal, Larry; Paris, Peter; Ye, Changqing

    2016-06-07

    A battery management system employs electronic switches and capacitors. No traditional cell-balancing resistors are used. The BMS electronically switches individual cells into and out of a module of cells in order to use the maximum amount of energy available in each cell and to completely charge and discharge each cell without overcharging or under-discharging.

  16. Chemometrics/on-line measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rourke, P.E. )

    1989-11-01

    The possible future of on-line analytical-quality measurements for improved process control and more timely safeguards measurements is examined in the light of a current project at Savannah River. A measurement system involving a fiber-optic spectrophotometer and the application of mathematical techniques called chemometrics is described.

  17. The Impact of RELAP5 Pipe Break Flow Rates Associated With Reverse Flow Limiter Removal for Steam Generator Replacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong Zheng; Jarvis, Julie M.; Vieira, Allen T.

    2006-07-01

    Pipe break flow rates are calculated for a main feedwater line break (FWLB) in the main steam valve vault (MSVV) for a PWR Steam Generator Replacement (SGR). A reverse flow limiter is installed in the original steam generator (OSG) feedwater nozzle to limit the blowdown flowrate in the event of a postulated FWLB. This feature is not incorporated in the replacement steam generator (RSG) design. The change in RSG nozzle design in conjunction with new operating conditions results in increased FWLB mass and energy releases which can impact environmental temperatures and pressures and flooding levels. In the United States, benchmarking for safety related analyses is necessary in consideration of 10CFR50.59 requirements. RELAP5/MOD3 is used to model the pipe break flowrates for a FWLB at different break locations. The benchmark FWLB blowdown releases are larger than the OSG design basis blowdown releases due to differences in RELAP5/MOD3 versions which are found to have different algorithms for subcooled choked flow. The SGR FWLB blowdown release rates are determined to have minimal impact on the compartment temperature and pressure response. However, the flooding levels and associated equipment qualification are potentially impacted. Modeling techniques used to minimize the impact of the SGR blowdown releases on MSVV flooding levels include modeling flashing effects, more realistic RSG temperature distribution, inventory depletion and Auxiliary Feedwater (AFW) flow initiation time, and considering loss of offsite power scenarios. A detailed flooding hazard evaluation is needed, which considers the actual main feedwater isolation times to ensure that environmentally qualified safety related components, required to mitigate the effects of a FWLB inside the MSVV, can perform their safety function prior to being submerged. (authors)

  18. Spin switches for compact implementation of neuron and synapse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quang Diep, Vinh Sutton, Brian; Datta, Supriyo; Behin-Aein, Behtash

    2014-06-02

    Nanomagnets driven by spin currents provide a natural implementation for a neuron and a synapse: currents allow convenient summation of multiple inputs, while the magnet provides the threshold function. The objective of this paper is to explore the possibility of a hardware neural network implementation using a spin switch (SS) as its basic building block. SS is a recently proposed device based on established technology with a transistor-like gain and input-output isolation. This allows neural networks to be constructed with purely passive interconnections without intervening clocks or amplifiers. The weights for the neural network are conveniently adjusted through analog voltages that can be stored in a non-volatile manner in an underlying CMOS layer using a floating gate low dropout voltage regulator. The operation of a multi-layer SS neural network designed for character recognition is demonstrated using a standard simulation model based on coupled Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equations, one for each magnet in the network.

  19. High gain photoconductive semiconductor switch having tailored doping profile zones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baca, Albert G.; Loubriel, Guillermo M.; Mar, Alan; Zutavern, Fred J; Hjalmarson, Harold P.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Zipperian, Thomas E.; O'Malley, Martin W.; Helgeson, Wesley D.; Denison, Gary J.; Brown, Darwin J.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Hou, Hong Q.

    2001-01-01

    A photoconductive semiconductor switch with tailored doping profile zones beneath and extending laterally from the electrical contacts to the device. The zones are of sufficient depth and lateral extent to isolate the contacts from damage caused by the high current filaments that are created in the device when it is turned on. The zones may be formed by etching depressions into the substrate, then conducting epitaxial regrowth in the depressions with material of the desired doping profile. They may be formed by surface epitaxy. They may also be formed by deep diffusion processes. The zones act to reduce the energy density at the contacts by suppressing collective impact ionization and formation of filaments near the contact and by reducing current intensity at the contact through enhanced current spreading within the zones.

  20. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.