Sample records for limit energy-related carbon

  1. Further Sensitivity Analysis of Hypothetical Policies to Limit Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This analysis supplements the Annual Energy Outlook 2013 alternative cases which imposed hypothetical carbon dioxide emission fees on fossil fuel consumers. It offers further cases that examine the impacts of fees placed only on the emissions from electric power facilities, impacts of returning potential revenues to consumers, and two cap-and-trade policies.

  2. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  3. Figure 3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions" " (million metric tons)" ,2007,2008,2009,2010,2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016,2017,2018,2019,2020,2021,2022,2023,2024,2025,2026,2027,2028,...

  4. EIA - AEO2012 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of the CSAPR, which helps shift the fuel mix away from coal toward lower carbon fuels. Energy-related CO2 emissions reflect the mix of fossil fuels consumed. Given the high...

  5. EIA - AEO2013 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Energy-Related CO2 Emissions Total U.S. energy-related CO2 emissions do not return to their 2005 level (5,997 million metric tons) by the end of the AEO2013 projection period.6...

  6. CarbonPlan Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSL GasPermitsGreen BioEnergy LLC Jump to:MicroTrustCarbonPlan

  7. Maximum total organic carbon limit for DWPF melter feed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, A.S.

    1995-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    DWPF recently decided to control the potential flammability of melter off-gas by limiting the total carbon content in the melter feed and maintaining adequate conditions for combustion in the melter plenum. With this new strategy, all the LFL analyzers and associated interlocks and alarms were removed from both the primary and backup melter off-gas systems. Subsequently, D. Iverson of DWPF- T{ampersand}E requested that SRTC determine the maximum allowable total organic carbon (TOC) content in the melter feed which can be implemented as part of the Process Requirements for melter feed preparation (PR-S04). The maximum TOC limit thus determined in this study was about 24,000 ppm on an aqueous slurry basis. At the TOC levels below this, the peak concentration of combustible components in the quenched off-gas will not exceed 60 percent of the LFL during off-gas surges of magnitudes up to three times nominal, provided that the melter plenum temperature and the air purge rate to the BUFC are monitored and controlled above 650 degrees C and 220 lb/hr, respectively. Appropriate interlocks should discontinue the feeding when one or both of these conditions are not met. Both the magnitude and duration of an off-gas surge have a major impact on the maximum TOC limit, since they directly affect the melter plenum temperature and combustion. Although the data obtained during recent DWPF melter startup tests showed that the peak magnitude of a surge can be greater than three times nominal, the observed duration was considerably shorter, on the order of several seconds. The long surge duration assumed in this study has a greater impact on the plenum temperature than the peak magnitude, thus making the maximum TOC estimate conservative. Two models were used to make the necessary calculations to determine the TOC limit.

  8. Coupled Carbon/Water Fluxes in Complex Terrain, Water-Limited Forests Investigators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walden, Von P.

    Coupled Carbon/Water Fluxes in Complex Terrain, Water-Limited Forests Investigators: Karen Humes of quantifying the magnitude, timing, distribution and coupling of carbon and water fluxes in mountainous forestlands. This includes one segment of the continuum of carbon and water flow from the "forest to the sea

  9. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions in Manufacturing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural Gas

  10. Glossary: Energy-Related Carbon Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1.GasYearper Thousand Cubic Feet)2.46 60

  11. ATMOSPHERIC CO2 --A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of emissions from fossil fuel combustion. An increase in atmospheric CO2 would enhance Earth's naturalATMOSPHERIC CO2 -- A GLOBAL LIMITING RESOURCE: HOW MUCH FOSSIL CARBON CAN WE BURN? S. E. Schwartz, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Carbon dioxide (CO2) is building up in the atmosphere, largely because

  12. Carbon Compliance Acquisition 16 Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation inOpen EnergyCallawayCapara Energia S ACarbon Clear Jump to:Carbon

  13. Thermodynamic laws beyond free energy relations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matteo Lostaglio; David Jennings; Terry Rudolph

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent studies have developed fundamental limitations on nanoscale thermodynamics, in terms of a set of independent free energy relations. Here we show that free energy relations cannot properly describe quantum coherence in thermodynamic processes. By casting time-asymmetry as a quantifiable, fundamental resource of a quantum state we arrive at an additional, independent set of thermodynamic laws, that naturally extend the existing ones. These asymmetry relations reveal that the traditional Szilard engine argument does not extend automatically to quantum coherences, but instead only relational coherences in a multipartite scenario can contribute to thermodynamic work. We find that coherence transformations are always irreversible. Our results also reveal additional structural parallels between thermodynamics and entanglement theory.

  14. DWPF COAL CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A paper study was completed to assess the impact on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)'s Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) acid addition and melter off-gas flammability control strategy in processing Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) to SB13 with an added Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) stream and two Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) products (Strip Effluent and Actinide Removal Stream). In all of the cases that were modeled, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted Reducing/Oxidizing (REDOX) Ratio of 0.20 Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe. There was sufficient formic acid in these combinations to reduce both the manganese and mercury present. Reduction of manganese and mercury are both necessary during Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing, however, other reducing agents such as coal and oxalate are not effective in this reduction. The next phase in this study will be experimental testing with SB10, FBSR, and both SWPF simulants to validate the assumptions in this paper study and determine whether there are any issues in processing these streams simultaneously. The paper study also evaluated a series of abnormal processing conditions to determine whether potential abnormal conditions in FBSR, SWPF or DWPF would produce melter feed that was too oxidizing or too reducing. In most of the cases that were modeled with one parameter at its extreme, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted REDOX of 0.09-0.30 (target 0.20). However, when a run was completed with both high coal and oxalate, with minimum formic acid to reduce mercury and manganese, the final REDOX was predicted to be 0.49 with sludge and FBSR product and 0.47 with sludge, FBSR product and both SWPF products which exceeds the upper REDOX limit.

  15. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for removing organic contaminants from soil and from water. Most studies on SCF's concentrated on phase behavior in supercritical mixtures. Investigations of the adsorption phenomena and studies on hydrodynamics and transport rate parameters are relatively...LIMITING DIFFUSION COEFFICIENTS OF HEAVY MOLECULAR WEIGHT ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE A Thesis by MAURICIO OREJUELA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  16. Continuum limits of bistable spring models of carbon nanotube arrays accounting for material damage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Blesgen; F. Fraternali; J. R. Raney; A. Amendola; C. Daraio

    2011-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Using chains of bistable springs, a model is derived to investigate the plastic behavior of carbon nanotube arrays with damage. We study the preconditioning effect due to the loading history by computing analytically the stress-strain pattern corresponding to a fatigue-type damage of the structure. We identify the convergence of the discrete response to the limiting case of infinitely many springs, both analytically in the framework of Gamma-convergence, as well as numerically.

  17. http://www.businessweek.com/investing/green_business/archives/2009/11/the_limits_of_c_1.html The Limits of Carbon Pricing: Can High Prices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffman, Andrew J.

    will be either elusive or found through sheer luck. Consider the gasoline price spike of two summers ago so flummoxed? No, unlike our friends in Europe who accept government inflated gasoline prices The Limits of Carbon Pricing: Can High Prices Alone Cut Emissions? Posted by: Andrew Hoffman on November 18

  18. Thickness limitations in carbon nanotube reinforced silicon nitride coatings synthesized by vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eres, Gyula [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chemical vapor infiltration is a convenient method for synthesizing carbon nanotube (CNT)-reinforced ceramic coatings. The thickness over which infiltration is relatively uniform is limited by gas phase diffusion in the pore structure. These effects were investigated in two types of silicon nitride matrix composites. With CNTs that were distributed uniformly on the substrate surface dense coatings were limited to thicknesses of several microns. With dual structured CNT arrays produced by photolithography coatings up to 400 gm thick were obtained with minimal residual porosity. Gas transport into these dual structured materials was facilitated by creating micron sized channels between "CNT pillars" (i.e. each pillar consisted of a large number of individual CNTs). The experimental results are consistent with basic comparisons between the rates of gas diffusion and silicon nitride growth in porous structures. This analysis also provides a general insight into optimizing infiltration conditions during the fabrication of thick CNT-reinforced composite coatings. (C) 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. On relating physical limits to the carbon: nitrogen ratio of unicellular algae and benthic plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baird, Mark

    Abstract Unicellular algae such as phytoplankton and benthic microalgae have an elemental ratio of carbon) by photosynthetic benthic communities. Unicellular algae and benthic plants use light energy to fix carbon (C

  20. Limiting diffusion coefficients of heavy molecular weight organic contaminants in supercritical carbon dioxide 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Orejuela, Mauricio

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide. 5. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Hexachlorobenzene in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 6. Measured Diffusion Coefficients of Pentachlorophenol in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide. 7. Carbon Dioxide Parameters as Determined by Empirical..., and for polyatomic solute and solvent molecules, A?was set to 0. 70. Erkey (1989) determined the translational-rotational coupling parameters for binary n-Alkane systems from measured diffusivity data at a wide range of densities. It was shown...

  1. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Qin, Yining

    2011-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Although China became the world's largest emitter of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007, China does not publish annual estimates of CO{sub 2} emissions and most published estimates of China's emissions have been done by other international organizations. Undertaken at the request of the Energy Information Administration (EIA) of the US Department of Energy, this study examines the feasibility of applying the EIA emissions inventory methodology to estimate China's emissions from published Chinese data. Besides serving as a proof of concept, this study also helps develop a consistent and transparent method for estimating China's CO{sub 2} emissions using an Excel model and identified China-specific data issues and areas for improvement. This study takes a core set of data from the energy balances published in the China Energy Statistical Yearbook 2009 and China Petrochemical Corporation Yearbook 2009 and applies the EIA's eight-step methodology to estimate China's 2008 CO{sub 2} emissions. First, China's primary and secondary fuel types and consumption by end use are determined with slight discrepancies identified between the two data sources and inconsistencies in product categorization with the EIA. Second, energy consumption data are adjusted to eliminate double counting in the four potential areas identified by EIA; consumption data from China's Special Administrative Regions are not included. Physical fuel units are then converted to energy equivalents using China's standard energy measure of coal equivalent (1 kilogram = 29.27 MJ) and IPCC carbon emissions coefficients are used to calculate each fuel's carbon content. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated following EIA conventions for other petroleum products and non-energy use of secondary fuels. Emissions from international bunker fuels are also subtracted under the 'reference' calculation of estimating apparent energy consumption by fuel type and the 'sectoral' calculation of summing emissions across end-use sectors. Adjustments for the China-specific conventions of reporting foreign bunkers and domestic bunkers fueling abroad are made following IPCC definitions of international bunkers and EIA reporting conventions, while the sequestration of carbon in carbon steel is included as an additional adjustment. Under the sectoral approach, fuel consumption of bunkers and other transformation losses as well as gasoline consumption are reallocated to conform to EIA sectoral reporting conventions. To the extent possible, this study relies on official energy data from primary sources. A limited number of secondary sources were consulted to provide insight into the nature of consumption of some products and to guide the analysis of carbon sequestered in steel. Beyond these, however, the study avoided trying to estimate figures where directly unavailable, such as natural gas flaring. As a result, the basic calculations should be repeatable for other years with the core set of data from National Bureau of Statistics and Sinopec (or a similarly authoritative source of oil product data). This study estimates China's total energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions in 2008 to be 6666 Mt CO{sub 2}, including 234.6 Mt of non-fuel CO{sub 2} emissions and 154 Mt of sequestered CO{sub 2}. Bunker fuel emissions in 2008 totaled 15.9 Mt CO{sub 2}, but this figure is underestimated because fuel use by Chinese ship and planes for international transportation and military bunkers are not included. Of emissions related to energy consumption, 82% is from coal consumption, 15% from petroleum and 3% from natural gas. From the sectoral approach, industry had the largest share of China's energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions with 72%, followed by residential at 11%, transport and telecommunications at 8%, and the other four (commerce, agriculture, construction and other public) sectors having a combined share of 9%. Thermal electricity and (purchased) heat (to a lesser degree) are major sources of fuel consumption behind sectoral emissions, responsible for 2533 Mt CO2 and 321 Mt CO{sub 2}, respec

  2. U.S. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2013

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron Spin Transition in2,EHSSCoal Production andOrigin219:

  3. Estimates of State Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural GasRevenueMay

  4. Energy-Related Carbon Emissions, by Industry, 1994

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40CoalLease(Billion2,12803 Table A1. Refiner/Reseller Motor Gasoline11

  5. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

  6. Carbon nanotube synthesis and detection : limiting the environmental impact of novel technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plata, Desirée L

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Driven by commercial promise, the carbon nanotube (CNT) industry is growing rapidly, yet little is known about the potential environmental impacts of these novel materials. In particular, there are no methods to detect ...

  7. Question of the Week: Do Energy-Related Financial Incentives...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Do Energy-Related Financial Incentives Prompt You to Be More Energy Efficient? Question of the Week: Do Energy-Related Financial Incentives Prompt You to Be More Energy Efficient?...

  8. Jointly Sponsored Research Program Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Western Research Institute

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooperative Agreement, DE-FC26-98FT40323, Jointly Sponsored Research (JSR) Program at Western Research Institute (WRI) began in 1998. Over the course of the Program, a total of seventy-seven tasks were proposed utilizing a total of $23,202,579 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors committed $26,557,649 in private funds to produce a program valued at $49,760,228. The goal of the Jointly Sponsored Research Program was to develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources - coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Under the JSR Program, energy-related tasks emphasized enhanced oil recovery, heavy oil upgrading and characterization, coal beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, coal-bed methane recovery, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils and waters, processing of oily wastes, mitigating acid mine drainage, and demonstrating uses for solid waste from clean coal technologies, and other advanced coal-based systems. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the JSR Program.

  9. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    LBNL - 51328 ENERGY-RELATED INDOOR ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITYof Public Health Florida Solar Energy Center, Florida StateStandards, U.S. Department of Energy National Institute of

  10. Jointly Sponsored Research Program on Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    No, author

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooperative Agreements, DE-FC26-08NT43293, DOE-WRI Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources began in June 2009. The goal of the Program was to develop, commercialize, and deploy technologies of value to the nation’s fossil and renewable energy industries. To ensure relevancy and early commercialization, the involvement of an industrial partner was encouraged. In that regard, the Program stipulated that a minimum of 20% cost share be achieved in a fiscal year. This allowed WRI to carry a diverse portfolio of technologies and projects at various development technology readiness levels. Depending upon the maturity of the research concept and technology, cost share for a given task ranged from none to as high as 67% (two-thirds). Over the course of the Program, a total of twenty six tasks were proposed for DOE approval. Over the period of performance of the Cooperative agreement, WRI has put in place projects utilizing a total of $7,089,581 in USDOE funds. Against this funding, cosponsors have committed $7,398,476 in private funds to produce a program valued at $14,488,057. Tables 1 and 2 presented at the end of this section is a compilation of the funding for all the tasks conducted under the program. The goal of the Cooperative Research and Development Program for Fossil Energy-Related Resources was to through collaborative research with the industry, develop or assist in the development of innovative technology solutions that will: • Increase the production of United States energy resources – coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; • Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; • Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and • Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. Success of the Program can be measured by several criteria. Using the deployment of the federal funding with industrial participation as a performance criterion, over the course of the program, the copsonsors contributed more dollars than the federal funds. As stated earlier, a little more than half of the funding for the Program was derived from industrial partners. The industrial partners also enthusiastically supported the research and development activities with cash contribution of $4,710,372.67, nearly 65% of the required cost share. Work on all of the tasks proposed under the Cooperative Agreement has been completed. This report summarizes and highlights the results from the Program. Under the Cooperative Agreement Program, energy-related tasks emphasized petroleum processing, upgrading and characterization, coal and biomass beneficiation and upgrading, coal combustion systems development including oxy-combustion, emissions monitoring and abatement, coal gasification technologies including gas clean-up and conditioning, hydrogen and liquid fuels production, and the development of technologies for the utilization of renewable energy resources. Environmental-related activities emphasized cleaning contaminated soils using microbial fuel cells, development of processes and sorbents for emissions reduction and recovery of water from power plant flue gas, and biological carbon capture and reuse. Technology enhancement activities included resource characterization studies, development of improved methods, monitors and sensors. In general the goals of the tasks proposed were to enhance competitiveness of U.S. technology, increase production of domestic resources, and reduce environmental impacts associated with energy production and utilization. Technologies being brought to commercialization as a result of the funds provided by the Cooperative Agreement contribute to the overall goals of the USDOE and the nation. Each has broad applicability both within the United States and abroad, thereby helping to enhance the competitiveness of U.S. energy technologies in international markets and assisting in technology t

  11. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  12. Production, Energy, and Carbon Emissions: A Data Profile of the Iron and Steel Industry

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy-related carbon emissions in manufacturing analysis and issues related to the energy use, energy efficiency, and carbon emission indicators.

  13. Mechanical properties of carbon nanotube fibres: St Venant’s principle at the limit and the role of imperfections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gspann, Thurid S.; Montinaro, Nicola; Pantano, Antonio; Elliott, James A.; Windle, Alan H.

    2015-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    of a SWCNT bundle evenly coated with co-synthesised carbonaceous material, branching at the lower right into smaller bundles. According to SEM and TEM, we treat CNT bundles as the basic elements forming the fibre, rather than individual CNTs. 5... as the aerogel moves out of the hot zone of reactor [21], [22], making the reasonable assumption that not all of the carbon has been converted into CNTs. We suggest that this material is effective in mitigating the deleterious effect of the longitudinal crack...

  14. Used energy-related laboratory equipment grant program for institutions of higher learning. Eligible equipment catalog

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is a listing of energy related equipment available through the Energy-Related Laboratory Equipment Grant Program which grants used equipment to institutions of higher education for energy-related research. Information included is an overview of the program, how to apply for a grant of equipment, eligibility requirements, types of equipment available, and the costs for the institution.

  15. Energy-related indoor environmental quality research: A priority agenda

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Burge, H.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.S.

    2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers has defined a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed to develop the agenda, and 35 high priority research and development (R&D) project areas related to four broad goals: (1) identifying IEQ problems and opportunities; (2) developing and evaluating energy-efficient technologies for improving IEQ; (3) developing and evaluating energy-efficient practices for improving IEQ; and (4) encouraging or assisting the implementation of technologies or practices for improving IEQ. The identified R&D priorities reflect a strong need to benchmark IEQ conditions in small commercial buildings, schools, and residences. The R&D priorities also reflect the need to better understand how people are affected by IEQ conditions and by the related building characteristics and operation and maintenance practices. The associated research findings will provide a clearer definition of acceptable IEQ that is required to guide the development of technologies, practices, standards, and guidelines. Quantifying the effects of building characteristics and practices on IEQ conditions, in order to provide the basis for development of energy efficient and effective IEQ control measures, was also considered a priority. The development or advancement in a broad range of IEQ tools, technologies, and practices are also a major component of the priority research agenda. Consistent with the focus on ''energy-related'' research priorities, building ventilation and heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems and processes are very prominent in the agenda. Research related to moisture and microbiological problems, particularly within hot and humid climates, is also prominent within the agenda. The agenda tends to emphasize research on residences, small commercial buildings, and schools because these types of buildings have been underrepresented in prior research. Most of the research areas apply to both new construction and existing buildings. Nearly all of the recommended priority R&D project areas include tasks intended to facilitate the communication and implementation of the research results. In addition, the priority agenda includes several projects specifically designed to facilitate or stimulate the use of existing energy-efficient technologies and practices for improving IEQ. To assure that the research program continues to meet the needs of stakeholders and to facilitate the coordination of research among sponsors, the core team recommends an annual meeting attended by sponsors, a balanced group of stakeholders, and a selection of researchers implementing the agenda.

  16. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  American household carbon footprint. ” Ecological and  limitations) of carbon footprint estimates toward of the art in carbon footprint analyses for California, 

  17. EIA - AEO2011 Early Release Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    and socioeconomic factors, including appliance and building efficiency standards, higher energy prices, shifts in housing growth, and the continued transition to a more...

  18. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Press Releases Presentations Congressional Testimony Radio Spots Enter Search Term(s): Search eia.gov A-Z Index A-Z Index A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U...

  19. Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions in U.S. Manufacturing

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688Electricity Use as an IndicatorNatural Gas MonthlyUse

  20. Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14Total Delivered Residentialtight oil plays:Total Energy

  1. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2011 - Energy

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights ï‚·2008DeutscheState Energy

  2. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000Â…2011

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights ï‚·2008DeutscheState EnergyState-Level

  3. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000Â…2011)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights1,943,742 1,947,078342 301,097

  4. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emisssions by fuel

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights1,943,742Coalbed2011 State

  5. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO) Highlights1,943,742Coalbed20112011 State

  6. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000Â…2011)

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Energy I I' a(STEO)U.S. Coal Stocks at Manufacturing Plants byPer

  7. State-Level Energy-Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, 2000-2009

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells, Wisconsin:Deployment Activities Printable80

  8. Table 1. State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by year (2000-2011

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information3 OutlookSurveyState

  9. Table 2. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by fuel

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average Price2011 State

  10. Table 3. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by sector

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average

  11. Table 4. 2011 State energy-related carbon dioxide emission shares by sector

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average2011 State2011

  12. Table 5. Per capita energy-related carbon dioxide emissions by State (2000-201

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energy Energy Information32. Average2011 State2011Per

  13. "Table 21. Total Energy Related Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Projected vs. Actual"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1 U.S. Department of Energygasoline4 Space Heating8TotalTotal Energy

  14. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majer, E.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration,and Background Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration andthe success of not only geothermal energy, but also carbon

  15. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21. China's 2008 Carbon Sequestration by Nonfuel Use ofcontent. Next, carbon sequestration is estimated followingChina-specific carbon sequestration coefficients for non-

  16. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Majer, E.L.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Executive Summary Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration,2008), International Energy Agency-Geothermal Implementingand Background Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration and

  17. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    forecasts, carbon intensity, energy policy, emissions reductions Abstract China’China Surpassing American Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (1, 2) ForecastChina’s energy demand grew faster than any of the forecasts –

  18. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    National Greenhouse Gas Inventories Reference Manual (VolumeNational Greenhouse Gas Inventories: the Workbook (VolumeN ATIONAL L ABORATORY Inventory of China’s Energy-Related CO

  19. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of unadjusted energy-related CO2 emissions is attributed toEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 TOTAL Energy EmissionsEMISSIONS- T C EMISSIONS -T CO2 Coal Coke and Other

  20. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research that was necessary not only to make fluid injections safe, but an economic asset, DOE organized a series of workshops. The first workshop was held on February 4, 2010, at Stanford University. A second workshop will be held in mid-2010 to address the critical elements of a 'best practices/protocol' that industry could use as a guide to move forward with safe implementation of fluid injections/production for energy-related applications, i.e., a risk mitigation plan, and specific recommendations for industry to follow. The objectives of the first workshop were to identify critical technology and research needs/approaches to advance the understanding of induced seismicity associated with energy related fluid injection/production, such that: (1) The risk associated with induced seismicity can be reduced to a level that is acceptable to the public, policy makers, and regulators; and (2) Seismicity can be utilized/controlled to monitor, manage, and optimize the desired fluid behavior in a cost effective fashion. There were two primary goals during the workshop: (1) Identify the critical roadblocks preventing the necessary understanding of human-induced seismicity. These roadblocks could be technology related (better imaging of faults and fractures, more accurate fluid tracking, improved stress measurements, etc.), research related (fundamental understanding of rock physical properties and geochemical fluid/rock interactions, development of improved constitutive relations, improved understanding of rock failure, improved data processing and modeling, etc.), or a combination of both. (2) After laying out the roadblocks the second goal was to identify technology development and research needs that could be implemented in the near future to address the above objectives.

  1. Global Carbon Emissions in the Coming Decades: The Case of China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levine, Mark; Levine, Mark D.; Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    China's annual energy-related carbon emissions surpassed those of the United States in In order to build a more robust understanding of China's energy-related carbon emissions, emissions after 2001? The divergence between actual and forecasted carbon emissions international trade, and central government policies in driving emissions growth. so greatly in error and what drove the rapid growth of China's energy-related carbon this article reviews the role of economic restructuring, urbanization, coal dependence, underscores the rapid changes that have taken place in China's energy system since 2001.

  2. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and potential solutions to reduce energy-related CO 2 emissions: energy conservation; improving energy efficiency; carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

  3. Environmental effects of dredging. Lower limits of organic carbon normalization: Results of fish/sediment/water equilibrium partitioning studies. Technical note

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, V.A.; Honeycutt, M.E.; Feldhaus, J.; Ace, L.N.; Brannon, J.M.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This technical note reports the initial results of studies measuring biota/ sediment/water equilibrium partitioning of a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congener. The focus of this technical note is on the validity of normalizing concentrations of neutral organic chemicals on sediment total organic carbon (TOC) when sediment TOC concentrations are low. Over the past 10 years, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has aggressively pursued development of single-chemical sediment quality criteria (SQC). Equilibrium partitioning of neutral organic chemicals between the organic carbon fraction of bedded sediments and the interstitial water of the sediments provides the theoretical basis for the most popular approach to development of SQC. The solution phase of the chemical in equilibrium with the sediment is considered to represent the bioavailable fraction and to enable the conversion of existing water quality criteria (WQC) into SQC or sediment quality standards.

  4. Protein carbon content evolves in response to carbon availability and may influence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Andreas

    Protein carbon content evolves in response to carbon availability and may influence the fate that ancestral yeast strains preferentially express proteins with low carbon content during carbon limitation, relative to strains selected in the laboratory under carbon limitation. The likely reason

  5. Energy-related applications of helium: a revision of the ERDA-13 data base

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, E.F.; Krupka, M.C.

    1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A re-examination, revision, and re-evaluation of the data base contained within the 1975 document, ERDA-13, The Energy-Related Applications of Helium, were completed and results are presented in this report. New technical and resource data, current legislative proposals, updated supply-and-demand relationships, latest legal developments, programmatic changes affectng the future demand for helium, socio-economic aspects, and the effects of the latest energy-consumption projections were considered and are discussed. In contrast to ERDA-13, however, explicit recommendations with respect to the formulation of Federal helium policy, as it pertains to the energy-related applications of helium, are not given.

  6. CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

  7. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  8. A priority agenda for energy-related indoor environmental quality research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisk, W.J.; Brager, G.; Brook, M.; Burge, H.; Cole, J.; Cummings, J.; Levin, H.; Loftness, V.; Logee, T.; Mendell, M.J.; Persily, A.; Taylor, S.; Zhang, J.

    2002-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multidisciplinary team of IEQ and energy researchers is working together to define a program of priority energy-related IEQ research. This paper describes the methods employed, ten high priority broad research and development (R&D) goals, and 34 high priority R&D project areas linked to these goals.

  9. Large-Scale Utilization of Biomass Energy and Carbon Dioxide Capture and Storage in the Transport and Electricity Sectors under Stringent CO2 Concentration Limit Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luckow, Patrick; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.

    2010-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper examines the potential role of large scale, dedicated commercial biomass energy systems under global climate policies designed to meet atmospheric concentrations of CO2 at 400ppm and 450ppm by the end of the century. We use an integrated assessment model of energy and agriculture systems to show that, given a climate policy in which terrestrial carbon is appropriately valued equally with carbon emitted from the energy system, biomass energy has the potential to be a major component of achieving these low concentration targets. A key aspect of the research presented here is that the costs of processing and transporting biomass energy at much larger scales than current experience are explicitly incorporated into the modeling. From the scenario results, 120-160 EJ/year of biomass energy is produced globally by midcentury and 200-250 EJ/year by the end of this century. In the first half of the century, much of this biomass is from agricultural and forest residues, but after 2050 dedicated cellulosic biomass crops become the majority source, along with growing utilization of waste-to-energy. The ability to draw on a diverse set of biomass based feedstocks helps to reduce the pressure for drastic large-scale changes in land use and the attendant environmental, ecological, and economic consequences those changes would unleash. In terms of the conversion of bioenergy feedstocks into value added energy, this paper demonstrates that biomass is and will continue to be used to generate electricity as well as liquid transportation fuels. A particular focus of this paper is to show how climate policies and technology assumptions - especially the availability of carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) technologies - affect the decisions made about where the biomass is used in the energy system. The potential for net-negative electric sector emissions through the use of CCS with biomass feedstocks provides an attractive part of the solution for meeting stringent emissions constraints; we find that at carbon prices above 150$/tCO2, over 90% of biomass in the energy system is used in combination with CCS. Despite the higher technology costs of CCS, it is a very important tool in controlling the cost of meeting a target, offsetting the venting of CO2 from sectors of the energy system that may be more expensive to mitigate, such as oil use in transportation. CCS is also used heavily with other fuels such as coal and natural gas, and by 2095 a total of 1530 GtCO2 has been stored in deep geologic reservoirs. The paper also discusses the role of cellulosic ethanol and Fischer-Tropsch biomass derived transportation fuels as two representative conversion processes and shows that both technologies may be important contributors to liquid fuels production, with unique costs and emissions characteristics.

  10. University of Aberdeen Carbon Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levi, Ran

    of Aberdeen is committed to reducing its carbon footprint and to playing its part in limiting the worstUniversity of Aberdeen Carbon Management Plan Higher Education Carbon Management Programme working with Page 1 The University of Aberdeen Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP

  11. Energy related use conflicts for the Columbia River Estuary. Volume 1. Text. Volume 2. Atlas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, J.; Loehr, L.; Richter, K.; Ahlborn, G.; Westerlund, F.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High, medium, and low probabilities of energy related development are projected for the Columbia River Estuary to river mile 93. Projections for five, fifteen, and twenty-five year planning horizons are aggregated, mapped, and described. The direct and indirect effects of projected energy-related development upon fish and wildlife in estuarine and riverine systems are summarized. Habitats affected by construction are identified, and operations of energy facility components causing impacts are characterized. Ecosystem models are developed for riverine, estuarine, channel, sandflat, mudflat, emergent vegetation, and riparian habitats to determine biological significance and pathways of projected impacts. Species accounts are furnished for 13 species and species groups that are of special concern. Cumulative impacts are integrated and described on a site-specific basis.

  12. Energy-related use conflicts for the Columbia River Estuary. Volume I. Text

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia, J.; Loehr, L.; Richter, K.; Ahlborn, G.; Westerlund, F.; Pratt, J.

    1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High, medium, and low probabilities of energy related development are projected for the Columbia River Estuary to river mile 93. Projections for five, fifteen, and twenty-five year planning horizons are aggregated, mapped, and described. The direct and indirect effects of projected energy-related development upon fish and wildlife in estuarine and riverine systems are summarized. Habitats affected by construction are identified, and operations of energy facility components causing impacts are characterized. Ecosystem models are developed for riverine, estuarine, channel, sandflat, mudflat, emergent vegetation, and riparian habitats to determine biological significance and pathways of projected impacts. Species accounts are furnished for 13 species and species groups that are of special concern. Cumulative impacts are integrated and described on a site-specific basis. Policy-making, planning, and regulatory processes relevant to the control of energy-related impacts in the Columbia River Estuary and lower river are outlined. Management and mitigation measures are discussed both for species of concern and for the types of energy facilities expected to be developed. This report has two volumes. Volume 1 provides a narrative description of projected energy development and describes the biological characteristics of fish and wildlife and their habitats, and gives a critique of potential environmental impacts, and measures of protection and mitigation.

  13. Accounting for Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Biomass Energy Combustion (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Dioxide (CO2) emissions from the combustion of biomass to produce energy are excluded from the energy-related CO2 emissions reported in Annual Energy Outlook 2010. According to current international convention, carbon released through biomass combustion is excluded from reported energy-related emissions. The release of carbon from biomass combustion is assumed to be balanced by the uptake of carbon when the feedstock is grown, resulting in zero net emissions over some period of time]. However, analysts have debated whether increased use of biomass energy may result in a decline in terrestrial carbon stocks, leading to a net positive release of carbon rather than the zero net release assumed by its exclusion from reported energy-related emissions.

  14. Environmental audit of the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the results of the environmental audit conducted at the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research, Environmental Restoration (LEHR-ER) Project at University of California-Davis (UCD), Davis, California. The scope of the audit at the LEHR-ER was comprehensive, addressing environmental activities in the technical areas of air; surface water/drinking water; groundwater and soils/sediment/biota; waste management; toxic and chemical materials; inactive waste sites; radiation; quality assurance; and environmental management. Specifically assessed was the compliance of LEHR-ER operations and activities with Federal, state, and local regulations; DOE Orders; and best management practices (BMPs).

  15. Improving snow albedo processes in WRF/SSiB regional climate model to assess impact of dust and black carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over western U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Basin: 1. A 6 year record of energy balance, radiation, andorganic carbon aerosol from energy-related combustion, 1850–carbon in snow on surface energy balance and hydrology over

  16. Carbon Limiting Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSL GasPermitsGreen BioEnergy LLC Jump to: navigation,Jungle

  17. Carbon Trust Enterprises Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:Power LPInformation 8thCalwind IICaneyNW1 8LH Sector: Jump

  18. Universal Carbon Credits Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTown of Ladoga, IndianaTurtleCooperative Place: Beaver322°, -90.3165242° Show

  19. Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) University of California at Davis, California. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Annual Site Environmental Report for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR) Site (the Site) includes 1996 environmental monitoring data for Site air, soil, ground water, surface water, storm water and ambient radiation. DOE operation of LEHR as a functioning research location ceased in 1989, after the completion of three decades of research on the health effects of low-level radiation exposure (primarily strontium-90 and radium-226), using beagles to simulate effects on human health. During 1996, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) conducted activities at the Site in support of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Environmental remediation and the decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of Site buildings. Extensive environmental data were collected in 1996 to evaluate appropriate remedial actions for the Site.

  20. VOLUME 82, NUMBER 12 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 22 MARCH 1999 Electronic Structure and Optical Limiting Behavior of Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei, Ji

    a hollow cylinder. Little ,5% non-nanotube materials such as metal (catalyst) particles, amorphous carbon sheets remains unchanged in the carbon nano- tubes. The shift of the (002) reflection from 2u 26VOLUME 82, NUMBER 12 P H Y S I C A L R E V I E W L E T T E R S 22 MARCH 1999 Electronic Structure

  1. Rapid oxidation/stabilization technique for carbon foams, carbon fibers and C/C composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tan, Seng; Tan, Cher-Dip

    2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An enhanced method for the post processing, i.e. oxidation or stabilization, of carbon materials including, but not limited to, carbon foams, carbon fibers, dense carbon-carbon composites, carbon/ceramic and carbon/metal composites, which method requires relatively very short and more effective such processing steps. The introduction of an "oxygen spill over catalyst" into the carbon precursor by blending with the carbon starting material or exposure of the carbon precursor to such a material supplies required oxygen at the atomic level and permits oxidation/stabilization of carbon materials in a fraction of the time and with a fraction of the energy normally required to accomplish such carbon processing steps. Carbon based foams, solids, composites and fiber products made utilizing this method are also described.

  2. Conceptual Site Treatment Plan Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research Environmental Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chapman, T.E.

    1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Federal Facilities Compliance Act (the Act) of 1992 waives sovereign immunity for federal facilities for fines and penalties under the provisions of the Resource Recovery and Conservation Act, state, interstate, and local hazardous and solid waste management requirements. However, for three years the Act delays the waiver for violations involving US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. The Act, however, requires that the DOE prepare a Conceptual Site Treatment Plan (CSTP) for each of its sites that generate or store mixed wastes (MWs). The purpose of the CSTP is to present DOE`s preliminary evaluations of the development of treatment capacities and technologies for treating a site`s MW. This CSTP presents the preliminary capacity and technology evaluation for the Laboratory for Energy-Related Health Research (LEHR). The five identified MW streams at LEHR are evaluated to the extent possible given available information. Only one MW stream is sufficiently well defined to permit a technology evaluation to be performed. Two other MW streams are in the process of being characterized so that an evaluation can be performed. The other two MW streams will be generated by the decommissioning of inactive facilities onsite within the next five years.

  3. Ultra low friction carbon/carbon composites for extreme temperature applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Busch, Donald E. (Hinsdale, IL); Fenske, George R. (Downers Grove, IL); Lee, Sam (Gardena, CA); Shepherd, Gary (Los Alamitos, CA); Pruett, Gary J. (Cypress, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon/carbon composite in which a carbon matrix containing a controlled amount of boron or a boron compound is reinforced with carbon fiber exhibits a low coefficient of friction, i.e., on the order of 0.04 to 0.1 at temperatures up to 600.degree. C., which is one of the lowest frictional coefficients for any type of carbonaceous material, including graphite, glassy carbon, diamond, diamond-like carbon and other forms of carbon material. The high degree of slipperiness of the carbon composite renders it particularly adapted for limiting friction and wear at elevated temperatures such as in seals, bearings, shafts, and flexible joints

  4. GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Donna

    GLOBAL EMISSIONS Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, largely carbon dioxide (CO2) from the combustion),2 China, Russia, Japan, India and Canada--accounted for more than 70 percent of energy-related CO2. Figure 1 Global Carbon Dioxide Emissions: 1850­2030 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940

  5. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  6. Effects of atmospheric deposition of energy-related pollutants on water quality: a review and assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.J.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The effects on surface-water quality of atmospheric pollutants that are generated during energy production are reviewed and evaluated. Atmospheric inputs from such sources to the aquatic environment may include trace elements, organic compounds, radionuclides, and acids. Combustion is the largest energy-related source of trace-element emissions to the atmosphere. This report reviews the nature of these emissions from coal-fired power plants and discusses their terrestrial and aquatic effects following deposition. Several simple models for lakes and streams are developed and are applied to assess the potential for adverse effects on surface-water quality of trace-element emissions from coal combustion. The probability of acute impacts on the aquatic environment appears to be low; however, more subtle, chronic effects are possible. The character of acid precipitation is reviewed, with emphasis on aquatic effects, and the nature of existing or potential effects on water quality, aquatic biota, and water supply is considered. The response of the aquatic environment to acid precipitation depends on the type of soils and bedrock in a watershed and the chemical characteristics of the water bodies in question. Methods for identifying regions sensitive to acid inputs are reviewed. The observed impact of acid precipitation ranges from no effects to elimination of fish populations. Coal-fired power plants and various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle release radionuclides to the atmosphere. Radioactive releases to the atmosphere from these sources and the possible aquatic effects of such releases are examined. For the nuclear fuel cycle, the major releases are from reactors and reprocessing. Although aquatic effects of atmospheric releases have not been fully quantified, there seems little reason for concern for man or aquatic biota.

  7. THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarl, Bruce A.

    THE COMPARATIVE VALUE OF BIOLOGICAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION BRUCE A. MCCARL, BRIAN C. MURRAY, AND UWE A. SCHNEIDER A. Abstract Carbon sequestration via forests and agricultural soils saturates over time to sequestration because of (1) an ecosystems limited ability to take up carbon which we will call saturation

  8. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J. (Oak Ridge, TN); McMillan, April D. (Knoxville, TN); Moorhead, Arthur J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to "wick" into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy.

  9. Method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; McMillan, A.D.; Moorhead, A.J.

    1997-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for joining carbon-carbon composites to metals by brazing. Conventional brazing of recently developed carbon-bonded carbon fiber (CBCF) material to a metal substrate is limited by the tendency of the braze alloy to ``wick`` into the CBCF composite rather than to form a strong bond. The surface of the CBCF composite that is to be bonded is first sealed with a fairly dense carbonaceous layer achieved by any of several methods. The sealed surface is then brazed to the metal substrate by vacuum brazing with a Ti-Cu-Be alloy. 1 fig.

  10. BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS -POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    BIOMASS FOR HYDROGEN AND OTHER TRANSPORT FUELS - POTENTIALS, LIMITATIONS & COSTS Senior scientist - "Towards Hydrogen Society" ·biomass resources - potentials, limits ·biomass carbon cycle ·biomass for hydrogen - as compared to other H2- sources and to other biomass paths #12;BIOMASS - THE CARBON CYCLE

  11. Apparatus for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method associated therewith to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2 and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  12. Method for extracting and sequestering carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory H. (Castro Valley, CA); Caldeira, Kenneth G. (Livermore, CA)

    2005-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus to extract and sequester carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a stream or volume of gas wherein said method and apparatus hydrates CO.sub.2, and reacts the resulting carbonic acid with carbonate. Suitable carbonates include, but are not limited to, carbonates of alkali metals and alkaline earth metals, preferably carbonates of calcium and magnesium. Waste products are metal cations and bicarbonate in solution or dehydrated metal salts, which when disposed of in a large body of water provide an effective way of sequestering CO.sub.2 from a gaseous environment.

  13. Evaluation of the Energy-Related Inventions Program. Volume 1. Analysis of case studies of supported projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rorke, M.G.; Bronfman, L.M.; Soderstrom, E.J.

    1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This volume reports the analysis of the results of 30 case studies of grantees funded by the Energy-Related Inventions Program (ERIP). ERIP is one of several federal programs supporting invention and innovation in the private sector. It is a relatively small program with an annual budget of $5 to 6 million that focuses its attention on the independent inventor or small business with an energy-related invention. Support to the inventory or small business comes primarily in the form of a grant. The overall goal of the program is to stimulate innovation by individuals and small businesses and to assist in the development of promising energy-related inventions for eventual commercialization. This volume is an aggregation and synthesis of the data gathered in the case studies. (Volume 2 contains the case studies.) The case studies explore in-depth the characteristics, perceptions, and experiences of inventors and agency personnel who have participated in the ERIP. Thus they are a rich source of information for use in evaluating the process by which the program's goals and objectives are implemented and for evaluating the program;s usefulness in producing the results intended by the legislative mandate.

  14. Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    Carbonation: An Efficient and Economical Process for CO2 Sequestration Tarun R Naik1 and Rakesh sequestration. Most of the studies related to the carbonation are limited to its effects on corrosion. The possibility of using carbonation process as a direct means for carbon dioxide sequestration is yet

  15. South Carolina DOE/EPSCoR energy-related graduate research traineeships. [Progress Performance Report for period September 30, 1991 to September 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durig, J.R.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three primary objectives of the DOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant are to increase the number of US graduates with training in energy-related disciplines; to provide training and research experience through active participation in on-going energy research programs; and to ensure that the trainees obtain a broader understanding of energy-related research and technology.

  16. South Carolina DOE/EPSCoR energy-related graduate research traineeships. Progress performance report, September 30, 1991--September 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durig, J.R.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The three primary objectives of the DOE/EPSCOR Traineeship Grant are to increase the number of US graduates with training in energy-related disciplines; to provide training and research experience through active participation in on-going energy research programs; and to ensure that the trainees obtain a broader understanding of energy-related research and technology.

  17. Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Comparison of platinum deposit methods on carbon aerogels used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel: carbon aerogel, platinum, Strong Electrostatic Adsorption, chemical reduction, UV With the rarefaction the diffusive phenomena limiting electrochemical performances. By contrast, carbon aerogels present

  18. Distributional Impacts of Carbon Pricing: A General Equilibrium Approach with Micro-Data for Households

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rausch, Sebastian

    Many policies to limit greenhouse gas emissions have at their core efforts to put a price on carbon emissions. Carbon pricing impacts households both by raising the cost of carbon intensive products and by changing factor ...

  19. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Could fractional reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organization lead to a corresponding real reduction in atmospheric CO{sub 2} emissions in the next ten years? Curtis M. Oldenburg, head of the Geologic Carbon Sequestration Program of LBNL’s Earth Sciences Division, considers his own organization's carbon footprint and answers this critical question? In addressing the problem of energy-related greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and climate change, it is essential that we understand which activities are producing GHGs and the scale of emission for each activity, so that reduction efforts can be efficiently targeted. The GHG emissions to the atmosphere of an individual or group are referred to as the ‘carbon footprint’. This terminology is entirely appropriate, because 85% of the global marketed energy supply comes from carbon-rich fossil fuel sources whose combustion produces CO{sub 2}, the main GHG causing global climate change. Furthermore, the direct relation between CO2 emissions and fossil fuels as they are used today makes energy consumption a useful proxy for carbon footprint. It would seem to be a simple matter to reduce energy consumption across the board, both individually and collectively, to help reduce our carbon footprints and therefore solve the energyclimate crisis. But just how much can we reduce carbon footprints when broader forces, such as growth in energy use, cause the total footprint to simultaneously expand? In this feature, I present a calculation of the carbon footprint of the Earth Sciences Division (ESD), the division in which I work at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), and discuss the potential for reducing this carbon footprint. It will be apparent that in terms of potential future carbon footprint reductions under projections of expected growth, ESD may be thought of as a microcosm of the situation of the world as a whole, in which alternatives to the business-as-usual use of fossil fuels are needed if absolute GHG emission reductions are to be achieved.

  20. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  1. Process Limits on Euclid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Process Limits Process Limits Limit Hard Soft core file size (blocks) 0 unlimited data seg size (kbytes) unlimited unlimited scheduling priority 0 0 file size (blocks) unlimited...

  2. Permafrost soils and carbon cycling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ping, C. L.; Jastrow, J. D.; Jorgenson, M. T.; Michaelson, G. J.; Shur, Y. L.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge of soils in the permafrost region has advanced immensely in recent decades, despite the remoteness and inaccessibility of most of the region and the sampling limitations posed by the severe environment. These efforts significantly increased estimates of the amount of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils and improved understanding of how pedogenic processes unique to permafrost environments built enormous organic carbon stocks during the Quaternary. This knowledge has also called attention to the importance of permafrost-affected soils to the global carbon cycle and the potential vulnerability of the region's soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks to changing climatic conditions. Inmore »this review, we briefly introduce the permafrost characteristics, ice structures, and cryopedogenic processes that shape the development of permafrost-affected soils, and discuss their effects on soil structures and on organic matter distributions within the soil profile. We then examine the quantity of organic carbon stored in permafrost-region soils, as well as the characteristics, intrinsic decomposability, and potential vulnerability of this organic carbon to permafrost thaw under a warming climate. Overall, frozen conditions and cryopedogenic processes, such as cryoturbation, have slowed decomposition and enhanced the sequestration of organic carbon in permafrost-affected soils over millennial timescales. Due to the low temperatures, the organic matter in permafrost soils is often less humified than in more temperate soils, making some portion of this stored organic carbon relatively vulnerable to mineralization upon thawing of permafrost.« less

  3. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  4. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  5. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  6. ccsd00003923, Combination of carbon nanotubes and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of composite optical limiters, in which two complementary nonlinear optical materials are mixed togetherccsd­00003923, version 1 ­ 18 Jan 2005 Combination of carbon nanotubes and two-photon absorbers-linear scattering from single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNT) and multiphoton absorption (MPA) from organic

  7. Carbon-Fuelled Future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appel, Aaron M.

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Whether due to changes in policy or consumption of available fossil fuels, alternative sources of energy will be required, especially given the rising global energy demand. However, one of the main factors limiting the widespread utilization of renewable energy, such as wind, solar, wave or geothermal, is our ability to store energy. Storage of energy from carbon-neutral sources, such as electricity from solar or wind, can be accomplished through many routes. One approach is to store energy in the form of chemical bonds, as fuels. The conversion of low-energy compounds, such as water and carbon dioxide, to higher energy molecules, such as hydrogen or carbon-based fuels, enables the storage of carbon-neutral energy on a very large scale. The author¹s work in this area is supported by the US Department of Energy Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the US Department of Energy.

  8. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

  9. Capturing carbon | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon Released: October 02, 2011 New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

  10. An Alternative Mechanism for Accelerated Carbon Sequestration in Concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haselbach, Liv M.; Thomle, Jonathan N.

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increased rate of carbon dioxide sequestration (carbonation) is desired in many primary and secondary life applications of concrete in order to make the life cycle of concrete structures more carbon neutral. Most carbonation rate studies have focused on concrete exposed to air under various conditions. An alternative mechanism for accelerated carbon sequestration in concrete was investigated in this research based on the pH change of waters in contact with pervious concrete which have been submerged in carbonate laden waters. The results indicate that the concrete exposed to high levels of carbonate species in water may carbonate faster than when exposed to ambient air, and that the rate is higher with higher concentrations. Validation of increased carbon dioxide sequestration was also performed via thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It is theorized that the proposed alternative mechanism reduces a limiting rate effect of carbon dioxide dissolution in water in the micro pores of the concrete.

  11. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  12. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

  13. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. For

  14. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle plants, possibly with carbon capture and storage (CCS)natural gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology

  15. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology werewith carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, to replace

  16. Personal carbon card: prospects and challenges for ICT Sandrine ROUSSEAUX

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    categories of programmes aiming at limiting the environmental impact of the individuals. Carbon compensation in carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eq.), must be reduced by at least 50% in 2050 relative to their 1990 level is gradually being established by the most emitting countries in order to limit the emissions from the energy

  17. Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

  18. cure for carbon PIELKE and GREEN: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    to factors other than higher prices is limited. When fuel prices spiked higher energy prices Poland, with about 95 percent of its electricity aggressive mandates on coal. Not surprisingly's goal of limiting carbon dioxide Energy Outlook, released Nov. 12, argues that needed. The International

  19. Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

  20. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  1. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  2. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Konynenburg, Richard A. (Livermore, CA); Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuse and filter arrangement for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  3. Means for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konynenburg, R.A. van; Farmer, J.C.

    1999-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A fuse and filter arrangement is described for limiting and ameliorating electrode shorting in capacitive deionization water purification systems utilizing carbon aerogel, for example. This arrangement limits and ameliorates the effects of conducting particles or debonded carbon aerogel in shorting the electrodes of a system such as a capacitive deionization water purification system. This is important because of the small interelectrode spacing and the finite possibility of debonding or fragmentation of carbon aerogel in a large system. The fuse and filter arrangement electrically protect the entire system from shutting down if a single pair of electrodes is shorted and mechanically prevents a conducting particle from migrating through the electrode stack, shorting a series of electrode pairs in sequence. It also limits the amount of energy released in a shorting event. The arrangement consists of a set of circuit breakers or fuses with one fuse or breaker in the power line connected to one electrode of each electrode pair and a set of screens of filters in the water flow channels between each set of electrode pairs.

  4. Diagenesis of Middle Tertiary carbonates in the Toa Baja Well, Puerto Rico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gonzalez, Luis A.; Ruiz, H. M.

    1991-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    indicate that these carbonates were rapidly cemented in the marine environment (limiting compaction), that replacement of metastable carbonates by calcite and precipitation of sparry calcite took place mostly in meteoric diagenetic environments...

  5. Carbon Nanotube Membranes: Carbon Nanotube Membranes for Energy-Efficient Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Porifera is developing carbon nanotube membranes that allow more efficient removal of CO2 from coal plant exhaust. Most of today’s carbon capture methods use chemical solvents, but capture methods that use membranes to draw CO2 out of exhaust gas are potentially more efficient and cost effective. Traditionally, membranes are limited by the rate at which they allow gas to flow through them and the amount of CO2 they can attract from the gas. Smooth support pores and the unique structure of Porifera’s carbon nanotube membranes allows them to be more permeable than other polymeric membranes, yet still selective enough for CO2 removal. This approach could overcome the barriers facing membrane-based approaches for capturing CO2 from coal plant exhausts.

  6. Carbon Compliance Acquisition 5 Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:EzfeedflagBiomassSustainableCSL GasPermits ManualCanisteo,Verde:

  7. CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

  8. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  9. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  10. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

  11. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  12. Apply early! Limited enrollment.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    volcano. Experience the culture and history of Hawaii, and the impact of human activitiesApply early! Limited enrollment. Environmental Science in the Hawaiian Islands Observe, research

  13. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Carbon Fiber Technology Facility is relevant in proving the scale- up of low-cost carbon fiber precursor materials and advanced manufacturing technologies * Significant...

  14. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  15. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  16. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  17. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  18. Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory energy-related history, research, managerial reorganization proposals, actions taken, and results. History report, 1945--1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, E.F.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the development of major energy-related programs at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory between 1945 and 1979. Although the Laboratory`s primary mission during that era was the design and development of nuclear weapons and most of the Laboratory`s funding came from a single source, a number of factors were at work that led to the development of these other programs. Some of those factors were affected by the Laboratory`s internal management structure and organization; others were the result of increasing environmental awareness within the general population and the political consequences of that awareness; still others were related to the increasing demand for energy and the increasing turmoil in the energy-rich Middle East. This report also describes the various activities in Los Alamos, in Washington, and in other areas of the world that contributed to the development of major energy-related programs at Los Alamos. The author has a unique historical perspective because of his involvement as a scientist and manager at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory during the time period described within the report. In addition, in numerous footnotes and references, he cites a large body of documents that include the opinions and perspectives of many others who were involved at one time or another in these programs. Finally the report includes a detailed chronology of geopolitical events that led to the development of energy-related programs at Los Alamos.

  19. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R [eds.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1988, Congress requested that DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity) and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiatively important gases. Topics discussed include: state of the science in estimating atmosphere/climate change relationships, the potential consequences of atmosphere/climate change, us greenhouse emissions past and present, an approach to analyzing the technical potential and cost of reducing US energy-related greenhouse gas emissions, current policy base and National Energy Strategy actions, fiscal instruments, regulatory instruments, combined strategies and instruments, macroeconomic impacts, carbon taxation and international trade, a comparison to other studies.

  20. Research Summary Carbon Additionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the quality assurance of emissions reduction and carbon sequestration activities, but remains a source of muchResearch Summary Carbon Additionality Additionality is widely considered to be a core aspect controversy in national carbon accounting, international regulatory frameworks and carbon markets. A review

  1. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  2. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  3. The Woodland Carbon Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

  4. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, Duncan W. (Santa Fe, NM); Mattes, Benjamin R. (Santa Fe, NM); Koskelo, Aaron C. (Los Alamos, NM); Heeger, Alan J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Robinson, Jeanne M. (Los Alamos, NM); Smilowitz, Laura B. (Los Alamos, NM); Klimov, Victor I. (Los Alamos, NM); Cha, Myoungsik (Goleta, CA); Sariciftci, N. Serdar (Santa Barbara, CA); Hummelen, Jan C. (Groningen, NL)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical limiting materials. Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO.sub.2) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400-1100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes.

  5. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  6. Synchronization of Limit Sets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Changpin Li; Weihua Deng

    2005-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In this Letter, we derive a sufficient condition of synchronizing limit sets (attractors and repellers) by using the linear feedback control technique proposed here. There examples are included. The numerical simulations and computer graphics show that our method work well.

  7. Quantum Limits of Thermometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas M. Stace

    2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The precision of typical thermometers consisting of $N$ particles is shot noise limited, improving as $\\sim1/\\sqrt{N}$. For high precision thermometry and thermometric standards this presents an important theoretical noise floor. Here it is demonstrated that thermometry may be mapped onto the problem of phase estimation, and using techniques from optimal phase estimation, it follows that the scaling of the precision of a thermometer may in principle be improved to $\\sim1/N$, representing a Heisenberg limit to thermometry.

  8. Wear resistant composite structure of vitreous carbon containing convoluted fibers. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burton, R.G.; Burton, R.A.

    1996-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Related Inventions Program Number 613 was a two year program to commercialize a unique new wear material, Metal Reinforced Carbon Composite, MRCC. The program was designed to manufacture sample components of MRCC for evaluation by potential users and manufacturers. As a result of the program Burton Technologies Inc. and Rotary Power International are forming a joint company to manufacture, market and license MRCC materials to a wide range of industries.

  9. Cobalt carbonyl catalyzed olefin hydroformylation in supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rathke, J.W.; Klingler, R.J.

    1993-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of olefin hydroformylation is provided wherein an olefin reacts with a carbonyl catalyst and with reaction gases such as hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the presence of a supercritical reaction solvent, such as carbon dioxide. The invention provides higher yields of n-isomer product without the gas-liquid mixing rate limitation seen in conventional Oxo processes using liquid media.

  10. Mechanisms for mechanical trapping of geologically sequestered carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Yossi

    Carbon dioxide (CO[subscript 2]) sequestration in subsurface reservoirs is important for limiting atmospheric CO[subscript 2] concentrations. However, a complete physical picture able to predict the structure developing ...

  11. Electrochemical Double-Layer Capacitors Using Carbon Nanotube Electrode Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schindall, Joel E.

    The structure and behavior of the electrical double-layer capacitor (EDLC) are described. The use of activated carbon electrodes is discussed and the limitations on voltage and accessible surface area are presented. Metrics ...

  12. The Confusing Allure of Combined Heat and Power: The Financial Attraction and Management Challenge of Reducing Energy Spend and Resulting Carbon Emissions Through Onsite Power Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R.

    —from the perspective of reducing energy spending and energy-related carbon emissions—is combined heat and power ("CHP"), sometimes referred to as cogeneration. However, the results of CHP deployment to date have been mixed—largely because companies do not fully...

  13. Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safetyefficiency trade-off

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, Robert B.

    Hydraulic limits on maximum plant transpiration and the emergence of the safety­efficiency trade.12126 Key words: hydraulic limitation, safety­ efficiency trade-off, soil­plant­atmosphere model, trait hydraulics constrain ecosystem productivity by setting physical limits to water transport and hence carbon

  14. Reduction on synthesis gas costs by decrease of steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios in the feedstock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basini, L.; Piovesan, L. [Snamprogetti S.p.A. Research Labs., Milano (Italy)] [Snamprogetti S.p.A. Research Labs., Milano (Italy)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The costs for syngas production at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios have been analyzed for simplified process schemes of the main syngas production technologies (steam-CO{sub 2} reforming, autothermal reforming, and combined reforming) and different synthesis gas compositions. The broad analysis arises from experimental indication on the possibility of preventing carbon formation at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios in the feedstock by choosing an appropriate catalyst or by introducing small amounts of sulfur compounds in the reactant feed. The analysis is limited to the synthesis gas production step and does not include its downstream processes. The results indicate that technologies at low steam/carbon and oxygen/carbon ratios would have a significant positive impact on synthesis gas costs.

  15. Regulation of photosynthetic carbon fixation on the ocean margins. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, J.H.

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy is concerned with the fate of energy-related materials, including carbon dioxide, in the marine environment. Using laboratory studies, as well as field studies, an attempt was made to understand the molecular regulation of photosynthetic carbon reduction. The objectives were: to determine the mechanism of regulation of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCase) in phytoplankton in response to changes in light fields; and to determine regulation of (RuBPCase) in response to light under nutrient deprivation.

  16. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon cycling to improve climate modeling and carbon...

  17. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  18. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  19. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Australian terrestrial carbon budget Open Access 3 , G. P.The Australian terrestrial carbon budget Luo, C. , Mahowald,terrestrial carbon budget Richards, G. P. , Borough, C. ,

  20. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  1. Optical limiting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McBranch, D.W.; Mattes, B.R.; Koskelo, A.C.; Heeger, A.J.; Robinson, J.M.; Smilowitz, L.B.; Klimov, V.I.; Cha, M.; Sariciftci, N.S.; Hummelen, J.C.

    1998-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Methanofullerenes, fulleroids and/or other fullerenes chemically altered for enhanced solubility, in liquid solution, and in solid blends with transparent glass (SiO{sub 2}) gels or polymers, or semiconducting (conjugated) polymers, are shown to be useful as optical limiters (optical surge protectors). The nonlinear absorption is tunable such that the energy transmitted through such blends saturates at high input energy per pulse over a wide range of wavelengths from 400--1,100 nm by selecting the host material for its absorption wavelength and ability to transfer the absorbed energy into the optical limiting composition dissolved therein. This phenomenon should be generalizable to other compositions than substituted fullerenes. 5 figs.

  2. Managing the Cost, Energy Consumption, and Carbon Footprint of Internet Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martonosi, Margaret

    Managing the Cost, Energy Consumption, and Carbon Footprint of Internet Services Kien Le , Ozlem electricity consumptions translate into large carbon footprints, since most of the electricity in the US such as government imposed Kyoto- style carbon limits. Extensive simulations and real experiments show that our

  3. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  4. SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates · Project Objectives ­ Build and demonstrate a pilot facility#12;SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES Quarterly Report to the Department of Energy, May 19 #12;DOE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates · Phase I ­ Technology Development

  5. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh: Homework (1 for each week @10%): 40% Personal carbon account (report): 30% Final exam: 30% Course schedule Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major

  6. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  7. Variability of building environmental assessment tools on evaluating carbon emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, S. Thomas, E-mail: tstng@hkucc.hku.hk; Chen Yuan, E-mail: chenyuan4@gmail.com; Wong, James M.W., E-mail: jmwwong@hku.hk

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increasing importance of sustainability in construction, more and more clients and designers employ building environmental assessment (BEA) tools to evaluate the environmental friendliness of their building facilities, and one important aspect of evaluation in the BEA models is the assessment of carbon emissions. However, in the absence of any agreed framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking, the results generated by the BEA tools might vary significantly which could lead to confusion or misinterpretation on the carbon performance of a building. This study thus aims to unveil the properties of and the standard imposed by the current BEA models on evaluating the life cycle carbon emissions. The analyses cover the (i) weighting of energy efficiency and emission levels among various environmental performance indicators; (ii) building life cycle stages in which carbon is taken into consideration; (iii) objectiveness of assessment; (iv) baseline set for carbon assessment; (v) mechanism for benchmarking the emission level; and (v) limitations of the carbon assessment approaches. Results indicate that the current BEA schemes focus primarily on operational carbon instead of the emissions generated throughout the entire building life cycle. Besides, the baseline and benchmark for carbon evaluation vary significantly among the BEA tools based on the analytical results of a hypothetical building. The findings point to the needs for a more transparent framework for carbon auditing and benchmarking in BEA modeling. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon emission evaluation in building environmental assessment schemes are studied. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Simulative carbon emission is modeled for building environmental assessment schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbon assessments focus primarily on operational stage instead of entire lifecycle. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Baseline and benchmark of carbon assessment vary greatly among BEA schemes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A more transparent and comprehensive framework for carbon assessment is required.

  8. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  9. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  10. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  11. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  12. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

  13. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  14. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  15. Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

  16. Fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Darmann, Francis Anthony

    2013-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter (FCL) includes a series of high permeability posts for collectively define a core for the FCL. A DC coil, for the purposes of saturating a portion of the high permeability posts, surrounds the complete structure outside of an enclosure in the form of a vessel. The vessel contains a dielectric insulation medium. AC coils, for transporting AC current, are wound on insulating formers and electrically interconnected to each other in a manner such that the senses of the magnetic field produced by each AC coil in the corresponding high permeability core are opposing. There are insulation barriers between phases to improve dielectric withstand properties of the dielectric medium.

  17. Luminous carbon stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacco Th. van Loon; Albert A. Zijlstra; M. A. T. Groenewegen

    1999-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ground-based 3 micron spectra of obscured Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars in the Magellanic Clouds (MCs). We identify the carbon stars on the basis of the 3.1 micron absorption by HCN and C2H2 molecules. We show evidence for the existence of carbon stars up to the highest AGB luminosities (Mbol=-7 mag, for a distance modulus to the LMC of 18.7 mag). This proves that Hot Bottom Burning (HBB) cannot, in itself, prevent massive AGB stars from becoming carbon star before leaving the AGB. It also sets an upper limit to the distance modulus of the Large Magellanic Cloud of 18.8 mag. The equivalent width of the absorption band decreases with redder (K-L) colour when the dust continuum emission becomes stronger than the photospheric emission. Carbon stars with similar (K-L) appear to have equally strong 3 micron absorption in the MCs and the Milky Way. We discuss the implications for the carbon and nitrogen enrichment of the stellar photosphere of carbon stars.

  18. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  19. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  20. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Abstract: Carbonation of formation...

  1. The Limits of Quintessence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caldwell, R.R.; Linder, Eric V.

    2005-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We present evidence that the simplest particle-physics scalar-field models of dynamical dark energy can be separated into distinct behaviors based on the acceleration or deceleration of the field as it evolves down its potential towards a zero minimum. We show that these models occupy narrow regions in the phase-plane of w and w', the dark energy equation-of-state and its time-derivative in units of the Hubble time. Restricting an energy scale of the dark energy microphysics limits how closely a scalar field can resemble a cosmological constant. These results, indicating a desired measurement resolution of order \\sigma(w')\\approx (1+w), define firm targets for observational tests of the physics of dark energy.

  2. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  3. Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

  4. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  5. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

  6. Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes** D. Bruce Burckel Polsky* The special nature of the CÀC bond can lead to various polymorphic forms of carbon such as graphite, glassy-carbon, fullerenes (such as buckyballs), carbon nanotubes, and diamond. Electrodes made

  7. UKERC ENERGY RESEARCH ATLAS: CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (version 10 February 2008) Section 1: An overview which includes a broad characterisation of research activity in the sector and the key research challenges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    UKERC ENERGY RESEARCH ATLAS: CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (version 10 February 2008) Section 1 Research and Technology Development (RTD) Programmes. Section 8: UK participation in energy-related EU international initiatives, including those supported by the International Energy Agency. Version 1.2 published

  8. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  9. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  10. Arnold Schwarzenegger THE CARBON DIOXIDE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Program Area Lead Energy Related Environmental Research Linda Spiegel Office Manager Energy Generation Research Office Laurie ten Hope Deputy Director ENERGY RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT DIVISION Melissa Jones Research · Energy Systems Integration · Environmentally Preferred Advanced Generation · Industrial

  11. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  12. Carbon Fiber SMC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ACC932 Materials and Processes Technology Development Carbon Fiber SMC 5-20-09 Charles Knakal USCAR C. S. Wang General Motors...

  13. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  14. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  15. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conventional and alternative precursors to carbon fiber Advance high-volume composite design and manufacturing capabilities Transition technology to industry partners...

  16. EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Böhringer Jared C. Carbone Thomas F. Rutherford Revised: August 2013 Abstract Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in trade -- an idea popularized by countries seeking to extend the reach of domestic carbon regu- lations. We

  17. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

  18. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pearce, D. 2003. The Social Cost Of Carbon And Its PolicyR.S.J. 2008. The Social Cost of Carbon: Trends, Outliers and

  19. Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park

  20. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  1. COMMENTARY:Limits to adaptation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preston, Benjamin L [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An actor-centered, risk-based approach to defining limits to social adaptation provides a useful analytic framing for identifying and anticipating these limits and informing debates over society s responses to climate change.

  2. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  3. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  4. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  5. CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

  6. advanced carbon-carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: CARBON-CARBON...

  7. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

  8. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract statistic, called cumulative carbon. This statistic is the aggregate amount ofcarbon emitted in theform such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions

  9. International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

  10. A Semi-Empirical Two Step Carbon Corrosion Reaction Model in PEM Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Alan; Colbow, Vesna; Harvey, David; Rogers, Erin; Wessel, Silvia

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The cathode CL of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) was exposed to high potentials, 1.0 to 1.4 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode (RHE), that are typically encountered during start up/shut down operation. While both platinum dissolution and carbon corrosion occurred, the carbon corrosion effects were isolated and modeled. The presented model separates the carbon corrosion process into two reaction steps; (1) oxidation of the carbon surface to carbon-oxygen groups, and (2) further corrosion of the oxidized surface to carbon dioxide/monoxide. To oxidize and corrode the cathode catalyst carbon support, the CL was subjected to an accelerated stress test cycled the potential from 0.6 VRHE to an upper potential limit (UPL) ranging from 0.9 to 1.4 VRHE at varying dwell times. The reaction rate constants and specific capacitances of carbon and platinum were fitted by evaluating the double layer capacitance (Cdl) trends. Carbon surface oxidation increased the Cdl due to increased specific capacitance for carbon surfaces with carbon-oxygen groups, while the second corrosion reaction decreased the Cdl due to loss of the overall carbon surface area. The first oxidation step differed between carbon types, while both reaction rate constants were found to have a dependency on UPL, temperature, and gas relative humidity.

  11. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  12. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon has a high carbon sequestration potential due to itsin soil can lead to sustainable carbon sequestration.process takes carbon sequestration from afforestation a step

  13. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  14. GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO MARKET BREAKING THE DEADLOCK Report of a Science: Carbon Capture and Storage © OECD/IEA 2009, fig. 1, p. 6 Figures 2 and 3 reprinted with permission from `UK Carbon storage and capture, where is it?' by Stuart Haszeldine, Professor of Carbon Capture

  15. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FCResearch Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry

  16. 4, 1367, 2007 Modelling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon overconsumption and extracellular POC formation M. Schartau et carbon overconsumption and the formation of extracellular particulate organic carbon M. Schartau1 , A Correspondence to: M. Schartau (markus.schartau@gkss.de) 13 #12;BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon

  17. The Transition to Experiencing: I. Limited Learning and Limited Experiencing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    The Transition to Experiencing: I. Limited Learning and Limited Experiencing Simona Ginsburg route for the transition from sensory processing to unlimited experiencing, or basic consciousness. We the transition. We believe that the raw mate- rial from which feelings were molded by natural selection

  18. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  19. Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth’s utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

  20. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  1. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  2. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  3. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO) [ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO; Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager) [ATK, Program Manager

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  5. Limit theory for overfit models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Grayson Ford

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    theory. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1.2 Asymptotic Theory and Main Results . . . . . . . . .Chapter 2 Limit theory for comparing over?t models out-of-

  6. Thermal Degradation Behavior of Siloxane Elastomer Impregnated Carbon Nanotube Areogel Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewicki, J P; Worsley, M A

    2010-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel class of nanoporous graphitic carbon foams has been synthesized. Unprecedented properties - electrically conductive, thermally stable (> 1000 C), and mechanically robust. Improved transport properties (DWNT-CA, SWNT-CA) - greater than 100% enhancement in thermal conductivity, 100-400% improvement in electrical conductivity. Rich mechanical deformation behavior (SWNT-CA) - stiff ({approx}100% improvement of elastic modulus), energy dissipation, fracture toughness, and fatigue behavior. Implications for energy-related technologies - hydrogen storage, fusion and fission energy, catalysis, electrochemical energy storage, and composites with foam scaffolds.

  7. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  8. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  9. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  10. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  11. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H. [OECD Nuclear Energy Agency, 12, boulevard des Iles, 92130 Issy-les-Moulineaux (France)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised electricity market, looking at the impact of the seven key variables and provide conclusions on the portfolio that a utility would be advised to maintain, given the need to limit risks but also to move to low carbon power generation. Such portfolio diversification would not only limit financial investor risk, but also a number of non-financial risks (climate change, security of supply, accidents). (authors)

  12. Carbon Aerogels for Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baumann, T F; Worsley, M; Satcher, J H

    2008-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This effort is focused on the design of new nanostructured carbon-based materials that meet the DOE 2010 targets for on-board vehicle hydrogen storage. Carbon aerogels (CAs) are a unique class of porous materials that possess a number of desirable structural features for the storage of hydrogen, including high surface areas (over 3000 m{sup 2}/g), continuous and tunable porosities, and variable densities. In addition, the flexibility associated with CA synthesis allows for the incorporation of modifiers or catalysts into the carbon matrix in order to alter hydrogen sorption enthalpies in these materials. Since the properties of the doped CAs can be systematically modified (i.e. amount/type of dopant, surface area, porosity), novel materials can be fabricated that exhibit enhanced hydrogen storage properties. We are using this approach to design new H{sub 2} sorbent materials that can storage appreciable amounts of hydrogen at room temperature through a process known as hydrogen spillover. The spillover process involves the dissociative chemisorption of molecular hydrogen on a supported metal catalyst surface (e.g. platinum or nickel), followed by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen onto the surface of the support material. Due to the enhanced interaction between atomic hydrogen and the carbon support, hydrogen can be stored in the support material at more reasonable operating temperatures. While the spillover process has been shown to increase the reversible hydrogen storage capacities at room temperature in metal-loaded carbon nanostructures, a number of issues still exist with this approach, including slow kinetics of H{sub 2} uptake and capacities ({approx} 1.2 wt% on carbon) below the DOE targets. The ability to tailor different structural aspects of the spillover system (i.e. the size/shape of the catalyst particle, the catalyst-support interface and the support morphology) should provide valuable mechanistic information regarding the critical aspects of the spillover process (i.e. kinetics of hydrogen dissociation, diffusion and recombination) and allow for optimization of these materials to meet the DOE targets for hydrogen storage. In a parallel effort, we are also designing CA materials as nanoporous scaffolds for metal hydride systems. Recent work by others has demonstrated that nanostructured metal hydrides show enhanced kinetics for reversible hydrogen storage relative to the bulk materials. This effect is diminished, however, after several hydriding/dehydriding cycles, as the material structure coarsens. Incorporation of the metal hydride into a porous scaffolding material can potentially limit coarsening and, therefore, preserve the enhanced kinetics and improved cycling behavior of the nanostructured metal hydride. Success implementation of this approach, however, requires the design of nanoporous solids with large accessible pore volumes (> 4 cm{sup 3}/g) to minimize the gravimetric and volumetric capacity penalties associated with the use of the scaffold. In addition, these scaffold materials should be capable of managing thermal changes associated with the cycling of the incorporated metal hydride. CAs are promising candidates for the design of such porous scaffolds due to the large pore volumes and tunable porosity of aerogel framework. This research is a joint effort with HRL Laboratories, a member of the DOE Metal Hydride Center of Excellence. LLNL's efforts have focused on the design of new CA materials that can meet the scaffolding requirements, while metal hydride incorporation into the scaffold and evaluation of the kinetics and cycling performance of these composites is performed at HRL.

  13. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  14. FUEL CASK IMPACT LIMITER VULNERABILITIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leduc, D; Jeffery England, J; Roy Rothermel, R

    2009-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Cylindrical fuel casks often have impact limiters surrounding just the ends of the cask shaft in a typical 'dumbbell' arrangement. The primary purpose of these impact limiters is to absorb energy to reduce loads on the cask structure during impacts associated with a severe accident. Impact limiters are also credited in many packages with protecting closure seals and maintaining lower peak temperatures during fire events. For this credit to be taken in safety analyses, the impact limiter attachment system must be shown to retain the impact limiter following Normal Conditions of Transport (NCT) and Hypothetical Accident Conditions (HAC) impacts. Large casks are often certified by analysis only because of the costs associated with testing. Therefore, some cask impact limiter attachment systems have not been tested in real impacts. A recent structural analysis of the T-3 Spent Fuel Containment Cask found problems with the design of the impact limiter attachment system. Assumptions in the original Safety Analysis for Packaging (SARP) concerning the loading in the attachment bolts were found to be inaccurate in certain drop orientations. This paper documents the lessons learned and their applicability to impact limiter attachment system designs.

  15. Performance Limits for Cherenkov Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. Hofmann

    2006-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The performance of Cherenkov instruments for the detection of very high energy gamma rays is ultimately limited by the fluctuations in the development of air showers. With particular emphasis on the angular resolution, the ultimate performance limits are investigated on the basis of simulations.

  16. Congressional Request Limiting the Magnitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as goals? Target: limit U.S. GHG emissions (e.g., national emission budget, or percent reduction) What is a reasonable share of U.S. emission reductions relative to the global targets? What is the implied emissions on atmospheric GHG concentrations? Target: limit atmospheric GHG concentrations (e.g., 450, 550 ppm CO2,eq) How

  17. Integrating Steel Production with Mineral Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klaus Lackner; Paul Doby; Tuncel Yegulalp; Samuel Krevor; Christopher Graves

    2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the project were (i) to develop a combination iron oxide production and carbon sequestration plant that will use serpentine ores as the source of iron and the extraction tailings as the storage element for CO2 disposal, (ii) the identification of locations within the US where this process may be implemented and (iii) to create a standardized process to characterize the serpentine deposits in terms of carbon disposal capacity and iron and steel production capacity. The first objective was not accomplished. The research failed to identify a technique to accelerate direct aqueous mineral carbonation, the limiting step in the integration of steel production and carbon sequestration. Objective (ii) was accomplished. It was found that the sequestration potential of the ultramafic resource surfaces in the US and Puerto Rico is approximately 4,647 Gt of CO2 or over 500 years of current US production of CO2. Lastly, a computer model was developed to investigate the impact of various system parameters (recoveries and efficiencies and capacities of different system components) and serpentinite quality as well as incorporation of CO2 from sources outside the steel industry.

  18. Oxygen reduction by lithium on model carbon and oxidized carbon structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ye [ORNL; Shelton Jr, William Allison [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li-air batteries have attracted substantial interest for their high theoretical specific energies, but the oxygen reduction reaction by Li (Li-ORR) that occurs at the carbon cathode remains poorly understood. Periodic density functional theory calculations have been performed to examine the Li-ORR on several model carbon structures, including the graphite(0001) basal plane, the (8,0) single-wall nanotube, the armchair-type edge, and a di-vacancy in the basal plane. The inertness of the basal plane limits the reversible potential of O{sub 2} reduction to 1.1 V, and slightly higher to 1.2 V on the curved nanotube. The armchair edge and di-vacancy are highly reactive and significantly oxidized at ambient conditions to various CO{sub x} groups, which are reduced by Li via redox mechanisms at 1.2-1.4 V. These CO{sub x} groups can also catalyze O{sub 2} reduction at up to 2.3 V (an overpotential of 0.4 V vs. the calculated equilibrium potential for bulk Li{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation) by chelating and stabilizing the LiO{sub 2} intermediate. The Li-ORR on graphitic carbon, if via concerted Li{sup +}/e{sup -} transfer and involving carbon, lithium, and oxygen only, is therefore expected to initiate with the smallest overpotential at under-coordinated carbon centers that are oxidized at ambient conditions.

  19. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  20. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  1. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  2. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  3. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  4. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  5. activated carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  6. ammonium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  7. a537 carbon steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  8. americium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  9. affecting carbon tetrachloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  10. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,"and A. Izumi. "Carbon contamination of EL'V mask: filmEffect of Carbon Contamination on the Printing Performance

  11. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. , 2005, IPCC: Carbon Capture and Storage: Technical05CH11231. INTRODUCTION Carbon capture and storage (CCS)Development Mechanism CCS: Carbon Capture and Storage C02e:

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture & Storage High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies On February 21, 2013, in Carbon Capture, Carbon Capture &...

  13. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On carbon footprints and growing energy use Curtis M.reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organizationhis own organization's carbon footprint and answers this

  14. Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deck, Christian Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

  15. Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

  16. Separation of carbon dioxide from flue emissions using Endex principles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ball, R

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an Endex reactor endothermic and exothermic reactions are directly thermally coupled and kinetically matched to achieve intrinsic thermal stability, efficient conversion, autothermal operation, and minimal heat losses. Applied to the problem of in-line carbon dioxide separation from flue gas, Endex principles hold out the promise of effecting a carbon dioxide capture technology of unprecedented economic viability. In this work we describe an Endex Calcium Looping reactor, in which heat released by chemisorption of carbon dioxide onto calcium oxide is used directly to drive the reverse reaction, yielding a pure stream of carbon dioxide for compression and geosequestration. In this initial study we model the proposed reactor as a continuous-flow dynamical system in the well-stirred limit, compute the steady states and analyse their stability properties over the operating parameter space, flag potential design and operational challenges, and suggest an optimum regime for effective operation.

  17. Carbon-based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y Zhu; S Murali; M Stoller; K Ganesh; W Cai; P Ferreira; A Pirkle; R Wallace; K Cychosz; et al.

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  18. Carbon-Based Supercapacitors Produced by Activation of Graphene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Su, D.; Murali, S.; Stoller, M.D.; Ganesh, K.J.; Cai, W.; Ferreira, P.J.; Pirkle, A.; Wallace, R.M.; Cychosz, K.A., Thommes, M.; Stach, E.A.; Ruoff, R.S.

    2011-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Supercapacitors, also called ultracapacitors or electrochemical capacitors, store electrical charge on high-surface-area conducting materials. Their widespread use is limited by their low energy storage density and relatively high effective series resistance. Using chemical activation of exfoliated graphite oxide, we synthesized a porous carbon with a Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of up to 3100 square meters per gram, a high electrical conductivity, and a low oxygen and hydrogen content. This sp{sup 2}-bonded carbon has a continuous three-dimensional network of highly curved, atom-thick walls that form primarily 0.6- to 5-nanometer-width pores. Two-electrode supercapacitor cells constructed with this carbon yielded high values of gravimetric capacitance and energy density with organic and ionic liquid electrolytes. The processes used to make this carbon are readily scalable to industrial levels.

  19. Carbon Chemistry in interstellar clouds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maryvonne Gerin; David Fosse; Evelyne Roueff

    2002-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss new developments of interstellar chemistry, with particular emphasis on the carbon chemistry. We confirm that carbon chains and cycles are ubiquitous in the ISM and closely chemically related to ea ch other, and to carbon. Investigation of the carbon budget in shielded and UV illuminated gas shows that the inventory of interstellar molecules is not complete and more complex molecules with 4 or more carbon atoms must be present. Finally we discuss the consequences for the evolution of clouds and conclude that the ubiquitous presence of carbon chains and cycles is not a necessary consequence of a very young age for interstellar clouds.

  20. Quantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laat, Jos de

    , SCIAMACHY CO total column retrievals are of sufficient quality to provide useful new information]. Ground-based FTIR measurements provide high quality total column measurements but have very limitedQuantitative analysis of SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide total column measurements A. T. J. de Laat,1,2 A

  1. Exploring an Unstructured Lattice Representation for Carbonate Reservoir Characterization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasumarti, Lakshmi

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    carbonates via a lattice-network of pore-volumes connected in space in directions and connectivity properties driven by the rock fabric, as opposed to being limited by the rigid geometry of grid-blocks. With this goal in mind, some aspects related to a...

  2. Formation of rare earth carbonates using supercritical carbon dioxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fernando, Quintus (Tucson, AZ); Yanagihara, Naohisa (Zacopan, MX); Dyke, James T. (Santa Fe, NM); Vemulapalli, Krishna (Tuscon, AZ)

    1991-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a process for the rapid, high yield conversion of select rare earth oxides or hydroxides, to their corresponding carbonates by contact with supercritical carbon dioxide.

  3. Carbon-particle generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    1982-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus whereby small carbon particles are made by pyrolysis of a mixture of acetylene carried in argon. The mixture is injected through a nozzle into a heated tube. A small amount of air is added to the mixture. In order to prevent carbon build-up at the nozzle, the nozzle tip is externally cooled. The tube is also elongated sufficiently to assure efficient pyrolysis at the desired flow rates. A key feature of the method is that the acetylene and argon, for example, are premixed in a dilute ratio, and such mixture is injected while cool to minimize the agglomeration of the particles, which produces carbon particles with desired optical properties for use as a solar radiant heat absorber.

  4. ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION EFFORTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    ISSUES IN EVALUATING CARBON SEQUESTRATION AND ATTRIBUTING CARBON CREDITS TO GRASSLAND RESTORATION examines biological carbon sequestration using a grassland restoration as a model system. Chapter 1 for biological carbon sequestration. In this analysis, we found that significantly greater soil carbon

  5. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  6. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Daniel J. (Wheeling, IL); Cha, Yung S. (Darien, IL)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment.

  7. Passive fault current limiting device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, D.J.; Cha, Y.S.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive current limiting device and isolator is particularly adapted for use at high power levels for limiting excessive currents in a circuit in a fault condition such as an electrical short. The current limiting device comprises a magnetic core wound with two magnetically opposed, parallel connected coils of copper, a high temperature superconductor or other electrically conducting material, and a fault element connected in series with one of the coils. Under normal operating conditions, the magnetic flux density produced by the two coils cancel each other. Under a fault condition, the fault element is triggered to cause an imbalance in the magnetic flux density between the two coils which results in an increase in the impedance in the coils. While the fault element may be a separate current limiter, switch, fuse, bimetal strip or the like, it preferably is a superconductor current limiter conducting one-half of the current load compared to the same limiter wired to carry the total current of the circuit. The major voltage during a fault condition is in the coils wound on the common core in a preferred embodiment. 6 figs.

  8. Performance limits of fusion first-wall structural materials.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D. L.; Majumdar, S.; Billone, M.; Mattas, R. F.

    1999-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Key features of fusion energy relate primarily to potential advantages associated with safety and environmental considerations and the near endless supply of fuel. However, it is generally concluded that high performance fusion power systems will be required in order to be economically competitive with other energy options. As in most energy systems, structural materials operating limits pose a primary constraint to the performance of fusion power systems. It is also recognized that for the case of fusion power, the first-wall/blanket system will have a dominant impact on both the economic and safety/environmental attractiveness of fusion energy. The first-wall blanket structure is particularly critical since it must maintain high integrity at relatively high temperatures during exposure to high radiation levels, high surface heat fluxes, and significant primary stresses. The performance limits of the first-wall/blanket structure will be dependent on the structural material properties, the coolant/breeder system, and the specific design configuration. Key factors associated with high performance structural materials include (1) high temperature operation, (2) a large operating temperature window, and (3) a long operating lifetime. High temperature operation is necessary to provide for high power conversion efficiency. As discussed later, low-pressure coolant systems provide significant advantages. A large operating temperature window is necessary to accommodate high surface heating and high power density. The operating temperature range for the structure must include the temperature gradient through the first wall and the coolant system AT required for efficient energy conversion. This later requirement is dependent on the coolant/breeder operating temperature limits. A long operating lifetime of the structure is important to improve system availability and to minimize waste disposition.

  9. Ultrahard carbon nanocomposite films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    SIEGAL,MICHAEL P.; TALLANT,DAVID R.; PROVENCIO,PAULA P.; OVERMYER,DONALD L.; SIMPSON,REGINA L.; MARTINEZ-MIRANDA,L.J.

    2000-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Modest thermal annealing to 600 C of diamondlike amorphous-carbon (a-C) films grown at room temperature results in the formation of carbon nanocomposites with hardness similar to diamond. These nanocomposite films consist of nanometer-sized regions of high density a-C embedded in an a-C matrix with a reduced density of 5--10%. The authors report on the evolution of density and bonding topologies as a function of annealing temperature. Despite a decrease in density, film hardness actually increases {approximately} 15% due to the development of the nanocomposite structure.

  10. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Production Carbon Fiber Manufacturing Cost Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    to bond with composite matrix material. It is important that a carbon fiber manufacturing cost model manufactured with carbon fiber as opposed to traditional materials such as steel, automotive parts are able associated with both the manufacture of carbon fibers themselves as well as their composites. Traditional

  11. Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ion irradiation of carbon nanotubes is a tool that can be used to achieve modification of the structure. Irradiation stability of carbon nanotubes was studied by ion and electron bombardment of the samples. Different ion ...

  12. Sensor applications of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rushfeldt, Scott I

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A search of published research on sensing mechanisms of carbon nanotubes was performed to identify applications in which carbon nanotubes might improve on current sensor technologies, in either offering improved performance, ...

  13. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts to...

  14. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile element. Now, another use has been found: magnets. One would not expect pure...

  15. Carbon nanotubes: synthesis and functionalization 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrews, Robert

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conditions were then used as the basis of several comparative CVD experiments showing that the quality of nanotubes and the yield of carbon depended on the availability of carbon to react. The availability could be controlled by the varying concentration...

  16. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of materials that can be magnetic at room temperature, attempts...

  17. 14 April 2001 tmospheric carbon dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teskey, Robert O.

    emissions is through increased carbon sequestration into forests. In a large-scale assessment, Birdsey- ing carbon sequestration in southern forests. Carbon sequestration via southern pine forests may policy commitments. Keywords: carbon sequestration; southern pine forests ABSTRACT MEETING GLOBAL POLICY

  18. Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed Energy Resource Technology Characterizations. ”ABORATORY Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions5128 Distributed Energy Resources for Carbon Emissions

  19. Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development Project Profile: Direct Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Receiver Development National Renewable Energy Laboratory logo The...

  20. Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide: Enhancing Microbial Electrosynthesis with Synthetic Electromicrobiology and System Design Electrobiocommodities from Carbon Dioxide:...

  1. Page 1 of 14 UNSW Foundation Limited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New South Wales, University of

    , Coca-Cola Amatil Limited and Ingeus Limited. David is Chairman of the National E-Health Transition

  2. Carbon Footprint Calculator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This calculator estimates the amount of carbon emissions you and members of your household are responsible for. It does not include emissions associated with your work or getting to work if you commute by public transportation. It was developed by IEEE Spectrum magazine.

  3. Carbon smackdown: smart windows

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Delia Milliron

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    August 3, 2010 Berkeley Lab talk: In the fourth of five Carbon Smackdown matches, Berkeley Lab researchers Delia Milliron of the Materials Sciences Division and Stephen Selkowitz of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division talk about their work on energy-saving smart windows.

  4. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  5. CARBON -14 PHYSICAL DATA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    CARBON - 14 [14C] PHYSICAL DATA · Beta Energy: 156 keV (maximum) 49 keV (average) (100% abundance on wipes. #12;RADIATION MONITORING DOSIMETERS · Not needed (beta energy too low). · 14C Beta Dose Rate: 6) · Effective Half-Life: 40 days (unbound) · Specific Activity: 4460 mCi/gram · Maximum Beta Range in Air: 24

  6. Carbon smackdown: wind warriors

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Glen Dahlbacka of the Accelerator & Fusion Research Division and Ryan Wiser of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division are the speakers.

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    July 16. 2010 carbon smackdown summer lecture: learn how Berkeley Lab scientists are developing wind turbines to be used in an urban setting, as well as analyzing what it will take to increase the adoption of wind energy in the U.S.

  7. Identification and Selection of Major Carbon Dioxide Stream Compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Last, George V.; Schmick, Mary T.

    2011-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A critical component in the assessment of long-term risk from geologic sequestration of CO2 is the ability to predict mineralogical and geochemical changes within storage reservoirs due to rock-brine-CO2 reactions. Impurities and/or other constituents selected for co-sequestration can affect both the chemical and physical (e.g. density, viscosity, interfacial tension) behavior of CO2 in the deep subsurface. These impurities and concentrations are a function of both the industrial source(s) of the CO2, as well as the carbon capture technology used to extract the CO2 and produce a concentrated stream for geologic sequestration. This report summarizes the relative concentrations of CO2 and other constituents in exhaust gases from major non-energy related industrial sources of CO2. Assuming that carbon-capture technology would remove most of the incondensable gases N2, O2, and Ar, leaving SO2 and NOx as the main impurities, we selected four test fluid compositions for use in geochemical experiments. These included: 1) a pure CO2 stream representative of food grade CO2 used in most enhanced oil recovery projects: 2) a test fluid composition containing low concentrations (0.5 mole %) SO2 and NOx (representative of that generated from cement production), 3) a test fluid composition with higher concentrations (2.5 mole %) of SO2, and 4) and test fluid composition containing 3 mole % H2S.

  8. 4, 99123, 2007 Amazon carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    , suggested much larger estimates for tropical forest carbon sequestration in the Ama- zon BasinBGD 4, 99­123, 2007 Amazon carbon balanc J. Lloyd et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences An airborne regional carbon balance

  9. 3, 409447, 2006 Modeling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    BGD 3, 409­447, 2006 Modeling carbon dynamics in farmland of China F. Zhang et al. Title Page impacts of management alternatives on soil carbon storage of farmland in Northwest China F. Zhang1,3 , C-term losses of soil organic carbon (SOC) have been observed in many agricul- ture lands in Northwest China

  10. 7, 405428, 2007 SCIAMACHY carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    with an increasing energy demand and inherent fuel consump- tion such as China. Carbon monoxide (CO) contributesACPD 7, 405­428, 2007 SCIAMACHY carbon monoxide M. Buchwitz et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction Discussions Three years of global carbon monoxide from SCIAMACHY: comparison with MOPITT and first results

  11. 4, 21112145, 2007 Enhanced carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    are generally low in productivity and carbon (C) storage. We report, however, large increases in C sequestration . Carbon sequestration following afforestation was associated with increased N use efficiency as reflected of terrestrial ecosystems that leads to increased carbon (C) sequestration. One of those means is afforestation

  12. Dispersion toughened silicon carbon ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wei, G.C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fracture resistant silicon carbide ceramics are provided by incorporating therein a particulate dispersoid selected from the group consisting of (a) a mixture of boron, carbon and tungsten, (b) a mixture of boron, carbon and molybdenum, (c) a mixture of boron, carbon and titanium carbide, (d) a mixture of aluminum oxide and zirconium oxide, and (e) boron nitride. 4 figures.

  13. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Research Report Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management #12;#12;Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management Gregory Valatin Forestry Commission: Edinburgh-0-85538-815-7 Valatin, G. (2010). Forests and carbon: valuation, discounting and risk management. Forestry Commission

  14. 1, 167193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 1, 167­193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title Page Biogeosciences Discussions is the access reviewed discussion forum of Biogeosciences The carbon budget.janssens@ua.ac.be) 167 #12;BGD 1, 167­193, 2004 Terrestrial carbon budget at country-scale I. A. Janssens et al. Title

  15. Atomic Carbon in the Envelopes of Carbon-Rich Post-AGB Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Knapp; M. Crosas; K. Young; Z. Ivezic

    1999-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic carbon has been detected in the envelopes of three carbon-rich evolved stars: HD 44179 (=AFGL 915, the `Red Rectangle'); HD 56126; and, tentatively, the carbon star V Hya. This brings to seven the number of evolved star envelopes in which CI has been detected. Upper limits were found for several other stars, including R CrB. CI was not detected in several oxygen rich post asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars (OH231.8+4.2, for example), although it is detected in their carbon-rich analogues. Two trends are evident in the data. First, circumstellar envelopes with detectable CI are overwhelmingly carbon rich, suggesting that much of the CI is produced by the dissociation of molecules other than CO. Second, the more evolved the envelope away from the AGB, the higher is the CI/CO ratio. The oxygen-rich supergiant star Alpha Ori remains the only oxygen rich star with a wind containing detectable CI. These data suggest an evolutionary sequence for the CI/CO ratio in cool circumstellar envelopes. This ratio is small (a few %) while the star is on the AGB, and the CI is located in the outer envelope and produced by photodissociation. The ratio increases to about 0.5 as the star evolves away from the AGB because of the dissociation of CO and other carbon-bearing molecules by shocks caused by the fast winds which appear at the end of evolution on the AGB. Finally, the ratio becomes >> 1 as the central star becomes hot enough to photodissociate CO.

  16. Production Scale-Up or Activated Carbons for Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Steven D. Dietz

    2007-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation use accounts for 67% of the petroleum consumption in the US. Electric and hybrid vehicles are promising technologies for decreasing our dependence on petroleum, and this is the objective of the FreedomCAR & Vehicle Technologies Program. Inexpensive and efficient energy storage devices are needed for electric and hybrid vehicle to be economically viable, and ultracapacitors are a leading energy storage technology being investigated by the FreedomCAR program. The most important parameter in determining the power and energy density of a carbon-based ultracapacitor is the amount of surface area accessible to the electrolyte, which is primarily determined by the pore size distribution. The major problems with current carbons are that their pore size distribution is not optimized for liquid electrolytes and the best carbons are very expensive. TDA Research, Inc. (TDA) has developed methods to prepare porous carbons with tunable pore size distributions from inexpensive carbohydrate based precursors. The use of low-cost feedstocks and processing steps greatly lowers the production costs. During this project with the assistance of Maxwell Technologies, we found that an impurity was limiting the performance of our carbon and the major impurity found was sulfur. A new carbon with low sulfur content was made and found that the performance of the carbon was greatly improved. We also scaled-up the process to pre-production levels and we are currently able to produce 0.25 tons/year of activated carbon. We could easily double this amount by purchasing a second rotary kiln. More importantly, we are working with MeadWestvaco on a Joint Development Agreement to scale-up the process to produce hundreds of tons of high quality, inexpensive carbon per year based on our processes.

  17. Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, or Carbon Black?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daraio, Chiara

    Multifunctional Superhydrophobic Polymer/Carbon Nanocomposites: Graphene, Carbon Nanotubes, Switzerland *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Superhydrophobic surfaces resisting water penetration fabrication of highly electrically conductive, polymer-based superhydrophobic coatings, with impressive

  18. CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Su, Xiao

    CALCULATING THE CARBON FOOTPRINT SUPPLY CHAIN FOR THE SEMICONDUCTOR INDUSTRY By: Yasser Dessouky #12;Carbon Footprint Supply Chain Carbon Trust defines carbon footprint of a supply chain as follows: "The carbon footprint of a product is the carbon dioxide emitted across the supply chain for a single

  19. 6, 34193463, 2006 Black carbon or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page Chemistry and Physics Discussions Black carbon or brown carbon? The nature of light-absorbing carbonaceous;ACPD 6, 3419­3463, 2006 Black carbon or brown carbon M. O. Andreae and A. Gelencs´er Title Page

  20. Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel Complexes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, William D.

    Catalytic Carbon-Carbon and Carbon-Silicon Bond Activation and Functionalization by Nickel of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 Received June 11, 1999 The nickel alkyne complexes (dippe)Ni(Me3Si, and nickel phosphine complexes.3 Milstein and co-workers reported the cata- lytic hydrogenolysis

  1. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  2. Carbon Capture and Storage, 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-03-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy is researching the safe implementation of a technology called carbon sequestration, also known as carbon capture and storage, or CCS. Based on an oilfield practice, this approach stores carbon dioxide, or CO2 generated from human activities for millennia as a means to mitigate global climate change. In 2003, the Department of Energys National Energy Technology Laboratory formed seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships to assess geologic formations suitable for storage and to determine the best approaches to implement carbon sequestration in each region. This video describes the work of these partnerships.

  3. CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CO2 enhancement of forest productivity constrained by limited nitrogen availability Richard J for review May 9, 2010) Stimulation of terrestrial plant production by rising CO2 concentra- tion is projected to reduce the airborne fraction of anthropogenic CO2 emissions. Coupled climate­carbon cycle

  4. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS 2014 Cover: Acknowledgement Bethan Perkins, Assimila Limited and EUMETSAT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AND ENERGY BALANCE OF FORESTS 25 NEW MEASUREMENTS OF TROPICAL FOREST BIOMASS AND STRUCTURE 26 CARBON EXPORT PARAMETER RETRIEVAL 21 CONSTRAINING ECOSYSTEM CAR- BON DYNAMICS IN A DATA-LIMITED WORLD: INTEGRATING ECOLOGI ADAPTIVE LOCALIZATION FOR ENSEMBLE DATA ASSIMILATION 39 ESTIMATING CORRELATED OBSERVATION ERROR STATISTICS

  5. EB2012-MS-43 ADVANCES IN THE MODELLING OF CARBON/CARBON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the Carbon-Carbon composites (C/C) are materials frequently used in industrial applications such as planeEB2012-MS-43 ADVANCES IN THE MODELLING OF CARBON/CARBON COMPOSITE UNDER TRIBOLOGICAL CONSTRAINTS 1, homogenization, carbon ABSTRACT Thermo mechanical properties of Carbon-Carbon composite (C/C) allow them

  6. Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carrington, Emily

    Carbon Cycle Discussion After the warm-up quiz, discuss the carbon cycle. Carbon is one is without carbon. Where else is carbon on our Earth? In rocks, living organisms, the atmosphere, oceans Does carbon stay in one place? What processes include moving carbon? Introduce residence time: How long does

  7. Scattering resonances as viscosity limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maciej Zworski

    2015-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the method of complex scaling we show that scattering resonances of $ - \\Delta + V $, $ V \\in L^\\infty_{\\rm{c}} ( \\mathbb R^n ) $, are limits of eigenvalues of $ - \\Delta + V - i \\epsilon x^2 $ as $ \\epsilon \\to 0+ $. That justifies a method proposed in computational chemistry and reflects a general principle for resonances in other settings.

  8. Lithium in LMC carbon stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Hatzidimitriou; D. H. Morgan; R. D. Cannon; B. F. W. Croke

    2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Nineteen carbon stars that show lithium enrichment in their atmospheres have been discovered among a sample of 674 carbon stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Six of the Li-rich carbon stars are of J-type, i.e. with strong 13C isotopic features. No super-Li-rich carbon stars were found. The incidence of lithium enrichment among carbon stars in the LMC is much rarer than in the Galaxy, and about five times more frequent among J-type than among N-type carbon stars. The bolometric magnitudes of the Li-rich carbon stars range between -3.3 and -5.7. Existing models of Li-enrichment via the hot bottom burning process fail to account for all of the observed properties of the Li-enriched stars studied here.

  9. CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FUJITA,E.

    2000-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar carbon dioxide fixation offers the possibility of a renewable source of chemicals and fuels in the future. Its realization rests on future advances in the efficiency of solar energy collection and development of suitable catalysts for CO{sub 2} conversion. Recent achievements in the efficiency of solar energy conversion and in catalysis suggest that this approach holds a great deal of promise for contributing to future needs for fuels and chemicals.

  10. Carbon Capital: The Political Ecology of Carbon Forestry and Development in Chiapas, Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Osborne, Tracey Muttoo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B v + B d ) C T = Total carbon B v = biomass contained indevelopment through carbon sequestration: experiences in2000) Rural livelihoods and carbon management, IIED Natural

  11. Carbon taxes and India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisher-Vanden, K.A.; Pitcher, H.M.; Edmonds, J.A.; Kim, S.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad (India)

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using the Indian module of the Second Generation Model 9SGM, we explore a reference case and three scenarios in which greenhouse gas emissions were controlled. Two alternative policy instruments (carbon taxes and tradable permits) were analyzed to determine comparative costs of stabilizing emissions at (1) 1990 levels (the 1 X case), (2) two times the 1990 levels (the 2X case), and (3) three times the 1990 levels (the 3X case). The analysis takes into account India`s rapidly growing population and the abundance of coal and biomass relative to other fuels. We also explore the impacts of a global tradable permits market to stabilize global carbon emissions on the Indian economy under the following two emissions allowance allocation methods: (1) {open_quotes}Grandfathered emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on 1990 emissions. (2) {open_quotes}Equal per capita emissions{close_quotes}: emissions allowances are allocated based on share of global population. Tradable permits represent a lower cost method to stabilize Indian emissions than carbon taxes, i.e., global action would benefit India more than independent actions.

  12. Summary of Dissolved Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yueting Chen

    2001-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    According to the Technical Work Plan titled Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR (CRWMS M&O 2000a), the purpose of this study is to perform abstractions on solubility limits of radioactive elements based on the process-level information and thermodynamic databases provided by Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO) and Waste Package Operations (WPO). The scope of this analysis is to produce solubility limits as functions, distributions, or constants for all transported radioactive elements identified by the Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) radioisotope screening. Results from an expert elicitation for solubility limits of most radioactive elements were used in the previous Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs). However, the elicitation conducted in 1993 does not meet the criteria set forth by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) due to lack of documentation and traceability (Kotra et al. 1996, Section 3). Therefore, at the Waste Form Abstraction Workshop held on February 2-4, 1999, at Albuquerque, New Mexico, the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) decided to develop geochemical models to study solubility for the proposed Monitored Geologic Repository. WPO/NEPO is to develop process-level solubility models, including review and compilation of relevant thermodynamic data. PAO's responsibility is to perform abstractions based on the process models and chemical conditions and to produce solubility distributions or response surfaces applicable to the proposed repository. The results of this analysis and conceptual model will feed the performance assessment for Total System Performance Assessment--Site Recommendation (TSPA-SR) and Total System Performance Assessment--License Application (TSPA-LA), and to the Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report section on concentration limits.

  13. Fundamental Limits to Cellular Sensing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pieter Rein ten Wolde; Nils B. Becker; Thomas E. Ouldridge; A. Mugler

    2015-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years experiments have demonstrated that living cells can measure low chemical concentrations with high precision, and much progress has been made in understanding what sets the fundamental limit to the precision of chemical sensing. Chemical concentration measurements start with the binding of ligand molecules to receptor proteins, which is an inherently noisy process, especially at low concentrations. The signaling networks that transmit the information on the ligand concentration from the receptors into the cell have to filter this noise extrinsic to the cell as much as possible. These networks, however, are also stochastic in nature, which means that they will also add noise to the transmitted signal. In this review, we will first discuss how the diffusive transport and binding of ligand to the receptor sets the receptor correlation time, and then how downstream signaling pathways integrate the noise in the receptor state; we will discuss how the number of receptors, the receptor correlation time, and the effective integration time together set a fundamental limit on the precision of sensing. We then discuss how cells can remove the receptor noise while simultaneously suppressing the intrinsic noise in the signaling network. We describe why this mechanism of time integration requires three classes of resources---receptors and their integration time, readout molecules, energy---and how each resource class sets a fundamental sensing limit. We also briefly discuss the scheme of maximum-likelihood estimation, the role of receptor cooperativity, and how cellular copy protocols differ from canonical copy protocols typically considered in the computational literature, explaining why cellular sensing systems can never reach the Landauer limit on the optimal trade-off between accuracy and energetic cost.

  14. Dissolved carbonic anhydrase for enhancing post-combustion carbon dioxide hydration in aqueous ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Heck, Robert W.; Zwoster, Andy

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous ammonia solvents that capture CO2 as ionic complexes of carbonates with ammonium have recently been advanced as alternatives to amine-based solvents due to their lower energy requirements for thermal regeneration. In ammonia based solvents, the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate may become a rate-limiting step as the CO2 loading increases and the resulting pH level of the solvent decreases. Variants of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase can accelerate the reversible hydration of CO2 to yield bicarbonate by more than 10(6)-fold. The possible benefit of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) addition to solutions of aqueous ammonia to enhance CO2 hydration was investigated in semi-batch reactions within continuously stirred tank reactors or in a bubble column gas-liquid contactor. Adding 154 mg/liter of BCA to 2 M aqueous ammonia provided a 34.1% overall increase in the rate of CO2 hydration (as indicated by the production of [H+]) as the pH declined from 9.6 to 8.6 during sparging with a 15% CO2, 85% N-2 gas at a flow rate of 3 lpm. The benefits of adding BCA to enhance CO2 hydration were only discernable below similar to pH 9. The implications of the apparent pH limitations on the utility of BCA are discussed in the context of absorber unit operation design. Possible embodiments of carbonic anhydrase as either an immobilized catalyst or as a dissolved, recirculating catalyst in potential plant scale aqueous ammonia systems are considered as well. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Waste tank characterization sampling limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tusler, L.A.

    1994-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a result of the Plant Implementation Team Investigation into delayed reporting of the exotherm in Tank 241-T-111 waste samples. The corrective actions identified are to have immediate notification of appropriate Tank Farm Operations Shift Management if analyses with potential safety impact exceed established levels. A procedure, WHC-IP-0842 Section 12.18, ``TWRS Approved Sampling and Data Analysis by Designated Laboratories`` (WHC 1994), has been established to require all tank waste sampling (including core, auger and supernate) and tank vapor samples be performed using this document. This document establishes levels for specified analysis that require notification of the appropriate shift manager. The following categories provide numerical values for analysis that may indicate that a tank is either outside the operating specification or should be evaluated for inclusion on a Watch List. The information given is intended to translate an operating limit such as heat load, expressed in Btu/hour, to an analysis related limit, in this case cesium-137 and strontium-90 concentrations. By using the values provided as safety flags, the analytical laboratory personnel can notify a shift manager that a tank is in potential violation of an operating limit or that a tank should be considered for inclusion on a Watch List. The shift manager can then take appropriate interim measures until a final determination is made by engineering personnel.

  16. Assessment of Brine Management for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breunig, Hanna M.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for  Geologic  Carbon  Sequestration. ”   International  of  Energy.  “Carbon  Sequestration  Atlas  of  the  Water  Extracted  from  Carbon  Sequestration  Projects."  

  17. activated carbon electrodes: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2 Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes** Materials Science Websites Summary: Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined...

  18. Clathrate hydrates in frozen confections : formation by carbon dioxide flash freezing and behavior during distribution and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonated frozen foods are not common on the market due to the limited liquid water available to dissolve CO? . CO? clathrate hydrates can change this because CO? is trapped in crystalline water. The CO? flash-freezing ...

  19. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Task 3: Mechanical behaviors of carbonated minerals. - Task 4: Modeling of CO2- reservoir rock interactions. - Task 5: Preparation of report covering the four tasks previous task,...

  20. Geologic Carbon Sequestration and Biosequestration (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    DePaolo, Don [Director, LBNL Earth Sciences Division

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Don DePaolo, Director of LBNL's Earth Sciences Division, speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  1. Recent Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers; S. Angelini

    2005-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments in the Current Drive eXperiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R=34 cm, a=22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} =100 kA, T{sub e}(0) {approx} 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium pool limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium pool limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

  2. Liquid Lithium Limiter Experiments in CDX-U

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Majeski; S. Jardin; R. Kaita; T. Gray; P. Marfuta; J. Spaleta; J. Timberlake; L. Zakharov; G. Antar; R. Doerner; S. Luckhardt; R. Seraydarian; V. Soukhanovskii; R. Maingi; M. Finkenthal; D. Stutman; D. Rodgers

    2004-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent experiments in the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade provide a first-ever test of large area liquid lithium surfaces as a tokamak first wall, to gain engineering experience with a liquid metal first wall, and to investigate whether very low recycling plasma regimes can be accessed with lithium walls. The CDX-U is a compact (R = 34 cm, a = 22 cm, B{sub toroidal} = 2 kG, I{sub P} = 100 kA, T{sub e}(0) = 100 eV, n{sub e}(0) {approx} 5 x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3}) spherical torus at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. A toroidal liquid lithium tray limiter with an area of 2000 cm{sup 2} (half the total plasma limiting surface) has been installed in CDX-U. Tokamak discharges which used the liquid lithium limiter required a fourfold lower loop voltage to sustain the plasma current, and a factor of 5-8 increase in gas fueling to achieve a comparable density, indicating that recycling is strongly reduced. Modeling of the discharges demonstrated that the lithium-limited discharges are consistent with Z{sub effective} < 1.2 (compared to 2.4 for the pre-lithium discharges), a broadened current channel, and a 25% increase in the core electron temperature. Spectroscopic measurements indicate that edge oxygen and carbon radiation are strongly reduced.

  3. Howell, R.A., 2012 Living with a carbon allowance 1 Living with a carbon allowance: the experiences of Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Howell, R.A., 2012 Living with a carbon allowance 1 Living with a carbon allowance: the experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy Rachel A. Howell Environmental Change with a carbon allowance: the experiences of Carbon Rationing Action Groups and implications for policy. Energy

  4. Carbon/Ternary Alloy/Carbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CarbonTernary AlloyCarbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an Optical Data Storage Medium to Potentially Replace Magnetic Tape. CarbonTernary AlloyCarbon Optical Stack on Mylar as an...

  5. Geologic Carbon Storage Archived Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Corporation 9302005 Enhanced Microbial Pathways for Methane Production from Oil Shale Western Research Institute 1012005 Carbon Sequestration for Existing Power Plants...

  6. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, David B. (Los Alamos, NM); Paisley, Dennis L. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser driven flyer plate utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited.

  7. Carbon nanotube IR detectors (SV)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leonard, F. L.

    2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) and Lockheed Martin Corporation (LMC) collaborated to (1) evaluate the potential of carbon nanotubes as channels in infrared (IR) photodetectors; (2) assemble and characterize carbon nanotube electronic devices and measure the photocurrent generated when exposed to infrared light;(3) compare the performance of the carbon nanotube devices with that of traditional devices; and (4) develop and numerically implement models of electronic transport and opto-electronic behavior of carbon nanotube infrared detectors. This work established a new paradigm for photodetectors.

  8. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2014-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  9. Carbon Sequestration Advisory Committee (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Under this statute, the Director of Natural Resources will document and quantify carbon sequestration and greenhouse emissions reductions associated with agricultural practices, management systems,...

  10. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Processing (IT) Lignin-Based Low-Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors * Structural Materials for Vehicles (VT) * Graphite Electrodes for Arc Furnaces (IT) * Nanoporous CF for...

  11. Carbon Fiber Consortium | Partnerships | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    in 2011 to accelerate the development and deployment of new, lower cost carbon fiber composite materials. The Consortium draws on the broad experience that the Oak Ridge National...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Carbon Management

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (SO2), nitrous oxides (NOx), mercury, and fine particulate matter. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is always a byproduct of combustion. ... Geomechanics Laboratory On April 7, 2011,...

  13. Carbon Sequestration Atlas IV Video

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodosta, Traci

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The Carbon Sequestration Atlas is a collection of all the storage sites of CO2 such as, petroleum, natural gas, coal, and oil shale.

  14. University of Dundee Carbon Management Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davidson, Fordyce A.

    Carbon Management Strategy 2.1 Our low carbon vision 6 2.2 Context and drivers for Carbon Management 6 2 and sources of funding 18 6 Actions to Embed Carbon Management in Your Organisation 19 6.1 Corporate Strategy Appendix A: Carbon Management Matrix - Embedding 23 Appendix B: Energy Prices 24 #12;3 FOREWORD FROM

  15. Carbon Management Plan 1. Executive summary 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haase, Markus

    Carbon Management Plan June 2011 #12;2 #12;3 CONTENTS 1. Executive summary 5 2. Introduction 15 3. Background and context 16 4. Carbon management strategy 18 5. Carbon emissions baseline and projections 22 6. Past actions and achievements 30 7. Carbon Management Plan implementation 33 8. Carbon Management Plan

  16. Gradient limits and SCRF performance.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norem, J.; Pellin, M.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Superconducting rf gradients are limited by a number of mechanisms, among them are field emission, multipactor, Lorentz detuning, global and local heating, quench fields, Q-Slope, assembly defects, and overall power use. We describe how each of these mechanisms interacts with the cavity fields and show how significant improvements may be possible assuming improvements in control over the cavity surface. New techniques such as Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), the use of layered composites, Gas Cluster Ion Beam (GCIB) smoothing and Dry Ice Cleaning (DIC) have been proposed as ways to control the surface.

  17. Dose Limits | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T,Office of Policy,Policy ActDetroit7471 FederalDonna Friend Donna FriendLimits

  18. Ablamp Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORT Americium/Curium Vitrification4th DayANVAblamp Limited Jump

  19. Novacem Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLuOpenNorth AmericaNorthwest Rural PubNova AlincaNovacem Limited

  20. Bioethanol Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia: EnergyAvignon,Belcher HomesLyons Biomass FacilityBioethanol Limited

  1. Lysanda Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |JilinLu an Group Jump to: navigation,LushuiLyme, NewLyonLysanda Limited

  2. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, Rafael A. (Chicago, IL); Hrdina, Kenneth E. (Glenview, IL); Remick, Robert J. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  3. Carbonate fuel cell anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donado, R.A.; Hrdina, K.E.; Remick, R.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten alkali metal carbonates fuel cell porous anode of lithium ferrite and a metal or metal alloy of nickel, cobalt, nickel/iron, cobalt/iron, nickel/iron/aluminum, cobalt/iron/aluminum and mixtures thereof wherein the total iron content including ferrite and iron of the composite is about 25 to about 80 percent, based upon the total anode, provided aluminum when present is less than about 5 weight percent of the anode. A process is described for production of the lithium ferrite containing anode by slipcasting.

  4. ARM - Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492air Comments? We would love to heargovInstrumentstdma Comments? WeairgovInstrumentswsiCampaignCarbon

  5. Sandia Energy - Carbon Capture

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCapture Home Carbon Capture The

  6. Sandia Energy - Carbon Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of Scienceand RequirementsCoatings Initiated at PNNL's Sequim BayCapture Home Carbon

  7. Carbon Capture FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.05CarBen Version 3 Prototype:carbon

  8. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l aNanocomposites, and DevicesCarbonProgram

  9. Carbon Bearing Trace Gases

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries BatteriesCAESMissionMetal-OrganicCarbon Bearing

  10. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof Energy Change RequestFirst Report to the PrimePilot Plant andCarbon

  11. Carbonation Mechanism of Reservoir Rock by Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project Objectives: Elucidate comprehensively the carbonation reaction mechanisms between supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) and reservoir rocks consisting of different mineralogical compositions in aqueous and non-aqueous environments at temperatures of up to 250ºC, and to develop chemical modeling of CO2-reservior rock interactions.

  12. Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barthelat, Francois

    Carbon Dioxide Sequestration in Concrete Using Vacuum-Carbonation Alain Azar, Prof. Yixin Shao promising carbon uptake results and is a viable option for carbonation curing. Carbon sequestration increase in Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions over the past five decades, specific ways to reduce

  13. Intermediate Temperature Carbon - Carbon Composite Structures. CRADA Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between UT-Battelle, LLC (the "Contractor") and Synterials, Inc. (the "Participant") was to demonstrate promising processing methods, which can lead to producing Carbon-Carbon Composites (CCC), with tensile and interlaminar properties comparable to those of organic matrix composites and environmental stability at 1200 F for long periods of time. The participant synthesized carbon-carbon composites with two different fiber coatings and three different matrices. Both parties evaluated the tensile and interlaminar properties of these materials and characterized the microstructure of the matrices and interfaces. It was found that fiber coatings of carbon and boron carbide provided the best environmental protection and resulted in composites with high tensile strength.

  14. Carbon dioxide and climate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scientific and public interest in greenhouse gases, climate warming, and global change virtually exploded in 1988. The Department's focused research on atmospheric CO{sub 2} contributed sound and timely scientific information to the many questions produced by the groundswell of interest and concern. Research projects summarized in this document provided the data base that made timely responses possible, and the contributions from participating scientists are genuinely appreciated. In the past year, the core CO{sub 2} research has continued to improve the scientific knowledge needed to project future atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations, to estimate climate sensitivity, and to assess the responses of vegetation to rising concentrations of CO{sub 2} and to climate change. The Carbon Dioxide Research Program's goal is to develop sound scientific information for policy formulation and governmental action in response to changes of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. The Program Summary describes projects funded by the Carbon Dioxide Research Program during FY 1990 and gives a brief overview of objectives, organization, and accomplishments.

  15. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    . Retrieval Terms: urban forestry, carbon dioxide, sequestration, avoided energy The Authors E. Gregory McCarbon Dioxide Reduction Through Urban Forestry: Guidelines for Professional and Volunteer Tree; Simpson, James R. 1999. Carbon dioxide reduction through urban forestry

  16. Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular A Dissertation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wadley, Haydn

    Carbon Fiber Composite Cellular Structures ____________________________________ A Dissertation and honeycombs. However, for weight sensitive, ambient temperature applications, carbon fiber composites have emerged as a promising material due to its high specific strength and low density. Carbon fiber reinforced

  17. A synthesis of carbon in international trade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, G. P; Davis, S. J; Andrew, R.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Peters, G. P. : Carbon Footprint of Nations: A Global,analysis for na- tional carbon footprint accounting, Eco.study of the UK’s carbon footprint, Eco. Syst. Res. , 22,

  18. Carbon Nanotubes: Bearing Stress Like Never Before

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Limaye, Aditya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the mechanical properties of carbon nanotube– polymercomposites. Carbon, 44. 1624 – 1652 doi: 10.1016/j.R.H. , & Hart, A.J. (2013). Carbon Nanotubes: Present and

  19. CARBON MARKETS AROUND THE WORLD Ashley Lawson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    CARBON MARKETS AROUND THE WORLD Ashley Lawson Senior Analyst, Thomson Reuters Point Carbon only pilot trading carbon 6 #12;Shenzhen · Policy ­ Intensity-based ETS started June 18, 2013

  20. Who Pays a Price on Carbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on a per-capita basis a carbon price is much more regressiveadverse distributional effects of a carbon emissions policy.Distributional incidence · Carbon tax · Tradable permits Q52

  1. Tropical forest soil microbial communities couple iron and carbon biogeochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dubinsky, E.A.; Silver, W.L.; Firestone, M.K.

    2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We report that iron-reducing bacteria are primary mediators of anaerobic carbon oxidation in upland tropical soils spanning a rainfall gradient (3500 - 5000 mm yr-1) in northeast Puerto Rico. The abundant rainfall and high net primary productivity of these tropical forests provide optimal soil habitat for iron-reducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria. Spatially and temporally dynamic redox conditions make iron-transforming microbial communities central to the belowground carbon cycle in these wet tropical forests. The exceedingly high abundance of iron-reducing bacteria (up to 1.2 x 10{sup 9} cells per gram soil) indicated that they possess extensive metabolic capacity to catalyze the reduction of iron minerals. In soils from the higher rainfall sites, measured rates of ferric iron reduction could account for up to 44 % of organic carbon oxidation. Iron reducers appeared to compete with methanogens when labile carbon availability was limited. We found large numbers of bacteria that oxidize reduced iron at sites with high rates of iron reduction and large numbers of iron-reducers. the coexistence of large populations of ironreducing and iron-oxidizing bacteria is evidence for rapid iron cycling between its reduced and oxidized states, and suggests that mutualistic interactions among these bacteria ultimately fuel organic carbon oxidation and inhibit CH4 production in these upland tropical forests.

  2. 2013 Carbon Management Research Symposium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . BACKGROUND · As a first step towards developing risk assessment strategies for carbon sequestration projects2013 Carbon Management Research Symposium Effects of Formation Heterogeneity on CO2 Gas Phase Attenuation in the Shallow Subsurface During Possible Leakage from Geologic Sequestration Sites Michael

  3. LOW CARBON & 570 million GVA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrigley, Stuart

    LOW CARBON & RENEWABLES #12;£570 million GVA THE SECTOR COMPRISES 326 COMPANIES EMPLOYING 12- tor comprises 326 companies, employing approximately 12,240 people and contributing £570 million nuclear, wind, solar, geo-thermal and tidal power. The total market value of the low carbon environmental

  4. Physics of the Shannon Limits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merhav, Neri

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We provide a simple physical interpretation, in the context of the second law of thermodynamics, to the information inequality (a.k.a. the Gibbs' inequality, which is also equivalent to the log-sum inequality), asserting that the relative entropy between two probability distributions cannot be negative. Since this inequality stands at the basis of the data processing theorem (DPT), and the DPT in turn is at the heart of most, if not all, proofs of converse theorems in Shannon theory, it is observed that conceptually, the roots of fundamental limits of Information Theory can actually be attributed to the laws of physics, in particular, to the second law of thermodynamics, and at least indirectly, also to the law of energy conservation. By the same token, in the other direction: one can view the second law as stemming from information-theoretic principles.

  5. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, Daniel M.; Rosen, Robert S.

    2005-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A cartridge primer which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML's would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers.

  6. Limited-life cartridge primers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Makowiecki, D.M.; Rosen, R.S.

    1998-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A cartridge primer is described which utilizes an explosive that can be designed to become inactive in a predetermined period of time: a limited-life primer. The explosive or combustible material of the primer is an inorganic reactive multilayer (RML). The reaction products of the RML are sub-micron grains of non-corrosive inorganic compounds that would have no harmful effects on firearms or cartridge cases. Unlike use of primers containing lead components, primers utilizing RML`s would not present a hazard to the environment. The sensitivity of an RML is determined by the physical structure and the stored interfacial energy. The sensitivity lowers with time due to a decrease in interfacial energy resulting from interdiffusion of the elemental layers. Time-dependent interdiffusion is predictable, thereby enabling the functional lifetime of an RML primer to be predetermined by the initial thickness and materials selection of the reacting layers. 10 figs.

  7. Enterprise Audit Modeling of Large-Scale Agencies' Energy and Carbon Dioxide Accounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wade, Brigitta Alexandra Anne

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    , and corporations as it has a broad impact on industries, societies, and global communities. The concept is extremely “catchy” and thus has been promoted and outside the research community. (Weidema et al, 2008) Even though carbon accounting frameworks has been... information. The economic method is more reasonable, but the cost is still limited by its planned cost savings. (Mishan & Quah, 2007) 1.3 ECA AND EEA IN DESIGN Tracking and understanding how each element in Figure 1 impacts the overall carbon total...

  8. A mathematical model for countercurrent moving-bed activated carbon adsorption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Douglas Harold

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the column. There was insufficient data taken to verify this model. The testing procedure was limited by the approximate uniformity of the influent concentrations in the pilot plant and the effect of the activated carbon concentration and initial solute...A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR COUNTERCURRENT MOVING-BED ACTIVATED CARBON ADSORPTION A Thesis by DOUGLAS HAROLD ANDERSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  9. Process for making hollow carbon spheres

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Claudia C.; Phillips, Jonathan; Richard, Monique N.; Knapp, Angela Michelle

    2013-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A hollow carbon sphere having a carbon shell and an inner core is disclosed. The hollow carbon sphere has a total volume that is equal to a volume of the carbon shell plus an inner free volume within the carbon shell. The inner free volume is at least 25% of the total volume. In some instances, a nominal diameter of the hollow carbon sphere is between 10 and 180 nanometers.

  10. Limits to the lunar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, T.H. (National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, D.C. (USA)); Shemansky, D.E. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The presence of sodium and potassium on the Moon implies that other more abundant species should be present. Volatile molecules like H{sub 2}O are significantly more abundant than sodium in any of the proposed external atmospheric sources. Source mechanisms which derive atoms from the surface should favor abundant elements in the regolith. It is therefore puzzling that the Apollo ultraviolet spectrometer experiment set limits on the density of oxygen of N{sub O} < 5 {times} 10{sup 2} cm{sup {minus}3}, and that the Apollo Lunar Atmospheric Composition Experiment data imply N{sub O} < 50 cm{sup {minus}3} above the subsolar point. These limits are surprisingly small relative to the measured value for sodium. A simple consideration of sources and sinks predicts significantly greater densities of oxygen. It is possible but doubtful that the Apollo measurements occur ed during an epoch in which source rates were small. A preferential loss process for oxygen on the darkside of the Moon is considered in which ionization by electron capture in surface collisions leads to escape through acceleration in the local electric field. Cold trapping in permanently shadowed regions as a net sink is considered and discounted, but the episodic nature of cometary insertion may allow formation of ice layers which act as a stablized source of OH. On the basis of an assumed meteoroid impact source, the authors predict a possible emission brightness of {approximately} 50 R in the OH(A {minus} X)(0,0) band above the lunar bright limb. A very uncertain small comet source of H{sub 2}O could raise this value by more than two orders of magnitude.

  11. The consequences of failure should be considered in siting geologic carbon sequestration projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, P.N.; Oldenburg, C.M.

    2009-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Geologic carbon sequestration is the injection of anthropogenic CO{sub 2} into deep geologic formations where the CO{sub 2} is intended to remain indefinitely. If successfully implemented, geologic carbon sequestration will have little or no impact on terrestrial ecosystems aside from the mitigation of climate change. However, failure of a geologic carbon sequestration site, such as large-scale leakage of CO{sub 2} into a potable groundwater aquifer, could cause impacts that would require costly remediation measures. Governments are attempting to develop regulations for permitting geologic carbon sequestration sites to ensure their safety and effectiveness. At present, these regulations focus largely on decreasing the probability of failure. In this paper we propose that regulations for the siting of early geologic carbon sequestration projects should emphasize limiting the consequences of failure because consequences are easier to quantify than failure probability.

  12. Review: Balancing Limiting Factors and Economic Drivers to Achieve Sustainable Midwestern US Agricultural Residue Feedstock Supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wally W. Wilhelm; J. Richard Hess; Douglas L. Karlen; David J. Muth; Jane M. F. Johnson; John M. Baker; Hero T. Gollany; Jeff M. Novak; Diane E. Stott; Gary E. Varvel

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced biofuels will be developed using cellulosic feedstock rather than grain or oilseed crops that can also be used for food and feed. To be sustainable, these new agronomic production systems must be economically viable without degrading soil resources. This review examines six agronomic factors that collectively define many of the limits and opportunities for harvesting crop residue for biofuel feedstock. These six “limiting factors” are discussed in relationship to economic drivers associated with harvesting corn (Zea mays L.) stover as a potential cellulosic feedstock. The limiting factors include soil organic carbon, wind and water erosion, plant nutrient balance, soil water and temperature dynamics, soil compaction, and off-site environmental impacts. Initial evaluations using the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation 2.0 (RUSLE2) show that a single factor analysis based on simply meeting tolerable soil loss might indicate stover could be harvested sustainably, but the same analysis based on maintaining soil organic carbon shows the practice to be non-sustainable. Modifying agricultural management to include either annual or perennial cover crops is shown to meet both soil erosion and soil carbon requirements. The importance of achieving high yields and planning in a holistic manner at the landscape scale are also shown to be crucial for balancing limitations and drivers associated with renewable bioenergy production.

  13. Method for producing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan (Santa Fe, NM); Perry, William L. (Jemez Springs, NM); Chen, Chun-Ku (Albuquerque, NM)

    2006-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Method for producing carbon nanotubes. Carbon nanotubes were prepared using a low power, atmospheric pressure, microwave-generated plasma torch system. After generating carbon monoxide microwave plasma, a flow of carbon monoxide was directed first through a bed of metal particles/glass beads and then along the outer surface of a ceramic tube located in the plasma. As a flow of argon was introduced into the plasma through the ceramic tube, ropes of entangled carbon nanotubes, attached to the surface of the tube, were produced. Of these, longer ropes formed on the surface portion of the tube located in the center of the plasma. Transmission electron micrographs of individual nanotubes revealed that many were single-walled.

  14. Natural materials for carbon capture.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Myshakin, Evgeniy M. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Romanov, Vyacheslav N. (National Energy Technology Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA); Cygan, Randall Timothy

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Naturally occurring clay minerals provide a distinctive material for carbon capture and carbon dioxide sequestration. Swelling clay minerals, such as the smectite variety, possess an aluminosilicate structure that is controlled by low-charge layers that readily expand to accommodate water molecules and, potentially, carbon dioxide. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated the efficacy of intercalating carbon dioxide in the interlayer of layered clays but little is known about the molecular mechanisms of the process and the extent of carbon capture as a function of clay charge and structure. A series of molecular dynamics simulations and vibrational analyses have been completed to assess the molecular interactions associated with incorporation of CO2 in the interlayer of montmorillonite clay and to help validate the models with experimental observation.

  15. Modification and final alignment of the TFTR bumper limiter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McSmith, M.D. [McDonnell Douglas Aerospace, St. Louis, MO (United States); Loesser, G.D.; Owens, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States)

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past three Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) vacuum vessel machine openings, an extensive effort was undertaken to optimize the distribution of heating of the bumper limiter tiles. The optimization was achieved by locating the limiter tiles relative to the toroidal magnetic field and adjusting their position relative to the magnetic field rather than to fixed points in the vacuum vessel walls. This paper will discuss the results of these alignments as measured during operation with the limiter thermocouple system and subsequent visual inspection during this past TFTR vacuum vessel opening. During the most recent in-vessel inspection (January 1993), damage to the top and bottom rows of the bumper limiter tiles was noted. More tiles were damaged on the lower row than the upper row. Tiles on the right side of the bottom row and to a lesser extent tiles on the left side of the top row were damaged. The location of the damage corresponds to the plasma power flux direction. Theories explaining the asymmetric damage (bottom versus top) are summarized. Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPL) began a program to replace 223 of the originally installed tiles made from POCO AFX-5Q graphite. Of these 223 tiles, 151 were replaced with tiles made from carbon-fiber-composite (CFC) and 158 of these tiles were re-designed for installation on the top or bottom rows. The re-designed tiles have a tapered edge that reduces the angle of incidence of the power flux on the edge surface that was over-heating. This paper will review the in-vessel work and discuss the final modification of the TFTR bumper limiter to alleviate further damage at these locations prior to DT operation of TFTR.

  16. atomics international aqueous carbonate procelladonna: Topics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PROGRAM ON ENERGY AND Geosciences Websites Summary: and storage, 6) adaptation of wholesale electricity markets to support a low-carbon future, 7) global power carbon policy...

  17. Carbon Storage Atlas, Employee Newsletter Earn International...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NETL's Carbon Storage Atlas IV and FE's internal employee newsletter, inTouch, earned 2013 National Association of Government Communicators awards. NETL's Carbon Storage Atlas IV...

  18. Contraction & Convergence: UK carbon emissions and the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    the EU's emissions trading scheme will do little to mitigate carbon emissions 4) Aviation growth must emissions. Keywords Contraction & Convergence; aviation; emissions trading; passengers; carbon dioxide #12

  19. Who Pays a Price on Carbon?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grainger, Corbett A.; Kolstad, Charles D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that a fully auctioned emissions trading program (with aof a carbon tax or emissions trading system (Fullertona carbon tax or emissions trading system may have exemptions

  20. New Zealand Joins International Carbon Storage Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Carbon Sequestration Leadership Forum today announced that New Zealand has become the newest member of the international carbon storage body.

  1. Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Adsorption Induces Interlayer Carbon Bond Formation in Supported Few-Layer Graphene Friday, February 28, 2014 Among the allotropes of carbon, diamond has some of the most...

  2. Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery Optimize carbon dioxide sequestration, enhance oil recovery The simulation provides an important approach to estimate...

  3. GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA to extend our thanks to the authors of various West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

  4. Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Greening up fossil fuels with carbon sequestration 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:May 2015 All Issues submit Greening up fossil fuels with carbon...

  5. Carbonic Acid Shows Promise in Geology, Biology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Probing the Surprising Secrets of Carbonic Acid Berkeley Lab Study Holds Implications for Geological and Biological Processes October 23,...

  6. Electrical Transport in Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Gang

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Introduction to Carbon Nanotubes and Graphene Single wallCarbon nanotubes and graphene are the most popular Carbonin the Normal Metal – Graphene – Superconductor Junctions

  7. Carbon Fiber Pilot Plant and Research Facilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname Carbon Fiber Facilities Materials Carbon Fiber Research Facility Type Production Fiber Types Tow Size Tensioning Line...

  8. Structure and Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate:...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate: A Solid-State 43Ca NMR and Computational Molecular Dynamics Structure and Transformation of Amorphous Calcium Carbonate: A...

  9. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation of Degraded Lands with Fossil-fuel Combustion By-products. Prospects for Enhancing Carbon Sequestration and Reclamation...

  10. Putting the pressure on carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on carbon dioxide Released: March 26, 2014 Improving the chances for fuel recovery and carbon sequestration Artwork from this research graces the cover of Environmental Science...

  11. UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamamoto, Keith

    UCSF Sustainability Baseline Assessment: Carbon Footprint Analysis Final Issue Date: March 21, 2010 #12;Carbon Footprint Analysis Background This chapter of the Sustainability Assessment focuses on UCSF

  12. A chemistry tale of two carbons | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A chemistry tale of two carbons A chemistry tale of two carbons Released: September 03, 2012 Comprehensive field study of urban, natural emissions interacting to affect climate...

  13. Electrochemical implications of defects in carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoefer, Mark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conducting polymer hybrid supercapacitors. Journal of Thestudies of carbon-carbon supercapacitors. Journal of TheHigh-voltage asymmetric supercapacitors operating in aqueous

  14. Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable support of Pt nanoparticles for oxygen reduction. Noncovalently functionalized graphitic mesoporous carbon as a stable...

  15. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  16. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing applications. Functionalized carbon nanotubes and nanofibers for biosensing applications. Abstract: This review summarizes the recent...

  17. CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility | ORNL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    BTRIC CNMS CSMB CFTF Working with CFTF HFIR MDF NTRC OLCF SNS Carbon Fiber Technology Facility Home | User Facilities | CFTF CFTF | Carbon Fiber Technology Facility SHARE Oak...

  18. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiohon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2013-02-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  19. Robust carbon monolith having hierarchical porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Guiochon, Georges A; Liang, Chengdu

    2014-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon monolith includes a robust carbon monolith characterized by a skeleton size of at least 100 nm, and a hierarchical pore structure having macropores and mesopores.

  20. California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative California Low Carbon Fuels Infrastructure Investment Initiative 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  1. Carbon nanofibers, precious commodities from sunlight & CO2 to ameliorate global warming

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licht, Stuart

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study introduces the high yield, electrolytic synthesis of carbon nanofibers, CNFs, directly from carbon dioxide. Production of a precious commodity such as CNFs from atmospheric carbon dioxide provides impetus to limit this greenhouse gas and mitigate the rate of climate change. CNFs are formed at high rate using inexpensive nickel and steel electrodes in molten electrolytes. The process is demonstrated as a scaled-up stand-alone electrolytic cell, and is also shown compatible with the STEP, solar thermal electrochemical process, using concentrated sunlight at high solar to electric efficiency to provide the heat and electrical energy to drive the CNF production.

  2. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid partides being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  3. Capacitor with a composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  4. Method for fabricating composite carbon foam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy.

  5. Photon and graviton mass limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieto, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Goldhaber Scharff, Alfred [SUNY

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We review past and current studies of possible long-distance, low-frequency deviations from Maxwell electrodynamics and Einstein gravity. Both have passed through three phases: (1) Testing the inverse-square laws of Newton and Coulomb, (2) Seeking a nonzero value for the rest mass of photon or graviton, and (3) Considering more degrees of freedom, allowing mass while preserving gauge or general-coordinate invariance. For electrodynamics there continues to be no sign of any deviation. Since our previous review the lower limit on the photon Compton wavelength (associated with weakening of electromagnetic fields in vacuum over large distance scale) has improved by four orders of magnitude, to about one astronomical unit. Rapid current progress in astronomical observations makes it likely that there will be further advances. These ultimately could yield a bound exceeding galactic dimensions, as has long been contemplated. Meanwhile, for gravity there have been strong arguments about even the concept of a graviton rest mass. At the same time there are striking observations, commonly labeled 'dark matter' and 'dark energy' that some argue imply modified gravity. This makes the questions for gravity much more interesting. For dark matter, which involves increased attraction at large distances, any explanation by modified gravity would be qualitatively different from graviton mass. Because dark energy is associated with reduced attraction at large distances, it might be explained by a graviton-mass-like effect.

  6. Kinetic limits of dynamical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Marklof

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Since the pioneering work of Maxwell and Boltzmann in the 1860s and 1870s, a major challenge in mathematical physics has been the derivation of macroscopic evolution equations from the fundamental microscopic laws of classical or quantum mechanics. Macroscopic transport equations lie at the heart of many important physical theories, including fluid dynamics, condensed matter theory and nuclear physics. The rigorous derivation of macroscopic transport equations is thus not only a conceptual exercise that establishes their consistency with the fundamental laws of physics: the possibility of finding deviations and corrections to classical evolution equations makes this subject both intellectually exciting and relevant in practical applications. The plan of these lectures is to develop a renormalisation technique that will allow us to derive transport equations for the kinetic limits of two classes of simple dynamical systems, the Lorentz gas and kicked Hamiltonians (or linked twist maps). The technique uses the ergodic theory of flows on homogeneous spaces (homogeneous flows for short), and is based on joint work with Andreas Str\\"ombergsson.

  7. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  8. Increased Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide Limits Soil Storage | U.S. DOE Office

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn Other News Community Connections:HAZARD ANALYSES OF GLINTof

  9. Carbon foam characterization tensile evaluation of carbon foam ligaments 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verdugo Rodriguez, Rogelio Alberto

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A methodology for ligament isolation and specimen preparation for tensile testing of single ligaments from the unit cell of open-cell carbon foams has been successfully developed and implemented. Results are presented for ...

  10. Carbon dioxide hydrate particles for ocean carbon sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chow, A.C.

    This paper presents strategies for producing negatively buoyant CO[subscript 2] hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration. Our study is based on recent field observations showing that a continuous-jet ...

  11. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R [ed.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  12. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that the focus in the life-cycle assessment (LCA) and carbonclosely related to life-cycle assessment (LCA). The existingsupply chains, and on life-cycle assessment (LCA) and carbon

  13. Measuring supply chain carbon efficiency : a carbon label framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Anthony (Anthony J.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the near term, efficiency improvements represent a key option for reducing the impacts of climate change. The growing awareness of climate change has increased the attention regarding the carbon emissions "embedded" in ...

  14. Carbon films produced from ionic liquid carbon precursors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Luo, Huimin; Lee, Je Seung

    2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for producing a film of porous carbon, the method comprising carbonizing a film of an ionic liquid, wherein the ionic liquid has the general formula (X.sup.+a).sub.x(Y.sup.-b).sub.y, wherein the variables a and b are, independently, non-zero integers, and the subscript variables x and y are, independently, non-zero integers, such that ax=by, and at least one of X.sup.+ and Y.sup.- possesses at least one carbon-nitrogen unsaturated bond. The invention is also directed to a composition comprising a porous carbon film possessing a nitrogen content of at least 10 atom %.

  15. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farahmandi, C.J.; Dispennette, J.M.

    1998-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg. 3 figs.

  16. Carbon Markets and Technological Innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weber, T A; Neuhoff, Karsten

    www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk E P R G W O R K IN G P A P E R N O N -T E C H N IC A L S U M M A R Y Carbon Markets and Technological Innovation EPRG Working Paper 0917 Cambridge Working Paper in Economics 0932 Thomas A. Weber... and Karsten Neuhoff This paper examines how considering firm-level innovation in carbon-abatement technologies influences the optimal design choice for carbon pricing. It builds on Weitzman’s model (1974) that shows in what instances cap and trade...

  17. Infrared limit in external field scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrzej Herdegen

    2012-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Scattering of electrons/positrons by external classical electromagnetic wave packet is considered in infrared limit. In this limit the scattering operator exists and produces physical effects, although the scattering cross-section is trivial.

  18. Fractal Graphics Proprietary Limited 39 Fairway, Nedlands,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boschetti, Fabio

    1 Fractal Graphics Proprietary Limited 39 Fairway, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia 6009 djh@fractalgraphics.com.au 2 Fractal Graphics Proprietary Limited 39 Fairway, Nedlands, Western Australia, Australia 6009 nja

  19. FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Baochun

    FUNDAMENTAL PERFORMANCE LIMITS OF WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORKS ZHIHUA HU, BAOCHUN LI Abstract. Understanding the fundamental performance limits of wireless sensor networks is critical towards. Key words. Wireless sensor networks, network capacity, network lifetime. 1. Introduction. When

  20. Neural substrates of cognitive capacity limitations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschman, Tim

    Cognition has a severely limited capacity: Adult humans can retain only about four items “in mind”. This limitation is fundamental to human brain function: Individual capacity is highly correlated with intelligence measures ...

  1. Implementing Risk-Limiting Audits in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cast09.pdf. Philip B. Stark. Risk-limiting post-electionthe N.J. law the ?rst “risk-based statistical audit law. ”Holt bill does not limit risk. The Holt bill has a clause

  2. Purification and Processing of Graphitic Carbons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worsley, Kimberly Anne

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Oxidation of Petroleum Asphaltenes. Liq. Fuels Tech. 1985,fibers, 2, petroleum asphaltenes, 4 carbon xerogels, 5

  3. Ultimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates Thermo Scientific

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lachniet, Matthew S.

    Ultimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates Thermo Scientific KIEL IV Carbonate Device Part of Thermo integration cycle Ultimate Isotope Precision for Carbonates The Thermo Scientific KIEL IV Carbonate DeviceV Thermo Scientific MAT 253 or the 3-kV DELTA V isotope ratio mass spectrometer meets the requirements

  4. March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Tamsin A.

    March 2005 Number 238 CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE (CCS) As part of the government's global strategy. This POSTnote discusses the potential of carbon capture and storage (CCS), a method of carbon sequestration2 and will be included in the forthcoming Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) Carbon Abatement Technology Strategy

  5. Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East of England #12;Low Carbon Innovation Centre Report for EEDA Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective 20/04/2009 ii Biochar and Carbon Sequestration: A Regional Perspective A report prepared for East

  6. CARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is a biologist at the California State Univer- sity San Marcos, with expertise in the effects of carbon dioxideCARBON DIOXIDE AND OUR OCEAN LEGACY G Carbon Dioxide: Our Role The United States is the single. Every day the average American adds about 118 pounds of carbon dioxide to the atmos- phere, due largely

  7. Mesoporous carbonates and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fryxell, Glen; Liu, Jun; Zemanian, Thomas S.

    2004-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Mesoporous metal carbonate structures are formed by providing a solution containing a non-ionic surfactant and a calcium acetate salt, adding sufficient base to react with the acidic byproducts to be formed by the addition of carbon dioxide, and adding carbon dioxide, thereby forming a mesoporous metal carbonate structure containing the metal from said metal salt.

  8. INTRODUCTION Pedogenic (secondary) calcium carbonate is,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmad, Sajjad

    INTRODUCTION Pedogenic (secondary) calcium carbonate is, by definition, a product of soil processes of calcium for pe- dogenic calcium carbonate (Gile et al., 1979). In regard to the source of the carbonate; Cerling et al., 1989; Quade et al., 1989). Because pedogenic calcium carbonate is read- ily soluble, its

  9. 6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan #12;2009/10 Emissions MMU Carbon Footprint Trajectory Project Footprint MMU Actual Carbon Footprint Projects that Reduced the 2009/10 CO2 Footprint #12;2010/11 Emissions6 Monthly Report on MMU Carbon Management Plan June 2011 let's make a sustainable planet #12

  10. Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deck, Christian Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in carbon nanotube ceramic matrix composites. Actapolymeric, metallic, or ceramic matrix material. These fiber

  11. Carbon Capture and Storage Realising the potential?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    Carbon Capture and Storage Realising the potential? UKERC Research Project #12;Carbon Capture Winskel University of Edinburgh Peter Pearson and Stathis Arapostathis Low Carbon Research Institute @UKERKHQ #12;UKERC Research Project: Carbon Capture and Storage: Realising the potential? 01 It is the hub

  12. Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon dioxide storage professor Martin Blunt executive summary Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) referS to the Set of technologies developed to capture carbon dioxide (Co2) gas from the exhausts raises new issues of liability and risk. the focus of this briefing paper is on the storage of carbon

  13. Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.

    Chapter 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes To appear in "Chemistry of Carbon@acclab.helsinki.fi 1 #12;2CHAPTER 1. IRRADIATION-INDUCED PHENOMENA IN CARBON NANOTUBES #12;Contents 1 Irradiation-induced phenomena in carbon nanotubes 1 1.1 Introduction

  14. Carbon nanotube composites P. J. F. Harris*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Peter J F

    Carbon nanotube composites P. J. F. Harris* Carbon nanotubes are molecular-scale tubes of graphitic carbon with outstanding properties. They are among the stiffest and strongest fibres known, with Young. There is currently great interest in exploiting these properties by incorporating carbon nanotubes into some form

  15. Explaining the Price of Voluntary Carbon Offsets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Conte, Marc N.; Kotchen, Matthew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy and Sustainable Development, Stanford Univer- sity. Figure 1: Histogram of carbon offset prices (

  16. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, J.R.

    1997-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter for an electrical circuit is disclosed. The fault current limiter includes a high temperature superconductor in the electrical circuit. The high temperature superconductor is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter. 15 figs.

  17. High temperature superconducting fault current limiter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fault current limiter (10) for an electrical circuit (14). The fault current limiter (10) includes a high temperature superconductor (12) in the electrical circuit (14). The high temperature superconductor (12) is cooled below its critical temperature to maintain the superconducting electrical properties during operation as the fault current limiter (10).

  18. Irradiation Stability of Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aitkaliyeva, Assel

    2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    were used in experiments, and several defect characterization techniques were applied to characterize the damage. Development of dimensional changes of carbon nanotubes in microscopes operated at accelerating voltages of 30 keV revealed that binding...

  19. Increasing carbon nanotube forest density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarthy, Alexander P

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The outstanding mechanical, electrical, thermal, and morphological properties of individual carbon nanotubes (CNTs) open up exciting potential applications in a wide range of fields. One such application is replacing the ...

  20. Carbon Dioxide: Threat or Opportunity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKinney, A. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    catastrophic long term effects on world climate. An alternative to discharging carbon dioxide into the atmosphere is to find new uses. One possible use is in 'Biofactories'. Biofactories may be achieved by exploiting two new developing technologies: Solar...

  1. Low Cost Carbon Fiber Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    UT-Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy Presentationname CARBON FIBER OVERVIEW Materials LM002 Task FY 2010 Budget Industry Cost Share FY 2011 Budget Industry Cost Share...

  2. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emissions from fossil-fuel com- bustion, Biogeosciences, 9,re- gional and national fossil-fuel CO 2 emissions, Carbontimes more carbon in fossil fuels than it emitted by burning

  3. Method for making carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, M.X.

    1999-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for treating an organic polymer material, preferably a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer (Saran) to produce a flat sheet of carbon film material having a high surface area ([approx equal]1000 m[sup 2] /g) suitable as an electrode material for super capacitor applications. The method comprises heating a vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride copolymer film disposed between two spaced apart graphite or ceramic plates to a first temperature of about 160 C for about 14 hours to form a stabilized vinylidene chloride/vinyl chloride polymer film, thereafter heating the stabilized film to a second temperature of about 750 C in an inert atmosphere for about one hour to form a carbon film; and finally activating the carbon film to increase the surface area by heating the carbon film in an oxidizing atmosphere to a temperature of at least 750--850 C for between 1--6 hours. 2 figs.

  4. Carbon-assisted flyer plates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stahl, D.B.; Paisley, D.L.

    1994-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser driven flyer plate is described utilizing an optical fiber connected to a laser. The end of the optical fiber has a layer of carbon and a metal layer deposited onto it. The carbon layer provides the laser induced plasma which is superior to the plasma produced from most metals. The carbon layer plasma is capable of providing a flatter flyer plate, converting more of the laser energy to driving plasma, promoting a higher flyer plate acceleration, and providing a more uniform pulse behind the plate. In another embodiment, the laser is in optical communication with a substrate onto which a layer of carbon and a layer of metal have been deposited. 2 figures.

  5. Carbon dynamics in arctic vegetation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Street, Lorna Elizabeth

    2011-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid climate change in Arctic regions is of concern due to important feedbacks between the Arctic land surface and the global climate system. A large amount of organic carbon (C) is currently stored in Arctic soils; if ...

  6. Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 Lower Cost Carbon Fiber Precursors P.I. Name: Dave Warren Presenter: Dr. Amit K. Naskar Oak Ridge National Laboratory 05162012 Project ID LM004 This presentation does not...

  7. Emerging Applications of Carbon Nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schnorr, Jan Markus

    On the basis of their unique electrical and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great attention in recent years. A diverse array of methods has been developed to modify CNTs and to assemble them ...

  8. Reducing carbon dioxide to products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Emily Barton; Sivasankar, Narayanappa; Parajuli, Rishi; Keets, Kate A

    2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method reducing carbon dioxide to one or more products may include steps (A) to (C). Step (A) may bubble said carbon dioxide into a solution of an electrolyte and a catalyst in a divided electrochemical cell. The divided electrochemical cell may include an anode in a first cell compartment and a cathode in a second cell compartment. The cathode may reduce said carbon dioxide into said products. Step (B) may adjust one or more of (a) a cathode material, (b) a surface morphology of said cathode, (c) said electrolyte, (d) a manner in which said carbon dioxide is bubbled, (e), a pH level of said solution, and (f) an electrical potential of said divided electrochemical cell, to vary at least one of (i) which of said products is produced and (ii) a faradaic yield of said products. Step (C) may separate said products from said solution.

  9. Energy Related Research Expertise Mechanical Engineering Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Richard

    a combustion process, bubbles in the cooling system in nuclear plants. Amy Shen: nanotechnology, bioenergy materials acquisition (e.g., mining, agriculture) through materials processing, energy conversion of Agriculture, and the US Department of Energy as well as by Ford, Boeing, and Plug Power. Some research

  10. Energy related applications of elementary particle physics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafelski, J.

    1991-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The current research position is summarized, and what could be done in the future to clarify issues which were opened up by the research is indicated. Following on the discussion of the viability of catalyzed fusion, there is presented along with the key experimental results, a short account of the physics surrounding the subject. This is followed by a discussion of key research topics addressed. In consequence of the progress made, it appears that the feasibility of a small-scale fusion based on catalyzed reactions rests on either the remote chance that a yet undiscovered ultraheavy negatively charged elementary particle exists in Nature, or on the possible technical realization of a system based on muon-catalyzed fusion (MuCF) in high-density degenerate hydrogen plasma (density 1000 LHD, temperature O(100 eV)). The lattter is considered to have practical promise.

  11. Base Program on Energy Related Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Western Research Institute

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of the Base Research Program was to conduct both fundamental and applied research that will assist industry in developing, deploying, and commercializing efficient, nonpolluting fossil energy technologies that can compete effectively in meeting the energy requirements of the Nation. In that regard, tasks proposed under the WRI research areas were aligned with DOE objectives of secure and reliable energy; clean power generation; development of hydrogen resources; energy efficiency and development of innovative fuels from low and no-cost sources. The goal of the Base Research Program was to develop innovative technology solutions that will: (1) Increase the production of United States energy resources--coal, natural gas, oil, and renewable energy resources; (2) Enhance the competitiveness of United States energy technologies in international markets and assist in technology transfer; (3) Reduce the nation's dependence on foreign energy supplies and strengthen both the United States and regional economies; and (4) Minimize environmental impacts of energy production and utilization. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the overall Base Program. This document represents a stand-alone Final Report for the entire Program. It should be noted that an interim report describing the Program achievements was prepared in 2003 covering the progress made under various tasks completed during the first five years of this Program.

  12. Extension of the Si:C Stressor Thickness by Using Multiple ClusterCarbon Species

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sekar, Karuppanan; Krull, Wade [SemEquip, Inc. N. Billerica, MA, 01862 (United States)

    2011-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    ClusterCarbon implantation is now well established as an attractive alternative for producing stress in advanced NMOS devices. ClusterCarbon has the advantage over monomer carbon implant in it's self-amorphization feature, eliminating the need for PAI implantation while producing highly substitutional carbon incorporation. To date, the limitation of this approach has been the high energy limit, due to the extraction limit of the available production tools for the preferred carbon species, which has been the C7Hx molecule. It is noted that the C7 species is produced by the breakup of the parent C14H14 molecule in the ion source. It is further noted that the preferred method of producing the Si:C stress layer is a multiple implant sequence with ClusterCarbon implants at various energies and doses designed to produce a carbon profile which is constant in-depth. The stressor thickness limit using C7 is known to be about 40 nm, which is less than the stressor thickness used in the conventional SiGe process for PMOS. In this work, it is shown that utilizing the C5 molecule which is also available from the breakup of C14H14 enables the stressor layer thickness to be extended to at least 60 nm, which is consistent with the conventional SiGe process. It will be shown that one additional C5 implant, performed after a standard C7 multiple implant sequence, can produce the extension of the stressor thickness while maintaining the flat depth profile. A detailed process characterization will be shown for this new process sequence.

  13. What is stopping Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage from closing the carbon loop?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    dioxide as a global public good. Considering the social cost of carbon, or the net present valueWhat is stopping Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage from closing the carbon loop? The social cost of carbon is still not developed There is no global consensus on the price of reducing carbon

  14. University of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mottram, Nigel

    fully in the initiatives which will help us reduce our carbon footprint and combat climate changeUniversity of Glasgow Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan working with Page 1 Carbon Management Programme Carbon Management Plan (CMP) Albert Young, 3 November 2009 #12;University of Glasgow

  15. Endohedral Carbon Chains in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes R. K. Vadapalli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mintmire, John W.

    Endohedral Carbon Chains in Single-Wall Carbon Nanotubes R. K. Vadapalli and J. W. Mintmire of endohedral linear carbon chains. In these calculations, all-carbon nanowire structures were constructed by inserting cumulenic linear carbon chains inside the semiconducting (7,3) and metallic (7,4) single

  16. Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fischlin, Andreas

    Black Carbon in the Soil Carbon Cycle: Is it an Oxidation Resistant End-Product? Simone Submitted on December 21, 2007 Reviewed April 1, 2008 Abstract Black carbon (BC) is a very oxidation, charcoal, and soot. Due to its high recalcitrance, black carbon might act as a long-term carbon sink

  17. Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical drying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jie

    Fabrication of activated carbon fibers/carbon aerogels composites by gelation and supercritical August 2003) Activated carbon fiber/carbon aerogel (ACF/CA) composites were fabricated by gelling. The ACFs can reinforce the related carbon aerogels when they originally have low mass density and are weak

  18. Tropical Africa: Land use, biomass, and carbon estimates for 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, S. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). Western Ecology Division; Gaston, G. [Environmental Protection Agency, Corvallis, OR (United States). National Research Council; Daniels, R.C. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the contents of a digital database containing maximum potential aboveground biomass, land use, and estimated biomass and carbon data for 1980 and describes a methodology that may be used to extend this data set to 1990 and beyond based on population and land cover data. The biomass data and carbon estimates are for woody vegetation in Tropical Africa. These data were collected to reduce the uncertainty associated with the possible magnitude of historical releases of carbon from land use change. Tropical Africa is defined here as encompassing 22.7 x 10{sup 6} km{sup 2} of the earth`s land surface and includes those countries that for the most part are located in Tropical Africa. Countries bordering the Mediterranean Sea and in southern Africa (i.e., Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, and Western Sahara) have maximum potential biomass and land cover information but do not have biomass or carbon estimate. The database was developed using the GRID module in the ARC/INFO{sup TM} geographic information system. Source data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the U.S. National Geophysical Data Center, and a limited number of biomass-carbon density case studies. These data were used to derive the maximum potential and actual (ca. 1980) aboveground biomass-carbon values at regional and country levels. The land-use data provided were derived from a vegetation map originally produced for the FAO by the International Institute of Vegetation Mapping, Toulouse, France.

  19. Lithographically defined microporous carbon structures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burckel, David Bruce; Washburn, Cody M.; Polsky, Ronen; Brozik, Susan M.; Wheeler, David R.

    2013-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A lithographic method is used to fabricate porous carbon structures that can provide electrochemical electrodes having high surface area with uniform and controllable dimensions, providing enormous flexibility to tailor the electrodes toward specific applications. Metal nanoparticles deposited on the surface of the porous carbon electrodes exhibit ultra small dimensions with uniform size distribution. The resulting electrodes are rugged, electrically conductive and show excellent electrochemical behavior.

  20. Recuperative supercritical carbon dioxide cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Sprouse, Kenneth M; Subbaraman, Ganesan; O'Connor, George M; Johnson, Gregory A

    2014-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A power plant includes a closed loop, supercritical carbon dioxide system (CLS-CO.sub.2 system). The CLS-CO.sub.2 system includes a turbine-generator and a high temperature recuperator (HTR) that is arranged to receive expanded carbon dioxide from the turbine-generator. The HTR includes a plurality of heat exchangers that define respective heat exchange areas. At least two of the heat exchangers have different heat exchange areas.

  1. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. 2008 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved. NEWS & VIEWS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siddall, Mark

    carbon in Earth system models remains an unresolved issue of potentially great importance. Published system models is demonstrated by the first attempts to include freeze­thaw cycles of the active layer and future changes in soil carbon dynamics. The importance of incorporating the physical processes into Earth

  2. Carbon-enhanced VRLA batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Enos, David George; Hund, Thomas D.; Shane, Rod (East Penn Manufacturing, Lyon Station, PA)

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The addition of certain forms of carbon to the negative plate in valve regulated lead acid (VRLA) batteries has been demonstrated to increase the cycle life of such batteries by an order of magnitude or more under high-rate, partial-state-of-charge operation. Such performance will provide a significant impact, and in some cases it will be an enabling feature for applications including hybrid electric vehicles, utility ancillary regulation services, wind farm energy smoothing, and solar photovoltaic energy smoothing. There is a critical need to understnd how the carbon interacts with the negative plate and achieves the aforementioned benefits at a fundamental level. Such an understanding will not only enable the performance of such batteries to be optimzied, but also to explore the feasibility of applying this technology to other battery chemistries. In partnership with the East Penn Manufacturing, Sandia will investigate the electrochemical function of the carbon and possibly identify improvements to its anti-sulfation properties. Shiomi, et al. (1997) discovered that the addition of carbon to the negative active material (NAM) substantially reduced PbSO{sub 4} accumulation in high rate, partial state of charge (HRPSoC) cycling applications. This improved performance with a minimal cost. Cycling applications that were uneconomical for traditional VRLA batteries are viable for the carbon enhanced VRLA. The overall goal of this work is to quantitatively define the role that carbon plays in the electrochemistry of a VRLA battery.

  3. Carbon sequestration research and development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reichle, Dave; Houghton, John; Kane, Bob; Ekmann, Jim; and others

    1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Predictions of global energy use in the next century suggest a continued increase in carbon emissions and rising concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in the atmosphere unless major changes are made in the way we produce and use energy--in particular, how we manage carbon. For example, the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicts in its 1995 ''business as usual'' energy scenario that future global emissions of CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere will increase from 7.4 billion tonnes of carbon (GtC) per year in 1997 to approximately 26 GtC/year by 2100. IPCC also projects a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration by the middle of next century and growing rates of increase beyond. Although the effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on global climate are uncertain, many scientists agree that a doubling of atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations could have a variety of serious environmental consequences. The goal of this report is to identify key areas for research and development (R&D) that could lead to an understanding of the potential for future use of carbon sequestration as a major tool for managing carbon emissions. Under the leadership of DOE, researchers from universities, industry, other government agencies, and DOE national laboratories were brought together to develop the technical basis for conceiving a science and technology road map. That effort has resulted in this report, which develops much of the information needed for the road map.

  4. Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David P. Haack

    2009-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was focused upon developing a unique material technology for use in PEM fuel cell bipolar plates. The carbon/carbon composite material developed in this program is uniquely suited for use in fuel cell systems, as it is lightweight, highly conductive and corrosion resistant. The project further focused upon developing the manufacturing methodology to cost-effectively produce this material for use in commercial fuel cell systems. United Technology Fuel Cells Corp., a leading fuel cell developer was a subcontractor to the project was interested in the performance and low-cost potential of the material. The accomplishments of the program included the development and testing of a low-cost, fully molded, net-shape carbon-carbon bipolar plate. The process to cost-effectively manufacture these carbon-carbon bipolar plates was focused on extensively in this program. Key areas for cost-reduction that received attention in this program was net-shape molding of the detailed flow structures according to end-user design. Correlations between feature detail and process parameters were formed so that mold tooling could be accurately designed to meet a variety of flow field dimensions. A cost model was developed that predicted the cost of manufacture for the product in near-term volumes and long-term volumes (10+ million units per year). Because the roduct uses lowcost raw materials in quantities that are less than competitive tech, it was found that the cost of the product in high volume can be less than with other plate echnologies, and can meet the DOE goal of $4/kW for transportation applications. The excellent performance of the all-carbon plate in net shape was verified in fuel cell testing. Performance equivalent to much higher cost, fully machined graphite plates was found.

  5. Carbonic Acid Pretreatment of Biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Peter van Walsum; Kemantha Jayawardhana; Damon Yourchisin; Robert McWilliams; Vanessa Castleberry

    2003-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This project sought to address six objectives, outlined below. The objectives were met through the completion of ten tasks. 1) Solidify the theoretical understanding of the binary CO2/H2O system at reaction temperatures and pressures. The thermodynamics of pH prediction have been improved to include a more rigorous treatment of non-ideal gas phases. However it was found that experimental attempts to confirm theoretical pH predictions were still off by a factor of about 1.8 pH units. Arrhenius experiments were carried out and the activation energy for carbonic acid appears to be substantially similar to sulfuric acid. Titration experiments have not yet confirmed or quantified the buffering or acid suppression effects of carbonic acid on biomass. 2) Modify the carbonic acid pretreatment severity function to include the effect of endogenous acid formation and carbonate buffering, if necessary. It was found that the existing severity functions serve adequately to account for endogenous acid production and carbonate effects. 3) Quantify the production of soluble carbohydrates at different reaction conditions and severity. Results show that carbonic acid has little effect on increasing soluble carbohydrate concentrations for pretreated aspen wood, compared to pretreatment with water alone. This appears to be connected to the release of endogenous acids by the substrate. A less acidic substrate such as corn stover would derive benefit from the use of carbonic acid. 4) Quantify the production of microbial inhibitors at selected reaction conditions and severity. It was found that the release of inhibitors was correlated to reaction severity and that carbonic acid did not appear to increase or decrease inhibition compared to pretreatment with water alone. 5) Assess the reactivity to enzymatic hydrolysis of material pretreated at selected reaction conditions and severity. Enzymatic hydrolysis rates increased with severity, but no advantage was detected for the use of carbonic acid compared to water alone. 6) Determine optimal conditions for carbonic acid pretreatment of aspen wood. Optimal severities appeared to be in the mid range tested. ASPEN-Plus modeling and economic analysis of the process indicate that the process could be cost competitive with sulfuric acid if the concentration of solids in the pretreatment is maintained very high (~50%). Lower solids concentrations result in larger reactors that become expensive to construct for high pressure applications.

  6. Evaluation of Cross-Hole Seismic Tomography for Imaging Low Resistance Intervals and Associated Carbonate Sediments in Coastal Plain Sequences on the Savannah River Site, South Carolina

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cumbest, R. J.

    1999-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of the pilot study were to investigate the limitations of the technique for imaging the presence, extent, and boundaries of the low-resistance intervals and associated carbonate sediments.

  7. CARBON ISOTOPE STRATIGRAPHY AND DIAGENESIS OF PENNSYLVANIAN (DESMOINESIAN-MISSOURIAN) CARBONATES IN EAST-CENTRAL IDAHO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wood, Stephanie

    2011-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon isotope stratigraphy of carbonate sediments is instrumental in examining major perturbations in the global carbon cycle and in correlating strata. However, the primary isotopic signal recorded in these sediments can vary with depositional...

  8. A study of the remineralization of organic carbon in nearshore sediments using carbon isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McNichol, Ann P., 1956-

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the remineralization of organic carbon was conducted in the organic-rich sediments of Buzzards Bay, MA. Major processes affecting the carbon chemistry in sediments are reflected by changes in the stable carbon ...

  9. Extraneous Carbon Assessments in Radiocarbon Measurements of Black Carbon in Environmental Matrices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coppola, Alysha; Ziolkowski, L. A.; Druffel, E. R. M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    rived (black/elemental) carbon in soils and sediments usingbon measurements of black carbon in aerosols and oceanMWI, Noack AG. 2000. Black carbon in soils and sediments:

  10. Integration of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Oxygen Metabolism in Escherichia coli--Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Wingreen, Ned s; Rabitz, Herschel A; Xu, Yifan

    2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A key challenge for living systems is balancing utilization of multiple elemental nutrients, such as carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen, whose availability is subject to environmental fluctuations. As growth can be limited by the scarcity of any one nutrient, the rate at which each nutrient is assimilated must be sensitive not only to its own availability, but also to that of other nutrients. Remarkably, across diverse nutrient conditions, E. coli grows nearly optimally, balancing effectively the conversion of carbon into energy versus biomass. To investigate the link between the metabolism of different nutrients, we quantified metabolic responses to nutrient perturbations using LC-MS based metabolomics and built differential equation models that bridge multiple nutrient systems. We discovered that the carbonaceous substrate of nitrogen assimilation, �±-ketoglutarate, directly inhibits glucose uptake and that the upstream glycolytic metabolite, fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, ultrasensitively regulates anaplerosis to allow rapid adaptation to changing carbon availability. We also showed that NADH controls the metabolic response to changing oxygen levels. Our findings support a general mechanism for nutrient integration: limitation for a nutrient other than carbon leads to build-up of the most closely related product of carbon metabolism, which in turn feedback inhibits further carbon uptake.

  11. Carbon fiber manufacturing via plasma technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paulauskas, Felix L. (Knoxville, TN); Yarborough, Kenneth D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Meek, Thomas T. (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosed invention introduces a novel method of manufacturing carbon and/or graphite fibers that avoids the high costs associated with conventional carbonization processes. The method of the present invention avoids these costs by utilizing plasma technology in connection with electromagnetic radiation to produce carbon and/or graphite fibers from fully or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors. In general, the stabilized or partially stabilized carbon fiber precursors are placed under slight tension, in an oxygen-free atmosphere, and carbonized using a plasma and electromagnetic radiation having a power input which is increased as the fibers become more carbonized and progress towards a final carbon or graphite product. In an additional step, the final carbon or graphite product may be surface treated with an oxygen-plasma treatment to enhance adhesion to matrix materials.

  12. Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13/50. Please quote this reference when applying.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Zaoyang

    IAPETUS Blue carbon storage potential of marine carbonate deposits Project reference IAP/13 Henrik Stahl, Scottish Association for Marine Science Key Words 1. Blue carbon 2. Carbonate 3. Coralline is referred to as `blue carbon' to differentiate it from terrestrial carbon stores. Known blue carbon sinks

  13. Behavior of carbonate-rich fuels in ACFBC and PFBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ots, A.; Arro, H.; Pihu, T.; Prikk, A.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Estonian oil shale is known as one of richest in carbonate fuels. High mineral matter content (60--75% in dry mass), moderate moisture (9--12%) and carbonate carbon dioxide content (17--19%), and low heating value (LHV 8--10 MJ/kg as received) are characteristic for Estonian oil shale. Approximately half of the mineral matter is in the carbonate form, mainly as calcium carbonate. The sulfur content of dry mass is 1.5--1.7% and Ca/S molar ratio is 8--10. Due to limestone present in oil shale, the additional sorbent for sulfur retention during combustion is not needed. The behavior of carbonates as well as the formation of ash at fluidized bed combustion (FBC) was the main topics to study. At Thermal Engineering Department (TED) of Tallinn Technical University a laboratory pressurized combustion facility was used for investigation the decomposition of soil shale carbonates in atmospheric and pressurized burning conditions. The experiments with oil shale were performed at pressures 0.1 MPa and 1.2 MPa and at the temperature 850 C. Based on the carbonate decomposition rate (CDR) 0.3--0.4 established experimentally at pressurized combustion, it may be concluded that the heating value of oil shale increases approximately by 5.5--8% and the carbon dioxide concentration in flue gas decreases by 13--20% compared with the conditions of the complete decomposition of carbonate. Combustion of oil shale was tested in 0.15--1.0 MW{sub th} test facilities. The tests confirmed the suitability of both ACFBC and PFBC technologies to utilize oil shale. The tests showed a nearly complete binding of sulfur by oil shale ash and a limited formation of NO{sub x} at combustion. Oil shale FBC is characterized by the formation of large amounts (40--85% from total) of fine-grained fly ash.

  14. Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites. Synthesis of supported carbon nanotubes in mineralized silica-wood composites. Abstract: Multiwall carbon...

  15. Carbon calculator tracks the climate benefits of managed private forests

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stewart, William C; Sharma, Benktesh D

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    forests provide more carbon sequestration benefits than let-the relative carbon sequestration benefits of let-growlife cycle carbon sequestration benefits, averaged over 120,

  16. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, Powell (New Bern, NC); Mausner, Leonard F. (Stony Brook, NY); Prach, Thomas F. (Port Jefferson, NY)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  17. Optically Functional Nanomaterials: Optothermally Responsive Composites and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Okawa, David

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics by David Christopher OkawaPart II: Carbon Nanotube Photovoltaics Chapter 6:Carbon Nanotube – Polymer Photovoltaics 6.1 Polymer-Nanotube

  18. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    efficiency of biological pump in the global ocean. JournalOcean Biological Carbon Pump Carbon Flux Explorerocean’s “biological carbon pump” (Broecker and Peng, 1982;

  19. argon carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 10 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  20. applied carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 8 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  1. alter carbon nitrogen: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PAPER Influence of tree species on carbon and nitrogen Physics Websites Summary: and for carbon sequestration (Jandl et al. 2007). Soil acidification and carbon sequestration are...

  2. aqueous carbon dioxide: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere. Additional measurements by scientists working 12 Carbon Dioxide Sequestration and Utilization CiteSeer Summary: ? Carbon dioxide (CO2) in...

  3. Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration WorkshopBioenergy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration WorkshopBioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (BECCS) Workshop Bioenergy with Carbon Capture and Sequestration...

  4. The significance of the erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sink

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berhe, A.A.; Harte, J.; Harden, J.W.; Torn, M.S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    potential of soil carbon sequestration to mitigate theof soil movement on carbon sequestration in agriculturalEnhancement of carbon sequestration in US soils. BioScience.

  5. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi, C.; Ricciuota, D.; Goulden, M. L.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    control, terrestrial carbon sequestration, temperature,on terrestrial carbon sequestration (Nemani et al 2003, Xiaodeposition and forest carbon sequestration Glob. Change

  6. Study of Porous Adsorbents for Carbon Capture via Molecular Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swisher, Joseph Andrew

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    4 Ab initio carbon capture Background . . . . . .K. ; Haranczyk, M. ; Carbon Capture Materials Database;silico screening of carbon capture mate- rials” C Additional

  7. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and HB 90:Carbon capture and sequestration, http://legisweb.6th annual conference on carbon capture and sequestration,7th annual conference on carbon capture & seques- tration,

  8. Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Richards, P.; Mausner, L.F.; Prach, T.F.

    1985-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Beryllium-7 labeled carbon particles made from the proton irradiation of carbon materials, preferably from dry carbon black are disclosed. Such particles are useful as gamma emitting radiotracers.

  9. Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Community acceptance of carbon capture and sequestrationThe public perceptions of carbon capture and storage Workingproblems and prospects Carbon Capture and Sequestration:

  10. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)commercialization of carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)of installing carbon capture and sequestration (CCS)

  11. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sixth Annual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration,Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration, May 7–Annual Conference on Carbon Capture & Sequestration, May 7–

  12. Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Community acceptance of carbon capture and sequestrationand realities of carbon capture and storage; www.eenews.net/Howard. What Future for Carbon Capture and Sequestration?

  13. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    2 sequestration. 4th Annual Carbon Capture and SequestrationAnnual Conference on Carbon Capture and Sequestration, Mayon the roles of carbon capture and disposal, hydrogen, and

  14. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    installing carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologycapture of carbon emissions for pre- and post-combustion technologiescapture of carbon emissions for pre- and post-combustion technologies

  15. Perspectives on Carbon Capture and Sequestration in the United States

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon capture and sequestration technology A.4 Carbon capture and sequestration technology Today,as ‘carbon capture and storage’ technologies (Steinberg

  16. Water Challenges for Geologic Carbon Capture and Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newmark, Robin L.; Friedmann, Samuel J.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and HB 90:Carbon capture and sequestration, http://legisweb.conference on carbon capture and sequestration, Pittsburgh,The DOE’s Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships are

  17. Risk assessment framework for geologic carbon sequestration sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Framework for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment,for geologic carbon sequestration risk assessment, Energyfor Geologic Carbon Sequestration, Int. J. of Greenhouse Gas

  18. Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needs and Opportunities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Enhancement of soil carbon sequestration by amendment withBiologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration: Research Needson Biologically Enhanced Carbon Sequestration, October 29,

  19. Certification Framework Based on Effective Trapping for Geologic Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    workshop on geologic carbon sequestration, 2002. Benson,verification of geologic carbon sequestration, Geophys. Res.CO 2 from geologic carbon sequestration sites, Vadose Zone

  20. Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas emissions in urban turf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Czimczik, Claudia I

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Article Correction to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouseCor- rection to “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas1 ] In the paper “Carbon sequestration and greenhouse gas