National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for line loss defined

  1. Mode conversation losses in overmolded millimeter wave transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tax, David S. (David Samuel)

    2008-01-01

    Millimeter wave transmission lines are integral components for many important applications like nuclear fusion and NMR spectroscopy. In low loss corrugated transmission lines propagating the HE,1 mode with a high waveguide ...

  2. Microsoft Word - notification of sampling line loss.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    under Permit Condition IV.F.5.e, the Permittees are hereby notifying the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) of the loss of two (2) hydrogen and methane monitoring...

  3. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  4. Influence of the airflow speed along transmission lines on the DC corona discharge loss, using finite element approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shemshadi, A.; Akbari, A.; Niayesh, K.

    2012-07-15

    Corona discharge is of great interest from the physical point of view and due to its numerous practical applications in industry and especially one of the most important sources of loss in the high voltage transmission lines. This paper provides guidelines for the amount of electric loss caused by corona phenomenon occurred around a DC high voltage wire placed between two flat plates and influence of wind speed rate on the amount of corona loss using COMSOL Multiphysics. So electric potential distribution patterns and charge density diffusion around the wire are studied in this article.

  5. Evaluation of Methods for Predicting Seepage Loss Rates for the Hard Lined Irrigation Canals of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, Eric

    2014-01-15

    and installation techniques under the LCCL (Lower Cost Canal Lining) Program (Morrison and Starbuck 1984). Studies have shown that most liners will not completely eliminate seepage losses. Seepage losses will increase through cracking and deterioration over...

  6. Water Loss Test Results for Lateral A Before and After Lining Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, E.; Fipps, G.

    2008-01-01

    for Test SJ14 ? Lateral A-8 (West of Stewart Rd.) District Test ID Hidalgo County Irrigation District No.2 SJ14 Canal Lining Type Lateral A-8 Concrete/GeoLiner Top Width Start Date/Time Finish Date/Time 15.977 feet (avg.) July 26, 2005 Test Length... stream_source_info TR-328 Water Loss Test Results Lateral A - Hidalgo Co. ID No. 2.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 24542 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name TR-328 Water Loss Test Results Lateral A - Hidalgo Co...

  7. The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Y., E-mail: yji@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-15

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300?keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  8. CONSTRAINTS ON POROSITY AND MASS LOSS IN O-STAR WINDS FROM THE MODELING OF X-RAY EMISSION LINE PROFILE SHAPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2013-06-10

    We fit X-ray emission line profiles in high resolution XMM-Newton and Chandra grating spectra of the early O supergiant {zeta} Pup with models that include the effects of porosity in the stellar wind. We explore the effects of porosity due to both spherical and flattened clumps. We find that porosity models with flattened clumps oriented parallel to the photosphere provide poor fits to observed line shapes. However, porosity models with isotropic clumps can provide acceptable fits to observed line shapes, but only if the porosity effect is moderate. We quantify the degeneracy between porosity effects from isotropic clumps and the mass-loss rate inferred from the X-ray line shapes, and we show that only modest increases in the mass-loss rate ({approx}< 40%) are allowed if moderate porosity effects (h{sub {infinity}} {approx}< R{sub *}) are assumed to be important. Large porosity lengths, and thus strong porosity effects, are ruled out regardless of assumptions about clump shape. Thus, X-ray mass-loss rate estimates are relatively insensitive to both optically thin and optically thick clumping. This supports the use of X-ray spectroscopy as a mass-loss rate calibration for bright, nearby O stars.

  9. Homozygous deletions on the short arm of chromosome 9 in ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines and loss of heterozygosity in sporadic tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chenevix-Trench, G.; Kerr, J.; Hurst, T.; Sanderson, B.; Coglan, M.; Ward, B.; Khoo, S.K. ); Friedlander, M.; Leary, J.

    1994-07-01

    Rat ovarian surface epithelial cells transformed spontaneously in vitro have been found to have homozygous deletions of the interferon alpha (IFNA) gene. This suggests that inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene in this region may be crucial for the development of ovarian cancer. The authors therefore used microsatellite markers and Southern analysis to examine the homologous region in humans - the short arm of chromosome 9 - for deletions in sporadic ovarian adenocarcinomas and ovarian tumor cell lines. Loss of heterozygosity occurred in 34 (37%) of 91 informative sporadic tumors, including some benign, low-malignant-potential and early-stage tumors, suggesting that it is an early event in the development of ovarian adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, homozygous deletions on 9p were found in 2 of 10 independent cell lines. Deletion mapping of the tumors and lines indicates that the candidate suppressor gene inactivated as a consequence lies between D9S171 and the IFNA locus, a region that is also deleted in several other tumors and that contains the melanoma predisposition gene, MLM. 52 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Loss-of-feedwater, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break experiments: Steam generator transient response test program: Interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendler, O.J.; Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.

    1987-01-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results. Two LOF tests were analyzed in detail. Both tests were initiated from 100% power condition by shutting off the main feedwater flow. In LOF Test No. 1, the remaining boundary conditions were kept constant while in LOF Test No. 2, the power was rapidly reduced to 3%. The results show that the primary to secondary heat transfer becomes degraded when the collapsed water liquid level in the bundle region falls below approximately 50 inches. The SGTR test analyzed in detail - SGTR Test No. 2 - simulated the post-reactor-trip portion of the SGTR transient (T/sub prim/ = 560/sup 0/F). The transient was initiated by starting the SGTR flow injection and simultaneously shutting off the auxiliary feedwater. The water level rose and flooded the dryer to its mid-elevation by the end of the test. The primary carry-over was shown to be less than 0.4% of the tracer mass injected into the secondary side by the SGTR flow. SGTR Test No. 3 investigated the response of the intact steam generator. Reverse heat transfer and low heat flow conditions were simulated. The results have demonstrated the occurrence of temperature stratification in the secondary water which lasted for about 800 seconds.

  11. Defining engine efficiency limits

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigates the potential to reduce engine efficiency losses and how this impacts the entire system in terms of a direct increase in work output or a change in the loss mechanism.

  12. Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tavallaee, Amir Ali

    2012-01-01

    Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . . Terahertz CRLHCRLH Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . . 112losses in negative-index metamaterials by optical parametric

  13. The effects of R/X ratios on power system minimum loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denison, John Scott

    1949-01-01

    Presentation of Data Summary e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Appendix . Bibliography ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ S5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 89 Case I, Loss vs ~ Angle ~ Case II, Loss vs. Angle Case III, Loss vs ~ Angle Case IV ~ Loss vso Angle... ~ ~ ~ Case V, Line Impedances . . . . . , ~ 17 20 23 27 33 Case V (a), Loss vs. Angle . . ~ Case V (b), Loss vs. Voltage Case V (c), Loss vs. Angle Case VI, Line Impedances ~ Case VI, Loss vs. &ngle ~ Case VII (a), Line Impedances Case VII (a...

  14. SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT THE DESIGN OF LOSS Authors: Christian Hennig

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennig, Christian

    are defined in terms of loss functions in the sense that loss functions define what a "good" estimator to minimize loss functions. The impact of subjective decisions to the design of loss functions is also-estimator, linear regres- sion. AMS Subject Classification: · 62A01, 62C05, 62G09, 62J05, 62M20 #12;2 Hennig

  15. Software Defined Radio Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kranakis, Evangelos

    ) [14]. The USRP2 bridges the analog world of electromagnetic radio waves and digital world of computersChapter 2 Software Defined Radio Architecture A SDR is a real-time system. The inputs to the system are actions performed by the radio operator and data produced by active elements present in the SDR

  16. Loss modeling for pricing catastrophic bonds 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sircar, Jyotirmoy

    2009-05-15

    loss model in the form of a power curve with upper and lower cut-offs is developed and used in conjunction with the previously defined demand model in order to estimate loss ratios. The loss model is calibrated and validated for different types...

  17. User Defined Images

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDidDevelopmentat LENA|Upcoming Purchasing andUser Defined Images User

  18. Software-Defined Mobile Cloud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ku, Ian

    2014-01-01

    M. Gerla. “Towards Software- Defined VANETs: ArchitectureI. Ku, Y. Lu, and M. Gerla. “Software-Defined Mobile Cloud:C. Peylo, “CloudMAC: towards software defined WLANs,” ACM

  19. Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details Date & Time of Damage / Loss: Type of damage / loss: Location - specific address / room: Project / Grant associated with damage / loss - grant Police: When was damage / loss first discovered - BY WHOM: Pictures available or attached? Was personal

  20. > FOR CONFERENCE-RELATED PAPERS, REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SESSION NUMBER, E.G., AB-02 (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE) Computation of eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composites1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -CLICK HERE) eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composites1 2 C. Appino1 , O. Bottauscio1, Italy6 7 We compute the classical eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC) materials, taking into account the eddy current8 paths appearing at the scale of the sample cross-section because of random

  1. Microsoft Word - Completion of an Evalution of Impact of Loss...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Completion of an Evaluation of the Impact of the Loss of Two Hydrogen and Methane Monitoring Sampling Lines Dear Mr. Bearzi: As required under Permit Condition...

  2. Steam System Losses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buchanan, M. G.; Sneary, M. L.

    1995-01-01

    % flash loss I 970.3 2. B x % flash loss =Ibs/hr loss Example: 10,000 x 9% =1900 Ibs/hr 10551 3. Lbs/hr loss x 24 =Ibs/day loss Example: _ 900 x 24 =121,600 Ibs/day 10551 4. Lbs/day loss x 365 =Ibs/yr loss Example: 21,600 x 365 =17,884,000 Ibs/yr... 10551 Estimated Dollar Loss: 5. Lbslyr x C = $ loss per year 1000 Example: 7.884.000 x $5.00 = ~39,420 loss per year to flashing I 1000 Estimated Energy Loss: 6. Lbs/yr loss x (F+G) =loss/yr Example: 7,884,000 x (180.70 + 970.30) = 9...

  3. Microfluidics Using Spatially Defined Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Microfluidics Using Spatially Defined Arrays of Droplets in One, Two, and Three Dimensions Rebecca: MICROFLUIDIC COMPARTMENTALIZATION This review describes the microfluidic generation and manipulation of excellent reviews on formation, manipulation, and applications of droplets (1­8). Microfluidics

  4. Silicon on ultra-low-loss waveguide photonic integration platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauters, Jared; Davenport, Michael; Heck, Martijn; Doylend, Jonathan; Chen, Arnold; Fang, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on aspiral is 78 mm long. 3. Ultra-low-loss waveguides with and

  5. Defining resilience within a risk-informed assessment framework

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, Garill A.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Holter, Gregory M.; Bass, Robert B.; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2011-08-01

    The concept of resilience is the subject of considerable discussion in academic, business, and governmental circles. The United States Department of Homeland Security for one has emphasised the need to consider resilience in safeguarding critical infrastructure and key resources. The concept of resilience is complex, multidimensional, and defined differently by different stakeholders. The authors contend that there is a benefit in moving from discussing resilience as an abstraction to defining resilience as a measurable characteristic of a system. This paper proposes defining resilience measures using elements of a traditional risk assessment framework to help clarify the concept of resilience and as a way to provide non-traditional risk information. The authors show various, diverse dimensions of resilience can be quantitatively defined in a common risk assessment framework based on the concept of loss of service. This allows the comparison of options for improving the resilience of infrastructure and presents a means to perform cost-benefit analysis. This paper discusses definitions and key aspects of resilience, presents equations for the risk of loss of infrastructure function that incorporate four key aspects of resilience that could prevent or mitigate that loss, describes proposed resilience factor definitions based on those risk impacts, and provides an example that illustrates how resilience factors would be calculated using a hypothetical scenario.

  6. Loss of sex chromosomes in the hematopoietic disorders: Questions, concerns and data interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovak, M.L. [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The significance of sex chromosome aberrations in the hematopoietic disorders has not yet been defined. Interpretive problems stem from (1) the loss of a sex chromosome associated with aging, (2) sex chromosome loss as the sole aberration in leukemia is rare, (3) random -(X or Y) is observed frequently in bone marrow samples, and (4) constitutional sex chromosome anomalies must be ruled out in cancer and follow-up may not be possible. The COH database identified 41 patients (pts) with sex chromosome loss. Loss of a sex chromosome was common in myeloid disorders (21/41). In t(8;21) leukemia (n=10), -(X or Y) was a common secondary karyotypic change. Additionally, -Y was associated with clonal evolution in 2 Ph + CML pts. In 2 elderly pts with myeloid disorders, -(X or Y) was observed in complex karyotypes with dmins; however, in the lymphoproliferative disorders -(X or Y) was noted in elderly pts without apparent pathogenetic significance. Three pts had constitutional sex chromosome aberrations: CML in 45,X; ALL in 47, XXY; and RAEB-IT in mos45,X/46,XX. In the mos45,X/46,XX pt, the leukemic clone was associated with the 45,X line without other karyotypic changes. Non-clonal aberrations were observed in 11 cases; in 3 cases these non-clonal losses were observed in serial samples. In a sex-mismatched BMT case, -(X or Y) in 4 cells was one of the first pathogenetic signs of leukemia relapse. These data suggest (1) interpretation of sex chromosome loss in leukemia must be made with caution and after a baseline sample, (2) non-clonal aberrations should be recorded, and (3) -(X or Y) appears to have pathogenetic significance in the myeloid disorders. Multi-institutional studies are needed to define (1) the incidence of leukemia in pts with constitutional sex chromosome anomalies and (2) the incidence and significance of sex chromosome aberrations as the primary (sole) cytogenetic aberration in leukemia.

  7. Evaluating Transformer Losses 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grun, R. L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    This paper outlines how to determine what transformer losses cost and how to evaluate transformer bids to optimize the investment....

  8. Control of stochasticity in magnetic field lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo; Philippe Ghendrih; Ricardo Lima

    2005-11-03

    We present a method of control which is able to create barriers to magnetic field line diffusion by a small modification of the magnetic perturbation. This method of control is based on a localized control of chaos in Hamiltonian systems. The aim is to modify the perturbation locally by a small control term which creates invariant tori acting as barriers to diffusion for Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom. The location of the invariant torus is enforced in the vicinity of the chosen target. Given the importance of confinement in magnetic fusion devices, the method is applied to two examples with a loss of magnetic confinement. In the case of locked tearing modes, an invariant torus can be restored that aims at showing the current quench and therefore the generation of runaway electrons. In the second case, the method is applied to the control of stochastic boundaries allowing one to define a transport barrier within the stochastic boundary and therefore to monitor the volume of closed field lines.

  9. Defining a Standard Metric for Electricity Savings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Marilyn; Akbari, Hashem; Blumstein, Carl; Koomey, Jonathan; Brown, Richard; Calwell, Chris; Carter, Sheryl; Cavanagh, Ralph; Chang, Audrey; Claridge, David; Craig, Paul; Diamond, Rick; Eto, Joseph H.; Fulkerson, William; Gadgil, Ashok; Geller, Howard; Goldemberg, Jose; Goldman, Chuck; Goldstein, David B.; Greenberg, Steve; Hafemeister, David; Harris, Jeff; Harvey, Hal; Heitz, Eric; Hirst, Eric; Hummel, Holmes; Kammen, Dan; Kelly, Henry; Laitner, Skip; Levine, Mark; Lovins, Amory; Masters, Gil; McMahon, James E.; Meier, Alan; Messenger, Michael; Millhone, John; Mills, Evan; Nadel, Steve; Nordman, Bruce; Price, Lynn; Romm, Joe; Ross, Marc; Rufo, Michael; Sathaye, Jayant; Schipper, Lee; Schneider, Stephen H; Sweeney, James L; Verdict, Malcolm; Vorsatz, Diana; Wang, Devra; Weinberg, Carl; Wilk, Richard; Wilson, John; Worrell, Ernst

    2009-03-01

    The growing investment by governments and electric utilities in energy efficiency programs highlights the need for simple tools to help assess and explain the size of the potential resource. One technique that is commonly used in this effort is to characterize electricity savings in terms of avoided power plants, because it is easier for people to visualize a power plant than it is to understand an abstraction such as billions of kilowatt-hours. Unfortunately, there is no standardization around the characteristics of such power plants. In this letter we define parameters for a standard avoided power plant that have physical meaning and intuitive plausibility, for use in back-of-the-envelope calculations. For the prototypical plant this article settles on a 500 MW existing coal plant operating at a 70percent capacity factor with 7percent T&D losses. Displacing such a plant for one year would save 3 billion kW h per year at the meter and reduce emissions by 3 million metric tons of CO2 per year. The proposed name for this metric is the Rosenfeld, in keeping with the tradition among scientists of naming units in honor of the person most responsible for the discovery and widespread adoption of the underlying scientific principle in question--Dr. Arthur H. Rosenfeld.

  10. Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E L

    1992-01-01

    Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

  11. Damping and electromechanical energy losses in the piezoelectric polymer PVDF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damping and electromechanical energy losses in the piezoelectric polymer PVDF Aleksandra M and actuators. The electromechanical properties of PVDF are commonly defined by the constitutive equations of piezoelectricity have certain limitations in terms of representing adequately the electromechanical properties

  12. LHC Beam Loss Monitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arauzo-Garcia, A; Ferioli, G; Gschwendtner, E

    2001-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a beam loss system will be installed for a continuous surveillance of particle losses. These beam particles deposit their energy in the super-conducting coils leading to temperature increase, possible magnet quenches and damages. Detailed simulations have shown that a set of six detectors outside the cryostats of the quadrupole magnets in the regular arc cells are needed to completely diagnose the expected beam losses and hence protect the magnets. To characterize the quench levels different loss rates are identified. In order to cover all possible quench scenarios the dynamic range of the beam loss monitors has to be matched to the simulated loss rates. For that purpose different detector systems (PIN-diodes and ionization chambers) are compared.

  13. Defining work from operational principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Gallego; J. Eisert; H. Wilming

    2015-04-20

    In recent years we have witnessed a concentrated effort to make sense of thermodynamics for small-scale systems. One of the main difficulties is that, at the nano-scale, thermal fluctuations of energy in general render it conceptually difficult to distinguish work from heat. Despite of several attempts to resolve this issue, many of which inspired by quantum information theory, there is still remarkable little consensus on it. In this work, we attempt to define work in a strictly operational way. In our resource-theoretic approach, agents wish to agree upon how much work needs to be invested to effect a transition from one state of an arbitrary quantum work-storage device to another. We introduce basic operational principles, and deduce from them a strict set of mathematical properties that any reasonable function quantifying such work has to fulfil. One of those generalises strong sub-additivity, a key property in quantum information theory, to the domain of thermodynamics. We show that one work quantifier fulfilling all the required properties is the difference of the non-equilibrium free energy of the initial and final state of the work-storage system. More generally, for any work quantifier fulfilling the stated properties, we can derive a quantitative second law in the sense of bounding the work that can be performed using some non-equilibrium resource by the work that is needed to create it. We furthermore discuss the role of path dependence for work quantifiers and the connection to the concept of probability-distributions of work. Our mathematical results can be formulated abstractly and carry over to other resource theories than quantum thermodynamics.

  14. Defining work from operational principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Gallego; J. Eisert; H. Wilming

    2015-09-25

    In recent years we have witnessed a concentrated effort to make sense of thermodynamics for small-scale systems. One of the main difficulties is that, at the nano-scale, thermal fluctuations of energy in general render it conceptually difficult to distinguish work from heat. Despite of several attempts to resolve this issue, many of which inspired by quantum information theory, there is still remarkable little consensus on it. In this work, we attempt to define work in a strictly operational way. In our resource-theoretic approach, agents wish to agree upon how much work needs to be invested to effect a transition from one state of an arbitrary quantum work-storage device to another. We introduce basic operational principles, and deduce from them a strict set of mathematical properties that any reasonable function quantifying such work has to fulfill. We show that one work quantifier satisfying all the required properties is the difference of the non-equilibrium free energy of the initial and final state of the work-storage system. More generally, for any work quantifier fulfilling the stated properties, we can derive a quantitative second law in the sense of bounding the work that can be performed using some non-equilibrium resource by the work that is needed to create it. The appropriate treatment of correlations turns out to be essential to obtain such second laws and we discuss their role in detail. We furthermore discuss the role of path dependence for work quantifiers and the connection to the concept of probability-distributions of work. Our mathematical results can be formulated abstractly and are general enough to carry over to other resource theories than quantum thermodynamics.

  15. STATE of COLORADO LOSS NOTICE THIS FORM IS USED TO REPORT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE of COLORADO LOSS NOTICE THIS FORM IS USED TO REPORT PROPERTY, BOILER & MACHINERY, BOND, CRIME-mail: Risk Management Office use below this line. _________PROPERTY ___________BOILER ______________CRIME

  16. Method for early detection of cooling-loss events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermudez, Sergio A.; Hamann, Hendrik F.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2015-12-22

    A method of detecting cooling-loss event early is provided. The method includes defining a relative humidity limit and change threshold for a given space, measuring relative humidity in the given space, determining, with a processing unit, whether the measured relative humidity is within the defined relative humidity limit, generating a warning in an event the measured relative humidity is outside the defined relative humidity limit and determining whether a change in the measured relative humidity is less than the defined change threshold for the given space and generating an alarm in an event the change is greater than the defined change threshold.

  17. Microsoft Word - notification of sampling line loss.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OFDetection ofOctober10 Years of AERI9 TheBPA For 4th10

  18. Low-loss guided modes in photonic crystal waveguides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @fisicavolta.unipv.it Abstract: We study disorder-induced propagation losses of guided modes in photonic crystal slabs with line-defects. Meade, and J. N. Winn, Photonic Crystals: Molding the Flow of Light (Princeton University Press. Takahashi, and I. Yokohama, "Structural tuning of guiding modes of line-defect waveguides of Silicon

  19. Survivorship Clinic Hearing Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brent, Roger

    of carboplatin High doses of radiation (30 Gy or 3000 cGy/rads or higher) to the head or brain, especially whenSurvivorship Clinic Hearing Loss Some chemotherapy drugs, other medications, or radiation needed are arranged in order of pitch, from low-pitched sounds (such as a man's voice) to very high-pitched sounds

  20. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W., E-mail: hans.w.schumacher@ptb.de [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  1. Software Defined Wireless Networks: Unbridling SDNs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perkins, Dmitri

    Software Defined Wireless Networks: Unbridling SDNs Salvatore Costanzo, Laura Galluccio, Giacomo at analyzing how SDN can be beneficial in wireless infrastructureless networking environments with special emphasis on wireless personal area networks (WPAN). Furthermore, a possible approach (called SDWN

  2. Research Article Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hameed, Sultan

    Research Article Defining and Assessing Adverse Environmental Impact Symposium 2001 The, ecological risk assessment, recruitment, striped bass, Hudson River, adverse environmental impact the consequences of ignoring the distinction between measurement error and natural variability in an assessment

  3. William Dunn Defining "Social Sustainability" at UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 William Dunn Geog 446 Defining "Social Sustainability" at UBC In 1996, Environment Canada's report, "The State of Canada's Environment" explained that social sustainability should reflect "the relationship between development and current social norms." Whereby, "an activity is socially sustainable

  4. Transmission Line Structure Spotting and Optimization within a Defined Transmission Line Routing Centerline Using Non-Linear Programming Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cockrum, Joshua W.

    2010-05-14

    Changes in our nation’s economy and growing global warming concerns have slowed the energy markets in United States. However, one area that continues to have strong growth is the transmission and distribution infrastructure. ...

  5. Wilson Line Integrals in the Unparticle Action

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Lewis Licht

    2008-05-25

    We consider the unparticle action that is made gauge invariant by inclusion of an open Wilson line factor. In deriving vertexes from such an action it has been customary to use a form of differentiating the Wilson line originally proposed by Mandelstam. Using a simple example, we show that the Mandelstam derivative is mathematically inconsistent. We show that there are two ways to define differentiation of the Wilson line. The mathematically consistent method is to differentiate the explicit dependence of the line on the endpoint. The other method is a functional derivative and corresponds in a limiting case to the Mandelstam derivative. We also show that the only path that can be used in the Wilson line integral that leaves the unparticle action both Poincare and scale invariant is the straight line.

  6. Loss and thermal noise in plasmonic waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syms, R. R. A. Solymar, L.

    2014-06-07

    Rytov's theory of thermally generated radiation is used to find the noise in two-dimensional passive guides based on an arbitrary distribution of lossy isotropic dielectric. To simplify calculations, the Maxwell curl equations are approximated using difference equations that also permit a transmission-line analogy, and material losses are assumed to be low enough for modal losses to be estimated using perturbation theory. It is shown that an effective medium representation of each mode is valid for both loss and noise and, hence, that a one-dimensional model can be used to estimate the best achievable noise factor when a given mode is used in a communications link. This model only requires knowledge of the real and imaginary parts of the modal dielectric constant. The former can be found by solving the lossless eigenvalue problem, while the latter can be estimated using perturbation theory. Because of their high loss, the theory is most relevant to plasmonic waveguides, and its application is demonstrated using single interface, slab, and slot guide examples. The best noise performance is offered by the long-range plasmon supported by the slab guide.

  7. Software-defined Quantum Communication Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Travis S. Humble; Ronald J. Sadlier

    2014-10-20

    Quantum communication systems harness modern physics through state-of-the-art optical engineering to provide revolutionary capabilities. An important concern for quantum communication engineering is designing and prototyping these systems to evaluate proposed capabilities. We apply the paradigm of software-defined communication for engineering quantum communication systems to facilitate rapid prototyping and prototype comparisons. We detail how to decompose quantum communication terminals into functional layers defining hardware, software, and middleware concerns, and we describe how each layer behaves. Using the super-dense coding protocol as an example, we describe implementations of both the transmitter and receiver, and we present results from numerical simulations of the behavior. We conclude that software-defined quantum communication provides a robust framework in which to explore the large design space offered by this new regime of communication.

  8. Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    1 Lecture 17 Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Importance of midlatitude ozone · Covers most of the world's populated areas · Provides protection from UV #12;3 Ozone loss picture, c. 1988 #12;4 Lower vs. Upper stratosphere #12;5 Ozone loss, post 1988 · Discovery of ozone hole

  9. Hemodynamic Monitoring TRANSTHORACIC LINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    and with position changes. 5. All lines should have either heparinized saline or D5W infusing. 6. Avoid infusing the line. 9. Never use LA for infusions or bolus medications. 10. Vigilant observation for AIR. B. Line

  10. Loss maps of RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert-Demolaize,G.

    2007-10-01

    State-of-the-art tracking tools were recently developed at CERN to study the cleaning efficiency of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system [1]. These tools are fully transportable, meaning that any accelerator lattice that includes a collimation system can be simulated. Each of the two Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [2] beam lines features a multi-stage collimation system, therefore dedicated datasets from RHIC operations with proton beams can be used to benchmark the tracking codes and assess the accuracy of the predicted hot spots along the LHC.

  11. Line formation in the inner winds of classical T Tauri stars: testing the conical wind solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kurosawa, Ryuichi

    2012-01-01

    We present the emission line profile models of hydrogen and helium based on the results from axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations of the wind formed near the disk-magnetosphere boundary of classical T Tauri stars (CTTSs). We extend the previous outflow models of `the conical wind' by Romanova et al. to include a well defined magnetospheric accretion funnel flow which is essential for modelling the optical and near-infrared hydrogen and helium lines of CTTSs. Our MHD model shows outflows in conical shape with a half opening angle about 35 degrees. The flow properties such as the maximum outflow speed in the conical wind, maximum inflow speed in the accretion funnel, mass-accretion and mass-loss rates are comparable to those found in a typical CTTS. The density, velocity and temperature from the MHD simulations are used in a separate radiative transfer model to predict the line profiles and test the consistency of the MHD models with observations. The line profiles are computed with various combi...

  12. OFC Review 2013 Software Defined Network (SDN)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    and transmission rate w/o hardware change Dedicated PCE to scale OpenFlow architectutre #12;Network ArchitectureOFC Review 2013 Software Defined Network (SDN) M. Farhan Habib May 10, 2013 Friday Group Meeting Networks Lab @ UCD #12;NTu3F: SDN in Today's Network #12;SDN: What and Why · Traditional distributed

  13. Socio-Economic Status "Defining" SES parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gabrieli, John

    Socio-Economic Status Data "Defining" SES parameters · Objective SES: · Individual and/or householdArthur Ladder) · In Community (MacArthur Ladder) · Other considerations: · Social, economic, and psychological personal evaluation be reflection of self-esteem? - Half parent/half subject reports - Evidence

  14. Abstract --Under a context of transmission open access, a methodology to define a common transmission trunk system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    is defined as a unique and common system constituted by electrical lines and substations access. I INTRODUCTION Transmission is the activity dedicated to transport power from differentAbstract -- Under a context of transmission open access, a methodology to define a common

  15. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Marshall Hughes Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Marshall Hughes Comment submitted on...

  16. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and...

  17. Transient Behavior of Two-Machine Geometric Production Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shimkin, Nahum

    Transient Behavior of Two-Machine Geometric Production Lines Semyon M. Meerkov Nahum Shimkin. Keywords: Production lines; Geometric reliability model; Production rate; Transient behavior; Effects of up to technological constraints; this leads to production losses in the subsequent shift (until the buffer occupancy

  18. Commercial-Residential Buildings' Vulnerability Component of the Florida Public Hurricane Loss Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Shu-Ching

    Commercial-Residential Buildings' Vulnerability Component of the Florida Public Hurricane Loss to be surveyed and defined. Within this context the State of Florida has created the Florida Public Hurricane

  19. Quantum Thought Experiments Can Define Nature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Donald McCartor

    2007-02-20

    One would not think that thought experiments could matter to nature, for they are a humble human device. Yet quantum mechanics very naturally frames thought experiments (as distinct from precisely defining what exists). They exemplify the informing powers of radiation. Though based on wave functions that have time symmetry, these tableaux inevitably tell of irreversible behavior by nature. The paper sketches how John von Neumann's measurement theory fits into this and retells N. David Mermin's baseball story.

  20. AC losses in type-II superconductors induced by nonuniform fluctuations of external magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the economic gains of implementation of type-II superconductors in power transmission lines, current leads amplitude. The results can be used to estimate the AC losses in flywheels, electric motors, magnetic shields

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 14, NO. 1, MARCH 2004 69 AC Losses in Type-II Superconductors Induced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    -II superconductors in power transmission lines, current leads, fault current limiters, magnetic shields, bearings losses in flywheels, electric motors, magnetic shields, etc. Index Terms--AC losses, asymptotic solution

  2. Gas Water Heater Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Biermayer, Peter

    2012-01-01

    including delivered hot water and energy losses. Waterand 17% if hot water energy is included. INTRODUCTION Thedrawn, determines the hot water energy output. The current

  3. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C. [Didier-M and P Energietechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany); Steiger, R. [Didier-M and P Engineering Services, Highland, IN (United States); Jeschar, R. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1995-12-01

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  4. Template:Define | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Information Serbia-EnhancingEt Al., 2013) | Open EnergyDBpediaValue Jump to: navigation,Define Jump to:

  5. Form:Define | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:ofEnia SpAFlex Fuels Energy JumpVynckeForestsCommunityDefine

  6. X-ray Spectroscopy of Massive Star Winds: Shocks, Mass-Loss Rates, and Clumping

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    X-ray Spectroscopy of Massive Star Winds: Shocks, Mass-Loss Rates, and Clumping David Cohen X-rays A. wind-shock physics B. wind absorption: wind mass-loss rate C. with H-alpha: wind clumping Chandra resolved X-ray line profile spectroscopy of O star winds #12;Prior to 2000: only low-resolution X

  7. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl, Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-01-01

    LBNL-59177 Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in ScleractiniaKuehl, Jeffrey L. Boore Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in

  8. Functional Visual Loss in Amblyopia and the Effect of Occlusion Therapy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nottingham, University of

    of amblyopia therapy is most often defined in terms of improvement in high contrast visual acuity, which only. Gray,2 Paul V. McGraw,3 and Barry Winn3 PURPOSE. The aim of this study was to define the nature of functional visual loss in amblyopia and to identify those subjects whose amblyopia is chiefly due to one

  9. Racing line optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiong, Ying, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2010-01-01

    Although most racers are good at controlling their cars, world champions are always talented at choosing the right racing line while others mostly fail to do that. Optimal racing line selection is a critical problem in car ...

  10. Theoretical X-ray Line Profiles from Colliding Wind Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, D B; Pittard, J M

    2003-01-01

    We present theoretical X-ray line profiles from a range of model colliding wind systems. In particular, we investigate the effects of varying the stellar mass-loss rates, the wind speeds, and the viewing orientation. We find that a wide range of theoretical line profile shapes is possible, varying with orbital inclination and phase. At or near conjunction, the lines have approximately Gaussian profiles, with small widths (HWHM ~ 0.1 v_infty) and definite blue- or redshifts (depending on whether the star with the weaker wind is in front or behind). When the system is viewed at quadrature, the lines are generally much broader (HWHM ~ v_infty), flat-topped and unshifted. Local absorption can have a major effect on the observed profiles - in systems with mass-loss rates of a few times 10^{-6} Msol/yr the lower energy lines (E wind of the primary. The orbital variation ...

  11. Power losses in electrical networks depending on weather conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhelezko, Yu. S.; Kostyushko, V. A.; Krylov, S. V.; Nikiforov, E. P.; Savchenko, O. V.; Timashova, L. V.; Solomonik, E. A. [Electric Power Research Institute (VNIIE) (Russian Federation)

    2005-01-15

    Specific power losses to corona and to leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for 110 - 750-kV transmission lines with different phase design and pole types for different weather conditions. Consumption of electric energy for ice melting on conductors of various cross sections is evaluated. Meteorological data of 1372 weather stations in Russia are processed for a period of 10 years. The territory of the country is divided into 7 regions with approximately homogeneous weather conditions. Specific power losses to corona and leakage currents over overhead insulators are presented for every region.

  12. DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Defining Pathways...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Defining Pathways for Onboard Automotive Applications DOE Materials-Based Hydrogen Storage Summit: Defining Pathways for Onboard Automotive...

  13. Defining nuclear security in the 21st century

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doyle, James E

    2009-01-01

    A conference devoted to Reducing the Risks from Radioactive and Nuclear Materials presupposes that such risks exist. Few would disagree, but what are they? While debate on the nature and severity of risks associated with nuclear energy will always remain, it is easy to define a set of risks that are almost universally acknowledged. These include: (1) Nuclear warfare between states; (2) Continued proliferation of nuclear weapons and weapons-grade nuclear materials to states and non-state actors; (3) Terrorists or non-state actor acquisition or use nuclear weapons or nuclear materials; (4) Terrorists or non-state actors attack on a nuclear facility; and (5) Loss or diversion of nuclear weapons or materials by a state to unauthorized uses. These are listed in no particular order of likelihood or potential consequence. They are also very broadly stated, each one could be broken down into a more detailed set of discrete risks or threats. The fact that there is a strong consensus on the existence of these risks is evidence that we remain in an era of nuclear insecurity. This becomes even clearer when we note that most major trends influencing the probability of these risks continue to run in a negative direction.

  14. World-line observables and clocks in General Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossein Farajollahi

    2005-11-20

    A proposal for the issue of time and observables in any parameterized theory such as general relativity is addressed. Introduction of a gauge potential 3-form A in the theory of relativity enables us to define a gauge-invariant quantity which can be used by observers as a clock to measure the passage of time. This dynamical variable increases monotonically and continuously along a world line. Then we define world line observables to be any covariantly defined quantity obtained from the field configurations on any such causal past with dynamical time T.

  15. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns. Plans for Fiscal Year 2010 are being made in a coordinated fashion such that the knowledge gained from the research performed by the Campaigns can benefit on-going work of the study, and that improved understanding of the system relationships can be used to guide the specific research and development (R&D) activities within the Campaigns. In FY-10, the System Losses and Assessment Trade Study will carry-over activities from FY-09. We will continue to refine impurity and loss estimates and impurity limits on fuels by incorporating results from ongoing R&D. And we will begin work on an enhanced nuclear material management model to allow us to continue to improve our overall system understanding of the trade-offs between separations, fuel fabrication, waste forms, waste disposition, SNM losses, reactor performance, and proliferation resistance. In the future, we can also better understand how used fuel and other forms of remote-handled SNM can be better integrated into an overall nuclear material management program that will evolve for the DOE complex via Order 410.2 (DOE 2009).

  16. Defining coiled tubing limits -- A new approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, K.R.; Sathuvalli, U.B.; Stone, L.R.; Wolhart, S.

    1996-12-31

    The burst, collapse and axial load operating limits for Coiled Tubing (CT) are currently established using the Von Mises incipient yield criterion. This criterion has historically been used to calculate the limits for oil country tubular goods (OCTG). The limits according to this criterion are based on the point at which the pipe material reaches a load state in which it begins to yield. Because of the bending that occurs when the CT is spooled on and off the reel, and when it is bent over the guide arch, the CT is already far beyond the yield point before it enters a well. Thus, this criterion does not really apply to CT. This paper describes a research project currently in progress. The purpose of this project is to define a new set of CT limits based on criteria other than incipient yield. This new approach to setting CT operating limits takes into account the internal residual stresses in the CT which are a consequence of repeated bending cycles and the accompanying change in material properties.

  17. Line graphs e contrazioni: un approccio rigoroso alla space syntax

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Autilia, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    The methods of the space syntax have been the subject of extensive discussion, and several techniques to identify the axis lines have been proposed. The space syntax can be represented in terms of line graph, a graphs defined on the edge of a given primary graph. By means of the line graph algorithms, a system of labels defined on the edges of the primary graph is transformed into a system of labels on the vertices of the line graph. The contraction of adjacent edges with the same label allows to build a more general graph than those generated with the methods of the space syntax. By means of the functions implemented in Mathematica is therefore possible to redefine the space syntax on any system of urban quantities (labels) and reproduce the results of the axial lines as a special case. As an example is discussed a possible application of the method to the urban noise analysis.

  18. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  19. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, L.D.; Ballard, W.P.; Clark, M.C.; Marder, B.M.

    1987-05-19

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields are produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap. 11 figs.

  20. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  1. Efficiency loss in resource allocation games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yunjian

    2012-01-01

    The overarching goals of this thesis are to quantify the efficiency loss due to market participant strategic behavior, and to design proper pricing mechanisms that reduce the efficiency loss. The concept of efficiency loss ...

  2. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sippola, M R; Nazaroff, William W

    2003-01-01

    m) (c) 85% ASHRAE filters at air intake high-loss ducts low-loss ducts fractional fate (-) exhausted indoors indoorssurface deposition supply & return duct deposition filtered

  3. Loss of AP-5 results in accumulation of aberrant endolysosomes: defining a new type of lysosomal storage disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hirst, Jennifer; Edgar, James R.; Esteves, Typhaine; Darios, Frédéric; Madeo, Marianna; Chang, Jaerak; Roda, Ricardo H.; Dürr, Alexandra; Anheim, Mathieu; Gellera, Cinzia; Li, Jun; Züchner, Stephan; Mariotti, Caterina; Stevanin, Giovanni; Blackstone, Craig; Kruer, Michael C.; Robinson, Margaret S.

    2015-06-17

    -fixed in 2% PFA/0.1% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 ? phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, for 2 h at room temperature. Cells were scraped, pelleted and embedded in 12% gelatin at 37?C and infused with 1.7 ? sucrose/15% polyvinyl pyrolidone overnight at 4?Cbefore beingmounted...

  4. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  6. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Struven, Warren C. (San Carlos, CA)

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  7. The 2mrad Crossing Angle Interaction Region and Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appleby, R.; U., Manchester; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Dadoun, O.; Bambade, P.; Parker, B.; Keller, L.; Moffeit, K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Carter, J.; Royal Holloway, U.of London; Napoly, O.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimizing the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  8. Effects of alpha particles on the angular momentum loss from the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo Li; Xing Li

    2006-06-07

    The classic Weber-Davis model of the solar wind is reconsidered by incorporating alpha particles and by allowing the solar wind to flow out of the equatorial plane in an axisymmetrical configuration. In the ion momentum equations of the solar wind, the ion gyro-frequency is many orders of magnitude higher than any other frequency. This requires that the difference between proton and alpha velocity vectors be aligned with the background magnetic field. With the aid of this alignment condition, the governing equations of the multi-fluid solar wind are derived from the standard transport equations. The governing equations are numerically solved along a prescribed meridional magnetic field line located at colatitude $70^\\circ$ at 1AU and a steady state fast solar wind solution is found. A general analysis concludes, in agreement with the Weber-Davis model, that the magnetic field helps the coronal plasma to achieve an effective corotation out to the Alfv\\'enic radius, where the poloidal Alfv\\'enic Mach number $M_T$ equals unity ($M_T$ is defined by equation (\\ref{eq:mach})). The model computations show that, magnetic stresses predominate the angular momentum loss of the Sun. For the fast wind considered, the proton contribution to the angular momentum loss, which can be larger than the magnetic one, is almost completely canceled by the alpha particles that develop an azimuthal speed in the direction opposite to the solar rotation. The Poynting flux associated with the azimuthal components is negligible in the energy budget. However, the solar rotation can play some role in reducing the relative speed between alpha particles and protons for low latitude fast solar wind streams in interplanetary space.

  9. Wetland Losses and Human Impacts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gray, Matthew

    American Wetlands Peatlands of Alaska and Canada Playa Lakes MAV Prairie Potholes Coastal Wetlands mil ha (89 mil) ·Alaska =69 mil ha United States: =127 mil haCanada: =111 mil ha Manitoba (22.5) Ontario (29.2) = 51.7 mil ha 41% 53% Loss** =238 mil ha Canada 53% Alaska 29% Lower US 18%Lower US 29

  10. Saving Lives and Mitigating Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duchowski, Andrew T.

    Saving Lives and Mitigating Losses Wind and Structural Engineering Research Facility #12;Clemson University's Wind and Structural Engineering Research (WiSER) Facility is a premier laboratory for the study of wind effects on structures. Testing to assess the structural performance of buildings and bridges can

  11. Defining window-boundaries for genomic analyses using smoothing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    undesirable window boundary specifications, or highly correlated test statistics. We introduce a method for defining windows based on statistically guided...

  12. IEEE Software Defined Network Initiative Mehmet Ulema, Manhattan College, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    IEEE Software Defined Network Initiative A Proposal Mehmet Ulema, Manhattan College, USA Nirant, Italy Abstract -- This paper outlines a proposal for setting up an IEEE initiative on software defined, IEEE, Abstraction. I. INTRODUCTION Software Defined Networking (SDN) has become one of the most active

  13. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  14. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  15. Theoretical X-ray Line Profiles from Colliding Wind Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Henley; I. R. Stevens; J. M. Pittard

    2003-06-23

    We present theoretical X-ray line profiles from a range of model colliding wind systems. In particular, we investigate the effects of varying the stellar mass-loss rates, the wind speeds, and the viewing orientation. We find that a wide range of theoretical line profile shapes is possible, varying with orbital inclination and phase. At or near conjunction, the lines have approximately Gaussian profiles, with small widths (HWHM ~ 0.1 v_\\infty) and definite blue- or redshifts (depending on whether the star with the weaker wind is in front or behind). When the system is viewed at quadrature, the lines are generally much broader (HWHM ~ v_\\infty), flat-topped and unshifted. Local absorption can have a major effect on the observed profiles - in systems with mass-loss rates of a few times 10^{-6} Msol/yr the lower energy lines (E wind of the primary. The orbital variation of the line widths and shifts is reduced in a low inclination binary. The extreme case is a binary with i = 0 degrees, for which we would expect no line profile variation.

  16. Fluid properties determine flow line blockage potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.

    1996-07-15

    A thorough understanding of fluid properties helps in determining the potential of hydrates, paraffins, or asphaltenes to block subsea flow lines. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical methods are the main ways for preventing deposition. Already in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, blockages have led to significant losses in production and reserves recovery. This first article in a two-part series discusses thermal and chemical methods in overcoming fluid behavior problems caused by hydrate and other fluid constituents in subsea multiphase flow. The paper discusses subsea production, possible problems, nucleation, growth, deposition, preventing deposition, hydrate predictions, multiphase flow, and hydrate inhibition.

  17. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  18. CONTINUOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLENN,J.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; BIRYUKOV,V.M.

    2001-06-18

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10{sup 13} AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given.

  19. MPLP Curriculum Outline Defining Ourselves and Our Work

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, Shawn J.

    MPLP Curriculum Outline Defining Ourselves and Our Work Introduction of Fellows Determine Personal Leadership Style Review Program Goals and Curriculum Establish and Share Individual Goals Understanding

  20. Role of borehole geophysics in defining the physical characteristics...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Role of borehole geophysics in defining the physical characteristics of the Raft River geothermal reservoir, Idaho Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to...

  1. Towards large-cohort comparative studies to define the factors...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Towards large-cohort comparative studies to define the factors influencing the gut microbial community structure of ASD patients Citation Details In-Document Search Title:...

  2. Defining Real World Drive Cycles to Support APRF Technology Evaluation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Real World Drive Cycles to Support APRF Technology Evaluations Defining Real World Drive Cycles to Support APRF Technology Evaluations 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and...

  3. Vital Elements Score Comments Introduction/Motivation: Well defined &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ito, Garrett

    Evaluator: Vital Elements Score Comments · Introduction/Motivation: Well defined & motivated: Resounding, memorable, & address objectives Vital Elements Total Presentation Mechanics · Clarity

  4. Independent Signs of Lower Mass-Loss Rates for O-Type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2007-10-18

    I discuss observational evidence -- independent of the direct spectral diagnostics of stellar winds themselves -- suggesting that mass-loss rates for O stars need to be revised downward by roughly a factor of three or more, in line with recent observed mass-loss rates for clumped winds. These independent constraints include the large observed mass-loss rates in LBV eruptions, the large masses of evolved massive stars like LBVs and WNH stars, WR stars in lower metallicity environments, observed rotation rates of massive stars at different metallicity, supernovae that seem to defy expectations of high mass-loss rates in stellar evolution, and other clues. I pay particular attention to the role of feedback that would result from higher mass-loss rates, driving the star to the Eddington limit too particular attention to the role of feedback that would result from higher mass-loss rates, driving the star to the Eddington limit too soon, and therefore making higher rates appear highly implausible. Some of these arguments by themselves may have more than one interpretation, but together they paint a consistent picture that steady line-driven winds of O-type stars have lower mass-loss rates and are significantly clumped.

  5. Loss mechanisms in turbine tip clearance flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Arthur (Arthur C.)

    2011-01-01

    Numerical simulations of tip clearance ow have been carried out to dene the loss generation mechanisms associated with tip leakage in unshrouded axial turbines. Mix- ing loss between the leakage, which takes the form of a ...

  6. The "skinny" on healthy weight loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoubridge, Eric

    restrictions One size does not fit all Taboos lead to overconsumption #12;Disadvantages ­Yo-Yo Dieting ENERGY IN ENERGY OUT WEIGHT LOSSWEIGHT GAIN #12;What is "healthy" weight loss? Steady weight loss (1

  7. Country Music and the Expression of Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Marcus Desmond

    2008-01-01

    Country Music and the Expression of Loss The recipient ofLoss, and mourning in the music of Emmylou Harris by Marcusthe intersection between music and cultural practice. In my

  8. Induction machine stray loss from inter-bar currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Englebretson, Steven Carl

    2009-01-01

    Stray load loss refers generally to the sources of induction machine loss not accounted for by typical calculations of primary or secondary copper loss, no load core loss, or friction and windage loss. Harmonic rotor bar ...

  9. 1 Introduction Tableau algorithms defined naturally for pictures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Leeuwen, Marc

    1 Introduction Tableau algorithms defined naturally for pictures Marc A. A. van Leeuwen CWI Kruislaan 413 1098 SJ Amsterdam The Netherlands email: M.van.Leeuwen@cwi.nl Abstract We consider pictures as defined in [Zel1]. We elaborate on the generalisation of the Robinson-Schensted correspondence to pictures

  10. TESLA: A Formally Defined Event Specification Language Gianpaolo Cugola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cugola, Gianpaolo

    TESLA: A Formally Defined Event Specification Language Gianpaolo Cugola Dip. di Elettronica e to clearly state how the system should behave. Moving from these premises, we present TESLA, a complex event specification language. Each TESLA rule considers incoming data items as notifi- cations of events and defines

  11. 7, 1009710129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 7, 10097­10129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes 1 , R. M Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  12. 4, 21672238, 2004 Ozone loss and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Arctic winters 1991­2003 S Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ozone loss and chlorine activation Correspondence to: S. Tilmes (simone.tilmes@t-online.de) 2167 #12;ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine

  13. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  14. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  15. Drill string transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  16. Response Growth With Sound Level in Auditory-Nerve Fibers After Noise-Induced Hearing Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heinz, Michael G.

    G. Heinz and Eric D. Young Center for Hearing Sciences and Department of Biomedical Engineering with sound level was compared in normal-hearing cats and in cats with a noise-induced hearing loss to test steeper rate-level func- tions with cochlear damage (heavy solid and dashed lines in Fig. 1B

  17. Mass Loss Rates, Ionization Fractions, Shock Velocities and Magnetic Fields of Stellar Jets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartigan, Patrick

    Mass Loss Rates, Ionization Fractions, Shock Velocities and Magnetic Fields of Stellar Jets Patrick the initial conditions relevant to stellar jets, and we show how to estimate the ionization fractions and shock velocities in jets directly from observations of the strong emission lines in these flows

  18. Program Admission Policy: Defining Entrance Requirements For Engineering Disciplines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    Program Admission Policy: Defining Entrance Requirements For Engineering Disciplines Academic Affairs Responsibility: Dean, College of Engineering Authorization: Student Academic Affairs Committee, College of Engineering Approval Date: October 31, 2014 Amended: - Revisions Effective date of this policy

  19. Algebraic Characterizations of two Beth Definability Eva Hoogland \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    century, G. Boole initiated the investigations of a class of algebras, subsequently called BooleanAlgebraic Characterizations of two Beth Definability Properties Eva Hoogland \\Lambda ehooglan corresponds to surjectiveness of epimorphisms in abstract algebraic logic. Furthermore, we will give

  20. Interplay between pulsations and mass loss in the blue supergiant 55 Cygnus = HD 198478

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kraus, M; Cidale, L S; Venero, R O J; Nickeler, D H; Nemeth, P; Niemczura, E; Tomic, S; Aret, A; Kubat, J; Kubatova, B; Oksala, M E; Cure, M; Kaminski, K; Dimitrov, W; Fagas, M; Polinska, M

    2015-01-01

    Blue supergiant stars are known to display photometric and spectroscopic variability that is suggested to be linked to stellar pulsations. Pulsational activity in massive stars strongly depends on the star's evolutionary stage and is assumed to be connected with mass-loss episodes, the appearance of macroturbulent line broadening, and the formation of clumps in the wind. To investigate a possible interplay between pulsations and mass-loss, we carried out an observational campaign of the supergiant 55 Cyg over a period of five years to search for photospheric activity and cyclic mass-loss variability in the stellar wind. We modeled the H, He I, Si II and Si III lines using the nonlocal thermal equilibrium atmosphere code FASTWIND and derived the photospheric and wind parameters. In addition, we searched for variability in the intensity and radial velocity of photospheric lines and performed a moment analysis of the line profiles to derive frequencies and amplitudes of the variations. The Halpha line varies wit...

  1. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial...

  2. Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguide Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    1, 2012 Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguidepreviously demonstrated ultra-low-loss technologies. Groupet al. : MULTILAYER PLATFORM FOR ULTRA-LOW-LOSS WAVEGUIDE

  3. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  4. Holes in Spectral Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontana, Peter R.; Srivastava, Rajendra P.

    1973-06-01

    at E = 0 is 2le I' Ib/(t)I = @~ R~R~~»nh'(IRlyt)e"'" (13)a ylal 0 5 '7 FIG. 3. Probabilities of photon emission as a function of time. The frequency corresponds to the energy differ- ence between the unperturbed degenerate excited states and the ground... states 6 is 0. 5 ey. For V= 0 the emission line is Lorentzian, but for V0 a "hole" appears at the frequency equal to the frequency difference between the excited nondecay- ing state and the ground state. The position of the "hole" is independent...

  5. The Line Verifier GVERIFY1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Griffith, Arnold K.

    1971-01-01

    A line verifier is presented which, given the co-ordinates of the end points of the hypothesized line, returns a (possibly) more accurate version of the end points, together with an estimate of the probability that there ...

  6. Analysis of TPV Network Losses (a Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DM DePoy; MW Dashiell; DD Rahner; LR Danielson; JE Oppenlander; JL Vell; RJ Wehrer

    2004-12-08

    This talk focuses on the theoretical analysis of electrical losses associated with electrically networking large numbers of TPV cells to produce high power TPV power generators.

  7. Loan Loss Reserves: Lessons from the Field

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on Sept. 20, 2010, provides in formation on loan loss reserve funds and lessons from the field on their use.

  8. Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    Chaos in a Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser Marshal Miller With... Prof. Edward Ott Prof times become shorter, circuit connections behave more and more like transmission lines. Theoretical(t) - Transmission Line (Zo, T) #12;5 Cf/Cr 1000 Vf Capacitance Voltage Cf Cr Model for Nonlinear Capacitor

  9. NEW EVIDENCE FOR MASS LOSS FROM ? CEPHEI FROM H I 21 cm LINE OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marengo, M.

    Recently published Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the classical Cepheid archetype ? Cephei revealed an extended dusty nebula surrounding this star and its hot companion HD 213307. At far-infrared wavelengths, the ...

  10. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Rubbia; A. Ferrari; Y. Kadi; V. Vlachoudis

    2006-02-03

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more favourably exploited with the heavier ion colliding against a gas-jet D2 target. Kinematics is generally very favourable, with emission angles in a narrow angular cone and a relatively concentrated outgoing energy spectrum which allows an efficient collection as a neutral gas in a tiny volume with a technology at high temperatures perfected at ISOLDE. It is however of a much more general applicability. The method appears capable of producing a "table top" storage ring with an accumulation rate in excess of 10**14 Li-8 radioactive ion/s for possible use for radioactive beams for physics studies (for example for beta-beams) or for therapy.

  11. Emission Lines and the Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Wilkes; P. J. Green; S. Mathur; J. C. McDowell

    1996-08-05

    Many years of study have failed to conclusively establish relations between a quasar's spectral energy distribution (SED) and the emission lines it is thought to produce. This is at least partially due to the lack of well-observed SEDs. We present initial results from a line--SED study for a sample of 43 quasars and active galaxies for which we have optical and ultra-violet spectra and far-infrared--X-ray SEDs. We present the results of tests for correlations between line equivalent widths and SED luminosity and slope parameters and compare these results to those from earlier studies. We find that the Baldwin effect is weaker when the luminosity is defined close to the ionising continuum of that line and conclude that the detailed SED is likely to be important in making further progress.

  12. Defining integrals over connections in the discretized gravitational functional integral

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Khatsymovsky

    2010-05-01

    Integration over connection type variables in the path integral for the discrete form of the first order formulation of general relativity theory is studied. The result (a generalized function of the rest of variables of the type of tetrad or elementary areas) can be defined through its moments, i. e. integrals of it with the area tensor monomials. In our previous paper these moments have been defined by deforming integration contours in the complex plane as if we had passed to an Euclidean-like region. In the present paper we define and evaluate the moments in the genuine Minkowsky region. The distribution of interest resulting from these moments in this non-positively defined region contains the divergences. We prove that the latter contribute only to the singular (\\dfun like) part of this distribution with support in the non-physical region of the complex plane of area tensors while in the physical region this distribution (usual function) confirms that defined in our previous paper which decays exponentially at large areas. Besides that, we evaluate the basic integrals over which the integral over connections in the general path integral can be expanded.

  13. Eruptive Mass Loss in Very Massive Stars and Population III Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2006-07-24

    I discuss the role played by short-duration eruptive mass loss in the evolution of very massive stars. Giant eruptions of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) like the 19th century event of eta Carinae can remove large quantities of mass almost instantaneously, making them significant in stellar evolution. They can potentially remove much more mass from the star than line-driven winds, especially if stellar winds are highly clumped such that previous estimates of O star mass-loss rates need to be revised downward. When seen in other galaxies as ``supernova impostors'', these LBV eruptions typically last for less than a decade, and they can remove of order 10 Msun as indicated by massive nebulae around LBVs. Such extreme mass-loss rates cannot be driven by radiation pressure on spectral lines, because the lines will completely saturate during the events. Instead, these outbursts must either be continuum-driven super-Eddington winds or outright hydrodynamic explosions, both of which are insensitive to metallicity. As such, this eruptive mode of mass loss could also play a pivotal role in the evolution and ultimate fate of massive metal-poor stars in the early universe. If they occur in these Population III stars, such eruptions would also profoundly affect the chemical yield and types of remnants from early supernovae and hypernovae thought to be the origin of long gamma ray bursts.

  14. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  15. Introduction Geohazards can be defined as "events caused by geolo-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , such as tsunamis. Activities include hazard and risk assessment for slides and earthquakes, evaluation of soil the basic under- standing of geohazards and the ability to deal with the risks they pose. This need. Offshore, several of the largest oil companies define reduction of geohazard-related risks in deep water

  16. Software Defined Radio Architecture Survey for Cognitive Testbeds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risset, Tanguy

    ]. While implementing the whole radio node in software is still an utopia, many architectures now hittingSoftware Defined Radio Architecture Survey for Cognitive Testbeds Micka¨el Dardaillon, Kevin propose a classification related to the architectural organization of the pro- totypes and provide some

  17. Defining Change Management Properties for Component Interoperability Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gamble, R. F.

    1 Defining Change Management Properties for Component Interoperability Assessment T. Gamble R In this paper, we leverage software architecture analysis techniques to codify change management properties is to extend component-based systems analysis to include change management concerns so that clearer designs

  18. DEFINING AND EXPERIENCING DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE An Editorial Essay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hulme, Mike

    DEFINING AND EXPERIENCING DANGEROUS CLIMATE CHANGE An Editorial Essay SURAJE DESSAI1, W. NEIL ADGER. Understanding what constitutes dangerous climate change is of critical importance for future concerted action and somewhat arbitrary definitions of danger based on a variety of assumptions and assessments generally

  19. Defining Well-Founded Semantics for Revision Programming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pivkina, Inna

    Defining Well-Founded Semantics for Revision Programming Inna V. Pivkina Department of Computer programming is a formalism to describe and enforce constraints on belief sets, databases, and more generally programming and approximating justified revisions. The first two approaches are obtained via embeddings

  20. The Literature Search Process: An Overview 1. Define your topic.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fletcher, Robin

    The Literature Search Process: An Overview 1. Define your topic. At the start of the research on the e-books page on the Bracken website, e-books are also listed by title and subject.. C. Health- describe the patient as a member of a population group in terms of age, sex, ethnicity, etc. or in terms

  1. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Clean Line project. The project would include an overhead 600-kilovolt (kv) high voltage, direct current electric transmission system and associated facilities with the capacity to...

  2. Proposed Project: Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    & Eastern Clean Line project (the proposed project) would include an overhead +- 600 kV direct current electric transmission system and associated facilities with the capacity to...

  3. Loss characterization in microLoss characterization in micro--cavitiescavities using the thermalusing the thermal bistabilitybistability effecteffect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss characterization in microLoss characterization in micro--cavitiescavities using Scattering limited Q #12;Quick Test for Loss CharacterizationQuick Test for Loss Characterization #12 to characterize different loss mechanisms in these structuresdifferent loss mechanisms in these structures nn

  4. Supernovae: Little bear's mass loss rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Trimble, V; Trimble, V

    1985-01-01

    Williamson (Dalhousie Univ. ). Supernovae Little Bear’s massidentified and defined supernovae as a distinct astronomicalType II (hydrogen-rich) supernovae, on the other hand, end

  5. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  6. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  7. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  8. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  9. Emergency pipe line repair connects subsea pipe lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerique, M.P.; Thiberge, P. ); Wright, N. )

    1990-11-01

    Emergency repair of any subsea line pipe must form a high-integrity, metal-to-metal seal. This paper presents a remote, diverless repair system that utilizes master flanges, a connector and a spool piece to repair line pipe in deep offshore waters.

  10. Hermitian structures defined by linear electromagnetic constitutive laws

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David Delphenich

    2007-10-26

    It is demonstrated that when the bundle of 2-forms on a four-dimensional manifold M admits an almost-complex structure any choice of "real + imaginary" subspace decomposition of the bundle defines a conjugation map, as well as a Hermitian structure for the bundle. When the almost-complex structure comes from a linear electromagnetic constitutive law, the real and imaginary parts of the Hermitian structure are then shown to represent the Hamiltonian for an anisotropic three-dimensional electromagnetic oscillator at each point of M and a symplectic structure for each fiber. The complex form of the oscillator equations is also definable in terms of the geometric structures that were introduced.

  11. A versatile technique to minimize electrical losses in distribution feeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyaruzi, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    This dissertation presents a method of minimizing electrical losses in radial distribution feeders by the use of shunt capacitors. The engineering benefits of reducing peak electrical power and energy losses are compared to the costs associated with the current engineering practice of buying, installing and servicing capacitor banks in the distribution feeders. The present analysis defines this cost-benefit problem and the formulation of the problem of nonuniform feeders with different wire gauges at various feeder sections. Standard utility capacitor bank sizes are used to give a more realistic model. An original computer solution methodology based on techniques developed for this study determines: (i) Whether it is economical to install compensating capacitor banks on a particular radial distribution feeder or not. (ii) The locations at which capacitor banks should be installed. (iii) The types and sizes of capacitor banks to be installed. (iv) The time setting of switched capacitor banks. The techniques have been applied to a typical radial distribution feeder in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The results and the engineering implications of this work are discussed and recommendations for the engineering community made.

  12. Responses to Third Referee Report for "Equations for the moduli space of n points on the line"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vakil, Ravi

    Responses to Third Referee Report for "Equations for the moduli space of n points on the line" by B. The Kempe embedding Since the X for deg() = w generate the algebra Rw, we shall use the X to define

  13. Defining Human Failure Events for Petroleum Risk Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald L. Boring; Knut Øien

    2014-06-01

    In this paper, an identification and description of barriers and human failure events (HFEs) for human reliability analysis (HRA) is performed. The barriers, called target systems, are identified from risk significant accident scenarios represented as defined situations of hazard and accident (DSHAs). This report serves as the foundation for further work to develop petroleum HFEs compatible with the SPAR-H method and intended for reuse in future HRAs.

  14. Program Evaluation: Define Review Purpose and Scope | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankADVANCED MANUFACTURINGEnergy Bills andOrderNATIONALofDefine Review Purpose and Scope Program Evaluation:

  15. Low loss laser glass: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumitani, T.; Toratani, H.; Meissner, H.E.

    1987-01-15

    The objective of this work was a process development on making a laser glass with loss coefficient of 10/sup -4/cm/sup -1/ at 1.05..mu... The key issues for making such a low loss glass will be to use pure raw materials, to reduce OH content and to prevent contamination from the melting environment. A sublimation method was tried to prepare pure P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ batch material. In an attempt to distinguish contributions to the overall loss, glasses were melted in furnaces which were controlled in moisture as well as contamination. Evaluation of glass samples at LLNL are expected to provide guidance on the importance of various process parameters. A new 0.5 liter furnace which almost completely prevents contamination by the furnace environment has been constructed to obtain useful information for making a low loss glass on a production scale.

  16. Telling Absence: War Widows, Loss and Memory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loipponen, Jaana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis concerns feminist sociological analysis of war loss and its consequences as experienced and told by Finnish Karelian war widows of World War 2. They lost their partners and had to leave their homes by force, ...

  17. High temperature elemental losses and mineralogical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thy, P.; Jenkins, B. M.; Grundvig, S.; Shiraki, R.; Lesher, C. E.

    2006-01-01

    ashes. The K 2 O loss for wood ash commences at 900–1000 8C.Carbonate is detected in the wood ashes to about 700–800 8Cphases detected in the wood ashes (pericline and larnite)

  18. The connection between mass loss and nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacco Th. van Loon

    2008-01-03

    I discuss the relationship between mass loss and nucleosynthesis on the Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB). Because of thermal pulses and possibly other mixing processes, products of nucleosynthesis can be brought to the surface of AGB stars, increasingly so as the star becomes more luminous, cooler, and unstable against pulsation of its tenuous mantle. As a result, mass loss is at its most extreme when dredge-up is too. As the high rate of mass loss truncates AGB evolution, it determines the enrichment of interstellar space with the AGB nucleosynthesis products. The changing composition of the stellar atmosphere also affects the mass-loss process, most obviously in the formation of dust grains - which play an important role in driving the wind of AGB stars.

  19. Assessing Phosphorous Loss to Protect Surface Water 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia, Raul

    2005-01-01

    programs. It is an integrated approach that considers soil and landscape features in order tx H2O | pg. 10 Assessing Phosphorus Loss to Protect Surface Water to find appropriate phosphorus management practices by estimating phosphorus delivery...

  20. Aerosol penetration through transport lines 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dileep, V.R.

    1996-01-01

    It is very important to minimize the losses in aerosol transport systems for the Continuous Air Monitors (CAM) to have a prompt and a meaningful alarm and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) also Currently mandates continuous emissions...

  1. New observations and models of circumstellar CO line emission of AGB stars in the Herschel SUCCESS programme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilovich, Taissa; Justtanont, K; Olofsson, H; Cerrigone, L; Bujarrabal, V; Alcolea, J; Cernicharo, J; Castro-Carrizo, A; Garcia-Lario, P; Marston, A

    2015-01-01

    CONTEXT: Asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are in one of the latest evolutionary stages of low to intermediate-mass stars. Their vigorous mass loss has a significant effect on the stellar evolution, and is a significant source of heavy elements and dust grains for the interstellar medium. The mass-loss rate can be well traced by carbon monoxide (CO) line emission. AIMS: We present new Herschel HIFI and IRAM 30m telescope CO line data for a sample of 53 galactic AGB stars. The lines cover a fairly large range of excitation energy from the $J=1\\to0$ line to the $J=9\\to8$ line, and even the $J=14\\to13$ line in a few cases. We perform radiative transfer modelling for 38 of these sources to estimate their mass-loss rates. METHODS: We used a radiative transfer code based on the Monte Carlo method to model the CO line emission. We assume spherically symmetric circumstellar envelopes that are formed by a constant mass-loss rate through a smoothly accelerating wind. RESULTS: We find models that are consistent across...

  2. Resilient Control Systems Practical Metrics Basis for Defining Mission Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig G. Rieger

    2014-08-01

    "Resilience” describes how systems operate at an acceptable level of normalcy despite disturbances or threats. In this paper we first consider the cognitive, cyber-physical interdependencies inherent in critical infrastructure systems and how resilience differs from reliability to mitigate these risks. Terminology and metrics basis are provided to integrate the cognitive, cyber-physical aspects that should be considered when defining solutions for resilience. A practical approach is taken to roll this metrics basis up to system integrity and business case metrics that establish “proper operation” and “impact.” A notional chemical processing plant is the use case for demonstrating how the system integrity metrics can be applied to establish performance, and

  3. Safety culture assessment based on PSA-defined critical components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mavko, B.; Kozuh, M.

    1994-12-31

    With the suggested guide-words approach connected to the critical components, a different viewpoint on nuclear safety attitudes is defined. This enables the identification, judgment, and improvement of the most vulnerable places in the plant. Any potential overlap in the duties and areas where a clear division of responsibilities is needed is thus revealed. Also, the need for communication between different groups becomes evident. It is known that anyone who neglects the communication of component status by assuming everybody knows it can cause a serious problem. Safety culture is reached when such assumptions are absent from day-to-day operations.

  4. Chemistry and line emission from evolving Herbig Ae disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jonkheid; C. P. Dullemond; M. R. Hogerheijde; E. F. van Dishoeck

    2006-11-07

    Aims: To calculate chemistry and gas temperature of evolving protoplanetary disks with decreasing mass or dust settling, and to explore the sensitivity of gas-phase tracers. Methods: The density and dust temperature profiles for a range of models of flaring and self-shadowed disks around a typical Herbig Ae star are used together with 2-dimensional ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer to calculate the chemistry and gas temperature. In each model the line profiles and intensities for the fine structure lines of [O I], [C II] and [C I] and the pure rotational lines of CO, CN, HCN and HCO+ are determined. Results: The chemistry shows a strong correlation with disk mass. Molecules that are easily dissociated, like HCN, require high densities and large extinctions before they can become abundant. The products of photodissociation, like CN and C2H, become abundant in models with lower masses. Dust settling mainly affects the gas temperature, and thus high temperature tracers like the O and C+ fine structure lines. The carbon chemistry is found to be very sensitive to the adopted PAH abundance. The line ratios CO/13CO, CO/HCO+ and [O I] 63 um/146 um can be used to distinguish between disks where dust growth and settling takes place, and disks that undergo overall mass loss.

  5. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  6. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  7. Defining urban and rural regions by multifractal spectrums of urbanization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yanguang

    2015-01-01

    The spatial pattern of urban-rural regional system is associated with the dynamic process of urbanization. How to characterize the urban-rural terrain using quantitative measurement is a difficult problem remaining to be solved. This paper is devoted to defining urban and rural regions using ideas from fractals. A basic postulate is that human geographical systems are of self-similar patterns associated with recursive processes. Then multifractal geometry can be employed to describe or define the urban and rural terrain with the level of urbanization. A space-filling index of urban-rural region based on the generalized correlation dimension is presented to reflect the degree of geo-spatial utilization in terms of urbanization. The census data of America and China are adopted to show how to make empirical analyses of urban-rural multifractals. This work is not so much a positive analysis as a normative study, but it proposes a new way of investigating urban and rural regional systems using fractal theory.

  8. User Experiment Time-Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    User Experiment Time-Line Event Target Call for proposal 2 months before proposals are due PAC Proposals Due 7 weeks before PAC meeting TAC Report for PAC Proposals (includes...

  9. The beauty of laser lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sue-Mie

    1993-01-01

    A line, the simplest way to express an artist's feelings or interpretation of an object, has its own emotions that an artist can employ for her purpose. Laser light, the most self-concentrated, self-sustained and directed, ...

  10. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-12-15

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  11. Draft "Michigan Saves" Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

  12. Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

  13. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reindel, John (San Diego, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  14. Parton Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enke Wang; Xin-Nian Wang

    2001-06-28

    Stimulated gluon emission and thermal absorption in addition to induced radiation are considered for an energetic parton propagating inside a quark- gluon plasma. In the presence of thermal gluons, stimulated emission reduces while absorption increases the parton's energy. The net effect is a reduction of the parton energy loss. Though decreasing asymptotically as $T/E$ with the parton energy, the relative reduction is found to be important for intermediate energies. The modified energy dependence of the energy loss will affect the shape of suppression of moderately high $p_T$ hadrons due to jet quenching in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  15. Handling Food and Supplies during Power Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anding, Jenna

    2005-09-30

    or uncertain, reduce your risk of getting sick by buying food that doesn?t require refrigeration or prepara- tion. Suggested Food Handling Food and Supplies during Power Loss ? Ready-to-eat canned/pouched meats/meals (e.g., tuna, chicken, spaghetti... or gas commonly occurs during storms or other natural disasters. However, power loss may continue for weeks after the storm has passed, especially if an area has been damaged by floods or high winds. If you are in an area where power is limited...

  16. Scheduling Algorithms for Shared Fiber-Delay-Line Optical Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, Jonathan

    1 Scheduling Algorithms for Shared Fiber-Delay-Line Optical Packet Switches Part II: The 3-Stage. of ECE Polytechnic University Brooklyn, NY 11201 chao@poly.edu Abstract-- In all-optical packet switching, packets may arrive at an optical switch in an uncoordinated fashion. To prevent packet loss in the switch

  17. Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pressure drops for direct steam generation in line-focus solar thermal systems John Pye1 , Graham. Modelling is extended to include losses in connecting pipe-work, bends and valves, and updated pressure drop the focus of the solar collector, and then generate steam outside the collector in a large heat exchanger

  18. Resolved X-ray emission line profiles Clumping in Hot Star Winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, David

    Resolved X-ray emission line profiles Clumping in Hot Star Winds W.-R. Hamann, A. Feldmeier & L and wind porosity. We find that reducing the mass-loss rate of Pup by roughly a factor of four, to 1.5 × 10-6 M yr-1 , enables simple non-porous wind models to provide good fits to the data. If

  19. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Shao, Zhixin (Pasadena, CA); Affholter, Joseph A. (Midland, MI); Zhao, Huimin (Pasadena, CA); Giver, Lorraine J. (Pasadena, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  20. Recombination of polynucleotide sequences using random or defined primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Frances H. (Pasadena, CA); Shao, Zhixin (Pasadena, CA); Affholter, Joseph A. (Midland, MI); Zhao, Huimin H (San Diego, CA); Giver, Lorraine J. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    2000-01-01

    A method for in vitro mutagenesis and recombination of polynucleotide sequences based on polymerase-catalyzed extension of primer oligonucleotides is disclosed. The method involves priming template polynucleotide(s) with random-sequences or defined-sequence primers to generate a pool of short DNA fragments with a low level of point mutations. The DNA fragments are subjected to denaturization followed by annealing and further enzyme-catalyzed DNA polymerization. This procedure is repeated a sufficient number of times to produce full-length genes which comprise mutants of the original template polynucleotides. These genes can be further amplified by the polymerase chain reaction and cloned into a vector for expression of the encoded proteins.

  1. Can an "impulse response" really be defined for a photoreceiver?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraile-Pelaez, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we examine the validity of the concept of impulse response employed to characterize the time response and the signal-to-noise ratio of p-i-n and similar photodetecting devices. We analyze critically the way in which the formalism of analog linear systems has been extrapolated, by employing results from macroscopic electromagnetic theory such as the Shockley--Ramo theorem or any equivalent approach, to the extreme case of a single-photon detection. We argue that the concept of "response to an optical impulse" is ill-defined in the customary terms it is envisioned in the literature, this is, as an output current pulse having a certain predictable, calculated temporal shape, in response to the detection of an optical "Dirac delta" impulse, conceived in turn as the absorption of a single photon.

  2. Genome assortment, not serogroup, defines Vibrio cholerae pandemic strains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David C; Challacombe, Jean F; Detter, John C; Han, Cliff S; Munik, A C; Chertkov, Olga; Meincke, Linda; Saunders, Elizabeth; Choi, Seon Y; Haley, Bradd J; Taviani, Elisa; Jeon, Yoon - Seong; Kim, Dong Wook; Lee, Jae - Hak; Walters, Ronald A; Hug, Anwar; Colwell, Rita R

    2009-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae, the causative agent of cholera, is a bacterium autochthonous to the aquatic environment, and a serious public health threat. V. cholerae serogroup O1 is responsible for the previous two cholera pandemics, in which classical and El Tor biotypes were dominant in the 6th and the current 7th pandemics, respectively. Cholera researchers continually face newly emerging and re-emerging pathogenic clones carrying combinations of new serogroups as well as of phenotypic and genotypic properties. These genotype and phenotype changes have hampered control of the disease. Here we compare the complete genome sequences of 23 strains of V. cholerae isolated from a variety of sources and geographical locations over the past 98 years in an effort to elucidate the evolutionary mechanisms governing genetic diversity and genesis of new pathogenic clones. The genome-based phylogeny revealed 12 distinct V. cholerae phyletic lineages, of which one, designated the V. cholerae core genome (CG), comprises both O1 classical and EI Tor biotypes. All 7th pandemic clones share nearly identical gene content, i.e., the same genome backbone. The transition from 6th to 7th pandemic strains is defined here as a 'shift' between pathogenic clones belonging to the same O1 serogroup, but from significantly different phyletic lineages within the CG clade. In contrast, transition among clones during the present 7th pandemic period can be characterized as a 'drift' between clones, differentiated mainly by varying composition of laterally transferred genomic islands, resulting in emergence of variants, exemplified by V.cholerae serogroup O139 and V.cholerae O1 El Tor hybrid clones that produce cholera toxin of classical biotype. Based on the comprehensive comparative genomics presented in this study it is concluded that V. cholerae undergoes extensive genetic recombination via lateral gene transfer, and, therefore, genome assortment, not serogroup, should be used to define pathogenic V. cholerae clones.

  3. Polarization conversion loss in birefringent crystalline resonators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polarization conversion loss in birefringent crystalline resonators Ivan S. Grudinin,* Guoping Lin gallery modes in birefringent crystalline resonators are investigated. We experimentally investigate://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OL.38.002410 Crystalline whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonators are known for compact size

  4. Revolving Loan Funds and Loan Loss Reserves

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) State Energy Program (SEP) guidance to states, Indian tribes, and overseas U.S. territories receiving SEP grants under the 209 Recovery Act dealing with loan loss reserves for revolving loan funds.

  5. Ethanol Production: Energy, Economic, and Environmental Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patzek, Tadeusz W.

    of biomass convert solar energy into plant material, but this conversion requires suitable soil, nutrients.1% of the solar energy. Two early studies by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE) con- cerning ethanol productionEthanol Production: Energy, Economic, and Environmental Losses David Pimentel, Tad Patzek

  6. Experimental performance evaluation of line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.C.

    1982-05-01

    Two sun trackers have been tested for tracking accuracy on an sun tracker. Both performed well during the entire test period. Their tracking performance as a function of insolation level was established, and their overall tracking accuracy (rms tracking error) was calculated. Both the flux-line and the shadowband tracker were found to have an effective rms error of about 1 milliradian. This information was used to determine the impact that the two trackers have on the annual energy performance of typical parabolic trough concentrating collectors. One milliradian rms tracking errors were found to result in negligibly small annual performance losses.

  7. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  8. SN 2009ip: CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGENITOR MASS-LOSS RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, E. O.; Lin, L.; Goegues, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Some supernovae (SNe) show evidence for mass-loss events taking place prior to their explosions. Measuring their pre-outburst mass-loss rates provides essential information regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for these events. Here we present XMM-Newton and Swift X-ray observations taken after the latest, and presumably the final, outburst of SN 2009ip. We use these observations as well as new near-infrared and visible-light spectra and published radio and visible-light observations to put six independent order-of-magnitude constraints on the mass-loss rate of the SN progenitor prior to the explosion. Our methods utilize the X-ray luminosity, the bound-free absorption, the H{alpha} luminosity, the SN rise time, free-free absorption, and the bolometric luminosity of the outburst detected prior to the explosion. Assuming spherical mass loss with a wind-density profile, we estimate that the effective mass-loss rate from the progenitor was between 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, over a few years prior to the explosion, with a velocity of {approx}10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}. This mass-loss rate corresponds to a total circumstellar matter (CSM) mass of {approx}0.04 M{sub Sun }, within 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm of the SN. We note that the mass-loss rate estimate based on the H{alpha} luminosity is higher by an order of magnitude. This can be explained if the narrow-line H{alpha} component is generated at radii larger than the shock radius, or if the CSM has an aspherical geometry. We discuss simple geometries which are consistent with our results.

  9. Multiple gamma lines from semi-annihilation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D'Eramo, Francesco

    Hints in the Fermi data for a 130 GeV gamma line from the galactic center have ignited interest in potential gamma line signatures of dark matter. Explanations of this line based on dark matter annihilation face a parametric ...

  10. The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briggs, Richard J.

    2006-01-01

    field model of the pulse- line accelerator; relationship to3, 2006 LBNL-59492 The pulse line ion accelerator conceptCalifornia, 94507 The Pulse Line Ion Accelerator concept was

  11. Defining the Termination of the Asymptotic Giant Branch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noam Soker

    2007-12-22

    I suggest a theoretical quantitative definition for the termination of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase and the beginning of the post-AGB phase. I suggest that the transition will be taken to occur when the ratio of the dynamical time scale to the the envelope thermal time scale, Q, reaches its maximum value. Time average values are used for the different quantities, as the criterion does not refer to the short time-scale variations occurring on the AGB and post-AGB, e.g., thermal pulses (helium shell flashes) and magnetic activity. Along the entire AGB the value of Q increases, even when the star starts to contract. Only when a rapid contraction starts does the value of Q start to decrease. This criterion captures the essence of the transition from the AGB to the post AGB phase, because Q is connected to the stellar effective temperature, reaching its maximum value at T~4000-6000 K, it is related to the mass loss properties, and it reaches its maximum value when rapid contraction starts and envelope mass is very low.

  12. The COMPTEL instrumental line background

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Weidenspointner; M. Varendorff; U. Oberlack; D. Morris; S. Plueschke; R. Diehl; S. C. Kappadath; M. McConnell; J. Ryan; V. Schoenfelder; H. Steinle

    2000-12-14

    The instrumental line background of the Compton telescope COMPTEL onboard the Compton Gamma-Ray Observatory is due to the activation and/or decay of many isotopes. The major components of this background can be attributed to eight individual isotopes, namely 2D, 22Na, 24Na, 28Al, 40K, 52Mn, 57Ni, and 208Tl. The identification of instrumental lines with specific isotopes is based on the line energies as well as on the variation of the event rate with time, cosmic-ray intensity, and deposited radiation dose during passages through the South-Atlantic Anomaly. The characteristic variation of the event rate due to a specific isotope depends on its life-time, orbital parameters such as the altitude of the satellite above Earth, and the solar cycle. A detailed understanding of the background contributions from instrumental lines is crucial at MeV energies for measuring the cosmic diffuse gamma-ray background and for observing gamma-ray line emission in the interstellar medium or from supernovae and their remnants. Procedures to determine the event rate from each background isotope are described, and their average activity in spacecraft materials over the first seven years of the mission is estimated.

  13. Seismic Fragility Analysis and Loss Estimation for Concrete Structures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bai, Jong Wha

    2012-02-14

    seismic vulnerability of concrete structures and effective in quantifying the uncertainties in the loss estimation process....

  14. Grand Coulee Transmission Line Replacement Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Reliability Projects Expand Projects Skip navigation links Line Projects Big Eddy-Knight Central Ferry Lower Monumental Grand Coulee Transmission Line Replacement...

  15. Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion Initial target: preheated & magnetized Subsequent for the FRC. Abstract Block Diagram theta coil transmission line Bias cap. bank maincapacitor inductor PI cap

  16. What can emission lines tell us?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Stasinska

    2007-04-03

    1 Generalities 2 Empirical diagnostics based on emission lines 3 Photoionization modelling 4 Pending questions 5 Appendix: Lists of useful lines and how to deal with them

  17. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM); Pitts, Todd Alan (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2008-09-02

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  18. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM); Pitts, Todd Alan (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2009-02-24

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  19. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  20. Open quantum systems with loss and gain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hichem Eleuch; Ingrid Rotter

    2015-04-13

    We consider different properties of small open quantum systems coupled to an environment and described by a non-Hermitian Hamilton operator. Of special interest is the non-analytical behavior of the eigenvalues in the vicinity of singular points, the so-called exceptional points (EPs), at which the eigenvalues of two states coalesce and the corresponding eigenfunctions are linearly dependent from one another. The phases of the eigenfunctions are not rigid in approaching an EP and providing therewith the possibility to put information from the environment into the system. All characteristic properties of non-Hermitian quantum systems hold true not only for natural open quantum systems that suffer loss due to their embedding into the continuum of scattering wavefunctions. They appear also in systems coupled to different layers some of which provide gain to the system. Thereby gain and loss, respectively, may be fixed inside every layer, i.e. characteristic of it.

  1. Recent Stirling engine loss - understanding results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tew, R.C.; Thieme, L.G.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    For several years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other US Government agencies have been funding experimental and analytical efforts to improve the understanding of Stirling thermodynamic losses. NASA`s objective is to improve Stirling engine design capability to support the development of new engines for space power. An overview of these efforts was last given at the 1988 IECEC. Recent results of this research are reviewed.

  2. Iron loss calculation for synchronous reluctance machines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonardi, F.; Matsuo, T.; Lipo, T.A. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    A numerical method for iron loss calculation is presented in this paper. The method is suitable for any synchronous and most dc machines, especially if the current waveforms are known a priori . This technique will be principally useful for high speed machines and in particular for the synchronous reluctance machines and in particular for the synchronous reluctance machine, where the iron losses are often an important issue. The calculation is based on Finite Element Analysis, which provides the flux density waveforms in the iron, and on the Fourier Analysis of these waveforms. Several Finite Element Simulations are necessary to obtain the induced voltage versus time waveforms. To reduce the post-processing time the majority of the elements of the model are grouped together to create super elements. Also the periodicity of the motor can be used to reduce the number of required simulations. The method is applied to the calculation of the iron losses of a synchronous reluctance generator, and a number of interesting results are discussed in the paper.

  3. Optimal Control of Coal Segregation using On-line Analyzers R. Ganguli, J. C. Yingling, J. Sottile, Dept. of Mining Eng.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Optimal Control of Coal Segregation using On-line Analyzers R. Ganguli, J. C. Yingling, J 40506 ABSTRACT The capability for on-line measurement of the quality characteristics of conveyed coal of coal that must be washed at the mine and thereby reduces processing costs, recovery losses, and refuse

  4. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  5. World-line geometry probed by fast spinning particle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei A. Deriglazov; Walberto Guzmán Ramírez

    2014-09-16

    Interaction of spin with electromagnetic field yields an effective metric along the world line of spinning particle. If we insist to preserve the usual special-relativity definitions of time and distance, critical speed which spinning particle can not overcome during its evolution in external field differs from the speed of light. Instead, we can follow the general-relativity prescription to define physical time and distance in the presence of electromagnetic field. With these definitions, critical speed coincides with the speed of light. Effective metric arises also when spin interacts with gravitational field.

  6. INVESTIGATING EVOLUTIONARY LINES OF LEAST RESISTANCE USING THE INVERSE PROTEIN-FOLDING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naylor, Gavin

    INVESTIGATING EVOLUTIONARY LINES OF LEAST RESISTANCE USING THE INVERSE PROTEIN-FOLDING PROBLEM J sequences that fold to a specified target protein conformation based on Sun et al's Grand Canonical (GC There is a large body of work devoted to solving the protein folding problem, which is defined as follows: Given

  7. An Analysis of the Variability in Forty Preprocessor-Based Software Product Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Passau, Universität

    used to merge files, make arbitrary textual substitutions, and define conditional code fragments (a.k.a of software products [23]; (2) code pollution due to scattered and tangled #ifdefs (a.k.a. #ifdef hell) [32 software products (a.k.a. variants) of a product line and facilitating reuse in that the products

  8. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ahn, Joonwook [ORNL; Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bertelli, Nicola [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL; Hosea, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kramer, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); McLean, Adam G [ORNL; Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Phillips, C. K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Scotti, F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

    2013-01-01

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict their importance in ITER.

  9. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; and others

    2014-02-12

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict their importance in ITER.

  10. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25

    AgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University System a71 College Station, Texas Tableof... in diagnosis is to determine *Extension range specialist and Extension livestock- specialist, The Texas A&M University System. whether the cause is plant poisoning or in- fectious disease. To do so it is necessary to carefully observe symptoms exhibited by af...

  11. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pento, Robert (Algonquin, IL); Marks, James E. (Glenville, NY); Staffanson, Clifford D. (S. Glens Falls, NY)

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  12. Draft 'Michigan Saves' Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund. Author: State of Michigan

  13. Agricultural science students' perceptions and knowledge of hearing loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slaydon, Sunny Leigh

    2009-05-15

    This study is designed to examine participants’ view of hearing loss as a critical health issue, the attitudes of people toward a person with a hearing impairment, the knowledge level of OSHA regulations pertaining to hearing loss, the general...

  14. Modeling Delta Smelt Losses at the South Delta Export Facilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kimmerer, Wim J.

    2011-01-01

    Losses at the South Delta Export Facilities Wim J. Kimmererof delta smelt to the water export facilities in the southnow be less vulnerable to export losses than they previously

  15. BONE LOSS IN RELATION TO HYPOTHALAMIC ATROPHY IN ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loskutova, Natalia Y.

    2011-05-12

    . The body of presented work extends the literature on a relationship between bone loss and AD. Overall, the presented work provides initial evidence that accelerated bone loss observed in individuals in the early stages of AD may be partially due...

  16. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  17. Characterizing Shading Losses on Partially Shaded PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2010-09-23

    Presentation on shaded PV power loss, practical issues with modeling shaded PV, and methods of implementing partially shaded PV modeling.

  18. Nonlocality of $W$ and Dicke states subject to losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tomer Jack Barnea; Gilles Pütz; Jonatan Bohr Brask; Nicolas Brunner; Nicolas Gisin; Yeong-Cherng Liang

    2014-12-18

    We discuss the nonlocality of the $W$ and the Dicke states subject to losses. We consider two noise models, namely loss of excitations and loss of particles, and investigate how much loss can be tolerated such that the final state remains nonlocal. This leads to a measure of robustness of the nonlocality of Dicke states, with a clear physical interpretation. Our results suggest that the relation between nonlocality and entanglement of Dicke states is not monotonous.

  19. MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES@umich.edu Received 24 November 2010 Accepted 16 June 2011 The eddy current loss in the magnets of permanent magnet- mium-iron-boron (NdFeB), and slot/tooth harmonics, there is eddy current loss generated inside

  20. Risk Analytics for Estimating and Validating Magnitude of Earthquake Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau-Chaplin, Andrew

    Risk Analytics for Estimating and Validating Magnitude of Earthquake Losses A. Astoul, C. Filliter-time estimation and visualisation of insured losses incurred due to earthquakes is presented. The system incorporates a model for estimating losses due to earthquakes in near real-time and a geo

  1. Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated threedimensional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wuhu

    Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated three­dimensional model study Chipperfield winter­spring chemical ozone loss from 1991 2003, its observed correlation with low temperatures. CTM throughout studied. The model reproduces large column winters also captures shape of ozone loss profile

  2. Aging, Estrogen Loss and Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Alison R. Lee1.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hammock, Bruce D.

    Aging, Estrogen Loss and Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids (EETs) Alison R. Lee1. , Angela S. Pechenino1 loss, caused by menopause, and aging have inflammatory consequences. Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs cyclooxygenases and lipoxygenases. We hypothesized that aging and estrogen loss would reduce levels of anti

  3. Design Considerations of Fast-cycling Synchrotrons Based on Superconducting Transmission Line Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarz, H.; Hays, S.; Huang, Y.; Shiltsev, V.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01

    Fast-cycling synchrotrons are key instruments for accelerator based nuclear and high-energy physics programs. We explore a possibility to construct fast-cycling synchrotrons by using super-ferric, {approx}2 Tesla B-field dipole magnets powered with a superconducting transmission line. We outline both the low temperature (LTS) and the high temperature (HTS) superconductor design options and consider dynamic power losses for an accelerator with operation cycle of 0.5 Hz. We also briefly outline possible power supply system for such accelerator, and discuss the quench protection system for the magnet string powered by a transmission line conductor.

  4. NETL LINES OF DEMARCATION 09282012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on771/6/14 Contact: Janet Lambert Reviewed: 3/5/14 Page 1 of 178LINES

  5. Capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence line narrowing system (CE-FLNS) for on-line structural characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowiak, Ryszard J. (Ames, IA); Small, Gerald J. (Ames, IA); Shields, Peter A. (Reading, MA)

    1999-04-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is interfaced with low temperature fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy for on-line structural characterization of separated molecular analytes.

  6. Capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence line narrowing system (CE-FLNS) for on-line structural characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowiak, R.J.; Small, G.J.; Shields, P.A.

    1999-04-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is interfaced with low temperature fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy for on-line structural characterization of separated molecular analytes. 21 figs.

  7. Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities Final Project Report Power Systems since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Coordination of Transmission Line Industry Representative Richard Goddard Portland General Electric Research Team Students Yuan Li Yonghong

  8. Nondestructive Testing of Rail Tunnel Linings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Nathan Douglas

    2014-11-14

    potential problems and then test those areas with slow, detailed methods. This would provide a more thorough investigation of the tunnel lining’s health. Infrared thermography (IRT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), and ultrasonic tomography (UST) techniques...

  9. Energy loss of coasting gold ions and deuterons in RHIC.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu,N.; Blaskiewicz, M.; Brown, K.A.; Butler, J.J.; FischW; Harvey, M.; Tepikian, S.

    2008-06-23

    The total energy loss of coasting gold ion beams was measured at RHIC at two energies, corresponding to a gamma of 75.2 and 107.4. We describe the experiment and observations and compare the measured total energy loss with expectations from ionization losses at the residual gas, the energy loss due to impedance and synchrotron radiation. We find that the measured energy losses are below what is expected from free space synchrotron radiation. We believe that this shows evidence for suppression of synchrotron radiation which is cut off at long wavelength by the presence of the conducting beam pipe.

  10. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C.

    1996-12-31

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  11. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

    1998-03-24

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

  12. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong (1309, Low Block, Lei Moon House Ap Lei Chau Estate, Hong Kong, HK); Chau, Hoi Fung (Flat C, 42nd Floor, Tower 1, University Heights 23 Pokfield Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, HK)

    1998-01-01

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

  13. BWR/4 loss of feedwater transient analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, M.S.; Levine, M.M.; Shier, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of a series of loss of feedwater (LOF) transients for a typical BWR/4 reactor. These calculations were prompted by the events that occurred during the TMI incident and hence include various assumed failures in the safety/relief valve system and the assumed inoperability of various safety systems. This analysis provides transient results necessary to evaluate the potential for core uncovery and excessive average fuel temperatures which can then be used in the evaluation of the adequacy of the engineered safety features and the plant operating procedures. The RELAP5/MOD1 computer code was used for this analysis. The version of the code is designated as Cycle 13 with additional modifications provided by INEL. The modifications affect the jet pump model, interphase drag model and separator model.

  14. Quiz 2 1. Briefly define each of the following terms. a) Contract of ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    User

    2008-12-09

    a) Contract of indemnity. An insurance policy in which the amount paid out depends on the amount of the loss. An automotive collision policy is an example.

  15. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  16. World-line approach to Sign Problems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aarts, Gert

    World-line approach to Sign Problems Shailesh Chandrasekharan Duke University #12;Outline XY model + chemical potential world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! Two component bosons + Abelian world-line approach solving the silver blaze problem! more flavors + solving sign problems

  17. Linear rotary optical delay lines Maksim Skorobogatiy*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skorobogatiy, Maksim

    Linear rotary optical delay lines Maksim Skorobogatiy* Department of Engineering Physics, École of analytical and semi-analytical solutions for the design of high-speed rotary optical delay lines that use of optical delay. Finally, two prototypes of rotary delay lines were fabricated using CNC machining

  18. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-05-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  19. Mode propagation and attenuation in lined ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BI, Wenping

    2014-01-01

    Optimal impedance for each mode is an important concept in an infinitely long duct lined with uniform absorption material. However it is not valid for finite length linings. This is because that the modes in lined ducts are not power-orthogonal; the total sound power is not equal to the sum of the sound power of each mode; cross-power terms may play important roles. In this paper, we study sound propagation and attenuation in an infinite rigid duct lined with a finite length of lining impedance. The lining impedance may be axial segments and circumferentially non-uniform. We propose two new physical quantities Kp and S to describe the self-overlap of the left eigenfunction and right eigenfunction of one mode and the normalized overlap between modes, respectively. The two new physical quantities describe totally the mode behaviors in lined ducts.

  20. The covariant description of electric and magnetic field lines of null fields: application to Hopf-Ranada solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. J. van Enk

    2013-03-25

    The concept of electric and magnetic field lines is intrinsically non-relativistic. Nonetheless, for certain types of fields satisfying certain geometric properties, field lines can be defined covariantly. More precisely, two Lorentz-invariant 2D surfaces in spacetime can be defined such that magnetic and electric field lines are determined, for any observer, by the intersection of those surfaces with spacelike hyperplanes. An instance of this type of field is constituted by the so-called Hopf-Ranada solutions of the source-free Maxwell equations, which have been studied because of their interesting topological properties, namely, linkage of their field lines. In order to describe both geometric and topological properties in a succinct manner, we employ the tools of Geometric Algebra (aka Clifford Algebra) and use the Clebsch representation for the vector potential as well as the Euler representation for both magnetic and electric fields. This description is easily made covariant, thus allowing us to define electric and magnetic field lines covariantly in a compact geometric language. The definitions of field lines can be phrased in terms of 2D surfaces in space. We display those surfaces in different reference frames, showing how those surfaces change under Lorentz transformations while keeping their topological properties. As a byproduct we also obtain relations between optical helicity, optical chirality and generalizations thereof, and their conservation laws.

  1. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2011-05-24

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  2. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael S. Briggs

    1999-10-20

    The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

  4. Microlensing induced absorption line variability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Geraint F. Lewis; Rodrigo A. Ibata

    2002-12-02

    Gravitational microlensing has proven to be a powerful probe of both the structure at the heart of quasars and the mass function of compact objects in foreground lenses. This paper examines the potential of gravitational microlensing in probing the scale of structure in absorbing material within the lensing galaxy. We find that, in this high optical depth regime, significant variations in the equivalent width of absorption features can be induced, although the details of these are dependent upon the scale of structure of the absorbing material. The paper concludes with an examination of the absorption line variability observed in the gravitationally lensed quasar PKS1830-211, demonstrating how this may indicate the presence of small scale structure in the cold molecular gas present within the lensing galaxy.

  5. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  6. Supplemental On-Line Materials Supplemental on line materials 1 of 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, James K.B.

    Supplemental On-Line Materials Supplemental on line materials 1 of 12 Robotic ObservationsX: Enhanced Carbon Biomass and Export at 55S Supplemental on line materials 2 of 12 Carbon Explorer / Patch to NZ B #12;Bishop et al. SOFeX: Enhanced Carbon Biomass and Export at 55S Supplemental on line

  7. Microsoft Word - Completion of an Evalution of Impact of Loss of 2 Hydrogen & Methane Monitoring Sample Lines.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on77 PAGE OF PAGESpersonal March 3, 2015CM TheCX-100DECv1.0

  8. Understanding ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave heating losses in the scrape off layer of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertelli, N [PPPL; Jaeger, E F; Hosea, J C; Phillips, C K; Berry, L; Bonoli, P T; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Green, D; LeBlanc, B [PPPL; Perkins, R J; Ryan, P M; Taylor, G; Valeo, E J; Wilso, J R; Wright, J C

    2014-07-01

    Fast waves at harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, which have been used successfully on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), will also play an important role in ITER and are a promising candidate for the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) designs based on spherical torus (ST). Experimental studies of high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) heating on the NSTX have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss occurs along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. The full wave RF code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain, is applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the effects and possible causes of this power loss. In the studies discussed here, a collisional damping parameter has been implemented in AORSA as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. A prediction for the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) experiment, that will begin operation next year, is also presented, indicating a favorable condition for the experiment due to a wider evanescent region in edge density.*Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

  9. The Price of Synchrony: Resistive Losses due to Phase Synchronization in Power Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassam Bamieh; Dennice F. Gayme

    2012-09-21

    We investigate the total resistive losses incurred in returning a power network of identical generators to a synchronous state following a transient stability event or in maintaining this state in the presence of persistent stochastic disturbances. We formulate this cost as the input-output $H^2$ norm of a linear dynamical system with distributed disturbances. We derive an expression for the total resistive losses that scales with the size of the network as well as properties of the generators and power lines, but is independent of the network topology. This topologically invariant scaling of what we term the price of synchrony is in contrast to typical power system stability notions like rate of convergence or the region of attraction for rotor-angle stability. Our result indicates that highly connected power networks, whilst desirable for higher phase synchrony, do not offer an advantage in terms of the total resistive power losses needed to achieve this synchrony. Furthermore, if power flow is the mechanism used to achieve synchrony in highly-distributed-generation networks, the cost increases unboundedly with the number of generators.

  10. AMS Ground Truth Measurements: Calibration and Test Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wasiolek, P.

    2013-11-01

    Airborne gamma spectrometry is one of the primary techniques used to define the extent of ground contamination after a radiological incident. Its usefulness was demonstrated extensively during the response to the Fukushima nuclear power plant (NPP) accident in March-May 2011. To map ground contamination a set of scintillation detectors is mounted on an airborne platform (airplane or helicopter) and flown over contaminated areas. The acquisition system collects spectral information together with the aircraft position and altitude every second. To provide useful information to decision makers, the count rate data expressed in counts per second (cps) needs to be converted to the terrestrial component of the exposure rate 1 m above ground, or surface activity of isotopes of concern. This is done using conversion coefficients derived from calibration flights. During a large scale radiological event, multiple flights may be necessary and may require use of assets from different agencies. However, as the production of a single, consistent map product depicting the ground contamination is the primary goal, it is critical to establish very early into the event a common calibration line. Such a line should be flown periodically in order to normalize data collected from different aerial acquisition systems and potentially flown at different flight altitudes and speeds. In order to verify and validate individual aerial systems, the calibration line needs to be characterized in terms of ground truth measurements. This is especially important if the contamination is due to short-lived radionuclides. The process of establishing such a line, as well as necessary ground truth measurements, is described in this document.

  11. Barnett-Pegg formalism of angle operators, revivals, and flux lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arul Lakshminarayan

    2000-06-29

    We use the Barnett-Pegg formalism of angle operators to study a rotating particle with and without a flux line. Requiring a finite dimensional version of the Wigner function to be well defined we find a natural time quantization that leads to classical maps from which the arithmetical basis of quantum revivals is seen. The flux line, that fundamentally alters the quantum statistics, forces this time quantum to be increased by a factor of a winding number and determines the homotopy class of the path. The value of the flux is restricted to the rational numbers, a feature that persists in the infinite dimensional limit.

  12. Requirements for self-magnetically insulated transmission lines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    VanDevender, J. Pace; Pointon, Timothy D.; Seidel, David B.; Struve, Kenneth W.; Jennings, Christopher; Oliver, Bryan V.; Schneider, Larry X.

    2015-03-01

    Self-magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITLs) connect pulsed-power drivers with a load. Although the technology was originally developed in the 1970s and is widely used today in super power generators, failure of the technology is the principal limitation on the power that can be delivered to an experiment. We address issues that are often overlooked, rejected after inadequate simulations, or covered by overly conservative assumptions: (i) electron retrapping in coupling MITLs to loads, (ii) the applicability of collisionless versus collisional electron flow, (iii) power transport efficiency as a function of the geometry at the beginning of the MITL, (iv) gap closuremore »and when gap closure can be neglected, and (v) the role of negative ions in causing anode plasmas and enhancing current losses. We suggest a practical set of conservative design requirements for self-magnetically insulated electron flow based on the results discussed in this paper and on previously published results. The requirements are not necessarily severe constraints in all MITL applications; however, each of the 18 suggested requirements should be examined in the design of a MITL and in the investigation of excessive losses.« less

  13. existentially definable

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2005-12-18

    if memebership in it can be tested by an algoritm; it is recursively enumerable if its elements can be listed (eventually all) by an algorithm. A theory of a language

  14. Parton Energy Loss in Two-Stream Plasma System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. E. Carrington; K. Deja; St. Mrowczynski

    2012-01-06

    The energy loss of a fast parton scattering elastically in a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma is formulated as an initial value problem. The approach is designed to study an unstable plasma, but it also reproduces the well known result of energy loss in an equilibrium plasma. A two-stream system, which is unstable due to longitudinal chromoelectric modes, is discussed here some detail. In particular, a strong time and directional dependence of the energy loss is demonstrated.

  15. Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons | The...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Weight Loss Regime for Massive Low Temperature Electrons A compound made out of ytterbium (Yb), platinum (Pt), and bismuth (Bi) offers researchers the opportunity to watch the...

  16. Draft Michigan SAVES Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample LRF agreement between a grantee and an financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

  17. Charm production and energy loss at the LHC with ALICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrea Dainese; for the ALICE Collaboration

    2004-09-29

    The latest results on the ALICE performance for production and in-medium QCD energy loss measurements of charm particles at the LHC are presented.

  18. Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Alternating current loss reduction for rectangular busbars by covering their edges with low permeable magnetic caps Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Alternating current...

  19. Instrumentation for Evaluating PV System Performance Losses from Snow: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marion, B.; Rodriguez, J.; Pruett, J.

    2009-04-01

    Describes the use of a pyranometer with a heater and a digital camera to determine losses related to snow for PV systems located at National Renewable Energy Laboratory.

  20. BEAM LOSS ESTIMATES AND CONTROL FOR THE BNL NEUTRINO FACILITY.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WENG, W.-T.; LEE, Y.Y.; RAPARIA, D.; TSOUPAS, N.; BEEBE-WANG, J.; WEI, J.; ZHANG, S.Y.

    2005-05-16

    The requirement for low beam loss is very important both to protect the beam component, and to make the hands-on maintenance possible. In this report, the design considerations to achieving high intensity and low loss will be presented. We start by specifying the beam loss limit at every physical process followed by the proper design and parameters for realizing the required goals. The process considered in this paper include the emittance growth in the linac, the H{sup -} injection, the transition crossing, the coherent instabilities and the extraction losses.

  1. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  2. The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conference: The temperature dependence of ultra-cold neutron wall losses in material bottles coated with deuterated polystryene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The...

  3. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses, Energy Tips: STEAM, Steam...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    6 Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Boiler "short cycling" occurs when an oversized boiler quickly satisfies process or space heating demands, and then shuts down until heat is...

  4. Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production For Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Correlation...

  5. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment; Industrial Technologie...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in which opening size cannot be reduced, you can use flexible materials such as ceramic strips, chains, or ceramic textiles as "curtains." These generally reduce heat loss...

  6. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Steven J.; Carlsten, Bruce E.

    2012-06-26

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  7. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  8. Plasma motions and non-thermal line broadening in flaring twisted coronal loops

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordovskyy, Mykola; Browning, Philippa

    2015-01-01

    Observation of coronal EUV spectral lines offers an opportunity to evaluate the thermal structure and flows in flaring atmospheres. This, in turn, can be used to estimate the partitioning between the thermal and kinetic energies released in flares. Our aim is to forward-model large-scale (50-10000 km) velocity distributions in order to interpret non-thermal broadening of different spectral EUV lines observed in flares. The developed models allow us to understand the origin of the observed spectral line shifts and broadening, and link these features to particular physical phenomena in flaring atmospheres. We use ideal MHD to derive unstable twisted magnetic fluxtube configurations in a gravitationally-stratified atmosphere. The evolution of these twisted fluxtubes is followed using resistive MHD, with anomalous resistivity depending on the local density and temperature. The model also takes into account the thermal conduction and radiative losses. The model allows us to evaluate average velocities and velocity...

  9. The 10830 Angstrom Helium Line Among Evolved Stars in the Globular Cluster M4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Strader, Jay; Smith, Graeme H

    2015-01-01

    Helium is a pivotal element in understanding multiple main sequences and extended horizontal branches observed in some globular clusters. Here we present a spectroscopic study of helium in the nearby globular cluster M4. We have obtained spectra of the chromospheric He I 10830 A line in 16 red horizontal branch, red giant branch, and asymptotic giant branch stars. Clear He I absorption or emission is present in most of the stars. Effective temperature is the principal parameter that correlates with 10830 A line strength. Stars with T_eff < 4450 K do not exhibit the helium line. Red horizontal branch stars, which are the hottest stars in our sample, all have strong He I line absorption. A number of these stars show very broad 10830 A lines with shortward extensions indicating outflows as high as 80-100 km/s and the possibility of mass loss. We have also derived [Na/Fe] and [Al/Fe] abundances to see whether these standard tracers of "second generation" cluster stars are correlated with He I line strength. Un...

  10. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  11. Single transmission line data acquisition system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1984-01-01

    A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

  12. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann; Keady, John; Kilcrease, David

    2009-01-01

    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  13. Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Smith

    2004-04-30

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

  14. Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    the location of the September 26 public scoping meeting for the Northern Pass Transmission Line Project to Colebrook Elementary School, 27 Dumont Street, Colebrook, NH. On...

  15. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  16. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  17. DOE Sustainability Reporting Open Line Help Call

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sustainability Performance Office (SPO) sponsors open line help calls to assist DOE sites and national laboratories with the annual sustainability reporting process. Representatives from the...

  18. Law of the Future Series No. 1 (2012) page 161 14Defining A Neurocompatibility Index for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01

    Law of the Future Series No. 1 (2012) ­ page 161 3.3. ______ 14Defining A Neurocompatibility Index. As a guideline for improvement, we here define a neurocompatibility index: seven cri- teria to measure the degree efficacy and high cost. Jails have become a prime recruit- ment point for gangs, and long prison sentences

  19. THE STATUS OF STRUCTURAL GENOMICS DEFINED THROUGH THE ANALYSIS OF CURRENT TARGETS AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krebs, Werner G.

    on to the human genome project. This is interpreted to mean a large-scale project, with scientific, engineering of the human genome project were relatively well defined ­ sequence the 3 billion nucleotides comprising the human #12;genome and define all open reading frames ­ the goals advanced for structural genomics

  20. The Greening of Government: A Study of How Governments Define the Green Agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Greening of Government: A Study of How Governments Define the Green Agenda Executive Summary Institute for Electronic Government, IBM Corporation Page 2 This page is intentionally blank. In the green Corporation Page 3 Foreword What are governments doing to `green' themselves? How do they define their green

  1. Linear Transformations In this Chapter, we will define the notion of a linear transformation between

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fournier, John J.F.

    Chapter 6 Linear Transformations In this Chapter, we will define the notion of a linear transformation between two vector spaces V and W which are defined over the same field and prove the most basic transformations is equivalent to matrix theory. We will also study the geometric properties of linear

  2. Defining the Fresnel zone for broadband radiation Jeremy Pearce and Daniel Mittleman*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mittleman, Daniel

    Defining the Fresnel zone for broadband radiation Jeremy Pearce and Daniel Mittleman* Department of the Fresnel zone is central to many areas of imaging. In tomographic imaging, the transverse spatial resolution can be limited by the size of the first Fresnel zone, usually defined only for monochromatic

  3. Figure 5 : Inversed attenuation tomography The Fresnel volume thus defined, also called Frchet kernel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Figure 5 : Inversed attenuation tomography The Fresnel volume thus defined, also called Fréchet system with the LSQR algorithm : Because the size of the Fresnel volume thus defined is dependent propose to compute the Fresnel weights for a monochromatic wave, increasing its frequency at each step

  4. Rafts defined: a report on the Keystone symposium on lipid rafts and cell function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pike, Linda J.

    report Rafts defined: a report on the Keystone symposium on lipid rafts and cell function Linda J. Louis, MO 63110 Abstract The recent Keystone Symposium on Lipid Rafts and Cell Function (March 23 and sometimes ephemeral nature of its subject.-- Pike, L. J. Rafts defined: a report on the Keystone sympo- sium

  5. Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County, Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County, Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement. Example of loan loss reserve agreement.

  6. Control over finite capacity channels: the role of data loss, delay and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schenato, Luca

    Sensor Actuator Networks Smart Energy Grids Robotic Networks #12;Research lines n Research line 1: multi

  7. MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES the performance of the machine. This paper presents the modeling and analysis of eddy current loss in surface- mounted-magnets PM synchronous motors (SPMSM) and interior-magnets PM synchronous motors (IPMSM), operated

  8. Linear-optics manipulations of photon-loss codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konrad Banaszek; Wojciech Wasilewski

    2007-02-09

    We discuss codes for protecting logical qubits carried by optical fields from the effects of amplitude damping, i.e. linear photon loss. We demonstrate that the correctability condition for one-photon loss imposes limitations on the range of manipulations than can be implemented with passive linear-optics networks.

  9. Hearing Safety What causes noiseinduced hearing loss (NIHL)?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    1 Hearing Safety What causes noiseinduced hearing loss (NIHL)? Noise exposure, whether occupational or recreational, is the leading preventable cause of hearing loss. Peter M. Rabinowitz, M.D., M caused in part by excessive noise exposure in the workplace or during recreational activities

  10. Testing a model of IR radiative losses Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    losses associated with the pyranometers. High quality data from the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory Energy Laboratory (NREL) operates a very high quality solar monitoring station at the Solar Radiation Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT Thermopile pyranometers exhibit IR radiative losses that affect global

  11. SPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    . In a two-component approach to pricing, a nonlinear pricing scheme is used for cost recovery and a utility for cost recovery, and (ii) an options-based approach to price the risk of deviations in the loss based QoSPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS Aparna Gupta Decision

  12. Loss-induced lasing: new findings in laser theory?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longhi, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    In a recent work, using a coupled microresonator system with tailored gain and loss parameters B. Peng et al. [Science 346, 328 (2014)] have experimentally reported on an apparently counterintuitive effect in laser theory, namely the possibility to enhance lasing by increasing loss in the system. The observed phenomenon was related to the existence of an exceptional point in the system and was presented somehow as an unexpected and novel effect, especially by some reporters and scientific blogs. In this communication it is pointed out that the phenomenon of loss-induced lasing does not come as a surprise in known laser theory and that it is not necessarily related to the physics of exceptional points. Loss-induced lasing is basically the lasing mechanism that occurs in loss-coupled distributed feedback lasers. This mechanism dates back to the 1970's, has a simple physical explanation and does not rely on the physics of exceptional points.

  13. High-speed synchronous reluctance machine with minimized rotor losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, H.; Sanders, S.R.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents a refined design of a high-speed synchronous reluctance machine with minimized eddy-current losses in the rotor. Design criteria are the ability of the rotor to withstand high speeds, ability to operate in vacuum, negligible zero-torque spinning losses, high reliability, high efficiency, and low manufacturing cost. The rotor of the synchronous reluctance machine consists of bonded sections of ferromagnetic and non-magnetic steels. Finite-element code, incorporating rotor rotation, has been developed in MATLAB that calculates steady-state eddy currents (and losses) in the rotor. A stator iron and stator winding have been designed to minimize rotor losses, and two such prototype machines have been fabricated. Experimental results show an efficiency of 91% at a 10-kW 10,000-r/min operating point, and rotor losses less than 0.5% of input power.

  14. Procedures control total mud losses while drilling in deep water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dewar, J. ); Halkett, D. )

    1993-11-01

    In the deepwater (830-1,000 m) drilling program offshore Philippines, reefal limestones were encountered in which total mud losses could be expected because of the presence of large fractures. The danger was that a sudden drop in hydrostatic head (resulting from the losses) could allow any natural gas to enter the well bore quickly. The gas could then migrate up the well bore and form hydrates in the blowout preventers (BOPs). Once hydrates form, they are difficult to remove and can make a BOP stack inoperable. To combat this potential problem, containment procedures were developed to cope with these fluid losses. The philosophy behind the procedures was to prevent hydrocarbons from entering the well bore and, if they did enter, to ensure that they did not move up the well bore and into the riser. Additionally, procedures were developed to allow drilling to continue during the losses and the curing of losses.

  15. Magnetic Field Line Stickiness in Tokamaks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martins, Caroline G L; Caldas, I L

    2013-01-01

    We present simulated figures of the diverted magnetic field lines of the tokamak ITER, obtained by numerically integrating a Hamiltonian model with electrical currents in five wire loops and control coils. We show evidences of a sticky island embedded in the chaotic region near the divertor plates, which traps magnetic field lines for many toroidal turns increasing their connection lengths to these plates.

  16. Line geometry and electromagnetism I: basic structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. H. Delphenich

    2013-09-11

    Some key notions of line geometry are recalled, along with their application to mechanics. It is then shown that most of the basic structures that one introduces in the pre-metric formulation of electromagnetism can be interpreted directly in terms of corresponding concepts in line geometry. The results are summarized in a table.

  17. Cesium D Line Data Daniel Adam Steck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steck, Daniel A.

    Cesium D Line Data Daniel Adam Steck Oregon Center for Optics and Department of Physics, University 1998. This is revision 2.1.4, 23 December 2010. Cite this document as: Daniel A. Steck, "Cesium D Line and optical properties of cesium that are relevant to various quantum optics experiments. In particular, we

  18. Migrating Automotive Product Lines: a Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cordy, James R.

    . Software Product Lines (SPL) are widely used to manage variability in the automotive industry. In a rapidly study from an automotive domain, that it is tractable to lift industrial-grade transforma- tionsMigrating Automotive Product Lines: a Case Study Michalis Famelis1 , Levi L´ucio2 , Gehan Selim3

  19. Doering 6/2004 Freezing Cell Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doering, Tamara

    Doering 6/2004 Freezing Cell Lines Overview: This is crucial for maintaining important cell lines in the lab!!! Please freeze down any strain you or others might use in the future, whether that is a crypto personnel won't spend time reconstructing plasmids or strains that weren't kept. Instructions for freezing

  20. Speed-line for 3D animation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Won Chan

    2007-04-25

    My thesis describes a tool which creates speed-lines automatically in 3D computer animations. Speed-lines are usually used in comic books to express fast motions in a still image. They are also used in 2D animations. Although animations don't need...

  1. Global crop yield losses from recent warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobell, D; Field, C

    2006-06-02

    Global yields of the world-s six most widely grown crops--wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, sorghum--have increased since 1961. Year-to-year variations in growing season minimum temperature, maximum temperature, and precipitation explain 30% or more of the variations in yield. Since 1991, climate trends have significantly decreased yield trends in all crops but rice, leading to foregone production since 1981 of about 12 million tons per year of wheat or maize, representing an annual economic loss of $1.2 to $1.7 billion. At the global scale, negative impacts of climate trends on crop yields are already apparent. Annual global temperatures have increased by {approx}0.4 C since 1980, with even larger changes observed in several regions (1). While many studies have considered the impacts of future climate changes on food production (2-5), the effects of these past changes on agriculture remain unclear. It is likely that warming has improved yields in some areas, reduced them in others, and had negligible impacts in still others; the relative balance of these effects at the global scale is unknown. An understanding of this balance would help to anticipate impacts of future climate changes, as well as to more accurately assess recent (and thereby project future) technologically driven yield progress. Separating the contribution of climate from concurrent changes in other factors--such as crop cultivars, management practices, soil quality, and atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) levels--requires models that describe the response of yields to climate. Studies of future global impacts of climate change have typically relied on a bottom-up approach, whereby field scale, process-based models are applied to hundreds of representative sites and then averaged (e.g., ref 2). Such approaches require input data on soil and management conditions, which are often difficult to obtain. Limitations on data quality or quantity can thus limit the utility of this approach, especially at the local scale (6-8). At the global scale, however, many of the processes and impacts captured by field scale models will tend to cancel out, and therefore simpler empirical/statistical models with fewer input requirements may be as accurate (8, 9). Empirical/statistical models also allow the effects of poorly modeled processes (e.g., pest dynamics) to be captured and uncertainties to be readily quantified (10). Here we develop new, empirical/statistical models of global yield responses to climate using datasets on broad-scale yields, crop locations, and climate variability. We focus on global average yields for the six most widely grown crops in the world: wheat, rice, maize, soybeans, barley, and sorghum. Production of these crops accounts for over 40% of global cropland area (11). 55% of non-meat calories, and over 70% of animal feed (12).

  2. Broad iron lines in Active Galactic Nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. C. Fabian; K. Iwasawa; C. S. Reynolds; A. J. Young

    2000-04-26

    An intrinsically narrow line emitted by an accretion disk around a black hole appears broadened and skewed as a result of the Doppler effect and gravitational redshift. The fluorescent iron line in the X-ray band at 6.4-6.9keV is the strongest such line and is seen in the X-ray spectrum of many active galactic nuclei and, in particular, Seyfert galaxies. It is an important diagnostic with which to study the geometry and other properties of the accretion flow very close to the central black hole. The broad iron line indicates the presence of a standard thin accretion disk in those objects, often seen at low inclination. The broad iron line has opened up strong gravitational effects around black holes to observational study with wide-reaching consequences for both astrophysics and physics.

  3. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-11-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the electric and magnetic fields (EMF) produced by power lines and other electrical devices cause health effects. The purpose of this pamphlet is to answer some common questions that the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. (BPA is the Pacific Northwest`s Federal electric power marketing agency.) First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are described. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns raised by these studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this pamphlet.

  4. Through the Looking Glass: Off-Line Versus On-Line Coverage of Planar Environments by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimon, Elon

    is demonstrated. Due to its many applications, on-line coverage is a highly researched topic in the mobile robotThrough the Looking Glass: Off-Line Versus On-Line Coverage of Planar Environments by a Battery Powered Autonomous Mobile Robot Iddo Shnaps and Elon Rimon Dept. of ME, Technion, Israel Institute

  5. Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruml, Wheeler

    Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 1 / 22 Anticipatory On-line Planning Ethan Burns1 Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On-line Planning ­ 2 / 22'd s Contributions Formalization Hindsight Opt. Experiments Conclusion Ethan Burns (UNH) Anticipatory On

  6. RHF RELAP5 Model and Preliminary Loss-Of-Offsite-Power Simulation Results for LEU Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Licht, J. R.; Bergeron, A.; Dionne, B.; Thomas, F.

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the current state of the RELAP5 model for the Institut Laue-Langevin High Flux Reactor (RHF) located in Grenoble, France, and provide an update to the key information required to complete, for example, simulations for a loss of offsite power (LOOP) accident. A previous status report identified a list of 22 items to be resolved in order to complete the RELAP5 model. Most of these items have been resolved by ANL and the RHF team. Enough information was available to perform preliminary safety analyses and define the key items that are still required. Section 2 of this document describes the RELAP5 model of RHF. The final part of this section briefly summarizes previous model issues and resolutions. Section 3 of this document describes preliminary LOOP simulations for both HEU and LEU fuel at beginning of cycle conditions.

  7. Rapid Water Loss can Extend the Lifetime of the Planetary Habitability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kodama, T; Abe, Y; Zahnle, K J

    2015-01-01

    Two habitable planetary states are proposed: an aqua planet like the Earth and a land planet that has a small amount of water. Land planets keep liquid water under larger solar radiation compared to aqua planets. Water loss may change an aqua planet into a land planet, and the planet can remain habitable for a longer time than had it stayed an aqua planet. We calculate planetary evolution with hydrogen escape for different initial water inventories and different distances from the central star. We find that there are two conditions to evolve an aqua planet into a land planet: the critical amount of water on the surface M_ml consistent with a planet being a land planet, and the critical amount of water vapor in the atmosphere M_cv that defines the onset of the runaway greenhouse state. We find that Earth-size aqua planets with initial oceans liquid water on t...

  8. Radiative energy loss in an anisotropic quark-gluon plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Pradip; Dutt-Mazumder, Abhee K.

    2011-04-15

    We calculate radiative energy loss of heavy and light quarks in an anisotropic medium (static) in a first-order opacity expansion. Such an anisotropy can result from the initial rapid longitudinal expansion of the matter created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Significant dependency of the energy loss on the anisotropy parameter {xi} and the direction of propagation of the partons with respect to the anisotropy axis is found. It is shown that the introduction of early-time momentum-space anisotropy can enhance the fractional energy loss in the direction of the anisotropy, whereas it decreases when the parton propagates perpendicular to the direction of the anisotropy.

  9. Mode imaging and loss evaluation of semiconductor waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, Toshimitsu [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-9 Machiike-dai, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    An imaging and loss evaluation method for semiconductor waveguides coupled with non-doped quantum wells is presented. Using the internal emission of the wells as a probe light source, the numbers and widths of the modes of waveguides with various ridge sizes were evaluated by CCD imaging, and the obtained values were consistent with effective index method calculation. Waveguide internal losses were obtained from analyses of the Fabry-Pérot fringes of waveguide emission spectra. We quantified the quality of 29 single-mode waveguide samples as an internal loss and variation of 10.2 ± 0.6??cm{sup ?1}.

  10. Modern Visualization of Industrial Energy Use and Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brueske, S.

    2015-01-01

    of Manufacturing Energy Use and Loss June 4, 2015 Presented by: Sabine Brueske ESL-IE-15-06-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Seventh Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 Slide 2/46 1. Manufacturing Energy Use and Loss 2. U... New Orleans, LA. June 2-4, 2015 Slide 3/46 Shedding Light on U.S. Manufacturing Energy Use • Manufacturing ? one quarter of nation’s energy consumption • What types of energy? • Where is the energy used? • Where do the greatest losses occur? 2010...

  11. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01

    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  12. Study of transmission line attenuation in broad band millimeter wave frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pandya, Hitesh Kumar B.; Austin, M. E.; Ellis, R. F.

    2013-10-15

    Broad band millimeter wave transmission lines are used in fusion plasma diagnostics such as electron cyclotron emission (ECE), electron cyclotron absorption, reflectometry and interferometry systems. In particular, the ECE diagnostic for ITER will require efficient transmission over an ultra wide band, 100 to 1000 GHz. A circular corrugated waveguide transmission line is a prospective candidate to transmit such wide band with low attenuation. To evaluate this system, experiments of transmission line attenuation were performed and compared with theoretical loss calculations. A millimeter wave Michelson interferometer and a liquid nitrogen black body source are used to perform all the experiments. Atmospheric water vapor lines and continuum absorption within this band are reported. Ohmic attenuation in corrugated waveguide is very low; however, there is Bragg scattering and higher order mode conversion that can cause significant attenuation in this transmission line. The attenuation due to miter bends, gaps, joints, and curvature are estimated. The measured attenuation of 15 m length with seven miter bends and eighteen joints is 1 dB at low frequency (300 GHz) and 10 dB at high frequency (900 GHz), respectively.

  13. Vertical stability, high elongation, and the consequences of loss of vertical control on DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Jensen, T.H.; Lao, L.L.; Luxon, J.L.; Skinner, D.G.; Strait, E.J.; Reis, E.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA)); Lazarus, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Lister, J.B. (Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Lausanne (Switzerland))

    1990-09-01

    Recent modifications to the vertical control system for DIII-D has enabled operation of discharges with vertical elongation {kappa}, up to 2.5. When vertical stability is lost, a disruption follows and a large vertical force on the vacuum vessel is observed. The loss of plasma energy begins when the edge safety factor q is 2 but the current decay does not begin until q {approximately}1.3. Current flow on the open field lines in the plasma scrapeoff layer has been measured and the magnitude and distribution of these currents can explain the observed force on the vessel. Equilibrium calculations and simulation of this vertical displacement episode are presented. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Defining and Creating a 3rd Party/Alternate Payee Vendor Adds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Defining and Creating a 3rd Party/Alternate Payee Vendor Adds The party who received the reportable be chosen when the 3rd party payment is processed, web voucher. #12;

  15. Chemisorption of Aromatic Compounds on Well-Defined Palladium Surfaces: Studies by Electron Spectroscopy and Electrochemistry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ding

    2010-10-12

    The chemisorption of aromatic compounds, derivatized with different functional groups, on well-defined Pd(111) surfaces was studied by a combination of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), low energy electron diffraction (LEED), high resolution...

  16. Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Haiyan [Universit_e de Toulouse, Toulouse, France (Europe); National Institute of Standards Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Xin, Huolin L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhu, Ye [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Dwyer, Christian [Peter Grunberg Institute, Julich, Germany (Europe)

    2014-12-01

    Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). At greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. Implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.

  17. Computing Criticality of Lines in Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinar, Ali; Reichert, Adam; Lesieutre, Bernard

    2006-10-13

    We propose a computationally efficient method based onnonlinear optimization to identify critical lines, failure of which cancause severe blackouts. Our method computes criticality measure for alllines at a time, as opposed to detecting a single vulnerability,providing a global view of the system. This information on criticality oflines can be used to identify multiple contingencies by selectivelyexploring multiple combinations of broken lines. The effectiveness of ourmethod is demonstrated on the IEEE 30 and 118 bus systems, where we canvery quickly detect the most critical lines in the system and identifysevere multiple contingencies.

  18. Hydrodynamic Models of Line-Driven Accretion Disk Winds II: Adiabatic Winds from Nonisothermal Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Antonio Pereyra; Timothy R. Kallman; John M. Blondin

    2000-11-03

    We present here numerical hydrodynamic simulations of line-driven accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variable systems. We calculate wind mass-loss rate, terminal velocities, and line profiles for CIV (1550 A) for various viewing angles. The models are 2.5-dimensional, include an energy balance condition, and calculate the radiation field as a function of position near an optically thick accretion disk. The model results show that centrifugal forces produce collisions of streamlines in the disk wind which in turn generate an enhanced density region, underlining the necessity of two dimensional calculations where these forces may be represented. For disk luminosity Ldisk = Lsun, white dwarf mass Mwd = 0.6 Msun, and white dwarf radii Rwd = 0.01 Rsun, we obtain a wind mass-loss rate of dMwind/dt = 8.0E-12 Msun/yr, and a terminal velocity of ~3000 km/s. The line profiles we obtain are consistent with observations in their general form, in particular in the maximum absorption at roughly half the terminal velocity for the blue-shifted component, in the magnitudes of the wind velocities implied by the absorption components, in the FWHM of the emission components, and in the strong dependence in inclination angle.

  19. Hydrodynamic Models of Line-Driven Accretion Disk Winds II Adiabatic Winds from Nonisothermal Disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pereyra, N A; Blondin, J M; Pereyra, Nicolas Antonio; Kallman, Timothy R.; Blondin, John M.

    2000-01-01

    We present here numerical hydrodynamic simulations of line-driven accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variable systems. We calculate wind mass-loss rate, terminal velocities, and line profiles for CIV (1550 A) for various viewing angles. The models are 2.5-dimensional, include an energy balance condition, and calculate the radiation field as a function of position near an optically thick accretion disk. The model results show that centrifugal forces produce collisions of streamlines in the disk wind which in turn generate an enhanced density region, underlining the necessity of two dimensional calculations where these forces may be represented. For disk luminosity Ldisk = Lsun, white dwarf mass Mwd = 0.6 Msun, and white dwarf radii Rwd = 0.01 Rsun, we obtain a wind mass-loss rate of dMwind/dt = 8.0E-12 Msun/yr, and a terminal velocity of ~3000 km/s. The line profiles we obtain are consistent with observations in their general form, in particular in the maximum absorption at roughly half the terminal velocity ...

  20. AP600 large-break loss-of-collant-accident developmental assessment plan for TRAC-PF1/MOD2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knight, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    The Westinghouse AP600 reactor is an advanced pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems to protect the plant against possible accidents and transients. The design has been submitted to the U.S. NRC for design certification. The NRC has selected the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-PF1/MOD2 for performing large break loss-of coolant-accident (LBLOCA) analysis to support the certification effort. This document defines the tests to be used in the current phase of developmental assessment related to AP600 LBLOCA.

  1. Macroscopic Distinguishability Between Quantum States Defining Different Phases of Matter: Fidelity and the Uhlmann Geometric Phase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisboa, Universidade Técnica de

    of superconductivity. In both cases we show that the sudden drop of the mixed state fidelity marks the line-breaking transitions. Further, on the case of BCS theory of superconductivity, given by mutually non

  2. Ovarian hormone loss induces bioenergetic deficits and mitochondrial -amyloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    Ovarian hormone loss induces bioenergetic deficits and mitochondrial -amyloid Jia Yaoa , Ronald by ovariectomy (OVX) in nontransgenic mice significantly decreased brain bioenergetics, and induced mitochondrial. Treatment with E2 at OVX prevented OVX-induced mitochondrial deficits, sustained mitochondrial bioenergetic

  3. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van [Sidmar N.V., Gent (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  4. Bremsstrahlung Energy Losses for Cosmic Ray Electrons and Positrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Widom, A; Srivastava, R

    2015-01-01

    Recently cosmic ray electrons and positrons, i.e. cosmic ray charged leptons, have been observed. To understand the distances from our solar system to the sources of such lepton cosmic rays, it is important to understand energy losses from cosmic electrodynamic fields. Energy losses for ultra-relativistic electrons and/or positrons due to classical electrodynamic bremsstrahlung are computed. The energy losses considered are (i) due to Thompson scattering from fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the background cosmic thermal black body radiation and (ii) due to the synchrotron radiation losses from quasi-static domains of cosmic magnetic fields. For distances to sources of galactic length proportions, the lepton cosmic ray energy must be lass than about a TeV.

  5. Bremsstrahlung Energy Losses for Cosmic Ray Electrons and Positrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Widom; J. Swain; R. Srivastava

    2015-09-24

    Recently cosmic ray electrons and positrons, i.e. cosmic ray charged leptons, have been observed. To understand the distances from our solar system to the sources of such lepton cosmic rays, it is important to understand energy losses from cosmic electrodynamic fields. Energy losses for ultra-relativistic electrons and/or positrons due to classical electrodynamic bremsstrahlung are computed. The energy losses considered are (i) due to Thompson scattering from fluctuating electromagnetic fields in the background cosmic thermal black body radiation and (ii) due to the synchrotron radiation losses from quasi-static domains of cosmic magnetic fields. For distances to sources of galactic length proportions, the lepton cosmic ray energy must be lass than about a TeV.

  6. ChitChat : making video chat robust to packet loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jue, 1986-

    2010-01-01

    Video chat is increasingly popular among Internet users (e.g. Skype, Windows Live Messenger, Google Talk). Often, however, chatting sessions suffer from packet loss, which causes video outage and poor quality. Existing ...

  7. Determining Pressure Losses For Airflow In Residential Ductwork 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Kevin Douglas

    2012-02-14

    Airflow pressure losses through rigid metallic and non-metallic flexible ducts were studied and recommendations to improve the rating of flexible ducts were made as part of this study. The testing was done in compliance with ASHRAE Standard 120...

  8. Return channel loss reduction in multi-stage centrifugal compressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aubry, Anne-Raphaëlle

    2012-01-01

    This thesis presents concepts for improving the performance of return channels in multi-stage centrifugal compressors. Geometries have been developed to reduce both separation and viscous losses. A number of different ...

  9. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  10. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses - Steam Tip Sheet #16

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    This revised AMO tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. ChitChat: Making Video Chat Robust to Packet Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jue

    2010-07-05

    Video chat is increasingly popular among Internet users. Often, however, chatting sessions suffer from packet loss, which causes video outage and poor quality. Existing solutions however are unsatisfying. Retransmissions ...

  12. Elegiac Rhetorics: From Loss to Dialogue in Lyric Poetry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Sarah Elizabeth

    2012-10-19

    Committee Members, C. Jan Swearingen Marian Eide Linda Radzik Head of Department, Nancy Bradley Warren August 2012 Major Subject: English iii ABSTRACT Elegiac Rhetorics: From Loss to Dialogue in Lyric Poetry. (August 2012) Sarah Elizabeth...

  13. Loan Loss Reserves: Lessons from the Field (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Merrian Fuller: Hi, and welcome to the Department of Energy's webinar on using loan-loss reserves report financing programs. My name is Marian Fuller, I work with Lawrence Berkeley National...

  14. Mitigating Flood Loss through Local Comprehensive Planning in Florida 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kang, Jung Eun

    2010-10-12

    Planning researchers believe that property losses from natural hazards, such as floods can be reduced if governments address this issue and adopt appropriate policies in their plans. However, little empirical research has examined the relationship...

  15. Effects of the Hemlock Woolly Adelgid on Nitrogen Losses from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Templer, Pamela

    of nitrogen losses via leachate were more than ten times greater, at the Arnold Arboretum compared to Harvard Forest. Nitrate that was lost via leachate at Harvard Forest came predominantly from atmospheric

  16. Motion based seismic design and loss estimation of diagrid structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liptack, Robert J. (Robert Jeffrey)

    2013-01-01

    Diagrids are becoming an increasingly popular structural system in high rise design and construction. Little research has been performed on the seismic performance of Diagrids and how it integrates with seismic loss ...

  17. Loan Loss Reserve Fund Impacts on Standard Residential Underwriting Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State and local governments can use loan loss reserve (LLR) funds to persuade lenders to offer more flexible terms during the underwriting process. The availability of an LLR can have the following...

  18. Applications of Solar Technology for Catastrophe Response, Claims Management, and Loss Prevention

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deering, A.; Thornton, J.P.

    1999-02-17

    Today's insurance industry strongly emphasizes developing cost-effective hazard mitigation programs, increasing and retaining commercial and residential customers through better service, educating customers on their exposure and vulnerabilities to natural disasters, collaborating with government agencies and emergency management organizations, and exploring the use of new technologies to reduce the financial impact of disasters. In June of 1998, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Association of Independent Insurers (NAII) sponsored a seminar titled, ''Solar Technology and the Insurance Industry.'' Presentations were made by insurance company representatives, insurance trade groups, government and state emergency management organizations, and technology specialists. The meeting was attended by insurers, brokers, emergency managers, and consultants from more than 25 US companies. Leading insurers from the personal line and commercial carriers were shown how solar technology can be used in underwriting, claims, catastrophe response, loss control, and risk management. Attendees requested a follow-up report on solar technology, cost, and applications in disasters, including suggestions on how to collaborate with the utility industry and how to develop educational programs for business and consumers. This report will address these issues, with an emphasis on pre-disaster planning and mitigation alternatives. It will also discuss how energy efficiency and renewable technologies can contribute to reducing insurance losses.

  19. A Flexible, Low Cost, Beam Loss Monitor Evaluation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoyes, George Garnet; Pimol, Piti; Juthong, Nawin; Attaphibal, Malee

    2007-01-19

    A flexible, low cost, Beam Loss Monitor (BLM) Evaluation System based on Bergoz BLMs has been developed. Monitors can easily be moved to any location for beam loss investigations and/or monitor usefulness evaluations. Different PC pulse counting cards are compared and tested for this application using the display software developed based on LabVIEW. Beam problems uncovered with this system are presented.

  20. High channel density wavelength division multiplexer with defined diffracting means positioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, Tomasz P. (Redondo Beach, CA); Jannson, Joanna L. (Redondo Beach, CA); Yeung, Peter C. (Redondo Beach, CA)

    1990-01-01

    A wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer having optical path lengths between a fiber array and a Fourier transform lens, and between a dispersion grating and the lens equal to the focal length of the lens. The optical path lengths reduce losses due to angular acceptance mismatch in the multiplexer. Close orientation of the fiber array about the optical axis and the use of a holographic dispersion grating reduces other losses in the system. Multi-exposure holographic dispersion gratings enable the multiplexer/demultiplexer for extremely broad-band simultaneous transmission and reflection operation. Individual Bragg plane sets recorded in the grating are dedicated to and operate efficiently on discrete wavelength ranges.

  1. DNA Assembly Line for Nano-Construction

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Oleg Gang

    2010-01-08

    Building on the idea of using DNA to link up nanoparticles scientists at Brookhaven National Lab have designed a molecular assembly line for high-precision nano-construction. Nanofabrication is essential for exploiting the unique properties of nanoparticl

  2. Line Environment, Safety and Health Oversight

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1997-06-26

    Sets forth the Department's expectations line management environment, safety and health (ES&H) oversight and for the use of contractor self-assessment programs as the cornerstone for this oversight. Canceled by DOE O 226.1.

  3. Productivity Improvement of a Manual Assembly Line 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yerasi, Pranavi

    2012-10-19

    The current project addresses the productivity improvement of a manual assembly line by making use of operations analysis in the framework of Lean production. A methodology is proposed that helps to improve the productivity of any production process...

  4. Ames Lab 101: Next Generation Power Lines

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Russell, Alan

    2012-08-29

    Ames Laboratory scientist Alan Russell discusses the need to develop new power lines that are stronger and more conductive as a way to address the problem of the nation's aging and inadequate power grid.

  5. Electrical Transmission Line Diametrical Retention Mechanism

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-01-03

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within downhole components. The invention allows a transmission line to be attached to the internal diameter of drilling components that have a substantially uniform drilling diameter. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string, drill collars, heavy weight drill pipe, and jars. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to withstand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  6. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  7. Line-of-Sight Networks Alan Frieze

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleinberg, Jon

    -of-sight restrictions. Here we propose a random-graph model incorporating both range limitations and line-of-sight con- 0329064, CNS-0403340, and BCS-0537606; work done in part while on sabbatical leave at Carnegie Mellon

  8. Electrician - Foreman II (Transmission Lines & Substations) ...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Region Transmission Lines and Substation Maintenance (G5200) 615 S. 43rd Avenue Phoenix, AZ 85009 Duty Location is Page, AZ Find out more about living conditions at this...

  9. Design of the ILC RTML Extraction Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2011-10-17

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window. The RTML incorporates three extraction lines, which can be used for either an emergency beam abort or for a train-by-train extraction. The first EL is located downstream of the Damping Ring extraction arc. The other two extraction lines are located downstream of each stage of the two-stage bunch compressor. The first extraction line (EL1) receives 5GeV beam with an 0.15% energy spread. The extraction line located downstream of the first stage of bunch compressor (ELBC1) receives both compressed and uncompressed beam, and therefore must accept beam with both 5 and 4.88GeV energy, and 0.15% and 2.5% energy spread, respectively. The extraction line located after the second stage of the bunch compressor (ELBC2) receives 15GeV beam with either 0.15 or 1.8% energy spread. Each of the three extraction lines is equipped with the 220kW aluminum ball dump, which corresponds to the power of the continuously dumped beam with 5GeV energy, i.e., the beam trains must be delivered to the ELBC2 dump at reduced repetition rate.

  10. Experiences with On-Line STEAMPOP 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nath, R.; Libby, D. J.; Marcinkowska, A. R.; Skarke, S. C.; Thomasson, M. J.; Worsham, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    manual step to complete the loop. The results of optimization have to be conveyed back to the plant computer responsible for assigning the control set points. In order to automate the above mentioned manual steps, the optimization program has...-Line STEAMPOP R. Nath, D. J. Libby, A. R. Marcinkowska, S. C. Skarke, M. J. Thomasson and B. A. Worsham Union Carbide Corporation Houston, Texas ABSTRACT Off-line utility system optimizers for large process plants are now common place [1...

  11. "I just wasnae me anymore": Individual Experiences of Identity Loss, Identity Negotiation, Acceptance and ‘Adjustment’ in Acquired Hearing Loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black, Suzie

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: There appears to be growing evidence that living with acquired hearing loss (AHL) results in people experiencing increased psychological distress. However, there is currently a dearth of research examining ...

  12. Steam generator behavior during loss-of-feedwater and loss-of-offsite-power ATWS experiments in LOFT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koizumi, Y.; Behling, S.R.; Grush, W.H.

    1983-11-01

    Two Anticipated Transient Without Scram (ATWS) experiments, L9-3 and L9-4, were conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/44) pressurized water reactor (PWR) system with a nuclear core and is designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident/emergency core cooling experiments. Experiment L9-3 simulated a loss-of-feedwater ATWS in a commercial PWR; Experiment L9-4 simulated a loss-of-offsite-power ATWS. The system transient behavior in each experiment was dominated by interaction between the primary-to-secondary heat removal rate in the steam generator and by reactor kinetics in the core. Comparisons of RELAP5/MOD1 calculational results to the measured test data show that the degradation of the primary-to-secondary heat transfer and the transient response of the primary coolant system in both experiments were calculated well.

  13. Development of a method of measuring relative phase difference between sending and receiving voltage on a power line 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rackley, Benton Tiburce

    1950-01-01

    of this sy' stem are: l. Internal voltage of synchronous genoretor M. Reactance of the system including: Generator b. Line c. Motor Internal voltage of the synchronous motor This much simplified procedure neglects all losses. By doing so the essence... components of the phase?ngle meter are: Two field windings mutually pezpendicular. 2. A Magnetizing winding (current coil). 3. A small magnetic circular cvlinder. 4. A suspension mechanism for cylinder ~nd a pointer. 5. Dl~l and pointer. The two field...

  14. Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorog, John Peter; Hemrick, James Gordon; Walker, Harold; Leary, William R; Ellis, Murray

    2014-01-01

    The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

  15. HHFW Power Flow Along Magnetic Field Lines In The Scrape-off Layer of NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rory Perkins, et. al.

    2012-02-27

    A significant fraction of high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) power applied to NSTX can be lost to the scrape-off layer (SOL) and deposited in bright and hot spirals on the divertor rather than in the core plasma. We show that the HHFW power flows to these spirals along magnetic field lines passing through the SOL in front of the antenna, implying that the HHFW power couples across the entire width of the SOL rather than mostly at the antenna face. This result will help guide future efforts to understand and minimize these edge losses in order to maximize fast wave heating and current drive.

  16. New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant Facilities in Residential Subdivisions (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any proposed construction of electricity-related facilities in residential subdivisions, including distribution and service lines and appurtenant facilities, is subject to these regulations, which...

  17. O.A.R. 734-055 - Pole Lines, Buried Cables, Pipe lines, Signs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    and Operations (1981). Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleO.A.R.734-055-PoleLines,BuriedCables,Pipelines,Signs,Misc.FacilitiesandOperations...

  18. A Proposal for User-defined Reductions in OpenMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duran, A; Ferrer, R; Klemm, M; de Supinski, B R; Ayguade, E

    2010-03-22

    Reductions are commonly used in parallel programs to produce a global result from partial results computed in parallel. Currently, OpenMP only supports reductions for primitive data types and a limited set of base language operators. This is a significant limitation for those applications that employ user-defined data types (e. g., objects). Implementing manual reduction algorithms makes software development more complex and error-prone. Additionally, an OpenMP runtime system cannot optimize a manual reduction algorithm in ways typically applied to reductions on primitive types. In this paper, we propose new mechanisms to allow the use of most pre-existing binary functions on user-defined data types as User-Defined Reduction (UDR) operators. Our measurements show that our UDR prototype implementation provides consistently good performance across a range of thread counts without increasing general runtime overheads.

  19. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2013-01-08

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  20. Automated solar collector installation design including ability to define heterogeneous design preferences

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-04-29

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre -defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives. Embodiments may also include definition of one or more design apertures, each of which may correspond to boundaries in which solar collector layouts should comply with distinct sets of user-defined design preferences. Distinct apertures may provide heterogeneous regions of collector layout according to the user-defined design preferences.

  1. System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-09-01

    This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a forcing function, helping the team in this endeavor. Models don’t like “TBD” as an input, forcing us to make assumptions and see if they matter. A major addition in FY 2010 was exploratory analysis of “modified open fuel” cycles, employing “minimum fuel treatment” as opposed to full aqueous or electrochemical separation treatment. This increased complexity in our analysis and analytical tool development because equilibrium conditions do not appear sustainable in minimum fuel treatment cases, as was assumed in FY 2009 work with conventional aqueous and electrochemical separation. It is no longer reasonable to assume an equilibrium situation exists in all cases.

  2. Analyzing Losses: Transuranics into Waste and Fission Products into Recycled Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert E. Cherry; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros; Candido Pereira; Denia Djokic

    2010-11-01

    All mass streams from separations and fuel fabrication are products that must meet criteria. Those headed for disposal must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for the eventual disposal sites corresponding to their waste classification. Those headed for reuse must meet fuel or target impurity limits. A “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. The various types of losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of transuranic (TRU) material into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. We have analyzed four separation options and two fuel fabrication options in a generic fuel cycle. The separation options are aqueous uranium extraction plus (UREX+1), electrochemical, Atomics International reduction oxidation separation (AIROX), and melt refining. UREX+1 and electrochemical are traditional, full separation techniques. AIROX and melt refining are taken as examples of limited separations, also known as minimum fuel treatment. The fuels are oxide and metal. To define a generic fuel cycle, a fuel recycling loop is fed from used light water reactor (LWR) uranium oxide fuel (UOX) at 51 MWth-day/kg-iHM burnup. The recycling loop uses a fast reactor with TRU conversion ratio (CR) of 0.50. Excess recovered uranium is put into storage. Only waste, not used fuel, is disposed – unless the impurities accumulate to a level so that it is impossible to make new fuel for the fast reactor. Impurities accumulate as dictated by separation removal and fission product generation. Our model approximates adjustment to fast reactor fuel stream blending of TRU and U products from incoming LWR UOX and recycling FR fuel to compensate for impurity accumulation by adjusting TRU:U ratios. Our mass flow model ignores postulated fuel impurity limits; we compare the calculated impurity values with those limits to identify elements of concern. AIROX and melt refining cannot be used to separate used LWR UOX-51 because they cannot separate U from TRU, it is then impossible to make X% TRU for fast reactors with UOX-51 used fuel with 1.3% TRU. AIROX and melt refining can serve in the recycle loop for about 3 recycles, at which point the accumulated impurities displace fertile uranium and the fuel can no longer be as critical as the original fast reactor fuel recipe. UREX+1 and electrochemical can serve in either capacity; key impurities appear to be lanthanides and several transition metals.

  3. ESBWR response to an extended station blackout/loss of all AC power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barrett, A. J.; Marquino, W. [New Plants Engineering, GE Hitachi Nuclear Energy, M/CA 75, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, NC 28402 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    U.S. federal regulations require light water cooled nuclear power plants to cope with Station Blackouts for a predetermined amount of time based on design factors for the plant. U.S. regulations define Station Blackout (SBO) as a loss of the offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of the onsite emergency AC power system. According to U.S. regulations, typically the coping period for an SBO is 4 hours and can be as long as 16 hours for currently operating BWR plants. Being able to cope with an SBO and loss of all AC power is required by international regulators as well. The U.S. licensing basis for the ESBWR is a coping period of 72 hours for an SBO based on U.S. NRC requirements for passive safety plants. In the event of an extended SBO (viz., greater than 72 hours), the ESBWR response shows that the design is able to cope with the event for at least 7 days without AC electrical power or operator action. ESBWR is a Generation III+ reactor design with an array of passive safety systems. The ESBWR primary success path for mitigation of an SBO event is the Isolation Condenser System (ICS). The ICS is a passive, closed loop, safety system that initiates automatically on a loss of power. Upon Station Blackout or loss of all AC power, the ICS begins removing decay heat from the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) by (i) condensing the steam into water in heat exchangers located in pools of water above the containment, and (ii) transferring the decay heat to the atmosphere. The condensed water is then returned by gravity to cool the reactor again. The ICS alone is capable of maintaining the ESBWR in a safe shutdown condition after an SBO for an extended period. The fuel remains covered throughout the SBO event. The ICS is able to remove decay heat from the RPV for at least 7 days and maintains the reactor in a safe shutdown condition. The water level in the RPV remains well above the top of active fuel for the duration of the SBO event. Beyond 7 days, only a few simple actions are needed to cope with the SBO for an indefinite amount of time. The operation of the ICS as the primary success path for mitigation of an SBO, allows for near immediate plant restart once power is restored. (authors)

  4. The Beam Loss Detection System of the LHC Ring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gschwendtner, E; Ferioli, G; Friesenbichler, W; Kain, V

    2002-01-01

    At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a beam loss system will be installed in the arc, dispersion suppressor and the straight regions for a continuous surveillance of particle losses. These beam particles deposit their energy partially in the super-conducting coils leading to temperature increase, possible magnet quenches and damages. The primary and secondary halo of the beam is absorbed by the collimation system. The tertiary halo will be lost at aperture limits in the ring. Its loss distribution along the magnets has been studies. At the positions, where most of the beam losses are expected, simulations of the particle fluences outside the cryostat and induced by lost protons at the aperture have been performed with the Monte Carlo Code Geant 3.2.1. This allows determining the most suitable positions of the detectors, the needed number of monitors and the impact on the dynamic range of the detectors. The design of the beam loss monitor system is presented that meet the required sensitivity, dynamic range and ...

  5. eXsight: An Analytical Framework for Quantifying Financial Loss in the Aftermath of Catastrophic Events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rau-Chaplin, Andrew

    , and hurricanes) caused a total economic loss of $192 billion dollars (USD) [1]. Of this total economic loss, $45, and the insurance for lost use or business interruption covered, the total loss will be know. Until then, insurers

  6. Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 wavequides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    R. Gao, and A. Garito, “Ultra-Low-Loss Polymer Waveguides,”Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4 waveguides Jaredan approach to make ultra-low-loss waveguides using stable

  7. Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-12-31

    Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). Atmore »greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.« less

  8. Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Haiyan; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian; Xin, Huolin L.

    2014-12-31

    Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). At greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. As a result, implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.

  9. Broad Absorption Line QSOs Observed by the ROSAT PSPC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul J. Green; Smita Mathur

    1995-12-06

    Recent results from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) have shown that broad absorption line (BAL) QSOs are either highly absorbed or underluminous in the soft X-ray bandpass. Here, we extend this work by analyzing all known bona fide BALQSOs observed within the inner 20' of the ROSAT PSPC. This sample includes both targeted and serendipitous exposures ranging from 8 to 75 ksec. Despite these deep exposures, most of the BALQSOs are undetected, and have unusually weak X-ray emission, as evidenced by large optical-to-X-ray slopes (AOX). Large values of AOX ($\\gapprox$1.8) may prove to be a defining characteristic of BALQSOs. We predict that samples of QSO candidates with large AOX will yield a higher percentage of BALQSOs, particularly at low redshift. As a corollary, X-ray-selected QSO samples should yield The optical/UV emission line spectra of BAL and non-BAL QSOs are quite similar, suggesting that their intrinsic spectral energy distributions are similar as well. Absorption thus seems the likely reason for the X-ray quiet nature of BALQSOs. To constrain the total absorbing column of the BAL clouds, we compare our measured soft X-ray fluxes or upper limits to those expected from normal radio quiet QSOs of comparable optical continuum magnitude and redshift. From sensitive X-ray observations, we derive column densities of greater than about 2 times 10^22 cm-2, for intrinsic cold absorbers of solar metallicity. These new results suggest columns {\\em at least} an order of magnitude larger than the columns previously estimated from optical/UV spectra alone.

  10. Glosten Associates Tests Innovative High-Strength Mooring Lines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Glosten Associates Tests Innovative High-Strength Mooring Lines for Deepwater Offshore Wind Installations Glosten Associates Tests Innovative High-Strength Mooring Lines for...

  11. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Uninsulated steam distribution and condensate return lines are a constant source of wasted energy. The table shows typical...

  12. Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ThesisDissertation: Development of aerogel-lined targets for inertial confinement fusion experiments Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Development of aerogel-lined...

  13. A new look at lines of sight: using Fourier methods for the wide-angle anisotropic 2-point correlation function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slepian, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    The anisotropic 2-point correlation function (2PCF) of galaxies measures pairwise clustering as a function of the pair separation's angle to the line of sight. The latter is often defined as either the angle bisector of the observer-galaxy-pair triangle or the vector from the observer to the separation midpoint. Here we show how to accelerate either of these measurements with Fourier Transforms, using a slight generalization of the Yamamoto et al. (2006) estimator in which each member of the pair is used successively as the line of sight. We also present perturbation theory predictions for our generalized estimator including wide-angle corrections.

  14. LHC Beam Loss Measurements and Quench Level Abort Threshold Accuracy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dehning, B; Sapinski, M

    2010-01-01

    The LHC beam loss measurement system is designed to trigger the beam abort in case the magnet coil transition level from the superconducting to normal conducting sate is approached. The predicted heat deposition in the superconducting coils of the magnets has been determined by particle shower simulation codes, while for transient losses the enthalpy has been calculated. The results have been combined to determine the abort thresholds. Transient loss measurements of the energy depositions of lost protons with injected beams in the LHC are used to determine the accuracy of the beam abort threshold settings. The simulation predictions are reviewed and compared with the measurement results. The relative difference between measurements and simulation are between 30 to 50 %.

  15. Load-resistant coaxial transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe

    2006-01-03

    A transmission line for downhole tools that make up all or part of a tool string for drilling and production of oil, gas, and geothermal wells that can withstand the dynamic gravitational forces and other accelerations associated with downhole excavations. The transmission line has a metal tube, or outer conductor, that houses a coaxial wire inner conductor. A non-metallic dielectric material is interposed between the inner and outer conductors. The outer and inner conductors and the dielectric are sufficiently compressed together so that independent motion between them is abated. Compression of the components of the transmission line may be achieved by drawing the transmission through one or more dies in order to draw down the outer conductor onto the dielectric, or by expanding the inner conductor against the dielectric using a mandrel or hydraulic pressure. Non-metallic bead segments may be used in aid of the compression necessary to resist the dynamic forces and accelerations of drilling.

  16. Dynamic Line Rating: Research and Policy Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P. Gentle; Kurt S. Myers; Michael R. West

    2014-07-01

    Dynamic Line Rating (DLR) is a smart grid technology that allows the rating of electrical conductors to be increased based on local weather conditions. Overhead lines are conventionally given a conservative rating based on worst case scenarios. We demonstrate that observing the conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. This paper provides a report of a pioneering scheme in the United States of America in which DLR has been applied. Thereby, we demonstrate that observing the local weather conditions in real time leads to additional capacity and safer operation. Secondly, we discuss limitations involved. In doing so, we arrive at novel insights which will inform and improve future DLR projects. Third, we provide a policy background and discussion to clarify the technology’s potential and identifies barriers to the imminent adoption of dynamic line rating systems. We provide suggestions for regulatory bodies about possible improvements in policy to encourage adoption of this beneficial technology.

  17. Multiple Events Lead to Dendritic Spine Loss in Triple Transgenic Alzheimer's Disease Mice

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2010-01-01

    amyloid deposition leads to local synaptic abnormalities andMultiple Events Lead to Dendritic Spine Loss in Tripleal. (2010) Multiple Events Lead to Dendritic Spine Loss in

  18. Energy Use, Loss, and Opportunities Analysis for U.S. Manufacturing and Mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrino, Joan L.; Margolis, Nancy; Justiniano, Mauricio; Miller, Melanie; Thedki, Arvind

    2004-12-01

    An analysis of the energy consumption and losses associated with industrial energy systems in the top energy-intensive industries and opportunities for reducing losses.

  19. Challenges to Overcurrent Protection Devices under Line-line Faults in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehman, Brad

    Challenges to Overcurrent Protection Devices under Line-line Faults in Solar Photovoltaic Arrays Ye-MA, LLC Newburyport, MA, US Abstract--Solar photovoltaic (PV) arrays behave distinctively from remain undetected, which could lead to reduced system efficiency, reduced system reliability, and even

  20. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1998-12-08

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in US Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled ``Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System.`` The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity. 8 figs.

  1. Passive magnetic bearing element with minimal power losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F. (Walnut Creek, CA)

    1998-01-01

    Systems employing passive magnetic bearing elements having minimal power losses are provided. Improved stabilizing elements are shown, employing periodic magnet arrays and inductively loaded circuits, but with improved characteristics compared to the elements disclosed in U.S. Patent No. 5,495,221 entitled "Dynamically Stable Magnetic Suspension/Bearing System." The improvements relate to increasing the magnitude of the force derivative, while at the same time reducing the power dissipated during the normal operation of the bearing system, to provide a passive bearing system that has virtually no losses under equilibrium conditions, that is, when the supported system is not subject to any accelerations except those of gravity.

  2. Characterizing and Controlling Beam Losses at the LANSCE Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rybarcyk, Lawrence J.

    2012-09-12

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) currently provides 100-MeV H{sup +} and 800-MeV H{sup -} beams to several user facilities that have distinct beam requirements, e.g. intensity, micropulse pattern, duty factor, etc. Minimizing beam loss is critical to achieving good performance and reliable operation, but can be challenging in the context of simultaneous multi-beam delivery. This presentation will discuss various aspects related to the observation, characterization and minimization of beam loss associated with normal production beam operations in the linac.

  3. Energy Loss in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Jun Yang; Guang-Lie Li

    1998-05-21

    By means of the nuclear parton distributions which can be used to provide a good explanation for the EMC effect in the whole x range, we investigate the energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process. When the cross section of lepton pair production is considered varying with the center-of-mass energy of the nucleon-nucleon collision, we find that the nuclear Drell-Yan(DY) ratio is suppressed due to the energy loss, which balances the overestimate of the DY ratio only in consideration of the effect of nuclear parton distributions.

  4. Loss of purity by wave packet scattering at low energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jia Wang; C. K. Law; M. -C. Chu

    2006-01-06

    We study the quantum entanglement produced by a head-on collision between two gaussian wave packets in three-dimensional space. By deriving the two-particle wave function modified by s-wave scattering amplitudes, we obtain an approximate analytic expression of the purity of an individual particle. The loss of purity provides an indicator of the degree of entanglement. In the case the wave packets are narrow in momentum space, we show that the loss of purity is solely controlled by the ratio of the scattering cross section to the transverse area of the wave packets.

  5. EC Transmission Line Risk Identification and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to assist in evaluating and planning for the cost, schedule, and technical project risks associated with the delivery and operation of the EC (Electron cyclotron) transmission line system. In general, the major risks that are anticipated to be encountered during the project delivery phase associated with the implementation of the Procurement Arrangement for the EC transmission line system are associated with: (1) Undefined or changing requirements (e.g., functional or regulatory requirements) (2) Underperformance of prototype, first unit, or production components during testing (3) Unavailability of qualified vendors for critical components Technical risks associated with the design and operation of the system are also identified.

  6. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Wall Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-05-01

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project 'Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology' at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube based system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report provides information about how variations in proportional counter radius and gas pressure in a typical coincident counter design might affect the observed signal from boron-lined tubes. A discussion comparing tubes to parallel plate counters is also included.

  7. Concurrent Wind Cooling in Power Transmission Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jake P Gentle

    2012-08-01

    Idaho National Laboratory and the Idaho Power Company, with collaboration from Idaho State University, have been working on a project to monitor wind and other environmental data parameters along certain electrical transmission corridors. The combination of both real-time historical weather and environmental data is being used to model, validate, and recommend possibilities for dynamic operations of the transmission lines for power and energy carrying capacity. The planned results can also be used to influence decisions about proposed design criteria for or upgrades to certain sections of the transmission lines.

  8. Current Controller with Defined Dynamic Behavior for an Interior Permanent Magnet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    Current Controller with Defined Dynamic Behavior for an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor combustion vehicles already provide. Today's modern HEV and EV mostly include interior permanent magnet]. The required torque, which is the reference variable for these applications, is generated by choosing

  9. Forcing interactions as a genetic screen to identify proteins that exert a defined activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fields, Stan

    Forcing interactions as a genetic screen to identify proteins that exert a defined activity Michael to the Jun zipper and a library of open reading frames fused to the Fos zipper, we demonstrate this approach to force the interaction of each member of a library with a protein of interest. A library-encoded protein

  10. Homing Endonuclease Target Site Specificity Defined by Sequential Enrichment and Next-Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnat, Ray

    151 Chapter 12 Homing Endonuclease Target Site Specificity Defined by Sequential Enrichment and Next-Generation Sequencing of Highly Complex Target Site Libraries Hui Li and Raymond J. Monnat Jr- get site libraries and high-throughput DNA sequencing. Key words Homing endonuclease, Cleavage

  11. Defining the Origins of the NOD-Like Receptor System at the Base of Animal Evolution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Defining the Origins of the NOD-Like Receptor System at the Base of Animal Evolution Christina mechanisms at the base of animal evolution. Key words: Hydra, innate immunity, epithelial defense, NOD and oligomerisation domain-like receptors (NLRs) or NODs. Vertebrate NLR genes encode regulatory cytosolic proteins

  12. Modelling the Zn emissions from roofing materials at Crteil city scale -Defining a methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Modelling the Zn emissions from roofing materials at Créteil city scale - Defining a methodology@cereve.enpc.fr) Abstract Today, urban runoff is considered as an important source of environment pollution. Roofing. An accurate evaluation of contaminant flows from roofs is thus required at the city scale. This paper aims

  13. 1. Introduction The T0 temperature in steel is defined as that at which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cambridge, University of

    1. Introduction The T0 temperature in steel is defined as that at which ferrite and austenite- dence of GN is, for low-alloy steels, independent of chemi- cal composition; together with the growth of thermodynamics alone.1,2) In a similar scheme, martensitic transformation becomes possible when4­9) DGga MS G

  14. Nanotechnology is defined as materi-als and systems ranging from 1 to 100

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Pak Kin

    Nanotechnology is defined as materi- als and systems ranging from 1 to 100 nm which exhibit novel in the potentially revo- lutionary impacts that nanotechnology has to offer clinical medicine, particu- larly oncology. Numerous proof of concept appli- cations of nanotechnology have been described for high impact

  15. Towards Test-Driven Software Defined Networking David Lebrun, Stefano Vissicchio, Olivier Bonaventure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonaventure, Olivier

    viability of our approach. I. INTRODUCTION Despite the criticality of computer networks, the tools used with solid and effective methodologies like those defined by software engineers to develop mission critical of formalized requirements. The network testing activ- ity is prescribed before applying any change

  16. Integration In this Chapter, we define the integral of real-valued functions on an arbitrary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunter, John K.

    CHAPTER 4 Integration In this Chapter, we define the integral of real-valued functions on an arbitrary measure space and derive some of its basic properties. We refer to this integral as the Lebesgue integral, whether or not the domain of the functions is subset of Rn equipped with Lebesgue measure

  17. Envision UCSC Concept Paper 1 Defining our Image for the Next 50 Years

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Envision UCSC Concept Paper 1 Defining our Image for the Next 50 Years Communications principles, UC Santa Cruz offers something that is uncommon in public higher education in the United States: a liberal arts education in the context of a major research university. The structural diversity

  18. THE DENTATE GYRUS, DEFINING A NEW MEMORY OF DAVID MARR1 Alessandro Treves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Treves, Alessandro

    THE DENTATE GYRUS, DEFINING A NEW MEMORY OF DAVID MARR1 Alessandro Treves SISSA, Cognitive to understand. David Marr, in his theory for archicortex, gives up trying to understand the dentate gyrus. Yet, the intellectual trajectory trailblazed by Marr's ideas has led, decades later, to make sense of the dentate gyrus

  19. This memorandurn defines the manner in which central station heaters, power dumps and experilnent standby

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rathbun, Julie A.

    This memorandurn defines the manner in which central station heaters, power dumps and experilnent power in the central station by an equally powerful heater during non-operating periods. It is s!VIS!ON ANN. PdUH:::~,ti\\JCH,. t~OATM- 453 lrltiV~MO. Gentral'Station Power and t

  20. Algorithms to solve massively under-defined systems of multivariate quadratic equations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Algorithms to solve massively under-defined systems of multivariate quadratic equations Yasufumi is of even characteristic, there is an algorithm to solve equations in polynomial time (see [Kipnis et al., Eurocrypt'99] and also [Courtois et al., PKC'02]). In the present paper, we propose two algorithms to solve

  1. Data Validation Using Data Descriptors Data validation is often defined by six data descriptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    APPENDIX N Data Validation Using Data Descriptors Data validation is often defined by six data descriptors: 1) reports to decision maker 2) documentation 3) data sources 4) analytical method and detection limit 5) data review 6) data quality indicators The decision maker or reviewer examines the data

  2. Defining a Taxonomy for Research Areas on ICT for Governance and Policy Modelling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Defining a Taxonomy for Research Areas on ICT for Governance and Policy Modelling Fenareti presents a taxonomy classifying the research themes, the research areas and the research sub in research, policy and practice, the taxonomy brings together the open, linked data and visual analytics

  3. Principles of Software-defined Elastic Systems for Big Data Analytics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dustdar, Schahram

    Principles of Software-defined Elastic Systems for Big Data Analytics Hong-Linh Truong, Schahram}@dsg.tuwien.ac.at Abstract Techniques for big data analytics should support principles of elasticity that are inherent characteristics of big data described through the "four V's of volume, variety, velocity and veracity" [1] have

  4. Combining leakresistant arithmetic for elliptic curves defined over Fp and RNS representation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    International Association for Cryptologic Research (IACR)

    Combining leak­resistant arithmetic for elliptic curves defined over Fp and RNS representation JC Abstract In this paper we combine the residue number system (RNS) representation and the leak- resistant cryptography on embedded devices. It is well known that the RNS multiplication is very efficient whereas

  5. MHC Class II Tetramers and the Pursuit of Antigen-specific T cells: Define, Deviate, Delete

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 MHC Class II Tetramers and the Pursuit of Antigen-specific T cells: Define, Deviate, Delete Class II tetramers Corresponding Author: Roberto Mallone, MD Benaroya Research Institute at Virginia secretion and proliferation. The advent of MHC Class II tetramers has added a pivotal tool to our research

  6. DEFINING AND QUANTIFYING FEEDBACKS IN EARTH'S CLIMATE SYSTEM Stephen E. Schwartz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DEFINING AND QUANTIFYING FEEDBACKS IN EARTH'S CLIMATE SYSTEM Stephen E. Schwartz For presentation.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Feedbacks in Earth's climate system are increasingly being examined to identify processes of climate models to accurately represent the actual climate system and changes due to increases

  7. In bacteria, the two defining processes of the cell cycle, chromosome replication and segre

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mekalanos, John

    In bacteria, the two defining processes of the cell cycle, chromosome replication and segre gation and Hunt in 1993 (REF. 2) as "among the most mysterious" events during the bacterial cell cycle, and its segregation. In the first part of this Opinion article, we consider when entropy will drive segrega tion

  8. http://www.jstor.org Undecidability and Definability for the Theory of Global Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rumely, Robert

    's Terms and Conditions of Use, available at http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jsp. JSTOR of these resources. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. #12;TRANSACTIONS or the natural numbers are uniformly defined in all global fields, as well as Godel functions encoding finite

  9. Defining and Model Checking Abstractions of Complex Railway Models using CSP||B

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doran, Simon J.

    Defining and Model Checking Abstractions of Complex Railway Models using CSP||B Faron Moller1. In [11, 10] we propose a new modelling approach for railway interlockings. We use CSP||B [13], which involves events such as train movements and, in the interlocking, state based reasoning. In this sense, CSP

  10. COMPUTING THE TOP BETTI NUMBERS OF SEMI-ALGEBRAIC SETS DEFINED BY QUADRATIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Saugata

    COMPUTING THE TOP BETTI NUMBERS OF SEMI-ALGEBRAIC SETS DEFINED BY QUADRATIC INEQUALITIES IN POLYNOMIAL TIME SAUGATA BASU Abstract. For any > 0, we present an algorithm which takes as input a semi-algebraic the top Betti numbers of S, bk-1(S), . . . , bk- (S), in polynomial time. The complexity of the algorithm

  11. Application of PSA to review and define technical specifications for advanced nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.; Reinhart, F.M.; Wohl, M.L.

    1995-11-01

    As part of the design certification process, probabilistic safety assessments (PSAS) are performed at the design stage for each advanced nuclear power plant. Among other usages, these PSAs are important inputs in defining the Technical Specifications (TSs) for these plants. Knowledge gained from their use in improving the TSs for operating nuclear power plants is providing methods and insights for using PSAs at this early stage. Evaluating the safety or the risk significance of the TSs to be defined for an advanced plant encompasses diverse aspects: (a) determining the basic limiting condition for operation (LCO); (b) structuring conditions associated with the LCO; (c) defining completion times (equivalent to allowed outage times in the TS for conventional plants); and, (d) prescribing required actions to be taken within the specified completion times. In this paper, we consider the use of PSA in defining the TSs for an advanced nuclear plant, namely General Electric`s Advanced Boiling Water Reactor (ABWR). Similar approaches are being taken for ABB-CE`s System 80+ and Westinghouse`s AP-600. We discuss the general features of an advanced reactor`s TS, how PSA is being used in reviewing the TSs, and we give an example where the TS submittal was reviewed using a PSA-based analysis to arrive at the requirements for the plant.

  12. Statically Defined Dynamic Architecture Evolution Robert Watson, Sutirtha Bhattacharya, Dewayne E. Perry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perry, Dewayne E.

    Statically Defined Dynamic Architecture Evolution Robert Watson, Sutirtha Bhattacharya, Dewayne E There are a variety of contexts where dynamic architecture evolution is needed. The context we have been working in is that of providing architecture models of NASA training simulations for manned space exploration. In this context

  13. GVU Technical Report GIT-GVU-98-01 Ubiquitous Computing: Defining an HCI Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abowd, Gregory D.

    GVU Technical Report GIT-GVU-98-01 Ubiquitous Computing: Defining an HCI Research Agenda: {salber, anind, abowd}@cc.gatech.edu Abstract Ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) is an emerging paradigm a clearer agenda for HCI research in ubiquitous computing. Keywords Ubiquitous computing, taxonomy, human-computer

  14. DEFINING RADIOTHERAPY TARGET VOLUMES USING 18F-FLUORO-DEOXY-GLUCOSE POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    further the process of making available new technology. We therefore suggest a more radical stance) investigated the use of fixed thresholds to define NSCLC tumors PET volumes exhibiting heterogeneous uptake. They found no correlation between the CT-based and the PET-based volumes, and associated the observed

  15. Thermal Wind The thermal wind is defined as the vector difference between the geostrophic winds at

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hennon, Christopher C.

    ATMS 310 Thermal Wind The thermal wind is defined as the vector difference between the geostrophic winds at two levels. It is not really a wind at all, just a measure of the shear of the geostrophic wind. But there are good reasons for considering the geostrophic wind; mainly, it provides a convenient way of connecting

  16. Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Defining groundwater remediation objectives with cost-1 benefit analysis: does it work?2 3 J at the local (site) level. This paper questions whether12 CBA is relevant for evaluating groundwater management the cost of groundwater14 protection and remediation measures at the regional (water body) level. It also

  17. Global Biogeochemical Cycles Global biogeochemical cycles can be defined as any of the natural circulation pathways

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Winguth, Arne

    Global Biogeochemical Cycles Global biogeochemical cycles can be defined as any of the natural of the atmosphere. Incoming solar radiation is partly absorbed and reflected in the atmosphere. The remaining part-wave radiation and serve as a blanket for the lower atmosphere. The potential for two-way interactions

  18. High channel density wavelength division multiplexer with defined diffracting means positioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jannson, T.P.; Jannson, J.L.; Yeung, P.C.

    1990-05-15

    A wavelength division multiplexer/demultiplexer is disclosed having optical path lengths between a fiber array and a Fourier transform lens, and between a dispersion grating and the lens equal to the focal length of the lens. The optical path lengths reduce losses due to angular acceptance mismatch in the multiplexer. Close orientation of the fiber array about the optical axis and the use of a holographic dispersion grating reduces other losses in the system. Multi-exposure holographic dispersion gratings enable the multiplexer/demultiplexer for extremely broad-band simultaneous transmission and reflection operation. Individual Bragg plane sets recorded in the grating are dedicated to and operate efficiently on discrete wavelength ranges. 11 figs.

  19. Three-phase contact line and line tension of electrolyte solutions in contact with charged substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingrid Ibagon; Markus Bier; S. Dietrich

    2015-11-16

    The three-phase contact line formed by the intersection of a liquid-vapor interface of an electrolyte solution with a charged planar substrate is studied in terms of classical density functional theory applied to a lattice model. The influence of the substrate charge density and of the ionic strength of the solution on the intrinsic structure of the three-phase contact line and on the corresponding line tension is analyzed. We find a negative line tension for all values of the surface charge density and of the ionic strength considered. The strength of the line tension decreases upon decreasing the contact angle via varying either the temperature or the substrate charge density.

  20. Data from CREL, from the SHEBA experiment, western Arctic How to define it?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    - summer 2005, no replenishment of MY ice - Fram Strait export 40% of MY ice loss (rest = melting) #12;But in the game? ASSUME 1m thick ~ 2 x 1012 m3 (extra volume lost) (i.e. 2 x 103 km3) Energy needed for melt 106 km2 2006 ~ 0.16 x 106 km2 2007 ~ 0.28 x 106 km2 Ice export only ~ 15% of sea ice retreat Extra

  1. A comparison of techniques for on-line monitoring of unit heat rate of coal fired units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarunac, N.; Levy, E. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (USA). Energy Research Center); Williams, S.; Cramer, D. (Potomac Electric Power Co. (US)); Leyse, R. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The input/output method is one of the most commonly used approaches for measuring unit performance, but it is rarely used on-line because of difficulties in accurate on-line measurement of coal heating value and flow rate. Two other techniques for monitoring unit heat rate are much more suitable for on-line application. One of these, the boiler turbine cycle efficiency. The output/loss method utilizes information on turbine cycle performance along with measurements of stack gas flow rate, unburned carbon and other commonly available information such as O{sub 2} levels, gas and air temperatures and gross and auxiliary power. This paper provides a summary of the three techniques, describes their characteristics, gives instrumentation requirements and compares accuracies. Guidelines on the applications for which each technique should be considered are also given.

  2. Dispersion properties and low infrared optical losses in epitaxial AlN on sapphire substrate in the visible and infrared range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soltani, A. Stolz, A.; Gerbedoen, J.-C.; Rousseau, M.; Bourzgui, N.; De Jaeger, J.-C.; Charrier, J.; Mattalah, M.; Barkad, H. A.; Mortet, V.

    2014-04-28

    Optical waveguiding properties of a thick wurtzite aluminum nitride highly [002]-textured hetero-epitaxial film on (001) basal plane of sapphire substrate are studied. The physical properties of the film are determined by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, microRaman, and photocurrent spectroscopy. The refractive index and the thermo-optic coefficients are determined by m-lines spectroscopy using the classical prism coupling technique. The optical losses of this planar waveguide are also measured in the spectral range of 450–1553?nm. The lower value of optical losses is equal to 0.7 dB/cm at 1553?nm. The optical losses due to the surface scattering are simulated showing that the contribution is the most significant at near infrared wavelength range, whereas the optical losses are due to volume scattering and material absorption in the visible range. The good physical properties and the low optical losses obtained from this planar waveguide are encouraging to achieve a wide bandgap optical guiding platform from these aluminum nitride thin films.

  3. ABSTRACT OF THESIS LINE ASSOCIATIVE REGISTERS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dietz, Henry G. "Hank"

    ABSTRACT OF THESIS LINE ASSOCIATIVE REGISTERS As technological advances have improved processor. This thesis takes the approach of trying to create a new memory access model that is more efficient and simple ASSOCIATIVE REGISTERS By Krishna Melarkode Dr. Henry G. Dietz (Director of Thesis) Dr. Yu Ming Zhang (Director

  4. Appendix A Cesium D Line Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steck, Daniel A.

    Appendices 249 #12;#12;Appendix A Cesium D Line Data A.1 Overview In this appendix we review many of the physical and optical properties of cesium that are relevant to the experiments in this dissertation. In particular, we give parameters that are useful in treating the mechanical effects of light on cesium atoms

  5. Cesium D Line Data Daniel A. Steck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steck, Daniel A.

    Cesium D Line Data Daniel A. Steck Theoretical Division (T-8), MS B285 Los Alamos National In this reference we present many of the physical and optical properties of cesium that are relevant to various effects of light on cesium atoms. The measured numbers are given with their original references

  6. Pipelined Asynchronous Circuits Andrew Matthew Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pipelined Asynchronous Circuits Andrew Matthew Lines June 1995, revised June 1998 This thesis building blocks for highly pipelined designs. The first chapter presents the implementation approach for individual cells. The second chapter in­ vestigates the time behavior of complex pipelined circuits

  7. High temperature lined conduits, elbows and tees

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Feo, Angelo (Passaic, NJ); Drewniany, Edward (Bergen, NJ)

    1982-01-01

    A high temperature lined conduit comprising, a liner, a flexible insulating refractory blanket around and in contact with the liner, a pipe member around the blanket and spaced therefrom, and castable rigid refractory material between the pipe member and the blanket. Anchors are connected to the inside diameter of the pipe and extend into the castable material. The liner includes male and female slip joint ends for permitting thermal expansion of the liner with respect to the castable material and the pipe member. Elbows and tees of the lined conduit comprise an elbow liner wrapped with insulating refractory blanket material around which is disposed a spaced elbow pipe member with castable refractory material between the blanket material and the elbow pipe member. A reinforcing band is connected to the elbow liner at an intermediate location thereon from which extend a plurality of hollow tubes or pins which extend into the castable material to anchor the lined elbow and permit thermal expansion. A method of fabricating the high temperature lined conduit, elbows and tees is also disclosed which utilizes a polyethylene layer over the refractory blanket after it has been compressed to maintain the refractory blanket in a compressed condition until the castable material is in place. Hot gases are then directed through the interior of the liner for evaporating the polyethylene and setting the castable material which permits the compressed blanket to come into close contact with the castable material.

  8. Passive health monitoring of pressurized sensing lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holbert, K. E.; Lin, K. [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ 85287-5706 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    The electrical-hydraulic analogy is employed for the modeling of pressurized lines. Anomalies such as leakage and blockage alter the normal system transfer function in such a manner that fault detection and identification can be performed. An impetus for this work is to incorporate simple algorithms within micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) pressure transducers in order to create an intelligent sensor. (authors)

  9. Where are the Fermi lines coming from?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, Kanishka; Whiteson, Daniel, E-mail: krao@uci.edu, E-mail: daniel@uci.edu [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2013-03-01

    We estimate the spatial locations of sources of the the observed features in the Fermi-LAT photon spectrum at E{sub ?} = 110 and E{sub ?} = 130 GeV. We determine whether they are consistent with emission from a single source, as would be expected in their interpretation as ?? and ?Z lines from dark matter annhiliation, as well as whether they are consistent with a dark matter halo positioned at the center of the galaxy. We take advantage of the per-photon measured incident angle in reconstructing the line features. In addition, we use a data-driven background model rather than making the assumption of a feature-less background. We localize the sources of the features at 110 and 130 GeV. Assuming an Einasto (NFW) density model we find the 130 GeV line to be offset from the Galactic center by 285 (280) pc, the 110 GeV line by 60 (30) pc with a large relative separation of 220 (240) pc. However, we find this displacement of each source from the Galactic center, as well as their relative displacement to be statistically consistent with a single Einasto or NFW dark matter halo at the center of the galaxy.

  10. The Linux Command Line Second Internet Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, David B.

    The Linux Command Line Second Internet Edition William E. Shotts, Jr. A LinuxCommand.org Book #12 this book in elec- tronic formats for most popular e-readers: http://nostarch.com/tlcl.htm Release History Version Date Description 13.07 July 6, 2013 Second Internet Edition. 09.12 December 14, 2009 First

  11. Massive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robock, Alan

    that nuclear war could be winnable, and preceded the first significant reductions in nuclear weapons stockpiles, the proliferation of nuclear weapons has produced greater risks of a regional nuclear conflict. At the same timeMassive global ozone loss predicted following regional nuclear conflict Michael J. Mills* , Owen B

  12. Modelling and Measurements of Power Losses and Turbulence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pryor, Sara C.

    at Middelgrunden Offshore Wind Farm R. J. Barthelmie*, , S. T. Frandsen and M. N. Nielsen, Wind Energy Department and turbulence increase due to wind turbine wake interac- tions in large offshore wind farms is crucial interactions in large offshore wind farms is crucial to optimizing wind farm design. Power losses due

  13. The Energy Harvesting Multiple Access Channel with Energy Storage Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yener, Aylin

    The Energy Harvesting Multiple Access Channel with Energy Storage Losses Kaya Tutuncuoglu and Aylin considers a Gaussian multiple access channel with two energy harvesting transmitters with lossy energy storage. The power allocation policy maximizing the average weighted sum rate given the energy harvesting

  14. Precise parametrizations of muon energy losses in water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. I. Klimushin; E. V. Bugaev; I. A. Sokalski

    2001-06-01

    The description of muon propagation through large depths of matter, based on a concept of the correction factor, is proposed. The results of Monte-Carlo calculations of this correction factor are presented. The parametrizations for continuous energy loss coefficients, valid in the broad interval of muon energies, and for the correction factor are given. The concrete calculations for pure water are presented.

  15. The Community Loss Index: A New Social Indicator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qiu, Weigang

    and an aggregator of individ- ual experiences. Building on the relationship between loss and stress, the index at is growing due to mounting demand for accountability, outcome measures, evidence-based research, and indicators that reveal what works. In response, researchers like Jochen Albrecht and Laxmi Ramasubramanian ð

  16. STAFF PAPER A Review of Transmission Losses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from 5.4 percent to 6.9 percent during 2002 to 2008, based on Energy Commission data. This staff paper of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. Staff also would like to acknowledge Al Alvarado and distribution loss values in planning studies. In this effort, staff analyzed data, researched literature

  17. NASA/TM2013218030 The Chorus Conflict and Loss of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, Ricky W.

    NASA/TM­2013­218030 The Chorus Conflict and Loss of Separation Resolution Algorithms Ricky W. Butler, George Hagen, Jeffrey M. Maddalon Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia August 2013 #12;NASA STI Program . . . in Profile Since its founding, NASA has been dedicated to the advancement

  18. Bait Loss From Halibut Longline Gear Observed From a Submersible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bait Loss From Halibut Longline Gear Observed From a Submersible WILLIAM L. HIGH Introduction Demersal longline gear is fished along the west coast of the United States for Pacific halibut is avail- able on the behavior of fish around the gear and bait, bait durability on hooks, predators other

  19. Anomalous loss in blue-green wavelength discrimination with very

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Foster, David H.

    Anomalous loss in blue-green wavelength discrimination with very brief monochromatic stimuli to yield non-uniform increases in discrimination thresholds in the blue-green region of the spectrum that the effect was not attributable to the reduced energy of the short flash. One of the most significant

  20. Mar./Apr. 2002 Winter Losses, Again Organic Beekeeping Conf.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishida, Yuko

    Mar./Apr. 2002 Winter Losses, Again Organic Beekeeping Conf. Diagnosing and Treating Nosema is extremely hard to see, because the bees look OK while the stored food reserves in their bodies just aren of the honey bee midgut stimulate germination. The organism penetrates a midgut cell and grows by absorbing

  1. DETERMINATION OF LOSS FACTORS IN A DEREGULATED SYSTEM Ashikur Bhuiya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    is computationally efficient and can be utilized to calculate the loss factors associated with the generators of the world electric utilities are facing the challenge of transformation - from regulated monopoly market plays the role of a supervisor for system planning and security. An ISO may also work as a spot market

  2. Bridge-Node Selection and Loss Recovery in Island Multicast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Shueng-Han Gary

    Bridge-Node Selection and Loss Recovery in Island Multicast W.-P. Ken Yiu K.-F. Simon Wong S multicast-capable domains (the so-called islands) while overlay connections are used to bridge islands. In the previously proposed scheme, the number of ping measurements to find good bridge-nodes is at least

  3. Bone loss during energy restriction: mechanistic role of leptin 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baek, Kyunghwa

    2009-05-15

    Mechanical unloading and food restriction (FR) are leading causes of bone loss, which increase the risk of fracture later in life. Leptin, a 16kDa cytokine like hormone principally produced by white adipocytes, may be involved in bone metabolism...

  4. Low loss liquid crystals for infrared applications Fenglin Penga

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Shin-Tson

    contender for phase modulation, such as spatial light modula- tors (SLMs),[1] laser beam steering,[2,3] adaptive optics, adaptive lenses,[4] and phase shifters in the microwave [5,6] and terahertz [7­9] regions, in which light scattering loss would be intolerable. After having taken this factor of 10

  5. Multiple hit hypotheses for dopamine neuron loss in Parkinson's disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulzer, David

    State Psychiatric Institute, New York City, NY 10032, USA Parkinson's disease arises from geneticMultiple hit hypotheses for dopamine neuron loss in Parkinson's disease David Sulzer Departments features. Although many genetic mutations have been suggested as causes or risk factors for Parkinson

  6. Modelling and Computation of AC Fields and Losses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    and improves machine efficiency. These reductions in losses result in lower operating costs than is expected to protect and reduce the cost of utility system components. Reduced operating impedance, which reduced by a factor of two, which will increase existing substation capacity, reduce land area needed

  7. Computationally Efficient Winding Loss Calculation with Multiple Windings, Arbitrary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is valid, it produces a frequency-independent model that may be used to calculate losses for any set and Two- or Three-Dimensional Field Geometry C. R. Sullivan From IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics of this work in other works must be obtained from the IEEE. #12;142 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER ELECTRONICS, VOL

  8. STREAMLINING THE SUPPLY CHAIN: GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONSAND DRY MATTER LOSSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    supply chains · Dry matter, lost energy and quality changes · Focusing on: · Wood chip storage and greenhouse gas emissions from wood chip storage? · Cap layer forms on outside · Mouldy and very dampSTREAMLINING THE SUPPLY CHAIN: GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONSAND DRY MATTER LOSSES FROM WOOD CHIP STACKS

  9. OLA -11.15,2012 DATA LOSS PREVENTION POLICY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkle, Tom

    1 OLA -11.15,2012 DATA LOSS PREVENTION POLICY 1.0 PURPOSE This Policy establishes z e d disclosure of Protected Information by electronic means. The specific purposes of this Policy for monitoring and reporting compliance with the College's Privacy Policy (http://policy.cofc.edu/documents/11

  10. Modeling IR Radiative Loss from Eppley PSP Pyranometers Frank Vignola

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    Renewable Energy Laboratory ABSTRACT A method has been developed to estimate IR radiative losses using solar, irradiance, IR, modeling, global, diffuse, PSP 1. INTRODUCTION Since the 1970s, solar radiation data has been Energy Laboratory (NREL) data page3 along with the original global data. Corrections to the PSP

  11. Burst Mode Message Loss Effects On WAAS Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Burst Mode Message Loss Effects On WAAS Availability Richard Fuller, Todd Walter, Per Enge, the satellite ranging-source increases the percentage of time that the precise signal is available. In this way, availability, and continuity. The WAAS Signal-In-Space (SIS) has a limited data message bandwidth of 250 bits

  12. Acoustic Transmission Loss of Perforated Plates Vincent Phong1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papamoschou, Dimitri

    Acoustic Transmission Loss of Perforated Plates Vincent Phong1 and Dimitri Papamoschou2 University of California, Irvine, CA 92697, USA A study has been conducted on the acoustic response of perforated plates coefficient of the perforate. The theoretical analysis is based on planar wave propagation through a single

  13. On the Hardness of Pricing Loss-leaders Preyas Popat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yi

    their margin cost. It is shown in [BB06, BBCH07] that by pricing some of the items below cost, the maximumOn the Hardness of Pricing Loss-leaders Preyas Popat New York University popat@cs.nyu.edu Yi Wu IBM Almaden wuyi@us.ibm.com September 30, 2011 Abstract Consider the problem of pricing n items under

  14. A Hidden Broad-Line Region in the Weak Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 788

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laura E. Kay; Edward C. Moran

    1998-07-23

    We have detected a broad H alpha emission line in the polarized flux spectrum of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 788, indicating that it contains an obscured Seyfert 1 nucleus. While such features have been observed in ~15 other Seyfert 2s, this example is unusual because it has a higher fraction of galaxy starlight in its spectrum, a lower average measured polarization, and a significantly lower radio luminosity than other hidden Seyfert 1s discovered to date. This demonstrates that polarized broad-line regions can be detected in relatively weak classical Seyfert 2s, and illustrates why well-defined, reasonably complete spectropolarimetric surveys at H alpha are necessary in order to assess whether or not all Seyfert 2s are obscured Seyfert 1s.

  15. Security camera resolution measurements: Horizontal TV lines versus modulation transfer function measurements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Birch, Gabriel Carisle; Griffin, John Clark

    2015-01-01

    The horizontal television lines (HTVL) metric has been the primary quantity used by division 6000 related to camera resolution for high consequence security systems. This document shows HTVL measurements are fundamen- tally insufficient as a metric to determine camera resolution, and propose a quantitative, standards based methodology by measuring the camera system modulation transfer function (MTF), the most common and accepted metric of res- olution in the optical science community. Because HTVL calculations are easily misinterpreted or poorly defined, we present several scenarios in which HTVL is frequently reported, and discuss their problems. The MTF metric is discussed, and scenarios are presented with calculations showing the application of such a metric.

  16. Electric Power Lines : Questions and Answers on Research into Health Effects.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-06-01

    Most people know that electric power lines, like the wiring in our homes, can cause serious electric shocks if we`re not careful. Many people also want to know whether the EMF (electric and magnetic fields) produced by power lines and other electrical devices affect our health. Although no adverse health effects of electric power EMF have been confirmed, there is continued scientific uncertainty about this issue. Research on EMF is ongoing throughout the world. The purpose of this booklet is to answer some common questions that the BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) receives about the possible effects of power lines on health. First, some basic electrical terms are defined, and electric and magnetic fields are debed. Next, answers are given to several questions about recent scientific studies. Some important information about electrical safety follows. We then describe how BPA is addressing public concerns about potential health effects of power lines. The last section tells you how to obtain more detailed information about the health and safety issues summarized in this booklet.

  17. A liquid contact line receding on a soft gel surface : dip-coating geometry investigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kajiya, Tadashi; Royon, Laurent; Daerr, Adrian; Receveur, Mathieu; Limat, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    We studied the dynamics of a liquid contact line receding on a hydrophobic soft gel (SBS-paraffin). In order to realize a well-defined geometry with an accurate control of velocity, a dip-coating setup was implemented. Provided that the elastic modulus is small enough, a significant deformation takes place near the contact line, which in turn drastically influences the wetting behaviour. Depending on the translation velocity of the substrate, the contact line exhibits different regimes of motions. Continuous motions are observed at high and low velocities, meanwhile two types of stick-slip motion, periodic and erratic, appear at intermediate velocities. We suggest that the observed transitions could be explained in terms of the competition between different frequencies, i.e., the frequency of the strain field variation induced by the contact line motion and the crossover frequency of the gel related to the material relaxation. Our results provide systematic views on how the wetting of liquid is modified by th...

  18. Theoretical mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. Holzwarth; M. Jardine

    2006-11-14

    We develop a model for the wind properties of cool main-sequence stars, which comprises their wind ram pressures, mass fluxes, and terminal wind velocities. The wind properties are determined through a polytropic magnetised wind model, assuming power laws for the dependence of the thermal and magnetic wind parameters on the stellar rotation rate. We use empirical data to constrain theoretical wind scenarios, which are characterised by different rates of increase of the wind temperature, wind density, and magnetic field strength. Scenarios based on moderate rates of increase yield wind ram pressures in agreement with most empirical constraints, but cannot account for some moderately rotating targets, whose high apparent mass loss rates are inconsistent with observed coronal X-ray and magnetic properties. For fast magnetic rotators, the magneto-centrifugal driving of the outflow can produce terminal wind velocities far in excess of the surface escape velocity. Disregarding this aspect in the analyses of wind ram pressures leads to overestimations of stellar mass loss rates. The predicted mass loss rates of cool main-sequence stars do not exceed about ten times the solar value. Our results are in contrast with previous investigations, which found a strong increase of the stellar mass loss rates with the coronal X-ray flux. Owing to the weaker dependence, we expect the impact of stellar winds on planetary atmospheres to be less severe and the detectability of magnetospheric radio emission to be lower then previously suggested. Considering the rotational evolution of a one solar-mass star, the mass loss rates and the wind ram pressures are highest during the pre-main sequence phase.

  19. A certain kind of line integral (called a contour integral) is of primary interest Area integrals don't have many interesting properties (AFAIK)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kramer, Peter

    A certain kind of line integral (called a contour integral) is of primary interest· Area integrals of integration of complex functions that interacts well with the notion of complex derivative. First some basics from multivariable calculus directly extended to complex functions. Start by just defining the integral

  20. Property Loss Notice Instructions on filing a Property Loss Notice with the Office of Risk Management can be found in the Administrative

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Acquired Cost New/Replacement Repair 1. 2. 3. 4. CLAIMS INVOLVING UNIVERSITY PROPERTY OR EQUIPMENT A $500 that a loss occurred, e.g., no visible signs of forced entry, forcible theft, etc. Loss adjustment is subject

  1. Defining an end state for CO2 sequestration and EOR in North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedmann, S J

    2006-04-20

    CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) presents a challenge to long-range planners, economic interests, regulators, law-makers, and other stakeholders and decision makers. To improve and optimize the use of limited resources and finances, it is important to define an end state for CCS. This ends state should be defined around desired goals and reasonable timelines for execution. While this definition may have substantial technology, policy or economic implications, it need not be prescriptive in terms of technology pathway, policy mechanism, or economic targets. To illustrate these concerns, this paper will present a credible vision of what an end state for North American might look like. From that, examples of key investment and planning decisions are provided to illustrate the value of end-state characterization.

  2. Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis, J A

    1971-01-01

    Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

  3. DEFINING A GLASS COMPOSITION ENVELOPE FOR AN IMPURITY VARIABILITY STUDY TO SUPPORT PLUTONIUM DISPOSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fox, K; Elizabeth Hoffman, E; Tommy Edwards, T; James Marra, J

    2007-08-21

    This study focuses on the development of a composition envelope that describes the solubility of various impurities in the lanthanide borosilicate (LaBS) glass. A series of glass compositions was selected, fabricated and characterized in order to define this envelope. The selection of glass compositions, which is the focus of this report, was based on the projected types and concentrations of impurities expected in the plutonium feed stream. A limited amount of impurity data for the various plutonium sources is available and projections were made through analysis of the available information. These projections were used to define the glass compositions to be fabricated and tested. The results of this glass selection process provided an array of glass compositions to be fabricated and characterized in the laboratory in order to evaluate the solubility of various impurity elements and their effects on crystallization and durability as measured by the Product Consistency Test (PCT). The majority of the glasses will be formulated with hafnium as a surrogate for plutonium to simplify laboratory experiments. Plutonium glass testing will also be implemented for select compositions to validate the results of the surrogate testing. The results of this variability testing will be discussed in a separate report that will provide data to validate the acceptability of the compositional envelope defined here and/or provide additional compositional constraints for the plutonium feed materials.

  4. Modeling of coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in lined rock caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.; Kim, H. -M.; Ryu, D. -W.; Synn, J. -H.; Song, W. -K.

    2012-02-01

    We applied coupled nonisothermal, multiphase fluid flow and geomechanical numerical modeling to study the coupled thermodynamic and geomechanical performance of underground compressed air energy storage (CAES) in concrete-lined rock caverns. The paper focuses on CAES in lined caverns at relatively shallow depth (e.g., 100 m depth) in which a typical CAES operational pressure of 5 to 8 MPa is significantly higher than both ambient fluid pressure and in situ stress. We simulated a storage operation that included cyclic compression and decompression of air in the cavern, and investigated how pressure, temperature and stress evolve over several months of operation. We analyzed two different lining options, both with a 50 cm thick low permeability concrete lining, but in one case with an internal synthetic seal such as steel or rubber. For our simulated CAES system, the thermodynamic analysis showed that 96.7% of the energy injected during compression could be recovered during subsequent decompression, while 3.3% of the energy was lost by heat conduction to the surrounding media. Our geomechanical analysis showed that tensile effective stresses as high as 8 MPa could develop in the lining as a result of the air pressure exerted on the inner surface of the lining, whereas thermal stresses were relatively smaller and compressive. With the option of an internal synthetic seal, the maximum effective tensile stress was reduced from 8 to 5 MPa, but was still in substantial tension. We performed one simulation in which the tensile tangential stresses resulted in radial cracks and air leakage though the lining. This air leakage, however, was minor (about 0.16% of the air mass loss from one daily compression) in terms of CAES operational efficiency, and did not significantly impact the overall energy balance of the system. However, despite being minor in terms of energy balance, the air leakage resulted in a distinct pressure increase in the surrounding rock that could be quickly detected using pressure monitoring outside the concrete lining.

  5. On the oxygen abundance determination in HII regions: the problem of the line intensities -- oxygen abundance calibration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. S. Pilyugin

    2000-04-04

    The problem of the line intensities -- oxygen abundance calibration has been considered. We confirm the idea of McGaugh (1991) that the strong oxygen lines ([OII] 3727, 3729 and [OIII] 4959, 5007) contain the necessary information for determination of accurate abundances in low-metallicity (and may be also in high-metallicity) HII regions. It has been found that the excitation parameters p3 or p2 (which are defined here as contributions of the radiation in [OIII] 4959, 5007 lines and in [OII] 3727, 3729 lines to the "total" oxygen radiation respectively) allow to take into account the variations in R23 values among HII regions with a given oxygen abundance. Based on this fact a new way of the oxygen abundance determination in HII regions has been constructed and corresponding relations between line intensities and the oxygen abundance have been derived empirically using the available oxygen abundances determined via measurement of temperature-sensitive line ratios. In parallel a new R23 calibration has been derived on the base of recent data and compared to previous calibrations. For oxygen-rich HII regions the present R23 calibration is close to that of Edmunds and Pagel (1984): their calibration has the same slope but is shifted towards higher oxygen abundances by around 0.07 dex as compared to the present calibration.

  6. Line Broadening of EUV lines Across the Solar limb: A Spicule Contribution?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to the dissipation of wave energy. However, O'Shea et al. (2005) has shown that the line widths start to show, Greece 3 School of Earth and Space Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui

  7. Line-of-sight deposition method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patten, J.W.; McClanahan, E.D.; Bayne, M.A.

    1980-04-16

    A line-of-sight method of depositing a film having substantially 100% of theoretical density on a substrate. A pressure vessel contains a target source having a surface thereof capable of emitting particles therefrom and a substrate with the source surface and the substrate surface positioned such that the source surface is substantially parallel to the direction of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface, the distance between the most remote portion of the substrate surface receiving the particles and the source surface emitting the particles in a direction parallel to the substrate surface being relatively small. The pressure in the vessel is maintained less than about 5 microns to prevent scattering and permit line-of-sight deposition. By this method the angles of incidence of the particles impinging upon the substrate surface are in the range of from about 45/sup 0/ to 90/sup 0/ even when the target surface area is greatly expanded to increase the deposition rate.

  8. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, Marcus B. (Kingston, TN); Thompson, Cyril V. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds.

  9. In-line real time air monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wise, M.B.; Thompson, C.V.

    1998-07-14

    An in-line gas monitor capable of accurate gas composition analysis in a continuous real time manner even under strong applied vacuum conditions operates by mixing an air sample with helium forming a sample gas in two complementary sample loops embedded in a manifold which includes two pairs of 3-way solenoid valves. The sample gas is then analyzed in an ion trap mass spectrometer on a continuous basis. Two valve drivers actuate the two pairs of 3-way valves in a reciprocating fashion, so that there is always flow through the in-line gas monitor via one or the other of the sample loops. The duty cycle for the two pairs of 3-way valves is varied by tuning the two valve drivers to a duty cycle typically between 0.2 to 0.7 seconds. 3 figs.

  10. Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Figotin; Guillermo Reyes

    2013-09-04

    We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube (TWT) due to J.R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides for: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

  11. Boron-10 Lined Proportional Counter Model Validation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lintereur, Azaree T.; Siciliano, Edward R.; Kouzes, Richard T.

    2012-06-30

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards (NA-241) is supporting the project “Coincidence Counting With Boron-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology” at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the development of an alternative neutron coincidence counter. The goal of this project is to design, build and demonstrate a boron-lined proportional tube-based alternative system in the configuration of a coincidence counter. This report discusses the validation studies performed to establish the degree of accuracy of the computer modeling methods current used to simulate the response of boron-lined tubes. This is the precursor to developing models for the uranium neutron coincidence collar under Task 2 of this project.

  12. Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

    2014-07-23

    Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

  13. Heavy rains hamper Louisiana gas line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horner, C.

    1983-06-01

    Despite heavy rains and flooding a 36-mile gas pipeline loop for Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp. was completed from north of Starks (at the end of Transco's south Louisiana lateral) to the Lake Charles area. Somastic-coated, 42-in. grade X-60 pipe comprises 90% of the route. The contract included multiple 30-42 in. fabrications, installation of six 42-in. gate valves, and expansion of the Gillis compressor station.

  14. Gas lines chasing huge northeastern market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watts, J.

    1982-03-01

    Gas for the Northeastern US market is the driving force behind three proposed projects to bring Canadian gas to the New England-New York area: the 360-mile New England States pipeline (Algonquin Gas Transmission Co., Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp., Texas Eastern Transmission Corp., and Nova, an Alberta Corp.); the 261-mile Boundary Gas project (with Boundary Gas Inc., a consortium of 14 gas utilities with Tennessee Gas Pipeline Co. providing transportation); and the 158-mile Niagara pipeline (Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line Corp.). Although none has yet received government (US and Canadian) approval, at least one project - the New England States line - is expected to be operational by 1984, bringing 305 million CF of natural gas daily for US residential and industrial markets. Both countries stand to benefit from the three projects. For Canada, the sale of gas to New England provides a steady market for massive quantities of gas makes building a pipeline from gas-rich Alberta (that will also serve eastern Canada) economically feasible, and ensures the existence of a transportation network in the Maritime provinces for use when production begins off Newfoundland and Nova Scotia. For the US, the gas from Canada will help reduce the nation's dependence on foreign oil and provide additional supplies during the peakload winter season.

  15. Quantum master equation with balanced gain and loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dennis Dast; Daniel Haag; Holger Cartarius; Günter Wunner

    2014-11-20

    We present a quantum master equation describing a Bose-Einstein condensate with particle loss on one lattice site and particle gain on the other lattice site whose mean-field limit is a non-Hermitian PT-symmetric Gross-Pitaevskii equation. It is shown that the characteristic properties of PT-symmetric systems, such as the existence of stationary states and the phase shift of pulses between two lattice sites, are also found in the many-particle system. Visualizing the dynamics on a Bloch sphere allows us to compare the complete dynamics of the master equation with that of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find that even for a relatively small number of particles the dynamics are in excellent agreement and the master equation with balanced gain and loss is indeed an appropriate many-particle description of a PT-symmetric Bose-Einstein condensate.

  16. Numerical simulation of electron energy loss near inhomogeneous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    The nonrelativistic energy loss suffered by fast electrons passing near dielectric interfaces of arbitrary shape is calculated by solving Poisson{close_quote}s equation using the boundary-charge method. The potential induced by a moving electron is expressed in terms of surface-charge distributions placed at the interfaces. These surface charges, obtained by self-consistently solving the resulting integral equation, act back on the electron producing a retarding force and hence energy loss. The dielectrics are described by frequency-dependent dielectric functions. Two particular cases are discussed in further detail: interfaces invariant under translation along one particular direction and axially symmetric interfaces. Previous results for simple geometries, such as planes, spheres, and cylinders, based upon analytical solutions, are fully reproduced within this approach. Calculations are presented for electrons moving near wedges, coupled parallel cylinders, coupled spheres, and toroidal surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. Theoretical analysis of sound transmission loss through graphene sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natsuki, Toshiaki; Ni, Qing-Qing

    2014-11-17

    We examine the potential of using graphene sheets (GSs) as sound insulating materials that can be used for nano-devices because of their small size, super electronic, and mechanical properties. In this study, a theoretical analysis is proposed to predict the sound transmission loss through multi-layered GSs, which are formed by stacks of GS and bound together by van der Waals (vdW) forces between individual layers. The result shows that the resonant frequencies of the sound transmission loss occur in the multi-layered GSs and the values are very high. Based on the present analytical solution, we predict the acoustic insulation property for various layers of sheets under both normal incident wave and acoustic field of random incidence source. The scheme could be useful in vibration absorption application of nano devices and materials.

  18. PWR loss of feedwater ATWS: analysis and sensitivity study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shier, W.G.; Lu, M.S.; Levine, M.M.; Diamond, D.J.

    1983-01-01

    The incident at the Salem Nuclear plant has presented a renewed interest in the analysis of the consequences of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). This paper presents the results of an analysis of a complete loss of feedwater ATWS for a typical 4-loop PWR. The loss of feedwater transient was selected since previous analyses have shown that this transient produces one of the more limiting overpressure conditions in the primary system. These results provide a detailed analysis of this transient using current analytical techniques and show the sensitivity to several important parameters and plant modeling techniques. The RELAP5/MOD1 computer code has been used for this analysis. The code version is designated as Cycle 13 with additional modifications provided by both INEL and BNL.

  19. Universal Relation for the Inelastic Two-Body Loss Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eric Braaten; H. -W. Hammer

    2014-01-08

    Strongly-interacting systems consisting of particles that interact through a large scattering length satisfy universal relations that relate many of their central properties to the contact, which measures the number of pairs with small separations. We use the operator product expansion of quantum field theory to derive the universal relation for the inelastic 2-body loss rate. A simple universal relation between the loss rate and the contact is obtained by truncating the expansion after the lowest dimension operator. We verify the universal relation explicitly by direct calculations in the low-density limit at nonzero temperature. This universal relation can be tested experimentally using ultracold quantum gases of atoms in hyperfine states that have an inelastic spin-relaxation channel.

  20. Low-loss binder for hot pressing boron nitride

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maya, Leon (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1991-01-01

    Borazine derivatives used as low-loss binders and precursors for making ceramic boron nitride structures. The derivative forms the same composition as the boron nitride starting material, thereby filling the voids with the same boron nitride material upon forming and hot pressing. The derivatives have a further advantage of being low in carbon thus resulting in less volatile byproduct that can result in bubble formation during pressing.

  1. Losses of Vitamin A and Carotene from Feeds During Storage. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach); Kemmerer, A. R. (Arthur Russell)

    1937-01-01

    . CONNER, 1)IRECTOR COLLEGE STATION, BRAZOS COUNTY, TEXAS BULLETIN NO. 557 OCTOBER, 1937 DIVISION OF CHEMISTRY Losses of Vitamin A and Carotene From Feeds During Storage LIBRARY Agricultural & Mechanical ,l~l!egge of Texas AGRICULTURAL... liver oils, fish liver oil concentrates or solutions of carotene in oil, or yellow corn or alfalfa leaf meal of high potency. Since vitamin A and carotene are both unstable, it is important to know whether these substances would remain in commercial...

  2. Evolution Effects on Parton Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan cheng; Enke Wang

    2010-04-30

    The initial conditions in the chemical non-equilibrated medium and Bjorken expanding medium at RHIC are determined. With a set of rate equations describing the chemical equilibration of quarks and gluons based on perturbative QCD, we investigate the consequence for parton evolution at RHIC. With considering parton evolution, it is shown that the Debye screening mass and the inverse mean free-path of gluons reduce with increasing proper time in the QGP medium. The parton evolution affects the parton energy loss with detailed balance, both parton energy loss from stimulated emission in the chemical non-equilibrated expanding medium and in Bjorken expanding medium are linear dependent on the propagating distance rather than square dependent in the static medium. The energy absorption can not be neglected at intermediate jet energies and small propagating distance of the energetic parton in contrast with that it is important only at intermediate jet energy in the static medium. This will increase the energy and propagating distance dependence of the parton energy loss and will affect the shape of suppression of moderately high P_T hadron spectra.

  3. Flow Effects on Jet Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luan Cheng; Jia Liu; Enke Wang

    2014-06-03

    In the presence of collective flow a new model potential describing the interaction of the hard jet with scattering centers is derived based on the static color-screened Yukawa potential. The flow effect on jet quenching with detailed balance is investigated in pQCD. It turns out, considering the collective flow with velocity $v_z$ along the jet direction, the collective flow decreases the LPM destructive interference comparing to that in the static medium. The gluon absorption plays a more important role in the moving medium. The collective flow increases the energy gain from gluon absorption, however, decreases the energy loss from gluon radiation, which is $(1 - v_z )$ times as that in the static medium to the first order of opacity. In the presence of collective flow, the second order in opacity correction is relatively small compared to the first order. So that the total effective energy loss is decreased. The flow dependence of the energy loss will affect the suppression of high $p_T$ hadron spectrum and anisotropy parameter $v_2$ in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  4. Effect of Loss on Multiplexed Single-Photon Sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Damien Bonneau; Gabriel J. Mendoza; Jeremy L. O'Brien; Mark G. Thompson

    2015-04-29

    An on-demand single-photon source is a key requirement for scaling many optical quantum technologies. A promising approach to realize an on-demand single-photon source is to multiplex an array of heralded single-photon sources using an active optical switching network. However, the performance of multiplexed sources is degraded by photon loss in the optical components and the non-unit detection efficiency of the heralding detectors. We provide a theoretical description of a general multiplexed single-photon source with lossy components and derive expressions for the output probabilities of single-photon emission and multi-photon contamination. We apply these expressions to three specific multiplexing source architectures and consider their tradeoffs in design and performance. To assess the effect of lossy components on near- and long-term experimental goals, we simulate the multiplexed sources when used for many-photon state generation under various amounts of component loss. We find that with a multiplexed source composed of switches with ~0.2-0.4 dB loss and high efficiency number-resolving detectors, a single-photon source capable of efficiently producing 20-40 photon states with low multi-photon contamination is possible, offering the possibility of unlocking new classes of experiments and technologies.

  5. Loss of pressurizer water level during station blackout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griggs, D.P.; Riggs, B.K.

    1986-01-01

    Station blackout is the loss of all alternating current (ac) power to both the essential and nonessential electrical buses in a nuclear power plant. The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has proposed a requirement that all plants be capable of maintaining adequate core cooling during station blackout events lasting a specified duration. The NRC has also suggested acceptable specified durations of four or eight hours, depending on individual plant susceptibility to blackout events. In a pressurized water reactor (PWR), the occurrence of a station blackout event results in the functional loss of many plant components, including main feedwater, reactor coolant pumps, the emergency core cooling system, and pressurizer heaters and spray. Nevertheless, PWRs have the capability of removing decay heat for some period of time using steam-driven auxiliary feedwater pumps and the natural-circulation capability of the primary system. The purpose of this investigation is to determine the early response of a PWR to station blackout conditions. In particular, the effect of primary coolant shrinkage and inventory loss on pressurizer level is examined to gain insight into the operational and analytical issues associated with the proposed station blackout coping requirement.

  6. Optimization of the Low Loss SRF Cavity for the ILC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekutowicz, J.S.; /DESY; Kneisel, P.; /Jefferson Lab; Higo, T.; Morozumi, Y.; Saito, K.; /KEK, Tsukuba; Ge, L.; Ko, Yong-kyu; Lee, L.; Li, Z.; Ng, C.K.; Schussman, G.L.; Xiao, L.; /SLAC

    2008-01-18

    The Low-Loss shape cavity design has been proposed as a possible alternative to the baseline TESLA cavity design for the ILC main linacs. The advantages of this design over the TESLA cavity are its lower cryogenic loss, and higher achievable gradient due to lower surface fields. High gradient prototypes for such designs have been tested at KEK (ICHIRO) and TJNAF (LL). However, issues related to HOM damping and multipacting still need to be addressed. Preliminary numerical studies of the prototype cavities have shown unacceptable damping factors for some higher-order dipole modes if the typical TESLA HOM couplers are directly adapted to the design. The resulting wakefield will dilute the beam emittance thus reducing the machine luminosity. Furthermore, high gradient tests on a 9-cell prototype at KEK have experienced multipacting barriers although a single LL cell had achieved a high gradient. From simulations, multipacting activities are found to occur in the end-groups of the cavity. In this paper, we will present the optimization results of the end-groups for the Low-Loss designs for effective HOM damping and alleviation of multipacting.

  7. Episodic Mass Loss and Pre-SN Circumstellar Envelopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2008-02-13

    I discuss observational clues concerning episodic mass-loss properties of massive stars in the time before the final supernova explosion. In particular, I will focus on the mounting evidence that LBVs and related stars are candidates for supernova progenitors, even though current paradigms place them at the end of core-H burning. Namely, conditions in the immediate circumstellar environment within a few 10$^2$ AU of Type IIn supernovae require very high progenitor mass-loss rates. Those rates are so high that the only known stars that come close are LBVs during rare giant eruptions. I will highlight evidence from observations of some recent extraordinary supernovae suggesting that explosive or episodic mass loss (a.k.a. LBV eruptions like the 19th century eruption of Eta Car) occur in the 5-10 years immediately preceding the SN. Finally, I will discuss some implications for stellar evolution from these SNe, the most important of which is the observational fact that the most massive stars can indeed make it to the ends of their lives with substantial H envelopes intact, even at Solar metallicity.

  8. Radiative Energy Loss in Small and Large Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolbe, Isobel

    2015-01-01

    We use perturbative quantum chromodynamics to compute the corrections to the energy loss of a hard particle due to short separation distances between the creation of the particle and the in-medium scattering center that stimulates bremsstrahlung radiation. The result has several surprising features. The correction 1) does not go to zero for large path lengths; 2) breaks color triviality; 3) is formally zero in the large formation time approximation, but numerically dominates at large ~100 GeV parent parton energies out to long ~3 fm paths. Although motivated by the recent shocking evidence of collectivity in small systems, 1) and 3) mean our result has critically important implications for \\emph{all} energy loss model comparisons to data. In particular, 3) shows that a large fraction of the gluons radiated do not have a formation time that is large compared to the Debye screening length of the medium, violating a core approximation used in the derivations of all pQCD-based radiative energy loss formulae.

  9. Emission Lines from the Gas Disk around TW Hydra and the Origin of the Inner Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorti, Uma; Najita, Joan; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2011-01-01

    We compare line emission calculated from theoretical disk models with optical to sub-millimeter wavelength observational data of the gas disk surrounding TW Hya and infer the spatial distribution of mass in the gas disk. The model disk that best matches observations has a gas mass ranging from $\\sim10^{-4}-10^{-5}$\\ms\\ for $0.06{\\rm AU} 13.6$eV) flux from TW Hya. H$_2$ pure rotational line emission comes primarily from $r\\sim 1-30$AU. [OI]63$\\mu$m, HCO$^+$ and CO pure rotational lines all arise from the outer disk at $r\\sim30-120$AU. We discuss planet formation and photoevaporation as causes for the decrease in surface density of gas and dust inside 4 AU. If a planet is present, our results suggest a planet mass $\\sim 4-7$M$_J$ situated at $\\sim 3$AU. Using our photoevaporation models and the best surface density profile match to observations, we estimate a current photoevaporative mass loss rate of $4\\times10^{-9}$\\ms\\ yr$^{-1}$ and a remaining disk lifetime of $\\sim 5$ million years.

  10. A thermal coherent state defined with the Lie-Trotter product formula

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiroo Azuma; Masashi Ban

    2015-07-11

    In this paper, we investigate a thermal coherent state defined with the Lie-Trotter product formula under the formalism of the thermo field dynamics. In the definition of our thermal coherent state, we treat the thermalizing operator and the displacement operator symmetrically. We examine its uncertainty relation and quasiprobability distributions. Although this thermal coherent state is equivalent to the conventional ones except for different parameterizations and a phase factor, it is convenient for describing an experimental setup of the optical parametric oscillator laser.

  11. Nigeria steps up action to define and increase its oil reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Page, N.

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that within the past 18 months, the Nigerian Ministry of Petroleum Resources has moved aggressively to increase investment in known producing areas and stimulate exploration in frontier regions in order to define and expand the country's reserve base for the start of the 21st century. At industry seminars held in November and December 1991 in Houston, London, and Lagos, the Ministry in association with TGSI-Mabon Geophysical Co. reviewed the Nigerian political and economic climate, recent industry development and leasing activity, deep-water geology and exploration potential, and the probable areas' terms and conditions for a new bidding round to be announced in early 1992.

  12. Software-defined Radio Based Wireless Tomography: Experimental Demonstration and Verification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonior, Jason D [ORNL; Hu, Zhen [Tennessee Technological University; Guo, Terry N. [Tennessee Technological University; Qiu, Robert C. [Tennessee Technological University; Browning, James P. [United States Air Force Research Laboratory, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base; Wicks, Michael C. [University of Dayton Research Institute

    2015-01-01

    This letter presents an experimental demonstration of software-defined-radio-based wireless tomography using computer-hosted radio devices called Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP). This experimental brief follows our vision and previous theoretical study of wireless tomography that combines wireless communication and RF tomography to provide a novel approach to remote sensing. Automatic data acquisition is performed inside an RF anechoic chamber. Semidefinite relaxation is used for phase retrieval, and the Born iterative method is utilized for imaging the target. Experimental results are presented, validating our vision of wireless tomography.

  13. Aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) testing of electrical connections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, C.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This report presents the results of an experimental program to determine the aging and loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) behavior of electrical connections in order to obtain an initial scoping of their performance. Ten types of connections commonly used in nuclear power plants were tested. These included 3 types of conduit seals, 2 types of cable-to-device connectors, 3 types of cable-to-cable connectors, and 2 types of in-line splices. The connections were aged for 6 months under simultaneous thermal (99 C) and radiation (46 Gy/hr) conditions. A simulated LOCA consisting of sequential high dose-rate irradiation (3 kGy/hr) and high-temperature steam exposures followed the aging. Connection functionality was monitored using insulation resistance measurements during the aging and LOCA exposures. Because only 5 of the 10 connection types passed a post-LOCA, submerged dielectric withstand test, further detailed investigation of electrical connections and the effects of cable jacket integrity on the cable-connection system is warranted.

  14. Low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy: An atomic-resolution complement to optical spectroscopies and application to graphene

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kapetanakis, Myron; Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P.; Lee, Jaekwang; Prange, Micah P.; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo Tapia, Juan Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2015-09-25

    Photon-based spectroscopies have played a central role in exploring the electronic properties of crystalline solids and thin films. They are a powerful tool for probing the electronic properties of nanostructures, but they are limited by lack of spatial resolution. On the other hand, electron-based spectroscopies, e.g., electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), are now capable of subangstrom spatial resolution. Core-loss EELS, a spatially resolved analog of x-ray absorption, has been used extensively in the study of inhomogeneous complex systems. In this paper, we demonstrate that low-loss EELS in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope, which probes low-energy excitations, combined with amore »theoretical framework for simulating and analyzing the spectra, is a powerful tool to probe low-energy electron excitations with atomic-scale resolution. The theoretical component of the method combines density functional theory–based calculations of the excitations with dynamical scattering theory for the electron beam. We apply the method to monolayer graphene in order to demonstrate that atomic-scale contrast is inherent in low-loss EELS even in a perfectly periodic structure. The method is a complement to optical spectroscopy as it probes transitions entailing momentum transfer. The theoretical analysis identifies the spatial and orbital origins of excitations, holding the promise of ultimately becoming a powerful probe of the structure and electronic properties of individual point and extended defects in both crystals and inhomogeneous complex nanostructures. The method can be extended to probe magnetic and vibrational properties with atomic resolution.« less

  15. A molecularly defined duplication set for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venken, Koen J. T.; Popodi, Ellen; Holtzman, Stacy L.; Schulze, Karen L.; Park, Soo; Carlson, Joseph W.; Hoskins, Roger A.; Bellen, Hugo J.; Kaufman, Thomas C.

    2010-07-22

    We describe a molecularly defined duplication kit for the X chromosome of Drosophila melanogaster. A set of 408 overlapping P[acman] BAC clones was used to create small duplications (average length 88 kb) covering the 22-Mb sequenced portion of the chromosome. The BAC clones were inserted into an attP docking site on chromosome 3L using C31 integrase, allowing direct comparison of different transgenes. The insertions complement 92% of the essential and viable mutations and deletions tested, demonstrating that almost all Drosophila genes are compact and that the current annotations of the genome are reasonably accurate. Moreover, almost all genes are tolerated at twice the normal dosage. Finally, we more precisely mapped two regions at which duplications cause diplo-lethality in males. This collection comprises the first molecularly defined duplication set to cover a whole chromosome in a multicellular organism. The work presented removes a long-standing barrier to genetic analysis of the Drosophila X chromosome, will greatly facilitate functional assays of X-linked genes in vivo, and provides a model for functional analyses of entire chromosomes in other species.

  16. Multilevel learning-based segmentation of ill-defined and spiculated masses in mammograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Yimo; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Makariou, Erini; Xuan, Jianhua

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: A learning-based approach integrating the use of pixel-level statistical modeling and spiculation detection is presented for the segmentation of mammographic masses with ill-defined margins and spiculations. Methods: The algorithm involves a multiphase pixel-level classification, using a comprehensive group of features computed from regional intensity, shape, and textures, to generate a mass-conditional probability map (PM). Then, the mass candidate, along with the background clutters consisting of breast fibroglandular and other nonmass tissues, is extracted from the PM by integrating the prior knowledge of shape and location of masses. A multiscale steerable ridge detection algorithm is employed to detect spiculations. Finally, all the object-level findings, including mass candidate, detected spiculations, and clutters, along with the PM, are integrated by graph cuts to generate the final segmentation mask. Results: The method was tested on 54 masses (51 malignant and 3 benign), all with ill-defined margins and irregular shape or spiculations. The ground truth delineations were provided by five experienced radiologists. Area overlapping ratio of 0.689 ({+-}0.160) and 0.540 ({+-}0.164) were obtained for segmenting entire mass and margin portion only, respectively. Williams index of area and contour based measurements indicated that the segmentation results of the algorithm agreed well with the radiologists' delineation. Conclusions: The proposed approach could closely delineate the mass body. Most importantly, it is capable of including mass margin and its spicule extensions which are considered as key features for breast lesion analyses.

  17. PUMPING UP THE [N I] NEBULAR LINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ferland, G. J.; Porter, R. L. [Department of Physics, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Henney, W. J. [Centro de Radioastronomia y Astrofisica, UNAM Campus Morelia, Apartado Postal 3-72, 58090 Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico); O'Dell, C. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Box 1807-B, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Van Hoof, P. A. M. [Royal Observatory of Belgium, Ringlaan 3, 1180 Brussels (Belgium); Williams, R. J. R. [AWE plc, Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-20

    The optical [N I] doublet near 5200 A is anomalously strong in a variety of emission-line objects. We compute a detailed photoionization model and use it to show that pumping by far-ultraviolet (FUV) stellar radiation previously posited as a general explanation applies to the Orion Nebula (M42) and its companion M43; but, it is unlikely to explain planetary nebulae and supernova remnants. Our models establish that the observed nearly constant equivalent width of [N I] with respect to the dust-scattered stellar continuum depends primarily on three factors: the FUV to visual-band flux ratio of the stellar population, the optical properties of the dust, and the line broadening where the pumping occurs. In contrast, the intensity ratio [N I]/H{beta} depends primarily on the FUV to extreme-ultraviolet ratio, which varies strongly with the spectral type of the exciting star. This is consistent with the observed difference of a factor of five between M42 and M43, which are excited by an O7 and B0.5 star, respectively. We derive a non-thermal broadening of order 5 km s{sup -1} for the [N I] pumping zone and show that the broadening mechanism must be different from the large-scale turbulent motions that have been suggested to explain the line widths in this H II region. A mechanism is required that operates at scales of a few astronomical units, which may be driven by thermal instabilities of neutral gas in the range 1000-3000 K. In an Appendix A, we describe how collisional and radiative processes are treated in the detailed model N I atom now included in the CLOUDY plasma code.

  18. On Line Power Plant Performance Monitoring 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Priestley, R. R.

    1990-01-01

    PERFORMANCE MONITORING DAVID J. AHNER Manager, Power PrOduction Engineering Power Technologies, Inc. Schenectady, NY ABSTRACT Maintaining efficient and reliable plant operation is a prime objective in the generation of power. These are important... stream_source_info ESL-IE-90-06-24.pdf.txt stream_content_type text/plain stream_size 30080 Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 stream_name ESL-IE-90-06-24.pdf.txt Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ON LINE POWER PLANT...

  19. CXD 4601, Line Yard Fence Project (4601)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N Goods POCTBT |CUD-55 /AllenLine

  20. Plains & Eastern Clean Line HVDC Scheme

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAandSummary Areas ofEnergy OnPeter B.EnergyInPilgrim6, 2015Line HVDC