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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Regulation of GHG emissions from transportation fuels: Emission quota versus emission intensity standard  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Derivation of average cost of emission reduction by blending?) and ? respectively. GHG emissions per unit of blend is, ?+ ?? i Reduction in GHG emissions with respect to unblended

Rajagopal, Deepak

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O'Sullivan, Francis

3

GHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to characterize carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) emissions from hydropower reservoirs in the US SoutheastGHG Emissions from Hydropower Reservoirs The role of hydropower reservoirs in contributing to greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is poorly understood, but recent studies have indicated that GHG emissions

4

Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

6/5/2013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions ­ Outlook June 4, 2013 Steven Simmons CO2 Emission Outlook for the Pacific NW (ID-MT- OR-WA) Key Factors that determine Emissions Levels 1 Demand & Conservation 50 60 70 2 1. Demand

5

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic Deforestation AgencyCompany Organization: World Bank Sector: Land Focus Area: Forestry Topics: Co-benefits...

6

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigerati...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol...

7

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Purchased Electricity Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased Electricity AgencyCompany...

8

Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 - 2010 Report Highlights John Nyboer and Maximilian Kniewasser Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser for Climate Solutions 1 HIGHLIGHTS The Energy and GHG Emissions in British

Pedersen, Tom

9

The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Transportation Pathways in China://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;The Future Energy and GHG Emissions Impact of Alternative Personal Paul N. Kishimoto, Sergey Paltsev and Valerie J. Karplus Report No. 231 September 2012 China Energy

10

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O'Sullivan and Sergey Paltsev, and environmental effects. In turn, the greenhouse gas and atmospheric aerosol assumptions underlying climate://globalchange.mit.edu/ Printed on recycled paper #12;1 Shale Gas Production: Potential versus Actual GHG Emissions Francis O

11

GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdf Flash2006-53.pdf0.pdfCost Savings |Safety,ofOpening Presentation_Tech BarriersGHG

12

Sandia National Laboratories: GHG emission reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 -theErik Spoerke SSLS Exhibit at Explora MuseumFloatingFront EdgeCellsGENI ARPAe:GHG

13

GHG emission factors developed for the recycling and composting of municipal waste in South African municipalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • GHG emission factors for local recycling of municipal waste are presented. • GHG emission factors for two composting technologies for garden waste are included. • Local GHG emission factors were compared to international ones and discussed. • Uncertainties and limitations are presented and areas for new research highlighted. - Abstract: GHG (greenhouse gas) emission factors for waste management are increasingly used, but such factors are very scarce for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the recycling of glass, metals (Al and Fe), plastics and paper from municipal solid waste, as well as for the composting of garden refuse in South Africa. The emission factors developed for the different recyclables in the country show savings varying from ?290 kg CO{sub 2} e (glass) to ?19 111 kg CO{sub 2} e (metals – Al) per tonne of recyclable. They also show that there is variability, with energy intensive materials like metals having higher GHG savings in South Africa as compared to other countries. This underlines the interrelation of the waste management system of a country/region with other systems, in particular with energy generation, which in South Africa, is heavily reliant on coal. This study also shows that composting of garden waste is a net GHG emitter, releasing 172 and 186 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet garden waste for aerated dome composting and turned windrow composting, respectively. The paper concludes that these emission factors are facilitating GHG emissions modelling for waste management in South Africa and enabling local municipalities to identify best practice in this regard.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za; Trois, Cristina

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

Regional GHG Emissions Stat s Greenhouse Gas and the Regional  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(milliontonsCO2) Petroleum + Pet Coke Natural Gas Coal 8 0.0 10.0 20.0 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 and ½ Valmy coal plants) 2 #12;6/5/2013 2 GHG Emissions by Economic Sector in the Pacific Northwest (2010 Renewables 7 6%In 2011, the region 0.2% 6.4% Coal, 15.7% Nuclear, 2.0% 7.6%, g generated ~27,000 MWa ­ 68

15

Selected GHG Emission Supply Curves | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar PowerstoriesNrelPartnerTypePonsa, Mallorca: EnergySecondary EnergyGHG Emission

16

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940- related CO2 emissions have risen 130-fold since 1850--from 200 million tons to 27 billion tons a year

Green, Donna

17

E-Print Network 3.0 - avoid ghg emissions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

greenhouse gas balances of cassava-based ethanol in Vietnam Loan T. Lea, Summary: . The Thailand case considered GHG emission credits assigned for the production process...

18

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

19

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life Cycle Analysis on Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions of Marcellus Shale Gas Supporting Information 1. GHG Emissions Estimation for Production of Marcellus Shale Gas 1.1 Preparation of Well Pad estimate from Columbia University shows the size of a multi-well pad of Marcellus Shale averages 20

Jaramillo, Paulina

20

Systematic Review and Harmonization of Life Cycle GHG Emission Estimates for Electricity Generation Technologies (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This powerpoint presentation to be presented at the World Renewable Energy Forum on May 14, 2012, in Denver, CO, discusses systematic review and harmonization of life cycle GHG emission estimates for electricity generation technologies.

Heath, G.

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This fact sheet summarizes actions in the areas of light-duty vehicle, non-light-duty vehicle, fuel, and transportation demand that show promise for deep reductions in energy use. Energy efficient transportation strategies have the potential to simultaneously reduce oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project examined how the combination of multiple strategies could achieve deep reductions in GHG emissions and petroleum use on the order of 80%. Led by NREL, in collaboration with Argonne National Laboratory, the project's primary goal was to help inform domestic decisions about transportation energy strategies, priorities, and investments, with an emphasis on underexplored opportunities. TEF findings reveal three strategies with the potential to displace most transportation-related petroleum use and GHG emissions: 1) Stabilizing energy use in the transportation sector through efficiency and demand-side approaches. 2) Using additional advanced biofuels. 3) Expanding electric drivetrain technologies.

Not Available

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Project Information Form Project Title Managing Roadway Systems to Reduce GHG Emissions and Improve  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or organization) $25,217 Total Project Cost $25,217 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and EndProject Information Form Project Title Managing Roadway Systems to Reduce GHG Emissions and Improve Dates 4/1/14 ­ 3/30/15 Brief Description of Research Project There have been a variety of traffic

California at Davis, University of

23

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions University UC@sppd.usc.edu Funding Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization) $75,000 Cal Trans Total Project Cost $75,000 Agency ID or Contract Number DTRT13-G-UTC29 Start and End Dates June 30, 2014 to August 14

California at Davis, University of

24

Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Source(s) and Amounts Provided (by each agency or organization) Caltrans $79,375 Total Project Cost $79Project Information Form Project Title Urban Spatial Structure and GHG Emissions University USC Brief Description of Research Project The evidence on land use and travel shows that employment access

California at Davis, University of

25

ASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES TOOL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.pradel@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY In 2007, 1 100 000 tons of sewage sludge were produced in France. This figure is constantly increasing and sludges have to be eliminated. Four disposal routes are currently possible: landASSESSING GHG EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE TREATMENT AND DISPOSAL ROUTES ­ THE METHOD BEHIND GESTABOUES

Boyer, Edmond

26

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for emissions from purchased electricity, stationary combustion, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References Retrieved from...

27

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

for emissions from purchased electricity, transport or mobile sources, refrigeration and air conditioning equipment, and several industrial sectors. References 1.0 1.1...

28

Energy and GHG Emissions in British Columbia 1990 -2010  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

supply and use, greenhouse gas emissions and energy efficiency in British Columbia Canadian Industrial Energy End-use Data and Analysis Centre (CIEEDAC) Simon Fraser University June 2012 Environment Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Aluminium Industry Association, Canadian Chemical Producers

Pedersen, Tom

29

Voluntary Agreements for Energy Efficiency or GHG EmissionsReduction in Industry: An Assessment of Programs Around the World  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Voluntary agreements for energy efficiency improvement and reduction of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a popular policy instrument for the industrial sector in industrialized countries since the 1990s. A number of these national-level voluntary agreement programs are now being modified and strengthened, while additional countries--including some recently industrialized and developing countries--are adopting these type of agreements in an effort to increase the energy efficiency of their industrial sectors.Voluntary agreement programs can be roughly divided into three broad categories: (1) programs that are completely voluntary, (2) programs that use the threat of future regulations or energy/GHG emissions taxes as a motivation for participation, and (3) programs that are implemented in conjunction with an existing energy/GHG emissions tax policy or with strict regulations. A variety of government-provided incentives as well as penalties are associated with these programs. This paper reviews 23 energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programs in 18 countries, including countries in Europe, the U.S., Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, South Korea, and Chinese Taipei (Taiwan) and discusses preliminary lessons learned regarding program design and effectiveness. The paper notes that such agreement programs, in which companies inventory and manage their energy use and GHG emissions to meet specific reduction targets, are an essential first step towards GHG emissions trading programs.

Price, Lynn

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating surface emissions. Until recently, dedicated research-grade instruments have been required  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GHG columns · Quantifying local to regional GHG enhancements for emissions inventory verificationAbstract Airborne greenhouse gas (GHG) measurements provide essential constraints for estimating with another Cessna 210 over Central California quantified enhancements in CO2 and CH4 from urban

31

Life Cycle GHG Emissions from Conventional Natural Gas Power Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research provides a systematic review and harmonization of the life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of electricity generated from conventionally produced natural gas. We focus on estimates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted in the life cycle of electricity generation from conventionally produced natural gas in combustion turbines (NGCT) and combined-cycle (NGCC) systems. A process we term "harmonization" was employed to align several common system performance parameters and assumptions to better allow for cross-study comparisons, with the goal of clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. This presentation summarizes preliminary results.

Heath, G.; O'Donoughue, P.; Whitaker, M.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Implications of Near-Term Coal Power Plant Retirement for SO2 and NOX and Life Cycle GHG Emissions emissions in the U.S. will likely result in coal plant retirement in the near-term. Life cycle assessment for electricity generation, by comparing systems that consist of individual natural gas and coal power plants

Jaramillo, Paulina

33

Congressional Request Limiting the Magnitude  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as goals? Target: limit U.S. GHG emissions (e.g., national emission budget, or percent reduction) What is a reasonable share of U.S. emission reductions relative to the global targets? What is the implied emissions on atmospheric GHG concentrations? Target: limit atmospheric GHG concentrations (e.g., 450, 550 ppm CO2,eq) How

34

GHG emission factors developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South African municipalities  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? An average GHG emission factor for the collection and transport of municipal solid waste in South Africa is calculated. ? A range of GHG emission factors for different types of landfills (including dumps) in South Africa are calculated. ? These factors are compared internationally and their implications for South Africa and developing countries are discussed . ? Areas for new research are highlighted. - Abstract: Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors are used with increased frequency for the accounting and reporting of GHG from waste management. However, these factors have been calculated for developed countries of the Northern Hemisphere and are lacking for developing countries. This paper shows how such factors have been developed for the collection, transport and landfilling of municipal waste in South Africa. As such it presents a model on how international results and methodology can be adapted and used to calculate country-specific GHG emission factors from waste. For the collection and transport of municipal waste in South Africa, the average diesel consumption is around 5 dm{sup 3} (litres) per tonne of wet waste and the associated GHG emissions are about 15 kg CO{sub 2} equivalents (CO{sub 2} e). Depending on the type of landfill, the GHG emissions from the landfilling of waste have been calculated to range from ?145 to 1016 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when taking into account carbon storage, and from 441 to 2532 kg CO{sub 2} e per tonne of wet waste, when carbon storage is left out. The highest emission factor per unit of wet waste is for landfill sites without landfill gas collection and these are the dominant waste disposal facilities in South Africa. However, cash strapped municipalities in Africa and the developing world will not be able to significantly upgrade these sites and reduce their GHG burdens if there is no equivalent replacement of the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) resulting from the Kyoto agreement. Other low cost avenues need to be investigated to suit local conditions, in particular landfill covers which enhance methane oxidation.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Engineering, Civil Engineering Programme, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

35

15th International Conference Ramiran, May 3-6, 2013, Versailles Accounting GHG emissions from sludge treatment and disposal routes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

% of sewage sludge is directly land spreading or composted before land spreading. Sludge application sludge treatment and disposal routes ­ methodological problems focused on sludge land spreading this tool can be used to quantify GHG emissions of sludge land spreading of a 380 000 per captia equivalent

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

36

Comparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life-Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from Coal and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coal and Natural Gas Figure S1 shows a graphical description of the life cycle of coal-to-liquids (CTL) and gas-to-liquids (GTL). Figure S1: Life Cycle of Coal-Based and Natural Gas-Based Fischer-Tropsch LiquidComparative Analysis of the Production Costs and Life- Cycle GHG Emissions of FT-Liquid Fuels from

Jaramillo, Paulina

37

GHG Considerations in Integrated  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Power System Symposium © 2012 Portland General Electric. All rights reserved. June 4, 2013 GHG federal, economy-wide legislation by 2020. o Prior to 2020, assumes CO2 emissions abatement due to effects CO2 compliance 3 y p cost and coal and gas commodity prices. o Based on middle ground federal

38

Comparative analysis of the production costs and life-cycle GHG emissions of FT liquid fuels from coal and natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid transportation fuels derived from coal and natural gas could help the United States reduce its dependence on petroleum. The fuels could be produced domestically or imported from fossil fuel-rich countries. The goal of this paper is to determine the life-cycle GHG emissions of coal- and natural gas-based Fischer-Tropsch (FT) liquids, as well as to compare production costs. The results show that the use of coal- or natural gas-based FT liquids will likely lead to significant increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions compared to petroleum-based fuels. In a best-case scenario, coal- or natural gas-based FT-liquids have emissions only comparable to petroleum-based fuels. In addition, the economic advantages of gas-to-liquid (GTL) fuels are not obvious: there is a narrow range of petroleum and natural gas prices at which GTL fuels would be competitive with petroleum-based fuels. CTL fuels are generally cheaper than petroleum-based fuels. However, recent reports suggest there is uncertainty about the availability of economically viable coal resources in the United States. If the U.S. has a goal of increasing its energy security, and at the same time significantly reducing its GHG emissions, neither CTL nor GTL consumption seem a reasonable path to follow. 28 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews [Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Civil and Environmental Engineering Department

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

GBTL Workshop GHG Emissions  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensional Subject: Guidance for natural gas as a feedstock for conversion

40

Proposed Final Opinion on GHG Strategies in the Energy Sectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Proposed Final Opinion on GHG Strategies in the Energy Sectors Key Findings and Recommendations;3 Background and Context Energy Commission and PUC developing recommendations to ARB for reducing GHG emissions multi-sector cap-and-trade program for GHG emissions allowances #12;5 September 2008 Interim Opinion

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO and life cycle GHG emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the choice of coal over natural gas. External incentives such as low natural gas prices compared to coalImplications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO 2 , NO X of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG

Jaramillo, Paulina

42

The Challenge of Limiting Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Activities implemented Jointly in Developing Countries: A Brazilian Perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper addresses, from the Brazilian perspective, the main problems with Joint Implementation/Activities Implemented Jointly (JI/AIJ) between industrialized (Annex I) and developing (non-Annex I) countries, as defined by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Four possible GHG emissions abatement measures are presented for Brazil: forest protection, reforestation projects for carbon sequestration or charcoal manufacturing, use of ethanol produced from sugar cane as a car fuel, and electrical energy conservation through an increase in end-use efficiencies. These four case studies form the basis of a discussion regarding the validity of developing countries' concerns about JI/AIJ. Recommendations are offered for overcoming the present shortcomings of JI/AIJ in developing countries. The primary conclusion is that Annex I countries' funding of JI/AIJ projects in developing countries in return for GHG emissions credits is not the best means to implement the UNFCCC. However, JI/AIJ projects can be a productive means of preventing global climate change if combined with other measures, including GHG emissions reduction targets for all countries involved in JI/AIJ projects and limits on the percentage of industrialized countries' emissions reductions that can be met through projects in developing countries.

La Rovere, E.L.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Operational energy consumption and GHG emissions in residential sector in urban China : an empirical study in Jinan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Driven by rapid urbanization and increasing household incomes, residential energy consumption in urban China has been growing steadily in the past decade, posing critical energy and greenhouse gas emission challenges. ...

Zhang, Jiyang, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) of Parabolic Trough CSP: Materials Inventory and Embodied GHG Emissions from Two-Tank Indirect and Thermocline Thermal Storage (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the United States, concentrating solar power (CSP) is one of the most promising renewable energy (RE) technologies for reduction of electric sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and for rapid capacity expansion. It is also one of the most price-competitive RE technologies, thanks in large measure to decades of field experience and consistent improvements in design. One of the key design features that makes CSP more attractive than many other RE technologies, like solar photovoltaics and wind, is the potential for including relatively low-cost and efficient thermal energy storage (TES), which can smooth the daily fluctuation of electricity production and extend its duration into the evening peak hours or longer. Because operational environmental burdens are typically small for RE technologies, life cycle assessment (LCA) is recognized as the most appropriate analytical approach for determining their environmental impacts of these technologies, including CSP. An LCA accounts for impacts from all stages in the development, operation, and decommissioning of a CSP plant, including such upstream stages as the extraction of raw materials used in system components, manufacturing of those components, and construction of the plant. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is undertaking an LCA of modern CSP plants, starting with those of parabolic trough design.

Heath, G.; Burkhardt, J.; Turchi, C.; Decker, T.; Kutscher, C.

2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

45

Fuel-cycle greenhouse gas emissions impacts of alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At an international conference on global warming, held in Kyoto, Japan, in December 1997, the United States committed to reduce its greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 7% over its 1990 level by the year 2012. To help achieve that goal, transportation GHG emissions need to be reduced. Using Argonne's fuel-cycle model, I estimated GHG emissions reduction potentials of various near- and long-term transportation technologies. The estimated per-mile GHG emissions results show that alternative transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies can help significantly reduce transportation GHG emissions. Of the near-term technologies evaluated in this study, electric vehicles; hybrid electric vehicles; compression-ignition, direct-injection vehicles; and E85 flexible fuel vehicles can reduce fuel-cycle GHG emissions by more than 25%, on the fuel-cycle basis. Electric vehicles powered by electricity generated primarily from nuclear and renewable sources can reduce GHG emissions by 80%. Other alternative fuels, such as compressed natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas, offer limited, but positive, GHG emission reduction benefits. Among the long-term technologies evaluated in this study, conventional spark ignition and compression ignition engines powered by alternative fuels and gasoline- and diesel-powered advanced vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by 10% to 30%. Ethanol dedicated vehicles, electric vehicles, hybrid electric vehicles, and fuel-cell vehicles can reduce GHG emissions by over 40%. Spark ignition engines and fuel-cell vehicles powered by cellulosic ethanol and solar hydrogen (for fuel-cell vehicles only) can reduce GHG emissions by over 80%. In conclusion, both near- and long-term alternative fuels and advanced transportation technologies can play a role in reducing the United States GHG emissions.

Wang, M. Q.

1998-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

46

GHG | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URIFrontier,Jump to:Wilmette, Jump to:SOURCEGHD IncGHG

47

Current Activities of the GHG Scientific Advisory Group Ed Dlugokencky  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Motivation High GWP gases Valuable in emissions trading Network of measurements likely to expand. This may be important as our observations are used to verify emission inventories under GHG emissions trading schemes. We also prepare documents that can be used by developing countries to assess

48

What GHG Concentration Targets are Reachable in this Century?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We offer simulations that help to understand the relationship between GHG emissions and concentrations, and the relative role of long-lived (e.g., CO2) and short-lived (e.g., CH4) emissions. We show that, absent technologies ...

Paltsev, Sergey

2013-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

49

Implications of changing natural gas prices in the United States electricity sector for SO2, NOX and life cycle GHG emissions: Supplementary Information  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/MJ = 59 kg CO2 e/MWh Combustion emissions at natural gas plant A in ERCOT: 500 kg CO2 e/MWh Annual = 59 kg CO2 e/MWh / 40% = 148 kg CO2 e/MWh Combustion emissions per MWh = 500 kg CO2 e/MWh Life cycle-level combustion emissions at fossil fuel plants in ERCOT, MISO and PJM. The red lines represent median values

Jaramillo, Paulina

50

TECHNICAL REPORTS The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECHNICAL REPORTS 1396 The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH4 avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste

Brown, Sally

51

LowCostGHG ReductionCARB 3/03 Low-Cost and Near-Term Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

manufacturers to focus on high fuel-economy cars. And Toyota Prius and Honda Civic Hybrid are wonderful, or oil resources. Nor would the anticipated 40 mpg Ford Escape hybrid in the "small SUV" class Cycle (UDC) for representative cars and light trucks.1 The horizontal axis shows measured emissions

Edwards, Paul N.

52

Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand The UK's climate goals are ambitious and challenging. Achieving an 80% reduction in GHG emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Centre on Innovation and Energy Demand The UK's climate goals are ambitious and challenging demand. While many low-energy innovations represent relatively incremental changes to existing on energy demand and carbon emissions; and to provide practical recommendations for UK energy and climate

Jensen, Max

53

Summary of Fast Pyrolysis and Upgrading GHG Analyses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 established new renewable fuel categories and eligibility requirements (EPA 2010). A significant aspect of the National Renewable Fuel Standard 2 (RFS2) program is the requirement that the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of a qualifying renewable fuel be less than the life cycle GHG emissions of the 2005 baseline average gasoline or diesel fuel that it replaces. Four levels of reduction are required for the four renewable fuel standards. Table 1 lists these life cycle performance improvement thresholds. Table 1. Life Cycle GHG Thresholds Specified in EISA Fuel Type Percent Reduction from 2005 Baseline Renewable fuel 20% Advanced biofuel 50% Biomass-based diesel 50% Cellulosic biofuel 60% Notably, there is a specialized subset of advanced biofuels that are the cellulosic biofuels. The cellulosic biofuels are incentivized by the Cellulosic Biofuel Producer Tax Credit (26 USC 40) to stimulate market adoption of these fuels. EISA defines a cellulosic biofuel as follows (42 USC 7545(o)(1)(E)): The term “cellulosic biofuel” means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. As indicated, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has sole responsibility for conducting the life cycle analysis (LCA) and making the final determination of whether a given fuel qualifies under these biofuel definitions. However, there appears to be a need within the LCA community to discuss and eventually reach consensus on discerning a 50–59 % GHG reduction from a ? 60% GHG reduction for policy, market, and technology development. The level of specificity and agreement will require additional development of capabilities and time for the sustainability and analysis community, as illustrated by the rich dialogue and convergence around the energy content and GHG reduction of cellulosic ethanol (an example of these discussions can be found in Wang 2011). GHG analyses of fast pyrolysis technology routes are being developed and will require significant work to reach the levels of development and maturity of cellulosic ethanol models. This summary provides some of the first fast pyrolysis analyses and clarifies some of the reasons for differing results in an effort to begin the convergence on assumptions, discussion of quality of models, and harmonization.

Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Male, Jonathan L.

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

54

Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator Worksheet, Version 1  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Xcel document describes Version 1 of the the Buildings GHG Mitigation Estimator tool. This tool assists federal agencies in estimating the greenhouse gas mitigation reduction from implementing energy efficiency measures across a portfolio of buildings. It is designed to be applied to groups of office buildings, for example, at a program level (regional or site) that can be summarized at the agency level. While the default savings and cost estimates apply to office buildings, users can define their own efficiency measures, costs, and savings estimates for inclusion in the portfolio assessment. More information on user-defined measures can be found in Step 2 of the buildings emission reduction guidance. The output of this tool is a prioritized set of activities that can help the agency to achieve its greenhouse gas reduction targets most cost-effectively.

55

IGES GHG Emissions Data | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power BasicsGermany:Information IDS Climate Change andSmart Grids

56

The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission levels: Results from a case study in Portland,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The impacts of congestion on time-definitive urban freight distribution networks CO2 emission Accepted 29 November 2010 Keywords: Vehicle routing Time-dependent travel time speed GHG or CO2 emissions pressures to limit the impacts associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge

Bertini, Robert L.

57

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools (Redirected from US EPA GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools) Jump to:...

58

Shale gas production: potential versus actual greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimates of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from shale gas production and use are controversial. Here we assess the level of GHG emissions from shale gas well hydraulic fracturing operations in the United States during ...

O’Sullivan, Francis Martin

59

12 Absolute versus Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as a component of cli- mate policy in the UK Emissions Trading Scheme (UK DEFRA 2001),2 and in 2001 the Bush

60

Achieving California’s Land Use and Transportation Greenhouse Gas Emission Targets Under AB 32: An Exploration of Potential Policy Processes and Mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

policy at the US state level to decrease GHG emissions?ABU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national levelU.S. has failed to adopt GHG reduction policies at the national level

Shaheen, Susan A.; Bejamin-Chung, Jade; Allen, Denise; Howe-Steiger, Linda

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Performance and Emissions of a Second Generation Biofuel -DME  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and end use GHG emissions. KEY: DME dimethyl ether; MeOH methanol; CNG compressed natural gas; RME

Minnesota, University of

62

Absolute vs. Intensity Limits for CO2 Emission Control: Performance Under Uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We elucidate the differences between absolute and intensity-based limits of CO2 emission when there is uncertainty about the future. We demonstrate that the two limits are identical under certainty, and rigorously establish ...

Sue Wing, Ian.

63

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

CO? emissions limits: economic adjustments and the distribution of burdens  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Policies under consideration within the Climate Convention would impose CO? controls on only a subset of nations. A model of economic growth and emissions, coupled to an analysis of the climate system, is used to explore ...

Jacoby, Henry D.; Eckaus, Richard S.; Ellerman, A. Denny.; Prinn, Ronald G.; Reiner, David M.; Yang, Zili.

65

Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.] [eds.

1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Tradeoffs between Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Design of Urban Transit Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost of GHG emissions reductions to facilitate comparison with other approaches, such as vehicle replacement or enginecost of GHG emissions reductions to facilitate comparison with other approaches, such as vehicle replacement or engine

Griswold, Julia Baird

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Current limiters based on silicon pillar un-gated FET for field emission application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This research investigates the use of vertical silicon ungated field effect transistors (FETs) as current limiters to individuallycontrol emission current in a field emitter and provide a simple solution to three problems ...

Niu, Ying, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Beating the spin-down limit on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present direct upper limits on gravitational wave emission from the Crab pulsar using data from the first nine months of the fifth science run of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO). These limits are based on two searches. In the first we assume that the gravitational wave emission follows the observed radio timing, giving an upper limit on gravitational wave emission that beats indirect limits inferred from the spin-down and braking index of the pulsar and the energetics of the nebula. In the second we allow for a small mismatch between the gravitational and radio signal frequencies and interpret our results in the context of two possible gravitational wave emission mechanisms.

The LIGO Scientific Collaboration; B. Abbott; R. Abbott; R. Adhikari; P. Ajith; B. Allen; G. Allen; R. Amin; S. B. Anderson; W. G. Anderson; M. A. Arain; M. Araya; H. Armandula; P. Armor; Y. Aso; S. Aston; P. Aufmuth; C. Aulbert; S. Babak; S. Ballmer; H. Bantilan; B. C. Barish; C. Barker; D. Barker; B. Barr; P. Barriga; M. A. Barton; M. Bastarrika; K. Bayer; J. Betzwieser; P. T. Beyersdorf; I. A. Bilenko; G. Billingsley; R. Biswas; E. Black; K. Blackburn; L. Blackburn; D. Blair; B. Bland; T. P. Bodiya; L. Bogue; R. Bork; V. Boschi; S. Bose; P. R. Brady; V. B. Braginsky; J. E. Brau; M. Brinkmann; A. Brooks; D. A. Brown; G. Brunet; A. Bullington; A. Buonanno; O. Burmeister; R. L. Byer; L. Cadonati; G. Cagnoli; J. B. Camp; J. Cannizzo; K. Cannon; J. Cao; L. Cardenas; T. Casebolt; G. Castaldi; C. Cepeda; E. Chalkley; P. Charlton; S. Chatterji; S. Chelkowski; Y. Chen; N. Christensen; D. Clark; J. Clark; T. Cokelaer; R. Conte; D. Cook; T. Corbitt; D. Coyne; J. D. E. Creighton; A. Cumming; L. Cunningham; R. M. Cutler; J. Dalrymple; K. Danzmann; G. Davies; D. DeBra; J. Degallaix; M. Degree; V. Dergachev; S. Desai; R. DeSalvo; S. Dhurandhar; M. Díaz; J. Dickson; A. Dietz; F. Donovan; K. L. Dooley; E. E. Doomes; R. W. P. Drever; I. Duke; J. -C. Dumas; R. J. Dupuis; J. G. Dwyer; C. Echols; A. Effler; P. Ehrens; E. Espinoza; T. Etzel; T. Evans; S. Fairhurst; Y. Fan; D. Fazi; H. Fehrmann; M. M. Fejer; L. S. Finn; K. Flasch; N. Fotopoulos; A. Freise; R. Frey; T. Fricke; P. Fritschel; V. V. Frolov; M. Fyffe; J. Garofoli; I. Gholami; J. A. Giaime; S. Giampanis; K. D. Giardina; K. Goda; E. Goetz; L. Goggin; G. González; S. Gossler; R. Gouaty; A. Grant; S. Gras; C. Gray; M. Gray; R. J. S. Greenhalgh; A. M. Gretarsson; F. Grimaldi; R. Grosso; H. Grote; S. Grunewald; M. Guenther; E. K. Gustafson; R. Gustafson; B. Hage; J. M. Hallam; D. Hammer; C. Hanna; J. Hanson; J. Harms; G. Harry; E. Harstad; K. Hayama; T. Hayler; J. Heefner; I. S. Heng; M. Hennessy; A. Heptonstall; M. Hewitson; S. Hild; E. Hirose; D. Hoak; D. Hosken; J. Hough; S. H. Huttner; D. Ingram; M. Ito; A. Ivanov; B. Johnson; W. W. Johnson; D. I. Jones; G. Jones; R. Jones; L. Ju; P. Kalmus; V. Kalogera; S. Kamat; J. Kanner; D. Kasprzyk; E. Katsavounidis; K. Kawabe; S. Kawamura; F. Kawazoe; W. Kells; D. G. Keppel; F. Ya. Khalili; R. Khan; E. Khazanov; C. Kim; P. King; J. S. Kissel; S. Klimenko; K. Kokeyama; V. Kondrashov; R. K. Kopparapu; D. Kozak; I. Kozhevatov; B. Krishnan; P. Kwee; P. K. Lam; M. Landry; M. M. Lang; B. Lantz; A. Lazzarini; M. Lei; N. Leindecker; V. Leonhardt; I. Leonor; K. Libbrecht; H. Lin; P. Lindquist; N. A. Lockerbie; D. Lodhia; M. Lormand; P. Lu; M. Lubinski; A. Lucianetti; H. Lück; B. Machenschalk; M. MacInnis; M. Mageswaran; K. Mailand; V. Mandic; S. Márka; Z. Márka; A. Markosyan; J. Markowitz; E. Maros; I. Martin; R. M. Martin; J. N. Marx; K. Mason; F. Matichard; L. Matone; R. Matzner; N. Mavalvala; R. McCarthy; D. E. McClelland; S. C. McGuire; M. McHugh; G. McIntyre; G. McIvor; D. McKechan; K. McKenzie; T. Meier; A. Melissinos; G. Mendell; R. A. Mercer; S. Meshkov; C. J. Messenger; D. Meyers; J. Miller; J. Minelli; S. Mitra; V. P. Mitrofanov; G. Mitselmakher; R. Mittleman; O. Miyakawa; B. Moe; S. Mohanty; G. Moreno; K. Mossavi; C. MowLowry; G. Mueller; S. Mukherjee; H. Mukhopadhyay; H. Müller-Ebhardt; J. Munch; P. Murray; E. Myers; J. Myers; T. Nash; J. Nelson; G. Newton; A. Nishizawa; K. Numata; J. O'Dell; G. Ogin; B. O'Reilly; R. O'Shaughnessy; D. J. Ottaway; R. S. Ottens; H. Overmier; B. J. Owen; Y. Pan; C. Pankow; M. A. Papa; V. Parameshwaraiah; P. Patel; M. Pedraza; S. Penn; A. Perreca; T. Petrie; I. M. Pinto; M. Pitkin; H. J. Pletsch; M. V. Plissi; F. Postiglione; M. Principe; R. Prix; V. Quetschke; F. Raab; D. S. Rabeling; H. Radkins; N. Rainer; M. Rakhmanov; M. Ramsunder; H. Rehbein; S. Reid; D. H. Reitze; R. Riesen; K. Riles; B. Rivera; N. A. Robertson; C. Robinson; E. L. Robinson; S. Roddy; A. Rodriguez; A. M. Rogan; J. Rollins; J. D. Romano; J. Romie; R. Route; S. Rowan; A. Rüdiger; L. Ruet; P. Russell; K. Ryan; S. Sakata; M. Samidi; L. Sancho de la Jordana; V. Sandberg; V. Sannibale; S. Saraf; P. Sarin; B. S. Sathyaprakash; S. Sato; P. R. Saulson; R. Savage; P. Savov; S. W. Schediwy; R. Schilling; R. Schnabel; R. Schofield; B. F. Schutz; P. Schwinberg; S. M. Scott; A. C. Searle; B. Sears; F. Seifert; D. Sellers; A. S. Sengupta; P. Shawhan; D. H. Shoemaker; A. Sibley; X. Siemens; D. Sigg; S. Sinha; A. M. Sintes; B. J. J. Slagmolen; J. Slutsky; J. R. Smith; M. R. Smith; N. D. Smith; K. Somiya; B. Sorazu; L. C. Stein; A. Stochino; R. Stone; K. A. Strain; D. M. Strom; A. Stuver; T. Z. Summerscales; K. -X. Sun; M. Sung; P. J. Sutton; H. Takahashi; D. B. Tanner; R. Taylor; R. Taylor; J. Thacker; K. A. Thorne; K. S. Thorne; A. Thüring; K. V. Tokmakov; C. Torres; C. Torrie; G. Traylor; M. Trias; W. Tyler

2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

69

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aviation and Marine Transportation: Mitigation Potential and Policies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extending the EU Emissions Trading Scheme to Aviation.Air Transport Emissions Trading Scheme Workshop, UKaviation in its GHG emission trading system (i.e. , by

McCollum, David L; Gould, Gregory; Greene, David L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Limits on Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the Milagro  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limits on Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the Milagro Observatory Miguel F of Milagro allow it to detect very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray burst emission with much higher sensitivity gamma-ray burst satellites at keV to MeV energies. Even in the absence of a positive detection, VHE

California at Santa Cruz, University of

71

Urban Form Energy Use and Emissions in China: Preliminary Findings and Model Proof of Concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

urban areas US national-level data on transportation and land use Purpose Development of sector GHG emissions inventories

Aden, Nathaniel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The Impacts of Alternative Patterns of Urbanization on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Agricultural County  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

building emissions somewhat lower, and single- family detached homes producing 33% more GHG (as CO 2 equivalent) from energy

Wheeler, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan - 40 CFR 98  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Monitoring Plan is to meet the monitoring plan requirements of Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 98.3(g)(5). This GHG Monitoring Plan identifies procedures and methodologies used at the Idaho National Laboratory Site (INL Site) to collect data used for GHG emissions calculations and reporting requirements from stationary combustion and other regulated sources in accordance with 40 CFR 98, Subparts A and other applicable subparts. INL Site Contractors determined subpart applicability through the use of a checklist (Appendix A). Each facility/contractor reviews operations to determine which subparts are applicable and the results are compiled to determine which subparts are applicable to the INL Site. This plan is applicable to the 40 CFR 98-regulated activities managed by the INL Site contractors: Idaho National Laboratory (INL), Idaho Cleanup Project (ICP), Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP), and Naval Reactors Facilities (NRF).

Deborah L. Layton; Kimberly Frerichs

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Insights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sequestration MMt arising at an offset price giving $/tonne carbon equiv ·Many contributions ·DifferentInsights from Agricultural GHG Offset studies Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor of Agricultural Economics Texas A&M University Presented at EPRI Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration Alexandria VA

McCarl, Bruce A.

76

Discounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

arising at an offset price giving $/tonne carbon equiv ·Assumes offsets are perfect substitutes ·Different of Carbon Equivalents Biofuel Offsets Discount for Saturating Sinks No Sink Discounting #12;PortfolioDiscounts, Fungibility and Agricultural GHG Offset projects Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor

McCarl, Bruce A.

77

Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Greenhouse-gas emission targets for limiting global warming to 2 6C Malte Meinshausen1. Frame6,7 & Myles R. Allen7 More than 100 countries have adopted a global warming limit of 2 6C or below levels in 2050 are robust indicators of the probability that twenty-first century warming will not exceed

Imamoglu, Atac

78

Closing the Gap: Using the Clean Air Act to Control Lifecycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Energy Facilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

out that EPA used an emissions trading program to controlsuggested that an emissions trading system could qualify asTO MANAGE LIFECYCLE GHG emissions trading system would also

Hagan, Colin R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Evaluation of Efficiency Activities in the Industrial Sector Undertaken in Response to Greenhouse Gas Emission Reduction Targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DEFRA), 2005a. UK Emissions Trading Scheme. London: DEFRA.Energy/GHG Tax Emissions trading Target Setting Penaltiesthe European Union Emissions Trading Scheme and a lack of

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Augustin J et al. Automated gas chromatographic system forof the atmospheric trace gases methane, carbon dioxide, andfuel consumption and of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Recent increases in global HFC-23 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990-2007, Rep.A. Lindley (2007), Global emissions of HFC-23 estimated to2009), Greenhouse Gas Emissions Data, http://unfccc.int/ghg_

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Highly efficient GaAs solar cells by limiting light emission angle Emily D Kosten1 solar cell under direct sunlight, light is received from the solar disk, but is re-emitted isotropically.1038/lsa.2013.1; published online 4 January 2013 Keywords: detailed balance; GaAs solar cell; light

Atwater, Harry

83

Forecasting and Capturing Emission Reductions Using Industrial Energy Management and Reporting Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Mandatory 2010 Green House Gas (GHG) Reporting Regulations and pending climate change legislation has increased interest in Energy Management and Reporting Systems (EMRS) as a means of both reducing and reporting GHG emissions. This paper...

Robinson, J.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuoCatalystPathways Calculator JumpforPFAN) |GIZ-China GHG

85

China-GHG Monitoring | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpenWendeGuoCatalystPathways Calculator JumpforPFAN) |GIZ-China GHG-

86

Limits on Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the Milagro Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Milagro telescope monitors the northern sky for 100 GeV to 100 TeV transient emission through continuous very high energy wide-field observations. The large effective area and ~100 GeV energy threshold of Milagro allow it to detect very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray burst emission with much higher sensitivity than previous instruments and a fluence sensitivity at VHE energies comparable to that of dedicated gamma-ray burst satellites at keV to MeV energies. Even in the absence of a positive detection, VHE observations can place important constraints on gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitor and emission models. We present limits on the VHE flux of 40 s -- 3 h duration transients nearby to earth, as well as sensitivity distributions which have been corrected for gamma-ray absorption by extragalactic background light and cosmological effects. The sensitivity distributions suggest that the typical intrinsic VHE fluence of GRBs is similar or weaker than the keV -- MeV emission, and we demonstrate how these sensitivity distributions may be used to place observational constraints on the absolute VHE luminosity of gamma-ray bursts for any GRB emission and progenitor model.

The Milagro Collaboration; R. Atkins; W. Benbow; D. Berley; E. Blaufuss; J. Bussons; D. G. Coyne; T. DeYoung; B. L. Dingus; D. E. Dorfan; R. W. Ellsworth; L. Fleysher; R. Fleysher; G. Gisler; M. M. Gonzalez; J. A. Goodman; T. J. Haines; E. Hays; C. M. Hoffman; L. A. Kelley; J. E. McEnery; R. S. Miller; A. I. Mincer; M. F. Morales; P. Nemethy; D. Noyes; J. M. Ryan; F. W. Samuelson; A. Shoup; G. Sinnis; A. J. Smith; G. W. Sullivan; D. A. Williams; S. Westerhoff; M. E. Wilson; X. Xu; G. B. Yodh

2004-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

87

Multi-criteria comparison of fuel policies: Renewable fuel mandate, fuel emission-standards, and fuel carbon tax  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is only one type of fossil fuel and one alternative fuel andGHG emissions and reducing fossil fuel use, and ?nd biofuelin GHG intensity of both fossil fuels and renewable fuels,

Rajagopal, Deepak; Hochman, G.; Zilberman, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

South Africa-Quantifying Emission Reduction Opportunities in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AgencyCompany Organization Ecofys Sector Energy Topics Background analysis, GHG inventory, Low emission development planning, Pathways analysis Website http:www.ecofys.com...

89

Sequestration Offsets versus Direct Emission Reductions: Consideration of Environmental Externalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions, it is clear that the energy usage will be subject to corresponding policies. Many have pointed of greenhouse gases (GHG) through net emissions reduction is needed to mitigate climate change. Energy estimated to account for 7.2 percent of all US GHG emissions, while total net sequestration from land

McCarl, Bruce A.

90

An upper limit to [C II] emission in a z ~= 5 galaxy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Low-ionization-state far-infrared (FIR) emission lines may be useful diagnostics of star-formation activity in young galaxies, and at high redshift may be detectable from the ground. In practice, however, very little is known concerning how strong such line emission might be in the early Universe. We attempted to detect the 158 micron [C II] line from a lensed galaxy at z = 4.926 using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory. This source is an ordinary galaxy, in the sense that it shows high but not extreme star formation, but lensing makes it visible. Our analysis includes a careful consideration of the calibrations and weighting of the individual scans. We find only modest improvement over the simpler reduction methods, however, and the final spectrum remains dominated by systematic baseline ripple effects. We obtain a 95 per cent confidence upper limit of 33 mJy for a 200 km/s full width at half maximum line, corresponding to an unlensed luminosity of 1x10^9 L_sun for a standard cosmology. Combining this with a marginal detection of the continuum emission using the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope, we derive an upper limit of 0.4 per cent for the ratio of L_CII/L_FIR in this object.

Gaelen Marsden; Colin Borys; Scott C. Chapman; Mark Halpern; Douglas Scott

2005-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

91

High energy emission and polarisation limits for the INTEGRAL burst GRB 061122  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Abridged) GRB 061122 is one of the brightest GRBs detected within INTEGRAL's field of view to date. The two gamma-ray detectors on INTEGRAL were used to investigate the spectral characteristics of GRB 061122. A search for linear polarisation in the prompt emission was carried out using the SPI multiple event data in the energy range 100 keV-1 MeV. The prompt spectrum was best fit by a combination of a blackbody and a power--law model (the quasithermal model), with evidence for high energy emission continuing above 8 MeV. A pseudo-redshift value of pz = 0.95 +/- 0.18 was determined using the spectral fit parameters. The isotropic energy at this pseudo-redshift is 8.5 x 10^{52} erg. The jet opening angle was estimated to be smaller than 2.8 deg or larger than 11.9 deg from the X-ray lightcurve. An upper limit of 60% polarisation was determined for the prompt emission of GRB 061122, using the multiple event data. The high energy emission observed in the spectrum may be due to the reverse shock interacting with ...

McGlynn, S; McBreen, B; Hanlon, L; McBreen, S; Clark, D J; Dean, A J; Martin-Carrillo, A; O'Connor, R

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Limits on Very High Energy Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the Milagro Observatory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Milagro telescope monitors the northern sky for 100 GeV to 100 TeV transient emission through continuous very high energy wide-field observations. The large effective area and ~100 GeV energy threshold of Milagro allow it to detect very high energy (VHE) gamma-ray burst emission with much higher sensitivity than previous instruments and a fluence sensitivity at VHE energies comparable to that of dedicated gamma-ray burst satellites at keV to MeV energies. Even in the absence of a positive detection, VHE observations can place important constraints on gamma-ray burst (GRB) progenitor and emission models. We present limits on the VHE flux of 40 s -- 3 h duration transients nearby to earth, as well as sensitivity distributions which have been corrected for gamma-ray absorption by extragalactic background light and cosmological effects. The sensitivity distributions suggest that the typical intrinsic VHE fluence of GRBs is similar or weaker than the keV -- MeV emission, and we demonstrate how these sensitivit...

Atkins, R; Berley, D; Blaufuss, E; Bussons, J; Coyne, D G; De Young, T R; Dingus, B L; Dorfan, D E; Ellsworth, R W; Fleysher, L; Fleysher, R; Gisler, G; González, M M; Goodman, J A; Haines, T J; Hays, E; Hoffman, C M; Kelley, L A; McEnery, J E; Miller, R S; Mincer, A I; Morales, M F; Némethy, P; Noyes, D; Ryan, J M; Samuelson, F W; Shoup, A L; Sinnis, G; Smith, A J; Sullivan, G W; Williams, D A; Westerhoff, S; Wilson, M E; Xu, X; Yodh, G B

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Innovation Recognized by R&D Magazine for Fuel-Saving Product Washington: Graphene Nanostructures for Lithium Batteries Recieves 2012 R&D 100 Award Project Overview...

94

Methodology for Estimating Reductions of GHG Emissions from Mosaic  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJunoMedanosElectric CoMeridian

95

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Stationary  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective Jump to: navigation, searchThe GermanThe

96

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Transport or  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 No revisionEnvReviewNonInvasiveExplorationUT-gTaguspark JumpDetective Jump to: navigation, searchThe GermanTheMobil

97

Attachment C - Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energyon ArmedWaste andAccess to OUO Access toEnergy 5 BTOoftheAModifications

98

Capturing Fugitives to Reduce DOE's GHG Emissions | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of Energy Power Systems EngineeringDepartment of4 Federal6CleanCaithness ShepherdsCapturing Fugitives to

99

Attachment C Summary GHG Emissions Data FINAL | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustionImprovement3--Logistical Challenges toReport |2013-04 on Executive Compensation |A Page

100

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Purchased  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, Inc Place:InnovationFunds-Business GuideRoundtable Jump

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop, Inc Place:InnovationFunds-Business GuideRoundtable Jumpand Air

102

EPA Climate Leaders Simplified GHG Emissions Calculator (SGEC) | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLow Carbon TransitionENERGY STAR

103

The Essential Role of State Enforcement in the Brave New World of Greenhouse Gas Emission Limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

greenhouse gas emissions trading market, the Regionalwith respect to emissions trading markets. 23 We must have a

Bogoshian, Matt; Alex, Ken

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Catalyst Paper No-Carb Strategy for GHG Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Catalyst Paper strategy to manage GHG exposure is a combination of energy reduction initiatives in manufacturing and the effective use of biomass and alternative fuels to produce mill steam and electricity from the powerhouse. The energy...

McClain, C.; Robinson, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Solar Photovoltaics (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that helps to clarify inconsistent and conflicting life cycle GHG emission estimates in the published literature and provide more precise estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from PV systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

VERITAS Upper Limit on the VHE Emission from the Radio Galaxy NGC 1275  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The recent detection by the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope of high-energy gamma-rays from the radio galaxy NGC 1275 makes the observation of the very high energy (VHE: E > 100 GeV) part of its broadband spectrum particularly interesting, especially for the understanding of active galactic nuclei (AGN) with misaligned multi-structured jets. The radio galaxy NGC 1275 was recently observed by VERITAS at energies above 100 GeV for about 8 hours. No VHE gamma-ray emission was detected by VERITAS from NGC 1275. A 99% confidence level upper limit of 2.1% of the Crab Nebula flux level is obtained at the decorrelation energy of approximately 340 GeV, corresponding to 19% of the power-law extrapolation of the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT) result.

Acciari, V A; Arlen, T; Aune, T; Bautista, M; Beilicke, M; Benbow, W; Boltuch, D; Bradbury, S M; Buckley, J H; Bugaev, V; Byrum, K; Cannon, A; Celik, O; Cesarini, A; Ciupik, L; Cogan, P; Cui, W; Dickherber, R; Duke, C; Fegan, S J; Finley, J P; Fortin, P; Fortson, L; Furniss, A; Galante, N; Gall, D; Gibbs, K; Gillanders, G H; Godambe, S; Grube, J; Guenette, R; Gyuk, G; Hanna, D; Holder, J; Horan, D; Hui, C M; Humensky, T B; Imran, A; Kaaret, Philip; Karlsson, N; Kertzman, M; Kieda, D; Konopelko, A; Krawczynski, H; Krennrich, F; Lang, M J; Le Bohec, S; Maier, G; McCann, A; McCutcheon, M; Millis, J; Moriarty, P; Mukherjee, R; Ong, R A; Otte, A N; Pandel, D; Perkins, J S; Pohl, M; Quinn, J; Ragan, K; Reynolds, P T; Roache, E; Rose, H J; Schroedter, M; Sembroski, G H; Smith, A W; Steele, D; Swordy, S P; Theiling, M; Toner, J A; Varlotta, A; Vasilev, V V; Vincent, S; Wagner, R G; Wakely, S P; Ward, J E; Weekes, T C; Weinstein, A; Weisgarber, T; Williams, D A; Wissel, S; Wood, M; Zitzer, B; Kataoka, J; Cavazzuti, E; Cheung, C C; Lott, B; Thompson, D J; Tosti, G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Limiter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A limiter with a specially contoured front face is provided. The front face of the limiter (the plasma-side face) is flat with a central indentation. In addition, the limiter shape is cylindrically symmetric so that the limiter can be rotated for greater heat distribution. This limiter shape accommodates the various power scrape-off distances lambda p, which depend on the parallel velocity, V/sub parallel/, of the impacting particles.

Cohen, S.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Timberlake, J.R.

1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

108

Tradeoffs between Costs and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Design of Urban Transit Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US cities (McGuckin and Srinivasan Figures 5.3 through 5.5 present the change in total GHG emissions

Griswold, Julia Baird

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Sharing the Burden of GHG Reductions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The G8 countries propose a goal of a 50% reduction in global emissions by 2050, in an effort that needs to take account of other agreements specifying that developing countries are to be provided with incentives to action ...

Jacoby, Henry D.

110

Limitation of the electron emission in an ion diode with magnetic self-insulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a study of the generation of a pulsed ion beam of gigawatt power formed by a diode with an explosive-emission potential electrode in a mode of magnetic self-insulation are presented. The studies were conducted at the TEMP-4M ion accelerator set in double pulse formation mode: the first pulse was negative (300-500 ns and 100-150 kV) and the second, positive (150 ns and 250-300 kV). The ion current density was 20-40 A/cm{sup 2}; the beam composition was protons and carbon ions. It was shown that plasma is effectively formed over the entire working surface of the graphite potential electrode. During the ion beam generation, a condition of magnetic cutoff of electrons along the entire length of the diode (B/B{sub cr}{>=} 4) is fulfilled. Because of the high drift rate, the residence time of the electrons and protons in the anode-cathode gap is 3-5 ns, while for the C{sup +} carbon ions, it is more than 8 ns. This denotes low efficiency of magnetic self-insulation in a diode of such a design. At the same time, it has been experimentally observed that, during the generation of ion current (second pulse), the electronic component of the total current is suppressed by a factor of 1.5-2 for a strip diode with plane and focusing geometry. A new model of the effect of limiting the electron emission explaining the decrease in the electronic component of the total current in a diode with magnetic self-insulation is proposed.

Pushkarev, A. I.; Isakova, Yu. I.; Guselnikov, V. I. [Tomsk Polytechnic University, 30, Lenin Ave., Tomsk 634050 (Russian Federation)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

111

The Implications of a Gasoline Price Floor for the California Budget and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Surcharge Revenues Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elasEmissions Surcharge Revenues Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elasQuantity Daily GhG Emissions Oil Price Price elas= -0.1 elas

Borenstein, Severin

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow EIA: High Oil Prices, GHG Controls Would Help Clean Energy Grow April 1, 2009 - 11:35am Addthis The growth of...

113

Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks. #12;2 Integrating Agricultural and Forestry GHG Mitigation Response into General Economy Frameworks for characterizing potential responses to greenhouse gas mitigation policies by the agriculture and forestry

McCarl, Bruce A.

114

Identifying Options for Deep Reductions in Greenhouse Gas Emissions from California Transportation: Meeting an 80% Reduction Goal in 2050  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse GasesGHG Emissions from Biofuels . in STEPS Research Symposium .NRDC, Growing Energy: How Biofuels Can Help End America's

Yang, Christopher; McCollum, David L; McCarthy, Ryan; Leighty, Wayne

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced plasmas for lithography application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of extreme ultraviolet photons emission and collection in mass-limited laser produced in DPP or with pre-pulsing in LPP provide wide area for optimization in regards to conversion efficiency and collection as well as calculating photons source location and size. We optimized several parameters of dual

Harilal, S. S.

116

Can Future Emissions Limits be Met with a Hybrid EGR System Alone...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

out NOx emissions through highest possible EGR rates Fuel consumption through reduced turbo charger pumping work While providing Highest flexibility for the engine's combustion...

117

Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Basis 5 Burning oil is also known as kerosene or paraffin used for heating systems. Aviation Turbine biomass heating systems. The emission factors are based on the factor provided in SAP2005, Table 12. Page - Imports and Exports Last updated: Jun-05 Total emissions (kg CO2) Total electricity produced Total heat

119

Assessing the fuel Use and greenhouse gas emissions of future light-duty vehicles in Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of great concern in Japan, as well as elsewhere, such as in the U.S. and EU. More than 20% of GHG emissions in Japan come from the transportation sector, and a more than 70% ...

Nishimura, Eriko

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) recently led the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) Harmonization Project, a study that makes great strides in clarifying inconsistent and conflicting GHG emission estimates in the published literature while providing more precise estimates of GHG emissions from utility-scale CSP systems.

Not Available

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Using Section 111 of the Clean Air Act for Cap-and-Trade of Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Obstacles and Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

focused nitro- gen oxide emissions-trading program for largeNSPS program could use emissions trading, including cap-and-regulations that allow emissions trading, to achieve GHG

Enion, Rhead M.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

Ruth, M.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Hydrogen Pathways: Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Seven Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios  

Fuel Cell Technologies Publication and Product Library (EERE)

Report of levelized cost in 2005 U.S. dollars, energy use, and GHG emission benefits of seven hydrogen production, delivery, and distribution pathways.

124

IGES GHG Calculator For Solid Waste | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation,Ohio:GreerHiCalifornia: EnergytheInformationRoadmaps JumpToolIGES GHG

125

Transition from ultrafast laser photo-electron emission to space charge limited current in a 1D gap  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A one-dimensional (1D) model has been constructed to study the transition of the time-dependent ultrafast laser photo-electron emission from a flat metallic surface to the space charge limited (SCL) current, including the effect of non-equilibrium laser heating on metals at the ultrafast time scale. At a high laser field, it is found that the space charge effect cannot be ignored and the SCL current emission is reached at a lower value predicted by a short pulse SCL current model that assumed a time-independent emission process. The threshold of the laser field to reach the SCL regime is determined over a wide range of operating parameters. The calculated results agree well with particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is found that the space charge effect is more important for materials with lower work function like tungsten (4.4 eV) as compared to gold (5.4 eV). However for a flat surface, both materials will reach the space charge limited regime at the sufficiently high laser field such as $>$ 5 GV/m with a laser pulse length of tens to one hundred femtoseconds.

Yangjie Liu; L. K. Ang

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

126

UNFCCC Individual Reviews of GHG Inventories | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectric Coop,Save Energy Now Jump to:Development Reports JumpUNF Energyof GHG

127

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, and technology for theAdvancedGHG Information

128

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Aluminum: GHG Information -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, and technology for theAdvancedGHG

129

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Electric Power: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science, andPlansResources andPlansGHG

130

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHG Information This section

131

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Iron and Steel: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHG Information This section-

132

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHGGHGResultsGHG Information

133

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Magnesium: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links - TechnicalGHGGHGResultsGHG

134

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Minerals: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -Results At this time, given theGHG

135

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -Results AtTechnicalGHG Information

136

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Oil and Gas: GHG Inventory  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -Results AtTechnicalGHG

137

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Semiconductors: GHG Information  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,-- Energy, science,Links -ResultsLinks - EnergyLinks -ResultsGHG

138

Greenhouse gas emissions from MSW incineration in China: Impacts of waste characteristics and energy recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Determination of the amount of greenhouse gas (GHG) emitted during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is complex because both contributions and savings of GHGs exist in the process. To identify the critical factors influencing GHG emissions from MSWI in China, a GHG accounting model was established and applied to six Chinese cities located in different regions. The results showed that MSWI in most of the cities was the source of GHGs, with emissions of 25-207 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. Within all process stages, the emission of fossil CO{sub 2} from the combustion of MSW was the main contributor (111-254 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw), while the substitution of electricity reduced the GHG emissions by 150-247 kg CO{sub 2}-eq t{sup -1} rw. By affecting the fossil carbon content and the lower heating value of the waste, the contents of plastic and food waste in the MSW were the critical factors influencing GHG emissions of MSWI. Decreasing food waste content in MSW by half will significantly reduce the GHG emissions from MSWI, and such a reduction will convert MSWI in Urumqi and Tianjin from GHG sources to GHG sinks. Comparison of the GHG emissions in the six Chinese cities with those in European countries revealed that higher energy recovery efficiency in Europe induced much greater reductions in GHG emissions. Recovering the excess heat after generation of electricity would be a good measure to convert MSWI in all the six cities evaluated herein into sinks of GHGs.

Yang Na [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Zhang Hua, E-mail: zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); Chen Miao; Shao Liming [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China); He Pinjing, E-mail: xhpjk@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resources Reuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, 1239 Siping Road, Shanghai 200092 (China)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

139

Biochar amendment and greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural soils   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of biochar amendment on soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and to elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects. I investigated the suppression of soil carbon dioxide ...

Case, Sean Daniel Charles

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

140

Reversing Climate Change: Using Carbon Technology to Offset Carbon Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reversing Climate Change: Using Carbon Technology to Offset Carbon Emissions Climate change is real not only emitting less greenhouse gas (GHG), but actually sources of negative carbon. We then present two

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

The effect of hydrogen addition on flammability limit and NOx emission in ultra-lean counterflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. They indicated that the addition of hydrogen to natural gas or methane resulted in an increase in NOx for most increases, and then decreases with the increase in the fraction of hydrogen. Overall, hydrogen enrichment rights reserved. Keywords: Hydrogen enrichment; NOx; Extinction limit; Ultra-lean premixed flame. 1

Gülder, �mer L.

142

Total energy cycle energy use and emissions of electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A total energy cycle analysis (TECA) of electric vehicles (EV) was recently completed. The EV energy cycle includes production and transport of fuels used in power plants to generate electricity, electricity generation, EV operation, and vehicle and battery manufacture. This paper summarizes the key assumptions and results of the EVTECA. The total energy requirements of EVS me estimated to be 24-35% lower than those of the conventional, gasoline-fueled vehicles they replace, while the reductions in total oil use are even greater: 55-85%. Greenhouse gases (GHG) are 24-37% lower with EVs. EVs reduce total emissions of several criteria air pollutants (VOC, CO, and NO{sub x}) but increase total emissions of others (SO{sub x}, TSP, and lead) over the total energy cycle. Regional emissions are generally reduced with EVs, except possibly SO{sub x}. The limitations of the EVTECA are discussed, and its results are compared with those of other evaluations of EVs. In general, many of the results (particularly the oil use, GHG, VOC, CO, SO{sub x}, and lead results) of the analysis are consistent with those of other evaluations.

Singh, M. K.

1999-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

143

Limit to the radio emission from a putative central compact source in SN1993J  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SN1993J in M81 is the best studied young radio-luminous supernova in the Northern Hemisphere. We recently reported results from the analysis of a complete set of VLBI observations of this supernova at 1.7, 2.3, 5.0, and 8.4 GHz, covering a time baseline of more than one decade. Those reported results were focused on the kinematics of the expanding shock, the particulars of its evolving non-thermal emission, the density profile of the circumstellar medium, and the evolving free-free opacity by the supernova ejecta. In the present paper, we complete our analysis by performing a search for any possible signal from a compact source (i.e., a stellar-mass black hole or a young pulsar nebula) at the center of the expanding shell. We have performed a stacking of all our VLBI images at each frequency, after subtraction of our best-fit shell model at each epoch, and measured the peak intensity in the stacked residual image. Given the large amount of available global VLBI observations, the stacking of all the residual i...

Marti-Vidal, I

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Determine Vehicle Usage and Refueling Trends to Minimize Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Once a Federal agency has identified its most important mobile greenhouse gas (GHG) emission sources overall, it can work with individual sites to determine vehicle usage and refueling trends. Agencies can compare the results of this analysis to internal standards and requirements to identify GHG mitigation opportunities for assets that are underperforming or underutilized.

145

Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Bruce A. McCarl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Insights from Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Studies Bruce A. McCarl Regents Professor EPA but with contributions from USDA and DOE. Presented at the EPRI Workshop on Terrestrial Carbon Agricultural and Forestry GHG Offset Studies that Might Influence IAM Modeling," that will appear in the book

McCarl, Bruce A.

146

Emissions from US waste collection vehicles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? Life-cycle emissions for alternative fuel technologies. ? Fuel consumption of alternative fuels for waste collection vehicles. ? Actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles. ? Diesel-fueled waste collection vehicle emissions. - Abstract: This research is an in-depth environmental analysis of potential alternative fuel technologies for waste collection vehicles. Life-cycle emissions, cost, fuel and energy consumption were evaluated for a wide range of fossil and bio-fuel technologies. Emission factors were calculated for a typical waste collection driving cycle as well as constant speed. In brief, natural gas waste collection vehicles (compressed and liquid) fueled with North-American natural gas had 6–10% higher well-to-wheel (WTW) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to diesel-fueled vehicles; however the pump-to-wheel (PTW) GHG emissions of natural gas waste collection vehicles averaged 6% less than diesel-fueled vehicles. Landfill gas had about 80% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel. Biodiesel waste collection vehicles had between 12% and 75% lower WTW GHG emissions relative to diesel depending on the fuel source and the blend. In 2011, natural gas waste collection vehicles had the lowest fuel cost per collection vehicle kilometer travel. Finally, the actual driving cycle of waste collection vehicles consists of repetitive stops and starts during waste collection; this generates more emissions than constant speed driving.

Maimoun, Mousa A., E-mail: mousamaimoun@gmail.com [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Reinhart, Debra R. [Department of Civil, Environmental, and Construction Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Gammoh, Fatina T. [Quality Department, Airport International Group, Amman (Jordan); McCauley Bush, Pamela [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management Systems, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Summary of Environmental Performance at Harvard Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Harvard University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or usage). The data at the left indicates a 6.9% decline in Harvard's overall GHG Emissions since Fiscal exclude growth. The graph below illustrates the following emissions: Direct (Scope 1) Emissions, including emissions from campus operations and energy sources owned by Harvard; and Indirect (Scope 2) Emissions

Prentiss, Mara

148

2011 & 2012 Queen's University Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Inventory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Activity levels are derived from reports documenting consumption for fuels and energy. These reports · Fugitive emissions from electrical switches, fire suppression equipment, lab chemicals, and refrigerants. Scope 2 includes all indirect emissions from the university's purchased energy, including

Abolmaesumi, Purang

149

Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Examples include the Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap-and-trade" (CAT) programs, regulators impose a cap- sions is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate

Fowlie, Meredith

150

Market-Based Emissions Regulation and Industry Dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support of NSF grant SES-0922401. 1 #12;Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS) in the European Union and California's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading program. In these "cap is that, provided a series of conditions are met, an emissions trading program designed to equate marginal

Fowlie, Meredith

151

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.S. CO2 emissions sources. U.S. CO2 transportation emissions sources by mode. #12;Center% of the carbon dioxide we produce. As such it is a leading candidate for greenhouse gas ((GHG) (CO2, NH4, HFCsTransportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Measurement, Causation and Mitigation Oak Ridge

152

Evaluation of metrics and baselines for tracking greenhouse gas emissions trends: Recommendations for the California climate action registry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Executive Summary: The California Climate Action Registry, which was initially established in 2000 and began operation in Fall 2002, is a voluntary registry for recording annual greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The purpose of the Registry is to assist California businesses and organizations in their efforts to inventory and document emissions in order to establish a baseline and to document early actions to increase energy efficiency and decrease GHG emissions. The State of California has committed to use its ''best efforts'' to ensure that entities that establish GHG emissions baselines and register their emissions will receive ''appropriate consideration under any future international, federal, or state regulatory scheme relating to greenhouse gas emissions.'' Reporting of GHG emissions involves documentation of both ''direct'' emissions from sources that are under the entity's control and indirect emissions controlled by others. Electricity generated by an off-site power source is consider ed to be an indirect GHG emission and is required to be included in the entity's report. Registry participants include businesses, non-profit organizations, municipalities, state agencies, and other entities. Participants are required to register the GHG emissions of all operations in California, and are encouraged to report nationwide. For the first three years of participation, the Registry only requires the reporting of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, although participants are encouraged to report the remaining five Kyoto Protocol GHGs (CH4, N2O, HFCs, PFCs, and SF6). After three years, reporting of all six Kyoto GHG emissions is required. The enabling legislation for the Registry (SB 527) requires total GHG emissions to be registered and requires reporting of ''industry-specific metrics'' once such metrics have been adopted by the Registry. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) was asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (Energy Commission) related to the Registry in three areas: (1) assessing the availability and usefulness of industry-specific metrics, (2) evaluating various methods for establishing baselines for calculating GHG emissions reductions related to specific actions taken by Registry participants, and (3) establishing methods for calculating electricity CO2 emission factors. The third area of research was completed in 2002 and is documented in Estimating Carbon Dioxide Emissions Factors for the California Electric Power Sector (Marnay et al., 2002). This report documents our findings related to the first areas of research. For the first area of research, the overall objective was to evaluate the metrics, such as emissions per economic unit or emissions per unit of production that can be used to report GHG emissions trends for potential Registry participants. This research began with an effort to identify methodologies, benchmarking programs, inventories, protocols, and registries that u se industry-specific metrics to track trends in energy use or GHG emissions in order to determine what types of metrics have already been developed. The next step in developing industry-specific metrics was to assess the availability of data needed to determine metric development priorities. Berkeley Lab also determined the relative importance of different potential Registry participant categories in order to asses s the availability of sectoral or industry-specific metrics and then identified industry-specific metrics in use around the world. While a plethora of metrics was identified, no one metric that adequately tracks trends in GHG emissions while maintaining confidentiality of data was identified. As a result of this review, Berkeley Lab recommends the development of a GHG intensity index as a new metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends.Such an index could provide an industry-specific metric for reporting and tracking GHG emissions trends to accurately reflect year to year changes while protecting proprietary data. This GHG intensity index changes

Price, Lynn; Murtishaw, Scott; Worrell, Ernst

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Development and Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Update of Models for Long-Term Energy and GHG Impact Evaluation 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

154

A Strategy for a Global Observing System for Verification of National Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With the risks of climate change becoming increasingly evident, there is growing discussion regarding international treaties and national regulations to lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Enforcement of such agreements ...

Prinn, Ronald G.

155

Investigating greenhouse gas emission pathways In selected OECD countries using a hybrid energy-economy approach.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This report outlines the development and analysis of CIMS OECD-EPM. CIMS OECD-EPM is a hybrid energy-economy model that forecasts energy consumption and GHG emissions in… (more)

Goldberg, Suzanne

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Wildland fire detection and burned area in the United Wildland fires can be an important source of greenhouse gases as well as black carbon emissions that have of climate response to fire emissions compared to other emission sources of GHG, aerosols, and black carbon

157

Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

Sullivan, John

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

158

Greenhouse Gas emissions from California Geothermal Power Plants  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The information given in this file represents GHG emissions and corresponding emission rates for California flash and dry steam geothermal power plants. This stage of the life cycle is the fuel use component of the fuel cycle and arises during plant operation. Despite that no fossil fuels are being consumed during operation of these plants, GHG emissions nevertheless arise from GHGs present in the geofluids and dry steam that get released to the atmosphere upon passing through the system. Data for the years of 2008 to 2012 are analyzed.

Sullivan, John

159

Limits on Neutrino Emission from Gamma-Ray Bursts with the 40 String IceCube Detector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IceCube has become the first neutrino telescope with a sensitivity below the TeV neutrino flux predicted from gamma-ray bursts if GRBs are responsible for the observed cosmic-ray flux above $10^{18}$ eV. Two separate analyses using the half-complete IceCube detector, one a dedicated search for neutrinos from $p \\gamma$-interactions in the prompt phase of the GRB fireball, and the other a generic search for any neutrino emission from these sources over a wide range of energies and emission times, produced no evidence for neutrino emission, excluding prevailing models at 90% confidence.

IceCube Collaboration; R. Abbasi; Y. Abdou; T. Abu-Zayyad; J. Adams; J. A. Aguilar; M. Ahlers; K. Andeen; J. Auffenberg; X. Bai; M. Baker; S. W. Barwick; R. Bay; J. L. Bazo Alba; K. Beattie; J. J. Beatty; S. Bechet; J. K. Becker; K. -H. Becker; M. L. Benabderrahmane; S. BenZvi; J. Berdermann; P. Berghaus; D. Berley; E. Bernardini; D. Bertrand; D. Z. Besson; D. Bindig; M. Bissok; E. Blaufuss; J. Blumenthal; D. J. Boersma; C. Bohm; D. Bose; S. Böser; O. Botner; J. Braun; A. M. Brown; S. Buitink; M. Carson; D. Chirkin; B. Christy; J. Clem; F. Clevermann; S. Cohen; C. Colnard; D. F. Cowen; M. V. D'Agostino; M. Danninger; J. Daughhetee; J. C. Davis; C. De Clercq; L. Demirörs; O. Depaepe; F. Descamps; P. Desiati; G. de Vries-Uiterweerd; T. DeYoung; J. C. Díaz-Vélez; M. Dierckxsens; J. Dreyer; J. P. Dumm; R. Ehrlich; J. Eisch; R. W. Ellsworth; O. Engdegård; S. Euler; P. A. Evenson; O. Fadiran; A. R. Fazely; A. Fedynitch; T. Feusels; K. Filimonov; C. Finley; T. Fischer-Wasels; M. M. Foerster; B. D. Fox; A. Franckowiak; R. Franke; T. K. Gaisser; J. Gallagher; M. Geisler; L. Gerhardt; L. Gladstone; T. Glüsenkamp; A. Goldschmidt; J. A. Goodman; D. Grant; T. Griesel; A. Groß; S. Grullon; M. Gurtner; C. Ha; A. Hallgren; F. Halzen; K. Han; K. Hanson; D. Heinen; K. Helbing; P. Herquet; S. Hickford; G. C. Hill; K. D. Hoffman; A. Homeier; K. Hoshina; D. Hubert; W. Huelsnitz; J. -P. Hülß; P. O. Hulth; K. Hultqvist; S. Hussain; A. Ishihara; J. Jacobsen; G. S. Japaridze; H. Johansson; J. M. Joseph; K. -H. Kampert; A. Kappes; T. Karg; A. Karle; J. L. Kelley; N. Kemming; P. Kenny; J. Kiryluk; F. Kislat; S. R. Klein; J. -H. Köhne; G. Kohnen; H. Kolanoski; L. Köpke; S. Kopper; D. J. Koskinen; M. Kowalski; T. Kowarik; M. Krasberg; T. Krings; G. Kroll; K. Kuehn; T. Kuwabara; M. Labare; S. Lafebre; K. Laihem; H. Landsman; M. J. Larson; R. Lauer; R. Lehmann; J. Lünemann; J. Madsen; P. Majumdar; A. Marotta; R. Maruyama; K. Mase; H. S. Matis; K. Meagher; M. Merck; P. Mészáros; T. Meures; E. Middell; N. Milke; J. Miller; T. Montaruli; R. Morse; S. M. Movit; R. Nahnhauer; J. W. Nam; U. Naumann; P. Nießen; D. R. Nygren; S. Odrowski; A. Olivas; M. Olivo; A. O'Murchadha; M. Ono; S. Panknin; L. Paul; C. Pérez de los Heros; J. Petrovic; A. Piegsa; D. Pieloth; R. Porrata; J. Posselt; P. B. Price; M. Prikockis; G. T. Przybylski; K. Rawlins; P. Redl; E. Resconi; W. Rhode; M. Ribordy; A. Rizzo; J. P. Rodrigues; P. Roth; F. Rothmaier; C. Rott; T. Ruhe; D. Rutledge; B. Ruzybayev; D. Ryckbosch; H. -G. Sander; M. Santander; S. Sarkar; K. Schatto; T. Schmidt; A. Schoenwald; A. Schukraft; A. Schultes; O. Schulz; M. Schunck; D. Seckel; B. Semburg; S. H. Seo; Y. Sestayo; S. Seunarine; A. Silvestri; A. Slipak; G. M. Spiczak; C. Spiering; M. Stamatikos; T. Stanev; G. Stephens; T. Stezelberger; R. G. Stokstad; S. Stoyanov; E. A. Strahler; T. Straszheim; G. W. Sullivan; Q. Swillens; H. Taavola; I. Taboada; A. Tamburro; O. Tarasova; A. Tepe; S. Ter-Antonyan; S. Tilav; P. A. Toale; S. Toscano; D. Tosi; D. Tur?an; N. van Eijndhoven; J. Vandenbroucke; A. Van Overloop; J. van Santen; M. Vehring; M. Voge; B. Voigt; C. Walck; T. Waldenmaier; M. Wallraff; M. Walter; C. Weaver; C. Wendt; S. Westerhoff; N. Whitehorn; K. Wiebe; C. H. Wiebusch; D. R. Williams; R. Wischnewski; H. Wissing; M. Wolf; K. Woschnagg; C. Xu; X. W. Xu; G. Yodh; S. Yoshida; P. Zarzhitsky

2011-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

160

UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformation UC 19-6-401 et seq. - Utah UndergroundPortal(FIRM)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

UNEP-Risoe-Economics of GHG Limitations: Country Study Series | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:Seadov PtyInformation UC 19-6-401 et seq. - Utah

162

Operational and policy implications of managing uncertainty in quality and emissions of multi-feedstock biodiesel systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been widely promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of ...

Gül?en, Ece

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Marginal Abatement Costs and Marginal Welfare Costs for Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions: Results from the EPPA Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Marginal abatement cost (MAC) curves, relationships between tons of emissions abated and the CO2 (or GHG) price, have been widely used as pedagogic devices to illustrate simple economic concepts such as the benefits of ...

Morris, Jennifer

164

Life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and non-CO? combustion effects from alternative jet fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The long-term viability and success of a transportation fuel depends on both economic and environmental sustainability. This thesis focuses specifically on assessing the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and non-CO ...

Stratton, Russell William

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Central to any study of climate change is the development of an emission inventory that identifies and quantifies the State's primary anthropogenic sources and sinks of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion accounted for 80 percent of California GHG emissions (CARB, 2007a). Even though these CO2 emissions are well characterized in the existing state inventory, there still exist significant sources of uncertainties regarding their accuracy. This report evaluates the CO2 emissions accounting based on the California Energy Balance database (CALEB) developed by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), in terms of what improvements are needed and where uncertainties lie. The estimated uncertainty for total CO2 emissions ranges between -21 and +37 million metric tons (Mt), or -6percent and +11percent of total CO2 emissions. The report also identifies where improvements are needed for the upcoming updates of CALEB. However, it is worth noting that the California Air Resources Board (CARB) GHG inventory did not use CALEB data for all combustion estimates. Therefore the range in uncertainty estimated in this report does not apply to the CARB's GHG inventory. As much as possible, additional data sources used by CARB in the development of its GHG inventory are summarized in this report for consideration in future updates to CALEB.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Price, Lynn

2008-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

166

Beyond the Inventory: An Interagency Collaboration to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Greater Yellowstone Area  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As one of the largest, intact ecosystems in the continental United States, land managers within the Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) have recognized the importance of compiling and understanding agency greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The 10 Federal units within the GYA have taken an active role in compiling GHG inventories on a unit- and ecosystem-wide level, setting goals for GHG mitigation, and identifying mitigation strategies for achieving those goals. This paper details the processes, methodologies, challenges, solutions, and lessons learned by the 10 Federal units within the GYA throughout this ongoing effort.

Kandt, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Fiebig, M.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models for the US  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy efficiency and the cost of GHG abatement: A comparison of bottom-up and hybrid models marginal cost, as well as a smaller contribution from energy efficiency relative to other abatement of energy efficiency potential and green- house gas (GHG) abatement potential that have been highly

168

Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based on Monte-Carlo simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the literature. In the special case of greenhouses gases (GHG) from wind power electricity, the LCA resultsSimplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based performed by the IPCC [1]. Such result might lead policy makers to consider LCA as an inconclusive method [2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

169

Julian Cleary, Nigel T. Roulet and Tim R. Moore Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) emissions from land use, fossil fuel combustion, and peat decomposition, contributes to Canada's net the rate of in situ decomposition through greater diffusion of oxygen, increasing CO2 emissions, manufacturing, use, and disposition (12, 13). GHG emissions, comprising carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4

Roulet, Nigel T.

170

2008 Guidelines to Defra's GHG Conversion Methodology Paper for Transport Emission Factors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Clements House, 2-16 Colegate, Norwich NR3 1BQ; Fax: +44 (0)1603 723000; email: hmsolicensing at the end of each of the relevant following sections. 2. Since the previous update, significant work has

171

Technical Potential of Solar Energy to Address Energy Poverty and Avoid GHG Emissions in Africa (Poster)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide do not have access to electricity, and roughly 2.4 billion people rely on traditional biomass fuels to meet their heating and cooking needs. Lack of access to and use of energy - or energy poverty - has been recognized as a barrier to reaching the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other targeted efforts to improve health and quality of life. Reducing reliance on traditional biomass can substantially reduce indoor air pollution-related morbidity and mortality; increasing access to lighting and refrigeration can improve educational and economic opportunities. Though targeted electrification efforts have had success within Latin America and East Asia (reaching electrification rates above 85%), sub-Saharan Africa has maintained electrification rates below 25% (IEA 2004).

Cowlin, S.; Heimiller, D.; Bilello, D.; Renne, D.

2008-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Forest Products Sector (NAICS 321 and 322) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeat PumpRecordFederal7.pdfFlash_2010_-24.pdfOverview FlowControlIndian1and U.S.

173

Chemicals Sector (NAICS 325) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up fromDepartmentTieCelebrate Earth DayFuels Chemical Kinetic ModelingChemicals

174

New Jersey: EERE-Supported Technology Lowers GHG Emissions 70%, Wins R&D  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "of EnergyEnergyENERGY TAXBalanced Scorecard Federal2Energy SecondWells |Energy ServicesInvestment100

175

Petroleum Refining Sector (NAICS 324110) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Careerlumens_placard-green.epsEnergy1.pdfMarket | Department ofSecretary for Management69 2.4

176

Mexico-NAMA on Reducing GHG Emissions in the Cement Sector | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to:46 -Energieprojekte GmbH Jump to: navigation,Metalysis JumpMetzger,Energy| Open

177

Iron and Steel Sector (NAICS 3311 and 3312) Energy and GHG Combustion Emissions Profile, November 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietipDepartmentJune 20,AmongDevelopmentJulyInvoluntaryIowa Iowa99

178

Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroecono...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

use in study of VT program government performance and results DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program: Potential Transportation Oil Savings with FCVs Impact of...

179

Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Powerstories on climateJuno Beach,October, 2012 - 08:20Emission Reduction

180

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Nuclear Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of nuclear electricity generation technologies was performed to determine causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to clarify the state of knowledge and inform decision making. LCA literature indicates that life cycle GHG emissions from nuclear power are a fraction of traditional fossil sources, but the conditions and assumptions under which nuclear power are deployed can have a significant impact on the magnitude of life cycle GHG emissions relative to renewable technologies. Screening 274 references yielded 27 that reported 99 independent estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from light water reactors (LWRs). The published median, interquartile range (IQR), and range for the pool of LWR life cycle GHG emission estimates were 13, 23, and 220 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), respectively. After harmonizing methods to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the same statistics were 12, 17, and 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, respectively. Harmonization (especially of performance characteristics) clarifies the estimation of central tendency and variability. To explain the remaining variability, several additional, highly influential consequential factors were examined using other methods. These factors included the primary source energy mix, uranium ore grade, and the selected LCA method. For example, a scenario analysis of future global nuclear development examined the effects of a decreasing global uranium market-average ore grade on life cycle GHG emissions. Depending on conditions, median life cycle GHG emissions could be 9 to 110 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh by 2050.

Warner, E. S.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

An integrated analytical framework for quantifying the LCOE of waste-to-energy facilities for a range of greenhouse gas emissions policy and technical factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study presents a novel integrated method for considering the economics of waste-to-energy (WTE) facilities with priced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based upon technical and economic characteristics of the WTE facility, MSW stream, landfill alternative, and GHG emissions policy. The study demonstrates use of the formulation for six different policy scenarios and explores sensitivity of the results to ranges of certain technical parameters as found in existing literature. The study shows that details of the GHG emissions regulations have large impact on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) of WTE and that GHG regulations can either increase or decrease the LCOE of WTE depending on policy choices regarding biogenic fractions from combusted waste and emissions from landfills. Important policy considerations are the fraction of the carbon emissions that are priced (i.e. all emissions versus only non-biogenic emissions), whether emissions credits are allowed due to reducing fugitive landfill gas emissions, whether biogenic carbon sequestration in landfills is credited against landfill emissions, and the effectiveness of the landfill gas recovery system where waste would otherwise have been buried. The default landfill gas recovery system effectiveness assumed by much of the industry yields GHG offsets that are very close to the direct non-biogenic GHG emissions from a WTE facility, meaning that small changes in the recovery effectiveness cause relatively larger changes in the emissions factor of the WTE facility. Finally, the economics of WTE are dependent on the MSW stream composition, with paper and wood being advantageous, metal and glass being disadvantageous, and plastics, food, and yard waste being either advantageous or disadvantageous depending upon the avoided tipping fee and the GHG emissions price.

Townsend, Aaron K., E-mail: aarontownsend@utexas.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Webber, Michael E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C2200, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

182

Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scientific perspectives on MRV: approaches, techniques, and requirements of quantifying GHG-up inventories - measure changes in stocks or flows of carbon, extrapolate to all ecosystems. ~Bottom-up TBMs to Bedrich Benes, Jason Lambert, Yuyu Zhou #12;INFLUX Background CO2, CH4 WindWind Urban CO2, CH4 Thanks

183

EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVOLUTION OF THE HOUSEHOLD VEHICLE FLEET: ANTICIPATING FLEET COMPOSITION, PHEV ADOPTION AND GHG evolution, vehicle ownership, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), climate change policy, stated preference, opinion survey, microsimulation ABSTRACT In todays world of volatile fuel prices and climate

Kockelman, Kara M.

184

Can Radiative Forcing Be Limited to 2.6 Wm?2 Without Negative Emissions From Bioenergy AND CO2 Capture and Storage?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining bioenergy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies (BECCS) has the potential to remove CO2 from the atmosphere while producing useful energy. BECCS has played a central role in scenarios that reduce climate forcing to low levels such as 2.6Wm-2. In this paper we consider whether BECCS is essential to limiting radiative forcing (RF) to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100 using the Global Change Assessment Model, a closely coupled model of biogeophysical and human Earth systems. We show that BECCS can potentially reduce the cost of limiting RF to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100 but that a variety of technology combinations that do not include BECCS can also achieve this goal, under appropriate emissions mitigation policies. We note that with appropriate supporting land-use policies terrestrial sequestration could deliver carbon storage ranging from 200 to 700 PgCO2-equiavalent over the 21st century. We explore substantial delays in participation by some geopolitical regions. We find that the value of BECCS is substantially higher under delay and that delay results in higher transient RF and climate change. However, when major regions postponed mitigation indefinitely, it was impossible to return RF to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100. Neither finite land resources nor finite potential geologic storage capacity represented a meaningful technical limit on the ability of BECCS to contribute to emissions mitigation in the numerical experiments reported in this paper.

Edmonds, James A.; Luckow, Patrick W.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Comparing the greenhouse gas emissions from three alternative waste combustion concepts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Significant GHG reductions are possible by efficient WtE technologies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CHP and high power-to-heat ratio provide significant GHG savings. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O and coal mine type are important in LCA GHG emissions of FBC co-combustion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting coal and fuel oil by waste is beneficial in electricity and heat production. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Substituting natural gas by waste may not be reasonable in CHP generation. - Abstract: Three alternative condensing mode power and combined heat and power (CHP) waste-to-energy concepts were compared in terms of their impacts on the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a heat and power generation system. The concepts included (i) grate, (ii) bubbling fluidised bed (BFB) and (iii) circulating fluidised bed (CFB) combustion of waste. The BFB and CFB take advantage of advanced combustion technology which enabled them to reach electric efficiency up to 35% and 41% in condensing mode, respectively, whereas 28% (based on the lower heating value) was applied for the grate fired unit. A simple energy system model was applied in calculating the GHG emissions in different scenarios where coal or natural gas was substituted in power generation and mix of fuel oil and natural gas in heat generation by waste combustion. Landfilling and waste transportation were not considered in the model. GHG emissions were reduced significantly in all of the considered scenarios where the waste combustion concepts substituted coal based power generation. With the exception of condensing mode grate incinerator the different waste combustion scenarios resulted approximately in 1 Mton of fossil CO{sub 2}-eq. emission reduction per 1 Mton of municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerated. When natural gas based power generation was substituted by electricity from the waste combustion significant GHG emission reductions were not achieved.

Vainikka, Pasi, E-mail: pasi.vainikka@vtt.fi [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Tsupari, Eemeli; Sipilae, Kai [VTT, Koivurannantie 1, FIN 40101 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Hupa, Mikko [Aabo Akademi Process Chemistry Centre, Piispankatu 8, FIN 20500 Turku (Finland)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

186

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas This article has been downloaded from.1088/1748-9326/6/3/034014 Life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of Marcellus shale gas Mohan Jiang1 , W Michael Griffin2,3 , Chris greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the production of Marcellus shale natural gas and compares its emissions

Jaramillo, Paulina

187

The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and greenhouse gas emissions Jerome Dumortier1 , Dermot J Hayes2 , Miguel Carriquiry2 , Fengxia Dong3 , Xiaodong in the U.S. causes a net increase in GHG emissions on a global scale. We couple a global agricultural production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane

Zhou, Yaoqi

188

Meta-Analysis of Estimates of Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Concentrating Solar Power: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale CSP systems, this analysis focuses on clarifying central tendency and reducing variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emission estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough technology and 17 for power tower technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published GHG emission estimates was 83 and 20 g CO2eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively, with medians of 26 and 38 g CO2eq/kWh. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. Compared to the published estimates, IQR was reduced by 69% and median increased by 76% for troughs. IQR was reduced by 26% for towers, and median was reduced by 34%. A second level of harmonization was applied to five well-documented trough LC GHG emission estimates, harmonizing to consistent values for GHG emissions embodied in materials and from construction activities. As a result, their median was further reduced by 5%, while the range increased by 6%. In sum, harmonization clarified previous results.

Heath, G. A.; Burkhardt, J. J.

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Pyrolysis and gasification of meat-and-bone-meal: Energy balance and GHG accounting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: • GHG savings are in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated. • Energy recovery differed in terms of energy products and efficiencies. • The results were largely determined by use of the products for energy purposes. - Abstract: Meat-and-bone-meal (MBM) produced from animal waste has become an increasingly important residual fraction needing management. As biodegradable waste is routed away from landfills, thermo-chemical treatments of MBM are considered promising solution for the future. Pyrolysis and gasification of MBM were assessed based on data from three experimental lab and pilot-scale plants. Energy balances were established for the three technologies, providing different outcomes for energy recovery: bio-oil was the main product for the pyrolysis system, while syngas and a solid fraction of biochar were the main products in the gasification system. These products can be used – eventually after upgrading – for energy production, thereby offsetting energy production elsewhere in the system. Greenhouse gases (GHG) accounting of the technologies showed that all three options provided overall GHG savings in the order of 600–1000 kg CO{sub 2}-eq. per Mg of MBM treated, mainly as a consequence of avoided fossil fuel consumption in the energy sector. Local conditions influencing the environmental performance of the three systems were identified, together with critical factors to be considered during decision-making regarding MBM management.

Cascarosa, Esther [Thermochemical Processes Group, Aragón Institute for Engineering Research (I3A), Universidad de Zaragoza (Spain); Boldrin, Alessio, E-mail: aleb@env.dtu.dk [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Astrup, Thomas [Department of Environmental Engineering. Technical University of Denmark, Kongens Lyngby (Denmark)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

190

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Electricity Generation (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Analysts at NREL have developed and applied a systematic approach to review the LCA literature, identify primary sources of variability and, where possible, reduce variability in GHG emissions estimates through a procedure called 'harmonization.' Harmonization of the literature provides increased precision and helps clarify the impacts of specific electricity generation choices, producing more robust results.

Not Available

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

REDUCING GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS FROM DEFORESTATION IN DEVELOPING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mitigation effort post-2012. Reducing GHG emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD)2 in developing of Environment of Mexico1 Esteve Corbera and Katrina Brown Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, UK School of Mexico or the Mexican Government. #12;ABSTRACT This paper provides a critical perspective to the debate

Watson, Andrew

192

Prevented Mortality and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Historical and Projected Nuclear Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as deaths and emissions per unit electric energy generated, for relevant electricity sources (Table 1 Nuclear energy (and other low-carbon/carbon-free energy sources) could help to mitigate both deaths and GHG emissions, we start with data for global annual electricity generation by energy source

193

Atmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 49214929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory from  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and uncertainty estimation in national GHG emission inventories haveAtmospheric Environment 38 (2004) 4921­4929 Qualitative assessment of methane emission inventory May 2004 Abstract In developing countries like India, urban solid waste (SW) generation is increasing

Columbia University

194

Updated greenhouse gas and criteria air pollutant emission factors and their probability distribution functions for electricity generating units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Greenhouse gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O, hereinafter GHG) and criteria air pollutant (CO, NO{sub x}, VOC, PM{sub 10}, PM{sub 2.5} and SO{sub x}, hereinafter CAP) emission factors for various types of power plants burning various fuels with different technologies are important upstream parameters for estimating life-cycle emissions associated with alternative vehicle/fuel systems in the transportation sector, especially electric vehicles. The emission factors are typically expressed in grams of GHG or CAP per kWh of electricity generated by a specific power generation technology. This document describes our approach for updating and expanding GHG and CAP emission factors in the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model developed at Argonne National Laboratory (see Wang 1999 and the GREET website at http://greet.es.anl.gov/main) for various power generation technologies. These GHG and CAP emissions are used to estimate the impact of electricity use by stationary and transportation applications on their fuel-cycle emissions. The electricity generation mixes and the fuel shares attributable to various combustion technologies at the national, regional and state levels are also updated in this document. The energy conversion efficiencies of electric generating units (EGUs) by fuel type and combustion technology are calculated on the basis of the lower heating values of each fuel, to be consistent with the basis used in GREET for transportation fuels. On the basis of the updated GHG and CAP emission factors and energy efficiencies of EGUs, the probability distribution functions (PDFs), which are functions that describe the relative likelihood for the emission factors and energy efficiencies as random variables to take on a given value by the integral of their own probability distributions, are updated using best-fit statistical curves to characterize the uncertainties associated with GHG and CAP emissions in life-cycle modeling with GREET.

Cai, H.; Wang, M.; Elgowainy, A.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

195

Eco-efficiency for greenhouse gas emissions mitigation of municipal solid waste management: A case study of Tianjin, China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The issue of municipal solid waste (MSW) management has been highlighted in China due to the continually increasing MSW volumes being generated and the limited capacity of waste treatment facilities. This article presents a quantitative eco-efficiency (E/E) analysis on MSW management in terms of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation. A methodology for E/E analysis has been proposed, with an emphasis on the consistent integration of life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC). The environmental and economic impacts derived from LCA and LCC have been normalized and defined as a quantitative E/E indicator. The proposed method was applied in a case study of Tianjin, China. The study assessed the current MSW management system, as well as a set of alternative scenarios, to investigate trade-offs between economy and GHG emissions mitigation. Additionally, contribution analysis was conducted on both LCA and LCC to identify key issues driving environmental and economic impacts. The results show that the current Tianjin's MSW management system emits the highest GHG and costs the least, whereas the situation reverses in the integrated scenario. The key issues identified by the contribution analysis show no linear relationship between the global warming impact and the cost impact in MSW management system. The landfill gas utilization scenario is indicated as a potential optimum scenario by the proposed E/E analysis, given the characteristics of MSW, technology levels, and chosen methodologies. The E/E analysis provides an attractive direction towards sustainable waste management, though some questions with respect to uncertainty need to be discussed further.

Zhao Wei, E-mail: zhaowei.tju@gmail.com [College of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Liaoning University of Technology, 121000 Jinzhou (China); Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Huppes, Gjalt, E-mail: huppes@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands); Voet, Ester van der, E-mail: Voet@cml.leidenuniv.nl [Institute of Environmental Sciences (CML), Leiden University, P.O. Box 9518, 2300RA Leiden (Netherlands)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

196

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On-Road Mobile Sources Project for the Houston-Galveston Area Council  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methodology for Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Assessing Mitigation Options for On reductions in GHG, and b) use analytical tools/methods to assess the emissions reductions possible through and prioritized based on factors such as cost effectiveness, potential for emission reductions, and applicability

197

EPA-GHG Inventory Targeted Data Collection Strategies and Software Tools |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating Solar Power Basics (The followingDirectLow CarbonOpen Energy Information EPA-GHG

198

Optimal design and allocation of electrified vehicles and dedicated charging infrastructure for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for minimum life cycle greenhouse gas emissions and cost Elizabeth Traut a,n , Chris Hendrickson b,1 , Erica and dedicated workplace charging infrastructure in the fleet for minimum life cycle cost or GHG emissions over vehicle and battery costs are the major drivers for PHEVs and BEVs to enter and dominate the cost

Michalek, Jeremy J.

199

The Elephant in the Room: Dealing with Carbon Emissions from Synthetic Transportation Fuels Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide (CO2), produced by conversion of hydrocarbons to energy, primarily via fossil fuel combustion, is one of the most ubiquitous and significant greenhouse gases (GHGs). Concerns over climate change precipitated by rising atmospheric GHG concentrations have prompted many industrialized nations to begin adopting limits on emissions to inhibit increases in atmospheric CO2 levels. The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change states as a key goal the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 at a level that prevents “dangerous anthropogenic interference” with the planet’s climate systems. This will require sharply reducing emissions growth rates in developing nations, and reducing CO2 emissions in the industrialized world to half current rates in the next 50 years. And ultimately, stabilization will require that annual emissions drop to almost zero.Recently, there has been interest in producing synthetic transportation fuels via coal-to-liquids (CTL) production, particularly in countries where there is an abundant supply of domestic coal, including the United States. This paper provides an overview of the current state of CTL technologies and deployment, a discussion of costs and technical requirements for mitigating the CO2 impacts associated with a CTL facility, and the challenges facing the CTL industry as it moves toward maturity.

Parker, Graham B.; Dahowski, Robert T.

2007-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

200

A greenhouse-gas information system monitoring and validating emissions reporting and mitigation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Current GHG-mitigating regimes, whether internationally agreed or self-imposed, rely on the aggregation of self-reported data, with limited checks for consistency and accuracy, for monitoring. As nations commit to more stringent GHG emissions-mitigation actions and as economic rewards or penalties are attached to emission levels, self-reported data will require independent confirmation that they are accurate and reliable, if they are to provide the basis for critical choices and actions that may be required. Supporting emissions-mitigation efforts and agreements, as well as monitoring energy- and fossil-fuel intensive national and global activities would be best achieved by a process of: (1) monitoring of emissions and emission-mitigation actions, based, in part, on, (2) (self-) reporting of pertinent bottom-up inventory data, (3) verification that reported data derive from and are consistent with agreed-upon processes and procedures, and (4) validation that reported emissions and emissions-mitigation action data are correct, based on independent measurements (top-down) derived from a suite of sensors in space, air, land, and, possibly, sea, used to deduce and attribute anthropogenic emissions. These data would be assessed and used to deduce and attribute measured GHG concentrations to anthropogenic emissions, attributed geographically and, to the extent possible, by economic sector. The validation element is needed to provide independent assurance that emissions are in accord with reported values, and should be considered as an important addition to the accepted MRV process, leading to a MRV&V process. This study and report focus on attributes of a greenhouse-gas information system (GHGIS) needed to support MRV&V needs. These needs set the function of such a system apart from scientific/research monitoring of GHGs and carbon-cycle systems, and include (not exclusively): the need for a GHGIS that is operational, as required for decision-support; the need for a system that meets specifications derived from imposed requirements; the need for rigorous calibration, verification, and validation (CV&V) standards, processes, and records for all measurement and modeling/data-inversion data; the need to develop and adopt an uncertainty-quantification (UQ) regimen for all measurement and modeling data; and the requirement that GHGIS products can be subjected to third-party questioning and scientific scrutiny. This report examines and assesses presently available capabilities that could contribute to a future GHGIS. These capabilities include sensors and measurement technologies; data analysis and data uncertainty quantification (UQ) practices and methods; and model-based data-inversion practices, methods, and their associated UQ. The report further examines the need for traceable calibration, verification, and validation processes and attached metadata; differences between present science-/research-oriented needs and those that would be required for an operational GHGIS; the development, operation, and maintenance of a GHGIS missions-operations center (GMOC); and the complex systems engineering and integration that would be required to develop, operate, and evolve a future GHGIS. Present monitoring systems would be heavily relied on in any GHGIS implementation at the outset and would likely continue to provide valuable future contributions to GHGIS. However, present monitoring systems were developed to serve science/research purposes. This study concludes that no component or capability presently available is at the level of technological maturity and readiness required for implementation in an operational GHGIS today. However, purpose-designed and -built components could be developed and implemented in support of a future GHGIS. The study concludes that it is possible to develop and provide a capability-driven prototype GHGIS, as part of a Phase-1 effort, within three years from project-funding start, that would make use of and integrate existing sensing and system capabilities. As part of a Phase-2 effort, a requirem

Jonietz, Karl K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dimotakis, Paul E [JPL/CAL TECH; Roman, Douglas A [LLNL; Walker, Bruce C [SNL

2011-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited for Commercial Landscape Maintenance Application: http://www.flaes.org/ pdf/lndspckt.pdf Limited Certification.floridatermitehelp.org or request by phone at 850-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance

Watson, Craig A.

202

Limited Lawn & Limited Commercial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Limited Lawn & Ornamental Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance Review and Exams Limited-921-4177. Limited Lawn & Ornamental/Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance: Ornamental and Turf Pest Control (SM 7&O/Structural only). See web locations below for applications. Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape

Jawitz, James W.

203

Emission Standards for Contaminants (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations list emissions standards for various contaminants, and contain special requirements for anaerobic lagoons. These regulations also describe alternative emissions limits, which may...

204

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

U.S. Government Supports Low Emission Economic Growth (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Countries around the world face the challenge of maintaining long-term sustainable economic growth and development under the threat of climate change. By identifying and pursuing a sustainable development pathway now, they are better positioned to reach their economic growth goals while addressing climate change impacts and lowering greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Low emission development strategies - development plans that promote sustainable social and economic development while reducing long-term GHG emissions - provide a pathway to preparing for a global low emission future. Partner country governments are working with the U.S. government through the Enhancing Capacity for Low Emission Development Strategies (EC-LEDS) program to further their national development objectives.

Watson, A.; Sandor, D.; Butheau, M.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Greenhouse Emission Reductions and Natural Gas Vehicles: A Resource Guide on Technology Options and Project Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate and verifiable emission reductions are a function of the degree of transparency and stringency of the protocols employed in documenting project- or program-associated emissions reductions. The purpose of this guide is to provide a background for law and policy makers, urban planners, and project developers working with the many Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emission reduction programs throughout the world to quantify and/or evaluate the GHG impacts of Natural Gas Vehicle (NGVs). In order to evaluate the GHG benefits and/or penalties of NGV projects, it is necessary to first gain a fundamental understanding of the technology employed and the operating characteristics of these vehicles, especially with regard to the manner in which they compare to similar conventional gasoline or diesel vehicles. Therefore, the first two sections of this paper explain the basic technology and functionality of NGVs, but focus on evaluating the models that are currently on the market with their similar conventional counterparts, including characteristics such as cost, performance, efficiency, environmental attributes, and range. Since the increased use of NGVs, along with Alternative Fuel Vehicle (AFVs) in general, represents a public good with many social benefits at the local, national, and global levels, NGVs often receive significant attention in the form of legislative and programmatic support. Some states mandate the use of NGVs, while others provide financial incentives to promote their procurement and use. Furthermore, Federal legislation in the form of tax incentives or procurement requirements can have a significant impact on the NGV market. In order to implement effective legislation or programs, it is vital to have an understanding of the different programs and activities that already exist so that a new project focusing on GHG emission reduction can successfully interact with and build on the experience and lessons learned of those that preceded it. Finally, most programs that deal with passenger vehicles--and with transportation in general--do not address the climate change component explicitly, and thus there are few GHG reduction goals that are included in these programs. Furthermore, there are relatively few protocols that exist for accounting for the GHG emissions reductions that arise from transportation and, specifically, passenger vehicle projects and programs. These accounting procedures and principles gain increased importance when a project developer wishes to document in a credible manner, the GHG reductions that are achieved by a given project or program. Section four of this paper outlined the GHG emissions associated with NGVs, both upstream and downstream, and section five illustrated the methodology, via hypothetical case studies, for measuring these reductions using different types of baselines. Unlike stationary energy combustion, GHG emissions from transportation activities, including NGV projects, come from dispersed sources creating a need for different methodologies for assessing GHG impacts. This resource guide has outlined the necessary context and background for those parties wishing to evaluate projects and develop programs, policies, projects, and legislation aimed at the promotion of NGVs for GHG emission reduction.

Orestes Anastasia; NAncy Checklick; Vivianne Couts; Julie Doherty; Jette Findsen; Laura Gehlin; Josh Radoff

2002-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Overview of Avista GHG Modeling NPCC Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Natural Gas CO2 Emissions A Bridge to a Low Carbon Future, or the Future? 815 1,190 lbs/MWh Gas CCCT has ~35% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis Gas CT has ~50% of coal emissions on a per-MWh basis 119 119 210 CCCT CT Colstrip 3/4 #12;6/5/2013 2 Avista CO2 Emissions Forecast Rising emissions overall

208

Transportation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trading. Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The authors conclude in this report that an upstream system would ensure complete regulatory coverage of transportation sector emissions in an efficient and feasible manner, and as such represents a key component of a national least-cost GHG emissions abatement strategy. The broad coverage provided by an upstream system recommends this approach over vehicle-maker based approaches, which would not cover emissions from heavy-duty vehicles and the aviation, marine and off-road sub-sectors. The on-road fleet approach unfairly and inefficiently burdens vehicle manufacturers with responsibility for emissions that they cannot control. A new vehicles approach would exclude emissions from vehicles on the road prior to program inception. The hybrid approach faces significant technical and political complications, and it is not clear that the approach would actually change behavior among vehicle makers and users, which is its main purpose. They also note that a trading system would fail to encourage many land use and infrastructure measures that affect VMT growth and GHG emissions. They recommend that this market failure be addressed by complementing the trading system with a program specifically targeting land use- and infrastructure-related activities. A key issue that must be addressed in designing a national GHG control strategy is whether or not it is necessary to guarantee GHG reductions from the transport sector. Neither an upstream system nor a downstream approach would do so, since both would direct capital to the least-cost abatement opportunities wherever they were found. They review two reasons why it may be desirable to force transportation sector reductions: first, that the long-term response to climate change will require reductions in all sectors; and second, the many ancillary benefits associated with transportation-related, and especially VMT-related, emissions reduction activities. If policy makers find it desirable to establish transportation-specific policies, they recommend (in addition to the land use policies mentioned above), that they combine an upstream trading system with a carbon efficiency standard similar to the current CAFE standard. Under this approach a fuel price signal would be complemented by incentives for manufacturers to produce more carbon efficient vehicles. To prevent vehicle manufacturers from being forced to pay more than other sectors for reducing GHG emissions, they recommend that the vehicle makers be allowed to pay a cash penalty equal to the market price of allowances in lieu of meeting carbon efficiency requirements.

Steve Winkelman; Tim Hargrave; Christine Vanderlan

1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Battery-Powered Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Projects to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Resource for Project Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transportation sector accounts for a large and growing share of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Worldwide, motor vehicles emit well over 900 million metric tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) each year, accounting for more than 15 percent of global fossil fuel-derived CO2 emissions.1 In the industrialized world alone, 20-25 percent of GHG emissions come from the transportation sector. The share of transport-related emissions is growing rapidly due to the continued increase in transportation activity.2 In 1950, there were only 70 million cars, trucks, and buses on the world’s roads. By 1994, there were about nine times that number, or 630 million vehicles. Since the early 1970s, the global fleet has been growing at a rate of 16 million vehicles per year. This expansion has been accompanied by a similar growth in fuel consumption.3 If this kind of linear growth continues, by the year 2025 there will be well over one billion vehicles on the world’s roads.4 In a response to the significant growth in transportation-related GHG emissions, governments and policy makers worldwide are considering methods to reverse this trend. However, due to the particular make-up of the transportation sector, regulating and reducing emissions from this sector poses a significant challenge. Unlike stationary fuel combustion, transportation-related emissions come from dispersed sources. Only a few point-source emitters, such as oil/natural gas wells, refineries, or compressor stations, contribute to emissions from the transportation sector. The majority of transport-related emissions come from the millions of vehicles traveling the world’s roads. As a result, successful GHG mitigation policies must find ways to target all of these small, non-point source emitters, either through regulatory means or through various incentive programs. To increase their effectiveness, policies to control emissions from the transportation sector often utilize indirect means to reduce emissions, such as requiring specific technology improvements or an increase in fuel efficiency. Site-specific project activities can also be undertaken to help decrease GHG emissions, although the use of such measures is less common. Sample activities include switching to less GHG-intensive vehicle options, such as electric vehicles (EVs) or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). As emissions from transportation activities continue to rise, it will be necessary to promote both types of abatement activities in order to reverse the current emissions path. This Resource Guide focuses on site- and project-specific transportation activities. .

National Energy Technology Laboratory

2002-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

210

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Utility-Scale Wind Power: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale wind power systems was performed to determine the causes of and, where possible, reduce variability in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening of approximately 240 LCAs of onshore and offshore systems yielded 72 references meeting minimum thresholds for quality, transparency, and relevance. Of those, 49 references provided 126 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. Published estimates ranged from 1.7 to 81 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh), with median and interquartile range (IQR) both at 12 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh. After adjusting the published estimates to use consistent gross system boundaries and values for several important system parameters, the total range was reduced by 47% to 3.0 to 45 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh and the IQR was reduced by 14% to 10 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh, while the median remained relatively constant (11 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh). Harmonization of capacity factor resulted in the largest reduction in variability in life cycle GHG emission estimates. This study concludes that the large number of previously published life cycle GHG emission estimates of wind power systems and their tight distribution suggest that new process-based LCAs of similar wind turbine technologies are unlikely to differ greatly. However, additional consequential LCAs would enhance the understanding of true life cycle GHG emissions of wind power (e.g., changes to other generators operations when wind electricity is added to the grid), although even those are unlikely to fundamentally change the comparison of wind to other electricity generation sources.

Dolan, S. L.; Heath, G. A.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Climate Change Technology Scenarios: Energy, Emissions, and Economic Implications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes three advanced technology scenarios and various illustrative cases developed by staff of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Climate Change Technology Program. These scenarios and illustrative cases explore the energy, emissions and economic implications of using advanced energy technologies and other climate change related technologies to reduce future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The cases were modeled using the Mini Climate Assessment Model (MiniCAM) developed by PNNL. The report describes the scenarios, the specifications for the cases, and the results. The report also provides background information on current emissions of GHGs and issues associated with stabilizing GHG concentrations.

Placet, Marylynn; Humphreys, Kenneth K.; Mahasenan, N Maha

2004-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

LEDS Global Partnership in Action: Advancing Climate-Resilient Low Emission Development Around the World (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.

Not Available

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

2010 Guidelines to Defra / DECC's GHG Conversion Factors for Company Reporting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is available on the Defra website and has been produced by Nikolas Hill (AEA) for the Department of Energy) 34 Direct Emissions from Light Goods Vehicles (LGVs) 38 Direct Emissions from Rail Freight 39 Direct 57 Other bioenergy 58 Waste 59 X. OVERSEAS ELECTRICITY EMISSION FACTORS (ANNEX 10) 63 Summary

214

Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Hydropower Reservoirs: FY2011 Annual Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The primary objective of this study is to quantify the net emissions of key greenhouse gases (GHG) - notably, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} - from hydropower reservoirs in moist temperate areas within the U.S. The rationale for this objective is straightforward: if net emissions of GHG can be determined, it would be possible to directly compare hydropower to other power-producing methods on a carbon-emissions basis. Studies of GHG emissions from hydropower reservoirs elsewhere suggest that net emissions can be moderately high in tropical areas. In such areas, warm temperatures and relatively high supply rates of labile organic matter can encourage high rates of decomposition, which (depending upon local conditions) can result in elevated releases of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4}. CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} emissions also tend to be higher for younger reservoirs than for older reservoirs, because vegetation and labile soil organic matter that is inundated when a reservoir is created can continue to decompose for several years (Galy-Lacaux et al. 1997, Barros et al. 2011). Water bodies located in climatically cooler areas, such as in boreal forests, could be expected to have lower net emissions of CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} because their organic carbon supplies tend to be relatively recalcitrant to microbial action and because cooler water temperatures are less conducive to decomposition.

Stewart, Arthur J [ORNL; Mosher, Jennifer J [ORNL; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL; Fortner, Allison M [ORNL; Phillips, Jana Randolph [ORNL; Bevelhimer, Mark S [ORNL

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

The Economic, Energy, and GHG Emissions Impacts of Proposed 2017–2025 Vehicle Fuel Economy Standards in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increases in the U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards for 2017 to 2025 model year light-duty vehicles are currently under consideration. This analysis uses an economy-wide model with detail in the passenger ...

Karplus, Valerie

2012-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Development and Update of Long-Term Energy and GHG Emission Macroeconomic Accounting Tool  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about the development...

217

Implications of near-term coal power plant retirement for SO2 and NOX, and life cycle GHG emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prices of electricity production Plant type Unit Price Nuclear ($/MWh) 16.51 Wind ($/MWh) 201 Hydro Top SO2 100 430 95 440 100 430 Top NOX 105 350 100 380 105 345 Small, inefficient 125 410 125 405 125) Manitoba Hydro Manitoba Hydro Undertaking # 57 http://www.pub.gov.mb.ca/exhibits/mh-83.pdf. (5) Sotkiewicz

Jaramillo, Paulina

218

Life cycle GHG emissions from Malaysian oil palm bioenergy development: The impact on transportation sector's energy security  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on transportation sector's energy security Mohd Nor Azman Hassan a,n , Paulina Jaramillo a , W. Michael Griffin a sector accounts for 41% of the country's total energy use. The country is expected to become a net oil% of total energy consumption. This is expected to increase to about 1100 PJ in 2015 extrapolat- ing

Jaramillo, Paulina

219

Simplified life cycle approach: GHG variability assessment for onshore wind electricity based on Monte-Carlo simulations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The environmental impacts of electricity production systems have been widely assessed over the past years with many published LCAs in the literature. In the special case of greenhouses gases (GHG) from wind power electricity, the LCA results variability observed is very high, for example ranging from 2 to 81 g CO2eq/kWh in a literature review performed by the IPCC [1]. Such result might lead policy makers to consider

Pierryves Padey; Denis Le Boulch; Isabelle Blanc

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Hydrogen Pathways: Updated Cost, Well-to-Wheels Energy Use, and Emissions for the Current Technology Status of Ten Hydrogen Production, Delivery, and Distribution Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes a life-cycle assessment conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) of 10 hydrogen production, delivery, dispensing, and use pathways that were evaluated for cost, energy use, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This evaluation updates and expands on a previous assessment of seven pathways conducted in 2009. This study summarizes key results, parameters, and sensitivities to those parameters for the 10 hydrogen pathways, reporting on the levelized cost of hydrogen in 2007 U.S. dollars as well as life-cycle well-to-wheels energy use and GHG emissions associated with the pathways.

Ramsden, T.; Ruth, M.; Diakov, V.; Laffen, M.; Timbario, T. A.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Avoiding deforestation in Panamanian protected areas: An analysis of protection effectiveness and implications for reducing emissions from deforestation and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-energy sector GHG emissions and to encourage broader participation in climate change mitigation by generally, Col. Country Club, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Me´xico, C.P. 45010, Mexico 1. Introduction: avoiding deforestation and protected areas In the last decade, climate change mitigation has received much international

Bermingham, Eldredge

222

1 Forecasting Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Urban Regions: 2 Microsimulation of Land Use and Transport Patterns in Austin, Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

45 rural demands for travel and energy.46 The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA 2005 2030 household energy 26 demands and GHG emissions estimates are compared under five different land use the highest rates of increase. Average energy consumption per household is estimated to fall over 30 time (by

Kockelman, Kara M.

223

Microsoft PowerPoint - FNC NEPA GHG Climate Slides -- 16Jan2015...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

REVISED DRAFT GUIDANCE ON CONSIDERATION OF GREENHOUSE GAS EMISSIONS AND THE EFFECTS OF CLIMATE CHANGE IN NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT REVIEWS HORST G GRECZMIEL ASSOCIATE...

224

Article published Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology DOI: 10.1002/ghg.1395  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for pipelines that are robust to a priori uncertainty in CO2 production from industrial sources and CO2 storage emissions from electric power plants that emit CO2 as a consequence of combusting fossil fuels (namely coal% of anthropogenic CO2 emissions,5 whereas steel production emitted approximately 2.7 GtCO2 in 2011.6 CO2 capture

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

225

THE EFFECT OF LIMITED SPATIAL RESOLUTION OF STELLAR SURFACE MAGNETIC FIELD MAPS ON MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC WIND AND CORONAL X-RAY EMISSION MODELS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the influence of the spatial resolution on scales of 5 Degree-Sign and smaller of solar surface magnetic field maps on global magnetohydrodynamic solar wind models, and on a model of coronal heating and X-ray emission. We compare the solutions driven by a low-resolution Wilcox Solar Observatory magnetic map, the same map with spatial resolution artificially increased by a refinement algorithm, and a high-resolution Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager map. We find that both the wind structure and the X-ray morphology are affected by the fine-scale surface magnetic structure. Moreover, the X-ray morphology is dominated by the closed loop structure between mixed polarities on smaller scales and shows significant changes between high- and low-resolution maps. We conclude that three-dimensional modeling of coronal X-ray emission has greater surface magnetic field spatial resolution requirements than wind modeling, and can be unreliable unless the dominant mixed polarity magnetic flux is properly resolved.

Garraffo, C.; Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St. Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Downs, C. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)] [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii at Manoa, 2680 Woodlawn Dr., Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

2013-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

226

Life Cycle Regulation of Transportation Fuels: Uncertainty and its Policy Implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

radiative forcing from bio- fuel and gasoline GHG emissions,directly to additional bio- fuel feedstocks. The averagelife cycle GHGs from bio- fuels highlights the limitations

Plevin, Richard Jay

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

An issue of trust: state corruption, responsibility and greenhouse gas emissions This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP PUBLISHING ENVIRONMENTAL RESEARCH LETTERS Environ. Res. Lett. 5 (2010 uncontroversial, since the economic theory of externalities suggests that, given some level of external cost imposed by the anthropogenic release of greenhouse gases (GHG), some reduction of emissions 4 Author

Kammen, Daniel M.

228

Absolute vs. intensity-based emission caps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cap-and-trade systems limit emissions to some pre-specified absolute quantity. Intensity-based limits, that restrict emissions to some pre-specified rate relative to input or output, are much more widely used in environmental ...

Ellerman, A. Denny.

229

Observation of CH4 and other Non-CO2 Green House Gas Emissions from California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In 2006, California passed the landmark assembly bill AB-32 to reduce California's emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) that contribute to global climate change. AB-32 commits California to reduce total GHG emissions to 1990 levels by 2020, a reduction of 25 percent from current levels. To verify that GHG emission reductions are actually taking place, it will be necessary to measure emissions. We describe atmospheric inverse model estimates of GHG emissions obtained from the California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project. In collaboration with NOAA, we are measuring the dominant long-lived GHGs at two tall-towers in central California. Here, we present estimates of CH{sub 4} emissions obtained by statistical comparison of measured and predicted atmospheric mixing ratios. The predicted mixing ratios are calculated using spatially resolved a priori CH{sub 4} emissions and surface footprints, that provide a proportional relationship between the surface emissions and the mixing ratio signal at tower locations. The footprints are computed using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) coupled to the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport (STILT) model. Integral to the inverse estimates, we perform a quantitative analysis of errors in atmospheric transport and other factors to provide quantitative uncertainties in estimated emissions. Regressions of modeled and measured mixing ratios suggest that total CH{sub 4} emissions are within 25% of the inventory estimates. A Bayesian source sector analysis obtains posterior scaling factors for CH{sub 4} emissions, indicating that emissions from several of the sources (e.g., landfills, natural gas use, petroleum production, crops, and wetlands) are roughly consistent with inventory estimates, but livestock emissions are significantly higher than the inventory. A Bayesian 'region' analysis is used to identify spatial variations in CH{sub 4} emissions from 13 sub-regions within California. Although, only regions near the tower are significantly constrained by the tower measurements, CH{sub 4} emissions from the south Central Valley appear to be underestimated in a manner consistent with the under-prediction of livestock emissions. Finally, we describe a pseudo-experiment using predicted CH{sub 4} signals to explore the uncertainty reductions that might be obtained if additional measurements were made by a future network of tall-tower stations spread over California. These results show that it should be possible to provide high-accuracy estimates of surface CH{sub 4} emissions for multiple regions as a means to verify future emissions reductions.

Fischer, Marc L.; Zhao, Chuanfeng; Riley, William J.; Andrews, Arlyn C.

2009-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

230

Agricultural Sector Analysis on Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

............................................................................ 14 2.2.2 Agriculture - A GHG Sequestering Sink............................................... 15 vi Page 2.2.2.1 Soil Sequestration ........................................................................ 15 2.2.2.2 Forest Sequestration... systems (Flach, Barnwell, and Crosson). Similarly, total forestland in the U.S. has been slightly increasing during the last decade (U.S. Forest Service). In countries with large rates of deforestation emissions are important. Houghton estimates...

Schneider, Uwe A.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Waste management activities and carbon emissions in Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes research into waste management activities and carbon emissions from territories in sub-Saharan Africa with the main objective of quantifying emission reductions (ERs) that can be gained through viable improvements to waste management in Africa. It demonstrates that data on waste and carbon emissions is poor and generally inadequate for prediction models. The paper shows that the amount of waste produced and its composition are linked to national Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Waste production per person is around half that in developed countries with a mean around 230 kg/hd/yr. Sub-Saharan territories produce waste with a biogenic carbon content of around 56% (+/-25%), which is approximately 40% greater than developed countries. This waste is disposed in uncontrolled dumps that produce large amounts of methane gas. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from waste will rise with increasing urbanization and can only be controlled through funding mechanisms from developed countries.

Couth, R. [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa); Trois, C., E-mail: troisc@ukzn.ac.za [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Survey and Construction, Durban 4041 (South Africa)

2011-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products , Chase L.D.C.b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pilot application of PalmGHG, the RSPO greenhouse gas calculator for oil palm products Bessou C.1016/j.jclepro.2013.12.008 (Pre-proof version) ABSTRACT The Roundtable on Sustainable Palm Oil (RSPO) is a non-profit association promoting sustainable palm oil through a voluntary certification scheme. Two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

233

Uncertainties in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Advanced  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To meet Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) cellulosic biofuel mandates, the United States will require an annual domestic supply of about 242 million Mg of biomass by 2022. To improve the feedstock logistics of lignocellulosic biofuels and access available biomass resources from areas with varying yields, commodity systems have been proposed and designed to deliver on-spec biomass feedstocks at preprocessing “depots”, which densify and stabilize the biomass prior to long-distance transport and delivery to centralized biorefineries. The harvesting, preprocessing, and logistics (HPL) of biomass commodity supply chains thus could introduce spatially variable environmental impacts into the biofuel life cycle due to needing to harvest, move, and preprocess biomass from multiple distances that have variable spatial density. This study examines the uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of corn stover logisticsHPL within a bio-ethanol supply chain in the state of Kansas, where sustainable biomass supply varies spatially. Two scenarios were evaluated each having a different number of depots of varying capacity and location within Kansas relative to a central commodity-receiving biorefinery to test GHG emissions uncertainty. Monte Carlo simulation was used to estimate the spatial uncertainty in the HPL gate-to-gate sequence. The results show that the transport of densified biomass introduces the highest variability and contribution to the carbon footprint of the logistics HPL supply chain (0.2-13 g CO2e/MJ). Moreover, depending upon the biomass availability and its spatial density and surrounding transportation infrastructure (road and rail), logistics HPL processes can increase the variability in life cycle environmental impacts for lignocellulosic biofuels. Within Kansas, life cycle GHG emissions could range from 24 to 41 g CO2e/MJ depending upon the location, size and number of preprocessing depots constructed. However, this range can be minimized through optimizing the siting of preprocessing depots where ample rail infrastructure exists to supply biomass commodity to a regional biorefinery supply system

Kara G. Cafferty; Erin M. Searcy; Long Nguyen; Sabrina Spatari

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Coronal emission lines as thermometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coronal emission line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Limiting Emission Angle for Improved Solar Cell  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling, waste heat recovery and solar electricity generation, low values of the thermoelectric figure. Phase Transition Enhanced Thermoelectrics While thermoelectric materials can be used for solid state of merit, zT, have led to an efficiency too low for widespread use. Thermoelectric effects

236

Quantification of greenhouse gas emissions from waste management processes for municipalities - A comparative review focusing on Africa  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The amount of greenhouse gases (GHG) emitted due to waste management in the cities of developing countries is predicted to rise considerably in the near future; however, these countries have a series of problems in accounting and reporting these gases. Some of these problems are related to the status quo of waste management in the developing world and some to the lack of a coherent framework for accounting and reporting of greenhouse gases from waste at municipal level. This review summarizes and compares GHG emissions from individual waste management processes which make up a municipal waste management system, with an emphasis on developing countries and, in particular, Africa. It should be seen as a first step towards developing a more holistic GHG accounting model for municipalities. The comparison between these emissions from developed and developing countries at process level, reveals that there is agreement on the magnitude of the emissions expected from each process (generation of waste, collection and transport, disposal and recycling). The highest GHG savings are achieved through recycling, and these savings would be even higher in developing countries which rely on coal for energy production (e.g. South Africa, India and China) and where non-motorized collection and transport is used. The highest emissions are due to the methane released by dumpsites and landfills, and these emissions are predicted to increase significantly, unless more of the methane is captured and either flared or used for energy generation. The clean development mechanism (CDM) projects implemented in the developing world have made some progress in this field; however, African countries lag behind.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.za [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [CRECHE Centre for Research in Environmental, Coastal and Hydrological Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Vehicle Standards in a Climate Policy Framework WORKING PAPER  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

action to raise Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards and issue vehicle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions standards both in California and federally. At the same time, U.S. policy makers are moving toward a national program to limit GHG emissions economy wide. The most robust strategy entails capping emissions

Edwards, Paul N.

238

Cost of Ownership and Well-to-Wheels Carbon Emissions/Oil Use of Alternative Fuels and Advanced Light-Duty Vehicle Technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) updated their analysis of the well-to-wheels (WTW) greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions, petroleum use, and the cost of ownership (excluding insurance, maintenance, and miscellaneous fees) of vehicle technologies that have the potential to significantly reduce GHG emissions and petroleum consumption. The analyses focused on advanced light-duty vehicle (LDV) technologies such as plug-in hybrid, battery electric, and fuel cell electric vehicles. Besides gasoline and diesel, alternative fuels considered include natural gas, advanced biofuels, electricity, and hydrogen. The Argonne Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) and Autonomie models were used along with the Argonne and NREL H2A models.

Elgowainy, Mr. Amgad [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Rousseau, Mr. Aymeric [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Wang, Mr. Michael [Argonne National Laboratory (ANL); Ruth, Mr. Mark [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); Andress, Mr. David [David Andress & Associates, Inc.; Ward, Jacob [U.S. Department of Energy; Joseck, Fred [U.S. Department of Energy; Nguyen, Tien [U.S. Department of Energy; Das, Sujit [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Advanced PHEV Engine Systems and Emissions Control Modeling and...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

- Very limited transient engines and emissions models for PHEV simulations - PHEV optimization needs to include advanced engine combustion modes and emissions controls * Partners...

240

Analysis of potential for reducing emissions of greenhouse gases in municipal solid waste in Brazil, in the state and city of Rio de Janeiro  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: ? We constructed future scenarios of emissions of greenhouse gases in waste. ? Was used the IPCC methodology for calculating emission inventories. ? We calculated the costs of abatement for emissions reduction in landfill waste. ? The results were compared to Brazil, state and city of Rio de Janeiro. ? The higher the environmental passive, the greater the possibility of use of biogas. - Abstract: This paper examines potential changes in solid waste policies for the reduction in GHG for the country of Brazil and one of its major states and cities, Rio de Janeiro, from 2005 to 2030. To examine these policy options, trends in solid waste quantities and associated GHG emissions are derived. Three alternative policy scenarios are evaluated in terms of effectiveness, technology, and economics and conclusions posited regarding optimal strategies for Brazil to implement. These scenarios are been building on the guidelines for national inventories of GHG emissions (IPCC, 2006) and adapted to Brazilian states and municipalities’ boundaries. Based on the results, it is possible to say that the potential revenue from products of solid waste management is more than sufficient to transform the current scenario in this country into one of financial and environmental gains, where the negative impacts of climate change have created a huge opportunity to expand infrastructure for waste management.

Loureiro, S.M., E-mail: saulo@lima.coppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Rovere, E.L.L., E-mail: emilio@ppe.ufrj.br [Department of Energy Planning, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68565, CEP 21949-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Mahler, C.F., E-mail: mahler0503@yahoo.com [Department of Civil Engineering, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, C.P. 68506, CEP 21945-970, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LETTERS Warming caused by cumulative carbon emissions towards the trillionth tonne Myles R. Allen1 emission pathways. We find that the peak warming caused by a given cumulative carbon dioxide emission of emissions or peak emission rate). Hence policy targets based on limiting cumulative emissions of carbon

Fischlin, Andreas

242

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of Travel Reduction and Efficient Driving on Transportation: Energy Use and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Since the 1970s, numerous transportation strategies have been formulated to change the behavior of drivers or travelers by reducing trips, shifting travel to more efficient modes, or improving the efficiency of existing modes. This report summarizes findings documented in existing literature to identify strategies with the greatest potential impact. The estimated effects of implementing the most significant and aggressive individual driver behavior modification strategies range from less than 1% to a few percent reduction in transportation energy use and GHG emissions. Combined strategies result in reductions of 7% to 15% by 2030. Pricing, ridesharing, eco-driving, and speed limit reduction/enforcement strategies are widely judged to have the greatest estimated potential effect, but lack the widespread public acceptance needed to accomplish maximum results. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; DeFlorio, J.; McKenzie, E.; Tao, W.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Estimating Policy-Driven Greenhouse Gas Emissions Trajectories in California: The California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A California Greenhouse Gas Inventory Spreadsheet (GHGIS) model was developed to explore the impact of combinations of state policies on state greenhouse gas (GHG) and regional criteria pollutant emissions. The model included representations of all GHG- emitting sectors of the California economy (including those outside the energy sector, such as high global warming potential gases, waste treatment, agriculture and forestry) in varying degrees of detail, and was carefully calibrated using available data and projections from multiple state agencies and other sources. Starting from basic drivers such as population, numbers of households, gross state product, numbers of vehicles, etc., the model calculated energy demands by type (various types of liquid and gaseous hydrocarbon fuels, electricity and hydrogen), and finally calculated emissions of GHGs and three criteria pollutants: reactive organic gases (ROG), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and fine (2.5 ?m) particulate matter (PM2.5). Calculations were generally statewide, but in some sectors, criteria pollutants were also calculated for two regional air basins: the South Coast Air Basin (SCAB) and the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Three scenarios were developed that attempt to model: (1) all committed policies, (2) additional, uncommitted policy targets and (3) potential technology and market futures. Each scenario received extensive input from state energy planning agencies, in particular the California Air Resources Board. Results indicate that all three scenarios are able to meet the 2020 statewide GHG targets, and by 2030, statewide GHG emissions range from between 208 and 396 MtCO2/yr. However, none of the scenarios are able to meet the 2050 GHG target of 85 MtCO2/yr, with emissions ranging from 188 to 444 MtCO2/yr, so additional policies will need to be developed for California to meet this stringent future target. A full sensitivity study of major scenario assumptions was also performed. In terms of criteria pollutants, targets were less well-defined, but while all three scenarios were able to make significant reductions in ROG, NOx and PM2.5 both statewide and in the two regional air basins, they may nonetheless fall short of what will be required by future federal standards. Specifically, in Scenario 1, regional NOx emissions are approximately three times the estimated targets for both 2023 and 2032, and in Scenarios 2 and 3, NOx emissions are approximately twice the estimated targets. Further work is required in this area, including detailed regional air quality modeling, in order to determine likely pathways for attaining these stringent targets.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

244

Opportunity Analysis for Recovering Energy from Industrial Waste Heat and Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

United States industry consumed 32.5 Quads (34,300 PJ) of energy during 2003, which was 33.1% of total U.S. energy consumption (EIA 2003 Annual Energy Review). The U.S. industrial complex yields valuable goods and products. Through its manufacturing processes as well as its abundant energy consumption, it supports a multi-trillion dollar contribution to the gross domestic product and provides millions of jobs in the U.S. each year. Industry also yields waste products directly through its manufacturing processes and indirectly through its energy consumption. These waste products come in two forms, chemical and thermal. Both forms of waste have residual energy values that are not routinely recovered. Recovering and reusing these waste products may represent a significant opportunity to improve the energy efficiency of the U.S. industrial complex. This report was prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Industrial Technologies Program (DOE-ITP). It analyzes the opportunity to recover chemical emissions and thermal emissions from U.S. industry. It also analyzes the barriers and pathways to more effectively capitalize on these opportunities. A primary part of this analysis was to characterize the quantity and energy value of the emissions. For example, in 2001, the industrial sector emitted 19% of the U.S. greenhouse gases (GHG) through its industrial processes and emitted 11% of GHG through electricity purchased from off-site utilities. Therefore, industry (not including agriculture) was directly and indirectly responsible for emitting 30% of the U.S. GHG. These emissions were mainly comprised of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also contained a wide-variety of CH4 (methane), CO (carbon monoxide), H2 (hydrogen), NMVOC (non-methane volatile organic compound), and other chemicals. As part of this study, we conducted a survey of publicly available literature to determine the amount of energy embedded in the emissions and to identify technology opportunities to capture and reuse this energy. As shown in Table E-1, non-CO2 GHG emissions from U.S. industry were identified as having 2180 peta joules (PJ) or 2 Quads (quadrillion Btu) of residual chemical fuel value. Since landfills are not traditionally considered industrial organizations, the industry component of these emissions had a value of 1480 PJ or 1.4 Quads. This represents approximately 4.3% of the total energy used in the United States Industry.

Viswanathan, Vish V.; Davies, Richard W.; Holbery, Jim D.

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Development of a local carbon dioxide emissions inventory based on energy demand and waste production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper describes the study that led to the development of a carbon dioxide emissions matrix for the Oeiras municipality, one of the largest Portuguese municipalities, located in the metropolitan area of Lisbon. This matrix takes into account the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions due to an increase of electricity demand in buildings as well as solid and liquid wastes treatment from the domestic and services sectors. Using emission factors that were calculated from the relationship between the electricity produced and amount of treated wastes, the GHC emissions in the Oeiras municipality were estimated for a time series of 6 yr (1998 - 2003). The obtained results showed that the electricity sector accounts for approximately 75% of the municipal emissions in 2003. This study was developed to obtain tools to base options and actions to be undertaken by local authorities such as energy planning and also public information. 11 refs., 12 tabs.

Joao Gomes; Joana Nascimento; Helena Rodrigues [Instituto Superior de Engenharia de Lisboa, Lisboa (Portugal)

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Assessment of fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions for Fischer-Tropsch diesel from coal and cellulosic biomass.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study expands and uses the GREET (Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation) model to assess the effects of carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology and cellulosic biomass and coal cofeeding in Fischer-Tropsch (FT) plants on energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of FT diesel (FTD). To demonstrate the influence of the coproduct credit methods on FTD life-cycle analysis (LCA) results, two allocation methods based on the energy value and the market revenue of different products and a hybrid method are employed. With the energy-based allocation method, fossil energy use of FTD is less than that of petroleum diesel, and GHG emissions of FTD could be close to zero or even less than zero with CCS when forest residue accounts for 55% or more of the total dry mass input to FTD plants. Without CCS, GHG emissions are reduced to a level equivalent to that from petroleum diesel plants when forest residue accounts for 61% of the total dry mass input. Moreover, we show that coproduct method selection is crucial for LCA results of FTD when a large amount of coproducts is produced.

Xie, X.; Wang, M.; Han, J. (Energy Systems)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

Rayner, S.

1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

248

Well-to-wheels energy use and greenhouse gas emissions analysis of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers at Argonne National Laboratory expanded the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model and incorporated the fuel economy and electricity use of alternative fuel/vehicle systems simulated by the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) to conduct a well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). The WTW results were separately calculated for the blended charge-depleting (CD) and charge-sustaining (CS) modes of PHEV operation and then combined by using a weighting factor that represented the CD vehicle-miles-traveled (VMT) share. As indicated by PSAT simulations of the CD operation, grid electricity accounted for a share of the vehicle's total energy use, ranging from 6% for a PHEV 10 to 24% for a PHEV 40, based on CD VMT shares of 23% and 63%, respectively. In addition to the PHEV's fuel economy and type of on-board fuel, the marginal electricity generation mix used to charge the vehicle impacted the WTW results, especially GHG emissions. Three North American Electric Reliability Corporation regions (4, 6, and 13) were selected for this analysis, because they encompassed large metropolitan areas (Illinois, New York, and California, respectively) and provided a significant variation of marginal generation mixes. The WTW results were also reported for the U.S. generation mix and renewable electricity to examine cases of average and clean mixes, respectively. For an all-electric range (AER) between 10 mi and 40 mi, PHEVs that employed petroleum fuels (gasoline and diesel), a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline (E85), and hydrogen were shown to offer a 40-60%, 70-90%, and more than 90% reduction in petroleum energy use and a 30-60%, 40-80%, and 10-100% reduction in GHG emissions, respectively, relative to an internal combustion engine vehicle that used gasoline. The spread of WTW GHG emissions among the different fuel production technologies and grid generation mixes was wider than the spread of petroleum energy use, mainly due to the diverse fuel production technologies and feedstock sources for the fuels considered in this analysis. The PHEVs offered reductions in petroleum energy use as compared with regular hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). More petroleum energy savings were realized as the AER increased, except when the marginal grid mix was dominated by oil-fired power generation. Similarly, more GHG emissions reductions were realized at higher AERs, except when the marginal grid generation mix was dominated by oil or coal. Electricity from renewable sources realized the largest reductions in petroleum energy use and GHG emissions for all PHEVs as the AER increased. The PHEVs that employ biomass-based fuels (e.g., biomass-E85 and -hydrogen) may not realize GHG emissions benefits over regular HEVs if the marginal generation mix is dominated by fossil sources. Uncertainties are associated with the adopted PHEV fuel consumption and marginal generation mix simulation results, which impact the WTW results and require further research. More disaggregate marginal generation data within control areas (where the actual dispatching occurs) and an improved dispatch modeling are needed to accurately assess the impact of PHEV electrification. The market penetration of the PHEVs, their total electric load, and their role as complements rather than replacements of regular HEVs are also uncertain. The effects of the number of daily charges, the time of charging, and the charging capacity have not been evaluated in this study. A more robust analysis of the VMT share of the CD operation is also needed.

Elgowainy, A.; Burnham, A.; Wang, M.; Molburg, J.; Rousseau, A.; Energy Systems

2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

249

Combining a renewable portfolio standard with a cap-and-trade policy : a general equilibrium analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Most economists see incentive-based measures such a cap-and-trade system or a carbon tax as cost effective policy instruments for limiting greenhouse gas emissions. In actuality, many efforts to address GHG emissions combine ...

Morris Jennifer F. (Jennifer Faye)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Co-benefits of mitigating global greenhouse gas emissions for future air quality and human health  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions also influences air quality. We simulate the co-benefits of global GHG reductions on air quality and human health via two mechanisms: a) reducing co-emitted air pollutants, and b) slowing climate change and its effect on air quality. Relative to a reference scenario, global GHG mitigation in the RCP4.5 scenario avoids 0.5±0.2, 1.3±0.6, and 2.2±1.6 million premature deaths in 2030, 2050, and 2100, from changes in fine particulate matter and ozone. Global average marginal co-benefits of avoided mortality are $40-400 (ton CO2)-1, exceeding marginal abatement costs in 2030 and 2050, and within the low range of costs in 2100. East Asian co-benefits are 10-80 times the marginal cost in 2030. These results indicate that transitioning to a low-carbon future might be justified by air quality and health co-benefits.

West, Jason; Smith, Steven J.; Silva, Raquel; Naik, Vaishali; Zhang, Yuqiang; Adelman, Zacariah; Fry, Meridith M.; Anenberg, Susan C.; Horowitz, L.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Determining the Volatility of Ultrafine (UF) PM Emissions from CNG Vehicles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Limited research has been done to characterize compressed natural gas (CNG) mass emissions and practically

252

Decision-Making to Reduce Manufacturing Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to GHG/kWh of the USA electricity supply chain are coalGHG/kWh of electricity example based on USA. Distributionnuclear (USA) are different because of the electricity mix

Reich-Weiser, Corinne

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Transportation Energy Futures: Combining Strategies for Deep Reductions in Energy Consumption and GHG Emissions (Brochure), U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear SecurityTensile Strain Switched Ferromagnetism in Layered NbS2Topo II:LIGHT-DUTY VEHICLES Vehicle

254

Control of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by Optimal DER Technology Investment and Energy Management in Zero-Net-Energy Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency requirements - Maximum emission limits Investment constraints: - Payback period is constrained Storage constraints: - Electricity stored is limited by battery

Stadler, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Gas Turbine Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology developers and electric utilities will share emissions reductions in the coming era of pollution allowance trading is becoming prominent on the agendas of strategic planners at technology vendors and the electric power industry ??? ? (1...., "Authority to Construct for Badger Creek Limited," Kern County Air Pollution Control District, Bakersfield.. Ca., June 20, 1989. 3) Wark, K. and Warner, C. F., Air Pollution - Its Origin and Control, Harper and Row, New York, New York, 1976, pp. 453...

Frederick, J. D.

256

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) - Sector  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Emissions On This Page Concerns about GHG... Growth of carbon... Sulfur dioxide emissions... Nitrogen oxide emissions... Concerns about GHG legislation affect the long-term outlook...

257

Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

if supplied with coal power; at emissions rates equal torates). If coal power Electricity GHG emissions rate (gCOlower GHG emissions rates than coal power supplying non-

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

PARALLEL SESSION 6a: Tools and Databases 8th Int. Conference on LCA in the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

it to a user-friendly software. Keywords: palm oil, biodiesel, GHG, calculator, RSPO, PalmGHG 1. IntroductionGHG calculator provides an estimate of the net GHG emissions produced during the palm oil and palm biodiesel

Boyer, Edmond

259

Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Trough and Tower Concentrating Solar Power Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In reviewing life cycle assessment (LCA) literature of utility-scale concentrating solar power (CSP) systems, this analysis focuses on reducing variability and clarifying the central tendency of published estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through a meta-analytical process called harmonization. From 125 references reviewed, 10 produced 36 independent GHG emissions estimates passing screens for quality and relevance: 19 for parabolic trough (trough) technology and 17 for power tower (tower) technology. The interquartile range (IQR) of published estimates for troughs and towers were 83 and 20 grams of carbon dioxide equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO2-eq/kWh),1 respectively; median estimates were 26 and 38 g CO2-eq/kWh for trough and tower, respectively. Two levels of harmonization were applied. Light harmonization reduced variability in published estimates by using consistent values for key parameters pertaining to plant design and performance. The IQR and median were reduced by 87% and 17%, respectively, for troughs. For towers, the IQR and median decreased by 33% and 38%, respectively. Next, five trough LCAs reporting detailed life cycle inventories were identified. The variability and central tendency of their estimates are reduced by 91% and 81%, respectively, after light harmonization. By harmonizing these five estimates to consistent values for global warming intensities of materials and expanding system boundaries to consistently include electricity and auxiliary natural gas combustion, variability is reduced by an additional 32% while central tendency increases by 8%. These harmonized values provide useful starting points for policy makers in evaluating life cycle GHG emissions from CSP projects without the requirement to conduct a full LCA for each new project.

Burkhardt, J. J.; Heath, G.; Cohen, E.

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

2010 LANL radionuclide air emissions report /  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emissions of radionuclides from Department of Energy Facilities such as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) are regulated by the Amendments to the Clean Air Act of 1990, National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (40 CFR 61 Subpart H). These regulations established an annual dose limit of 10 mrem to the maximally exposed member of the public attributable to emissions of radionuclides. This document describes the emissions of radionuclides from LANL and the dose calculations resulting from these emissions for calendar year 2010. This report meets the reporting requirements established in the regulations.

Fuehne, David P.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Implementation, Enforcement, & Moderator: Benjamin Gramig, Purdue University  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in GHG Emissions Trading Debbie marketpaymentsforthesupplyofclimateregulatingecosystemservices. Becausethereareprivatecostsavingstofarmersandsocialbenefitsfrom 23Emissions Trading Workshop #12

262

Optimization of Engine-out Emissions from a Diesel Engine to...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Optimization of Engine-out Emissions from a Diesel Engine to Meet Tier 2 Bin 5 Emission Limits Optimization of Engine-out Emissions from a Diesel Engine to Meet Tier 2 Bin 5...

263

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lower greenhouse gas emissions from electricity productionAssessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Plug-in Hybridof national greenhouse gas emissions. Both motor vehicle

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Joint implementation : lessons from Title IV's voluntary compliance programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed by more than 150 nations in June 1992, commits signatory countries to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to 1990 levels by the year 2000. Article ...

Atkeson, Erica

265

Biochar – synergies between carbon storage, environmental functions and renewable energy production   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Growing concerns about climate change and the inevitable depletion of fossil fuel resources have led to an increased focus on renewable energy technologies and reducing GHG emissions. Limiting the atmospheric level of ...

Crombie, Kyle

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

266

U.S. Greenhouse Gas Cap-and-Trade Proposals: Application of a Forward-Looking Computable General Equilibrium Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We develop a forward-looking version of the MIT Emissions Prediction and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and apply it to examine the economic implications of proposals in the U.S. Congress to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) ...

Gurgel, Angelo C.

267

A methodology to estimate greenhouse gases emissions in Life Cycle Inventories of wastewater treatment plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The main objective of this paper is to present the Direct Emissions Estimation Model (DEEM), a model for the estimation of CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O emissions from a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). This model is consistent with non-specific but widely used models such as AS/AD and ASM no. 1 and presents the benefits of simplicity and application over a common WWTP simulation platform, BioWin Registered-Sign , making it suitable for Life Cycle Assessment and Carbon Footprint studies. Its application in a Spanish WWTP indicates direct N{sub 2}O emissions to be 8 times larger than those associated with electricity use and thus relevant for LCA. CO{sub 2} emissions can be of similar importance to electricity-associated ones provided that 20% of them are of non-biogenic origin. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A model has been developed for the estimation of GHG emissions in WWTP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model was consistent with both ASM no. 1 and AS/AD. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer N{sub 2}O emissions are 8 times more relevant than the one associated with electricity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO{sub 2} emissions are as important as electricity if 20% of it is non-biogenic.

Rodriguez-Garcia, G., E-mail: gonzalo.rodriguez.garcia@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Hospido, A., E-mail: almudena.hospido@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Bagley, D.M., E-mail: bagley@uwyo.edu [Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, University of Wyoming, 82072 Laramie, WY (United States); Moreira, M.T., E-mail: maite.moreira@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Feijoo, G., E-mail: gumersindo.feijoo@usc.es [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, Rua Lope Gomez de Marzoa, S/N, 15782, Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

268

IS THE TAIL WAGGING THE DOG? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS OF CORPORATE CARBON FOOTPRINTS AND FINANCIAL PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supply Chain GHG Emissions Controls Water Abstraction General Waste VOCs HeavySupply Chain GHG Emissions Controls Water Abstraction General Waste VOCs HeavySupply Chain GHG Emissions Water Abstraction General Waste Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Heavy

Delmas, Magali A; Nairn-Birch, Nicholas S.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

America's Bottom-Up Climate Change Mitigation Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stabilize US GHG emissions at their 2010 levels until thefor US light-duty vehicle GHG emissions under varying levelsUS GHG emissions would be stabilized at 2010 levels by 2020—

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

America's Bottom-Up Climate Change Mitigation Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US 1990 GHG emissions None 684 US cities representing 26% ofGHG emissions by states sources and sectors 684 US cities,The overall US GHG emissions effect of the state and city

Lutsey, Nicholas P.; Sperling, Dan

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HYPERPARAMETER ESTIMATION FOR EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY DATA A. López (a) , R. Molina (b) (a limited due to several factors. These factors include the need of greater computational time than to the projection data to obtain two-dimensional slices or cross sections (images) of activity distribution. #12

Granada, Universidad de

272

Positron Emission Tomography Physics, Instrumentation, Data Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Positron Emission Tomography Physics, Instrumentation, Data Analysis Carl K. Hoh, MD Department fast computer Filtered Back Projection Iterative Reconstruction PET Image Reconstruction #12 PET Scanner Design · Smaller individual crystal size = better spatial resolution · Physical limit

Liu, Thomas T.

273

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 13 - Particulate Emissions...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Environmental Regulations Provider Department of Environmental Management The purpose of this regulation is to limit emissions of particulate matter from fossil fuel fired and...

274

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COMPACT EMISSIONS HEV PHEV marginal power plant is a coalpower uses relatively little coal, but in other cases emissions

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

1998-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportatio...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Energy Use in Transportation (GREET) Model AgencyCompany Organization: Argonne National Laboratory Focus Area: GHG Inventory Development Topics: Analysis Tools...

277

Rapid Assessment of City Emissions (RACE): Case of Batangas City...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building activities include development of climate change policies and preparation of GHG inventories. Identified capacity building needs include technical assistance to the...

278

Survey Employees to Evaluate Greenhouse Gas Emissions Profile for Commuting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

For evaluating a greenhouse gas (GHG) profile for employee commuting, data on behavior and attitudes are best collected through an agency-wide survey.

279

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiency of Household Appliances in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to overtake the US in energy consumption and GHG emissionsto overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse

Lin, Jiang

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Three Essays in Business Management, the Natural Environment, and Environmental Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Supply Chain GHG Emissions -0.762 Controls Water Abstraction General Waste VOCs HeavySupply Chain GHG Emissions Water Abstraction General Waste Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) Heavy

Nairn-Birch, Nicholas Simon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

anemia mga1 region: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and Plants Websites Summary: 652013 1 Regional GHG Emissions O tlook Greenhouse Gas and the Regional Power System Symposium Regional GHG Emissions - Outlook June 4, 2013...

282

Interactions between Electric-drive Vehicles and the Power Sector in California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium GHG emissions rate Variable costand Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium GHG emissions rate (CO 2 -eq/kWh) Cost

McCarthy, Ryan; Yang, Christopher; Ogden, Joan M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Three Essays in Business Management, the Natural Environment, and Environmental Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strength Resolutions CA RGGI RPS GHG Emissions GHG EmissionsGreenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI); or (3) has enactedthese variables, respectively: CA, RGGI, and RPS. We include

Nairn-Birch, Nicholas Simon

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Federal Agency Progress Toward Greenhouse Gas Reduction Targets  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Excel spreadsheet shows overall government and federal agency reductions in scope 1 and 2 greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and in indirect scope 3 GHG emissions categories.

285

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements Tim Arnolda,1's radiative budget; however, our understand- ing of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited together with an atmo- spheric model and inverse method, we estimate that the global emissions of NF3

Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

286

Impact of the renewable oxygenate standard for reformulated gasoline on ethanol demand, energy use, and greenhouse gas emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To assure a place for renewable oxygenates in the national reformulated gasoline (RFG) program, the US Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the renewable oxygenate standard (ROS) for RFG. It is assumed that ethanol derived from corn will be the only broadly available renewable oxygenate during Phase I of the RFG program. This report analyzes the impact that the ROS could have on the supply of ethanol, its transported volume, and its displacement from existing markets. It also considers the energy and crude oil consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions that could result from the production and use of various RFGs that could meet the ROS requirements. The report concludes that on the basis of current and projected near-term ethanol capacity, if ethanol is the only available renewable oxygenate used to meet the requirements of the ROS, diversion of ethanol from existing use as a fuel is likely to be necessary. Year-round use of ethanol and ETBE would eliminate the need for diversion by reducing winter demand for ethanol. On an RFG-program-wide basis, using ethanol and ETBE to satisfy the ROS can be expected to slightly reduce fossil energy use, increase crude oil use, and have essentially no effect on GHG emissions or total energy use relative to using RFG oxygenated only with MTBE.

Stork, K.C.; Singh, M.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Economic Growth, Physical Limits and Liveability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on criteria air contaminants, water use, land use, greenhouse gas emissions and solid waste disposal and population growth, impose the physical limits and then simulate household and firm responses to policy and assess the resulting implications for liveability in the region. I measure liveability using 24

288

Incorporating the Effect of Price Changes on CO2-Equivalent Emissions From Alternative-Fuel Lifecycles: Scoping the Issues  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

function of CO2 taxes (or CO2 emission limits) 10 . b) Taxesrefinery process areas CO2 emissions from the control of COfertilizer use. CH4 and CO2 emissions from soil (parameters

Delucchi, Mark

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

The Control of NOx Emissions from Combustion and Incinerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of combustion modifications, including staged combustion and reburning, for the control of nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired combustors is most often limited by problems due to carbon burnout or flame impingement. This paper presents new data... emissions from waste incineration facilities. The major focus has been on minimizing emissions of potentially toxic organics and trace metals. There is growing concern over emissions of NO x from these facilities as well. However, traditional NO x...

Heap, M. P.; Chen, S. L.; Seeker, W. R.; Pershing, D. W.

290

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2011  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emissions Review - 2011 (so far) Tim Johnson October 4, 2011 DOE DEER Conference, Detroit JohnsonTV@Corning.com 2 Summary * California LD criteria emission regs are tightening....

291

GHG Management Institute GHG MRV Curriculum | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URIFrontier,Jump to:Wilmette, Jump to:SOURCEGHD Inc

292

Spatial Disaggregation of CO2 Emissions for the State of California  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report allocates California's 2004 statewide carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fuel combustion to the 58 counties in the state. The total emissions are allocated to counties using several different methods, based on the availability of data for each sector. Data on natural gas use in all sectors are available by county. Fuel consumption by power and combined heat and power generation plants is available for individual plants. Bottom-up models were used to distribute statewide fuel sales-based CO2 emissions by county for on-road vehicles, aircraft, and watercraft. All other sources of CO2 emissions were allocated to counties based on surrogates for activity. CO2 emissions by sector were estimated for each county, as well as for the South Coast Air Basin. It is important to note that emissions from some sources, notably electricity generation, were allocated to counties based on where the emissions were generated, rather than where the electricity was actually consumed. In addition, several sources of CO2 emissions, such as electricity generated in and imported from other states and international marine bunker fuels, were not included in the analysis. California Air Resource Board (CARB) does not include CO2 emissions from interstate and international air travel, in the official California greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, so those emissions were allocated to counties for informational purposes only. Los Angeles County is responsible for by far the largest CO2 emissions from combustion in the state: 83 Million metric tonnes (Mt), or 24percent of total CO2 emissions in California, more than twice that of the next county (Kern, with 38 Mt, or 11percent of statewide emissions). The South Coast Air Basin accounts for 122 MtCO2, or 35percent of all emissions from fuel combustion in the state. The distribution of emissions by sector varies considerably by county, with on-road motor vehicles dominating most counties, but large stationary sources and rail travel dominating in other counties.The CO2 emissions data by county and source are available upon request.

de la Rue du Can, Stephane; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Wenzel, Tom; Fischer, Marc

2008-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

293

Exhaust emissions from two intercity passenger locomotives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To enhance the effectiveness of intercity passenger rail service in mitigating exhaust emissions in California, the California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) included limits on exhaust emissions in its intercity locomotive procurement specifications. Because there were no available exhaust emission test data on which emission reduction goals could be based, Caltrans funded a test program to acquire gaseous and particulate exhaust emissions data, along with smoke opacity data, from two state-of-the-art intercity passenger locomotives. The two passenger locomotives (an EMD F59PH and a GE DASH8-32BWH) were tested at the Association of American Railroads Chicago Technical Center. The EMD locomotive was equipped with a separate Detroit Diesel Corporation (DDC) 8V-149 diesel engine used to provide 480 V AC power for the trailing passenger cars. This DDC engine was also emission tested. These data were used to quantify baseline exhaust emission levels as a challenge to locomotive manufacturers to offer new locomotives with reduced emissions. Data from the two locomotive engines were recorded at standard fuel injection timing and with the fuel injection timing retarded 4 deg in an effort to reduce NO[sub x] emissions. Results of this emissions testing were incorporated into the Caltrans locomotive procurement process by including emission performance requirements in the Caltrans intercity passenger locomotive specification, and therefore in the procurement decision. This paper contains steady-state exhaust emission test results for hydrocarbons (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NO[sub x]), and particulate matter (PM) from the two locomotives. Computed sulfur dioxide (SO[sub 2]) emissions are also given, and are based on diesel fuel consumption and sulfur content. Exhaust smoke opacity is also reported.

Fritz, S.G. (Southwest Research Inst., San Antonio, TX (United States). Dept. of Emissions Research)

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Multiwavelength Thermal Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multiwavelength Astronomy NASA #12;Thermal Emission #12;Thermal Emission Non-thermal p-p collisions Optical IR Radio/ Microwave sources of emission massive stars, WHIM, Ly many dust, cool objects-ray ~GeV Gamma-ray ~TeV sources of emission AGN, clusters, SNR, binaries, stars AGN (obscured), shocks

California at Santa Cruz, University of

295

Mitigating Carbon Emissions: the Potential of Improving Efficiencyof Household Appliances in China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China is already the second's largest energy consumer in the world after the United States, and its demand for energy is expected to continue to grow rapidly in the foreseeable future, due to its fast economic growth and its low level of energy use per capita. From 2001 to 2005, the growth rate of energy consumption in China has exceeded the growth rate of its economy (NBS, 2006), raising serious concerns about the consequences of such energy use on local environment and global climate. It is widely expected that China is likely to overtake the US in energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions during the first half of the 21st century. Therefore, there is considerable interest in the international community in searching for options that may help China slow down its growth in energy consumption and GHG emissions through improving energy efficiency and adopting more environmentally friendly fuel supplies such as renewable energy. This study examines the energy saving potential of three major residential energy end uses: household refrigeration, air-conditioning, and water heating. China is already the largest consumer market in the world for household appliances, and increasingly the global production base for consumer appliances. Sales of household refrigerators, room air-conditioners, and water heaters are growing rapidly due to rising incomes and booming housing market. At the same time, the energy use of Chinese appliances is relatively inefficient compared to similar products in the developed economies. Therefore, the potential for energy savings through improving appliance efficiency is substantial. This study focuses particularly on the impact of more stringent energy efficiency standards for household appliances, given that such policies are found to be very effective in improving the efficiency of household appliances, and are well established both in China and around world (CLASP, 2006).

Lin, Jiang

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

296

The impact of municipal solid waste treatment methods on greenhouse gas emissions in Lahore, Pakistan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The contribution of existing municipal solid waste management to emission of greenhouse gases and the alternative scenarios to reduce emissions were analyzed for Data Ganj Bukhsh Town (DGBT) in Lahore, Pakistan using the life cycle assessment methodology. DGBT has a population of 1,624,169 people living in 232,024 dwellings. Total waste generated is 500,000 tons per year with an average per capita rate of 0.84 kg per day. Alternative scenarios were developed and evaluated according to the environmental, economic, and social atmosphere of the study area. Solid waste management options considered include the collection and transportation of waste, collection of recyclables with single and mixed material bank container systems (SMBCS, MMBCS), material recovery facilities (MRF), composting, biogasification and landfilling. A life cycle inventory (LCI) of the six scenarios along with the baseline scenario was completed; this helped to quantify the CO{sub 2} equivalents, emitted and avoided, for energy consumption, production, fuel consumption, and methane (CH{sub 4}) emissions. LCI results showed that the contribution of the baseline scenario to the global warming potential as CO{sub 2} equivalents was a maximum of 838,116 tons. The sixth scenario had a maximum reduction of GHG emissions in terms of CO{sub 2} equivalents of -33,773 tons, but the most workable scenario for the current situation in the study area is scenario 5. It saves 25% in CO{sub 2} equivalents compared to the baseline scenario.

Batool, Syeda Adila [Department of Space Science, Punjab University, Lahore 54600 (Pakistan)], E-mail: aadila_batool@yahoo.com; Chuadhry, Muhammad Nawaz [College of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)], E-mail: muhammadnawazchaudhry@yahoo.com

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

297

International Experience with Key Program Elements of IndustrialEnergy Efficiency or Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Target-SettingPrograms  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Target-setting agreements, also known as voluntary ornegotiated agreements, have been used by a number of governments as amechanism for promoting energy efficiency within the industrial sector. Arecent survey of such target-setting agreement programs identified 23energy efficiency or GHG emissions reduction voluntary agreement programsin 18 countries. International best practice related to target-settingagreement programs calls for establishment of a coordinated set ofpolicies that provide strong economic incentives as well as technical andfinancial support to participating industries. The key program elementsof a target-setting program are the target-setting process,identification of energy-saving technologies and measures usingenergy-energy efficiency guidebooks and benchmarking as well as byconducting energy-efficiency audits, development of an energy-savingsaction plan, development and implementation of energy managementprotocols, development of incentives and supporting policies, monitoringprogress toward targets, and program evaluation. This report firstprovides a description of three key target-setting agreement programs andthen describes international experience with the key program elementsthat comprise such programs using information from the three keytarget-setting programs as well as from other international programsrelated to industrial energy efficiency or GHG emissionsreductions.

Price, Lynn; Galitsky, Christina; Kramer, Klaas Jan

2008-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

298

MIT Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulation and have gained attention recently within the context of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions trading

299

Technical Report NREL/TP-6A2-48258  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Trading Scheme (European Union) EU European Union GHG greenhouse gas ITC investment tax credit MWh

300

Comparative Analysis of Modeling Studies on China's Future Energy and Emissions Outlook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The past decade has seen the development of various scenarios describing long-term patterns of future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions, with each new approach adding insights to our understanding of the changing dynamics of energy consumption and aggregate future energy trends. With the recent growing focus on China's energy use and emission mitigation potential, a range of Chinese outlook models have been developed across different institutions including in China's Energy Research Institute's 2050 China Energy and CO2 Emissions Report, McKinsey & Co's China's Green Revolution report, the UK Sussex Energy Group and Tyndall Centre's China's Energy Transition report, and the China-specific section of the IEA World Energy Outlook 2009. At the same time, the China Energy Group at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) has developed a bottom-up, end-use energy model for China with scenario analysis of energy and emission pathways out to 2050. A robust and credible energy and emission model will play a key role in informing policymakers by assessing efficiency policy impacts and understanding the dynamics of future energy consumption and energy saving and emission reduction potential. This is especially true for developing countries such as China, where uncertainties are greater while the economy continues to undergo rapid growth and industrialization. A slightly different assumption or storyline could result in significant discrepancies among different model results. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the key models in terms of their scope, methodologies, key driver assumptions and the associated findings. A comparative analysis of LBNL's energy end-use model scenarios with the five above studies was thus conducted to examine similarities and divergences in methodologies, scenario storylines, macroeconomic drivers and assumptions as well as aggregate energy and emission scenario results. Besides directly tracing different energy and CO{sub 2} savings potential back to the underlying strategies and combination of efficiency and abatement policy instruments represented by each scenario, this analysis also had other important but often overlooked findings.

Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Fridley, David

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Extended emission around GPS radio sources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extended radio emission detected around a sample of GHz Peaked Spectrum (GPS) radio sources is discussed. Evidence for extended emission which is related to the GPS source is found in 6 objects out of 33. Three objects are associated with quasars with core-jet pc-scale morphology, and three are identified with galaxies with symmetric (CSO) radio morphology. We conclude that the core-jet GPS quasars are likely to be beamed objects with a continuous supply of energy from the core to the kpc scale. It is also possible that low surface brightness extended radio emission is present in other GPS quasars but the emission is below our detection limit due to the high redshifts of the objects. On the other hand, the CSO/galaxies with extended large scale emission may be rejuvenated sources where the extended emission is the relic of previous activity. In general, the presence of large scale emission associated with GPS galaxies is uncommon, suggesting that in the context of the recurrent activity model, the time scale between subsequent bursts is in general longer than the radiative lifetime of the radio emission from the earlier activity.

C. Stanghellini; C. P. O'Dea; D. Dallacasa; P. Cassaro; S. A. Baum; R. Fanti; C. Fanti

2005-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

303

Environment and Pollution; Vol. 2, No. 4; 2013 ISSN 1927-0909 E-ISSN 1927-0917  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by Canadian Center of Science and Education 123 A Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory and Ecological Footprint, peak oil, regional planning 1. Introduction Demand for air travel and its ecological impacts should limits. A greenhouse gas emissions inventory (GHG) measures the quantity of emissions associated

Pedersen, Tom

304

BP's Perspective on Emissions Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BP's Perspective on Emissions Trading Purdue Emissions Trading Workshop April 30, 2010 Mark - Government policies can create a carbon price via three primary mechanisms: - Emissions trading (BP's strong

305

Possibilities and limitations of life cycle assessment (LCA) in the development of waste utilization systems - Applied examples for a region in Northern Germany  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Against the background of increasing concerns about climate change, the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions has become an integral part of processes in both the waste management and the energy industries. This is reflected in the development of new waste treatment concepts, in which domestic and commercial waste is treated with the aim of utilizing its energy content, while at the same time recycling as much of its material content as possible. Life cycle assessment (LCA) represents a method of assessing the environmental relevance of a waste management system, the basis of which is a material flow analysis of the system in question. GHG emissions from different options for thermal treatment and energy recovery from waste as applied to a region in Northern Germany have been analyzed by the LCA approach and an indicative LCA, which only considers those emissions resulting from operating stages of the system. Operating stages have the main share of emissions compared to pre-processing stages. Results show that through specific separation of waste material flows and highly efficient energy recovery, thermal treatment and energy generation from waste can be optimized resulting in reduction of emissions of greenhouse gases. There are also other areas of waste utilization, currently given little attention, such as the solar drying of sewage sludge, which can considerably contribute to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

Wittmaier, M. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)], E-mail: wittmaier@hs-bremen.de; Langer, S.; Sawilla, B. [Institute for Recycling and Environmental Protection at Bremen University of Applied Sciences GmbH, Neustadtswall 30, 28199 Bremen (Germany)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Apply early! Limited enrollment.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

volcano. Experience the culture and history of Hawaii, and the impact of human activitiesApply early! Limited enrollment. Environmental Science in the Hawaiian Islands Observe, research

307

Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

Not Available

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Excess Emissions (New Mexico)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This regulation establishes requirements for a source whose operation results in an excess emission and to establish criteria for a source whose operation results in an excess emission to claim an...

309

Emissions Trading and Social Justice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

David  M.  Driesen,  Does  Emissions  Trading  Encourage  Jason  Coburn,  Emissions  Trading   and   Environmental  Szambelan,  U.S.  Emissions  Trading  Markets  for  SO 2  

Farber, Daniel A

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG Emission Reduction Strategies Jump to: navigation, search Name Land Transport Sector in Bangladesh: An Analysis Toward Motivating GHG...

311

Using Dashboards to Improve Energy and Comfort in Federal Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases (GHG) or carbon footprint, and public education onand lowering the carbon footprint or GHG emissions forby reducing carbon footprint. • Compare buildings’ energy

Marini, Kyle

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

actor-partner interdependence models: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sixth in the US for total GHG emissions. The agricultural a comprehensive greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory, which the Florida Department of Environmental Protection will develop over...

313

Evaluating greenhouse gas emissions from hydropower complexes on large rivers in Eastern Washington  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Water bodies, such as freshwater lakes, are known to be net emitters of carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4). In recent years, significant greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from tropical, boreal, and mid-latitude reservoirs have been reported. At a time when hydropower is increasing worldwide, better understanding of seasonal and regional variation in GHG emissions is needed in order to develop a predictive understanding of such fluxes within man-made impoundments. We examined power-producing dam complexes within xeric temperate locations in the northwestern United States. Sampling environments on the Snake (Lower Monumental Dam Complex) and Columbia Rivers (Priest Rapids Dam Complex) included tributary, mainstem, embayment, forebay, and tailrace areas during winter and summer 2012. At each sampling location, GHG measurement pathways included surface gas flux, degassing as water passed through dams during power generation, ebullition within littoral embayments, and direct sampling of hyporheic pore-water. Measurements were also carried out in a free-flowing reach of the Columbia River to estimate unaltered conditions. Surface flux resulted in very low emissions, with reservoirs acting as a sink for CO2 (up to –262 mg m-2 d-1, which is within the range previously reported for similarly located reservoirs). Surface flux of methane remained below 1 mg CH4 m-2d-1, a value well below fluxes reported previously for temperate reservoirs. Water passing through hydroelectric projects acted as a sink for CO2 during winter and a small source during summer, with mean degassing fluxes of –117 and 4.5 t CO2 d-1, respectively. Degassing of CH4 was minimal, with mean fluxes of 3.1 × 10-6 and –5.6 × 10-4 t CH4 d-1 during winter and summer, respectively. Gas flux due to ebullition was greater in coves located within reservoirs than in coves within the free flowing Hanford Reach–and CH4 flux exceeded that of CO2. Methane emissions varied widely across sampling locations, ranging from 10.5 to 1039 mg CH4 m-2 d-1, with mean fluxes of 324 mg CH4 m-2 d-1in Lower Monumental Dam reservoir and 482 mg CH4 m-2d-1 in the Priest Rapids Dam reservoir. The magnitude of methane flux due to ebullition was unexpectedly high, and falls within the range recently reported for other temperate reservoirs around the world, further suggesting that this methane source should be considered in estimates of global greenhouse gas emissions. Methane flux from sediment pore-water within littoral embayments averaged 4.2 mg m-2 d-1 during winter and 8.1 mg m-2 d-1 during summer, with a peak flux of 19.8 mg m-2d-1 (at the same location where CH4 ebullition was also the greatest). Carbon dioxide flux from sediment pore-water averaged approximately 80 mg m-2d-1 with little difference between winter and summer. Similar to emissions from ebullition, flux from sediment pore-water was higher in reservoirs than in the free flowing reach.

Arntzen, Evan V.; Miller, Benjamin L.; O'Toole, Amanda C.; Niehus, Sara E.; Richmond, Marshall C.

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

314

Nitrogen trifluoride global emissions estimated from updated atmospheric measurements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nitrogen trifluoride (NF[subscript 3]) has potential to make a growing contribution to the Earth’s radiative budget; however, our understanding of its atmospheric burden and emission rates has been limited. Based on a ...

Ivy, Diane J.

315

Modeling of Particulate Matter Emissions from Agricultural Operations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

State Air Pollution Regulation Agencies (SAPRAs) issue and enforce permits that limit particulate matter emissions from all sources including layer and broiler facilities, cattle feedyards, dairies, cotton gins, and grain elevators...

Bairy, Jnana 1988-

2013-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - animal positron emission Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

is not accurate. As we have shown... on the Fundamental Limit of Positron Emission Tomography System Spatial Resolution, Phys. Med. Biol. 44, pp. 781... Evaluation of MAP Image...

317

Two-Photon Emission from Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the first experimental observations of two-photon emission from semiconductors, to the best of our knowledge, and develop a corresponding theory for the room-temperature process. Spontaneous two-photon emission is demonstrated in optically-pumped bulk GaAs and in electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells. Singly-stimulated two-photon emission measurements demonstrate the theoretically predicted two-photon optical gain in semiconductors - a necessary ingredient for any realizations of future two-photon semiconductor lasers. Photon-coincidence experiment validates the simultaneity of the electrically-driven GaInP/AlGaInP two-photon emission, limited only by detector's temporal resolution.

Alex Hayat; Pavel Ginzburg; Meir Orenstein

2007-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

318

On the Detectability of Prompt Coherent GRB Radio Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Both induced Compton scattering and induced Raman scattering strongly limit the observability of the extremely bright (emission recently predicted to emanate from gamma-ray bursts. Induced Compton scattering is the main limiting factor when the region around the progenitor is not dense but when one still considers the scattering effect of the a tenuous circumburst ISM. For a medium of density 0.01 n_{0.01} cm^{-3} and a path length L_{kpc} kpc and emission that is roughly isotropic in its rest frame the brightness temperature is limited to emission occurs. Thus, for a burst at distance D the predicted emission is only visible if the jet is ultra-relativistic, with Gamma > 10^3 (D/100 Mpc), or if the intrinsic opening angle of the emission is extremely small. Thus the presence or absence of such radio emission provides an excellent constraint on the Lorentz factor of the GRB outflow during the very early stages of its outburst. Induced Raman scattering imposes an even more stringent limit independent of the emission opening angle, but only effective if GRB emission must propagate through a dense progenitor wind within ~ 10^{15} cm from the blast center.

J. -P. Macquart

2007-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

319

Emissions Standards and Ambient Environmental Quality Standards in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Emissions Standards and Ambient Environmental Quality Standards in Stochastic Receiving Media quality standards, for in- stance SO2 emissions are capped under Title IV of the U.S. Clean Air Act Amendments while ambient SO2 concentrations are limited under National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS

Silver, Whendee

320

Design of Environmental Regulatory Policies for Sustainable Emission Reduction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

regulations to reduce and control pollution. This article will contrast three different types of regulations for lowering air emissions from industry: Command-and-control policy, environmental tax, and emission trading on establishing legal limits on the permissible amount of pollutants discharged to the atmosphere, ambient air

Linninger, Andreas A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Regional-Scale Assessment of Nitrous Oxide Emissions within the US Corn Belt: The Impact of Precipitation and Agricultural Drainage on Indirect Emissions Tim Griffis1, Xuhui Lee2, John Baker3, Peter, but mitigation strategies have been limited by the large uncertainties in both direct and indirect emission

Minnesota, University of

322

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Synchronization of Limit Sets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

324

Global and regional emission estimates for HCFC-22  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

HCFC-22 (CHClF[subscript 2], chlorodifluoromethane) is an ozone-depleting substance (ODS) as well as a significant greenhouse gas (GHG). HCFC-22 has been used widely as a refrigerant fluid in cooling and air-conditioning ...

Saikawa, Eri

325

Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance, Ornamental & Turf, Private Ag, or General Standards CORE for Limited Commercial Landscape Maintenance (LCLM), you must attend all day to earn the 6 CEUs required. Limited Commercial Maintenance (LCLM) Limited Lawn & Ornamental (LLO) Training & Exams Date

Florida, University of

326

Anomalous Microwave Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Improved knowledge of diffuse Galactic emission is important to maximize the scientific return from scheduled CMB anisotropy missions. Cross-correlation of microwave maps with maps of the far-IR dust continuum show a ubiquitous microwave emission component whose spatial distribution is traced by far-IR dust emission. The spectral index of this emission, beta_{radio} = -2.2 (+0.5 -0.7) is suggestive of free-free emission but does not preclude other candidates. Comparison of H-alpha and microwave results show that both data sets have positive correlations with the far-IR dust emission. Microwave data, however, are consistently brighter than can be explained solely from free-free emission traced by H-alpha. This ``anomalous'' microwave emission can be explained as electric dipole radiation from small spinning dust grains. The anomalous component at 53 GHz is 2.5 times as bright as the free-free emission traced by H-alpha, providing an approximate normalization for models with significant spinning dust emission.

A. Kogut

1999-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

327

SPECIAL REPORT 298: EFFECTS OF LAND DEVELOPMENT PATTERNS ON MOTORIZED TRAVEL, ENERGY, AND CO2 EMISSIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, plug-in hybrid purchases, home heating and cooling practices, and power generation processes alternative to gasoline and diesel, achieving significant GHG and petroleum savings. However, biofuels

Kockelman, Kara M.

328

U.S. Natural Gas System Methane Emissions: State of Knowledge from LCAs, Inventories, and Atmospheric Measurements (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Natural gas (NG) is a potential "bridge fuel" during transition to a decarbonized energy system: It emits less carbon dioxide during combustion than other fossil fuels and can be used in many industries. However, because of the high global warming potential of methane (CH4, the major component of NG), climate benefits from NG use depend on system leakage rates. Some recent estimates of leakage have challenged the benefits of switching from coal to NG, a large near-term greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction opportunity. During this presentation, Garvin will review evidence from multiple perspectives - life cycle assessments (LCAs), inventories and measurements - about NG leakage in the US. Particular attention will be paid to a recent article in Science magazine which reviewed over 20 years of published measurements to better understand what we know about total methane emissions and those from the oil and gas sectors. Scientific and policy implications of the state of knowledge will be discussed.

Heath, G.

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Impact of Extreme Weather on Power System Blackouts and Forced Outages: New Challenges  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in industrialized countries have adopted GHG emission reduction targets and have taken measures to implement them. It is estimated that the United States is the source of one- fourth of the world's GHG emissions and that the electric power industry accounts for one-third of the nation's GHG emissions. Within the total GHG

Dobson, Ian

330

Limited Electricity Generation Supply and Limited Natural Gas Supply Cases (released in AEO2008)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Development of U.S. energy resources and the permitting and construction of large energy facilities have become increasingly difficult over the past 20 years, and they could become even more difficult in the future. Growing public concern about global warming and CO2 emissions also casts doubt on future consumption of fossil fuels -- particularly coal, which releases the largest amount of CO2 per unit of energy produced. Even without regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions in the United States, the investment community may already be limiting the future use of some energy options. In addition, there is considerable uncertainty about the future availability of, and access to, both domestic and foreign natural gas resources.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

would in turn lower PHEV fuel costs and make them morestretches from fossil-fuel- powered conventional vehiclesbraking, as do Saving Fuel, Reducing Emissions Making Plug-

Kammen, Daniel M.; Arons, Samuel M.; Lemoine, Derek M.; Hummel, Holmes

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Vehicle Emissions Review - 2012 Tim Johnson October 16, 2012 2 Environmental Technologies Summary * Regulations - LEVIII finalized, Tier 3? RDE in Europe developing and very...

333

Page 1 of 10 Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removals and emissions from domestic woodland creation and deforestation .........................................................................................................................3 Step 3: Account for GHG emissions from deforestation

334

Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Fact sheet describes the federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources.

335

Optical limiting materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

336

Air Emission Inventory for the INEEL -- 1999 Emission Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the 1999 calendar year update of the Air Emission Inventory for the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The INEEL Air Emission Inventory documents sources and emissions of nonradionuclide pollutants from operations at the INEEL. The report describes the emission inventory process and all of the sources at the INEEL, and provides nonradionuclide emissions estimates for stationary sources.

Zohner, Steven K

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Historic patterns of CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuels: Implications for stabilization of emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines the historical record of greenhouse gas emissions since 1950, reviews the prospects for emissions into the future, and projects what would be the short-term outcome if the stated targets of the FCCC were in fact achieved. The examination focuses on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2}. The extensive record of historic CO{sub 2} emissions is explored to ascertain if it is an adequate basis for useful extrapolation into the near future. Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel consumption have been documented. Emissions grew at 4.3% per year from 1950 until the time of the 1973 oil crisis. Another disruption in growth followed the oil price increases of 1979. Global total emissions have been increasing steadily since the 1982-1983 minimum and have grown by more than 20% since then. At present, emission Of CO{sub 2} from fossil fuel burning is dominated by a few countries: the U.S., the former Soviet Union, China, the developed countries of Europe and Japan. Only 20 countries emit 84% of emissions from all countries. However, rates of growth in many of the developed countries are now very low. In contrast, energy use has grown rapidly over the last 20 years in some of the large, developing economies. Emissions from fossil fuel consumption are now nearly 4 times those from land use change and are the primary cause of measured increases in the atmospheric concentration of CO{sub 2}. The increasing concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2} has led to rising concern about the possibility of impending changes in the global climate system. In an effort to limit or mitigate potential negative effects of global climate change, 154 countries signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) in Rio de Janeiro in June, 1992. The FCCC asks all countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions setting non-binding targets.

Andres, R.J.; Marland, G.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

(Limiting the greenhouse effect)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Dahlem Conference on controlling CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere focused on research needs broadly defined. The RD D needs discussed tended to be social-institutional rather than technically oriented perhaps because of the propensity of most attendees, but many important ideas emerged, including those related to questions on technology adoption by both developed, emerging, or transition economics. The European attendees appeared to be strongly devoted to reducing emissions, and doing it soon using efficiency improvement and ultimately renewables. The importance of efficiency improvement was universally accepted, but the extent to which it can be relied upon is a major uncertainty for everyone except the most zealous. There was no detailed discussion of what could be done to encourage the more rapid adoption of renewables. Most attendees seemed to have discounted nuclear, but, at any rate, the problems of reviving nuclear worldwide were not discussed in detail.

Fulkerson, W.

1991-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

339

Ammonia emission inventory for the state of Wyoming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonia (NH{sub 3}) is the only significant gaseous base in the atmosphere and it has a variety of impacts as an atmospheric pollutant, including the formation of secondary aerosol particles: ammonium sulfate and ammonium nitrate. NH{sub 3} preferentially forms ammonium sulfate; consequently ammonium nitrate aerosol formation may be limited by the availability of NH{sub 3}. Understanding the impact of emissions of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen on visibility, therefore, requires accurately determined ammonia emission inventories for use in air quality models, upon which regulatory and policy decisions increasingly depend. This report presents an emission inventory of NH{sub 3} for the state of Wyoming. The inventory is temporally and spatially resolved at the monthly and county level, and is comprised of emissions from individual sources in ten categories: livestock, fertilizer, domestic animals, wild animals, wildfires, soil, industry, mobile sources, humans, and publicly owned treatment works. The Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory was developed using the Carnegie Mellon University (CMU) Ammonia Model as framework. Current Wyoming-specific activity data and emissions factors obtained from state agencies and published literature were assessed and used as inputs to the CMU Ammonia Model. Biogenic emissions from soils comprise about three-quarters of the Wyoming NH{sub 3} inventory, though emission factors from soils are highly uncertain. Published emission factors are scarce and based on limited measurements. In Wyoming, agricultural land, rangeland, and forests comprise 96% of the land area and essentially all of the estimated emissions from soils. Future research on emission rates of NH{sub 3} for these land categories may lead to a substantial change in the magnitude of soil emissions, a different inventory composition, and reduced uncertainty in the inventory. While many NH{sub 3} inventories include annual emissions, air quality modeling studies require finer temporal resolution. Published studies indicate higher emission rates from soils and animal wastes at higher temperatures, and temporal variation in fertilizer application. A recent inverse modeling study indicates temporal variation in regional NH{sub 3} emissions. Monthly allocation factors were derived to estimate monthly emissions from soils, livestock and wild animal waste based on annual emission estimates. Monthly resolution of NH{sub 3} emissions from fertilizers is based on fertilizer sales to farmers. Statewide NH{sub 3} emissions are highest in the late spring and early summer months.

Kirchstetter, Thomas W.; Maser, Colette R.; Brown, Nancy J.

2003-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

340

Heat flux limiting sleeves  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat limiting tubular sleeve extending over only a portion of a tube having a generally uniform outside diameter, the sleeve being open on both ends, having one end thereof larger in diameter than the other end thereof and having a wall thickness which decreases in the same direction as the diameter of the sleeve decreases so that the heat transfer through the sleeve and tube is less adjacent the large diameter end of the sleeve than adjacent the other end thereof.

Harris, William G. (Tampa, FL)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Spontaneous Emission Rate Enhancement Using Optical Antennas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of  Spontaneous  Emission  in  a  Semiconductor  nanoLED,”  emission  rate  enhancement  using  the  Fluorescent  Emission  by  Lattice   Resonances  in  

Kumar, Nikhil

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

A brightness exceeding simulated Langmuir limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When an excitation of the first lens determines a beam is parallel beam, a brightness that is 100 times higher than Langmuir limit is measured experimentally, where Langmuir limits are estimated using a simulated axial cathode current density which is simulated based on a measured emission current. The measured brightness is comparable to Langmuir limit, when the lens excitation is such that an image position is slightly shorter than a lens position. Previously measured values of brightness for cathode apical radii of curvature 20, 60, 120, 240, and 480 ?m were 8.7, 5.3, 3.3, 2.4, and 3.9 times higher than their corresponding Langmuir limits, respectively, in this experiment, the lens excitation was such that the lens and the image positions were 180 mm and 400 mm, respectively. From these measured brightness for three different lens excitation conditions, it is concluded that the brightness depends on the first lens excitation. For the electron gun operated in a space charge limited condition, some of the electrons emitted from the cathode are returned to the cathode without having crossed a virtual cathode. Therefore, method that assumes a Langmuir limit defining method using a Maxwellian distribution of electron velocities may need to be revised. For the condition in which the values of the exceeding the Langmuir limit are measured, the simulated trajectories of electrons that are emitted from the cathode do not cross the optical axis at the crossover, thus the law of sines may not be valid for high brightness electron beam systems.

Nakasuji, Mamoru [2-15-11, Serigaya-chou, Kounan-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)] [2-15-11, Serigaya-chou, Kounan-ku, Yokohama-shi, Kanagawa-ken (Japan)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

343

Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

Watson, Andrew

344

Emission Abatement System  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission abatement system. The system includes a source of emissions and a catalyst for receiving the emissions. Suitable catalysts are absorber catalysts and selective catalytic reduction catalysts. A plasma fuel converter generates a reducing gas from a fuel source and is connected to deliver the reducing gas into contact with the absorber catalyst for regenerating the catalyst. A preferred reducing gas is a hydrogen rich gas and a preferred plasma fuel converter is a plasmatron. It is also preferred that the absorber catalyst be adapted for absorbing NO.sub.x.

Bromberg, Leslie (Sharon, MA); Cohn, Daniel R. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Rabinovich, Alexander (Swampscott, MA)

2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

345

Fault current limiter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

Darmann, Francis Anthony

2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

346

Limited Distribution Notice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This report has been submitted for publication outside of IBM and will probably be copyrighted is accepted for publication. It has been issued as a Research Report for early dissemination of its contents. In view of the transfer of copyright to the outside publisher, its distribution outside of IBM prior to publication should be limited to peer communications and specific requests. After outside publication, requests should be filled only by reprints or legally obtained copies of the article (e.g., payment of royalties). Some reports are available at

Josh Hailpern; John Jay High; Charles C. Palmer

347

Process Limits on Euclid  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentationsSRS RespondsLift Plan ProcedureProcess Limits

348

Intelligent field emission arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission arrays (FEAs) have been studied extensively as potential electron sources for a number of vacuum microelectronic device applications. For most applications, temporal current stability and spatial current ...

Hong, Ching-yin, 1973-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Photon enhanced thermionic emission  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Photon Enhanced Thermionic Emission (PETE) is exploited to provide improved efficiency for radiant energy conversion. A hot (greater than 200.degree. C.) semiconductor cathode is illuminated such that it emits electrons. Because the cathode is hot, significantly more electrons are emitted than would be emitted from a room temperature (or colder) cathode under the same illumination conditions. As a result of this increased electron emission, the energy conversion efficiency can be significantly increased relative to a conventional photovoltaic device. In PETE, the cathode electrons can be (and typically are) thermalized with respect to the cathode. As a result, PETE does not rely on emission of non-thermalized electrons, and is significantly easier to implement than hot-carrier emission approaches.

Schwede, Jared; Melosh, Nicholas; Shen, Zhixun

2014-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

350

Greenhouse Gas Emissions (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute sets goals for the reduction of statewide greenhouse gas emissions by at least 15 percent by 2015, 30 percent by 2025, and 80 percent by 2050, calculated relative to 2005 levels. These...

351

Field emission electron source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A novel field emitter material, field emission electron source, and commercially feasible fabrication method is described. The inventive field emission electron source produces reliable electron currents of up to 400 mA/cm.sup.2 at 200 volts. The emitter is robust and the current it produces is not sensitive to variability of vacuum or the distance between the emitter tip and the cathode. The novel emitter has a sharp turn-on near 100 volts.

Zettl, Alexander Karlwalter (Kensington, CA); Cohen, Marvin Lou (Berkeley, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Life Cycle Assessment Applied to 95 Representative U.S. Farms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or are considering the regulation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emission to mitigate the global warming effect. Because agriculture accounts for a large portion of anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to establish a baseline measure of the GHG emission...

Rutland, Christopher T.

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

353

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Guidance on measuring and reporting Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions from freight transport This guidance provides clear instructions on calculating the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from freight and report your greenhouse gas emissions', by providing more specific information and examples relating

354

Transportation Energy Futures Series: Effects of the Built Environment on Transportation: Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Other Factors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Planning initiatives in many regions and communities aim to reduce transportation energy use, decrease emissions, and achieve related environmental benefits by changing land use. This report reviews and summarizes findings from existing literature on the relationship between the built environment and transportation energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, identifying results trends as well as potential future actions. The indirect influence of federal transportation and housing policies, as well as the direct impact of municipal regulation on land use are examined for their effect on transportation patterns and energy use. Special attention is given to the 'four D' factors of density, diversity, design and accessibility. The report concludes that policy-driven changes to the built environment could reduce transportation energy and GHG emissions from less than 1% to as much as 10% by 2050, the equivalent of 16%-18% of present-day urban light-duty-vehicle travel. This is one of a series of reports produced as a result of the Transportation Energy Futures (TEF) project, a Department of Energy-sponsored multi-agency project initiated to pinpoint underexplored strategies for abating GHGs and reducing petroleum dependence related to transportation.

Porter, C. D.; Brown, A.; Dunphy, R. T.; Vimmerstedt, L.

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: Emission factors Shawn Urbanski Missoula Fire burning Greenhouse gases Emission factors a b s t r a c t While the vast majority of carbon emitted wildland fire greenhouse gas and aerosol (organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC)) emission inventories

356

Combustion lean limits fundamentals and their application to a SI hydrogen-enhanced engine concept  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Operating an engine with excess air, under lean conditions, has significant benefits in terms of increased engine efficiency and reduced emissions. However, under high dilution levels, a lean limit is reached where combustion ...

Ayala, Ferran A. (Ferran Alberto), 1976-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Well-to-wheels analysis of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) are being developed for mass production by the automotive industry. PHEVs have been touted for their potential to reduce the US transportation sector's dependence on petroleum and cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by (1) using off-peak excess electric generation capacity and (2) increasing vehicles energy efficiency. A well-to-wheels (WTW) analysis - which examines energy use and emissions from primary energy source through vehicle operation - can help researchers better understand the impact of the upstream mix of electricity generation technologies for PHEV recharging, as well as the powertrain technology and fuel sources for PHEVs. For the WTW analysis, Argonne National Laboratory researchers used the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model developed by Argonne to compare the WTW energy use and GHG emissions associated with various transportation technologies to those associated with PHEVs. Argonne researchers estimated the fuel economy and electricity use of PHEVs and alternative fuel/vehicle systems by using the Powertrain System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) model. They examined two PHEV designs: the power-split configuration and the series configuration. The first is a parallel hybrid configuration in which the engine and the electric motor are connected to a single mechanical transmission that incorporates a power-split device that allows for parallel power paths - mechanical and electrical - from the engine to the wheels, allowing the engine and the electric motor to share the power during acceleration. In the second configuration, the engine powers a generator, which charges a battery that is used by the electric motor to propel the vehicle; thus, the engine never directly powers the vehicle's transmission. The power-split configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 10- and 20-mile electric range because they require frequent use of the engine for acceleration and to provide energy when the battery is depleted, while the series configuration was adopted for PHEVs with a 30- and 40-mile electric range because they rely mostly on electrical power for propulsion. Argonne researchers calculated the equivalent on-road (real-world) fuel economy on the basis of U.S. Environmental Protection Agency miles per gallon (mpg)-based formulas. The reduction in fuel economy attributable to the on-road adjustment formula was capped at 30% for advanced vehicle systems (e.g., PHEVs, fuel cell vehicles [FCVs], hybrid electric vehicles [HEVs], and battery-powered electric vehicles [BEVs]). Simulations for calendar year 2020 with model year 2015 mid-size vehicles were chosen for this analysis to address the implications of PHEVs within a reasonable timeframe after their likely introduction over the next few years. For the WTW analysis, Argonne assumed a PHEV market penetration of 10% by 2020 in order to examine the impact of significant PHEV loading on the utility power sector. Technological improvement with medium uncertainty for each vehicle was also assumed for the analysis. Argonne employed detailed dispatch models to simulate the electric power systems in four major regions of the US: the New England Independent System Operator, the New York Independent System Operator, the State of Illinois, and the Western Electric Coordinating Council. Argonne also evaluated the US average generation mix and renewable generation of electricity for PHEV and BEV recharging scenarios to show the effects of these generation mixes on PHEV WTW results. Argonne's GREET model was designed to examine the WTW energy use and GHG emissions for PHEVs and BEVs, as well as FCVs, regular HEVs, and conventional gasoline internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs). WTW results are reported for charge-depleting (CD) operation of PHEVs under different recharging scenarios. The combined WTW results of CD and charge-sustaining (CS) PHEV operations (using the utility factor method) were also examined and reported. According to the utility factor method, the share of vehicle miles trav

Elgowainy, A.; Han, J.; Poch, L.; Wang, M.; Vyas, A.; Mahalik, M.; Rousseau, A.

2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

358

The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny Ellerman, Henry D. Jacoby and Annelne Decaux*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Effects on Developing Countries of the Kyoto Protocol and CO2 Emissions Trading A. Denny by the scope of CO2 emissions trading, by various limitations that Annex I countries might place on emissions.1 Trade in Goods with No Emissions Trading

359

Quantum Limits and Robustness of Nonlinear Intracavity Absorption Spectroscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the limits of intracavity absorption spectroscopy with nonlinear media. Using a common theoretical framework, we compare the detection of a trace gas within an undriven cavity with gain near and above threshold, a driven cavity with gain kept just below threshold, and a cavity driven close to the saturation point of a saturable absorber. These phase-transition-based metrology methods are typically quantum-limited by spontaneous emission, and we compare them to the empty cavity shotnoise-limited case. Although the fundamental limits achievable with nonlinear media do not surpass the empty cavity limits, we show that nonlinear methods are more robust against certain technical noise models. This recognition may have applications in spectrometer design for devices operating in non-ideal field environments.

John K. Stockton; Ari K. Tuchman

2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

360

FED pumped limiter configuration issues  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Impurity control in the Fusion Engineering Device (FED) is provided by a toroidal belt pumped limiter. Limiter design issues addressed in this paper are (1) poloidal location of the limiter belt, (2) shape of the limiter surface facing the plasma, and (3) whether the belt is pumped from one or both sides. The criteria used for evaluation of limiter configuration features were sensitivity to plasma-edge conditions and ease of maintenance and fabrication. The evaluation resulted in the selection of a baseline FED limiter that is located at the bottom of the device and has a flat surface with a single leading edge.

Haines, J.R.; Fuller, G.M.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Optimal irreversible stimulated emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We studied the dynamics of an initially inverted atom in a semi-infinite waveguide, in the presence of a single propagating photon. We show that atomic relaxation is enhanced by a factor of 2, leading to maximal bunching in the output field. This optimal irreversible stimulated emission is a novel phenomenon that can be observed with state-of-the-art solid-state atoms and waveguides. When the atom interacts with two one-dimensional electromagnetic environments, the preferential emission in the stimulated field can be exploited to efficiently amplify a classical or a quantum state.

D Valente; Y Li; J P Poizat; J M Gerard; L C Kwek; M F Santos; A Auffeves

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

362

Controlled spontaneous emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of spontaneous emission is studied by a direct computer simulation of the dynamics of a combined system: atom + radiation field. The parameters of the discrete finite model, including up to 20k field oscillators, have been optimized by a comparison with the exact solution for the case when the oscillators have equidistant frequencies and equal coupling constants. Simulation of the effect of multi-pulse sequence of phase kicks and emission by a pair of atoms shows that both the frequency and the linewidth of the emitted spectrum could be controlled.

Jae-Seung Lee; Mary A. Rohrdanz; A. K. Khitrin

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

363

Wavelength limits for InGaN quantum wells on GaN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The emission wavelength of coherently strained InGaN quantum wells (QW) is limited by the maximum thickness before relaxation starts. For high indium contents x>40% the resulting wavelength decreases because quantum confinement dominates. For low indium content x<40% the electron hole wave function overlap (and hence radiative emission) is strongly reduced with increasing QW thickness due to the quantum confined Stark effect and imposes another limit. This results in a maximum usable emission wavelength at around 600?nm for QWs with 40%-50% indium content. Relaxed InGaN buffer layers could help to push this further, especially on non- and semi-polar orientations.

Pristovsek, Markus, E-mail: markus@pristovsek.de [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3QZ (United Kingdom)

2013-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

364

COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Estimating carbon dioxide emission factors for the California electric power sector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Climate Action Registry (''Registry'') was initially established in 2000 under Senate Bill 1771, and clarifying legislation (Senate Bill 527) was passed in September 2001. The Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has been asked to provide technical assistance to the California Energy Commission (CEC) in establishing methods for calculating average and marginal electricity emissions factors, both historic and current, as well as statewide and for sub-regions. This study is exploratory in nature. It illustrates the use of three possible approaches and is not a rigorous estimation of actual emissions factors. While the Registry will ultimately cover emissions of all greenhouse gases (GHGs), presently it is focusing on carbon dioxide (CO2). Thus, this study only considers CO2, which is by far the largest GHG emitted in the power sector. Associating CO2 emissions with electricity consumption encounters three major complications. First, electricity can be generated from a number of different primary energy sources, many of which are large sources of CO2 emissions (e.g., coal combustion) while others result in virtually no CO{sub 2} emissions (e.g., hydro). Second, the mix of generation resources used to meet loads may vary at different times of day or in different seasons. Third, electrical energy is transported over long distances by complex transmission and distribution systems, so the generation sources related to electricity usage can be difficult to trace and may occur far from the jurisdiction in which that energy is consumed. In other words, the emissions resulting from electricity consumption vary considerably depending on when and where it is used since this affects the generation sources providing the power. There is no practical way to identify where or how all the electricity used by a certain customer was generated, but by reviewing public sources of data the total emission burden of a customer's electricity supplier can b e found and an average emissions factor (AEF) calculated. These are useful for assigning a net emission burden to a facility. In addition, marginal emissions factors (MEFs) for estimating the effect of changing levels of usage can be calculated. MEFs are needed because emission rates at the margin are likely to diverge from the average. The overall objective of this task is to develop methods for estimating AEFs and MEFs that can provide an estimate of the combined net CO2 emissions from all generating facilities that provide electricity to California electricity customers. The method covers the historic period from 1990 to the present, with 1990 and 1999 used as test years. The factors derived take into account the location and time of consumption, direct contracts for power which may have certain atypical characteristics (e.g., ''green'' electricity from renewable resources), resource mixes of electricity providers, import and export of electricity from utility owned and other sources, and electricity from cogeneration. It is assumed that the factors developed in this way will diverge considerably from simple statewide AEF estimates based on standardized inventory estimates that use conventions inconsistent with the goals of this work. A notable example concerns the treatment of imports, which despite providing a significant share of California's electricity supply picture, are excluded from inventory estimates of emissions, which are based on geographical boundaries of the state.

Marnay, Chris; Fisher, Diane; Murtishaw, Scott; Phadke, Amol; Price, Lynn; Sathaye, Jayant

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Analysis of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions and photochemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and known emission factors for black carbon (BC) from South Asia yields 0.7 Tg yrÃ?1 (upper limit of about 1 Global Change: Atmosphere (0315, 0325); KEYWORDS: Soot, black carbon, CO, emissions, India Citation of black carbon and carbon monoxide observed over the Indian Ocean: Implications for emissions

Dickerson, Russell R.

367

Emissions Trading and Air Toxics Emissions: RECLAIM and Toxics Regulation in the South Coast Air Basin  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fugitive emissions in an emissions trading program, as theexists between an emissions trading program that allows aircreation of other ROC emissions trading programs. JOURNAL OF

Cohen, Nancy J.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Secondary emission gas chamber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For a hadron calorimeter active element there is considered a gaseous secondary emis-sion detector (150 micron gap, 50 kV/cm). Such one-stage parallel plate chamber must be a radiation hard, fast and simple. A model of such detector has been produced, tested and some characteristics are presented.

V. In'shakov; V. Kryshkin; V. Skvortsov

2014-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

369

CARBON DIOXIDE EMISSION REDUCTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.5 Primary Energy Use and Carbon Dioxide Emissions for Selected US Chemical Subsectors in 1994 ...............................................................................................................16 Table 2.7 1999 Energy Consumption and Specific Energy Consumption (SEC) in the U.S. Cement Efficiency Technologies and Measures in Cement Industry.................22 Table 2.9 Energy Consumption

Delaware, University of

370

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Graphene Coating Coupled Emission A COMSET, A single sheet of sp2-hybridized carbon atoms, called of graphene and its unique properties, I will present amplification of surface graphene-Ag hybrid films which when graphene is used as the spacer layer in a conventional Ag- harnessed the nonlinear properties

Shyamasundar, R.K.

371

Reducing emissions by addressing steam turbine inefficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper reports that inefficient steam turbines increase fossil plant emissions because additional fuel must be burned to meet the power output requirements. During a turbine outage, plant performance and maintenance staff make and prioritize repair decisions within tight time and budget constraints. This paper describes how Georgia Power identifies performance losses of degraded components in the steam path and determines their impact on heat rate. Turbine performance is assessed by a steam path audit program that Encotech has developed and make available to utilities. Georgia Power has conducted several operating tests that give good correlation with audit results. Georgia Power uses the audit information to make the most cost-effective repairs to maintain a low heat rate and to reduce emissions. The Clean Air Act presents electric utilities with the challenge of reducing emissions from fossil plants in the most cost-effective way possible. Meeting the stack emissions limitations often translates to large capital expenditures and increased cycle heat rate. One resource the electric utilities have to reduce the costly impact of compliance with the Clean Air Act is control over the efficiency of their steam turbines.

Harris, J.C. (Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Cioffi, D.H. (Encotech, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States))

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Climate balance of biogas upgrading systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the numerous applications of renewable energy is represented by the use of upgraded biogas where needed by feeding into the gas grid. The aim of the present study was to identify an upgrading scenario featuring minimum overall GHG emissions. The study was based on a life-cycle approach taking into account also GHG emissions resulting from plant cultivation to the process of energy conversion. For anaerobic digestion two substrates have been taken into account: (1) agricultural resources and (2) municipal organic waste. The study provides results for four different upgrading technologies including the BABIU (Bottom Ash for Biogas Upgrading) method. As the transport of bottom ash is a critical factor implicated in the BABIU-method, different transport distances and means of conveyance (lorry, train) have been considered. Furthermore, aspects including biogas compression and energy conversion in a combined heat and power plant were assessed. GHG emissions from a conventional energy supply system (natural gas) have been estimated as reference scenario. The main findings obtained underlined how the overall reduction of GHG emissions may be rather limited, for example for an agricultural context in which PSA-scenarios emit only 10% less greenhouse gases than the reference scenario. The BABIU-method constitutes an efficient upgrading method capable of attaining a high reduction of GHG emission by sequestration of CO{sub 2}.

Pertl, A., E-mail: andreas.pertl@boku.ac.a [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria); Mostbauer, P.; Obersteiner, G. [Institute of Waste Management, Department of Water, Atmosphere and Environment, University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna, Muthgasse 107, A-1190 Wien (Austria)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

B. Lengers, W. Britz -Review of Agricultural and Environmental Studies, 93 (2), 117-144 Bernd LENGERS *, Wolfgang BRITZ **  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (CH4, N2O, CO2) in 2004 (IPCC, 2007) stemming from ruminant (Steinfield et al., 2006; FAO, 2009). It is obvious that higher emission reduction targets, also instruments to GHG emissions from dairy farms needs to rely on GHG indicators as actual emissions

Boyer, Edmond

374

Allocation of emission rights Economic incentives for emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for all countries High cost effectiviness:High cost effectiviness: International Emission trading Fairness NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450 ppmGDP SAS CPA WEU NAM Department of Physical Resource Theory #12;Financial flows from emissions trading 450

375

Quantifying VOC emissions for the strategic petroleum reserve.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A very important aspect of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) program is regulatory compliance. One of the regulatory compliance issues deals with limiting the amount of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that are emitted into the atmosphere from brine wastes when they are discharged to brine holding ponds. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has set limits on the amount of VOCs that can be discharged to the atmosphere. Several attempts have been made to quantify the VOC emissions associated with the brine ponds going back to the late 1970's. There are potential issues associated with each of these quantification efforts. Two efforts were made to quantify VOC emissions by analyzing VOC content of brine samples obtained from wells. Efforts to measure air concentrations were mentioned in historical reports but no data have been located to confirm these assertions. A modeling effort was also performed to quantify the VOC emissions. More recently in 2011- 2013, additional brine sampling has been performed to update the VOC emissions estimate. An analysis of the statistical confidence in these results is presented here. Arguably, there are uncertainties associated with each of these efforts. The analysis herein indicates that the upper confidence limit in VOC emissions based on recent brine sampling is very close to the 0.42 ton/MMB limit used historically on the project. Refining this estimate would require considerable investment in additional sampling, analysis, and monitoring. An analysis of the VOC emissions at each site suggests that additional discharges could be made and stay within current regulatory limits.

Knowlton, Robert G.; Lord, David L.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Field emission from organic materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Field emission displays (FEDs) show great promise as high performance flat panel displays. The light emission process is efficient, long lifetimes are possible with high brightness, and bright passive matrix displays can ...

Kymissis, Ioannis, 1977-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Kinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

analyses of kinetic path ways and species transport on flame extinction were also conducted. The results and emission properties, such as the ignition delay times, extinction limits, flame speeds, species profilesKinetic effects of toluene blending on the extinction limit of n-decane diffusion flames Sang Hee

Ju, Yiguang

378

Emission altitude in radio pulsars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents a method of estimation of emission altitudes using observational data - precise measurements of pulse profile widths at low intensity level. The analysis of emission altitudes obtained using this method for a large number of pulsars gives constraints that should be useful for theory of coherent pulsar emission. It seems that radio emission originates at altitudes of about few percent of the light cylinder and that they depend on frequency, pulsar period and period derivative.

J. Kijak

2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

379

6, 57735796, 2006 Vehicular emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be partly responsible for lower CO2 and higher CO and NO emission factors. Also, a fast reduction the emission (in g/km) of key and non-regulated pollutants, such as CO2, CO, NO, SO2, NH3, HCHO, NMHC, dur-10 of pollutants, even from a super ultra-low emission vehicle (SULEV). The emissions of HC's, NOx, CO20 and CO2

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

380

Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DEER Conference Emission Controls for Heavy-Duty Trucks Overview Emission Standards - US and Worldwide Technology Options for Meeting Emissions System Integration ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Prepared by:Environmental Protection Agency, National Emission Standardsfor Emissions of Radionuclides Other Than Radon From

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Greenhouse gas emissions in biogas production systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cameron KC. Nitrous oxide emissions from two dairy pastureand land use on N 2 O emissions from an imperfectly drainedoptions for N 2 O emissions from differently managed

Dittert, Klaus; Senbayram, Mehmet; Wienforth, Babette; Kage, Henning; Muehling, Karl H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation RyanEnergy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation Ryanand/or site-attributable carbon emissions at commercial and

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO.sub.x emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO.sub.x produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, Alicia L. (Knoxville, TN); Griffith, William L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Dorsey, George F. (Farragut, TN); West, Brian H. (Kingston, TN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Low emissions diesel fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and matter of composition for controlling NO{sub x} emissions from existing diesel engines. The method is achieved by adding a small amount of material to the diesel fuel to decrease the amount of NO{sub x} produced during combustion. Specifically, small amounts, less than about 1%, of urea or a triazine compound (methylol melamines) are added to diesel fuel. Because urea and triazine compounds are generally insoluble in diesel fuel, microemulsion technology is used to suspend or dissolve the urea or triazine compound in the diesel fuel. A typical fuel formulation includes 5% t-butyl alcohol, 4.5% water, 0.5% urea or triazine compound, 9% oleic acid, and 1% ethanolamine. The subject invention provides improved emissions in heavy diesel engines without the need for major modifications.

Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Dorsey, G.F.; West, B.H.

1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

386

4, 507532, 2004 Emission uncertainty  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Physics Discussions Impact of different emission inventories on simulated tropospheric ozone over China The importance of emission inventory uncertainty on the simulation of summertime tro- pospheric Ozone over China has been analyzed using a regional chemical transport model. Three independent emissions inventories

Boyer, Edmond

387

5, 94059445, 2005 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 5, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title and Physics Discussions Sensitivity analysis of methane emissions derived from SCIAMACHY observations through, 9405­9445, 2005 Methane emissions from SCIAMACHY observations J. F. Meirink et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

5, 243270, 2008 Methane emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract and temperature on the emission of methane from plant biomass and structural components I. Vigano 1 , H. van.roeckmann@phys.uu.nl) 243 #12;BGD 5, 243­270, 2008 Methane emissions from plant biomass I. Vigano et al. Title Page Abstract

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

389

6, 68416852, 2006 Methane emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Methane emission from tropical savanna Trachypogon sp. grasses E. Sanhueza;ACPD 6, 6841­6852, 2006 Methane emission from savanna grasses E. Sanhueza and L. Donoso Title Page

Boyer, Edmond

390

A Plasma Instability Theory of Gamma-Ray Burst Emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A plasma instability theory is presented for the prompt radiation from gamma-ray bursts. In the theory, a highly relativistic shell interacts with the interstellar medium through the filamentation and the two-stream instabilities to convert bulk kinetic energy into electron thermal energy and magnetic field energy. The processes are not efficient enough to satisfy the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions, so a shock cannot form through this mechanism. Instead, the interstellar medium passes through the shell, with the electrons radiating during this passage. Gamma-rays are produced by synchrotron self-Compton emission. Prompt optical emission is also produced through this mechanism, while prompt radio emission is produced through synchrotron emission. The model timescales are consistent with the shortest burst timescales. To emit gamma-rays, the shell's bulk Lorentz factor must be greater than approximately 1000. For the radiative processes to be efficient, the interstellar medium density must satisfy a lower limit that is a function of the bulk Lorentz factor. Because the limits operate as selection effects, bursts that violate them constitute new classes. In particular, a class of optical and ultraviolet bursts with no gamma-ray emission should exist. The lower limit on the density of the interstellar medium is consistent with the requirements of the Compton attenuation theory, providing an explanation for why all burst spectra appear to be attenuated. Several tests of the theory are discussed, as are the next theoretical investigations that should be conducted.

J. J. Brainerd

1999-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

391

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

P. Danielewicz

2007-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

392

Analysis of Emission Shapes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shapes of relative emission sources can be accessed by expanding shapes of correlations at low relative velocities in pair center of mass in Cartesian harmonics. Coefficients of expansion for correlations are related to the respective coefficients of expansion for the sources through one dimensional integral transforms involving properties of pair relative wavefunctions. The methodology is illustrated with analyses of NA49 and PHENIX correlation data.

Danielewicz, P

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Life-cycle Environmental Inventory of Passenger Transportation in the United States  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy  and  GHG performance of Chicago and New York is the Chicago and New York systems where energy and  emissions CO 2 e).  For New York, life?cycle energy and GHG emissions 

Chester, Mikhail V

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Impacts of greenhouse gas mitigation policies on agricultural land  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are widely acknowledged to be responsible for much of the global warming in the past century. A number of approaches have been proposed to mitigate GHG emissions. Since the burning of ...

Wang, Xiaodong, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Tropical Limit in Statistical Physics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical limit for macroscopic systems in equilibrium defined as the formal limit of Boltzmann constant k going to 0 is discussed. It is shown that such tropical limit is well-adapted to analyse properties of systems with highly degenerated energy levels, particularly of frustrated systems like spin ice and spin glasses. Tropical free energy is a piecewise linear function of temperature, tropical entropy is a piecewise constant function and the system has energy for which tropical Gibbs' probability has maximum. Properties of systems in the points of jump of entropy are studied. Systems with finite and infinitely many energy levels and phenomena of limiting temperatures are discussed.

M. Angelelli; B. Konopelchenko

2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

396

Allocation, incentives and distortions: the impact of EU ETS emissions allowance allocations to the electricity sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in electricity prices (Harrison and Radov 2002) could trigger higher electricity consumption, production, further increasing CO2 emissions. This approach will also have consequences on neighbouring jurisdictions. Figure 2 illustrates a case with two... into the electricity prices limits investment in energy efficiency and results in higher electricity consumption. Thus electricity production and national CO2 emissions increase. If all European countries implement such policies the suggested higher CO2 emissions...

Neuhoff, Karsten; Keats, Kim; Sato, Misato

397

Molten Metal Treatment by Salt Fluxing with Low Environmental Emissions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: Chlorine gas is traditionally used for fluxing of aluminum melt for removal of alkali and alkaline earth elements. However this results in undesirable emissions of particulate matter and gases such as HCl and chlorine, which are often at unacceptable levels. Additionally, chlorine gas is highly toxic and its handling, storage, and use pose risks to employees and the local community. Holding of even minimal amounts of chlorine necessitates extensive training for all plant employees. Fugitive emissions from chlorine usage within the plant cause accelerated corrosion of plant equipment. The Secondary Aluminum Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) under the Clean Air Act, finalized in March 2000 has set very tough new limits on particulate matter (PM) and total hydrogen chloride emissions from aluminum melting and holding furnaces. These limits are 0.4 and 0.1 lbs per ton of aluminum for hydrogen chloride and particulate emissions, respectively. Assuming new technologies for meeting these limits can be found, additional requirements under the Clean Air Act (Prevention of Significant Deterioration and New Source Review) trigger Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for new sources with annual emissions (net emissions not expressed per ton of production) over specified amounts. BACT currently is lime coated bag-houses for control of particulate and HCl emissions. These controls are expensive, difficult to operate and maintain, and result in reduced American competitiveness in the global economy. Solid salt fluxing is emerging as a viable option for the replacement of chlorine gas fluxing, provided emissions can be consistently maintained below the required levels. This project was a cooperative effort between the Ohio State University and Alcoa to investigate and optimize the effects of solid chloride flux addition in molten metal for alkali impurity and non-metallic inclusion removal minimizing dust and toxic emissions and maximizing energy conservation. In this program, the salt metal interactions were studies and the emissions at laboratory scale at OSU were monitored. The goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding, based on first principles, of the pollutant formation that occurs when the salts are used in furnaces. This information will be used to control process parameters so that emissions are consistently below the required levels. The information obtained in these experiments will be used in industrial furnaces at aluminum plants and which will help in optimizing the process.

Yogeshwar Sahai

2007-07-31T23:59:59.000Z

398

Greenhouse Gas Concerns and Power Sector Planning (released in AEO2009)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Concerns about potential climate change driven by rising atmospheric concentrations of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) have grown over the past two decades, both domestically and abroad. In the United States, potential policies to limit or reduce GHG emissions are in various stages of development at the state, regional, and federal levels. In addition to ongoing uncertainty with respect to future growth in energy demand and the costs of fuel, labor, and new plant construction, U.S. electric power companies must consider the effects of potential policy changes to limit or reduce GHG emissions that would significantly alter their planning and operating decisions. The possibility of such changes may already be affecting planning decisions for new generating capacity.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Submission PDF Resonant secondary light emission from plasmonic Au  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the United States of America Plasmonic nanostructures are of great current interest as chemical sensors to the background commonly observed in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and to the light emission generated). A common limitation of SERS for sensing adsorbed species is the background (6) that appears as a broad

Cahill, David G.

400

Search for beta -delayed three-neutron emission frum /sup 31/Na  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An upper limit P/sub 3n/<5*10/sup -4/ is found for the branching ratio of the beta -delayed three-neutron emission from /sup 31/Na. (5 refs).

Détraz, C; Epherre-Rey-Campagnolle, Marcelle; Guillemaud, D; Klapisch, Robert; Langevin, M; Naulin, F; Thibault, C; Touchard, F

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Diffuse Gamma-Ray Emission from Large Scale Structures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For more than a decade now the complete origin of the diffuse gamma-ray emission background (EGRB) has been unknown. Major components like unresolved star-forming galaxies (making 10GeV. Moreover, we show that, even though the gamma-ray emission arising from structure formation shocks at galaxy clusters is below previous estimates, these large scale shocks can still give an important, and even dominant at high energies, contribution to the EGRB. Future detections of cluster gamma-ray emission would make our upper limit of the extragalactic gamma-ray emission from structure-formation process, a firm prediction, and give us deeper insight in evolution of these large scale shock.

Dobardzic, Aleksandra

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Potential for meeting the EU new passenger car CO? emissions targets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In 2009, the European Parliament agreed to limit the CO2 emissions from new passenger cars sold in the European Union to an average of 130g/km by 2015. Further, a probable longer-term CO2 emissions target of 95g/km is ...

Bhatt, Kandarp

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

CORRELATIONS OF PROMPT AND AFTERGLOW EMISSION IN SWIFT LONG AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CORRELATIONS OF PROMPT AND AFTERGLOW EMISSION IN SWIFT LONG AND SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURSTS N. Gehrels,1 of prompt and afterglow emission from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) between different spectral bands have been-limited for long events. Subject headingg: gamma rays: bursts 1. INTRODUCTION One of the longest enduring gamma-ray

Zhang, Bing

404

Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Producing Fuel and Electricity from Coal with Low Carbon Dioxide Emissions K. Blok, C.A. Hendriks of suchan option basedon the use of commercially ready technologies involving coal gasification for power08544,USA June 1991 Abstract. New energytechnologiesare neededto limit CO2 emissions and the detrimental

405

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Partnerships to continue moving toward zero emissions Zero Emission transportation goals Zero Emission MAP makes available technical assistance to states and cities to support the growth of zero emission mobility markets. 1 Research shows

California at Davis, University of

406

Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................................................ 18 Calculation of Biomass, Biogas or Landfill Net Emissions ..................................... 19

407

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nanoparticle Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Professor David B. Kittelson Department Meeting Ultra Fine Particles in the Atmosphere 15 March 2000 Engine Exhaust Particle Emissions: Some Perkins Engine Company #12;Emissions of Ultrafine and Nanoparticles from Engines · Current emission

Minnesota, University of

408

Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EU ETS: European Union Emissions Trading System GHG: Greenstarts operating an emissions trading scheme (ETS) similarGovernments operating emissions trading systems face the

Hoversten, Shanna

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Toward a Post-Kyoto Climate Change Architecture: A Political Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FOR INTERNATIONAL GHG EMISSIONS TRADING (2000), http://al. , International Emissions Trading Rules as a Compliancethe Economic Benefits of Emissions Trading Under the Kyoto

Raustiala, Kal; Keohane, Robert O.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Safety and core design of large liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by GHG-emissions, coal power plant emissions such as sulfur2]. In Europe, coal power plant emissions cause an estimated

Qvist, Staffan Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

412

Limitations on entropic Bell inequalities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivation of Bell inequalities in terms of quantum statistical (thermodynamic) entropies is considered. Inequalities of the Wigner form are derived but shown to be extremely limiting in their applicability due to the nature of the density matrices involved. This also helps to identify a limitation in the Cerf-Adami inequalities.

Ian T. Durham

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Introduction to Photoelectron Emission Microscopy: Principles and Applications. Abstract: In the...

414

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies 2011 DOE...

415

Estimate Impact of Strategies on Greenhouse Gas Emissions  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

To estimate the GHG impact of a business travel reduction program, a Federal agency or program should quantify the number of trips that could be avoided each year. If an agency has a large proportion of international travel, the agency may estimate changes in domestic and international trips separately because the associated savings in miles can be very different.

416

Green Initiatives and Contracting  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

13514 Reduce GHG emissions Improve water use efficiency Promote pollution prevention Advance integrated planning High performance sustainable...

417

Project Information Form Project Title Exploring Unintended Environmental and SocialEquity Consequences of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The MOVES vehicle emissions model and an economic lifecycle #12;assessment model will be used to examine GHG

California at Davis, University of

418

Massachusetts Takes On Climate Change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

carbon content of fuels by requiring reduction in the average life- cycle GHG emissions per unit of useful energy.

Kimmell, Ken; Laurie, Burt

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Solid Fuel - Oxygen Fired Combustion for Production of Nodular Reduced Iron to Reduce CO2 Emissions and Improve Energy Efficiencies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current trend in the steel industry is an increase in iron and steel produced in electric arc furnaces (EAF) and a gradual decline in conventional steelmaking from taconite pellets in blast furnaces. In order to expand the opportunities for the existing iron ore mines beyond their blast furnace customer base, a new material is needed to satisfy the market demands of the emerging steel industry while utilizing the existing infrastructure and materials handling capabilities. This demand creates opportunity to convert iron ore or other iron bearing materials to Nodular Reduced Iron (NRI) in a recently designed Linear Hearth Furnace (LHF). NRI is a metallized iron product containing 98.5 to 96.0% iron and 2.5 to 4% C. It is essentially a scrap substitute with little impurity that can be utilized in a variety of steelmaking processes, especially the electric arc furnace. The objective of this project was to focus on reducing the greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) through reducing the energy intensity using specialized combustion systems, increasing production and the use of biomass derived carbon sources in this process. This research examined the use of a solid fuel-oxygen fired combustion system and compared the results from this system with both oxygen-fuel and air-fuel combustion systems. The solid pulverized fuels tested included various coals and a bio-coal produced from woody biomass in a specially constructed pilot scale torrefaction reactor at the Coleraine Minerals Research Laboratory (CMRL). In addition to combustion, the application of bio-coal was also tested as a means to produce a reducing atmosphere during key points in the fusion process, and as a reducing agent for ore conversion to metallic iron to capture the advantage of its inherent reduced carbon footprint. The results from this study indicate that the approaches taken can reduce both greenhouse gas emissions and the associated energy intensity with the Linear Hearth Furnace process for converting iron ore to metallic iron nodules. Various types of coals including a bio-coal produced though torrefaction can result in production of NRI at reduced GHG levels. The process results coupled with earlier already reported developments indicate that this process technique should be evaluated at the next level in order to develop parameter information for full scale process design. Implementation of the process to full commercialization will require a full cost production analysis and comparison to other reduction technologies and iron production alternatives. The technical results verify that high quality NRI can be produced under various operating conditions at the pilot level.

Donald R. Fosnacht; Richard F. Kiesel; David W. Hendrickson; David J. Englund; Iwao Iwasaki; Rodney L. Bleifuss; Mathew A. Mlinar

2011-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

420

GHG Management Institute curriculum | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of Inspector GeneralDepartmentAUDIT REPORTOpen EnergyBoard" form. To create aGA SNC Solarcurriculum Jump

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Leveraging Existing Data Streams Toward Climate-Driven Emissions Inventorying and Reporting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and evaluating potentially useful information streams. We have found that for corporations and industrial facilities, energy invoices are a valuable, often under-utilized resource for preparing the GHG inventories that are important for characterizing...

Reith, C. C.; Shanin, D.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Economic investigation of discount factors for agricultural greenhouse gas emission offsets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

approaches to discount factors, estimation and incorporation of discount factors procedures are developed. Discount factors would be imposed by credit purchasers due to noncompliance with regulatory program of the credits with GHG program including...

Kim, Man-Keun

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

423

Contribution of Anaerobic Digesters to Emissions Mitigation and Electricity Generation Under U.S. Climate Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Livestock husbandry in the U.S. significantly contributes to many environmental problems, including the release of methane, a potent greenhouse gas (GHG). Anaerobic digesters (ADs) break down organic wastes using bacteria ...

Zaks, David P. M.

424

Positron Emission Tomography (PET)  

DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

Positron emission tomography (PET) assesses biochemical processes in the living subject, producing images of function rather than form. Using PET, physicians are able to obtain not the anatomical information provided by other medical imaging techniques, but pictures of physiological activity. In metaphoric terms, traditional imaging methods supply a map of the body's roadways, its, anatomy; PET shows the traffic along those paths, its biochemistry. This document discusses the principles of PET, the radiopharmaceuticals in PET, PET research, clinical applications of PET, the cost of PET, training of individuals for PET, the role of the United States Department of Energy in PET, and the futures of PET.

Welch, M. J.

1990-01-00T23:59:59.000Z

425

Emission control technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmental protection is indispensable for preserving the earth for later generations. Indeed, industrial development has made our life rich; however, it also accelerates environmental pollution. Above all, such global problems as acid rain caused by SOx and NOx emissions and air pollution caused by particulates have become serious in recent years. Countermeasures currently in service or under development for these problems include: upgrading of fuel-burning systems; conversion of energy sources to clean fuels; pretreatment of fuels; and flue gas treatment. This chapter focuses on technologies that treat flue gases including the circumstances of the development of the technologies.

Yamaguchi, Fumihiko

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

426

Using Cool Roofs to Reduce Energy Use, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Urban Heat-island Effects: Findings from an India Experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the demand for cooling energy, urban trees indirectly reducesurfaces and shade trees to reduce energy use and improvethe energy savings and GHG benefits of cool roofs and tree

Akbari, Hashem

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Nonlinear subcritical magnetohydrodynamic beta limit  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Published gyrokinetic simulations have had difficulty operating beyond about half the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) critical beta limit with stationary and low transport levels in some well-established reference cases. Here it is demonstrated that this limitation is unlikely due to numerical instability, but rather appears to be a nonlinear subcritical MHD beta limit[R. E. Waltz, Phys. Rev. Lett. 55, 1098 (1985)] induced by the locally enhanced pressure gradients from the diamagnetic component of the nonlinearly driven (zero frequency) zonal flows. Strong evidence that the zonal flow corrugated pressure gradient profiles can act as a MHD-like beta limit unstable secondary equilibrium is provided. It is shown that the addition of sufficient ExB shear or operation closer to drift wave instability threshold, thereby reducing the high-n drift wave turbulence nonlinear pumping of the zonal flows, can allow the normal high-n ideal MHD beta limit to be reached with low transport levels. Example gyrokinetic simulations of experimental discharges are provided: one near the high-n beta limit reasonably matches the low transport levels needed when the high experimental level of ExB shear is applied; a second experimental example at moderately high beta appears to be limited by the subcritical beta.

Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

428

Bioenergy: how much can we expect for 2050? This content has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the necessity to reduce global GHG emissions to a level consistent with limiting global warming to 2 C motivate to the journal homepage for more Home Search Collections Journals About Contact us My IOPscience #12;IOP forage production to provide that amount of energy. Such a high level of bioenergy supply would roughly

Montana, University of

429

Elastic emission polishing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.

Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Why Hydrogen and Fuel Cells are Needed to Support California Climate Policy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which caps state GHG emissions at 1990 levelsGlobal Warming Solutions Act of 2006, which caps state greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions at 1990 levelsGlobal Warming Solutions Act. Requires CA GHG emission reductions to 1990 levels

Cunningham, Joshua M; Gronich, Sig

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Cool Farming: Climate impacts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: Total annual GHG emissions from the production of fertilisers. 18 Table 5: Global carbon stocks meat categories as well as milk and selected plant products for comparison. 36 Figure 1: Total global 13 2.1 Global GHG emissions from agriculture 13 2.2 Projected changes in GHG emissions from

Levi, Ran

433

National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

controls or integrated measures could simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutantcontrols or integrated measures that simultaneously reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutantcontrols or integrated measures that are defined as simultaneously reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and criteria air pollutant

Zhou, Nan

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Cognitive Limitations and Investment "Myopia"  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimization of investment decisions in an uncertain and dynamically evolving environment is difficult due to the limitations of the decision maker’s cognitive capacity. Thus, actual investment decisions may deviate from ...

Chi, Tailan; Fan, Dashan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

Extremal Limits and Kerr Spacetime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The fact that one must evaluate the near-extremal and near-horizon limits of Kerr space-time in a specific order, is shown to a lead to discontinuity in the extremal limit, such that this limiting space-time differs nontrivially from the precisely extremal space-time. This is established by first showing a discontinuity in the extremal limit of the maximal analytic extension of the Kerr geometry, given by Carter. Next, we examine the ISCO of the exactly extremal Kerr geometry and show that on the event horizon of the extremal Kerr black hole, it coincides with the principal null geodesic generator of the horizon, having vanishing energy and angular momentum. We find that there is no such ISCO in the near-extremal geometry, thus garnering additional support for our primary contention. We relate this disparity between the two geometries to the lack of a trapping horizon in the extremal situation.

Parthapratim Pradhan; Parthasarathi Majumdar

2011-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

436

Emission Line Properties of the Large Bright Quasar Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present measurements of the optical/UV emission lines for a large homogeneous sample of 993 quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey. Our largely automated technique accounts for continuum breaks and galactic reddening, and we perform multicomponent fits to emission line profiles, including the effects of blended iron emission, and of absorption lines both galactic and intrinsic. Here we describe the fitting algorithm and present the results of line fits to the LBQS sample, including upper limits to line equivalent widths when warranted. The distribution of measured line parameters, principally equivalent width and FWHM, are detailed for a variety of lines, including upper limits. We thus initiate a large-scale investigation of correlations between the high energy continuum and emission lines in quasars, to be extended to complementary samples using similar techniques. High quality, reproducible measurements of emission lines for uniformly selected samples will advance our understanding of active galaxies, especially in a new era of large surveys selected by a variety of complementary methods.

Karl Forster; Paul J. Green; Thomas L. Aldcroft; Marianne Vestergaard; Craig B. Foltz; Paul C. Hewett

2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

437

Spitzer White Dwarf Planet Limits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present preliminary limits on the presence of planets around white dwarf stars using the IRAC photometer on the Spitzer space telescope. Planets emit strongly in the mid-infrared which allows their presence to be detected as an excess at these wavelengths. We place limits of $5 M_J$ for 8 stars assuming ages of $1 Gyr$, and $10 M_J$ for 23 stars.We describe our survey, present our results and comment on approaches to improve our methodology.

F. Mullally; Ted von Hippel; D. E. Winget

2006-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

438

2006 LANL Radionuclide Air Emissions Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the impacts from emissions of radionuclides at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) for calendar year 2006. This report fulfills the requirements established by the Radionuclide National Emissions Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Rad-NESHAP). This report is prepared by LANL's Rad-NESHAP compliance team, part of the Environmental Protection Division. The information in this report is required under the Clean Air Act and is being reported to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The highest effective dose equivalent (EDE) to an off-site member of the public was calculated using procedures specified by the EPA and described in this report. LANL's EDE was 0.47 mrem for 2006. The annual limit established by the EPA is 10 mrem per year. During calendar year 2006, LANL continuously monitored radionuclide emissions at 28 release points, or stacks. The Laboratory estimates emissions from an additional 58 release points using radionuclide usage source terms. Also, LANL uses a network of air samplers around the Laboratory perimeter to monitor ambient airborne levels of radionuclides. To provide data for dispersion modeling and dose assessment, LANL maintains and operates meteorological monitoring systems. From these measurement systems, a comprehensive evaluation is conducted to calculate the EDE for the Laboratory. The EDE is evaluated as any member of the public at any off-site location where there is a residence, school, business, or office. In 2006, this location was the Los Alamos Airport Terminal. The majority of this dose is due to ambient air sampling of plutonium emitted from 2006 clean-up activities at an environmental restoration site (73-002-99; ash pile). Doses reported to the EPA for the past 10 years are shown in Table E1.

David P. Fuehne

2007-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

439

field emission electron microprobe | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field emission electron microprobe Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

440

EMSL - field emission electron microprobe  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

field-emission-electron-microprobe en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Biodiesel and Pollutant Emissions (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Presents the results from three methods of testing--engine, chassis, and PEM--for testing nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from B20.

McCormick, R.; Williams, A.; Ireland, J.; Hayes, B.

2006-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

442

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

As part of the state's 1997 electric utility restructuring legislation, Illinois established provisions for the disclosure of fuel mix and emissions data. All electric utilities and alternative...

443

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Virginia’s 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity providers to disclose -- "to the extent feasible" -- fuel mix and emissions data regarding electric generation....

444

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Ohio's 1999 electric industry restructuring law requires the state's electricity suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions to customers. Electric utilities and...

445

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Maryland’s 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires all electric companies and electricity suppliers to provide customers with details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of...

446

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Oregon's 1999 electric utility restructuring legislation requires electricity companies and electric service suppliers to disclose details regarding their fuel mix and emissions of electric...

447

Emissions trading under market imperfections.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis we consider emissions trading under various market imperfections such as uncertainty over permit price, imperfect competition and noncompliance. First, we study the… (more)

Lappi, Pauli

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

Emissions trading and technological change.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Emissions trading programmes have grown in number and scope over the last forty years, and in the last decade they have become a centrepiece of… (more)

Calel, Raphael

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Fuel-Cycle energy and emission impacts of ethanol-diesel blends in urban buses and farming tractors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

About 2.1 billion gallons of fuel ethanol was used in the United States in 2002, mainly in the form of gasoline blends containing up to 10% ethanol (E10). Ethanol use has the potential to increase in the U.S. blended gasoline market because methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), formerly the most popular oxygenate blendstock, may be phased out owing to concerns about MTBE contamination of the water supply. Ethanol would remain the only viable near-term option as an oxygenate in reformulated gasoline production and to meet a potential federal renewable fuels standard (RFS) for transportation fuels. Ethanol may also be blended with additives (co-solvents) into diesel fuels for applications in which oxygenation may improve diesel engine emission performance. Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the fuel-cycle energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission effects of ethanol-gasoline blends relative to those of gasoline for applications in spark-ignition engine vehicles (see Wang et al. 1997; Wang et al. 1999; Levelton Engineering et al. 1999; Shapouri et al. 2002; Graboski 2002). Those studies did not address the energy and emission effects of ethanol-diesel (E-diesel or ED) blends relative to those of petroleum diesel fuel in diesel engine vehicles. The energy and emission effects of E-diesel could be very different from those of ethanol-gasoline blends because (1) the energy use and emissions generated during diesel production (so-called ''upstream'' effects) are different from those generated during gasoline production; and (2) the energy and emission performance of E-diesel and petroleum diesel fuel in diesel compression-ignition engines differs from that of ethanol-gasoline blends in spark-ignition (Otto-cycle-type) engine vehicles. The Illinois Department of Commerce and Community Affairs (DCCA) commissioned Argonne National Laboratory to conduct a full fuel-cycle analysis of the energy and emission effects of E-diesel blends relative to those of petroleum diesel when used in the types of diesel engines that will likely be targeted first in the marketplace. This report documents the results of our study. The draft report was delivered to DCCA in January 2003. This final report incorporates revisions by the sponsor and by Argonne.

Wang, M.; Saricks, C.; Lee, H.

2003-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

450

Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V. [Inst. of Ecology, Tallinn (Estonia); Martins, A.; Pesur, A. [Inst. of Energy Research, Tallinn (Estonia); Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H. [Estonian Agricultural Univ., Tartu (Estonia)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Passive fault current limiting device  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

452

Silicate emission in Orion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present mid-infrared spectro-imagery and high-resolution spectroscopy of the Orion bar and of a region in the Orion nebula. These observations have been obtained in the Guaranteed Time with the Circular Variable Filters of the ISO camera (CAM-CVF) and with the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS), on board the European Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Our data shows emission from amorphous silicate grains from the entire HII region and around the isolated O9.5V star Theta2 Ori A. The observed spectra can be reproduced by a mixture of interstellar silicate and carbon grains heated by the radiation of the hot stars present in the region. Crystalline silicates are also observed in the Orion nebula and suspected around Theta2 Ori A. They are probably of interstellar origin. The ionization structure and the distribution of the carriers of the Aromatic Infrared Bands (AIBs) are briefly discussed on the basis of the ISO observations.

D. Cesarsky; A. P. Jones; J. Lequeux; L. Verstraete

2000-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

453

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2010  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS, formerly the Nevada Test Site) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR, 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as those from the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Because this report is intended to discuss radioactive air emissions during calendar year 2010, data on radionuclides in air from the 2011 Fukushima nuclear power plant releases are not presented but will be included in the report for calendar year 2011. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE, 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001(EPA, 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR, 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2010, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1 percent to a maximum of 17 percent of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of that measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000032 mrem/yr, more than 300,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2004  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), ''Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements''. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2004. LANL's 2004 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

M. Stockton

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Emissions inventory report summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for calendar year 2008  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory’s potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2008. LANL’s 2008 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

Ecology and Air Quality Group

2009-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2009  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department/Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. This permit was modified and reissued on July 16, 2007. This Title V Operating Permit (Permit No. P-100M2) includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semiannual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semiannual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2009. LANL's 2009 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

Environmental Stewardship Group

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Emissions Inventory Report Summary for Los Alamos National Laboratory for Calendar Year 2006  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) is subject to annual emissions reporting requirements for regulated air pollutants under Title 20 of the New Mexico Administrative Code, Chapter 2, Part 73 (20.2.73 NMAC), Notice of Intent and Emissions Inventory Requirements. The applicability of the requirements is based on the Laboratory's potential to emit 100 tons per year of suspended particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, sulfur oxides, or volatile organic compounds. Additionally, on April 30, 2004, LANL was issued a Title V Operating Permit from the New Mexico Environment Department, Air Quality Bureau, under 20.2.70 NMAC. Modification Number 1 to this Title V Operating Permit was issued on June 15, 2006 (Permit No P-100M1) and includes emission limits and operating limits for all regulated sources of air pollution at LANL. The Title V Operating Permit also requires semi-annual emissions reporting for all sources included in the permit. This report summarizes both the annual emissions inventory reporting and the semi-annual emissions reporting for LANL for calendar year 2006. LANL's 2006 emissions are well below the emission limits in the Title V Operating Permit.

Ecology and Air Quality Group

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

458

Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost from Mobile Source Emission Reduction Credits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Going Mobile: Emissions Trading Gets a Boost From Mobilehave tested various emissions trading policies to supplementAn Analysis of EPA's Emissions Trading Program, 6 YALE J. ON

Goldschein, Perry S.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released today by scientists at Syracuse and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Rules to Cut Carbon Emissions Also Reduce Other Air Pollutants A first-of-its-kind study released to the reference case. This option reduced carbon dioxide emissions from the power sector by 35 percent from 2005 to significant gains in public and environmental health. "When power plants limit carbon dioxide emissions

Mather, Patrick T.

460

The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution1 Networks CO2 Emission Levels: results from a case study in Portland,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 The Impacts of Congestion on Time-definitive Urban Freight Distribution1 Networks CO2 Emission pressures to limit the impacts13 associated with CO2 emissions are mounting rapidly. A key challenge on CO2 emissions are hindered by the complexities of vehicle routing18 problems with time

Bertini, Robert L.

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461

Emission of Scission Neutrons in the Sudden Approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At a certain finite neck radius during the descent of a fissioning nucleus from the saddle to the scission point, the attractive nuclear forces can no more withstand the repulsive Coulomb forces producing the neck rupture and the sudden absorption of the neck stubs by the fragments. At that moment, the neutrons, although still characterized by their pre-scission wave functions, find themselves in the newly created potential of their interaction with the separated fragments. Their wave functions become wave packets with components in the continuum. The probability to populate such states gives evidently the emission probability of neutrons at scission. In this way, we have studied scission neutrons for the fissioning nucleus $^{236}$U, using two-dimensional realistic nuclear shapes. Both the emission probability and the distribution of the emission points relative to the fission fragments strongly depend on the quantum numbers of the pre-scission state from which the neutron is emitted. In particular it was found that states with $\\Omega \\pi$ = 1/2+ dominate the emission. Depending on the assumed pre- and post-scission configurations and on the emission-barrier height, 30 to 50% of the total scission neutrons are emitted from 1/2+ states. Their emission points are concentrated in the region between the newly separated fragments. The upper limit for the total number of neutrons per scission event is predicted to lie between 0.16 and 1.73 (depending on the computational assumptions).

N. Carjan; P. Talou; O. Serot

2007-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

462

A knife-edge array field emission cathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

many cathode applications require a new type of cathode that is able to produce short pulsed electron beams at high emission current. Gated field emitter arrays of micrometer size are recognized as candidates to meet this need and have become the research focus of vacuum microelectronics. Existing fabrication methods produce emitters that are limited either in frequency response or in current emission. One reason is that the structure of these emitters are not sufficiently optimized. In this study, the author investigated the factors that affect the performance of field emitters. An optimum emitter structure, the knife-edge field emitter array, was developed from the analysis. Large field enhancement factor, large effective emission area, and small emitter capacitance are the advantages of the structure. The author next explored various options of fabricating the knife-edge emitter structure. He proposed a unique thin film process procedure and developed the fabrication techniques to build the emitters on (110) silicon wafers. Data from the initial cathode tests showed very low onset voltages and Fowler-Nordheim type emission. Emission simulation based on the fabricated emitter structure indicated that the knife-edge emitter arrays have the potential to produce high performance in modulation frequency and current emission. Several fabrication issues that await further development are discussed and possible solutions are suggested.

Lee, B.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

X-ray Emission from Massive StarsX-ray Emission from Massive Stars David CohenDavid Cohen/s)Velocity (km/s) #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;absorption emission emission occulted emission emission UV telescope side side front back #12;The

Cohen, David

464

Title V Semi-Annual Emissions Report for Permit P100R1 July 1, 2011 - December 31, 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reports of actual emissions from permitted sources in Section 2.0 shall be submitted on a 6 month basis. Reports shall not include emissions from insignificant activities. Emission estimates of criteria pollutants NOx, CO, SO2, PM and VOCs shall not include fugitive emissions. Emission estimates of HAPs shall include fugitive emissions. The reports shall include a comparison of actual emissions that occurred during the reporting period with the facility-wide allowable emission limits specified in Section 2.11 of this permit. The report required by Condition 4.1 shall be submitted within 90 days from the end of the reporting period. The semiannual report required by Condition 4.2 shall be submitted within 45 days from the end of the reporting period. The reporting periods are January 1st to June 30th and July 1st to December 31st. This condition is pursuant to 20.2.70.302.E.1 NMAC.

Whetham, Walter [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

465

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

466

NATURAL GAS FOR TRANSPORTATION OR ELECTRICITY? CLIMATE CHANGE IMPLICATIONS Date: 27-Oct-11 Natural Gas For Transportation or Electricity? Climate Change Implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Projections of increased domestic supply, low prices, reduced reliance on foreign oil, and low environmental impacts are supporting the increased use of natural gas in the transportation and electricity sectors. For instance, a tax credit bill (H.R. 1380) introduced in the House earlier this year encourages natural gas use for transportation and anticipates reductions in greenhouse gases (GHGs) when it displaces gasoline and diesel. However, in reality, the amount of GHG emissions that can be reduced with natural gas is uncertain and depends on the end use. If natural gas displaces coal for electricity generation, GHG emissions are reduced by at least 45 % per kWh. But when natural gas is used as a transportation fuel there is up to a 35 % chance that emissions will increase and only a 3 % chance that it will even meet the emissions reductions mandated by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) for corn ethanol. Given that future natural gas supply is limited, despite forecasts of increased domestic production, if one wants to be certain of reducing GHG emissions, then using natural gas to replace coalfired electricity is the best approach. Investigators at Carnegie Mellon University have conducted an analysis in the attached study (1) that highlights the following important findings. 1. High risk of policy failure: The use of compressed natural gas (CNG) instead of gasoline in cars and instead of diesel in buses does not lower GHG emissions significantly. In fact there is a 10-

Aranya Venkatesh; Paulina Jaramillo; W. Michael Griffin; H. Scott Matthews

467

Emission Inventories and Projections  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When the Executive Body to the Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution took the decision to establish the Task Force on Hemispheric Transport of Air Pollution (TF HTAP) in December 2004, it was on the basis of a growing understanding of the issues surrounding the hemispheric and intercontinental transport of air pollutants. It was recognised that whilst current regional emissions on their own created pollution levels that exceeded internationally-agreed air quality objectives, hemispheric transport could exacerbate local and regional air quality problems.Two particular pollutants of concern, and the focus of this report, are ozone and particulate matter (PM), known for their detrimental impacts on human health (these impacts and others are described in Chapter 5). There was well-documented evidence for the intercontinental transport of ozone and PM but, at that time, the significance of this intercontinental influence on the design of air pollution control policies was not well understood. The European Union, in drawing up its Thematic Strategy on Clean Air for Europe during 2004, became aware of the significance of intercontinental transport and the importance of sources of pollution beyond its borders and sphere of influence, in meeting its air quality goals.

Streets, D. G.; van Aardenne, John; Battye, Bill; Garivait, Savitri; Grano, D.; Guenther, Alex; Klimont, Z.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lu, Zifeng; Maenhout, Greet; Ohara, Toshimasa; Parrish, David J.; Smith, Steven J.; Vallack, Harry

2011-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

468

Generalized local emission tomography  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Emission tomography enables locations and values of internal isotope density distributions to be determined from radiation emitted from the whole object. In the method for locating the values of discontinuities, the intensities of radiation emitted from either the whole object or a region of the object containing the discontinuities are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the isotope density discontinuity. The asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) is determined in a neighborhood of S, and the value for the discontinuity is estimated from the asymptotic behavior of .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) knowing pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object. In the method for determining the location of the discontinuity, the intensities of radiation emitted from an object are inputted to a local tomography function .function..sub..LAMBDA..sup.(.PHI.) to define the location S of the density discontinuity and the location .GAMMA. of the attenuation coefficient discontinuity. Pointwise values of the attenuation coefficient within the object need not be known in this case.

Katsevich, Alexander J. (Los Alamos, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Classical limits of unconstrained QFT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In nonrelativistic limits for states labeled by minimum packets with constrained spatial spreads and over a short term, states of unconstrained quantum field theories evolve on trajectories described by Newton's equations for the $1/r^2$ force. These states include bound solutions in the attractive force case.

Glenn Eric Johnson

2014-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

470

Review and Exams Limited Certification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

__________________________________ Check which exam you will be taking: Commercial Landscape Maintenance Lawn & Ornamental CEU's ONLY 8 Limited Certification for Commercial Landscape Maintenance A license is necessary for each commercial landscape maintenance person who applies pesticides to ornamental plant beds. Application available at: http

Watson, Craig A.

471

Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Emissions Relationship Between Composition and Toxicity of Engine Emissions 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Lovelace Respiratory Research...

472

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions, Calendar Year 2011  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan. Radionuclides from the Fukushima nuclear power plant were detected at the NNSS in March 2011 and are discussed further in Section III. The NNSS demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations. This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2. For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide's concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2011, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, at onsite compliance monitoring stations was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 1% to a maximum of 12.2% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 20 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

NSTec Ecological and Environmental Monitoring

2012-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

473

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitations to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2013, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from 0.2% to a maximum of 10.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000011 mrem/yr, more than 900,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Warren, R.

2014-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

474

National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants - Radionuclide Emissions Calendar Year 2012  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) operates the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) and North Las Vegas Facility (NLVF). From 1951 through 1992, the NNSS was the continental testing location for U.S. nuclear weapons. The release of radionuclides from NNSS activities has been monitored since the initiation of atmospheric testing. Limitation to underground detonations after 1962 greatly reduced radiation exposure to the public surrounding the NNSS. After nuclear testing ended in 1992, NNSS radiation monitoring focused on detecting airborne radionuclides from historically contaminated soils. These radionuclides are derived from re-suspension of soil (primarily by wind) and emission of tritium-contaminated soil moisture through evapotranspiration. Low amounts of legacy-related tritium are also emitted to air at the NLVF, an NNSS support complex in North Las Vegas. To protect the public from harmful levels of man-made radiation, the Clean Air Act, National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) (Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] Part 61 Subpart H) (CFR 2010a) limits the release of radioactivity from a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) facility to that which would cause 10 millirem per year (mrem/yr) effective dose equivalent to any member of the public. This limit does not include radiation unrelated to NNSS activities. Unrelated doses could come from naturally occurring radioactive elements, from sources such as medically or commercially used radionuclides, or from sources outside of the United States, such as the damaged Fukushima nuclear power plant in Japan in 2011. NNSA/NFO demonstrates compliance with the NESHAP limit by using environmental measurements of radionuclide air concentrations at critical receptor locations on the NNSS (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] and DOE 1995). This method was approved by the EPA for use on the NNSS in 2001 (EPA 2001a) and has been the sole method used since 2005. Six locations on the NNSS have been established to act as critical receptor locations to demonstrate compliance with the NESHAP limit. These locations are actually pseudo-critical receptor stations, because no member of the public actually resides at these onsite locations. Compliance is demonstrated if the measured annual average concentration is less than the NESHAP Concentration Levels (CLs) for Environmental Compliance listed in 40 CFR 61, Appendix E, Table 2 (CFR 2010a). For multiple radionuclides, compliance is demonstrated when the sum of the fractions (determined by dividing each radionuclide’s concentration by its CL and then adding the fractions together) is less than 1.0. In 2012, the potential dose from radiological emissions to air, resulting from both current and past NNSS activities, was well below the 10 mrem/yr dose limit. Air sampling data collected at all air monitoring stations had average concentrations of radioactivity that were a fraction of the CL values. Concentrations ranged from less than 0.5% to a maximum of 11.1% of the allowed NESHAP limit. Because the nearest member of the public resides about 9 kilometers from potential release points on the NNSS, dose to the public would be only a small fraction of the value measured on the NNSS. The potential dose to the public from NLVF emissions was also very low at 0.000024 mrem/yr, more than 400,000 times lower than the 10 mrem/yr limit.

Warren, R.

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

475

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In almost all cases, the emissions related to traded fuelsextraction (F Er ) and production (F Pr ) emissions (i.e. ,the net effect of emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top),

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that energy use and CO2 emissions in developed countries w icap-and-trade program for CO2 emissions from the electricalout and "sequester" the CO2 emissions, though the cost and

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Reducing Greenhouse Emissions and Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

estimated to produce CO2 emission reductions ranging frombetween low CO2 emissions and the reductions in the auto usea 16 percent reduction in CO2 traffic emissions within the

Shaheen, Susan; Lipman, Timothy

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Cementfor Fuel Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron andElectricity Saving and CO2 Emission Reduction in the Iron

Fridley, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Appendix: Mercury Emissions used in CAM-Chem/Hg model. 1. Anthropogenic emissions The anthropogenic emission of mercury is directly adopted from global mercury emission inventory [Pacyna et al., 2005]. The anthropogenic emissions are shown in annual averaged total mercury emissions. (Unit: µg/m2 /day) 2. Land

Meskhidze, Nicholas

480

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wildland fire emissions, carbon, and climate: U.S. emissions inventories Narasimhan K. Larkin a: Fire emissions Emissions inventories Greenhouse gases a b s t r a c t Emissions from wildland fire fire emissions change considerably due to fluctuations from year to year with overall fire season

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "limit ghg emissions" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Strong Upper Limits on Sterile Neutrino Warm Dark Matter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sterile neutrinos are attractive dark matter candidates. Their parameter space of mass and mixing angle has not yet been fully tested despite intensive efforts that exploit their gravitational clustering properties and radiative decays. We use the limits on gamma-ray line emission from the Galactic center region obtained with the SPI spectrometer on the INTEGRAL satellite to set new constraints, which improve on the earlier bounds on mixing by more than 2 orders of magnitude, and thus strongly restrict a wide and interesting range of models.

Yueksel, Hasan [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Beacom, John F. [Department of Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio 43210 (United States); Watson, Casey R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Millikin University, Decatur, Illinois 62522 (United States)

2008-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

482

Control of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The November 1990 Clear Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) directed EPA to establish municipal waste combustor (MWC) emissions limits for particulate matter, opacity, hydrogen chloride, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, dioxins, dibenzofurans, cadmium, lead, and mercury. Revised MWC air pollution regulations were subsequently proposed by EPA on September 20, 1994, and promulgated on December 19, 1995. The MWC emission limits were based on the application of maximum achievable control technology (MACT). This paper provides a brief overview of MWC technologies, a summary of EPA`s revised air pollution rules for MWCs, a review of current knowledge concerning formation and control of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and a discussion of the behavior and control of mercury in MWC flue gases. 56 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

Kolgroe, J.D. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). National Risk Management Research Lab.; Licata, A. [Licata Energy and Environmental Consultants, Inc., Yonkers, NY (United States)

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Upgraded recovery boiler meets low air emissions standards  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the fall of 1990, the Boise Cascade mill in International Falls, MN, carried out a millwide modernization project. One critical element of the project was the upgrade of their recovery boiler. As a result of the recovery boiler upgrade, the mill was required to obtain a prevention of significant deterioration (PSD) air permit. A best available control technology (BACT) assessment was performed as a requirement of the PSD regulations. Ultimately, a number of more stringent air pollution emission limits were established for the boiler, and a continuous emissions monitoring system (CEMS) was purchased and installed to report daily results to the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency. This paper describes efforts to achieve increased firing capacity in the mill's recovery boiler while meeting more severe air emissions regulations. The authors will show that each of the emissions limits, including CO, SO[sub 2], NO[sub x], TRS, and opacity, are met by the upgraded boiler, while achieving an increase in firing capacity over pre-upgrade levels of up to 40%.

La Fond, J.F.; Jansen, J.H. (Jansen Combustion and Boiler Technologies, Inc., Woodinville, WA (United States)); Eide, P. (Boise Cascade Corp., International Falls, MN (United States))

1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL Collaborative Emissions Research at EMSL EMSL produced this video for the annual congressional science expo organized by the National User...

485

Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro VI' Heavy-duty Engine using the PMP Methodologies Particle Number & Particulate Mass Emissions Measurements on a 'Euro...

486

Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

More Documents & Publications Ethanol Effects on Lean-Burn and Stoichiometric GDI Emissions Measurement and Characterization of Unregulated Emissions from Advanced Technologies...

487

The supply chain of CO2 emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

emissions from traded fossil fuels; Top), production (F Pr )Regional, and National Fossil-Fuel CO 2 Emissions (Carbonfrom the burning of fossil fuels are conventionally

Davis, S. J; Peters, G. P; Caldeira, K.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Radionuclide Air Emission Report for 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LBNL-470E-20Ì1 Radionuclide Air Emission Report for Preparedfor Estimating Fugitive Air Emissions of Radionuclides fromStandards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (Radionuclides),

Wahl, Linnea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Materials Applications of Photoelectron Emission Microscopy....  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a variety of photoexcitation sources including synchrotron emission, femtosecond laser pulses and conventional UV lamp emission. Each source has advantages, for example, fs...

491

Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary Breakup Model & Detailed Chemistry Integrated Nozzle Flow, Spray, Combustion, & Emission Modeling using KH-ACT Primary...

492

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines Particulate Emissions Control by Advanced Filtration Systems or GDI Engines 2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

493

Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Test Methods and Emissions Reduction Performance of In-Use Diesel Retrofit Technologies from the National Clean Diesel Campaign Characterizing Test Methods and Emissions Reduction...

494

International Emissions Trading: Design and Political Acceptability.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis discusses the design and political acceptability of international emissions trading. It is shown that there are several designs options for emissions trading at… (more)

Boom, Jan Tjeerd

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation Model-Based Diesel Engine Control Demonstrating Fuel Consumption and Emissions Reductions with Next Generation...

496

Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

Yueting Chen

2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

497

Bioethanol Limited | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Office of InspectorConcentrating SolarElectricEnergyCTBarre BiomassTHIS PAGE IS UNDER CONSTRUCTIONBioethanol Limited

498

Charged Majoron Emission in Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We examine in detail the predictions of the charged majoron model, introduced recently by Burgess and Cline, for 0+ --> 0+ double beta decay transitions. The relevant nuclear matrix elements are evaluated, within the quasiparticle random phase approximation, for 76Ge, 82Se, 100Mo, 128Te and 150Nd nuclei. The calculated transition rates turn out to be much smaller than the experimental upper limits on possible majoron emission, except in a small region of the model's parameter space.

C. Barbero; J. M. Cline; F. Krmpotic; D. Tadic

1995-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

499

Fuel Mix and Emissions Disclosure  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Rhode Island requires all entities that sell electricity in the state to disclose details regarding the fuel mix and emissions of their electric generation to end-use customers. This information...

500

Anomalous Emission from HII regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spinning dust appears to be the best explanation for the anomalous emission that has been observed at $\\sim 10-60$ GHz. One of the best examples of spinning dust comes from a HII region in the Perseus molecular cloud. Observations of other HII regions also show tentative evidence for excess emission at frequencies $\\sim 30$ GHz, although at lower emissivity levels. A new detection of excess emission at 31 GHz in the HII region RCW175 has been made. The most plausible explanation again comes from spinning dust. HII regions are a good place to look for spinning dust as long as accurate radio data spanning the $\\sim 5-100$ GHz range is available.

C. Dickinson

2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z