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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Wood Residues as Fuel Source for Lime Kilns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

completed and the preliminary results indicate that our approach is potentially a very cost-effective and simple option to substantially reduce or possibly eliminate fossil-fuel usage in lime kilns....

Azarniouch, M. K.; Philp, R. J.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

The Fates of Vanadium and Sulfur Introduced with Petcoke to Lime Kilns.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Petroleum coke (petcoke) has been burned at kraft pulp mills to partially substitute for natural gas and fuel oil used in lime kilns. Due to… (more)

Fan, Xiaofei

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Design of Refractory Linings for Balanced Energy Efficiency, Uptime, and Capacity in Lime Kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The rotary kilns used by the pulp and paper industry to regenerate lime in the Kraft process are very energy intensive. Throughout the 90 s, in response to increasing fuel prices, the industry used back up insulation in conjunction with the high alumina brick used to line the burning zones of their kilns. While this improved energy efficiency, the practice of installing insulating brick behind the working lining increased the inner wall temperatures. In the worst case, due to the increased temperatures, rapid brick failures occurred causing unscheduled outages and expensive repairs. Despite these issues, for the most part, the industry continued to use insulating refractory linings in that the energy savings were large enough to offset any increase in the cost of maintaining the refractory lining. Due to the dramatic decline in the price of natural gas in some areas combined with mounting pressures to increasing production of existing assets, over the last decade, many mills are focusing more on increasing the uptime of their kilns as opposed to energy savings. To this end, a growing number of mills are using basic (magnesia based) brick instead of high alumina brick to line the burning zone of the kiln since the lime mud does not react with these bricks at the operating temperatures of the burning zone of the kiln. In the extreme case, a few mills have chosen to install basic brick in the front end of the kiln running a length equivalent to 10 diameters. While the use of basic brick can increase the uptime of the kiln and reduce the cost to maintain the refractory lining, it does dramatically increase the heat losses resulting from the increased operating temperatures of the shell. Also, over long periods of time operating at these high temperatures, damage can occur in the shell. There are tradeoffs between energy efficiency, capacity and uptime. When fuel prices are very high, it makes sense to insulate the lining. When fuel prices are lower, trading some thermal efficiency for increased uptime and capacity seems reasonable. This paper considers a number of refractory linings in an effort to develop optimized operating strategies that balance these factors. In addition to considering a range of refractory materials, the paper examines other factors such as the chain area, discharge dams and other operating variables that impact the service life of the refractory lining. The paper provides recommendations that will help mill personnel develop a strategy to select a refractory lining that is optimized for their specific situation.

Gorog, John Peter [ORNL; Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Walker, Harold [Refratechnik North America, Inc.; Leary, William R [ORNL; Ellis, Murray [Australian Paper, Co.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Lime–Alumina–Silica processing incorporating minerals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of naturally occurring minerals to enhance the physical and mechanical properties of industrial ceramics such as alumina is an attractive alternative to synthetic materials due to cost, chemical stability and availability. Two systems, have been chosen for investigation, alumina–kyanite to produce an alumina–mullite composite and alumina–wollastonite to produce a lime aluminosilicate. Wet processing conditions were optimised using pH/rheology and microelectrophoresis techniques followed by slip casting. The resulting green compacts were subjected to a variety of sintering regimes to produce the desired composites. Sintered products were characterised by techniques such as electron probe microanalysis, hardness tests and toughness determinations. Results are discussed, both in terms of enhanced properties realised (toughness, wear resistance, dielectric), and with respect to the viability of using natural minerals in this application.

R.H Bryden; D.G Goski; W.F Caley

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

5

Control of Lime Kiln Heat Balance is Key to Reduced Fuel Consumption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This article discusses the various heat loads in a pulp mill lime sludge kiln, pointing out which heat loads cannot be reduced and which heat loads can, and how a reduction in energy use can be achieved. In almost any existing rotary lime sludge...

Kramm, D. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Metallic State in a Lime?Alumina Compound with Nanoporous Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Metallic State in a Lime?Alumina Compound with Nanoporous Structure ... Six Ca ions (green spheres) form a part of the cage wall and two Ca ions coordinate to a free oxygen ion or to an empty cage center. ... Mineral., Monatsh. ...

Sung Wng Kim; Satoru Matsuishi; Takatoshi Nomura; Yoshiki Kubota; Masaki Takata; Katsuro Hayashi; Toshio Kamiya; Masahiro Hirano; Hideo Hosono

2007-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

7

Cement kiln flue dust as a source of lime and potassium in four East Texas soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the blight encountered the previous year. Forage sorghum (DeKalb SX-11) was planted 5/1/73, 4/26/74 and, 6/9/75) . Yield of corn grain, corn forage, and sorghum forage were determined for the three growing seasons. Leaf samples were also taken... by rate and source of lime, de th, and time. Treatment k /ha 0 mo. 3 mo. 8 mo. 11 mo. 17 mo. 0 to 15 cm depth 8000 flue dust 2000 5QQ II II S. 6 a s. s a 5. 6 a 6. 9 c 6. 1 ab 5. 7 a 7. 2 c 6. 5 bc 5. 9 ab 6. 5 bc 7. 0 c 6. 0 abc 6. 4 b 5. 6 a...

Poole, Warren David

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

8

Use of RDF as a kiln fuel. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refuse derived fuel (RDF) has been experimented with and/or proposed for use in kilns for the production of portland cement, lime, and expanded shale (a form of lightweight aggregate). Technological issues affecting the use of RDF in kilns are reviewed as are the results of trials in which RDF has been used as a kiln fuel. Three future research/demonstration projects for addressing the major unresolved issues are discussed. These projects are: a lime plant trial; a trial in a pre-calcining furnace; and an extended trial in a cement kiln.

None

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Rotary kiln seal  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A rotary seal used to prevent the escape of contaminates from a rotating kiln incinerator. The rotating seal combines a rotating disc plate which is attached to the rotating kiln shell and four sets of non-rotating carbon seal bars housed in a primary and secondary housing and which rub on the sides of the disc. A seal air system is used to create a positive pressure in a chamber between the primary and secondary seals to create a positive air flow into the contaminated gas chamber. The seal air system also employs an air inlet located between the secondary and tertiary seals to further insure that no contaminates pass the seal and enter the external environment and to provide makeup air for the air which flows into the contaminated gas chamber. The pressure exerted by the seal bars on the rotating disc is controlled by means of a preload spring. The seal is capable of operating in a thermally changing environment where the both radial expansion and axial movement of the rotating kiln do not result in the failure of the seal.

Drexler, Robert L. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Solar-heated rotary kiln  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A solar heated rotary kiln utilized for decomposition of materials, such as zinc sulfate is disclosed. The rotary kiln has an open end and is enclosed in a sealed container having a window positioned for directing solar energy into the open end of the kiln. The material to be decomposed is directed through the container into the kiln by a feed tube. The container is also provided with an outlet for exhaust gases and an outlet for spent solids, and rests on a tiltable base. The window may be cooled and kept clear of debris by coolant gases.

Shell, P.K.

1982-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

11

Rotary kilns - transport phenomena and transport processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rotary kilns and rotating industrial drying ovens are used for a wide variety of applications including processing raw minerals and feedstocks as well as heat-treating hazardous wastes. They are particularly critical in the manufacture of Portland cement. Their design and operation is critical to their efficient usage, which if done incorrectly can result in improperly treated materials and excessive, high fuel costs. This book treats all engineering aspects of rotary kilns, including thermal and fluid principles involved in their operation, as well as how to properly design an engineering process that uses rotary kilns. Chapter 1: The Rotary Kiln Evolution and Phenomenon Chapter 2: Basic Description of Rotary Kiln Operation Chapter 3: Freeboard Aerodynamic Phenomena Chapter 4: Granular Flows in Rotary Kilns Chapter 5: Mixing and Segregation Chapter 6: Combustion and Flame - includes section on types of fuels used in rotary kilns, coal types, ranking and analysis, petroleum coke combustion, scrap tire combustion, pulverized fuel (coal/coke) firing in kilns, pulverized fuel delivery and firing systems. Chapter 7: Freeboard Heat Transfer Chapter 8: Heat Transfer Processes in the Rotary Kiln Bed Chapter 9: Mass and Energy Balance Chapter 10: Rotary Kiln Minerals Process Applications.

Boateng, A.

2008-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

12

Drying and first heat up of a kiln unit with cyclone heat exchangers with a lining of refractory concretes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes an accelerated drying and first heatup cycle developed for a kiln unit for dry production of clinker with a capacity of 3000 tons/day with cyclone heat exchangers of refractory concretes of high-alumina cement with a chamotte aggregate. The drying of the lining and the heating of the unit were done in 4 days. The results of the work indicate the desirability of use of refractory concretes for lining the cyclone heat exchangers of kiln units for dry production of clinker.

Petrov-Denisov, V.G.; Matveev, Y.V.; Pichkov, A.M.; Pozdnyakova, N.K.; Shakhov, I.I.

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Acceptable approaches for beneficial use of cement kiln dust  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One beneficial use of cement kiln dust (CKD) is application of CKD to cropland as agricultural lime or fertilizer. However, the EPA has expressed a concern over land application of CKD when the metals constituents in the CKD are above the industry-wide median levels presented in EPA`s Report to Congress on Cement Kiln Dust. Under the Clean Water Act, EPA has established limits for metals concentrations in sewage sludge that is applied to the land for beneficial use of the nitrogen in the sludge. The limits for land application of sewage sludge were established based on the results of exposure risk assessments. A comparison of the median industry-wide metals concentrations in CKD to the metals concentration limits for land application of sewage sludge indicates that all trace metal concentrations IN CKD are below the corresponding sewage sludge land application limit, with the exception of the median level of arsenic from one data set. EPA has determined that land application of CKD with metals concentration limits at or below the industry-wide median concentrations does not pose a significant human cancer or non-cancer health risk. Therefore, with appropriate limits, CKD can be beneficially reused for land application on agricultural land in a manner that is protective of human health and the environment.

Schreiber, R.J.; Smeenk, S.D. [Schreiber, Yonley and Associates, St. Louis, MO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

14

Energy Efficient Microwave Hybrid Processing of Lime for Cement, Steel, and Glass Industries  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the microwave materials interactions were studied through dielectric property measurements, process modeling, and lab scale microwave hybrid calcination tests. Characterization and analysis were performed to evaluate material reactions and energy usage. Processing parameters for laboratory scale and larger scale calcining experiments were developed for MAT limestone calcination. Early stage equipment design concepts were developed, with a focus on microwave post heating treatment. The retrofitting of existing rotary calcine equipment in the lime industry was assessed and found to be feasible. Ceralink sought to address some of the major barriers to the uptake of MAT identified as the need for (1) team approach with end users, technology partners, and equipment manufacturers, (2) modeling that incorporates kiln materials and variations to the design of industrial microwave equipment. This project has furthered the commercialization effort of MAT by working closely with an industrial lime manufacturer to educate them regarding MAT, identifying equipment manufacturer to supply microwave equipment, and developing a sophisticated MAT modeling with WPI, the university partner. MAT was shown to enhance calcining through lower energy consumption and faster reaction rates compared to conventional processing. Laboratory testing concluded that a 23% reduction in energy was possible for calcining small batches (5kg). Scale-up testing indicated that the energy savings increased as a function of load size and 36% energy savings was demonstrated (22 kg). A sophisticated model was developed which combines simultaneous microwave and conventional heating. Continued development of this modeling software could be used for larger scale calcining simulations, which would be a beneficial low-cost tool for exploring equipment design prior to actual building. Based on these findings, estimates for production scale MAT calcining benefits were calculated, assuming uptake of MAT in the US lime industry. This estimate showed that 7.3 TBTU/year could be saved, with reduction of 270 MMlbs of CO2 emissions, and $29 MM/year in economic savings. Taking into account estimates for MAT implementation in the US cement industry, an additional 39 TBTU/year, 3 Blbs of CO2 and $155 MM/year could be saved. One of the main remaining barriers to commercialization of MAT for the lime and cement industries is the sheer size of production. Through this project, it was realized that a production size MAT rotary calciner was not feasible, and a different approach was adapted. The concept of a microwave post heat section located in the upper portion of the cooler was devised and appears to be a more realistic approach for MAT implementation. Commercialization of this technology will require (1) continued pilot scale calcining demonstrations, (2) involvement of lime kiln companies, and (3) involvement of an industrial microwave equipment provider. An initial design concept for a MAT post-heat treatment section was conceived as a retrofit into the cooler sections of existing lime rotary calciners with a 1.4 year payback. Retrofitting will help spur implementation of this technology, as the capital investment will be minimal for enhancing the efficiency of current rotary lime kilns. Retrofits would likely be attractive to lime manufacturers, as the purchase of a new lime kiln is on the order of a $30 million dollar investment, where as a MAT retrofit is estimated on the order of $1 million. The path for commercialization lies in partnering with existing lime kiln companies, who will be able to implement the microwave post heat sections in existing and new build kilns. A microwave equipment provider has been identified, who would make up part of the continued development and commercialization team.

Fall, Morgana L; Yakovlev, Vadim; Sahi, Catherine; Baranova, Inessa; Bowers, Johnney G; Esquenazi\t, Gibran L

2012-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

15

Solubility of water in lime-alumina-silica melts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The water solubility in fused silicates of the CaO-SiO2 and CaO-SiO2-Al2O3...systems has been measured using a vacuum fusion technique. The melts were equilibrated with nitrogen as “carrier gas” containing an acc...

P. L. Sachdev; A. Majdi?; H. Schenck

1972-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Anion Sequestering by the Formation of Anionic Clays:? Lime Treatment of Fly Ash Slurries  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Given a source of calcium from the dissolution of hydrated lime; magnesium and carbonate from dolomite dissolution; and alumina from lime-induced leach ing of fly ash particlesboth minerals are probable products of the dolomite/lime-added runs. ... Clearly, precipitation of secondary aluminosilica mineral phases is the highlight of the reaction of lime with fly ash. ... Two important ones are pyroaurite, Mg6Fe2CO3(OH)16·4H2O, formed in kimberlites and as an alteration product of mafic rocks (15) and green rust, Fe6Fe2(SO4,CO3)(OH)16·4H2O), formed in soil weathering, in iron corrosion, and in the alteration of sulfidic mine tailings (16, 17). ...

E. J. Reardon; S. Della Valle

1997-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

17

Method for firing a rotary kiln with pulverized solid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Disclosed is a method for firing a kiln as well as a method for producing cement clinker in which pulverized coal is initially entrained in an airflow of about 2% of the theoretical amount of air needed to combust the coal and transport it to a burner. Supplemental primary air heated sufficiently to vaporize volatiles in the coal is mixed with the coal flow in a burner, discharged into the kiln and hence ignited. Secondary combustion air heated to between 800 F to 1650 F and more is added in the kiln to effect the substantially complete combustion of the pulverized coal in the kiln.

Binasik, C.S.; Siegert, L.D.

1982-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

18

Lime Wind | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lime Wind Lime Wind Facility Lime Wind Sector Wind energy Facility Type Commercial Scale Wind Facility Status In Service Owner Joseph Millworks Inc Developer Joseph Millworks Inc Energy Purchaser Idaho Power Location Huntington OR Coordinates 44.406667°, -117.310278° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.406667,"lon":-117.310278,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

19

Reuse of activated alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Activated alumina is used as a trapping media to remove trace quantities of UF{sub 6} from process vent streams. The current uranium recovery method employs concentrated nitric acid which destroys the alumina pellets and forms a sludge which is a storage and disposal problem. A recently developed technique using a distilled water rinse followed by three dilute acid rinses removes on average 97% of the uranium, and leaves the pellets intact with crush strength and surface area values comparable with new material. Trapping tests confirm the effectiveness of the recycled alumina as UF{sub 6} trapping media.

Hobensack, J.E. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Piketon, OH (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

20

Burning hazardous waste in cement kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cement manufacturing process is one of the oldest in the world, having been in practice for over 2000 years. It is also one of the most energy intensive, with up to 65 percent of the cost of the product attributable to energy consumption. In addition to high energy demand, the process conditions include extremely high temperatures. Cement clinker forms when the correct mixture of raw materials is heated to 2650/sup 0/ F. This requires combustion temperatures exceeding 3000/sup 0/ F. under oxidizing conditions. To accomplish this, gas temperatures above 2000/sup 0/ F. occur for several seconds (typically five seconds), which is much longer than residence times in permitted hazardous waste incinerators. These conditions are extremely favorable to the destruction of organic compounds and have led to extensive investigation into the potential for burning hazardous waste in cement kilns. Cement kilns consuming hazardous wastes have been tested for air emissions under various operating conditions. The substantial body of information on the emissions and handling of hazardous wastes from these studies has demonstrated that effective destruction of wastes can be accomplished with the added benefits of energy conservation and no significant change in air emissions.

Chadbourne, J.F.; Helmsteller, A.J.

1983-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Purifying rotary kiln waste gases in chamotte burning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A study of the operation of electric filters connected to rotary kilns for burning clay into chamotte showed that to increase the dust extraction efficiency it is necessary: with dust concentrations in the gas...

Yu. I. Chander; S. Z. Belinskii; L. G. Borisovskii

22

Indirect-Fired Kiln Conserves Scrap Aluminum and Cuts Costs ...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

project conducted at this plant by Energy Research Company (ERCo), of Staten Island, New York, involves a new energy-efficient kiln that heats scrap aluminum for reuse. This...

23

Fly ash chemical classification based on lime  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Typically, total lime content (CaO) of fly ash is shown in fly ash reports, but its significance is not addressed in US specifications. For certain applications a low lime ash is preferred. When a class C fly ash must be cementitious, lime content above 20% is required. A ternary S-A-C phase diagram pilot is given showing the location of fly ash compositions by coal rank and source in North America. Fly ashes from subbituminous coal from the Powder River Basin usually contain sufficient lime to be cementitious but blending with other coals may result in calcium being present in phases other than tricalcium aluminate. 9 refs., 1 fig.

Fox, J. [BASF Construction Chemicals, LLC (United States)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Sulfate induced heave in lime stabilized soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The addition of hydrated lime to clay soils is one of the most common methods of soil stabilization. However, when sulfates are present in the soil, the calcium in the lime reacts with the sulfates to form ettringite, an expandable mineral...

Bredenkamp, Sanet

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

25

Factors affecting the supply and demand for limes and lime oil in the U.S.: development implications for Veracruz state, Mexico.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The fresh lime industry is an important economic activity in Veracruz, Mexico. In this thesis, the economic potential of the fresh lime and lime oil… (more)

Abarca Orozco, Saul Julian

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Opacity reduction using hydrated lime injection  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this investigation is to study the effects of injecting dry hydrated lime into flue gas to reduce sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}) concentrations and consequently stack opacity at the University of Missouri, Columbia power plant. Burning of high sulfur coal (approx. 4% by weight) at the power plant resulted in opacity violations. The opacity problem was due to sulfuric acid mist (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) forming at the stack from high SO{sub 3} concentrations. As a result of light scattering by the mist, a visible plume leaves the stack. Therefore, reducing high concentrations of SO{sub 3} reduces the sulfuric acid mist and consequently the opacity problem. The current hydrated lime injection system has reduced the opacity to acceptable limits. To reduce SO{sub 3} concentrations, dry hydrated lime is injected into the flue gas upstream of a particulate collection device (baghouse) and downstream of the induced draft fan. The lime is periodically injected into the flue via a pneumatic piping system. The hydrated lime is transported down the flue and deposited on the filter bags in the baghouse. As the hydrated lime is deposited on the bags a filter cake is established. The reaction between the SO{sub 3} and the hydrated lime takes place on the filter bags. The hydrated lime injection system has resulted in at least 95% reduction in the SO{sub 3} concentration. Low capital equipment requirements and operating cost coupled with easy installation and maintenance makes the system very attractive to industries with similar problems. This paper documents the hydrated lime injection system and tests the effectiveness of the system on SO{sub 3} removal and subsequent opacity reduction. Measurements Of SO{sub 3} concentrations, flue gas velocities, and temperatures have been performed at the duct work and baghouse. A complete analysis of the hydrated lime injection system is provided.

Wolf, D.E.; Seaba, J.P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

27

Low Velocity Sphere Impact of a Soda Lime Silicate Glass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes TARDEC-sponsored work at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the FY11 involving low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) ball impact testing of Starphire soda lime silicate glass. The intent was to better understand low velocity impact response in the Starphire for sphere densities that bracketed that of rock. Five sphere materials were used: borosilicate glass, soda-lime silicate glass, steel, silicon nitride, and alumina. A gas gun was fabricated to produce controlled velocity delivery of the spheres against Starphire tile targets. Minimum impact velocities to initiate fracture in the Starphire were measured and interpreted in context to the kinetic energy of impact and the elastic property mismatch between the any of the five sphere-Starphire-target combinations. The primary observations from this low velocity (< 30 m/s or < 65 mph) testing were: (1) Frictional effects contribute to fracture initiation. (2) Spheres with a lower elastic modulus require less force to initiate fracture in the Starphire than spheres with a higher elastic modulus. (3) Contact-induced fracture did not initiate in the Starphire SLS for impact kinetic energies < 150 mJ. Fracture sometimes initiated or kinetic energies between {approx} 150-1100 mJ; however, it tended to occur when lower elastic modulus spheres were impacting it. Contact-induced fracture would always occur for impact energies > 1100 mJ. (4) The force necessary to initiate contact-induced fracture is higher under dynamic or impact conditions than it is under quasi-static indentation conditions. (5) Among the five used sphere materials, silicon nitride was the closest match to 'rock' in terms of both density and (probably) elastic modulus.

Wereszczak, Andrew A [ORNL; Fox, Ethan E [ORNL; Morrissey, Timothy G [ORNL; Vuono, Daniel J [ORNL

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Transient Model for Behavior of Mercury in Portland Cement Kilns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(2) Bituminous coals (median value of 0.1 ?g/g) typically contain more mercury than petcoke (0.05 ?g/g median) or tires (0.04 ?g/g median), although the range of fuel mercury content is broad. ... Figure 2. Cumulative distribution of mercury in bituminous coal, petcoke, and tires fired at coal-fired power plants(2) and limestone input to cement kilns. ... The kiln used coal and petcoke as primary fuels, while tires were burned in the precalciner. ...

Constance Senior; Christopher J. Montgomery; Adel Sarofim

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

29

Sulfur dioxide oxidation and plume formation at cement kilns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Results of source sampling at the Glens Falls cement kiln in Glens Falls, N.Y., are reported for sulfur oxides, ammonia, hydrochloric acid, oxygen, and moisture content. The origin of a detached, high-opacity, persistent plume originating from the cement kiln stack is investigated. It is proposed that this plume is due to ammonium salts of SOx and sulfuric acid that have been formed in condensed water droplets in the plume by the pseudocatalytic action of ammonia. (1 diagram, 1 graph, 22 references, 7 tables)

Dellinger, B.; Grotecloss, G.; Fortune, C.R.; Cheney, J.L.; Homolya, J.B.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Heat Treatment of Alumina Aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat Treatment of Alumina Aerogels ... Recently, using supercritical drying, we have obtained alumina aerogel monoliths and films1,2with high porosity and special morphology, different from those of common aerogels films. ... One of the main questions concerning the application of these aerogels is their thermal stability. ...

Shani Keysar; Gennady E. Shter; * Yoram de Hazan; Yachin Cohen; Gideon S. Grader

1997-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

31

Gelcasting Polycrystalline Alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

OSRAM SYLVANIA INC. is a major U.S. manufacturer of high-intensity lighting. Among its products is the Lumalux TM line of high-pressure sodium vapor arc lamps, which are used for industrial, highway, and street lighting. The key to the performance of these lamps is the polycrystalline alumina (PCA) tube that is used to contain the plasma that is formed in the electric arc. That plasma consists of ionized sodium, mercury, and xenon vapors. The key attributes of the PCA tubes are their transparency ({approximately}97% total transmittance in the visible), their refractoriness (inner wall temperature can reach l2OOC), and their chemical resistance (sodium and mercury vapor are extremely corrosive). The current efficiency of the lamps is very high, up to 100 initial lumens per watt. (Compare incandescent lamps 10-20 lumens per watt, fluorescent lamps 25-90 lumens per watt.)

Janney, M.A.; Zuk, K.J.; Wei, G.C.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

The lime-soda sinter process for resource recovery from fly ash: A new look  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lime-soda sinter process is one of the earliest and most thoroughly researched and evaluated of the several methods available for resource recovery from fly ash. The principle product, metallurgical grade alumina, is obtained with yields as high as 90% depending upon how much alumina needs to be left in the residue to form acceptable byproduct cement clinker. The process has the advantages of requiring a relatively low sintering temperature (1100-1200{degree}C), using conventional equipment of carbon steel construction, utilizing a variety of calcium and mineralizer raw materials, and producing only a single byproduct consisting of dicalcium silicate that has been shown to be an attractive raw material for the manufacture of portland cement. An economic feasibility study for a combined facility to produce alumina and cement from the fly ash generated by a 1000 MWe coal-fired power station shows a 10.5% return on average investment. This is increased to 14.2% when a disposal charge of $10/ton of fly ash consumed is credited to the process. Research has shown that the soda ash can be replaced by coal cleaning refuse or that the soda ash and one-fourth of the limestone can be replaced by FGD sludge with a savings in raw material cost in both cases. The return on average investment becomes 14.5% when the refuse is used and 15.2% when the sludge is used. The return could be increased further if an inexpensive fluxing agent were substituted for the alumina deliberately left in the residue. 12 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

Burnet, G.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500.degree. C. to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, Michael J. (Bolingbrook, IL); Arzoumanidis, Gregory G. (Naperville, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

A method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Method and system including a double rotary kiln pyrolysis or gasification of waste material  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for destructively distilling an organic material in particulate form wherein the particulates are introduced through an inlet into one end of an inner rotating kiln ganged to and coaxial with an outer rotating kiln. The inner and outer kilns define a cylindrical annular space with the inlet being positioned in registry with the axis of rotation of the ganged kilns. During operation, the temperature of the wall of the inner rotary kiln at the inlet is not less than about 500 C to heat the particulate material to a temperature in the range of from about 200 C to about 900 C in a pyrolyzing atmosphere to reduce the particulate material as it moves from the one end toward the other end. The reduced particulates including char are transferred to the annular space between the inner and the outer rotating kilns near the other end of the inner rotating kiln and moved longitudinally in the annular space from near the other end toward the one end in the presence of oxygen to combust the char at an elevated temperature to produce a waste material including ash. Also, heat is provided which is transferred to the inner kiln. The waste material including ash leaves the outer rotating kiln near the one end and the pyrolysis vapor leaves through the particulate material inlet. 5 figs.

McIntosh, M.J.; Arzoumanidis, G.G.

1997-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

36

Accepted Manuscript A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled-rotary kilns with secondary air  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Accepted Manuscript A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled-rotary kilns with secondary;1 A wall heat transfer correlation for the baffled- rotary kilns with secondary air flow and recycled industrial applications suggests examining the heat transfer phenomena in order to improve the multi

Boyer, Edmond

37

Method and apparatus for maximizing throughput of indirectly heated rotary kilns  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for achieving improved throughput capacity of indirectly heated rotary kilns used to produce pyrolysis products such as shale oils or coal oils that are susceptible to decomposition by high kiln wall temperatures is disclosed. High throughput is achieved by firing the kiln such that optimum wall temperatures are maintained beginning at the point where the materials enter the heating section of the kiln and extending to the point where the materials leave the heated section. Multiple high velocity burners are arranged such that combustion products directly impact on the area of the kiln wall covered internally by the solid material being heated. Firing rates for the burners are controlled to maintain optimum wall temperatures.

Coates, Ralph L; Smoot, L. Douglas; Hatfield, Kent E

2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

38

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid lime plants Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Application of Activated Carbon Enhanced Lime for Controlling Acid Gases, Mercury, and Dioxins form MWCs... PEER-REVIEW Lime Enhances Moving Bed Filters for Mercury and Dioxin...

39

Physical chemistry of carbothermic reduction of alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of aluminium, by means of carbothermic reduction of alumina, is discussed. By employing a solvent metal bath to absorb the alumina metal, carbothermic reduction of alumina was accomplished at temperatures 300/degree/C lower than the temperatures reported in the literature. Reduction occurred without the formation of intermediate compounds and without the high volatilization of aluminum bearing species. Reduction of alumina immersed in a solvent bath appeared to be rate limited by chemical reaction control. The rates seemed to be a function of the activity of aluminum in the solvent metal bath. Reduction of alumina particles, above the surface of the bath, seemed to occur via vapor transport with carbon in the particles or in the crucible walls. Mass transport in the gas phase appeared to be rate limiting. The rates seemed to be a function of the distance separating the alumina and carbon sources. With both submerged alumina and alumina particles, increasing the surface area of the alumina increased the rate of reduction. 58 refs., 65 figs., 9 tabs.

Frank, Robert A.

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Lime slurry use at the Industrial Wastewater Pretreatment Facility  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of lime slurry at the IWPF demonstrated many benefits. Hazardous chemical use was reduced, solids handling was improved, water quality was enhanced and there has been a cost savings. The lime slurry also enabled the plant to begin treating the soluble oil waste, which we were not able to do in the past.

Rice, L.E. [Allied-Signal Aerospace Co., Kansas City, MO (United States). Kansas City Div.; Hughes, R.W. [Professional Services Group, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States); Baggett, G. [Genex/Praxair, Inc., Kansas City, MO (United States)

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Method for determining effective flame emissivity in a rotary kiln incinerator burning solid waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature is the most important parameter for the improvement of combustion efficiency and the control of pollutants. In order to obtain accurate flame temperatures in a rotary kiln incinerator using non-int...

Jin-cai Du; Qun-xing Huang; Jian-hua Yan

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Lime Energy formerly Electric City Corporation | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Energy formerly Electric City Corporation Energy formerly Electric City Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name Lime Energy (formerly Electric City Corporation) Place Elk Grove Village, Illinois Zip 60007 Product Developer, manufacturer and integrator of energy savings technologies and building automation systems. Specialist in demand response systems. References Lime Energy (formerly Electric City Corporation)[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Lime Energy (formerly Electric City Corporation) is a company located in Elk Grove Village, Illinois . References ↑ "Lime Energy (formerly Electric City Corporation)" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Lime_Energy_formerly_Electric_City_Corporation&oldid=348375"

43

Enhancement of phosphogypsum with high lime fly ash  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1983 Major... Subject: Civil Engineering ENHANCEMENT OF PHOSPHOGYPSUM WITH HIGH'LIME FLY ASH A Thesis by CHUCK ALAN GREGORY Approved as to style and content by: Dr. ona d Saylak (Chairman f Committee) Dr. W. edbetter ( ember) (Member) r. Lloyd Deuel, 3...

Gregory, Chuck Alan

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Alumina forming iron base superalloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An austenitic stainless steel alloy, consists essentially of, in weight percent 2.5 to 4 Al; 25 to 35 Ni; 12 to 19 Cr; at least 1, up to 4 total of at least one element selected from the group consisting of Nb and Ta; 0.5 to 3 Ti; less than 0.5 V; 0.1 to 1 of at least on element selected from the group consisting of Zr and Hf; 0.03 to 0.2 C; 0.005 to 0.1 B; and base Fe. The weight percent Fe is greater than the weight percent Ni. The alloy forms an external continuous scale including alumina, and contains coherent precipitates of .gamma.'-Ni.sub.3Al, and a stable essentially single phase FCC austenitic matrix microstructure. The austenitic matrix is essentially delta-ferrite-free and essentially BCC-phase-free.

Yamamoto, Yukinori; Muralidharan, Govindarajan; Brady, Michael P.

2014-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

45

Simulation of Combustion and Thermal-flow Inside a Petroleum Coke Rotary Calcining Kiln.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Calcined coke is the best material for making carbon anodes for smelting of alumina to aluminum. Calcining is an energy intensive industry and a significant… (more)

Zhang, Zexuan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Sorbent selection and design considerations for uranium trapping. [H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, F-1 alumina, sodium fluoride  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The efficient removal of UF/sub 6/ from effluent streams can be accomplished through the selection of the best solid sorbent and the implementation of good design principles. Pressure losses, sorbent capacity, reaction kinetics, sorbent regeneration/uranium recovery requirements and the effects of other system components are the performance factors which are summarized. The commonly used uranium trapping materials highlighted are sodium fluoride, H-151 alumina, XF-100 alumina, and F-1 alumina. Sorbent selection and trap design have to be made on a case-by-case basis but the theoretical modeling studies and the evaluation of the performance factors presented can be used as a guide for other chemical trap applications.

Schultz, R.M.; Hobbs, W.E.; Norton, J.L.; Stephenson, M.J.

1981-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition on Pacific oyster larvae, and for other species. Keywords: Ocean acidification; Pacific oyster; Larval stages; Hydrated lime; Shellfish No.: 577 Title of Project: Impacts of ocean acidification and mitigative hydrated lime addition

48

Pollutant Formation and Emissions from Cement Kiln Stack Using a Solid Recovered Fuel from Municipal Solid Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Figure S2 it can be observed that a great majority of PCDD/Fs congeners correlate with the % of PetCoke fed to the cement kiln. ...

Juan A. Conesa; Lorena Rey; Silvia Egea; Maria D. Rey

2011-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

49

New waste based clinkers: Belite and lime formulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work describes the formulation of new belite-based (CR2) and lime-based (CR3) cementitious materials derived from industrial wastes, such as sludges (generated in the Al-anodising and surface coating industrial processes, potable water filtration/cleaning operations and in marble sawing processes) and foundry sand. Powder mixtures were prepared and fired at different temperatures. For comparison, similar formulations were prepared with pre-treated and commercially available natural raw materials and processed in similar conditions. The thermal process was followed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and high-temperature powder X-ray diffraction (HT-XRD) studies. The CR2 clinker was found to contain belite as the main cementitious phase, the main polymorph being identified by NMR. The CR3 clinker contained common cementitious phases, such as C{sub 3}A and C{sub 3}S, but free lime and calcium aluminium oxide sulphates were also identified by high temperature XRD and NMR. Then the corresponding cement was prepared and the evolution of the mechanical strength with time was evaluated. The lime-based cement obtained from wastes shows a stronger hardening character than the standard material, which tends to show dusting phenomena due to the presence of a reasonable amount of free lime (as the result of its expansive reaction with ambient moisture). Some fluxing impurities (e.g. alkalis) present in the waste materials improve the overall reactivity of the mixture and induces the combination of the lime in CR3. Raman, XPS and FIB techniques were used to fully characterise the aged cements.

Raupp-Pereira, Fabiano [Ceramics and Glass Engineering Department, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Ball, Richard James [University of Bristol, Interface Analysis Centre, Oldbury House, 121 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)], E-mail: richard.ball@bristol.ac.uk; Rocha, Joao [Department of Chemistry, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Labrincha, Joao A. [Ceramics and Glass Engineering Department, CICECO, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal); Allen, Geoffrey C. [University of Bristol, Interface Analysis Centre, Oldbury House, 121 St Michael's Hill, Bristol, BS2 8BS (United Kingdom)

2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

50

Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part Limestone and Ash Storage Silos and Lime Preparation Equipment, Part of the System to Inject Limestone Sorbent for SO, Control. Nucla, CO Nucla...continued Before being repowered, the plant consisted of three 12 MWe coal stoker- fired units built in 1959, which were taken out of service in 1984 due to low efficiency and high fuel cost. Antici- pating a need for additional power in the early 1990s. and after review of many power generation alternatives, CUEA started constmction of the re- powered Nucla CFB plant in Novem- ber 1984 and completed the project in May 1987. The original boilers were replaced with a new Fympower Corp. CFB bailer, a new high pressure 74 MWe steam turbine generator was installed, the three original 12 MWe steam turbines were

51

Precipitation kinetics in ultra-high lime softening  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The second model used the crystal growth rate as an alternate measure of supersaturation. The growth rate obtained from a settling procedure correlated well with values for silica removal rates for experiments grouped by pH and recycie conditions... of precipitation processes specific applications to lime soFtening and silica removal can be addressed. Mechanisms oF silica raawal. Many of the processes studied for specific removal of silica From industrial water have relied on adsorption...

Peacock, Edward Dale

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

The ultra-high lime with aluminum process for removing chloride from recirculating cooling water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, reverse osmosis, ion exchange, and electrodialysis (Matson and Harris 1979). With the exception of the high lime softening process, these technologies 3 are very expensive and have many operating problems. The unit price of water treatment... with reverse osmosis is about three times the price of lime softening (You et al. 1999). The conventional lime soda process is used in cooling water systems to minimize or eliminate scale formation by removing calcium and magnesium hardness...

Abdel-wahab, Ahmed Ibraheem Ali

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

53

Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Concentrated aqueous alumina nanoparticle suspensions with additions of saccharides such as fructose, glucose, sucrose, and others were studied by rheometry and low temperature differential scanning… (more)

Lawler, Katherine Ann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

E-Print Network 3.0 - agricultural liming techniques Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SUM2002157 Modelling of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn uptake, by Summary: liming and sludge application strategies at a dedicated sewage sludge disposal site. Predictions of metal......

55

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina nanoparticles composites Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the PMMA, followed... grown on the pat- terned alumina supports, and followed the alumina pattern. Silver nanoparticles were... Synthesis of silver-zeolite films on micropatterned...

56

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina zirconia composite Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the case of zirconia, the alumina-zirconia composites present five of the characteris- tic peaks... The presence of zirconia tetragonal phase stabilized by alumina can be...

57

Performance of lime-treated silty soil under long-term hydraulic conditions B. Le Runigoa  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, published in "Engineering Geology 118, 1-2 (2011) 20-28" DOI : 10.1016/j.enggeo.2010.12.002 #12;2 ABSTRACT. Futhermore, it has been observed that a lime content higher than the lime modification optimum (LMO) enables to a decrease of the soil plasticity (Eades and Grim 1966; Rogers and Glendinning 1996). Besides, the addition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

58

The effects of lime and amines on the aging of asphalts and recycling agents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amounts of quick lime (CaO) and hydrated lime (Ca(OH),) on SHRP AAA-I and SHRP AAF-1. The second experiment was to determine the effects of three different amines and various amounts of CaO on aged SHRP AAA-I and SHRP AAF-I rejuvenated with ABM-F2, YBF-F2...

Wisneski, Mary Luvola

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

59

Fracture simulation for zirconia toughened alumina microstructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to describe finite element modelling for fracture and fatigue behaviour of zirconia toughened alumina microstructures. Design/methodology/approach - A two-dimensional finite element model is developed with an actual $Al{_2}O{_3}$ - 10 vol% $ZrO{_2}$ microstructure. A bilinear, time-independent cohesive zone law is implemented for describing fracture behaviour of grain boundaries. Simulation conditions are similar to those found at contact between a head and a cup of hip prosthesis. Residual stresses arisen from the mismatch of thermal coefficient between grains are determined. Then, effects of a micro-void and contact stress magnitude are investigated with models containing residual stresses. For the purpose of simulating fatigue behaviour, cyclic loadings are applied to the models. Findings - Results show that crack density is gradually increased with increasing magnitude of contact stress or number of fatigue cycles. It is also identified that a micro-void brings about...

Kim, Kyungmok; Forest, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Coal fly ash–carbide lime bricks: An environment friendly building product  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Coal fly ash and carbide lime are industrial by-products of coal combustion in thermal power plants and of manufacture of acetylene gas, respectively, available in profusion in southern Brazil. Research has been carried out to search for possible use of such materials to produce environmental friendly bricks that have high compressive strength. This study aims to evaluate strength controlling parameters of coal fly ash–carbide lime mixtures, as well as to show that porosity/carbide lime (?/Lv) ratio (corresponding to porosity divided by the volumetric carbide lime content) can be used to predict compressive strength (qu). The controlling parameters evaluated here are carbide lime content, porosity, curing temperature, curing time and porosity/carbide lime ratio. A number of unconfined compression tests were carried out. The results show that a power function adapts better the relation qu versus ?/Lv, in which Lv is adjusted by an exponent (in this case 0.11) for all coal fly ash–carbide lime mixtures studied. Equations that control the compressive strength for each curing period and curing temperature examined can be formulated using this unique ratio. Preferred strategies for varying ranges of qu are also proposed based on the energy required for heating, considering distinct curing periods and temperatures.

Nilo Cesar Consoli; Cecília Gravina da Rocha; Rodrigo Beck Saldanha

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

In What Form is Lime Present in Portland Cement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to obtain Si02.33a0, In his conclusions Hebuffat does not consider it of importance whether alit consists of pure Si02.3CaO or a crystalline compound of Si02.2CaO with 3a0 and an aluminate. He says the aluminate in Portland dement can­ not be Al 203.30a..., Erd- meyer, Nev/berry's, Zulkowski, Rebuff at, Meyers, Richardson, Michaelis and Meade• d. Work of the Carbegie Institute of Washington on CaO #Si0 2 series and binary compounds of Al 2°3> Si0 2, MgO, CaO. On the presence of free lime in cement...

Wright, Claude W.

1910-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Experimental and Numerical Studies of Aluminum-Alumina Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The preliminary goal of this study is to determine the effects of processing conditions, compositions and microstructural morphologies of the constituents on the physical and thermo-mechanical properties of alumina (Al_2O_3) reinforced aluminum (Al...

Gudlur, Pradeep

2013-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

63

Carbon dioxide pressure swing adsorption process using modified alumina adsorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A pressure swing adsorption process for absorbing CO.sub.2 from a gaseous mixture containing CO.sub.2 comprising introducing the gaseous mixture at a first pressure into a reactor containing a modified alumina adsorbent maintained at a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 500.degree. C. to adsorb CO.sub.2 to provide a CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent and a CO.sub.2 depleted gaseous mixture and contacting the CO.sub.2 laden adsorbent with a weakly adsorbing purge fluid at a second pressure which is lower than the first pressure to desorb CO.sub.2 from the CO.sub.2 laden alumina adsorbent. The modified alumina adsorbent which is formed by depositing a solution having a pH of 3.0 or more onto alumina and heating the alumina to a temperature ranging from 100.degree. C. and 600.degree. C., is not degraded by high concentrations of water under process operating conditions.

Gaffney, Thomas Richard (Allentown, PA); Golden, Timothy Christopher (Allentown, PA); Mayorga, Steven Gerard (Allentown, PA); Brzozowski, Jeffrey Richard (Bethlehem, PA); Taylor, Fred William (Allentown, PA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Validation of the new mixture design and testing protocol for lime stabilization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and testing protocol is presented for lime stabilized subgrades. Comparison of field test data and laboratory test data shows that laboratory design test properties were achieved in the field. These properties are used in a mechanistic analysis to assess...

Yusuf, Fateh Ul Anam Muhammad Shafee

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Evaluation of lime-fly ash stabilized bases and subgrades using static and dynamic deflection systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASFS AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis GARY W. RABA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1982 Major Subject: Civil Engineering EVALUATION OF LIME-FLY ASH STABILIZED BASES AND SUBGRADES USING STATIC AND DYNAMIC DEFLECTION SYSTEMS A Thesis by Gary Nl. Raba Approved as to style and content by: !Chairman...

Raba, Gary W.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

An introduction to LIME 1.0 and its use in coupling codes for multiphysics simulations.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

LIME is a small software package for creating multiphysics simulation codes. The name was formed as an acronym denoting 'Lightweight Integrating Multiphysics Environment for coupling codes.' LIME is intended to be especially useful when separate computer codes (which may be written in any standard computer language) already exist to solve different parts of a multiphysics problem. LIME provides the key high-level software (written in C++), a well defined approach (with example templates), and interface requirements to enable the assembly of multiple physics codes into a single coupled-multiphysics simulation code. In this report we introduce important software design characteristics of LIME, describe key components of a typical multiphysics application that might be created using LIME, and provide basic examples of its use - including the customized software that must be written by a user. We also describe the types of modifications that may be needed to individual physics codes in order for them to be incorporated into a LIME-based multiphysics application.

Belcourt, Noel; Pawlowski, Roger Patrick; Schmidt, Rodney Cannon; Hooper, Russell Warren

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Thermal and structural properties of a hemp–lime biocomposite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The need to reduce greenhouse gases emission produced by the building sector leads to the research of renewable and less impacting materials that can replace traditional ones. This subject has encouraged new researches on biocomposite concretes with the aim to exploit renewable resources like vegetal fibres intended as materials whose production processes are generally characterized by low costs and energy demand. This biocomposite is obviously much lighter than concrete and, therefore, can be suitably used in such cases where a structure cannot be overloaded, for instance in the realization of a green covering on top of a preexistent building. In this work, a first analysis of the thermal and structural behaviour of a biocomposite concrete, constituted by a mineral matrix (lime) with the addition of vegetal fibres (hemp), has been carried out, with particular attention to the amount of fibres and its granulometry in the mixture. The drying process contemplate a permanence of the material in a thermostatic chamber. The analysis carried out shows that hemp can be used both for the realization of insulation panel (hemp fibres alone) and as a construction material (hemp bast and concrete mix). This biocomposite has shown good insulation properties and some mechanical resistance. However, the results show that further analyses should be carried out on the drying process of the material, as it can greatly influences thermal and mechanical properties.

S. Benfratello; C. Capitano; G. Peri; G. Rizzo; G. Scaccianoce; G. Sorrentino

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Cryogenic infrared filter made of alumina for use at millimeter wavelength  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We propose a high-thermal-conductivity infrared filter using alumina for millimeter-wave detection systems. We constructed a prototype two-layer antireflection-coated alumina filter...

Inoue, Yuki; Matsumura, Tomotake; Hazumi, Masashi; Lee, Adrian T; Okamura, Takahiro; Suzuki, Aritoki; Tomaru, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminas zirconias joints Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

the case of zirconia, the alumina-zirconia composites present five of the characteris- tic peaks... of this paper is to give two examples of foreign phases detected in alumina....

70

Peltier heats in cryolite melts with alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Seebeck coefficient was measured for cells with electrolytes of molten mixtures of sodium fluoride and aluminum fluoride saturated with alumina. The electrodes were either a pair of oxygen electrodes or a pair of aluminum electrodes. For the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} equal to 1.8, 1.2 and 1.0, the authors obtained the Seebeck coefficients {minus}1.80 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 971 C, {minus}1.63 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 813.6 C and {minus}0.583 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 758 C, respectively, for the oxygen electrodes. For the aluminum electrodes, the authors obtained the Seebeck coefficient {minus}1.23 mV K{sup {minus}1} at 962 C, for the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} equal to 1.8. The results suggest that there is a substantial reversible heat consumption at the anode during aluminum electrolysis and a large reversible heat production at the cathode. The highest temperature in the Hall-Heroult cell is then closer to the cathode than the anode. The transported entropies of Al{sup 3+} and O{sup 2{minus}} were calculated to be 77 J mol{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1} and 10 J mol{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}, respectively, when the molar ratio NaF/AlF{sub 3} was equal to 1.0.

Flem, B.E.; Ratkje, S.K.; Sterten, A. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Factors contributing to the breakdown of sodium beta-alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Clarification of the breakdown process occurring during charge transfer in sodium beta alumina solid electrolytes was derived from: (1) studying the effects of molten sodium contact at 350/sup 0/C on single crystal sodium beta alumina and polycrystalline sodium beta alumina; (2) determination of critical current density by monitoring acoustic emissions accompanying crack growth in sodium/sodium beta alumina/sodium cells subjected to linear current ramping at 1 mA cm/sup -2/ sec/sup -1/; (3) failure analysis conducted on cycled electrolytes, some from commercial sodium/sulfur cells, which had been subjected to up to 703 Ahr cm/sup -2/ of charge transfer. Gray coloration developing in beta aluminas in contact with molten sodium was found to be a consequence of formation, through reduction by sodium, of oxygen vacancies charge compensated by electrons. Electronic conductivity of the electrolyte increases as a result. No second phase formation was detected. Colored electrolytes from sodium/sulfur cells show evidence of a newly recognized degradation mechanism in which fracture occurs when sodium is reduced and deposited internally under pressure as metal in regions where an electronic conductivity gradient exists. Heating colored beta aluminas in air produces reoxidation and bleaching. Kinetics and other properties of the coloration and bleaching processes were determined. Critical current density was found to bear an inverse relation to average electrolyte grain size. Evidence was found in the cycled electrolytes for a slow crack growth mechanism and a progressive mode of degradation advancing from the sulfur electrode interface. Implications of the findings for the construction and operation of sodium/sulfur battery systems are discussed.

Buechele, A.C.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Atomistic force field for alumina fit to density functional theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a force field for bulk alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}), which has been parametrized by fitting the energies, forces, and stresses of a large database of reference configurations to those calculated with density functional theory (DFT). We use a functional form that is simpler and computationally more efficient than some existing models of alumina parametrized by a similar technique. Nevertheless, we demonstrate an accuracy of our potential that is comparable to those existing models and to DFT. We present calculations of crystal structures and energies, elastic constants, phonon spectra, thermal expansion, and point defect formation energies.

Sarsam, Joanne [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom) [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thomas Young Centre, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Finnis, Michael W.; Tangney, Paul, E-mail: p.tangney@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom) [Department of Materials, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Thomas Young Centre, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

2013-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

73

Distribution of arsenic and mercury in lime spray dryer ash  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The partitioning of As and Hg in various components of lime spray dryer (LSD) ash samples from a coal-fired boiler was characterized to better understand the form and fate of these elements in flue gas desulfurization byproducts. LSD ash samples, collected from the McCracken Power Plant on the Ohio State University campus, were separated by a 140-mesh (106 {mu}m) sieve into two fractions: a fly-ash-/unburned-carbon-enriched fraction (> 106 {mu}m) and a calcium-enriched fraction (< 106 {mu}m). Unburned carbon and fly ash in the material > 106 {mu}m were subsequently separated by density using a lithium heteropolytungstate solution. The concentrations of As and Hg were significant in all fractions. The level of As was consistently greater in the calcium-enriched fraction, while Hg was evenly distributed in all components of LSD ash. Specific surface area was an important factor controlling the distribution of Hg in the different components of LSD ash, but not for As. Comparing the LSD ash data to samples collected from the economizer suggests that As was effectively captured by fly ash at 600{sup o}C, while Hg was not. Leaching tests demonstrated that As and Hg were more stable in the calcium-enriched fraction than in the fly-ash- or carbon-enriched fractions, potentially because of the greater pH of the leachate and subsequently greater stability of small amounts of calcium solids containing trace elements in these fractions. 37 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Panuwat Taerakul; Ping Sun; Danold W. Golightly; Harold W. Walker; Linda K. Weavers [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (United States). Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Geodetic Science

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

74

Effects of alternate fuels report No. 8: analysis of degradiation of magnesia-based refractory bricks from a residual oil-fired rotary cement kiln  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Residual oil was used as an alternate fuel to natural gas to supply heat in a rotary cement kiln. Principal impurities in the residual oil were Ca, Fe, Mg, Na, Ni, P.S. and V. the kiln operators were concerned about the effects of these oil impurities on observed degradation of the magnesia-based bricks used as a liner in the burning zone of the kiln. Two degraded bricks, which had been in service for six to nine months, were analyzed to determine the role of fuel impurities on the observed degradation. The maximum hot-face temperature of the refractory during service was about 1500/sup 0/C. One brick had decreased in thickness about 45%, the about 15%. Various analytical measurements on these samples failed to reveal the presence of fuel impurities at or near the hot face of the bricks, and therefore it is concluded that the relatively short service life of these refractories was not due to use of residual oil as the fuel in the kiln. The observed degradation, therefore, was attributed to other reactions and to thermal mechanical conditions in the kiln, which inevitably resulted in extensive erosion of the bricks.

Federer, J.I.; Tennery, V.J.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

A reclamation approach for mined prime farmland by adding organic wastes and lime to the subsoil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Surface mined prime farmland may be reclaimed by adding organic wastes and lime to subsoil thus improving conditions in root zone. In this study, sewage sludge, poultry manure, horse bedding, and lime were applied to subsoil (15-30 cm) during reclamation. Soil properties and plant growth were measured over two years. All organic amendments tended to lower the subsoil bulk density and increase organic matter and total nitrogen. Liming raised exchangeable calcium, slightly increased pH, but decreased exchangeable magnesium and potassium. Corn ear-leaf and forage tissue nitrogen, yields, and nitrogen removal increased in treatments amended with sewage sludge and poultry manure, but not horse bedding. Subsoil application of sewage sludge or poultry manure seems like a promising method in the reclamation of surface mined prime farmland based on the improvements observed in the root zone environment.

Zhai, Qiang; Barnhisel, R.I. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

76

Modeling and Characterization of Dynamic Failure of Soda-lime Glass Under High Speed Impact  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, the impact-induced dynamic failure of a soda-lime glass block is studied using an integrated experimental/analytical approach. The Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) technique is used to conduct dynamic failure test of soda-lime glass first. The damage growth patterns and stress histories are reported for various glass specimen designs. Making use of a continuum damage mechanics (CDM)-based constitutive model, the initial failure and subsequent stiffness reduction of glass are simulated and investigated. Explicit finite element analyses are used to simulate the glass specimen impact event. A maximum shear stress-based damage evolution law is used in describing the glass damage process under combined compression/shear loading. The impact test results are used to quantify the critical shear stress for the soda-lime glass under examination.

Liu, Wenning N.; Sun, Xin; Chen, Weinong W.; Templeton, Douglas W.

2012-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

77

Viscosity of alumina nanoparticles dispersed in car engine coolant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present paper, describes our experimental results on the viscosity of the nanofluid prepared by dispersing alumina nanoparticles (<50 nm) in commercial car coolant. The nanofluid prepared with calculated amount of oleic acid (surfactant) was tested to be stable for more than 80 days. The viscosity of the nanofluids is measured both as a function of alumina volume fraction and temperature between 10 and 50 C. While the pure base fluid display Newtonian behavior over the measured temperature, it transforms to a non-Newtonian fluid with addition of a small amount of alumina nanoparticles. Our results show that viscosity of the nanofluid increases with increasing nanoparticle concentration and decreases with increase in temperature. Most of the frequently used classical models severely under predict the measured viscosity. Volume fraction dependence of the nanofluid viscosity, however, is predicted fairly well on the basis of a recently reported theoretical model for nanofluids that takes into account the effect of Brownian motion of nanoparticles in the nanofluid. The temperature dependence of the viscosity of engine coolant based alumina nanofluids obeys the empirical correlation of the type: log ({mu}{sub nf}) = A exp(BT), proposed earlier by Namburu et al. (author)

Kole, Madhusree; Dey, T.K. [Thermophysical Measurements Laboratory, Cryogenic Engineering Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

2010-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

78

Synthesis and textural evolution of alumina particles with mesoporous structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alumina particles with mesostructures were synthesized through a chemical precipitation method by using different inorganic aluminum salts followed by a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation and calcination process. The obtained mesoporous {gamma}-alumina particles were systematically characterized by the X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and nitrogen adsorption-desorption measurement. Effects of the aluminum salt counter anion, pH value and the azeotropic distillation process on the structural or textural evolution of alumina particles were investigated. It is found that Cl{sup -} in the reaction solution can restrain the textural evolution of the resultant precipitates into two-dimensional crystallized pseudoboehmite lamellae during the heterogeneous azeotropic distillation, and then transformed into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles with mesostructures after further calcination at 1173 K, whereas coexisting SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} can promote above morphology evolution and then transformed into {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanofibers after calcination at 1173 K. Moreover nearly all materials retain relatively high specific surface areas larger than 100 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} even after calcinations at 1173 K. - Graphical abstract: Co-existing Cl{sup -} is beneficial for the formation of {gamma}-alumina nanoparticles with mesostructures during the precipitation process. Interparticle and intraparticle mesopores can be derived from acidic solution and near neutral solution, respectively.

Liu Xun [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Peng Tianyou, E-mail: typeng@whu.edu.c [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China); Yao Jinchun; Lv Hongjin; Huang Cheng [College of Chemistry and Molecular Science, Wuhan University, Wuhan 430072 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

79

Vitrification of High-Level Alumina Nuclear Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Borophosphate glass compositions have been developed for the vitrification of a high alumina calcined defense waste. The effect of substituting SiO2 and P2O5 for B2O3 on the viscosity and leach resistance was mea...

J. R. Brotzman

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Biocompatibility of atomic layer-deposited alumina thin films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. These results sug- gest that patterning a substrate with hydrophilic and hydro- phobic groups can control cell and excellent dielectric properties for bio- micro electro mechanical systems (Bio-MEMS) in sensors, actuators of atomic layer-deposited (ALD) alumina (Al2O3) and hydro- phobic coatings. While these coatings

George, Steven M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Evaluation of methods of mixing lime in bituminous paving mixtures in batch and drum plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

added directly to the asphalt cement wi 11, of course, significantly increase the effective viscosity of the resulting binder. When lime is added at a rate of 1. 5 percent by weight of total aggregate, it is equivalent to about 30 percent by weight... of asphalt cement. Figure 5 shows the effect of this increase in binder viscosity which caused a corresponding increase in air void content of Mixture LA (dry lime in asphalt cement). That is, when holding constant the compactive effort, compaction...

Button, Joseph Wade

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Predicting Classes in Need of Refactoring: An Application of Static Metrics Liming Zhao Jane Huffman Hayes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. In general, the following process is followed by a software team performing refactoring: Identify code1 Predicting Classes in Need of Refactoring: An Application of Static Metrics Liming Zhao Jane to predicting refactoring candidates. Using a selected set of static metrics and a weighted ranking method

Hayes, Jane E.

83

Combustion of high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes in a rotary kiln combustor with an advanced internal air distributor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fluid bed combustors have received extensive testing with both high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes. Rotary kilns are effective and popular devices for waste combustion. The Angelo Rotary Furnace{trademark} has been developed to improve the operation of rotary pyrolyzer/combustor systems through enhanced air distribution, which in this process is defined as staged, swirled combustion air injection. Fourteen of these new furnaces have been installed worldwide. Two units in Thailand, designed for rice hull feed with occasional lignite feed, have been recently started up. An older unit in Pennsylvania is being upgraded with a new, more advanced air distribution system for a series of tests this fall in which inexpensive high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes will be fired with limestone. The purposes of these tests are to determine the burning characteristics of these two fuels in this system, to discover the Ca/S ratios necessary for operation of a rotary kiln combusting these fuels, and to observe the gas-borne emissions from the furnace. An extensive preliminary design study will be performed on a commercial installation for combustion of anthracite wastes. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Cobb, J.T. Jr. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA)); Ahn, Y.K. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (USA)); Angelo, J.F. (Universal Energy International, Inc., Little Rock, AR (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Energetic valorization of SRF in dedicated plants and cement kilns and guidelines for application in Greece and Cyprus  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A debate is still open on issues of waste to energy methodologies aiming to answer to questions of particular relevance, such as whether the concept of SRF/RDF production can be applied directly to MSW through the Mechanical–Biological Treatment (MBT) process, when selective collection acts as a virtual pre-treatment of the same, or if the use of SRF/RDF as alternative fuel in cement kilns is the most sustainable solution. In this study, two scenarios were analyzed and compared: (a) the use of SRF in a new dedicated thermal plant for electricity production and (b) the use of SRF as an alternative fuel in an existing cement plant. The comparative assessment was based on principles of Sustainable Waste Management embracing technical and cost issues, environmental protection, industrial ecology and symbiosis. The application of SWOT analysis showed that the use of SRF in cement kilns is more sustainable compared to its use in a new dedicated plant for electricity production.

M.C. Samolada; A.A. Zabaniotou

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Direct utilization - recovery of minerals from coal fly ash. Fossil Energy Program. Technical progress report, 1 July 1984-30 September 1984 including summary of work for FY84  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research discussed in this report deals with resource recovery from coal conversion solid wastes. Progress is reported on two methods (the HiChlor and Lime-Sinter processes) for extracting metal values from power plant fly ash. Preliminary work is also reported on a method of making cement from the residue of the lime-sinter process. In the HiChlor Process, metal oxides in the fly ash are converted to volatile chlorides by reaction with chlorine in the presence of a reductant. Several versions of this approach are being investigated. The Lime-Sinter Process utilizes a solid state reaction to selectively convert the alumina in fly ash to a soluble form. Fly ash is mixed with limestone and a suitable mineralizer (to reduce the temperature required for sintering and to enhance alumina recovery) and then sintered in a high temperature kiln. Alumina is recovered by leaching the resulting clinker. A complex relationship between the calcium, alumina, silica, and sulfur constituents in the feed mixture controls the formation and extraction of aluminate compounds. Alumina recovery levels are enhanced by promoting the formation of less-soluble calcium compounds and/or more-soluble aluminum compounds. A study is underway to determine the degree to which flue gas scrubber sludge can be used both as a limestone substitute and as a sulfur bearing mineralizer. Results show that 20 to 25% of the limestone can be provided by the scrubber sludges. 25 refs.,25 figs., 10 tabs.

Burnet, G.; Murtha, M.J.; Benson, J.D.

1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Protective coating for alumina-silicon carbide whisker composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Ceramic composites formed of an alumina matrix reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers homogenously dispersed therein are provided with a protective coating for preventing fracture strength degradation of the composite by oxidation during exposure to high temperatures in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coating prevents oxidation of the silicon carbide whiskers within the matrix by sealing off the exterior of the matrix so as to prevent oxygen transport into the interior of the matrix. The coating is formed of mullite or mullite plus silicon oxide and alumina and is formed in place by heating the composite in air to a temperature greater than 1200.degree. C. This coating is less than about 100 microns thick and adequately protects the underlying composite from fracture strength degradation due to oxidation.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Organic removal from domestic wastewater by activated alumina adsorption  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the major groups of pollutants in wastewaters. Adsorption by granular activated carbon, a non-polar adsorbent, is now the primary treatment process for removal of residual organics from biologically treated wastewater. The ability of activated alumina..., which is a polar adsorbent, to remove total organic carbon (TOC) and some trace organics from domestic wastewater has been evaluated. Batch adsorption experiments were used to investigate the effect of pH and total dissolved solids on activated...

Yang, Pe-Der

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

88

Directional solidification of the alumina-zirconia ceramic eutectic system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is possible to produce alumina-zirconia ceramic samples through existing solidification techniques. The resulting microstructures typically consist of rods of zirconia in an alumina matrix, although a lamellar structure has been noted in some cases. In nearly all cases, colony growth was present which may possibly result from grain size, repeated nucleation events, and lamellar oscillations. In the same vein, it appears that the amount of impurities within the system might be the underlying cause for the colony growth. Colony growth was diminished through impurity control as the higher purity samples exhibited colony free behavior. In addition to colony formations, faceted alumina dendrites or nonfaceted zirconia dendrites may result in the ceramic if the sample is solidified out of the coupled zone. In all cases, for larger-sized Bridgman samples, a lower limit in the eutectic spacing was noted. The solidification model which includes the kinetic effect has been developed, although the effect appears to be negligible under present experimental conditions. A spacing limit might also occur due to the result of heat flow problems. Heat flow out of the ceramic is difficult to control, often causing radial and not axial growth. This behavior is exaggerated in the presence of impurities. Thus, higher purity powders should always be used. Higher purity samples, in addition to yielding a more microstructurally uniform ceramic, also showed increased directionality. In the future, the kinetic model needs to be examined in more detail, and further research needs to be accomplished in the area of molten ceramics. Once better system constants are in place, the kinetic model will give a better indication of the behavior in the alumina-zirconia system.

Boldt, C.

1994-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

89

Reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from a dry process preheater kiln with calciner through the use of the urea-based SNCR process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The post combustion reduction of NO{sub x} using urea has proven to be an effective method in controlling NO{sub x} from various combustion sources. Such a reduction process has been successfully demonstrated in a week-long test at Ash Grove`s dry process cement kiln system located in Seattle. This system is equipped with planetary coolers, a 5-stage preheater and an air-through-the-kiln calciner. Testing was done under ten different kiln/calciner operating conditions. Using three to four injectors, NO{sub x} was efficiently reduced from 350--600 lb per hour lb/ton of clinker to less than 100 lb per hour. This calculates to a NO{sub x} reduction of greater than 80% for most cases. Chemical utilization was greater than 50%. A high degree of mixing and a long residence time at an appropriate temperature present in the preheater tower contributed to these excellent results. An average ammonia slip was four ppm above a baseline level at a normalized stoichiometric ratio of 1. This demonstration confirms expectations that dry process cement kilns with 4+ preheater stages are an ideal application for the selective noncatalytic reduction of NO{sub x} with urea. NO{sub x} was efficiently and effectively reduced with minimal byproduct emissions and virtually no effect on plant operations.

Steuch, H.E. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States)] [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States); Hille, J.T. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States)] [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States); Sun, W.H. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Naperville, IL (United States)] [Nalco Fuel Tech, Naperville, IL (United States); Bisnett, M.J.; Kirk, D.W. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)] [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Comparison of the Structure and Porous Texture of Alumina Gels Synthesized by Different Methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Because of ultralow thermal conductivity, excellent catalytic activity, and better heat resistance than silica aerogel, alumina-based aerogel has drawn great interest as thermal insulators and catalysts. ...

A. C. Pierre; E. Elaloui; G. M. Pajonk

1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

91

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina inlay failure Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Robert O. - Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Collection: Materials Science 4 Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with...

92

Aluminous goethite in the bayer process and its impact on alumina recovery and settling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Aluminium substituted goethite present in the Bayer process is closely related to settling problem and reduction of alumina recovery. The finer particle size and larger… (more)

Wu, Fei

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

High vacuum indirectly-heated rotary kiln for the removal and recovery of mercury from air pollution control scrubber waste  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

SepraDyne corporation (Denton, TX, US) has conducted pilot-scale treatability studies of dewatered acid plant blowdown sludge generated by a copper smelter using its recently patented high temperature and high vacuum indirectly-heated rotary retort technology. This unique rotary kiln is capable of operating at internal temperatures up to 850 C with an internal pressure of 50 torr and eliminates the use of sweep gas to transport volatile substances out of the retort. By removing non-condensables such as oxygen and nitrogen at relatively low temperatures and coupling the process with a temperature ramp-up program and low temperature condensation, virtually all of the retort off-gases produced during processing can be condensed for recovery. The combination of rotation, heat and vacuum produce the ideal environment for the rapid volatilization of virtually all organic compounds, water and low-to-moderate boiling point metals such as arsenic, cadmium and mercury.

Hawk, G.G.; Aulbaugh, R.A. [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)] [Scientific Consulting Labs., Inc., Farmers Branch, TX (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

94

Viscosity of aqueous and cyanate ester suspensions containing alumina nanoparticles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The viscosities of both aqueous and cyanate ester monomer (BECy) based suspensions of alumina nanoparticle were studied. The applications for these suspensions are different: aqueous suspensions of alumina nanoparticles are used in the production of technical ceramics made by slip casting or tape casting, and the BECy based suspensions are being developed for use in an injection-type composite repair resin. In the case of aqueous suspensions, it is advantageous to achieve a high solids content with low viscosity in order to produce a high quality product. The addition of a dispersant is useful so that higher solids content suspensions can be used with lower viscosities. For BECy suspensions, the addition of nanoparticles to the BECy resin is expected to enhance the mechanical properties of the cured composite. The addition of saccharides to aqueous suspensions leads to viscosity reduction. Through DSC measurements it was found that the saccharide molecules formed a solution with water and this resulted in lowering the melting temperature of the free water according to classic freezing point depression. Saccharides also lowered the melting temperature of the bound water, but this followed a different rule. The shear thinning and melting behaviors of the suspensions were used to develop a model based on fractal-type agglomeration. It is believed that the structure of the particle flocs in these suspensions changes with the addition of saccharides which leads to the resultant viscosity decrease. The viscosity of the BECy suspensions increased with solids content, and the viscosity increase was greater than predicted by the classical Einstein equation for dilute suspensions. Instead, the Mooney equation fits the viscosity behavior well from 0-20 vol% solids. The viscosity reduction achieved at high particle loadings by the addition of benzoic acid was also investigated by NMR. It appears that the benzoic acid interacts with the surface of the alumina particle which may be the cause of the viscosity reduction. The flow behavior of alumina particles in water and BECy is markedly different. Aqueous alumina suspensions are shear thinning at all alumina loadings and capable of 50 vol% loading before losing fluidity whereas BECy/alumina suspensions show Newtonian behavior up to 5 vol%, and above 5 vol% show shear thinning at all shear rates. Highly loaded suspensions (i.e. 20vol% alumina) exhibit shear thinning at low and moderate shear rates and shear thickening at higher shear rates. The maximum particle loading for a fluid suspension, in this case, appears to be about 20 vol%. The difference in the viscosity of these suspensions must be related to the solvent-particle interactions for each system. The reason is not exactly known, but there are some notable differences between BECy and water. Water molecules are {approx}0.28 nm in length and highly hydrogen bonded with a low viscosity (1 mPa's) whereas in the cyanate ester (BECy) system, the solvent molecule is about 1.2 nm, in the largest dimension, with surfaces of varied charge distribution throughout the molecule. The viscosity of the monomer is also reasonably low for organic polymer precursor, about 7 mPa's. Nanoparticles in water tend to agglomerate and form flocs which are broken with the shear force applied during viscosity measurement. The particle-particle interaction is very important in this system. In BECy, the particles appear to be well dispersed and not as interactive. The solvent-particle interaction appears to be most important. It is not known exactly how the alumina particles interact with the monomer, but NMR suggests hydrogen bonding. These hydrogen bonds between the particle and monomer could very well affect the viscosity. A conclusion that can be reached in this work is that the presence of hydroxyl groups on the surface of the alumina particles is significant and seems to affect the interactions between other particles and the solvent. Thus, the hydrogen bonding between particles, particle/additive and/or particle/solvent dictates the behavior of nanos

Lawler, Katherine

2009-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

95

Setting process of lime-based conservation mortars with barium hydroxide  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents the effect of barium hydroxide on the setting mechanism of lime-based conservation mortars, when used as an additive material. The study focuses on the monitoring of the setting process and the identification of the mineral phases formed, which are essential for furthering the study of the durability of barium mixtures against chemical degradation. X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermal analysis (DTA-TG) were used to monitor the setting processes of these mixtures and identify new phases formed. The results suggest that barium hydroxide is evenly distributed within the lime and produces a homogeneous binding material, consisting of calcite (CaCO{sub 3}), witherite (BaCO{sub 3}) and barium-calcium carbonate [BaCa(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}]. Finally, it was found that barium carbonate can be directly bonded to calcitic aggregates and therefore increases its chemical compatibility with the binding material.

Karatasios, Ioannis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece)]. E-mail: ikarat@ims.demokritos.gr; Kilikoglou, Vassilis [Institute of Materials Science, NCSR Demokritos, Aghia Paraskevi, 153 10 Athens (Greece); Colston, Belinda [Department of Forensic and Biomedical Sciences, University of Lincoln, Lincoln, LN6 7TS (United Kingdom); Theoulakis, Panagiotis [Department of Conservation of Antiquities and Works of Art, TEI of Athens, Athens, 122 10 (Greece); Watt, David [Hutton and Rostron Environmental Investigations Limited/Centre for Sustainable Heritage, University College London (United Kingdom)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

96

Silicon carbide whisker-zirconia reinforced mullite and alumina ceramics  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of SiC whisker-reinforced composites utilizing mullite or alumina as the matrix material for the composite are increased by the addition of zirconia in a monoclinic or tetragonal phase to the matrix. The zirconia addition also provides for a lower hot-pressing temperature and increases the flexural strength and/or fracture toughness of the SiC whisker-reinforced composites over SiC whisker-reinforced composites of the similar matrix materials reinforced with similar concentrations of SiC whiskers.

Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Method for thermal processing alumina-enriched spinel single crystals  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for age-hardening alumina-rich magnesium aluminum spinel to obtain the desired combination of characteristics of hardness, clarity, flexural strength and toughness comprises selection of the time-temperature pair for isothermal heating followed by quenching. The time-temperature pair is selected from the region wherein the precipitate groups have the characteristics sought. The single crystal spinel is isothermally heated and will, if heated long enough pass from its single phase through two pre-precipitates and two metastable precipitates to a stable secondary phase precipitate within the spinel matrix. Quenching is done slowly at first to avoid thermal shock, then rapidly. 12 figs.

Jantzen, C.M.

1995-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

98

Tetragonal structure model for boehmite-derived ?-alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

?-alumina (?-Al2O3) derived from boehmite has historically been described as having a cubic spinel structure with Fd3¯m symmetry, despite reports of tetragonal distortion in the structure. Based on neutron diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and magic angle spinning NMR data, we propose a tetragonal model for the structure of boehmite-derived ?-Al2O3 with I41/amd space group symmetry, a maximal subgroup of Fd3¯m. It is also demonstrated that an accurate average structural model cannot be achieved if the cations are restricted to spinel positions.

G. Paglia; C. E. Buckley; A. L. Rohl; B. A. Hunter; R. D. Hart; J. V. Hanna; L. T. Byrne

2003-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

99

Sorption and Diffusion of Simple Paraffins in Silica-Alumina Cracking Catalyst  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Paraffins in Silica-Alumina Cracking Catalyst R. M. Barrer T. Gabor Sorption and...propane in the silica-alumina cracking catalyst previously employed in similar measurements...behaviour in the micropore structure of the catalyst, for the species studied. The ratio...

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Microwave sintering of pure and doped nanocrystalline alumina compacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A single-mode cavity microwave furnace, operating in the TE{sub 103} mode at 2.45 GHz is being used to investigate sintering of pure and doped nanocrystalline alumina. The purpose of these experiments is to determine the effect of additives on the sintering process in the nanocrystalline regime. Using the sol-gel method, high purity Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystalline powders were synthesized. These powders were calcined at 700 C and then CIP`ed to 414 MPa, producing 0.4 in. diameter, 0.25 in. high cylindrical compacts. The compacts were heated in the microwave furnace to temperatures between 1,100 C to approximately 1,800 C and were then brought back to room temperature using a triangular heating profile of about 30 minutes duration. A two-color IR pyrometer was used to monitor the surface temperature of the workpiece. The additives tested in this work lowered the temperature needed for densification but this effect was offset by increased grain growth. Initial grain growth from <5 nm to {approximately}50 nm was closely correlated with the {gamma} to {alpha}-alumina phase transition.

Bruce, R.W. [SFA, Inc., Largo, MD (United States); Fliflet, A.W.; Lewis, D. III; Rayne, R.J.; Bender, B.A.; Chow, G.M.; Schoen, P.E. [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States); Kurihara, L.K. [Georgetown Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from cement kiln/calciner through the use of the NO{sub x}OUT process  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The post combustion reduction of NO{sub x} using urea has proven to be an effective method in controlling NO{sub x} from various combustion sources. This process, a selective non-catalytic reduction process known as NO{sub x}OUT, has been successfully demonstrated in a cement kiln/calciner operated by Ash Grove Cement. Testing was done under ten different kiln/calciner operating conditions. Using three to four injectors, NO{sub x} was efficiently reduced from 350--600 pounds per hour (3.5--6.0 lb/ton of clinker) to less than 100 pounds per hour (1.0 lb/ton of clinker). This calculates to a NO{sub x} reduction of > 80% for most cases. Chemical utilization was greater than 50%. A high degree of mixing and a long residence time at an appropriate temperature present in the preheater tower contributed to these excellent results. An average ammonia slip was four ppm above a baseline level at normalized stoichiometric ratio of 1. Based on this demonstration, cement kiln/calciners have been identified as an ideal application for the NO{sub x}OUT Process. NO{sub x} was efficiently and effectively reduced with minimal byproduct emissions and virtually no effect on plant operations.

Sun, W.H. [Nalco Fuel Tech., Naperville, IL (United States); Bisnett, M.J.; Kirk, D.W. [Nalco Fuel Tech, Santa Fe Springs, CA (United States); Steuch, H.E. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Portland, OR (United States); Hille, J. [Ash Grove Cement Co., Seattle, WA (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

102

A study of the rate of gain of strength in lime stabilized soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

0 37 ~ o ~ 4'7 APPEEDIX C. Electron Nicrographs . . . . . . . . . . . 75 LIST OF TABLES Table Page i. Cation-Exchange Capacity of Clay Minerals 15 2. Results of pH Test on Lime Treate Clay a o o o o o 3. X-Ray Diffraction Data 4.... Fractionation of Clay Soil. 5. Exchangeable Catians of College S t at i on Clay . 6. Electron Micrographs. 7. Comparison of Atterberg Limits. 22 38 8. Compaction Data . 9. Sample Calculations for Method of 10. Triaxial Compression T'est Results 11o...

Nichols, Sterling Ramsdell, Jr

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

103

The wetting behavior of NiAl and NiPtAl on polycrystalline alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to understand the beneficial effect of Pt on the adherence of thermally grown alumina scales, sessile drop experiments were performed to study the wetting of poly-crystalline alumina by nickel-aluminum alloys with or without platinum addition where the amount of Pt ranged from 2.4 to 10 at.%. Subsequent interfacial structure was evaluated using atomic force microscopy. Platinum addition enhances the wettability of NiAl alloys on alumina, reduces the oxide/alloy interface energy and increases the interfacial mass transport rates.

Saiz, Eduardo; Gauffier, Antoine; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Hou, Peggy Y.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

High-temperature oxidation of an alumina-coated Ni-base alloy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Alumina coatings were applied to Ni-20Cr (wt%) using combustion chemical vapor deposition (combustion CVD). Combustion CVD is an open air deposition technique performed in a flame. The oxidation kinetics of coated and uncoated specimens were measured by isothermal oxidation tests carried out in pure flowing air at temperatures of 800, 900, 1,000 and 1,100 C. The alumina coatings reduced the oxidation kinetics at all temperatures. The morphologies and compositions of the alumina coatings were characterized by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

Hendrick, M.R.; Hampikian, J.M.; Carter, W.B.

1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Computational Design of Ferritic-Alumina-Strengthened Alloys  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

304-285-4721 robert.romanosky@netl.doe.gov Patricia a. Rawls Project Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory 626 Cochrans Mill Road P.O. Box 10940 Pittsburgh, PA 15236-0940 412-386-5882 patricia.rawls@netl.doe.gov Peter K. Liaw (Principal Investigator), chain t. Liu University of Tennessee - Knoxville 427-B Dougherty Engineering Building Department of Materials Science & Engineering Knoxville, TN 37996-2200 865-974-6356, 865-974-5567 pliaw@utk.edu, liuct@ornl.gov Computational Design of ferritiC- alumina-strengtheneD alloys Description Innovative, high-temperature, corrosion-resistant materials are critical to improving efficiency and lowering emissions of advanced turbine power generation systems - key elements in the development of new coal-based energy systems. Through its

106

Reactive Spreading of a Lead-Free Solder on Alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The wetting of Sn3Ag-based alloys on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has been studied using the sessile-drop configuration. Small additions of Ti decrease the contact angle of Sn3Ag alloys on alumina from 115 to 23 degrees. Adsorption of Ti-species at the solid-liquid interface prior to reaction is the driving force for the observed decrease in contact angle, and the spreading kinetics is controlled by the kinetics of Ti dissolution into the molten alloy. The addition of Ti increases the transport rates at the solid-liquid interface, resulting in the formation of triple-line ridges that pin the liquid front and promote a wide variability in the final contact angles.

Gremillard, L.; Saiz, E.; Radmilovic, V.R.; Tomsia, A.P.

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Carbothermal reduction of alumina: Thermochemical equilibrium calculations and experimental investigation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The production of aluminum by the electrolytic Hall–Héroult process suffers from high energy requirements, the release of perfluorocarbons, and vast greenhouse gas emissions. The alternative carbothermic reduction of alumina, while significantly less energy-intensive, is complicated by the formation of aluminum carbide and oxycarbides. In the present work, the formation of Al, as well as Al2OC, Al4O4C, and Al4C3 was proven by experiments on mixtures of Al2O3 and activated carbon in an Ar atmosphere submitted to heat pulses by an induction furnace. Thermochemical equilibrium calculations indicate that the Al2O3-reduction using carbon as reducing agent is favored in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen. The temperature threshold for the onset of aluminum production is lowered, the formation of Al4C3 is decreased, and the yield of aluminum is improved. Significant further enhancement in the carbothermic reduction of Al2O3 is predicted by using CH4 as the reducing agent, again in the presence of limited amounts of oxygen. In this case, an important by-product is syngas, with a H2/CO molar ratio of about 2, suitable for methanol or Fischer–Tropsch syntheses. Under appropriate temperature and stoichiometry of reactants, the process can be designed to be thermo-neutral. Using alumina, methane, and oxygen as reagents, the co-production of aluminum with syngas, to be converted to methanol, predicts fuel savings of about 68% and CO2 emission avoidance of about 91%, vis-à-vis the conventional production of Al by electrolysis and of methanol by steam reforming of CH4. When using carbon (such as coke or petcoke) as reducing agent, fuel savings of 66% and CO2 emission avoidance of 15% are predicted. Preliminary evaluation for the proposed process indicates favorable economics, and the required high temperatures process heat is readily attainable using concentrated solar energy.

M. Halmann; A. Frei; A. Steinfeld

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Effective parameters in axial injection suspension plasma spray process of alumina-zirconia ceramics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effective parameters in axial injection suspension plasma spray process of alumina- zirconia phases using extra small particles as compared to conventional thermal spraying. Suspension spraying% yittria stabilized zirconia was deposited by axial injection SPS process. The effects of principal

Medraj, Mamoun

109

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on-polyethylene bearing surfaces Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: alumina-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >>...

110

Ammoniated silica-alumina gel and catalyst containing the same and processes for producing same  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This invention relates to hydrothermally treated silica-alumina cogels resulting in a reduction in the NH/sub 4/ content of the gel and the employment of such gels as cracking catalysts.

Alafandi, H.; Stamires, D.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

111

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-zirconia ceramic eutectic Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(2,3), such as Zyttritp (yttria stabilized zirconia), alumina-zirconia... OF A1,0,-Tic CERAMIC BODIES BY THE ALKOXIDE PROCESS M. HOCH Department of Materials Science......

112

Effect of catalyst structure on oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane and propane on alumina-supported vanadia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

catalysts: (a) ethane ODH, (b) propane ODH (663 K, 14 kPa CDehydrogenation of Ethane and Propane on Alumina-Supporteddehydrogenation of ethane and propane. UV-visible and Raman

Argyle, Morris D.; Chen, Kaidong; Bell, Alexis T.; Iglesia, Enrique

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

The role of alumina on performance of alkali-activated slag paste exposed to 50 °C  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The strength and microstructural evolution of two alkali-activated slags, with distinct alumina content, exposed to 50 °C have been investigated. These two slags are ground-granulated blast furnace slag (containing 13% (wt.) alumina) and phosphorous slag (containing 3% (wt.) alumina). They were hydrated in the presence of a combination of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution at different ratios. The microstructure of the resultant slag pastes was assessed by X-ray diffraction, differential thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The results obtained from these techniques reveal the presence of hexagonal hydrates: CAH{sub 10} and C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} in all alkali-activated ground-granulated blast-furnace slag pastes (AAGBS). These hydrates are not observed in pastes formed by alkali-activated ground phosphorous slag (AAGPS). Upon exposure to 50 °C, the aforementioned hydration products of AAGBS pastes convert to C{sub 3}AH{sub 6}, leading to a rapid deterioration in the strength of the paste. In contrast, no strength loss was detected in AAGPS pastes following exposure to 50 °C. -- Highlights: •Strength of alkali-activated slag (AAS) pastes after exposure to 50 °C is studied. •AAS pastes with high alumina content lose strength after the exposure. •C{sub 4}AH{sub 13} and CAH{sub 10} form in these AAS pastes. •Conversion of these calcium alumina hydrates is associated with the strength loss. •AAS pastes with low alumina content maintain its strength after the exposure.

Jambunathan, N. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)] [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Sanjayan, J.G. [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria (Australia)] [Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Sciences, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria (Australia); Pan, Z., E-mail: zhu.pan@monash.edu [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Li, G. [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia)] [School of Mechanical and Chemical Engineering, The University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Liu, Y. [School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)] [School of Geosciences and Info-Physics, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Korayem, A.H.; Duan, W.H.; Collins, F. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)] [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

114

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lime Institute. 2001. Energy Efficiency Opportunity Guide inIndustry, Office of Energy Efficiency, Natural Resourcesof a Cement Kiln, Energy Efficiency Demonstration Scheme,

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

An investigation of the use of lime as a soil additive to modify the detrimental effects of frost action  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

chosen from those availabls in the Soil Mechanics Laboratory of A and M College of Texas. A local silty brown CL clay and a sandy gray' CH olay from Corpus Christi were chosen because past experience indicated them to bs bsnefitted by lime...

Earnest, Clyde Talley

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Sulfur-Emission-Free Process of Molybdenum Carbide Synthesis by Lime-Enhanced Molybdenum Disulfide Reduction with Methane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur-Emission-Free Process of Molybdenum Carbide Synthesis by Lime-Enhanced Molybdenum Disulfide Reduction with Methane ... Molybdenite (MoS2) concentrate is the major mineral for molybdenum extraction. ... This understanding is critical for practical application of this reaction to produce Mo2C in an economic and green process. ...

Samad Ghasemi; Mohammad Hasan Abbasi; Ali Saidi; Jae Yul Kim; Jae Sung Lee

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

117

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Partially Sulfated Lime-Fly Ash Sorbents Activated by Water or Steam for SO2 Removal at a Medium Temperature ... The low utilization of calcium-based sorbent is caused by the formation of calcium sulfite or sulfate, which have larger molar volumes than CaO or Ca(OH)2. ... ignition?loss ...

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu

2005-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

118

Effect of polymer molecular weight on the absorption of polyacrylic acid at the alumina-water interface  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absorption and electrokinetic characteristics of alumina suspensions in the presence of polyacrylic acid as a dispersant have been studied. The adsorption isotherms exhibit high-affinity Langmuirian behaviour. The adsorption density decreases with increasing in pH, while it increases with increasing molecular weight of the polymer. Electrokinetic studies indicate specific adsorption at and above the isoelectric point of the alumina sample. Possible mechanisms of interaction between alumina and polyacrylic acid are discussed.

D. Santhiya; G. Nandini; S. Subramanian; K.A. Natarajan; S.G. Malghan

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Densification of nanosized alumina powders by hot isostatic pressing (HIP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The densification of nanosized alumina powders to compacts of nearly theoretical density by Hot Isostatic Pressing was the aim of this work. Three types of powders produced by the so called exploding wire technique in the mesh size between 20 to 80 nm were used. Because of the big internal friction during dry pressing the densities achieved were only in the range of about 30% TD. Therefore it was necessary to use a second post densification step by cold isostatic pressing (CIP). With pressures as high as 750 MPa the authors received a density of 58% TD. The pellets were sealed in capsules of stainless steel which were densified at different temperatures between 900 C and 1,350 C with pressures between 120 and 300 MPa. The resulting compacts were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The resulting phases were determined by X-ray diffraction. Grain size measurement at the as fabricated compacts was a decisive criterion for the success of the experiments.

Weimar, P.; Knitter, R.; Szabo, D.V. [Forschungszentrum, Karlsruhe (Germany); Krauss, W.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

120

JOURNAL OF SOLID STATE CHEMISTRY 65, 231-240 (1986) Synthesis of Di-and Trivalent /3"-Aluminas by Ion Exchange  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diffusion is rapid within these quasi- two-dimensional regions, but many orders of magnitude slower between-, and trivalent cations in the periodic chart diffuse rapidly in the p"-alumina structure. /3"-Aluminas containing

Rohrer, Gregory S.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Responsiveness of electric resistance of polymer-grafted carbon black/alumina gel composite against solvent vapor and solute in solution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The carbon black/alumina gel composites were prepared by sol-gel reaction of aluminum isopropoxide in the presence of polymer-grafted carbon black. The electric resistance of the alumina gel composite from polyme...

Norio Tsubokawa; Junya Inaba; Katsunori Arai; Kazuhiro Fujiki

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Flocculation-dispersion characteristics of alumina using a wide molecular weight range of polyacrylic acids  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of polymer molecular weight on the flocculation/dispersion behavior of a model colloidal system consisting of alumina and polyacrylic acid (PAA) were investigated. Low molecular weight polymers, traditionally used as dispersants were discovered to flocculate alumina at ultra low concentrations. For molecular weights ranging from 2000 to 50?000 g mol?1, distinct concentration ranges were found to exist in which the polymer behaved as a flocculant and above which it behaved as a dispersant. With increasing molecular weight, the number of polymer molecules required to achieve a benchmark flocculation (80% flocculation) decreased down to the molecular weight of 250?000 g mol?1 PAA. Above this size, there was no significant advantage of increasing the molecular weight. It was observed that regardless of the sign of the zeta potential, flocculation of alumina could be obtained with PAA suggesting that in addition to electrostatics, other forces such as bridging by hydrogen bonding are also responsible for the flocculation.

Kalyan K. Das; P. Somasundaran

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Study by IR-spectroscopy and adsorption of platinum-alumina catalysts modified by manganese  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Additions of Re are widely employed for modifying platinum-alumina catalysts (PAC). The effect of Mn on the catalysis of and the physicochemical properties of PAC has been less studied. It is only known that adding <0.2 wt. % Mn has no effect on the dispersity of the Pt crystallites. In this work the authors have studied the state of Pt in unmodified PAC by IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and by the adsorption of H/sub 2/ at elevated temperatures. The state of the metallic platinum in platinum-alumina catalysts modified by Mn is more heterogeneous than in the unmodified sample. When manganese is added, platinum crystallites with stronger electron-donor properties form on the surface of the catalyst. In platinum-alumina catalysts modified by manganese, there is an increase in the number of sites for the high-temperature dissociative adsorption of hydrogen located on the surface of the Mn-modified carrier.

Zaitsev, A.V.; Barkova, A.P.; Borovkov, B.Yu.; Sterligov, O.D.; Isagulyants, G.V.; Kazanskii, V.B.

1987-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

124

The effect of competition by chloride and sulfate anions on the adsorption of arsenate ion onto activated alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for adsorption sites on the activated alumina. The results of this study showed that the presence of 15 meq/L chloride anion depresses the ability of the arsenate to be adsorbed by F-1 activated alumina initial liquid phase arsenate ion concentration of 5 mg...

Janis, Patrick John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

125

Crack-Size Effects on Cyclic and Monotonic Crack Growth in Polycrystalline Alumina: Quantification of the Role of Grain Bridging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-prediction methodologies, it is necessary in many materials that the subcritical crack-growth and toughness propertiesCrack-Size Effects on Cyclic and Monotonic Crack Growth in Polycrystalline Alumina: Quantification propagation has been quantitatively examined in a 99.5% pure alumina. Fatigue-crack growth properties for both

Ritchie, Robert

126

Mineral phases of green liquor dregs, slaker grits, lime mud and wood ash of a Kraft pulp and paper mill  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four residues generated in a Kraft, pulp and paper plant, were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFA), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimmetric analysis (TG) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). A quantitative phase composition model, that accounts for the observed data and for the physico-chemical conditions of formation, was postulated for each material. Emphasis was given on the identification of the mineral components of each material. The green liquor dregs and the lime mud contain Calcite and Gipsite. The slaker grits contains Calcite, Portlandite, Pirssonite, Larnite and Brucite. The Calcite phase, present in the dregs and in the lime mud, has small amounts of magnesium replacing calcium. The wood ash contains Quartz as the major crystalline mineral phase.

Fernanda Machado Martins; Joaniel Munhoz Martins; Luiz Carlos Ferracin; Carlos Jorge da Cunha

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Alumina reinforced tetragonal zirconia (TZP) composites. Final technical report, July 1, 1993--December 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This final technical report summarizes the significant research results obtained during the period July 1, 1993 through December 31, 1996 in the DOE-supported research project entitled, {open_quotes}Alumina Reinforced Tetragonal Zirconia (TZP) Composites{close_quotes}. The objective of the research was to develop high-strength and high-toughness ceramic composites by combining mechanisms of platelet, whisker or fiber reinforcement with transformation toughening. The approach used included reinforcement of Celia- or yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Ce-TZP or Y-TZP) with particulates, platelets, or continuous filaments of alumina.

Shetty, D.K.

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Micro Catalytic Combustor with Pd/Nano-porous Alumina for High-Temperature Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, the mixture temperature at the combustor inlet is set to 630 o C. Thermal conductivity of the ceramic wall Keywords: Catalytic combustion, Pd/nano-porous alumina, Ceramic tape casting, Thermophotovoltaic Abstract: A micro-scale catalytic combustor using high-precision ceramic tape-casting technology has been developed

Kasagi, Nobuhide

129

Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Texture and porosity effects on the thermal radiative behavior of alumina ceramics. O. Rozenbaum1 for the comprehension of the ceramics thermal properties. Keywords: ceramics, texture, emissivity spectra, infrared (2009) 580-590" DOI : 10.1007/s10765-008-0510-1 #12;2 Abstract Thermal and optical properties

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

130

STRESS-DENSITY VARIATIONS IN ALUMINA SEDIMENTS: EFFECTS OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

151 STRESS-DENSITY VARIATIONS IN ALUMINA SEDIMENTS: EFFECTS OF POLYMER CHEMISTRY C. H. SCHILLING present a novel approach for analyzing sediments by gamma-ray densitometry 1 and a fluid mechanics model.g., rheometry, sedimentation kinetics modeling, soil mechanics tests), especially for the low stresses (

Aksay, Ilhan A.

131

Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin-Film Interdigital Varactors on Alumina: Design, Fabrication, Characterization, and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST) Thin-Film Interdigital Varactors on Alumina: Design, Raleigh, NC-27695-7914, USA. Email:jayeshnath@ieee.org Abstract -- Discrete Barium Strontium Titanate (BST, capacitors, BST, ferroelectric, thin-film, barium strontium titanate, bandpass filter, IP3, ACPR, temperature

132

Advanced Materials for Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries: Status, Challenges and Perspectives  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The increasing penetration of renewable energy and the trend toward clean, efficient transportation have spurred growing interests in sodium-beta alumina batteries that store electrical energy via sodium ion transport across a ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte at elevated temperatures (typically 300~350°C). Currently, the negative electrode or anode is metallic sodium in molten state during battery operation; the positive electrode or cathode can be molten sulfur (Na-S battery) or solid transition metal halides plus a liquid phase secondary electrolyte (e.g., ZEBRA battery). Since the groundbreaking works in the sodium-beta alumina batteries a few decades ago, encouraging progress has been achieved in improving battery performance, along with cost reduction. However there remain issues that hinder broad applications and market penetration of the technologies. To better the Na-beta alumina technologies require further advancement in materials along with component and system design and engineering. This paper offers a comprehensive review on materials of electrodes and electrolytes for the Na-beta alumina batteries and discusses the challenges ahead for further technology improvement.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Xia, Guanguang; Lemmon, John P.; Yang, Zhenguo

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Adsorption of carbonyl sulfide from liquid hydrocarbons with activated alumina and other adsorbents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contamination of Liquid hydrocarbon streams with carbonyl sulfide (COS) is not desirable; particularly in propylene. COS may poison the down stream polymerization catalyst. Thus, it is usually required to reduce the COS concentration to an extremely low level, e.g. 1 ppm or less, for polymer grade propylene. Many technologies generally available for sulfur removal, such as scrubbing and distillation are not applicable to the removal of COS from propylene. The former is not suitable for a low level removal. With the boiling point of COS (-50{sup 0}C) very close to that of propylene (-48{sup 0}C) it is difficult to achieve a very efficient separation with distillation. Adsorption technology provides a very energy efficient process in addition to its ability of the low level removal. Adsorbents selected in this study include activated carbon, molecular sieves, zinc oxide and activated alumina. The results show that activated alumina is far superior in both adsorption capacity and rate. An adsorption mechanism with activated alumina is proposed. It is believed that adsorption of COS takes place simultaneously with the hydrolysis of COS on the alumina surface. Adsorption isotherms of COS up to 100 ppm and the effect of moisture content are also addressed in this study.

Liu, P.K.T. (Alcoa Separations Technology Div., Aluminum Co. of America, Warrendale, PA (US))

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Tubular alumina formed by anodization in the meniscal region S. K. Lazarouk,1,a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tubular alumina formed by anodization in the meniscal region S. K. Lazarouk,1,a D. A. Sasinovich,1 by anodization of aluminum at current densities up to 1400 mA/cm2 and anodization rates up to 70 m/min has been developed. It implies anodization in the meniscal region of the sample dipping into an electrolyte

135

Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Development of low dielectric constant alumina-based ceramics for microelectronic substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The performance of high speed computers depends not only on IC chips, but also on the signal propagation speed between these chips. The signal propagation delay in a computer is determined by the dielectric constant of the substrate material to which the IC chips are attached. In this study, a ceramic substrate with a low dielectric constant (k {approx} 5.0) has been developed. When compared with the traditional alumina substrate (k {approx} 10.0), the new material corresponds to a 37% decrease in the signal propagation delay. Glass hollow spheres are used to introduce porosity (k = 1.0) to the alumina matrix in a controlled manner. A surface coating technique via heterogeneous nucleation in aqueous solution has been used to improve the high temperature stability of these spheres. After sintering at 1,400 C, isolated spherical pores are uniformly distributed in the almost fully dense alumina matrix; negligible amounts of matrix defects can be seen. All pores are isolated from each other. Detailed analyses of the chemical composition find that the sintered sample consists of {alpha}-alumina, mullite and residual glass. Mullite is the chemical reaction product of alumina and the glass spheres. Residual glass exists because current firing conditions do not complete the mullitization reaction. The dielectric constant of the sintered sample is measured and then compared with the predicted value using Maxwell`s model. Mechanical strength is evaluated by a four-point bending test. Although the flexural strength decreases exponentially with porosity, samples with 34% porosity (k {approx} 5.0) still maintain adequate mechanical strength for the proper operation of a microelectronic substrate.

Wu, S.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States). Materials Science Div.]|[California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Mineral Engineering

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Effect of alumina nanoparticles in the fluid on heat transfer in double-pipe heat exchanger system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was performed to investigate the convective heat transfer coefficient of nanofluids made of several alumina ... transformer oil which flow through a double pipe heat exchanger system in the laminar flo...

Byung-Hee Chun; Hyun Uk Kang; Sung Hyun Kim

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION AND REACTION OF CO AND H2 ON ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

over Group VIII Metal Catalysts" J.T. Kummer and P.H.and Fischer- Iron Catalyst", to be published. P.R. Wentrek,on Alumina-supported Ruthenium Catalyst" to be published. M.

Low, Gordon Gongngai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Preparation and characterization of alumina?supported metal?carbonyl?derived model catalytic systems in UHV conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Active catalysts for metathesis of alkenes, hydrodesulfurization, and hydrogenation can be prepared by exposing a high?surface?area alumina support to molybdenum hexacarbonyl at room temperature. This strategy...

M. Kaltchev; W.T. Tysoe

140

Evidence of a barrier oxidation dependence on the interfacial magnetism in co/alumina based magnetic tunnel junctions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence on the interfacial magnetism in Co/alumina basedthe near-interfacial magnetism of Co electrodes in Co/of the interfacial magnetism on the chemical bonding between

Telling, N.D.; van der Laan, G.; Ladak, S.; Hicken, R.J.; Arenholz, E.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Structures and charging of alpha-alumina (0001)/water interfaces studies by sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy in the OH stretch region was employed to study structures of water/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) interfaces at different pH values. Observed spectra indicate that protonation and deprotonation of the alumina surface dominate at low and high pH, respectively, with the interface positively and negatively charged accordingly. The point of zero charge (p.z.c.) appears at pH {approx}6.3, which is close to the values obtained from streaming potential and second harmonic generation studies. It is significantly lower than the p.z.c. of alumina powder. The result can be understood from the pK values of protonation and deprotonation at the water/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (0001) interface. The p.z.c. of amorphous alumina was found to be similar to that of powder alumina.

Zhang, L.; Tian, C.; Waychunas, G.A.; Shen, Y.R.

2008-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

142

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Power Law Size-Distributed Heterogeneity Explains Colloid Retention on Soda Lime Glass in the Presence of Energy Barriers ... This is shown in Figure 1 under the condition of 80 nm heterodomains and 6 mM IS, where the ZOIs and the corresponding colloid–collector interaction force profiles as a function of minimum separation distance (H) are shown for the three colloid sizes examined in this study (blue = 0.25 ?m, green = 1.1 ?m, red = 1.95 ?m). ... Such work will determine whether representing retention via discrete heterogeneity yields a distinct but logical set of heterodomain representations among mineral surfaces predominant in groundwater aquifers. ...

Eddy Pazmino; Jacob Trauscht; Brittany Dame; William P. Johnson

2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

143

Characterization of Rio Blanco retort 1 water following treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory research was initiated to evaluate the chemical, physical, and toxicological characteristics of treated and untreated Rio Blanco oil shale retort water. Wet chemical analyses, metals analyses, MICROTOX assays and particle-size analysis were performed on the wastewater before and after treatment by lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The reverse osmosis system successfully removed dissolved solids and organics from the wastewater. Based on MICROTOX tests, the water was much less toxic after treatment by reverse osmosis. 8 refs., 7 figs., 8 tabs.

Kocornik, D.J.

1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

A comparison of ZnO films deposited on indium tin oxide and soda lime glass under identical conditions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

ZnO films have been grown via a vapour phase transport (VPT) on soda lime glass (SLG) and indium-tin oxide (ITO) coated glass. ZnO film on ITO had traces of Zn and C which gives them a dark appearance while that appears yellowish-white on SLG. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies confirm the traces of C in the form of C-O. The photoluminescence studies reveal a prominent green luminescence band for ZnO film on ITO.

Deka, Angshuman; Nanda, Karuna Kar [Materials Research Centre, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore - 560012 (India)

2013-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

145

Structural studies of alumina pillared hectorite using polyvinyl alcohol as a pillaring agent  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the clay's hydrated cations to be replaced with almost any desired cation by using simple ion exchange methods, allows for the preparation of pillared interlayered clays (PILC's). Homoionic exchange derivatives are readily achievable with simple... the pillaring precursor into A1203 pillars. The resulting alumina pillared clay (Al-PILC) is a stable microporous material with high specific surface area, although this porosity is mainly influenced by the method of preparation. 90 Occelli and Pinnavaia...

Kroenig, Andrea N

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

146

Alumina-Forming Austenitics: A New Class of Heat-Resistant Stainless Steels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A family of alumina (Al2O3)-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels is under development. These alloys offer the potential for significantly higher operating temperature and environmental durability than conventional chromia (Cr2O3)-forming stainless steels, without sacrificing other critical characteristics such as cost, creep resistance, and weldability. An overview of the alloy development approach and details of the oxidation and creep resistance properties achieved to date are presented.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Lu, Zhao Ping [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Liu, Chain T [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Hydrogen Selective Thin Palladium-Copper Composite Membranes on Alumina Supports  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin and defect-free Pd–Cu composite membranes with high hydrogen permeances and selectivities were prepared by electroless plating of palladium and copper on porous alumina supports with pore sizes of 5 and 100 nm coated with intermediate layers. The intermediate layers on the 100 nm supports were prepared by the deposition of boehmite sols of different particle sizes, and provided a graded, uniform substrate for the formation of defect-free, ultra-thin palladium composite layers. The dependence of hydrogen flux on pressure difference was studied to understand the dominant mechanism of hydrogen transport through a Pd–Cu composite membrane plated on an alumina support with a pore size of 5 nm. The order in hydrogen pressure was 0.98, and indicated that bulk diffusion through the Pd–Cu layer was fast and the overall process was limited by external mass-transfer or a surface process. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of the Pd–Cu composite membrane showed a uniform substrate created after depositing one intermediate layer on top of the alumina support and a dense Pd–Cu composite layer with no visible defects. Cross-sectional views of the membrane showed that the Pd–Cu composite layer had a top layer thickness of 160 nm (0.16 ?m), which is much thinner than previously reported.

Lim, Hankwon; Oyama, S. Ted

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

148

Al/Al2O3 Composite Coating Deposited by Flame Spraying for Marine Applications: Alumina Skeleton Enhances Anti-Corrosion and Wear Performances  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Here we report aluminum-alumina composite coatings fabricated by flame spraying for potential marine applications against both corrosion and wear. Microstructure examination suggested dense coating structures and...

Jing Huang; Yi Liu; Jianhui Yuan; Hua Li

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Growing Silver Nanoparticles on Porous Alumina Templates In Situ to Produce Improved SERS Substrates Benjamin Revard, Georgie Tech, IREP 2010 Fellow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the porous alumina templates and reduced by the tin according to the reaction Sn2+ + 2Ag1+ -> Sn4+ + 2Ag

Li, Mo

150

Effects of the maximum soil aggregates size and cyclic wetting-drying on the stiffness of a lime-treated clayey soil  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of treated soils, giving rise to changes in hydro-mechanical properties. This modification could be dependent in height) was covered by plastic film in order to prevent soil moisture changes. The soil stiffness #12;3 Introduction Lime stabilisation is a well-known technique in civil engineering applications

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

151

Kinetic studies of the water gas shift reaction on a sulfided cobalt/molybdena/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, the applicability of low temperature oxygen chemisorption (LTOC) to measure the specific surface area of several rare-earth oxides (La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Tb) and the kinetics of the water-gas shift reaction over a sulfided cobalt-molybdena-alumina (AMOCAT 1A) catalyst are investigated. The LTOC results indicate that oxygen is possibly adsorbed in the molecular form, O/sub 2//sup -/, as observed by others after heat treatment of these oxides in vacuum. Lanthana and ceria were found to have ratios of total surface area to LTOC similar to those of chromia and molybdena respectively, after a comparable pretreatment. Furthermore, ceria is deduced to exist as a monolayer on the alumina support at loadings below 12%. An additional hour of reduction after the 6 hours of reduction shows a significant increase in LTOC on lanthana, neodymia and terbia which may be due to phase changes exhibited by these polymorphic oxides. The kinetics of the water-gas shift reaction has been extensively studied on iron oxide (high temperature shift) and copper oxide (low temperature shift) based catalysts. This investigation establishes the kinetics over a sulfided cobalt-molybdena-alumina (AMOCAT 1A) catalyst in the medium temperature shift range, 250-300/sup 0/C. The catalyst was sulfided in-situ in a high pressure integrated Berty reactor system. Reaction rates were measured for different CO/H/sub 2/O feed ratios in the range 0.3-3.0, with and without CO/sub 2/ in the feed. The reaction was carried out at several pressures in the range 5-27 atm. and GHSV's in the range 4800-2400 hr/sup 1/.

Srivatsa, N.R.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Nearly equidistant single swift heavy ion impact sites through nanoporous alumina masks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A semi-ordered pattern of 70 MeV Ag single ion impact sites on a fused silica sample was achieved by irradiation through a free-standing 10 {mu}m through-pore ordered nanoporous alumina membrane. The membranes were fabricated by constant voltage anodization in oxalic acid with a two-step replication process. An apparatus and a method were developed to realize the alignment of the pores parallel to the ion beam. Measurements of the surface, by atomic force microscopy, confirm the presence of a semi-ordered pattern of single ion impact sites.

Cauchy, Xavier; Roorda, Sjoerd [Departement de Physique, Universite de Montreal, C.P. 6128, Succursale Centre-Ville, Montreal, Quebec, H3C 3J7 (Canada)

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

153

Optimization of Nd: YAG Laser Marking of Alumina Ceramic Using RSM And ANN  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The present research papers deals with the artificial neural network (ANN) and the response surface methodology (RSM) based mathematical modeling and also an optimization analysis on marking characteristics on alumina ceramic. The experiments have been planned and carried out based on Design of Experiment (DOE). It also analyses the influence of the major laser marking process parameters and the optimal combination of laser marking process parametric setting has been obtained. The output of the RSM optimal data is validated through experimentation and ANN predictive model. A good agreement is observed between the results based on ANN predictive model and actual experimental observations.

Peter, Josephine; Doloi, B.; Bhattacharyya, B. [Production Engineering Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata (India)

2011-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

154

Influence of preparation method on the characteristics of Alumina-Yttria catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Alumina-Yttria (1:1) was prepared from nitrate by coprecipitation with aqueous NH3 and urea. The structure, thermal stability and surface properties of the catalysts were determined by XRD, DTA, XPS and IR measurements. Method of precipitation does not affect the valence state of the component atoms and the samples were found to be amorphous. Morphological studies by SEM indicated a uniform nature for urea precipitated catalyst and the catalyst had low surface area. An acidity maximum was observed for catalyst precipitated with NH3. Catalyst prepared by urea precipitation showed more basicity and maximum activity for (+)-limonene oxide and 3-carene oxide isomerization.

J. Jayasree; C.S. Narayanan

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Alumina reduction by laser sustained plasma for aluminum-based renewable energy cycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A novel alumina (Al 2O3) reduction technique for a renewable energy cycling system based on aluminum is proposed. Al 2O3 powder was fed into laser-sustained plasma and thermally dissociated. The produced Al was expanded to supersonic speeds through a nozzle. From the Al and argon line distributions in the flow direction it was found that Al remained in the dissociated state. A water-cooled copper tube was inserted in the flow to collect Al. X-ray analysis indicated that elemental Al was observed on the surface of the tube. The maximum value of the estimated reduction efficiency was 5%.

Kimiya Komurasaki

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Alumina reinforced tetragonal zirconia (TZP) composites. [Annual report, February 16, 1994--February 15, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Objective is to develop high-strength and high-toughness ceramic composites by combining mechanisms of platelet, whisker or fiber reinforcement with transformation toughening. The approach being used includes reinforcement of ceria or yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (CE-TZP or Y-T-ZP) with platelets, whiskers or continuous filaments of alumina. Critical stresses for extension of filament-bridged matrix cracks were measured as a function of crack length in a model composite system, SiC (filament)-reinforced epoxy-alumina (matrix). The crack-length dependence of the crack extension stress at short crack lengths followed the prediction of a fracture-mechanics analysis that employed a new force-displacement law for the crack-bridging filaments developed in this study. At large crack lengths, the measured matrix-cracking stress was close to the prediction of the steady-state theory of Budiansky, Hutchinson and Evans. Optical fluorescence was employed to measure stresses in crack-bridging sapphire filaments and assess interfacial properties in a model sapphire-epoxy composite. Composites of yttria-partially-stabilized zirconia (Y-TZP) matrix dispersed with either single crystal A1{sub 2}0{sub 3} platelets or particulars were fabricated by a hybrid suspension/powder processing route to densities greater than 99.0% of theoretical. Both transformation toughening and platelet reinforcement contribute to the high fracture toughness of the A1{sub 2}0{sub 3} (platelet)-Y-TZP composites.

Shetty, D.K.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Reaction of aromatic compounds and coal-derived liquids with steam over alumina supported nickel catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this research program has been to explore and define the potential of steam reforming to produce light gases from coal-derived liquids. This was achieved through a study of the reaction of a model aromatic compound and of a coal-derived liquid with steam over an alumina supported nickel catalyst. The reaction of steam with benzene and SRC-II liquids over an alumina supported nickel-catalyst has been investigated in a plug flow reactor. The primary process variables investigated were reactor pressure and temperature, contact time, and steam/carbon ratio. A proposed reaction network was also developed to explain the data obtained in this study. The empirical rate equation for the benzene steam reforming reaction at 973 K, 300 psig, and a steam/carbon ratio of approximately 3 was r/sub C6H6/ = 1.92 x 10 TP/sub C6H6/. The activation energy was 88 KJ/mol, or 21 kcal/mol in the temperature range 748-973 K. A correlation was developed to predict product yields and hydrocarbon conversion over the range of process variables investigated. A second correlation was developed to predict the yields and conversion beyond the range of variables investigated.

Chen, I.E.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

A High Temperature Electrochemical Energy Storage System Based on Sodium Beta-Alumina Solid Electrolyte (Base)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes the work done during the period September 1, 2005 and March 31, 2008. Work was conducted in the following areas: (1) Fabrication of sodium beta{double_prime} alumina solid electrolyte (BASE) using a vapor phase process. (2) Mechanistic studies on the conversion of {alpha}-alumina + zirconia into beta{double_prime}-alumina + zirconia by the vapor phase process. (3) Characterization of BASE by X-ray diffraction, SEM, and conductivity measurements. (4) Design, construction and electrochemical testing of a symmetric cell containing BASE as the electrolyte and NaCl + ZnCl{sub 2} as the electrodes. (5) Design, construction, and electrochemical evaluation of Na/BASE/ZnCl{sub 2} electrochemical cells. (6) Stability studies in ZnCl{sub 2}, SnCl{sub 2}, and SnI{sub 4} (7) Design, assembly and testing of planar stacks. (8) Investigation of the effect of porous surface layers on BASE on cell resistance. The conventional process for the fabrication of sodium ion conducting beta{double_prime}-alumina involves calcination of {alpha}-alumina + Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} + LiNO{sub 3} at 1250 C, followed by sintering powder compacts in sealed containers (platinum or MgO) at {approx}1600 C. The novel vapor phase process involves first sintering a mixture of {alpha}-alumina + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) into a dense ceramic followed by exposure to soda vapor at {approx}1450 C to convert {alpha}-alumina into beta{double_prime}-alumina. The vapor phase process leads to a high strength BASE, which is also resistant to moisture attack, unlike BASE made by the conventional process. The PI is the lead inventor of the process. Discs and tubes of BASE were fabricated in the present work. In the conventional process, sintering of BASE is accomplished by a transient liquid phase mechanism wherein the liquid phase contains NaAlO{sub 2}. Some NaAlO{sub 2} continues to remain at grain boundaries; and is the root cause of its water sensitivity. In the vapor phase process, NaAlO{sub 2} is never formed. Conversion occurs by a coupled transport of Na{sup +} through BASE formed and of O{sup 2-} through YSZ to the reaction front. Transport to the reaction front is described in terms of a chemical diffusion coefficient of Na{sub 2}O. The conversion kinetics as a function of microstructure is under investigation. The mechanism of conversion is described in this report. A number of discs and tubes of BASE have been fabricated by the vapor phase process. The material was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), before and after conversion. Conductivity (which is almost exclusively due to sodium ion transport at the temperatures of interest) was measured. Conductivity was measured using sodium-sodium tests as well as by impedance spectroscopy. Various types of both planar and tubular electrochemical cells were assembled and tested. In some cases the objective was to determine if there was any interaction between the salt and BASE. The interaction of interest was mainly ion exchange (possible replacement of sodium ion by the salt cation). It was noted that Zn{sup 2+} did not replace Na+ over the conditions of interest. For this reason much of the work was conducted with ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode salt. In the case of Sn-based, Sn{sup 2+} did ion exchange, but Sn{sup 4+} did not. This suggests that Sn{sup 4+} salts are viable candidates. These results and implications are discussed in the report. Cells made with Na as the anode and ZnCl{sub 2} as the cathode were successfully charged/discharged numerous times. The key advantages of the batteries under investigation here over the Na-S batteries are: (1) Steel wool can be used in the cathode compartment unlike Na-S batteries which require expensive graphite. (2) Planar cells can be constructed in addition to tubular, allowing for greater design flexibility and integration with other devices such as planar SOFC. (3) Comparable or higher open circuit voltage (OCV) than the Na-S battery. (4) Wider operating temperature range and higher temper

Anil Virkar

2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

159

Method for preparing configured silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina ceramic articles  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A ceramic article of alumina reinforced with silicon carbide whiskers suitable for the fabrication into articles of complex geometry are provided by pressureless sintering and hot isostatic pressing steps. In accordance with the method of the invention a mixture of 5 to 10 vol. % silicon carbide whiskers 0.5 to 5 wt. % of a sintering aid such as yttria and the balance alumina powders is ball-milled and pressureless sintered in the desired configuration in the desired configuration an inert atmosphere at a temperature of about 1800.degree. C. to provide a self-supporting configured composite of a density of at least about 94% theoretical density. The composite is then hot isostatically pressed at a temperature and pressure adequate to provide configured articles of at least about 98% of theoretical density which is sufficient to provide the article with sufficient strength and fracture toughness for use in most structural applications such as gas turbine blades, cylinders, and other components of advanced heat engines.

Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Table 2 -Lime use and practices on Corn, major producing states, 2001 CO GA IL IN IA KS KY MI MN MO NE NY NC ND OH PA SD TX WI Area  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Table 2 - Lime use and practices on Corn, major producing states, 2001 CO GA IL IN IA KS KY MI MN.7 Table 2 - Lime use and practices on Corn, major producing states, 2000 CO IL IN IA KS KY MI MN MO NE NY use and practices on Corn, major producing states, 1999 CO IL IN IA KS KY MI MN MO NE NC OH SD TX WI

Kammen, Daniel M.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Materials Science and Engineering A252 (1998) 117132 Optimization of 316 stainless steel/alumina functionally graded  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Due to differences of thermal and mechanical prop- erties in ceramics and metals, residual stresses develop in regions near the ceramic/metal interfaces during fabrication and under thermal/alumina functionally graded material for reduction of damage induced by thermal residual stresses M. Grujicic *, H

Grujicic, Mica

162

Thermal cycling effect on the nanoparticle distribution and specific heat of a carbonate eutectic with alumina nanoparticles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The concentration of alumina nanoparticles in this material was measured using neutron activation analysis. The average specific heat of the uncycled material was found to be 1.37 J/g°C.The average specific heat of the thermally cycled material was between 1.7-2.1 J...

Shankar, Sandhya

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

163

Shape selective cracking ofn-octane and 2,2,4-trimethylpentane over an alumina-pillared clay  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mixture ofn-octane (nC8...) and 2, 2, 4-trimethylpentane (224-TMP) was cracked over an alumina-pillared montmorillonite (Al-PILC) acid catalyst as a means of characterising...8...remaining)/log (fraction of 224...

Christian Doblin; Joseph F. Mathews; Terence W. Turney

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Effects of preformed alumina scales on the behavior of FeCrAl alloys in simulated coal-gasifier atmospheres  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Iron-based mechanical alloys containing 3.2–6.6 Al, 16.0–24.7 Cr, 0.5 Ti, and 0.5 Y2O3 (mass%) were preoxidized in air at 1373 K for 10–180 min. Alumina scales were formed. Scales were isolated and examined in a ...

J. K. Richard Weber; M. G. Hocking

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper/Niobium/Copper Interlayers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fracture and Fatigue Behavior at Ambient and Elevated Temperatures of Alumina Bonded with Copper and Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 Interfacial fracture toughness and cyclic temperatures, and assessed in terms of interfacial chemistry and microstructure. The mean interfacial fracture

Ritchie, Robert

166

Effects of dispersion and support on adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina CO hydrogenation catalysts: (Technical progress report)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The continued investigation of dispersion and metal-support interactions and their effects upon the adsorption, activity/selectivity, and electronic properties of the metal in cobalt/alumina (and to a lesser extent on iron/alumina) catalysts is proposed. The objectives of this research are to determine the effects of surface structure and metal dispersion on the adsorption and catalytic properties of cobalt, and determine the effects of metal-support interactions, i.e., effects of decorating support species on metal crystallites and of direct electronic interactions between metal clusters and the support, on the adsoprtion, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt supported on alumina.

Bartholomew, C.H. Jr.

1986-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

167

Electrophoretic Mobility of Poly(acrylic acid)-Coated Alumina Particles  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of poly (acrylic acid) (PAA) adsorption on the electrokinetic behavior of alumina dispersions under high pH conditions was investigated as a function of polymer concentration and molecular weight as well as the presence, concentration and ion type of background electrolyte. Systems of this type are relevant to nuclear waste treatment, in which PAA is known to be an effective rheology modifier. The presence of all but the lowest molecular weight PAA studied (1800) led to decreases in dynamic electrophoretic mobility at low polymer concentrations, attributable to bridging flocculation, as verified by measurements of particle size distribution. Bridging effects increased with polymer molecular weight, and decreased with polymer concentration. Increases in background electrolyte concentration enhanced dynamic electrophoretic mobility as the polymer layers were compressed and bridging was reduced. Such enhancements were reduced as the cation was changed from Na+ to K+ to Cs+.

Bhosale, Prasad S.; Chun, Jaehun; Berg, John C.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

A New Concept in Dryer Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, lumber, fiberboard, gypsum board, crumb rubber, etc. In addition, such dryer types as Rotary Drum, Suspension, Flash, Through, Spray, Oven, Tray, Lime Kilns, etc., should be amenable to control utilizing this model. Moreover, it should apply to most thin...

Robinson, J. W.

169

Removal of oil from oil-in-saltwater emulsions by adsorption onto nano-alumina functionalized with petroleum vacuum residue  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Formation water from oilfields is one of the major environmental issues related to the oil industry. This research investigated oil adsorption onto nanoparticles of hydrophobic alumina and alumina nanoparticles functionalized with a petroleum vacuum residue (VR) at 2 and 4 wt% to reduce the amount of oil in oil–saltwater emulsions at different pH values (5, 7 and 9). The initial concentration of crude oil in water ranged from 100 to 500 mg/L. The change in oil concentration after adsorption was determined using a UV–vis spectrophotometer. The results indicated that all of the systems performed more effectively at a pH of 7 and using Al/4VR material. The oil adsorption was higher for neutral and acid systems compared with basic ones, and it was improved by increasing the amount of VR on the surface of the alumina. Additionally, the amount of NaCl adsorbed onto nanoparticles was estimated for different mixtures. The adsorption equilibrium and kinetics were evaluated using the Dubinin–Astakhov model, the Brunauer?Emmet?Teller model, and pseudo-first- and pseudo-second-order models, with a better fitting to the Brunauer?Emmet?Teller model and pseudo-second-order model.

Camilo A. Franco; Nashaat N. Nassar; Farid B. Cortés

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Effect of Lime-Induced Leaf Chlorosis on Ochratoxin A, trans-Resveratrol, and ?-Viniferin Production in Grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) Berries Infected by Aspergillus carbonarius  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chlorosis occurrence was evaluated by a visual rating scale at veraison, and the leaves from vines growing on the calcareous soil showed the typical yellowing, whereras those grown on the neutral soil were dark green. ... The increased incidence of infected berries under lime stress conditions might be related to an impaired plant secondary metabolism, making the vine more susceptible to diseases; the physiological mechanisms were not investigated in the present research, but we can assume that the nutritional disorder affects, by means of the mineral nutrion of the vine, the balance between primary and secondary metabolic pathways. ...

Luigi Bavaresco; Silvia Vezzulli; Silvia Civardi; Matteo Gatti; Paola Battilani; Amedeo Pietri; Federico Ferrari

2008-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

171

SO2-induced stability of Ag-alumina catalysts in the SCR of NO with methane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on a stabilization effect on the structure and activity of Ag/Al2O3 for the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NOx with CH4 imparted by the presence of SO2 in the exhaust gasmixture. The reaction is carried out at temperature above 600 8C to keep the surface partially free of sulfates. In SO2-free gases, catalyst deactivation is fast and measurable at these temperatures. Time-resolved TEM analyses of used samples have determined that deactivation is due to sintering of silver from well-dispersed clusters to nanoparticles to micrometer-size particles with time-on-stream at 625 8C. However, sintering of silver was dramatically suppressed by the presence of SO2 in the reaction gas mixture. The structural stabilization by SO2 was accompanied by stable catalyst activity for the NO reduction to N2. The direct oxidation of methane was suppressed, thus the methane selectivity was improved in SO2-laden gas mixtures. In tests with high-content silver alumina with some of the silver present in metallic form, an increase in the SCR activity was found in SO2-containing gas mixtures. This is attributed to redispersion of the silver particles by SO2, an unexpected finding. The catalyst performance was reversible over many cycles of operation at 625 8C with the SO2 switched on and off in the gas mixture.

She, Xiaoyan; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria; Wang, Chong M.; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

2009-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

172

Compatibility study of plasma grown alumina coating with Pb–17Li under static conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A novel plasma assisted tempering process has been developed to generate a stable ?-Al2O3 + FeAl coating on P91 steels. Hot dip aluminized P91 samples had been subjected to normalizing treatment in muffle furnace at 980 °C for 20 min followed by a glow discharge oxygen plasma assisted tempering treatment at 750 °C for 1 h. The plasma processing led to the formation of a stable ?-Al2O3 coating, while thermal tempering in muffle furnace led to formation of ?-Al2O3 coating. Both the thermal and plasma tempered samples with alumina coating along with bare P91 samples were subjected to compatibility tests with Pb–17Li under static conditions at 550 °C for 1000 h. The extent of degradation of the samples was measured by weight loss method, X-ray diffraction and a cross-sectional examination with elemental studies using energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Plasma processed samples did not reveal any weight loss while thermally treated samples with metastable ?-Al2O3 indicated 0.23 mg/cm2 weight loss and bare P91 steels indicated a weight loss of 7.3 mg/cm2.

Nirav I. Jamnapara; A. Sarada Sree; E. Rajendra Kumar; S. Mukherjee; A.S. Khanna

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Stuies of neptunium(V) sorption on montmorillonite, clinoptilolite, quartz and {alpha}-alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

{sup 237}Np is a particular concern to the safety suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a geologic repository for high-level nuclear wastes. In this study, montmorillonite, clinoptilolite, quartz, and {alpha}-alumina were reacted with {sup 237}Np-bearing solutions to characterize the sorption behavior of Np(V) on these minerals. Batch experiments were conducted at room temperature (20{plus_minus}2{degrees}C) over a range of conditions in which solution pH, sorbent surface area, initial concentration of N(V), ionic strength, and partial pressure of CO{sub 2} were varied. For all the minerals studied, Np(V) sorption begins at pH values coincident with the start of Np hydrolysis in solution ({approximately}6.5-7). For solutions undersaturated with respect to atmospheric CO{sub 2}, sorption increases continuously with increasing pH. For solutions at equilibrium with atmospheric CO{sub 2}, the {open_quotes}sorption envelope{close_quotes} is coincident with the calculated predominance field (pH {approximately}7-9.5) of the NpO{sub 2}(OH){sup 0}(aq) species, and sorption is inhibited at higher pH where neptunyl carbonate complexes predominate. Modeling of the sorption behavior of Np(V) was performed using a surface complexation-approach (Diffuse-Layer Model).

Bertetti, F.P.; Pabalan, R.T.; Turner, D.R.; Almendarez, M.G. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX (United States)

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The adsorption and desorption of hydrogen and carbon monoxide were studied on alumina-supported iridium catalysts which were examined by a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM). The metal particle size and number of particles per area of catalyst increased with increasing metal loading. The particles were approx. 10 A. in diameter, cubo-octahedral shaped, and approx. 80-90% disperse. The STEM electron beam caused negligible damage to the samples. Hydrogen adsorption measurements showed that the hydrogen-iridium atom ratio was 1.2:1-1.3:1 and increased with decreasing metal loading. Temperature-programed desorption showed four types of adsorbed hydrogen desorbing at -90/sup 0/C (I), 15/sup 0/C (IV), 115/sup 0/C (II), and 245/sup 0/C (III). Types II and IV desorb from single atom sites and Types I and III from multiple atom sites. Type I is in rapid equilibrium with the gas phase. All desorption processes appear to be first order. Carbon monoxide adsorbed nondissociatively at 25/sup 0/C with approx. 0.7:1 CO/Ir atom ratio. It adsorbed primarily in linear forms at low coverage, but a bridged form appeared at high coverage.

Etherton, B.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Optimisation and sensitivity analysis of atmospheric plasma spraying parameters to minimise porosity in alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this investigation, an attempt has been made to establish an empirical relationship and is developed to predict the porosity level of alumina coated AZ31B magnesium alloy by incorporating process parameters such as power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate. The porosity of alumina coatings were evaluated by the digital image analysis method. The experiments were conducted based on a three factor, five level, central composite rotatable design matrix with full replications technique. The developed empirical relationship can be effectively used to predict the porosity level of alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimise the atmospheric plasma spraying parameters to attain the minimum porosity level. The results indicate that the input power has the greatest influence on porosity level, followed by stand-off distance and powder feed rate.

D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Solid-phase synthesis of high-alumina cements by high-temperature treatment on the surface of molten cast iron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of block and monolithic concreting technology in the construction of thermal power plants together with the technical and economic advantages arising from the use of high-alumina cements in the production of refractory concretes have made the development of new methods for the production of high-alumina cement clinkers mandatory. To this end the authors of this paper study the kinetics of synthesis of such clinkers obtained by their firing on the surface of molten cast iron as the heat transfer agent. Among the results presented are a structural and quantitative analysis of the clinker along with phase and activation energy studies.

Fedorov, N.F.; Gavrilov, A.P.; Ivanov, N.I.; Khalina, O.M.

1986-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

Formation of silver nanoparticles inside a soda-lime glass matrix in the presence of a high intensity Ar{sup +} laser beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation and motion of the silver nanoparticles inside an ion-exchanged soda-lime glass in the presence of a focused high intensity continuous wave Ar{sup +} laser beam (intensity: 9.2 x 10{sup 4} W/cm{sup 2}) have been studied in here. One-dimensional diffusion equation has been used to model the diffusion of the silver ions into the glass matrix, and a two-dimensional reverse diffusion model has been introduced to explain the motion of the silver clusters and their migration toward the glass surface in the presence of the laser beam. The results of the mentioned models were in agreement with our measurements on thickness of the ion-exchange layer by means of optical microscopy and recorded morphology of the glass surface around the laser beam axis by using a Mirau interferometer. SEM micrographs were used to extract the size distribution of the migrated silver particles over the glass surface.

Niry, M. D.; Khalesifard, H. R. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Optics Research Center, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mostafavi-Amjad, J.; Ahangary, A. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azizian-Kalandaragh, Y. [Department of Physics, Institute for Advanced Studies in Basic Sciences (IASBS), Zanjan 45137-66731 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili (UMA), P.O. Box 179, Ardabil (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Deformation Behavior of Sub-micron and Micron Sized Alumina Particles in Compression.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to integrate ceramics with other materials has been limited due to high temperature (>800degC) ceramic processing. Recently, researchers demonstrated a novel process , aerosol deposition (AD), to fabricate ceramic films at room temperature (RT). In this process, sub - micro n sized ceramic particles are accelerated by pressurized gas, impacted on the substrate, plastically deformed, and form a dense film under vacuum. This AD process eliminates high temperature processing thereby enabling new coatings and device integration, in which ceramics can be deposited on metals, plastics, and glass. However, k nowledge in fundamental mechanisms for ceramic particle s to deform and form a dense ceramic film is still needed and is essential in advancing this novel RT technology. In this wo rk, a combination of experimentation and atomistic simulation was used to determine the deformation behavior of sub - micron sized ceramic particle s ; this is the first fundamental step needed to explain coating formation in the AD process . High purity, singl e crystal, alpha alumina particles with nominal size s of 0.3 um and 3.0 um were examined. Particle characterization, using transmission electron microscopy (TEM ), showed that the 0.3 u m particles were relatively defect - free single crystals whereas 3.0 u m p articles were highly defective single crystals or particles contained low angle grain boundaries. Sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited ductile failure in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 0.3um particles deformed plastically, fractured, and became polycrystalline. Moreover, dislocation activit y was observed within the se particles during compression . These sub - micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited large accum ulated strain (2 - 3 times those of micron - sized particles) before first fracture. I n agreement with the findings from experimentation , a tomistic simulation s of nano - Al 2 O 3 particles showed dislocation slip and significant plastic deformation during compressi on . On the other hand, the micron sized Al 2 O 3 particles exhibited brittle f racture in compression. In situ compression experiments showed 3um Al 2 O 3 particles fractured into pieces without observable plastic deformation in compression. Particle deformation behaviors will be used to inform Al 2 O 3 coating deposition parameters and particle - particle bonding in the consolidated Al 2 O 3 coatings.

Sarobol, Pylin; Chandross, Michael E.; Carroll, Jay; Mook, William; Boyce, Brad; Kotula, Paul G.; McKenzie, Bonnie B.; Bufford, Daniel Charles; Hall, Aaron Christopher.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Selective catalytic reduction of nitric oxide with ethanol/gasoline blends over a silver/alumina catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lean gasoline engines running on ethanol/gasoline blends and equipped with a silver/alumina catalyst for selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO by ethanol provide a pathway to reduced petroleum consumption through both increased biofuel utilization and improved engine efficiency relative to the current stoichiometric gasoline engines that dominate the U.S. light duty vehicle fleet. A pre-commercial silver/alumina catalyst demonstrated high NOx conversions over a moderate temperature window with both neat ethanol and ethanol/gasoline blends containing at least 50% ethanol. Selectivity to NH3 increases with HC dosing and ethanol content in gasoline blends, but appears to saturate at around 45%. NO2 and acetaldehyde behave like intermediates in the ethanol SCR of NO. NH3 SCR of NOx does not appear to play a major role in the ethanol SCR reaction mechanism. Ethanol is responsible for the low temperature SCR activity observed with the ethanol/gasoline blends. The gasoline HCs do not deactivate the catalyst ethanol SCR activity, but they also do not appear to be significantly activated by the presence of ethanol.

Pihl, Josh A [ORNL] [ORNL; Toops, Todd J [ORNL] [ORNL; Fisher, Galen [University of Michigan] [University of Michigan; West, Brian H [ORNL] [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Relative performance of alumina coatings prepared by micro arc oxidation and detonation gun spray on AA 6063 under plain fatigue and fretting fatigue loading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The present study compares the performance of alumina coatings prepared by two different methods (micro arc oxidation (MAO) and detonation gun (D-gun...2O3 and ?-Al2O3, D-gun sprayed coating contained ?-Al2O3 wit...

S. Ganesh Sundara Raman; B. Rajasekaran

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

New insight into artifactual phenomena during in vitro toxicity assessment of engineered nanoparticles: study of TNF-adsorption on alumina oxide nanoparticle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nanoparticles: study of TNF- adsorption on alumina oxide nanoparticle Mélanie Pailleuxa,b , Delphine Boudarda Biomolecules can be adsorbed on nanoparticles (NP) and degraded during in vitro toxicity assays: boehmite nanoparticles; toxicity; TNF- adsorption; TNF- degradation; correction curve hal-00799129,version1

Boyer, Edmond

182

Process of aluminum dross recycling and life cycle assessment for Al-Si alloys and brown fused alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 2008, around 596?000 t of aluminum dross was generated from secondary aluminum industry in China; however, it was not sufficiently recycled yet. Approximately 95% of the Al dross was land filled without innocent treatment. The purpose of this work is to investigate Al dross recycling by environmentally efficient and friendly methods. Two methods of Al dross recycling which could utilize Al dross efficiently were presented. High-quality aluminum-silicon alloys and brown fused alumina (BFA) were produced successfully by recycling Al dross. Then, life cycle assessment (LCA) was performed to evaluate environmental impact of two methods of Al dross recycling process. The results show that the two methods are reasonable and the average recovery rate of Al dross is up to 98%. As the LCA results indicate, they have some advantages such as less natural resource consumption and pollutant emissions, which efficiently relieves the burden on the environment in electrolytic aluminum and secondary aluminum industry.

Jian-ping HONG; Jun WANG; Hai-yan CHEN; Bao-de SUN; Jia-jing LI; Chong CHEN

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Effect of Alumina and Titania on the Oxidation of CO over Au Nanoparticles Evaluted by 13C Isotopic Transient Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Titania- and alumina-supported Au nanoparticles were synthesized by a deposition-precipitation method and subsequent thermal treatment in He. X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Au-L{sub III} edge revealed that the as-prepared Au/TiO{sub 2} sample contained cationic Au that was reduced to a predominately metallic state after treatment in He at 623 K. Scanning transmission electron microscopy showed the Au to be highly dispersed over both the metal oxides, with an average particle size of 3.3 nm for Au/TiO{sub 2} and 2.5 nm for Au/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The global rate, apparent activation energy, and orders of reaction with respect to CO and O{sub 2} of CO oxidation were different for the two metal oxide-supported samples. Steady-state isotopic transient kinetic analysis was used to explore the intrinsic turnover frequency (TOF{sub intr}) and coverage of active carbon-containing intermediates ({theta}{sub COx}) that led to carbon dioxide during CO oxidation. After correcting for CO{sub 2} readsorption, the TOF{sub intr} was found to be independent of temperature, approximately 3.4 s{sup -1} for Au/TiO{sub 2} (261-303 K) and 2.1 s{sup -1} for Au/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (272-343 K). At 293 K, the coverage of active carbon-containing intermediates was greater over Au/TiO{sub 2} than over Au/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The higher coverage of species-forming product on Au/TiO{sub 2} is attributed to the greater availability of active surface oxygen on a titania catalyst compared with an alumina catalyst.

Calla,J.; Bore, M.; Datye, A.; Davis, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal at a medium temperature  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the reactivity of partially sulfated lime-fly ash sorbents activated by water or steam for SO{sub 2} removal. Sulfation tests were performed at 550{sup o}C using a fixed bed reactor under conditions simulating economizer zone injection flue gas desulfurization. Activation experiments were conducted with water or steam using a range of temperatures between 100 and 550{sup o}C. The results showed that the reactivity of the sorbents was closely related to the content of Ca(OH){sub 2} formed in the activation process, which varied with the water or steam temperature. The sulfur dioxide capture capacity of Ca(OH){sub 2} in the sorbent is higher than that of CaO at a medium temperature. Water or steam temperatures in the range of 100-200{sup o}C are favorable to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2} from CaO. 15 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Liming Shi; Xuchang Xu [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Generation of alkali-free and high-proton concentration layer in a soda lime glass using non-contact corona discharge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Formation mechanisms of alkali-free and high-proton concentration surfaces were investigated for a soda lime glass using a corona discharge treatment under an atmospheric pressure. Protons produced by high DC voltage around an anode needle electrode were incorporated into a sodium ion site in the anode side glass. The sodium ion was swept away to the cathode side as a charge carrier. Then it was discharged. The precipitated sodium was transformed to a Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} powder when the surface contacted with air. The sodium ion in the glass surface layer of the anode side was replaced completely by protons. The concentration of OH groups in the layer was balanced with the amount of excluded sodium ions. The substitution reaction of sodium ions with protons tends to be saturated according to a square root function of time. The alkali depletion layer formation rate was affected by the large difference in mobility between sodium ions and protons in the glass.

Ikeda, Hiroshi; Sakai, Daisuke; Nishii, Junji [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan)] [Research Institute for Electronic Science, Hokkaido University, N20 W10, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020 (Japan); Funatsu, Shiro [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan)] [Production Technology Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1-1 Suehiro-cyo, Tsurumiku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Toshio [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan)] [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co., Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-cho, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Harada, Kenji [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)] [Department of Computer Science, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami, Hokkaido 090-8507 (Japan)

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

186

Effects of dispersion and support on adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina CO hydrogenation catalysts: Annual progress report, August 1, 1987-July 31, 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An investigation of the effects of surface structure, dispersion, and support on the adsorption, catalytic, and electronic properties of cobalt/alumina is described, the objectives of which are to determine (1) the effects of surface structure and metal dispersion on the adsorption and catalytic properties of cobalt and (2) the effects of decorating support species on metal crystallites and of direct electronic interactions between metal clusters and support, on the adsorption, catalytic and electronic properties of cobalt supported on alumina. During the first year effects of surface structure and dispersion on the adsorption, activity/selectivity, and electronic properties of Co/W single crystal surfaces and alumina-supported cobalt were investigated in a surface science investigation, lab reactor studies, TPD/TPSR studies, and a Moessbauer spectroscopy study. The structure, stability, surface electronic properties, and chemisorptive properties of vapor-deposited cobalt overlayers (0-4 ML) on W(110) and W(100) were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy, low energy electron diffraction, work function changes, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of cobalt, hydrogen, and carbon monoxide. The CO chemisorptive properties of the two cobalt overlayers are quite different, CO adsorption being dissociative on the W(100) surface and nondissociative on the W(110) surface; comparison of the results with those for Ni/W(100) indicate that Co/W(100) as a result of electronic interaction with the tungsten substrate. Activities and selectivities of cobalt/alumina catalysts for CO hydrogenation prepared by decomposition of Co/sub 4/(CO)/sub 12/ were determined as functions of metal loading, dispersion, and extent of reduction. Steady-state activity and product molecular weight were found to increase with increasing metal loading (decreasing dispersion and increasing extent of reduction). 10 refs.

Bartholomew, C.H.

1988-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

187

Liquid-Metal Electrode to Enable Ultra-Low Temperature Sodium-Beta Alumina Batteries for Renewable Energy Storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Metal electrodes have a high capacity for energy storage but have found limited applications in batteries because of dendrite formation and other problems. In this paper, we report a new alloying strategy that can significantly reduce the melting temperature and improve wetting with the electrolyte to allow the use of liquid metal as anode in sodium-beta alumina batteries (NBBs) at much lower temperatures (e.g., 95 to 175°C). Commercial NBBs such as sodium-sulfur (Na-S) battery and sodium-metal halide (ZEBRA) batteries typically operate at relatively high temperatures (e.g., 300-350°C) due to poor wettability of sodium on the surface of ?"-Al2O3. Our combined experimental and computational studies suggest that Na-Cs alloy can replace pure sodium as the anode material, which provides a significant improvement in wettability, particularly at lower temperatures (i.e., <200°C). Single cells with the Na-Cs alloy anode exhibit excellent cycling life over those with pure sodium anode at 175 and 150°C. The cells can even operate at 95°C, which is below the melting temperature of pure sodium. These results demonstrate that NBB can be operated at ultra lower temperatures with successfully solving the wetting issue. This work also suggests a new strategy to use liquid metal as the electrode materials for advanced batteries that can avoid the intrinsic safety issues associated with dendrite formation on the anode.

Lu, Xiaochuan; Li, Guosheng; Kim, Jin Yong; Mei, Donghai; Lemmon, John P.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Liu, Jun

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Dispersion of concentrated aqueous neodymia–yttria–alumina mixture with ammonium poly(acrylic acid) as dispersant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A stable aqueous slurry using ammonium polyacrylic acid polyelectrolyte as dispersant and a neodymia–yttria–alumina mixture was prepared as the starting powder. The effect of the polyelectrolyte concentration and the pH of the slurry on the stability of the suspension is studied, and the optimal pH value and the amount of dispersant needed to obtain a stable slurry were determined. Highly consistent slurries with optimal pH and dispersant concentration were prepared by ball milling. The rheological behavior of the slip with different solid loading (48–58 wt.%) has been studied by measuring the viscosity and shear stress as a function of shear rate. Slip with solid loadings of 53 wt.% shows near-Newtonian behavior but becomes non-Newtonian with typical shear-thinning behavior above this solid loading value. The density and microstructure of the cast product bears a direct relationship to the state of the slip induced by variation of the pH and the concentration of the dispersant as well as by solid loading. Transparent Nd:YAG ceramics were obtained by sintering of compacts prepared from optimized slurries at 1750 °C in vacuum.

Yaohui Lv; Wei Zhang; Jie Tan; Yuanhua Sang; Haiming Qin; Jinlian Hu; Liuniu Tong; Hong Liu; Jiyang Wang; Robert I Boughton

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Ash melting behavior and slag infiltration into alumina refractory simulating co-gasification of coal and biomass  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In the present study melting behavior of ashes from German brown coal and biomass (wheat straw) as well as from two artificial mixtures of both has been investigated. The four fuel samples were ashed at 450 °C over a period of 26 h. Ash fusion tests and all other measurements have been executed under reducing atmosphere, simulating gasification conditions. The ash melting and wetting properties have been studied for ash cylinders placed onto an alumina refractory at temperatures up to 1600 °C. Optical microscopy and SEM/EDX studies have been performed to analyze the infiltration of slag into the refractory and related progression. For the ash fusion behavior and surface wetting of the refractory clear distinctions from pure ashes have been detected for the blend with 50 wt.% biomass addition due to the formation of eutectics. From optical microscopy and SEM/EDX images of the sections different infiltration properties and mechanisms have been identified. The qualitative infiltration depth and deceleration of slag infiltration by a formation of solid phases have been provided by FactSage™ calculations. In these calculations the contact zone between the two materials has been reconstructed by a stepwise change in the amounts of ash and refractory. The experimental results are very well reflected in this model. Finally, the obtained results suggest low corrosive biomass amounts for co-use in the present gasifier types designed for pure coal.

Guanjun Zhang; Markus Reinmöller; Mathias Klinger; Bernd Meyer

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

X-ray Absorption Measurements on Nickel Cathode of Sodium-beta Alumina batteries: Fe-Ni-CI Chemical Associations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sections of Na-Al-NiCl2 cathodes from sodium-beta alumina ZEBRA batteries have been characterized with X-ray fluorescence mapping, and XANES measurements to probe the microstructure, elemental correlation, and chemical speciation after voltage cycling. Cycling was performed under identical load conditions at either 240 or 280 °C operating temperature and subsequently quenched in either the charged or discharged state. X-ray fluorescence mapping and XANES measurements were made adjacent to the current collector and ?"-Al2O3 solid electrolyte interfaces to detect possible gradients in chemical properties across the cathode. An FeS additive, introduced during battery synthesis, was found to be present as either Fe metal or an Fe(II) chloride in all cathode samples. X-ray fluorescence mapping reveals an operating temperature and charge-state dependent spatial correlation between Fe, Ni, and Cl concentration. XANES measurements indicate that both Ni and Fe are chemically reactive and shift between metallic and chloride phases in the charged and discharged states, respectively. However the percentage of chemically active Ni and Fe is significantly less in the cell operated at lower temperature. Additionally, the cathode appeared chemically homogeneous at the scale of our X-ray measurements.

Bowden, Mark E.; Alvine, Kyle J.; Fulton, John L.; Lemmon, John P.; Lu, Xiaochuan; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Heald, Steve M.; Balasubramanian, Mahalingam; Mortensen, Devon R.; Seidler, Gerald T.; Hess, Nancy J.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Hydrotreating studies involving NiMo/silica-doped hydrous titanium oxide (HTO:Si)-coated alumina catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For hydrotreating a petroleum-derived liquid feed at 400 C, LHSV = 2. 5 g/g{sub cat}/h, and 1500 psig hydrogen (H) pressure, both HDS and HDN activities were roughly equivalent for a name/TO:Si-coated Amocat catalyst and a commercial alumina-supported name catalyst (Amocat 1C). Superior HDN performance was exhibited by the name/TO: Si-coated Amocat catalyst at low H pressure (500 psig) and after H pressure cycling (1500-500-1500 psig) relative to Amocat 1C. Consistent with previous results obtained on a coal-derived liquid feed, the HDS/HDN results with the petroleum-derived liquid showed that the performance of the name/TO:Si-coated Amocat catalyst on an active metals weight basis exceeded the performance of Amocat 1C at all test conditions. The name/TO:Si-coated Amocat catalyst also showed potentially increased hydrogenation activity, increased resistance to deactivation, and increased yields of lower boiling point distillate fractions, although further work is needed.

Gardner, T.J.; Miller, J.E.; McLaughlin, L.I.; Trudell, D.E.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

"Rest" Creates Momentum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to competition among operators. Another display recently generated for the operators is used to support an energy conservation project on the lime kiln. In this display, shown in Figure 5, the energy consumption in millions of BTUs per ton of product... is displayed and graphed. Also, included for the operators benefit is a dust loss calculation that is intended to help the operator optimize his operation by giving continual feedback on the amount of dust lost from the kiln. The operator can take...

Cox, D.

193

Effects of Lime and Carbonate of Lime on Acid Phosphate.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.048,0128 0 ......................... Crop. 34.5 40.4 39.6 31.3 16.7 19.7 10.9 14.0 .0004 0326 0 .OM3 .0116 .0580 .0168 . .0284 .2261 .0823 Per cmt. P20s .16 .161 .14 .19 .19 .20 19 .18 Loss. .0023 .0126 Gm. Pz... Abernathy Ladonia- William Atch- ley' Mathis. J 'w. E. ~a'sham, Barstow; T 'W ~u;le;on Waxahachie- W C ~b~~ie; Goliad. g. W. Cothran '~oiton: G. F. 6avidson'.~leasanton; ~oLn on el gan Seguin. S. T. Graham, Milano; J. R. king, Batesville; N. G. Le...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1917-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Processing and microstructural evolution of alumina/aluminum alloy and aluminum nitride/aluminum alloy composites by directed melt oxidation. Ph.D. Thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental investigation on the directed oxidation of aluminum-zinc alloys to produce alumina/aluminum alloy composites with and without alumina preforms has been conducted. It has been suggested in the literature that Al-Mg alloys grow composites by the dissolution of a magnesia surface layer and reprecipitation of alumina in the composite. The intent of this investigation is to reveal relevant distinctions in the proposed dissolution-reprecipitation process as they apply to a more commercially interesting Zn containing alloy with a reinforcing preform. The TGA behavior and microstructural observations on the oxidation of Al-10Zn-8Si alloys were coupled with a thermodynamic and kinetic analysis to develop a composite growth model. Experiments were carried out in air at 1000-1200 C. At the higher temperatures (greater than 1100 C), Al2O3/Al composites grow by dissolving a ZnAl2O4 (spinel) surface layer. The dissolution process releases oxygen that reprecipitates in the form of Al2O3 on the existing composite, and also releases Zn and Al which migrate upward through the spinel to regenerate the surface oxide. Composite growth may only occur when the surface regenerates at a rate comparable with that of the dissolution process. At the lower temperatures, 1000 C, the composite growth is limited by the spinel regeneration process, and becomes intermittent. The addition of Mg to this alloy allows normal composite growth by the dissolution of a surface (Zn,Mg)Al2O4 layer at the lower temperatures, 980-1060 C, but leads to heterogeneous microstructures with voids as the temperature increases above approximately 1060 C. The directed oxidation of an Al-Zn alloy into porous alumina preforms yields an Al2O3/Al composite matrix which fills the preform interstices. Al-10Zn-8Si-0.25Mg alloys that are oxidized from 960-1100 C, and Al-10Zn-8Si alloys that are oxidized at 800-1000 C climb up the preform particle.

Crudele, S.D.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

195

Long-term evaluation of solid oxide fuel cell candidate materials in a 3-cell generic stack test fixture, part III: Stability and microstructure of Ce-(Mn,Co)-spinel coating, AISI441 interconnect, alumina coating, cathode and anode  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A generic solid oxide fuel cell stack test fixture was developed to evaluate candidate materials and processing under realistic conditions. Part III of the work investigated the stability of Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, AISI441 metallic interconnect, alumina coating, and cell's degradation. After 6000 h test, the spinel coating showed densification with some diffusion of Cr. At the metal interface, segregation of Si and Ti was observed, however, no continuous layer formed. The alumina coating for perimeter sealing areas appeared more dense and thick at the air side than the fuel side. Both the spinel and alumina coatings remained bonded. EDS analysis of Cr within the metal showed small decrease in concentration near the coating interface and would expect to cause no issue of Cr depletion. Inter-diffusion of Ni, Fe, and Cr between spot-welded Ni wire and AISI441 interconnect was observed and Cr-oxide scale formed along the circumference of the weld. The microstructure of the anode and cathode was discussed relating to degradation of the top and middle cells. Overall, the Ce-(Mn,Co) spinel coating, alumina coating, and AISI441 steel showed the desired long-term stability and the developed generic stack fixture proved to be a useful tool to validate candidate materials for SOFC.

Yeong-Shyung Chou; Jeffry W. Stevenson; Jung-Pyung Choi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Temperature dependent dielectric function in the near-infrared to vacuum-ultraviolet ultraviolet spectral range of alumina and yttria stabilized zirconia thin films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dielectric function of nano-/polycrystalline alumina and yttria stabilised zirconia thin films has been investigated in a wide spectral range from 1.0?eV to 7.5?eV and temperatures between 10?K and room temperature. In the near band-edge spectral range, we found a broad distribution of optical transitions within the band gap, the so-called Urbach absorption tail which is typical for amorphous or polycrystalline materials due to the lack of long range order in the crystal structure. The coupling properties of the electronic system to the optical phonon bath and thermal lattice vibrations strongly depend on the ratio of the spectral extent of these disorder states to the main phonon energy, which we correlate with the different crystalline structure of our samples. The films have been grown at room temperature and 650?°C by pulsed laser deposition.

Schmidt-Grund, R., E-mail: Schmidt-Grund@physik.uni-leipzig.de; Lühmann, T.; Böntgen, T.; Franke, H.; Lorenz, M.; Grundmann, M. [Fakultät für Physik und Geowissenschaften, Institut für Experimentelle Physik II, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Opper, D. [PANalytical GmbH, Nürnberger Straße 113, D-34123 Kassel (Germany)

2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

197

A predictive model for particle size distribution and yield for Bayer precipitation and classification  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of alumina hydrate particles demonstrated in Figure l. The calcination step depicted in the process illustration is needed as the final step to return the alumina hydrate to alumina. This may be done in kilns or flash calciners. In the Bayer process, a.... In the precipitators, the alumina hydrate is deposited on recycled seed. The slurry is separated by particle size in the classification section. Large particles Rom classification are filtered for use in calcination or products such as Alcoa's C30 Hydrate, while...

Kapraun, Christopher Michael

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

198

Review of composting and anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste and a methodological proposal for a mid-size city  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with wastewater sludge, wood ash, coal ash, lime-kiln dust, and/or limestone quarry dust to improve the profile systems [Block & Goldstein 2000]. Anaerobic composting is not well used in the U.S until now [Goldstein of the process, the methane gas ("cleaner energy") and harvesting materials from MSW to #12;either recycle

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

199

The Spitalfields Mathematical Society  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Spitalfields " by Joseph Steevens. It shows a Mineral Room, Repository, Chemical Room, Lecture...description. p.67 " Count Rumford's Lime Kilns " - a small diagram. The pages of...Augustus De Morgan. (London, Longmans, Green, and Co.) [ULXXI.46.26.] J......

J. W. S. Cassels

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Development of Surface Complexation Models of Cr(VI) Adsorption on Soils, Sediments and Model Mixtures of Kaolinite, Montmorillonite, ?-Alumina, Hydrous Manganese and Ferric Oxides and Goethite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hexavalent chromium is a highly toxic contaminant that has been introduced into aquifers and shallow sediments and soils via many anthropogenic activities. Hexavalent chromium contamination is a problem or potential problem in the shallow subsurface at several DOE sites, including Hanford, Idaho National Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Oak Ridge Reservation (DOE, 2008). To accurately quantify the fate and transport of hexavalent chromium at DOE and other contaminated sites, robust geochemical models, capable of correctly predicting changes in chromium chemical form resulting from chemical reactions occurring in subsurface environments are needed. One important chemical reaction that may greatly impact the bioavailability and mobility of hexavalent chromium in the subsurface is chemical binding to the surfaces of particulates, termed adsorption or surface complexation. Quantitative thermodynamic surface complexation models have been derived that can correctly calculate hexavalent chromium adsorption on well-characterized materials over ranges in subsurface conditions, such pH and salinity. However, models have not yet been developed for hexavalent chromium adsorption on many important constituents of natural soils and sediments, such as clay minerals. Furthermore, most of the existing thermodynamic models have been developed for relatively simple, single solid systems and have rarely been tested for the complex mixtures of solids present in real sediments and soils. In this study, the adsorption of hexavalent chromium was measured as a function of pH (3-10), salinity (0.001 to 0.1 M NaNO3), and partial pressure of carbon dioxide(0-5%) on a suite of naturally-occurring solids including goethite (FeOOH), hydrous manganese oxide (MnOOH), hydrous ferric oxide (Fe(OH)3), ?-alumina (Al2O3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), and montmorillonite (Na3(Al, Mg)2Si4O10(OH)2?nH2O). The results show that all of these materials can bind substantial quantities of hexavalent chromium, especially at low pH. Unexpectedly, experiments with the clay minerals kaolinite and montmorillonite suggest that hexavalent chromium may interact with these solids over much longer periods of time than expected. Furthermore, hexavalent chromium may irreversibly bind to these solids, perhaps because of oxidation-reduction reactions occurring on the surfaces of the clay minerals. More work should be done to investigate and quantify these chemical reactions. Experiments conducted with mixtures of goethite, hydrous manganese oxide, hydrous ferric oxide, ?-alumina, montmorillonite and kaolinite demonstrate that it is possible to correctly predict hexavalent chromium binding in the presence of multiple minerals using thermodynamic models derived for the simpler systems. Further, these models suggest that of the six solid considered in this study, goethite is typically the solid to which most of the hexavalent chromium will bind. Experiments completed with organic-rich and organic-poor natural sediments demonstrate that in organic-rich substrates, organic matter is likely to control uptake of the hexavalent chromium. The models derived and tested in this study for hexavalent chromium binding to ?-alumina, hydrous manganese oxide, goethite, hydrous ferric oxide and clay minerals can be used to better predict changes in hexavalent chromium bioavailability and mobility in contaminated sediments and soils.

Koretsky, Carla [Western Michigan University] [Western Michigan University

2013-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Preparation and characterization of alumina supported nickel-oxalate catalyst for the hydrodeoxygenation of oleic acid into normal and iso-octadecane biofuel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this study, nickel II oxalate complex (NiOx) was prepared by functionalization of nickel with oxalic acid (OxA) and incorporated into Al2O3 to synthesize alumina supported nickel oxalate (NiOx/Al2O3) catalyst for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of oleic acid (OA) into biofuel. The synthesized NiOx/Al2O3 was characterized and the X-ray fluorescence and elemental dispersive X-ray results showed that NiOx was successfully incorporated into the structure of Al2O3. The X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy results confirmed that highly dispersed Ni species are present in the NiOx/Al2O3 due to the functionalization with OxA. The catalytic activity of the NiOx/Al2O3 on the HDO of OA produced a mixture of 21% iso-C18 and 72% n-C18 at a 360 °C, 20 bar, 30 mg NiOx/Al2O3 loading pressure and gas flow rate of 100 mL/min. The presence of i-C18 was ascribed to the OxA functionalization which increased the acidity of NiOx/Al2O3. The NiOx/Al2O3 reusability study showed consistent HDO ability after 5 runs. These results are promising for further research into biofuel production for commercialization.

O.B. Ayodele; Olayinka S. Togunwa; Hazzim F. Abbas; Wan Mohd Ashri Wan Daud

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO{sub x}, the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

Kim, C.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

The effect of rhenium, sulfur and alumina on the conversion of hydrocarbons over platinum single crystals: Surface science and catalytic studies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Conversion reactions of hydrocarbons over Pt-Re model catalyst surfaces modified by sulfur and alumina have been studied. A plasma deposition source has been developed to deposit Pt, Re, and Al on metal substrates variable coverage in ultrahigh vacuum without excessive heating. Conversion of n-hexane was performed over the Re-covered Pt and Pt-covered Re surfaces. The presence of the second metal increased hydrogenolysis activity of both Pt-Re surfaces. Addition of sulfur on the model Catalyst surfaces suppressed hydrogenolysis activity and increased the cyclization rate of n-hexane to methylcyclopentane over Pt-Re surfaces. Sulfiding also increased the dehydrogenation rate of cyclohexane to benzene Over Pt-Re surfaces. It has been proposed that the PtRe bimetallic catalysts show unique properties when combined with sulfur, and electronic interactions exist between platinum, rhenium and sulfur. Decomposition of hydrocarbons on the sulfur-covered Pt-Re surfaces supported that argument. For the conversion of 1-butene over the planar Pt/AlO[sub x], the addition of Pt increased the selectivity of hydrogenation over isomerization.

Kim, C.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

205

Compliant alkali silicate sealing glass for solid oxide fuel cell applications: the effect of protective alumina coating on electrical stability in dual environment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An alkali-containing silicate glass was recently proposed as a potential sealant for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). The glass contains appreciable amount of alkalis and retains its glassy microstructure at elevated temperatures over time. It is more compliant as compared to conventional glass-ceramics sealants and could potentially heal cracks during thermal cycling. In previous papers the thermal cycle stability, thermal stability and chemical compatibility were reported with yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte and YSZ-coated ferritic stainless steel interconnect. In this paper, we report the electrical stability of the compliant glass with aluminized AISI441 interconnect material under DC load in dual environment at 700-800oC. Apparent electrical resistivity was measured with a 4-point method for the glass sealed between two aluminized AISI441 metal coupons as well as plain AISI441 substrates. The results showed good electrical stability with the aluminized AISI441 substrate, while unstable behavior was observed for un-coated substrates. In addition, interfacial microstructure was examined with scanning electron microscopy and correlated with the measured resistivity results. Overall, the alumina coating demonstrated good chemical stability with the alkali-containing silicate sealing glass under DC loading.

Chou, Y. S.; Choi, Jung-Pyung; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Hydrogen production by steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) over mesoporous nickel–M–alumina (M = Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) aerogel catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts (denoted as NiMAE) with different second metal (M = Ni, Ce, La, Y, Cs, Fe, Co, and Mg) were prepared by a single-step sol–gel method and a subsequent CO2 supercritical drying method. The effect of second metal of mesoporous nickel–M–alumina aerogel catalysts on their physicochemical properties and catalytic activity for steam reforming of simulated liquefied natural gas (LNG) was investigated. Textural and chemical properties of NiMAE catalysts were strongly influenced by the identity of second metal. Nickel species were highly dispersed on the surface of NiMAE catalysts through the formation of nickel aluminate phase. In the steam reforming of LNG, both LNG conversion and hydrogen yield decreased in the order of NiLaAE > NiCeAE > NiYAE > NiCsAE > NiNiAE > NiFeAE > NiCoAE > NiMgAE. Average nickel diameter of NiMAE catalysts was well correlated with LNG conversion and hydrogen yield over the catalysts. Among the catalysts tested, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited the best catalytic performance due to its smallest average nickel diameter. Furthermore, NiLaAE catalyst exhibited a strong capability of facilitating heat and mass transfer of reactant and product during the steam reforming of LNG. Water–gas shift reaction governed the steam reforming reaction over NiLaAE catalyst under the steam-rich reaction condition (steam/carbon > 2).

Jeong Gil Seo; Min Hye Youn; Yongju Bang; In Kyu Song

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Excess lithium salt functions more than compensating for lithium loss when synthesizing Li6.5La3Ta0.5Zr1.5O12 in alumina crucible  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Garnet type electrolyte “Li6.5La3Ta0.5Zr1.5O12” (LLZTO) was prepared by conventional solid-state reaction in alumina crucibles and excess lithium salt (from 0% to 50 mol%) was added into the starting materials to investigate the effects of excess lithium salt on the property of LLZTO. SEM, XRD and AC impedance were used to determine the microstructure, phase formation and Li-ion conductivity. Cubic garnet with a minor second phase LiAlO2 in the grain boundary was obtained for the pellets with excess lithium salt. As the amount of excess lithium salt increased, more Al element diffused from alumina crucibles to LLZTO pellets and reacted with excess lithium salt to form liquid Li2O–Al2O3 phase in the grain boundary, which accelerated the pellets' densification and reduced lithium loss at a high temperature. Ionic conductivity of LLZTO pellets increased with the amount of excess lithium salt added and leveled off at ?4 × 10?4 S cm?1 when lithium salt exceeded 30 mol%. The performance of Li-air batteries with hybrid electrolytes, using homemade LLZTO thin pellets as solid electrolytes, was investigated. The LLZTO thin pellet with more excess lithium salt in starting material had a higher density and resulted in better cell performance.

Kai Liu; Jiang-Tao Ma; Chang-An Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

The Needs of Texas Soils for Lime.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Husbandman W. L. MAYER, Poultryman \\V. A. DOUBT. Dairyman ENTOMOLOGY F. B. PADDOCK, M. S.. Chief;State Erttomolo~ut H. J. REINHARD. B. S Entorno!ogist ................................. ~isistant ~nfomologist AGRONOMY A B CONNER B S Chief A' ~i LE...

Fraps, G. S. (George Stronach)

1919-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Coupling Mineral Carbonation and Ocean Liming  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

systems suggests that, unless air capture significantly outperforms these systems, it is likely to require more than 400 kJ of work per mol of CO2, requiring it to be powered by CO2-neutral power sources in order to be CO2 neg. ... by the oceans at an increased rate if ocean alky. ... Oceanic uptake of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) is altering the seawater chem. of the world's oceans with consequences for marine biota. ...

P. Renforth; T. Kruger

2013-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

210

Alumina-based ceramic composite  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved ceramic composite comprising oxide ceramic particulates, nonoxide ceramic particulates selected from the group consisting of carbides, borides, nitrides of silicon and transition metals and mixtures thereof, and a ductile binder selected from the group consisting of metallic, intermetallic alloys and mixtures thereof is described. The ceramic composite is made by blending powders of the ceramic particulates and the ductile to form a mixture and consolidating the mixture of under conditions of temperature and pressure sufficient to produce a densified ceramic composite.

Alexander, Kathleen B. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Becher, Paul F. (Oak Ridge, TN); Waters, Shirley B. (Knoxville, TN)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Analysis of Energy Savings by Painting a Rotary Kiln Surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is 9 feet as shown in Fig. 3. Except the section with lifters (for enhancing petcoke mixing), the wall consists of a 7/8-inch metal shell and a 9- inch layer of refractory brick as the insulation liner. There are 8 lifters cast in place... is 9 feet as shown in Fig. 3. Except the section with lifters (for enhancing petcoke mixing), the wall consists of a 7/8-inch metal shell and a 9- inch layer of refractory brick as the insulation liner. There are 8 lifters cast in place...

Li, X.; Wang, T.; Tonti, R. T.; Edwards, L.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

212

Exhaust-catalyst development for methanol-fueled vehicles. II. Synergism between palladium and silver in methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation over an alumina-supported palladium-silver catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Methanol and carbon monoxide oxidation were examined over 0.01 Pd, 5% Ag, and 0.01% Pd/5% Ag catalysts - all supported on ..gamma..-alumina. The bimetallic catalyst showed greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation activity than either of the single-component catalysts; moreover, the Pd and Ag interacted synergistically in the bimetallic catalyst to produce greater CO and CH/sub 3/OH oxidation rates and lower yields of methanol partial oxidation products than expected from a mixture of the single-component catalysts. Temperature-programmed oxidation experiments and reactivity experiments involving changes in O/sub 2/ partial pressure both provided evidence that the Pd-Ag synergism results from Pd promoting the rate of O/sub 2/ adsorption and reaction with CO and CH/sub 3/OH on Ag. The data also indicate that virtually all of the Pd in the bimetallic catalyst is present in Pd-Ag crystallites.

McCabe, R.W.; Mitchell, P.J.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

New Houston NOx Rules: Implications and Solutions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

include utility and boilers, boilers and furnaces in petrochemical plants, other chemical facilities, and petroleum refineries, IPPs and cogenerators, pipeline turbine compressors, and other stationary IC engines. The regulations will affect... such stationary sources as boilers (gas, coke, wood, oil, gas and biomass-fired), process heaters, stationary engines, industrial furnaces, lime kilns, metallurgical furnaces, FCCs, utility boilers, gas turbine IPPs and cogenerators, and process incinerators...

Cascone, R.

214

Advanced precoat filtration and competitive processes for water purification. Technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An advanced precoat filtration process system is introduced. Also presented and discussed are major competitive processes for water purification, such as conventional precoat filtration, conventional physical-chemical process, lime softening, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, activated alumina, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, microfiltration, electrodialysis, and packed aeration column.

Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

1989-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

215

THE AMERICAN CHEMICAL SOCIETY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...COLEMAN. The cawses and prevention of after-corrosion on the bores of firearms: WILBERT J. HuFF. The binary system, Akermanite-gehlenite (lime, magnesia, alumina, silica): J. B. FERGUSON and A. F. BUDDINGTON. The system Fe,0, -SO8...

Charles L. Parsons

1920-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

216

Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

oil preheater kiln Natural gas Petcoke Wastes preheater +preheater kiln Natural gas Petcoke preheater + precalciner

Stadel, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Temperature history and microstructure of alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple process for the attainment of fully dense and improved microstructure for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics has been developed. Pure, narrow size distribution, submicron powder is used. Homogenization heat treatment of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder compacts at 800{degree}C for 50 hours produces more uniform pore structure and higher green strength. Pore size distribution becomes narrower. Near fully dense, fine-grained (< 1.2{mu}m) and uniform grain size-distribution, undoped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics can be produced using a high quality powder, a high-pressure cold isostatic forming method, and a two-step sintering technique. Improvements in the microstructure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics homogenized at 800{degree}C/50 h include a smaller pore size and a more uniform pore size distribution. Prevention of differential densification in the early stages and delay of pore channel closure to the later stages of sintering are believed to be the primary mechanisms for the microstructure improvement in two-step sintering. Two-step sintering is an alternate way to improve the microstructure of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics compared to fast firing or MgO doping. When a homogenization heat treatment and the fast firing are combined, the final density is higher than from fast firing alone. However, the two-step sintering technique is simple and there is no size limit. Generalization of two-step sintering to more systems is needed. For 250 ppM MgO-doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ceramics, homogenization of powder compacts at 800{degree}C for 50 hours produces 0.80{mu}m. This improvement is explained by the distribution of MgO becoming more uniform during the homogenization heat treatment, which enhances the effectiveness of MgO doping.

Lin, Jiang Tsair

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Lime: Resources and Links -  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Resources & Links Resources & Links Software Tools DOE BestPractices Software Tools DOE BestPractices offers a range of software tools and databases that help manufacturers assess their plant's steam, compressed air, motor, and process heating systems. DOE Plant Energy Profiler Industry experience has shown that many plant utility personnel do not have an adequate understanding of their energy cost structure and where the major focus should be for any energy savings program. This tool will address this need and enable an engineer assigned to a plant utility to better understand (a) the cost of all energy sources supplied to the plant, (b) how much energy each individual utility service or energy-consuming equipment consumes, and, (c) where opportunities to realize savings exist.

219

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Lime - Energy Management  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Energy Management Expertise Energy Management Expertise Pumping System Assessment Tool Qualification PSAT helps users assess energy savings opportunities in pumping systems, relying on field measurements of flow rate, head, and either motor power or current to perform the assessment. AIRMaster+ Qualification AirMaster+ provides comprehensive information on assessing compressed AirMaster+ air systems, including modeling, existing and future system upgrades, and savings and effectiveness of energy efficiency measures. Processing Heating Assessment and Survey Tool Qualification (PHAST) PHAST assists users to survey process heating equipment and identify the most energy-intensive equipment and to perform energy (heat) balances on furnaces to identify and reduce non-productive energy use

220

Kinetic Modeling and Assessment of Lime Pretreatment of Poplar Wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

reaction Alcohol Standard Alcohol Co. Power Energy Fuels Lignocellulose Gasification CO/H2 Fermentation Alcohol Alico Inc., Bioenergy, Coskata Lignocellulose Acid Hydrolysis Sugar Fermentation Alcohol Arkenol, BlueFire Ethanol, Masada...

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Lime pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis of corn stover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and then distributed to each column by the air-manifold having one input and 10 output fittings. Compressed nitrogen gas (Praxair Co., College Station, TX) was used to make the non-oxidative condition and supplied to each column by the N2-manifold after preheating...

Kim, Se Hoon

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

222

Removal of Magnesium from Underground Waters Using Lime  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... has steadily become more pressing, and considerable effort is now expended in research aimed at desalination. In Australia, generally acknowledged as the driest continental land-mass, this difficulty has ...

R. J. W. MCLAUGHLIN; W. T. AGAR

1966-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

223

DOE - Office of Legacy Management -- New England Lime Co - CT...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

consideration under FUSRAP Designated Name: Not Designated Alternate Name: NELCO (Magnesium Division) CT.10-1 Location: Canaan , Connecticut CT.10-2 Evaluation Year: 1987...

224

Climate VISION: Private Sector Initiatives: Lime: Work Plans  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

the support of DOE, outlining its proposed implementation actions to reduce greenhouse gas emission intensity from fuel combustion per ton of product by 8% between 2002 and 2012....

225

Long-term lime pretreatment of poplar wood  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Lignocellulosic biomass (e.g., poplar wood) provides a unique and sustainable resource for environmentally safe organic fuels and chemicals. The core of this study is the pretreatment step involved in bioconversion processes. Pretreatment...

Sierra Ramirez, Rocio

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

226

Determining the leaching characteristics of solidified/stabilized wastes using constant pH leaching tests  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into a landfill. Presently, the S/S process is mostly cement-based (Coibitt, 1990; U. S. EPA 1989). Various additives are typically added to lower the operation cost while main- taining the required performance. Fly-ash, bentonite, and silica fumes... degradation, and are vulnerable to long-term decay. For inorganic wastes, cement or pozzolanic binders? such as Portland cement, fly-ash, kiln-dust, lime, silicate, and a combination of these materials - are the common choices. They are inexpensive, readily...

Sofjan, Indratjahja

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Sources and transport of delta 14C in CO2 within the Mexico City Basin and vicinity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cement Kilns Begin Burning Hazardous Wastes, Border- Lines,into fuels before burning the waste in their kilns (Reed andinclude the burning of hazardous waste in cement kilns;

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Characterisation of rotary kiln residues from the pyrolysis of shredder residues: Issues with lead  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stringent legislation is being to be implemented across Europe relating to heavy metal contamination into the environment. This study thus focuses on developing a method for reliably determining the lead content of automotive shredder residue (ASR). The material is first pyrolysed to remove organic fractions. Different analytical methods were then used to investigate the concentrations of heavy metals in the burned char, which varies from chunks of metals in larger sized fractions to fine powders of mostly non-metals. By considering results from ICP-MS, EDXRF, WDXRF and a portable EDXRF, it was found that varying values were obtained but that consistent ‘consensus values’ could be determined. Such ‘consensus’ values of lead, copper, iron and zinc are thus reported, and show that properly depolluted \\{ELVs\\} have significantly lower lead levels than normal shredder residue (SR) feed ?8000 ppm versus 16,000 ppm. The finest fraction, <850 ?m, makes up around half of the mass of the SR and has only 2700 ppm and 5400 ppm lead concentration values for depolluted \\{ELVs\\} and normal SR, respectively, making it of interest for further work to develop uses as a feed in other industries.

Osric T. Forton; Lucas McGrady; M.M. Singh; E.R.M. Taylor; Norman R. Moles; Marie K. Harder

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons Formation in Sludge Incineration by Fluidised Bed and Rotary Kiln Furnace  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are typical pollutants arising from incineration. They are produced in any incomplete combustion principally due to inhomogeneities in a combustion chamber. The effects ...

Giuseppe Mininni; Andrea Sbrilli; Ettore Guerriero…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

A dolomite preheater-economizer for use of the exhaust gas heat of rotary kilns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Seversk Dolomite Combine a prototype of a preheater-economizer for utilization of the heat of the ... exhaust gases at the inlet to the preheater-economizer of 550–600°C and passage through...

G. S. Rasput'ko; V. V. Churilov; V. I. Rogovskii; Ya. N. Rudnitskii…

231

Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

clinker cooler, use of waste fuels, dry-suspension preheater kilns Dry precalciner kilns, blended cements, cogeneration, high-temperature

Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

BTu/tonne cement) Baseline Portland Cement produced at wet kiln long dry kiln Coal Electricity Distillate (diesel)

Stadel, Alexander

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Effect of thermal residual stresses on the strength for both alumina/Ni/alumina and alumina/Ni/nickel alloy bimaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or high heat resistance, it is sometimes difficult to use ceramic materials as general structural reactors [1]. But, even though ceramic materials are excellent due to their light weight, wear resistance materials because they have some fatal weakness in impact resistance, toughness, or during manufacturing

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

234

Heterogeneous Oxidation of Carbonyl Sulfide on Atmospheric Particles and Alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The specifications of gases used in this experiment are as follows without further purification:? OCS (2%, OCS/N2, Scott Specialty Gases Inc.), O2 (99.99% purity, Beijing AP BEIFEN Gases Inc.), H2 (99.999% purity, GCD-300B high purity hydrogen generator, China Bchp Analytical Technology Co. Ltd.). ... To confirm our assignment about the surface SO42- species, 1.0 g of preoxidized Al2O3 sample after exposure to a flow of 500 ppm OCS + 95% O2 at 298 K for 2 h was analyzed by ion chromatography (DIONEX, CA); 2.43 mg/L SO42- can be detected (sample stirred with 100 mL deionized water, and then filtered through a 0.45-?m filter). ... Since the real atmospheric particle sample has relatively high surface area (4.8 m2/g), its influence on the conversion of OCS in atmosphere is not neglectable. ...

Hong He; Junfeng Liu; Yujing Mu; Yunbo Yu; Meixue Chen

2005-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

235

Microfluidic Investigation of Tracer Dye Diffusion in Alumina Nanofluids  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to prepare new refrigerant formulations containing dispersed nanomaterials, including graphene nanosheets, carbon nanotubes and metal oxide and nitride. The influence of key parameters such as particle type, size and volume fraction on the suspension...

Ozturk, Serdar 1979-

2012-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

236

CO2-selective, Hybrid Membranes by Silation of Alumina  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hybrid membranes are feasible candidates for the separation of CO2 from gas produced in coal-based power generation since they have the potential to combine the high selectivity of polymer membranes and the high permeability of inorganic membranes. An interesting method for producing hybrid membranes is the silation of an inorganic membrane. In this method, trichloro- or alkoxy-silanes interact with hydroxyl groups on the surface of ?-AlO3 or TiO2, binding organic groups to that surface. By varying the length of these organic groups on the organosilane, it should be possible to tailor the effective pore size of the membrane. Similarly, the addition of “CO2-phillic” groups to the silating agent allows for the careful control of surface affinity and the enhancement of surface diffusion mechanisms. This method of producing hybrid membranes selective to CO2 was first attempted by Hyun [1] who silated TiO2 with phenyltriethoxysilane. Later, Way [2] silated ?-AlO3 with octadecyltrichlorosilane. Both researchers were successful in producing membranes with improved selectivity toward CO2, but permeability was not maintained at a commercially applicable level. XPS data indicated that the silating agent did not penetrate into the membrane pores and separation actually occurred in a thin “polymer-like” surface layer. The present study attempts to overcome the mass transfer problems associated with this technique by producing the desired monolayer coverage of silane, and thus develop a highly-permeable CO2-selective hybrid membrane.

Luebke, D.R.; Pennline, H.W.

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Decomposition of Perfluorocompounds on Alumina-Based Catalyst  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The control of the atmospheric release of PFCs (perfluorocompounds) is an important environmental problem worldwide. PFCs are powerful greenhouse gases used by the semiconductor and liquid crystal industries as etching and cleaning agents. We developed a catalyst that decomposes PFCs with only water. Al2O3 was selected from the survey of some single metal-oxide catalysts. Addition of another metal-oxide improved the decomposition ratio and durability. The Al2O3-based catalyst decomposed CF4, C2F6, C3F8, C4F8, NF3 and SF6 by more than 99% at 750 degrees Celsius. Furthermore, our catalyst retained a high decomposition ratio as demonstrated by a continuous run for about 4000 hours at 700-750 degrees Celsius. The influence of chlorine as an impurity with regard to the SF6 decomposition ratio on the catalyst was examined. SF6 was decomposed at more than 99% during 8 hours in the presence of 400 ppm chlorine. Chlorine concentration in the outlet gas was less than TLV. No chlorine compounds were found by X-ray diffraction analysis of the used catalyst. That is, the hydrogenation of chlorine did not inhibit the surface catalytic reaction for PFC. Also, CF4 was decomposed at the condition of 1.4% of high concentration. The conversion remained higher than 99% throughout during a durability test. Furthermore, we investigated a large-scale decomposition system in the paper.

Kanno, Shuichi; Tamata, Shin; Kurokawa, Hideaki

2004-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

238

Torque magnetometry of an amorphous-alumina/strontium-titanate interface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report torque magnetometry measurements of an oxide heterostructure consisting of an amorphous Al[subscript 2]O[subscript 3] thin film grown on a crystalline SrTiO[subscript 3] substrate (a-AO/STO) by atomic layer ...

Lee, S. W.

239

Low Temperature Reduction of Alumina Using Fluorine Containing Ionic Liquids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The major objective of the project is to establish the feasibility of using specific ionic liquids capable of sustaining aluminum electrolysis near room temperature at laboratory and batch recirculation scales. It will explore new technologies for aluminum and other valuable metal extraction and process methods. The new technology will overcome many of the limitations associated with high temperatures processes such as high energy consumption and corrosion attack. Furthermore, ionic liquids are non-toxic and could be recycled after purification, thus minimizing extraction reagent losses and environmental pollutant emissions. Ionic liquids are mixture of inorganic and organic salts which are liquid at room temperature and have wide operational temperature range. During the last several years, they were emerging as novel electrolytes for extracting and refining of aluminum metals and/or alloys, which are otherwise impossible using aqueous media. The superior high temperature characteristics and high solvating capabilities of ionic liquids provide a unique solution to high temperature organic solvent problems associated with device internal pressure build-up, corrosion, and thermal stability. However their applications have not yet been fully implemented due to the insufficient understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms involved in processing of aluminum with ionic liquids. Laboratory aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquids has been investigated in chloride and bis (trifluoromethylsulfonyl) imide based ionic liquids. The electrowinning process yielded current density in the range of 200-500 A/m2, and current efficiency of about 90%. The results indicated that high purity aluminum (>99.99%) can be obtained as cathodic deposits. Cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry studies have shown that initial stages of aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolyte at 30°C was found to be quasi-reversible, with the charge transfer coefficient (0.40). Nucleation phenomena involved in aluminum deposition on copper in AlCl3-BMIMCl electrolyte was found to be instantaneous followed by diffusion controlled three-dimensional growth of nuclei. Diffusion coefficient (Do) of the electroactive species Al2Cl7¯ ion was in the range from 6.5 to 3.9×10–7 cm2?s–1 at a temperature of 30°C. Relatively little research efforts have been made toward the fundamental understanding and modeling of the species transport and transformation information involved in ionic liquid mixtures, which eventually could lead to quantification of electrochemical properties. Except that experimental work in this aspect usually is time consuming and expensive, certain characteristics of ionic liquids also made barriers for such analyses. Low vapor pressure and high viscosity make them not suitable for atomic absorption spectroscopic measurement. In addition, aluminum electrodeposition in ionic liquid electrolytes are considered to be governed by multi-component mass, heat and charge transport in laminar and turbulent flows that are often multi-phase due to the gas evolution at the electrodes. The kinetics of the electrochemical reactions is in general complex. Furthermore, the mass transfer boundary layer is about one order of magnitude smaller than the thermal and hydrodynamic boundary layer (Re=10,000). Other phenomena that frequently occur are side reactions and temperature or concentration driven natural convection. As a result of this complexity, quantitative knowledge of the local parameters (current densities, ion concentrations, electrical potential, temperature, etc.) is very difficult to obtain. This situation is a serious obstacle for improving the quality of products, efficiency of manufacturing and energy consumption. The gap between laboratory/batch scale processing with global process control and nanoscale deposit surface and materials specifications needs to be bridged. A breakthrough can only be realized if on each scale the occurring phenomena are understood and quantified. Multiscale numerical modeling nevertheless can help t

Dr. R. G. Reddy

2007-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Controlled Doping of Transition Metal Cations in Alumina Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

First, calcined Al-PILC was dispersed into an aqueous solution of sodium or ammonium ions. ... The ion-doped Al-PILC was then exchanged with an aqueous solution of transition metal salt at a pH of ?4.5 to replace Na+ or NH4+ ions by transition metal cations. ... Analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance?ultraviolet?visible spectroscopy, as well as N2 adsorption were used to characterize the PILC products with and without the loading of metal ions. ...

H. Y. Zhu; Z. H. Zhu; G. Q. Lu

2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Nanotube fracture during the failure of carbon nanotube/ alumina composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-based ceramic composites, leading to improved fracture toughness. � 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1 problem, incorporation of particulates, flakes and short/long fibers into ceramics matrix, as a second, chemical and electrical properties [3­7], motivating their use in ceramic composite materials as a fibrous

242

OH CONCENTRATION PROFILES OVER ALUMINA, QUARTZ, AND PLATINUM SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for micro- thrusters. Even a 2% conversion of that heat energy to usable energy (giving 0.8 to 1 MJ=kg) will exceed the best battery energy densities cur- rently achieved, and conversion efficiencies greater than of the factors affecting OH recombination rate are provided as a function of material and temperature

243

Electrification of Porous Alumina on Desorption of Gases  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... an electric oven, ground in an agate mortar to pass through a ?270 Mesh (ASTM), and then separated into fairly uniform fractions by centrifuging4 (see Fig. 1). ...

ALBERTO C. MONTEFINALE; GIANNA L. PETRICONI; HENRY M. PAPÉE

1965-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

244

Conversion of Diaspore to Corundum: A New -Alumina Transformation Sequence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by copper grids. The samples were examined in a Phil- ips 420T operating at an accelerating voltage of 120 kV difficulty in obtaining reliable data for the phase is that the nanocrystal- line grain size results in broad as those of corundum. Specimens were prepared for transmission electron micros- copy (TEM) evaluation

Rohrer, Gregory S.

245

Retrospective dosimetry with alumina substrate from electronic components  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......reach the light detection system. The power of light intensity is...period. The heating system of the reader is able...Rahola T., Smith K. TMT Handbook. Triage, Monitoring...using the TL from dental restoration porcelains. Radiat......

Daniela Ekendahl; Libor Judas

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Radiation Dose Measurement by Electron Spin Resonance Studies of Tooth Enamel in Lime and Non-lime Consuming Individuals from the Silchar Region of Northeast India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......uranium in nuclear workers occupationally exposed to uranium in Rocketdyne, USA (19501994). Apart from the known toxic effects of...radiation exposure on cancer mortality in nuclear workers at Rocketdyne/Atomics Interna- tional. Environ Health Perspect. 108......

Deborshi Bhattacharjee; Alexander I. Ivannikov; Kassym Zhumadilov; Valeriy F. Stepanenko; Kenichi Tanaka; Satoru Endo; Megu Ohtaki; Shin Toyoda; Joyeeta Bhattacharyya; Masaharu Hoshi

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

A study of a lime-free calcium arsenate and lime-free calcium arsenate mixed with organic insecticides for cotton insect control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

between observations and the fitted line: v ( a ) = - s - W - = - E c m r ? -0 2 3 9 - E q ? ( 1 2 ) 18 a n d V ( b ) " [ J ^ " T 7 3 ^ 2 T = * 7 6 5 5 * E q * ( 1 3 ) But if chi-square indicates a significant degree of heterogeneity...) (7.U081;) = 3-5012. The portion of survivors q was substituted in equation (2a) when expected probits were greater than 5o0: y = ( Y / 2 ) - q ( i ) Eq. (2A)a F or y = 6.2812 - oBUYD (2.5700) = 5-2532. A weight value was found for each corrected...

Roussel, John Severin

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

248

Pitting corrosion protection of stainless steel by sputter deposited hafnia, alumina, and hafnia-alumina nanolaminate films  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

316L stainless steel coated with sputter deposited HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films were subjected to direct current cyclic potentiodynamic polarization (DCP) in Hanks' balanced salt solution electrolyte. Postexposure morphology was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with in situ energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). SEM/EDS data show that bare steel and steel coated with single-layer HfO{sub 2} develop pits with perforated covers. These pits become autocatalytic, consistent with an observed positive DCP hysteresis. On the other hand, SEM/EDS data show that steel coated with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate films does not develop autocatalytic pits, consistent with an observed negative DCP hysteresis. However, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} splinters upon polarization whereas the HfO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanolaminate remains intact. The areas of worst damage in the nanolaminate correspond to pit cover rupture before autocatalysis, allowing pit and bulk electrolyte to mix and the newly exposed steel surface to repassivate. The films' diverse behavior is discussed in terms of a model for perforated pit growth that requires occlusion until an autocatalytic geometry is established. The authors conclude that the key property a film must have to arrest autocatalytic geometry development is the ability to rupture locally at an early stage of pit growth.

Almomani, M. A.; Aita, C. R. [Materials Department and the Advanced Coatings Experimental Laboratory, College of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, P.O. Box 784, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53201 (United States)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

249

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

system that uses steam and turbine generators to produce upwater to cooling towers Steam Turbine Generator Waste Heatcombustion (CO gas) ? Steam turbine condenser cooling water

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of O2 in combustion products Excess air used Recommended airtemperature of the air or combustion products and nodules tocombustion products of coal, additional air from various

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy reduction through energy efficiency improvements and the second section addresses reduction of pollutants with minimum or no change in fuelenergy reduction through energy efficiency improvements and the second section addresses reduction of pollutants with minimum or no change in fuel

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. Geneva:unintentional releases of dioxins and furans (Dx/Fu) fromPlan (NIP) to address dioxins and furans, and implement

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nodules by using hot water and/or using waste heat. 2.Pre dry nodules using waste heat from exhaust gases or airSteam Turbine Generator Waste Heat Boilers Preheaters and

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Increasing Energy Efficiency and Reducing Emissions from China's Cement Kilns: Audit Report of Two Cement Plants in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

has helped keep the mix of pyroprocessing technologies ingoes through the various pyroprocessing stages as it travels

Price, Lynn

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Calcination and pyroprocessing of mineral fines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

ABSTRACT During the past 40 years we have witnessed an interesting development in technologies for calcination and pyroprocessing of fine-grained material. This has led to the gas suspension principles now being widely used in the cement industry and in chemical processing systems for solids. The present paper deals with the dilute-phase systems and summarises the developments over the past 10 years illustrating the importance of raw material properties and product specifications in the selection and design of GSC systems. Methods for the characterisation of raw materials, such as crushed rock, flotation concentrates and hydrates, are illustrated with examples from industrial plants operating on dolomite, limestone and alumina hydrate. KEY WORDS GSC Gas Suspension Calcination Lime, Dolime, Alumina, Minerals Processing

E.A. Neubert

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD systems. Volume 3. Plant profiles. Part 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plant profiles are given for the following plants: Tombigbee 2, 3; Apache 2, 3; Cholla 1, 2; Four Corners 1, 2, 3; Laramie River 1; Green 1, 2; Duck Creek 1; Craig 1, 2; Conesville 5, 6; Coal Creek 1, 2; Elrama 1, 2, 3, 4; and Phillips 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6. (DLC)

Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Sugarcane juice extraction and preservation, and long-term lime pretreatment of bagasse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

C)................................................................................146 Figure 4.6 Total mass, holocellulose, lignin and ash for treatment without air purging at 23oC. .........................................................................147 Figure 4.7 Total mass, holocellulose, lignin and ash for treatment... without air purging at 30oC. .........................................................................148 Figure 4.8 Total mass, holocellulose, lignin and ash for treatment without air purging at 40o...

Granda Cotlear, Cesar Benigno

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

Volatile fatty acid fermentation of lime-treated bagasse by rumen microorganisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

future. From another perspective, since fossil fuels are mined from beneath the earth' s surface, their combustion releases subsurface carbon to accumulate in the atmosphere as carbon dioxide, leading to the global warmings7 ? the so... of the least thermally stable components of the cell wall. 'a Softwood hemicelluloses are rich in mannan polymers with significant quantities of xylans, whereas hardwood hemicelluloses are rich in xylan polymers and contain small amounts of mannan, as 10...

Lee, Chang-Ming

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

259

Influence of Lime Addition to Ilmenite in Chemical-Looping Combustion (CLC) with Solid Fuels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of calcined and sulfated limestone addition in an oxygen carrier bed of ilmenite has been investigated for chemical-looping combustion (CLC) with solid fuel. The experiments have been performed in a laboratory-batch fluidized-bed reactor ...

Guillaume Teyssié; Henrik Leion; Georg L. Schwebel; Anders Lyngfelt; Tobias Mattisson

2011-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

260

Sulfate Induced Heave: Addressing Ettringite Behavior in Lime Treated Soils and in Cementitious Materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Civil engineers are at times required to stabilize sulfate bearing clay soils with calcium based stabilizers. Deleterious heaving in these stabilized soils may result over time. This dissertation addresses critical questions regarding...

Kochyil Sasidharan Nair, Syam Kumar

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Equations for predicting the layer stiffness moduli in pavement systems containing lime-flyash stabilized materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in site 2. Site 2 resurfaced with 2 in. NIAC jn Dctober 1980. originally constructed of one-course bituminous surface treatment. All ten sections of the test site were re-surfaced in October, 1980, with a 2-inch hot mix concrete overlay. Varying...

Alam, Shah Manzoor

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Calcined Dolomite: Alternative to Lime for Minimizing Undesirable Element Leachability from Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In contrast, for the TCD-treated sample, the principal peaks for several newly formed minerals, including hydrocalumite (3CaO·Al2O3·Ca(OH)2·12H2O) (or hydrotalcite), portlandite (Ca(OH)2), and ettringite (3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·32H2O), were found. ... H hydrocalumite (or hydrotalcite); M mullite; E ettringite; P portlandite; Q quartz; K kalinite; C calcite; He hematite; Ge gehlenite hydrate; G gypsum. ... There was also a small peak for ettringite present. ...

Qinghai Guo; Eric J. Reardon

2012-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

263

Sulfate Induced Heave: Addressing Ettringite Behavior in Lime Treated Soils and in Cementitious Materials.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Civil engineers are at times required to stabilize sulfate bearing clay soils with calcium based stabilizers. Deleterious heaving in these stabilized soils may result over… (more)

Kochyil Sasidharan Nair, Syam Kumar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Analysis of cubic and orthorhombic C3A hydration in presence of gypsum and lime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

14 days (b). Key: E = ettringite; G = gypsum; C c = cubic CA Fig. 3 SEM pictures of ettringite formation from a cubic Ccubic phase, forming longer ettringite needles; however, the

Kirchheim, A. P.; Fernàndez-Altable, V.; Monteiro, P. J.; Dal Molin, D. C.; Casanova, I.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

CONTROLLED LOW-STRENGTH MATERIAL (CLSM) PRODUCED WITH HIGH-LIME FLY ASH  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the Detroit Edison Company, Detroit, Michigan, and Kuhlman Corp., Toledo, Ohio in the 1970s. The investigation

Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

266

Effects of Lime and Concrete Waste on Vadose Zone Carbon Cycling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...soil VWC and temperature, soil air pCO2, and soil water alkalinity...Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. 2nd ed. A.A. Balkema Publishers...forest soils in Denmark. Water Air Soil Pollut. 39(3-4...d13CO2 measurements in soil air. Tellus B 52:909-918...

E.M. Thaysen; S. Jessen; D. Postma; R. Jakobsen; D. Jacques; P. Ambus; E. Laloy; I. Jakobsen

267

Treatability of PCB-contaminated soils with quicklime (CaO)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The possibility that quicklime (calcium oxide, CaO) can destroy PCBs has received much attention over the past year. Observations at an EPA remediation site, where lime-containing kiln dusts were used for interim stabilization of PCB-containing wastes prompted the EPA to sponsor a small research project to investigate quicklime-PCB interactions. That study reported decreases in PCB content in synthetic, PCB-spiked soil following the application of quicklime and heat. META Environmental, Inc., as a contractor to EPRI, recently completed research designed to evaluate the effectiveness of quicklime for treating PCBs in soil and sand matrices under several reaction conditions, and to examine the underlying dechlorination chemistry involved, if any. Experiments were run with PCB-spiked sand and with actual PCB-contaminated soil. A variety of experimental conditions were employed including tests in open and closed containers, at ambient and elevated temperatures, and over a range of one hour to four days. Granular quicklime, fly ash, and kiln dust were all tested for reaction with PCBs. Early experiments showed that a mixture of sand/quicklime/water at 1:3:1.5 by weight, placed in an insulated container reached a maximum temperature of 216[degree]C. Treatability experiments were subsequently run under controlled heat at room temperature, at 80[degree]C, and at 200[degree]C (following the initial temperature increase which occurs when water is added to quicklime). Little or no loss of PCBs was observed in open or closed containers at ambient or at 800[degree]C over any period of time studied. A significant decrease of PCBs levels was observed only in the high temperature experiments (above 200[degree]C), however the fate of the PCBs in those experiments was not determined. The conditions and the results of the PCB treatment tests are presented in this report, as well as recommendations for further studies.

Mauro, D.; Taylor, B.B. (Meta Environmental, Inc., Watertown, MA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Marine Diagenesis of Shallow Marine Lime-Mud Sediments: Insights from ?O18 and ?C13 Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Choquette Denver Research Center, Marathon Oil Company, Littleton, Colorado...CHOQUETTE Denver Research Center, Marathon Oil Company, Littleton, Colorado...modification by B. J. Wigin-ton (Marathon Oil Co.) of one described by C...

Philip W. Choquette

1968-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

269

Marine Diagenesis of Shallow Marine Lime-Mud Sediments: Insights from ?O18 and ?C13 Data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...few percent); with porosity (1 to 3 percent...progressive increases in porosity and permeability. Samples of Ste. Genevieve...core analysis for total porosity and air per-meability...transition-zone carbonate rocks are given in Table 1...

Philip W. Choquette

1968-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

270

Failure mode analysis for lime/limestone FGD system. Volume III. Plant profiles. Part 1 of 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains plant profiles for: Petersburg 3; Hawthorn 3, 4; La Cygne 1; Jeffry 1, 2; Lawrence 4, 5; Green River 1-3; Cane Run 4, 5; Mill Creek 1, 3; Paddy's Run 6; Clay Boswell 4; Milton R. Young 2; Pleasants 1, 2; and Colstrip 1, 2. (DLC)

Kenney, S.M.; Rosenberg, H.S.; Nilsson, L.I.O.; Oxley, J.H.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Development of Oxidative Lime Pretreatment and Shock Treatment to Produce Highly Digestible Lignocellulose for Biofuel and Ruminant Feed Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enhanced the 72-h glucan digestibility of several promising biomass feedstocks: bagasse (74.0), corn stover (92.0), poplar wood (94.0), sorghum (71.8), and switchgrass (89.0). Highly digestible lignocellulose can also be used as ruminant animal feed. Shock...

Falls, Matthew David

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

Oil shale retort apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A retorting apparatus including a vertical kiln and a plurality of tubes for delivering rock to the top of the kiln and removal of processed rock from the bottom of the kiln so that the rock descends through the kiln as a moving bed. Distributors are provided for delivering gas to the kiln to effect heating of the rock and to disturb the rock particles during their descent. The distributors are constructed and disposed to deliver gas uniformly to the kiln and to withstand and overcome adverse conditions resulting from heat and from the descending rock. The rock delivery tubes are geometrically sized, spaced and positioned so as to deliver the shale uniformly into the kiln and form symmetrically disposed generally vertical paths, or "rock chimneys", through the descending shale which offer least resistance to upward flow of gas. When retorting oil shale, a delineated collection chamber near the top of the kiln collects gas and entrained oil mist rising through the kiln.

Reeves, Adam A. (Grand Junction, CO); Mast, Earl L. (Norman, OK); Greaves, Melvin J. (Littleton, CO)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Strains in Thermally Growing Alumina Films Measured in-situ usingSynchrotron X-rays  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Strains in thermally grown oxides have been measured in-situ, as the oxides develop and evolve. Extensive data have been acquired from oxides grown in air at elevated temperatures on different model alloys that form Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. Using synchrotron x-rays at the Advanced Photon Source (Beamline 12BM, Argonne National Laboratory), Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns from the oxidizing specimen were recorded every 5 minutes during oxidation and subsequent cooling. The diffraction patterns were analyzed to determine strains in the oxides, as well as phase changes and the degree of texture. To study a specimen's response to stress perturbation, the oxidizing temperature was quickly cooled from 1100 to 950 C to impose a compressive thermal stress in the scale. This paper describes this new experimental approach and gives examples from oxidized {beta}-NiAl, Fe-20Cr-10Al, Fe-28Al-5Cr and H{sub 2}-annealed Fe-28Al-5Cr (all at. %) alloys to illustrate some current understanding of the development and relaxation of growth stresses in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

Hou, P.Y.; Paulikas, A.P.; Veal, B.W.

2006-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

274

Growth strains and creep in thermally grown alumina : oxide growth mechanisms.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In situ measurements of growth strains and creep relaxation in {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films, isothermally grown on {beta}-NiAl alloys at 1100 C, are reported and analyzed. Samples containing the reactive element Zr, and Zr-free samples, are examined. For Zr-free samples, steady state growth strains are compressive, whereas the growth strains are tensile when the reactive element (RE) is added to the alloy. This behavior is attributed to the counterflow of oxygen and aluminum interstitials, and to simultaneous counterflow of oxygen and aluminum vacancies, all moving through the grain boundaries. Cross diffusing oxygen and aluminum interstitials may merge and combine within the film, forming new oxide along grain boundary walls, a mechanism that leads to an in-plane compressive stress. Cross diffusing oxygen and aluminum vacancies will also merge and combine within the film; in this case material is removed from grain boundary walls, a mechanism that leads to an in-plane tensile stress. When no RE is present, the interstitial mechanism dominates and the resultant stress is compressive. Consistent with the 'dynamic segregation model', the RE slows the outdiffusion of Al interstitials permitting the tensile mechanism to dominate. This interpretation invokes the unconventional view that oxygen and aluminum interstitials and vacancies, created in and driven by the strong chemical gradient, all participate meaningfully in the scale growth process. Grain boundary diffusion measurements were obtained from low stress creep data, interpreted using the Coble model of grain boundary diffusion. Reported diffusion measurements of oxygen through grain boundaries of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which are known to be inconsistent with oxide scale growth, are critically examined. A simple picture, a 'balanced defect model', emerges that is consistent with the dynamic segregation model, observed growth stresses and their dependence on the presence of a reactive element, sequential oxidation experiments, and our best knowledge about grain boundary diffusion coefficients.

Veal, B. W.; Paulikas, A. P.; Materials Science Division

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-iron functionally graded Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

...23 Enter Grades View Grades ... Source: Utah, University of - Energy and Geoscience Institute,...

276

TEST PROGRAM FOR ALUMINA REMOVAL AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE REGENERATION FROM HANFORD WASTE BY LITHIUM HYDROTALCITE PRECIPITATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This test program sets a multi-phased development path to support the development of the Lithium Hydrotalcite process, in order to raise its Technology Readiness Level from 3 to 6, based on tasks ranging from laboratory scale scientific research to integrated pilot facilities.

SAMS TL; GEINESSE D

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

277

Sodium NMR Study of the Effects of Additives in Sodium Beta-Alumina Ceramic Samples  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We interpret these results in terms of the removal of defects in the conduction plane. It appears that some additives may remove defects which are partially blocking...

I. Chung; H. S. Story; W. L. Roth

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Antiferroelectric transition in 03B2-alumina, a realization of the D =  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transition d'ordre récemment observée dans l'alumine béta st0153chiométrique à l'argent. La phase basse~' ions. The model is basically that of an order-disorder anti- ferroelectric transition in two dimensions-aBR transition and is usually considered as closely related to fast ion conduction (lattice gas models [8]). Here

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

279

An Experiment-Based Model for the Petrogenesis of High-Alumina Basalts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...30-gm sec-tions, using an automated point-counting stage. 12...20 to 30% by weight) and rapid and may proceed to the near...supplied information that makes simulation of glacier mass balance with...glacier sensitivity based on a modeling study of 12 selected glaciers...

J. S. Beard; G. E. Lofgren

1992-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

280

Chemical Modification of Porous Alumina for Nanowire Templating and NEXAFS Spectroscopy of Aqueous ATP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Two: NEXAFS Spectroscopy of Aqueous ATP Chapter 3: AdenosineAdenosine triphsophate (ATP) is an important biomoleculeThe ubiquitous presence of ATP in organisms implies that

Kelly, Daniel Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Molecular self-assembly of nylon-12 nanorods cylindrically confined to nanoporous alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been revealed that in cylindrical nano-confinement, the hydrogen-bonding direction of nylon-12 crystals in the rod could self-assemble to be parallel to the long axis of the rod. The dominant growth direction and hydrogen-bonding direction of the -form crystal in the long axis of the rod has been revealed by TEM-SAED and WAXD.

Cao, Y.

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

282

Morphological, mechanical, and biocompatibility characterization of macroporous alumina scaffolds coated with calcium phosphate/PVA  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

To establish a comparative study, two types of dispersants were used. The first one consisted of Polyacrylic acid (PAA) with average molecular weight of...

Hermes S. Costa; Alexandra A. P. Mansur…

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Theoretical Predictions and Experimental Assessments of the Performance of Alumina RF Windows  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radio frequency (RF) windows are the most likely place for catastrophic failure to occur in input power couplers for particle accelerators. Reliable RF windows are essential for the success of the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program because there are over 1000 windows on the accelerator, and it takes more than one day to recover from a window failure. The goals of this research are to analytically predict the lifetime of the windows, to develop a conditioning procedure, and to evaluate the performance of the RF windows. The analytical goal is to predict the lifetime of the windows. The probability of failure is predicted by the combination of a finite element model of the window, Weibull probabilistic analysis, and fracture mechanics. The window assembly is modeled in a finite element electromagnetic code in order to calculate the electric fields in the window. The geometry (i.e. mesh) and electric fields are input into a translator program to generate the mesh and boundary conditions for a finite element thermal structural code. The temperatures and stresses are determined in the thermal/structural code. The geometry and thermal structural results are input into another translator program to generate an input file for the reliability code. Material, geometry and service data are also input into the reliability code. To obtain accurate Weibull and fatigue data for the analytical model, four point bend tests were done. The analytical model is validated by comparing the measurements to the calculations. The lifetime of the windows is then determined using the reliability code. The analytical model shows the window has a good thermal mechanical design and that fast fracture is unlikely to occur below a power level of 9 Mw. The experimental goal is to develop a conditioning procedure and evaluate the performance of RF windows. During the experimental evaluation, much was learned about processing of the windows to improve the RF performance. Methods of processing included grit blasting and using various coatings.

Karen Ann Cummings

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-forming austenitic stainless Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

licensed to Carpenter Technology Corp. Carpenter... for Research and Development Tim Armstrong sign a licensing agreement for an ... Source: Oak Ridge National Laboratory Fossil...

285

Refractory Materials based on Magnesia-Alumina Spinel for Improved Performance in Coal Gasification Environments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of a larger project to develop novel refractory systems and techniques to reduce energy consumption of refractory lined vessels, a team composed of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, refractory manufacturer Minteq International, Inc., and academic partner Missouri University of Science and Technology have developed new refractory materials and coating systems specifically for application in coal gasification environments. Materials were developed under this U.S. DOE funded project to address the need for innovative refractory compositions by developing MgO-Al2O3 spinel gunnable refractory compositions utilizing new aggregate materials, bond systems, protective coatings, and phase formation techniques. Work was conducted to develop and deploy these new materials and to develop and apply low cost coatings using a colloidal approach for protection against attack of the refractory brick by the serviced environment. Additionally, a light-weight back-up refractory system was developed to help offset the high thermal conductivity inherent in spinel materials. This paper discusses the efforts involved in the development of these materials, along with the laboratory testing and evaluation of these materials leading to relevant results achieved toward the reduction of chemical reactions and mechanical degradation by the service environment though compositional and processing modifications.

Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Armstrong, Beth L [ORNL; Rodrigues-Schroer, Angela [Minteq International, Inc.; Colavito, [Minteq International, Inc.; Smith, Jeffrey D [ORNL; O'Hara, Kelley [University of Missouri, Rolla

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Adhesion of Copper and Alumina from First Principles Xiao-Gang Wang and John R. Smith  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

barrier systems in gas turbines for aircraft engines and power generation, and coatings that inhibit

287

Plasma preparation of planar models of alumina catalysts: their characterization and impregnation chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

MXP 4T A CO CAREN Q(CO+ or M(CO)6 (COL 0 NKLEOPHILLIC ATTACK OF CO AT 4 RHFACE ACID SITE LnM-CO+41 or LnM M' ''AC~ SITE" REACTIIN WITH METHYL MIGRATION (CogMCH ~ (COI, MC-O ~ o-m (CQ?~-~ 0 I Al LIGAND EXCHANGE M(cog ~ M(cg, O... MXP 4T A CO CAREN Q(CO+ or M(CO)6 (COL 0 NKLEOPHILLIC ATTACK OF CO AT 4 RHFACE ACID SITE LnM-CO+41 or LnM M' ''AC~ SITE" REACTIIN WITH METHYL MIGRATION (CogMCH ~ (COI, MC-O ~ o-m (CQ?~-~ 0 I Al LIGAND EXCHANGE M(cog ~ M(cg, O...

Halverson, Dennis Eric

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

288

Solid-state NMR studies of the adsorption of acetylene on platinum/alumina catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on these catalysts. The mobility of benzene on these catalysts is independent of whether it is directly adsorbed or prepared from acetylene in situ. At 123 K the motionally averaged "C shielding tensor is accounted for by a model involving rapid rotation about... to the study of adsorbates on metals with large susceptibility anisotropies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS First, I would like to give recognition to my committee members: Chairman Dr. James F. Haw, Dr. Bruce Dale, Dr. Marcetta Darensbourg, and Dr. Russell...

Lambregts, Marsha Jo Lupher

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

289

Activated alumina adsorption of trace amounts of chromium and lead from wastewater  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the wastewater had plated out onto the walls of the containers. While the intent of isotherm tests is to maintain a constant pH for the various mass amounts of adsorbent, the equilibrium pH after seven days in these experiments varied as much as 1 pH unit from... the initial pH for the high dose samples. Initial pretreatment of the adsorbent was attempted to avoid this problem but was unsuccessful. AA was first compared to GAC. By comparing percent removal of Pb and Cr to the final pH of the seven-day equilibrium...

Dennis, Reid L

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

290

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic alumina formed Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for micro-batteries. Lithium (Li) can be inserted reversibly within most Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

291

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic alumina supported Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Carbon Nanotube Mat as an Anode of Batteries for Medical Applications ... Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

292

E-Print Network 3.0 - anodic alumina films Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

electrodeposition as anode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

293

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina batteries status Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

for micro-batteries. Lithium (Li) can be inserted reversibly within most Source: Yang, Eui-Hyeok - Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology...

294

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-rich magnesium aluminate Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(3 pm... , but no evidence of evaporative loss is seen. The inclusion has a Group II REE pattern and a normal magnesium... ) and SYLVESTER etal. ( 1993). Magnesium, Al, Ti, Mn....

295

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-coated magnetite nanoparticles...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Source: Colvin, Vicki L.- Department of Chemistry, Rice University Collection: Materials Science ; Chemistry 5 2006 Student Symposium Multifunctional Magnetic and Gold-based...

296

NMR studies of superionic 03B2-aluminas J. L. Bjorkstam  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

importance as the ion conduction medium in high energy density electrical storage systems and the unusual fluctuations responsible for relaxa- tion. A minimum in T1 is expected when mo i - 1 (where mo is the NMR measuring frequency). In this case, T 1 vs. T measurements in solid electrolytes provide a way

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

297

Preparation of ceramic matrix and alumina fiber composites for use as solid electrolytes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for making solid electrolytes using a fibrous stabilizing dispersed second phase for enhanced conductivity of the electrolyte after deformation and annealing. 1 tab.

Dudney, N.J.

1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

298

Partial oxidation of propane on ceria-and alumina-supported platinum catalysts.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Three Pt/CeO2 catalysts and Pt/Al2O3 catalyst were studied for partial oxidation of propane. The 1 % Pt/CeO2 (C) catalyst which was prepared using CeO2 prepared… (more)

Bansode, Vijaya Anil.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Evaluation of Cadmium-Free Thick Film Materials on Alumina Substrates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new cadmium-free material system was successfully evaluated for the fabrication of thick film hybrid microcircuits at Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T). The characterization involved screen printing, drying and firing two groups of resistor networks which were made using the current material system and the cadmium-free material system. Electrical, environmental and adhesion tests were performed on both groups to determine the more suitable material system. Additionally, untrimmed test coupons were evaluated to further characterize the new materials. The cadmiumfree material system did as well or better than the current material system. Therefore, the new cadmium-free material system was approved for use on production thick film product.

L. H. Perdieu

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Strengthening and toughening of carbon nanotube reinforced alumina nanocomposite fabricated by  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

rights reserved. Keywords: Carbon nanotube; Ceramic matrix composite; Molecular level mixing; Spark: one is the weak bonding between CNTs and ceramic matrix and the other is the inhomogeneous distribution of CNTs within the ceramic matrix. Recently, CNTs have been homoge- neously dispersed within

Hong, Soon Hyung

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Mullite/Alumina Mixtures for Use as Porous Matrices in Oxide Fiber Composites  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ceramic composites. Conditions for the deflection of a matrix crack at a fiber-matrix interface are used to enable damage tolerance in continuous-fiber ceramic composites (CFCCs) has emerged as a new paradigm between matrix structure and composite performance are understood presently at only a rudimentary level

Zok, Frank

302

Acidity and catalytic activity of zeolite catalysts bound with silica and alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Micropore surface area and micropore volume are reduced by about 19% and 18%, respectively, indicating some micropores of ZSM-5 are blocked on binding with silica. SiO2-bound ZSM-5 catalysts have less catalytic activity for butane transformation (cracking...

Wu, Xianchun

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

303

Chemical Modification of Porous Alumina for Nanowire Templating and NEXAFS Spectroscopy of Aqueous ATP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electrodes through a salt bridge [the salt bridge is made by heating a slurry of 2.5275 g KNO 3 , 0.75 g Agar,

Kelly, Daniel Nicholas

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Analysis of the Temporal Evolution of Thermal Conductivity in Alumina-Water Nanofluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be modeled as particles possessing interfacial shells [8] or nanolayers composed of interfacial particles [9] in an effort to explain observed enhancements of fluid thermal conductivity. Fractal models have also been proposed to describe the effect... of nanoparticle-fluid mixture, Int. J. of Heat and Mass Trans. 48 (2005) 2926-2932. [10] B.X. Wang, L.P. Zing, X.F. Peng, A fractal model for predicting the effective thermal conductivity of liquid with suspension of nanoparticles, Int. J. of Heat and Mass...

Fortenberry, Stephen

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

305

A thermionic energy converter with a molybdenum-alumina cermet emitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A study is made of the properties of cermets as electrode materials for thermionic energy converters. For thermodynamic reasons it is expected that all cermets composed of pure Mo and refractory oxides have the same bare work function. From data on the work function of Mo in an oxygen atmosphere this bare work function is estimated to be {Phi}=4.9 eV (at {ital T}=1400 {degree}C). Experimentally, the bare work function of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo cermets was found to be {Phi}=4.5 eV, independent of the relative amounts of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Mo. The cesiated work function of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo cermets was found to be 0.15 eV lower than the cesiated work function of pure Mo. The bare work function of Mo{sub 3}Al was found to be {Phi}=4.0 eV. The cesiated work function of Mo{sub 3}Al at collector temperature conditions was 0.3 eV lower than the cesiated work function of pure Mo. The electrical power density of a diode with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-Mo cermet emitter was 0.4 W/cm{sup 2} at 1300 {degree}C. The barrier index at this temperature was 2.36 V. The high barrier index is attributed to a high plasma voltage drop {ital V}{sub {ital d}}=0.91 V.

Gubbels, G.H.M.; Wolff, L.R.; Metselaar, R. (Centre for Technical Ceramics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P. O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven, The Netherlands (NL))

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

E-Print Network 3.0 - alumina-zirconium ceramics induced Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Cracking in Ceramic Crystals", Materials Letters, 7 5,6, 224 (1988... -Induced Fracture in Ceramic Crystals", Int. Conf. on the Fundamentals of Fracture Conf. Proceedings......

307

Spectroscopic Study of the Simultaneous Adsorption of PVP and Azelaic Acid on ?-Alumina  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A 180° backscattering geometry and an indium gallium arsenide detector were applied. ... The azelaic acid concentration was not equal in the two solvents, due to the limited solubility in water. ...

Ildikó Száraz; Willis Forsling

2001-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

308

An Improved Method To Strip Aluminum from Porous Anodic Alumina Films  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(PAA) films with an ordered array of holes.2-7 The pore diameter distribution in such films is a function of the film preparation and is typically close to monodisperse. PAA realized.4-7 The applications of PAA films that have been explored include template growth of nanotubes

309

Interfacial and near interfacial crack growth phenomena in metal bonded alumina  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

studies looking at subcritical crack growth at interfaces,An understanding of subcritical crack growth is important,the amount of subcritical crack growth data that could be

Kruzic, Jamie Joseph

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Health Hazard Evaluation determination report HHE 81-000-113, Martin-Marietta Cement, Tulsa, Oklahoma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In response to a request from the United Cement, Lime, Gypsum and Allied Workers Union Local 421, an investigation was made of possible health hazards occurring from the burning of high sulfur coal which exposed workers to sulfur-dioxide, carbon-dioxide, and hydrogen-sulfide at Martin-Marietta Cement, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Mail questionnaires were sent to employees prior to a hazard survey, and were followed up with medical interviews focusing on neurological symptoms, syncope, strokes, chest pain, and mucous membrane irritation. Environmental samples were collected for sulfur-dioxide, sulfates, sulfites, carbon-monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, and hydrogen-sulfide, and measured predominately in work areas near the back end of the kiln. Eighteen of 29 questionnaire respondents and 20 of 21 interviewed workers reported mucous membrane irritation compatible with sulfur-dioxide exposure. The NIOSH recommended limit for sulfur-dioxide was 0.5ppm as a time weighted average. The authors conclude that a health hazard did exist at the time of the survey, and recommend that controls be implemented to minimize sulfur-dioxide exposure in the facility.

Sanderson, W.; Hodgson, M.J.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Energy consumption analysis for CO2 separation from gas mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract CO2 separation is an energy intensive process, which plays an important role in both energy saving and CO2 capture and storage (CCS) implementation to deal with global warming. To quantitatively investigate the energy consumption of CO2 separation from different CO2 streams and analyze the effect of temperature, pressure and composition on energy consumption, in this work, the theoretical energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas, lime kiln gas, biogas and bio-syngas was calculated. The results show that the energy consumption of CO2 separation from flue gas is the highest and that from biogas is the lowest, and the concentration of CO2 is the most important factor affecting the energy consumption when the CO2 concentration is lower than 0.15 in mole fraction. Furthermore, if the CO2 captured from flue gases in CCS was replaced with that from biogases, i.e. bio-CO2, the energy saving would be equivalent to 7.31 million ton standard coal for China and 28.13 million ton standard coal globally, which corresponds to 0.30 billion US$ that can be saved for China and 1.36 billion US$ saved globally. This observation reveals the importance of trading fossil fuel-based CO2 with bio-CO2.

Yingying Zhang; Xiaoyan Ji; Xiaohua Lu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Effect of Drying Temperature and Time on Alpha-Amylase, Beta-Amylase, Limit Dextrinase Activities and Dimethyl Sulphide Level of Teff (Eragrostis tef) Malt  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During kilning of the teff samples, both the activation and inactivation of alpha-amylase were observed. Thus, these two opposing ... of the enzymes during the kilning process. Alpha-amylase is a pacemaker enzyme...

Mekonnen M. Gebremariam; Martin Zarnkow; Thomas Becker

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Quarterly progress report, September 26--December 26, 1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Progress is reported on Task 1, Computer simulation refinement and extension, and its two subtasks: Verification of computer model simulation of the drying process for lumber in a superheated kiln and Establishment of energy loss predictions for specific kiln designs for the first stage kiln. A report of a trip to the Irvington Moore Corporation facility and plans for next quarter are described.

Taylor, F.

1995-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

314

The civic forum in ancient Israel : the form, function, and symbolism of city gates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a small strip of lime plaster flooring found inside the 4the other half had a lime plaster finish (Ussishkin, “Areaa few patches of lime plaster were found on top of the

Frese, Daniel Allan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Insights into the Effect of Soil pH on N2O and N2 Emissions and Denitrifier Community Size and Activity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...33), typically by the application of lime. This method of pH manipulation can take years, with repeated lime applications being required. In the present...Madani, and W. Hart. 2006. Effect of lime, dicyandiamide and soil water content...

Ji?í ?uhel; Miloslav Šimek; Ronnie J. Laughlin; David Bru; Dominique Chèneby; Catherine J. Watson; Laurent Philippot

2010-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

Surface characterizatin of palladium-alumina sorbents for high-temperature capture of mercury and arsenic from fuel gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coal gasification with subsequent cleanup of the resulting fuel gas is a way to reduce the impact of mercury and arsenic in the environment during power generation and on downstream catalytic processes in chemical production, The interactions of mercury and arsenic with PdlAl2D3 model thin film sorbents and PdlAh03 powders have been studied to determine the relative affinities of palladium for mercury and arsenic, and how they are affected by temperature and the presence of hydrogen sulfide in the fuel gas. The implications of the results on strategies for capturing the toxic metals using a sorbent bed are discussed.

Baltrus, J.P.; Granite, E.J.; Pennline, H.W.; Stanko, D.; Hamilton, H.; Rowsell, L.; Poulston, S.; Smith, A.; Chu, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The role of doped Fe on the activity of alumina-supported Pt and Pd diesel exhaust catalysts  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Supported Pt and Pd are most commonly used for oxidation catalysts. They have similar and different characteristics for deactivation factors. The catalytic activity of Pt and Pd catalysts supported on ?-Al2O3 was...

Yeon-Su Kim; Sun Ju Lim; Young Hun Kim; Jin Ha Lee…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

The effects of chemistry on the colloidal behavior of alumina slurries and copper nanohardness for copper chemical mechanical planarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of removal is done through the chemical additives, which foradditives with a synergistic effect that causes material removal [removal rate (MRR) is significantly affected by the addition of chemical additives

Ihnfeldt, Robin Veronica

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

The effects of chemistry on the colloidal behavior of alumina slurries and copper nanohardness for copper chemical mechanical planarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

before and during CMP to roughen it. Figure 2.1 shows aacross the pad surface to roughen it before and during CMP [across the pad surface to roughen it before and during the

Ihnfeldt, Robin Veronica

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

COMPARISON OF NICKEL AND IRON-BASED OXYGEN CARRIERS SUPPORTED ON ALUMINA IN SYNGAS-FUELED CHEMICAL LOOPING COMBUSTION.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Chemical looping is considered as a novel technology capable of resolving both energy and environmental problems in combustion process. The possibility of using oxides of… (more)

Najjarpour Jabbary, Farzin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear studies of biomolecules on silane polymer-coated silica and alumina-based surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...M.A Elias, J Shapiro, L.J Brillson, B Bhushan, and S.C Lee2008Engineering...Elias, X Wen, J Shapiro, L.J Brillson, W Lu, and S.C Lee2008Detection of...Raton, FL:CRC Press Shapiro, J. , S. Gupta...Brillson, and S. C. Lee 2007 Challenges...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

The effects of chemistry on the colloidal behavior of alumina slurries and copper nanohardness for copper chemical mechanical planarization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arizona (2007). DuPont Air Products NanoMaterials L.L.C.February 2008). DuPont Air Products NanoMaterials L.L.C.Arizona (2007). DuPont Air Products NanoMaterials L.L.C.

Ihnfeldt, Robin Veronica

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Dispersant Adsorption and Viscoelasticity of Alumina Suspensions Measured by Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring and in Situ Dynamic Rheology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High casting rate and strength in terms of storage modulus were observed in the final consolidate of the suspensions with the two polyelectrolytes. ... The time from when the casting begins until completion of the consolidation is important in ceramic processing because much time can be saved in the production step with rapidly consolidating systems. ... On consolidation through pressure filtration at low pressures (2 to 5 MPa), the satd., consolidated bodies formulated at pH 5 have a relative d. of ?0.56. ...

Lisa Palmqvist; Krister Holmberg

2008-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

324

UHV Studies on CO and Methanol Adsorption and Decomposition on Pristine and Oxidized Alumina-Supported Co Nanoparticles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Although cobalt is an important Fischer-Tropsch catalyst, there is only limited fundamental knowledge about the factors determining the elementary steps, such as the dissociation of CO, the influence of adsorbed ...

T. Nowitzki; V. Zielasek; M. Bäumer

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Influence of Ceria and Nickel Addition to Alumina-Supported Rhodium Catalyst for Propane Steam Reforming at Low Temperatures.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This work aims to develop a fundamental understanding of the catalyst composition-structure-activity relationships for propane steam reforming over supported Rh catalysts. The work investigates the… (more)

Li, Yan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Effect of the Platinum Content on the Microstructure and Micropore Size Distribution of Pt/Alumina-Pillared Clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cheng and Yang23 also studied the N2 and O2 adsorption capacities of alkali metal ion-exchanged pillared clays showing for Li+/Zr-PILC better results than those obtained by Molinard and Vansant. ... The resulting slurries were evaporated slowly under reduced pressure in a rotavapor, and the obtained solids were calcined in air at 500 °C for 5 h to give the Pt/Al-PILC catalysts. ... The samples will be referred to in wt %-Pt/Al-PILC notation. ...

M. Barrera-Vargas; J. Valencia-Rios; M. A. Vicente; S. A. Korili; A. Gil

2005-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

327

Nanoscale adhesion, friction and wear studies of biomolecules on silane polymer-coated silica and alumina-based surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...s10856-006-0657-x . Bhushan, B Handbook of micro/nano tribology...Publishers Bhushan, B Springer handbook of nanotechnology. 2nd edn...CO;2-Y . Lide, D.R CRC handbook of chemistry and physics. 83rd edn.2003Boca Raton...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

TEMPERATURE-PROGRAMMED DESORPTION AND REACTION OF CO AND H2 ON ALUMINA-SUPPORTED RUTHENIUM CATALYST  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

high temperature The hydrogenation is required carbon to hydrogenate i t to form CH^» of this graphitic Table Results on the TPS

Low, Gordon Gongngai

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Alumina-Forming Austenitics: A New Approach to Thermal and Degradation Resistant Stainless Steels for Industrial Use  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of developmental AFA alloys was selected for study based on: 25 Ni wt.% (alloys A-F), 20 wt% Ni (alloys G-H), and 12 Ni wt.% (alloys I-L). An emphasis in this work was placed on the lower alloy content direction for AFA alloys to reduce alloy raw material cost, rather than more highly alloyed and costly AFA alloys for higher temperature performance. Alloys A-D explored the effects of Al (3-4 wt.%) and C (0.05-0.2 wt.%) in the Fe-25Ni-14Cr-2Mn-2Mo-1W-1Nb wt.% base range; alloys E and F explored the effects of removing costly Mo and W additions in a Fe-25Ni-14Cr-4Al-2.5Nb-2Mn-0.2C base, alloys G and H examined Nb (1-2.5wt.%) and removal of Mo, W in a Fe-20Ni-14Cr-3Al-2Mn-0.2 C wt.% base; and alloys I-L examined effects of C (0.1-0.2 wt.%) and Mn (5-10 wt.%) on a low cost Fe-14Cr-12Ni-3Cu-2.5Al wt.% base (no Mo, W additions). Creep testing resulted in elemental trends that included the beneficial effect of higher carbon and lower niobium in 20-25%Ni AFA alloys and, the beneficial of lower Mn in 12%Ni AFA alloys. Corrosion tests in steam and sulfidation-oxidation environments showed, in general, these alloys were capable of a ten-fold improvement in performance when compared to conventional austenitic stainless steels. Also, corrosion test results in metal-dusting environments were promising and, warrant further investigation.

David A Helmick; John H Magee; Michael P Brady

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

330

Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Molecular Analysis of a Bacterial Chitinolytic Community in an Upland Pasture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...either sludge alone, lime and sludge, or lime alone. In a prior study...stained by using SYBR Green I (Molecular Probes...consisted of a base layer of mineral salts agar and an upper...each for control (C), lime (L), lime and sludge...

A. C. Metcalfe; M. Krsek; G. W. Gooday; J. I. Prosser; E. M. H. Wellington

2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Technical report, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. Currently only about 30% of the 5 million tons of these coal combustion residues generated in Illinois each year are utilized, mainly as aggregate. These residues are composed largely Of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. The process being developed in this program will use the residues directly in the manufacture of cement products. Therefore, a much larger amount of residues can be utilized. To achieve the above objective, in the first phase (current year) samples of coal combustion residues will be blended and mixed, as needed, with a lime or cement kiln dust (CKD) to adjust the CaO composition. Six mixtures will be melted in a laboratory-scale furnace at CTL. The resulting products will then be tested for cementitious properties. Two preliminary blends have been tested. One blend used fly ash with limestone, while the other used fly ash with CKD. Each blend was melted and then quenched, and the resulting product samples were ground to a specific surface area similar to portland cement. Cementitious properties of these product samples were evaluated by compression testing of 1-inch cube specimens. The specimens were formed out of cement paste where a certain percentage of the cement paste is displaced by one of the sample products. The specimens were cured for 24 hours at 55{degrees}C and 100% relative humidity. The specimens made with the product samples obtained 84 and 89% of the strength of a pure portland cement control cube. For comparison, similar (pozzolanic) materials in standard concrete practice are required to have a compressive strength of at least 75% of that of the control.

Wagner, J.C. [Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States); Bhatty, J.I.; Mishulovich, A. [Construction Technology Labs., Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Material and energy flows in the materials production, assembly, and end-of-life stages of the automotive lithium-ion battery life cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document contains material and energy flows for lithium-ion batteries with an active cathode material of lithium manganese oxide (LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}). These data are incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, replacing previous data for lithium-ion batteries that are based on a nickel/cobalt/manganese (Ni/Co/Mn) cathode chemistry. To identify and determine the mass of lithium-ion battery components, we modeled batteries with LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4} as the cathode material using Argonne's Battery Performance and Cost (BatPaC) model for hybrid electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles, and electric vehicles. As input for GREET, we developed new or updated data for the cathode material and the following materials that are included in its supply chain: soda ash, lime, petroleum-derived ethanol, lithium brine, and lithium carbonate. Also as input to GREET, we calculated new emission factors for equipment (kilns, dryers, and calciners) that were not previously included in the model and developed new material and energy flows for the battery electrolyte, binder, and binder solvent. Finally, we revised the data included in GREET for graphite (the anode active material), battery electronics, and battery assembly. For the first time, we incorporated energy and material flows for battery recycling into GREET, considering four battery recycling processes: pyrometallurgical, hydrometallurgical, intermediate physical, and direct physical. Opportunities for future research include considering alternative battery chemistries and battery packaging. As battery assembly and recycling technologies develop, staying up to date with them will be critical to understanding the energy, materials, and emissions burdens associated with batteries.

Dunn, J.B.; Gaines, L.; Barnes, M.; Wang, M.; Sullivan, J. (Energy Systems)

2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

334

Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Cement Industry in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Shandong Province. Sinton, J.E. , 1996. Energy Efficiencyenvironmental impacts (Sinton, 1996; ITIBMIC, 2004). Rotarycurrently-used rotary kilns (Sinton, 1996). However, future

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

E-Print Network 3.0 - african portland cement Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ex... materials produced in rotary kilns are portland cement, quicklime and expanded shale (lightweight) aggregate... is discussed later in this report as a concern when using...

336

Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A.T, 2001: Prospects for biogas harvesting at Sungunn WongseRenewables Biomass, Biogas, PV, Wind turbines, Hydropowermill, fluidized bed kiln Biogas, Biomass Cullet preheating

Bernstein, Lenny

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

BEST  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

of a quick solution to the problem. -- .- ...I -I .- - - 12 - 2. Secondly, an oil-fired rotary kiln drier was tested. It was immediately successful and eliminated the...

338

Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the production costs of all waste- burning cement kilns, andthree cement plants are burning waste fuels. Beijing Cementof waste; the plant is burning solid waste from the chemical

Galitsky, Christina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the production costs of all waste- burning cement kilns, andthree cement plants are burning waste fuels. Beijing Cementof waste; the plant is burning solid waste from the chemical

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

bia-cemkiln | netl.doe.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Cement Kiln Flue Gas...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

24th Benelux Meeting Systems and Control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

applied on a half-car test rig.30­14.55 Contribution to the control of a rotary cement kiln - A simu- lation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Serdijn, Wouter A.

342

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wang, L. , 2008. Alternative fuel using and waste materialPolicy Research on Alternative Fuels for Cement Industry incement and using alternative fuels in the cement kiln. There

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on Power Generation by Waste Heat of the Kiln in NingguoPure Low Temperature & Waste Heat in Beijing Cement Ltd. ;flash distillation waste heat power generation demonstration

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooler Low temperature Waste Heat Recovery power generationquantities of low grade waste heat from the kilns or clinkerLow temperature Waste Heat Recovery power generation: A

Fridley, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Advanced Organic Vapor Cycles for Improving Thermal Conversion Efficiency in Renewable Energy Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery. c DanielCycle for Cement Kiln Waste Heat Recovery Power Plants. ”and high temperature waste heat reclamation and solar

Ho, Tony

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Guidebook for Using the Tool BEST Cement: Benchmarking and Energy Savings Tool for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plantsquantities of low grade waste heat from the kilns or clinkerthere is significant effect of waste heat recovery on dioxin

Galitsky, Christina

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Cement Sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Advanced Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants”building controls, waste heat recovery or adjustable speedquantities of low grade waste heat from the kilns or clinker

Sathaye, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.of Industrial Energy Efficiency Measures,” Proceedings of

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Banerjee, R. , 2005. Energy Efficiency and Demand SideKiln Systems,” Energy Efficiency in the Cement Industry (Ed.for Improving Energy Efficiency, Reducing Pollution and

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Petascale Simulations of Self-Healing Nanomaterials | Argonne...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

simulation of the oxidation of a fractured alumina matrix embedded with silicon carbide nanoparticles Reactive molecular dynamics simulation of the oxidation of a fractured alumina...

351

Synthesis and characterization of titania aerogels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis and characterization of titania aerogels ... Nanoengineering Super Heat-Resistant, Strong Alumina Aerogels ... Nanoengineering Super Heat-Resistant, Strong Alumina Aerogels ...

L. K. Campbell; B. K. Na; E. I. Ko

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Chemical stabilization of three Texas Vertisols with sulfonated naphthalene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with lime, they may dissolve and react with lime to form other minerals that have adverse effects on stabilization. When gypsum is present in a soil to be treated with lime, ettringite may be produced and prohibit stabilization (Sabry et al. , 1981). Many... with lime, they may dissolve and react with lime to form other minerals that have adverse effects on stabilization. When gypsum is present in a soil to be treated with lime, ettringite may be produced and prohibit stabilization (Sabry et al. , 1981). Many...

Marquart, Darren Keith

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

353

The Science of Sentiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the models were completed I then took plaster molds of the heads and prepared the molds to be filled with glaze. I filled the molds with a glaze and silica sand... the kiln with the plaster mold included. When the pieces were removed from the kiln the chemical water was no longer present in the plaster and the mold crumbled...

Bates, Jamie M.

2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

354

Science Arts & Mtiers (SAM) is an open access repository that collects the work of Arts et Mtiers ParisTech  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the problems associated with the intermittent nature of solar energy. The aim is to collect and store solar this version : David LUNA, Jean-Pierre NADEAU, Yves JANNOT - Model and simulation of a solar kiln with energy.03.024 #12;Model and simulation of a solar kiln with energy storage D. Luna a , J.-P. Nadeau a,*, Y. Jannot b

Boyer, Edmond

355

Production of ritual material culture in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period in Jordan : some methods for analytical investigation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near East: Experimental lime-plaster production at the Pre-just like bone, charcoal, plaster, and anything else thatsuch as studies of lime plaster (Goren and Goring-Morris

Bennallack, Kathleen Celia

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Nutrient resources for crop production in the tropics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...restitution, fallowing, or green manuring. The positive...The primary effect of lime is to reduce the free...H. 1989 Phosphate minerals. In Minerals in soil en ironments...E. 1991 Phosphorus lime interaction in a strongly...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

 

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...fourth days followed by a sharp decline where a green manure with lime was added. This was followed by a gradual rise. In the case of green manure without lime, there was an initial increase in the Collington...

1929-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

PHYTOTOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM SOIL MICROORGANISMS AND CROP RESIDUES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...thiamin, biotin, mineral salts, enzymes...acid Transpiration Green wt ppm 20 75 87...overcome by adequate mineral fertilization of...materials such as lime, soil, kaolin...of soil to which lime and complete mineral fertilization had...

T. M. McCalla; F. A. Haskins

1964-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

An integrated approach to predict ettringite formation in sulfate soils and identifying sulfate damage along SH 130.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Expansive soils are treated with anhydrous or hydrated lime. The use of calcium-based stabilizers such as calcium oxide (lime) in sulfate-bearing clay soils has historically… (more)

Sachin, Kunagalli Natarajan

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Journal of Catalysis 221 (2004) 354364 www.elsevier.com/locate/jcat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for hydrotreating processes. However, most studies on these catalysts have focused on alumina-supported systems

Resasco, Daniel

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

In situ high-energy synchrotron radiation study of boehmite formation, growth, and phase transformation to alumina in sub- and supercritical water.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Boehmite (AlOOH) nanoparticles have been synthesized in subcritical (300 bar, 350 C) and supercritical (300 bar, 400 C) water. The formation and growth of AlOOH nanoparticles were studied in situ by small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and WAXS) using 80 keV synchrotron radiation. The SAXS/WAXS data were measured simultaneously with a time resolution greater than 10 s and revealed the initial nucleation of amorphous particles takes place within 10 s with subsequent crystallization after 30 s. No diffraction signals were observed from Al(OH){sub 3} within the time resolution of the experiment, which shows that the dehydration step of the reaction is fast and the hydrolysis step rate-determining. The sizes of the crystalline particles were determined as a function of time. The overall size evolution patterns are similar in sub- and supercritical water, but the growth is faster and the final particle size larger under supercritical conditions. After approximately 5 min, the rate of particle growth decreases in both sub- and supercritical water. Heating of the boehmite nanoparticle suspension allowed an in situ X-ray investigation of the phase transformation of boehmite to aluminium oxide. Under the wet conditions used in this work, the transition starts at 530 C and gives a two-phase product of hydrated and non-hydrated aluminium oxide.

Lock, N.; Bremholm, M.; Christensen, M.; Almer, J .D.; Chen, Y.-S.; Iverson, B. B.; Univ. of Aarhus; Univ. of Chicago; Princeton Univ.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Co-Optimization of Wrought Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steel Composition Ranges for High-Temperature Creep and Oxidation/Corrosion Resistance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A seriesofcandidatealumina-formingaustenitic(AFA)stainlesssteelsdesignedtoevaluatetheeffectsof variationinAl,C,Cr,Mn,Nb,andNicontentonhigh-temperaturetensileproperties,creep,and oxidation/corrosionresistancewerestudied.ThecompositionsassessedwerebasedonmediumNi (20 25 wt%)andlowNi(12wt%)AFAvariationsstrengthenedprimarilybyMCand/orM23C6 carbide precipitates,andahighNi(32wt%)AFAsuperalloyvariationstrengthenedprimarilyby -Ni3Al intermetallic precipitates.Tensileandcreeppropertiesweremeasuredat650and750/760 1C, oxidation resistance from650to900 1C inairwithwatervaporandsteamenvironments,andsulfidation oxidation resistance inAr 20%H2 20%H2O 5% H2S at550and650 1C. Optimizedcompositionrangesfordifferent use temperaturesrangesbasedontheseevaluationsarepresented.

Brady, Michael P [ORNL] [ORNL; Magee, John H [Carpenter Technology Corporation] [Carpenter Technology Corporation; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL] [ORNL; Helmick, David [Carpenter Technology Corporation] [Carpenter Technology Corporation; Wang, Lu [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)] [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

The catalytic oxidation of propylene: investigation of the effects of composition on activities of Fe?O?, K?O promoted chromia-alumina catalysts  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with silver ox!r}e. -'thylenc oxi 'e and car}&en dioxide were the piochzcts. T'ne oitinum temperature ?as found to bc n the vicinity of 260 to 270 degrees Centi};rude for a neiz catalyst. It i&as found that a ?dgh air-eth?ilens ratio i~s most favorable... with silver ox!r}e. -'thylenc oxi 'e and car}&en dioxide were the piochzcts. T'ne oitinum temperature ?as found to bc n the vicinity of 260 to 270 degrees Centi};rude for a neiz catalyst. It i&as found that a ?dgh air-eth?ilens ratio i~s most favorable...

Perkins, Thomas Keeble

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

364

Improvement in Oxidation Behavior of Nanostructured CoNiCrA1Y Bond Coat Dispersed with Nano-size Alumina Particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

spraying gun passes can be critical for the oxidation behavior because of the inter-pass oxidation presence in HVOF

Tang, Feng; Ajdelsztajn, Leonardo; Kim, Geoge E.; Provenzano, Virgil; Schoenung, Julie M.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Influence of preparation method on performance of Cu(Zn)(Zr)-alumina catalysts for the hydrogen production via steam reforming of methanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The selective production of hydrogen via steam reforming of methanol (SRM)...?C. Reverse water gas shift reaction and methanol decomposition reactions also take place simultaneously with the steam reforming react...

Sanjay Patel; K. K. Pant

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

On the Loss of Protective Scale Formation in Creep-Resistant, Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless Steels at 900?aC in Air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A family of creep-resistant, Al2O3-forming austenitic (AFA) stainless steels was recently developed. The alloys exhibit excellent oxidation resistance up to 800 aC, but are susceptible to internal attack of Al at higher temperatures. In the present work, higher levels of Ni, Cr, Al, and Nb additions were found to correlate with improved oxidation behavior at 900 aC in air. The alloys generally appeared to be initially capable of external Al2O3 scale formation, with a subsequent transition to internal attack of Al (internal oxidation and internal nitridation) that is dependent on alloy composition. Compositional profiles at the alloy/scale interface suggest that the transition to internal oxidation is preceded by subsurface depletion of Al. Alloy design directions to increase the upper-temperature limit of protective Al2O3 scale formation in these alloys are discussed

Brady, Michael P [ORNL; Yamamoto, Yukinori [ORNL; Pint, Bruce A [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Maziasz, Philip J [ORNL; Walker, Larry R [ORNL

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Cost-effective Surface Modifications of Silica and Alumina Achieved by Way of a Simple In-house Set-up  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

with surface functional groups. Covalent bonding has been rationalized via an assisted SN2-type displacement of reaction predominates in aprotic environments and only if the substrate contains no adsorbed proton source. Accordingly, reactions are routinely carried out in alcohol/water medium if hydrolysis- deposition is desired

Taralp, Alpay

368

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

like blast furnace slag, fly ash, coal gangue, limestone,Blast Furnace Slag Fly ash Cinder Coal gangue Lime- stone

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - aurantifolia swingle para Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

avo- cado (Persea americana Mill.) acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia Swingle), and potato (Solanum... aurantifolia, Solanum tuberosum, PLU, postharvest, produce labeling...

370

A Novel Method for CO2 Sequestration via Indirect Carbonation of Coal Fly Ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The data show that the major Ca-containing phases in the fresh fly ash include lime (CaO), ettringite (3CaO·Al2O3·3CaSO4·32H2O), and anhydrite (CaSO4). ... Lime and ettringite are reactive Ca-containing phases. ... In all the extraction residues, lime and ettringite are not detected, confirming that calcium as lime and ettringite largely dissolved in ammonium salt solutions under the conditions investigated. ...

Lanlan He; Dunxi Yu; Weizhi Lv; Jianqun Wu; Minghou Xu

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

371

Clearance of Human-Pathogenic Viruses from Sludge: Study of Four Stabilization Processes by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR and Cell Culture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...obtained when the amount of lime present makes up over 40% of...points of the blend of sludge and lime. Moreover, the use of quicklime...Adsorption of reovirus by minerals and soils. Appl. Environ...1976. Calcium hydroxide (lime) and the elimination of human...

S. Monpoeho; A. Maul; C. Bonnin; L. Patria; S. Ranarijaona; S. Billaudel; V. Ferré

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

IRT1 DEGRADATION FACTOR1, a RING E3 Ubiquitin Ligase, Regulates the Degradation of IRON-REGULATED TRANSPORTER1 in Arabidopsis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...found in silicate minerals or as iron oxide...localization of IDF1, green fluorescent protein...or with 3.9 g lime/kg soil (Lime) for 21 d with...Grown in Soil with Lime. Supplemental Table...H. (1995). Mineral Nutrition of Higher...

Lung-Jiun Shin; Jing-Chi Lo; Guan-Hong Chen; Judy Callis; Hongyong Fu; Kuo-Chen Yeh

2013-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

373

A newsletter for commercial vegetable growers prepared by the Purdue University Cooperative Extension Service  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to be worse than adjacent rows. Such rows may have likely received less lime. The remedy for these disorders mulch, because of the difficulty of getting the lime into the root zone. Although growers may have soil tested and spread lime before the season, there may still be pH problems in some areas of the field

Ginzel, Matthew

374

Identification and Specific Detection of a Novel Pseudomonadaceae Cluster Associated with Soils from Winter Wheat Plots of a Long-Term Agricultural Field Experiment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...the addition of lime, and pesticide application...control treatments with mineral fertilization (CONMIN...30 min with SYBR green I nucleic acid gel...organic versus mineral or no fertilization...were influenced by lime and nitrogen additions...2004. Impact of lime, nitrogen and plant...

Manuel Pesaro; Franco Widmer

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Notes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... the Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, under date August 6, on the subject of "Dead Humble-bees under Lime Trees."Dead ... -bees under Lime Trees."Dead humble bees, more or less mutilated, have often been observed in large numbers under lime ...

1885-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

376

Environmentally Safe, Large Volume Utilization Applications for Gasification Byproducts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Samples of gasification by-products produced at Polk Station and Eastman Chemical were obtained and characterized. Bulk samples were prepared for utilization studies by screening at the appropriate size fractions where char and vitreous frit distinctly partitioned. Vitreous frit was concentrated in the +20 mesh fraction while char predominated in the -20+100 mesh fraction. The vitreous frit component derived from each gasifier slag source was evaluated for use as a pozzolan and as aggregate. Pozzolan testing required grinding the frit to very fine sizes which required a minimum of 60 kwhr/ton. Grinding studies showed that the energy requirement for grinding the Polk slag were slightly higher than for the Eastman slag. Fine-ground slag from both gasifiers showed pozzoalnic activity in mortar cube testing and met the ASTM C618 strength requirements after only 3 days. Pozzolanic activity was further examined using British Standard 196-5, and results suggest that the Polk slag was more reactive than the Eastman slag. Neither aggregate showed significant potential for undergoing alkali-silica reactions when used as concrete aggregate with ASTM test method 1260. Testing was conducted to evaluate the use of the frit product as a component of cement kiln feed. The clinker produced was comprised primarily of the desirable components Ca{sub 3}SiO{sub 5} and Ca{sub 2}SiO{sub 4} after raw ingredient proportions were adjusted to reduce the amount of free lime present in the clinker. A mobile processing plant was designed to produce 100 tons of carbon from the Eastman slag to conduct evaluations for use as recycle fuel. The processing plant was mounted on a trailer and hauled to the site for use. Two product stockpiles were generated; the frit stockpile contained 5% LOI while the carbon stockpile contained 62% LOI. The products were used to conduct recycle fuel tests. A processing plant was designed to separate the slag produced at Eastman into 3 usable products. The coarse frit has been shown to be suitable for use as clinker feed for producing Portland cement. The intermediate-size product is enriched in carbon (58-62% C) and may be used as recycle fuel either in the gasifier or in a PC boiler. The fines product contains 30-40% C and may also be used as a recycle gasifier fuel, as is presently done at TECO's Polk Station, however, due to gasifier operating requirements for the production of syngas, this is not feasible at Eastman.

J.G. Groppo; R. Rathbone

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

377

Beyond Back of the Envelope Savings Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a clay tunnel kiln An old 1950's-vintage tunnel kiln with an independent gas meter is repaired and modernized with new burners. One might think that energy savings can be confmned by simply comparing the before and after gas meter readings..., but this would not tell the whole story. In fact, the gas use had increased! The plant's production levels had increased so that the gross amount being dried had increased and the new kiln improved the net product to gross input ratio by decreasing...

Griffiths, D. M.; Reid, L.

378

Process Design and Operation for Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Extraction Plant. A large European metals extraction plant recently installed an M&T system as a part of a program to raise the efficiency of its kilns and furnaces. The kilns are major oil users, and the furnaces major consumers of electricity... opportunities were identified: 1. Operator Performance and Training. The M&T system provides a quantitative basis for evaluating the performance of shift teams and individual operators. This is illustrated by Figure 2. A standard for oil usage in the kilns...

Rossiter, A. P.; Nath, R.; Yell, M. D.

379

Fuel Saving Ideas for Metal and Ceramic Processing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An easy method is presented for analyzing sources of heat loss from industrial processing furnaces, kilns, and ovens; and thus for recognizing opportunities for fuel saving. This will relate to melting, heat treating and hot forming of metals...

Reed, R. J.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Develop apparatus and process for second-stage drying. Quarterly progress report, September 27, 1995--December 26, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effort this quarter has been directed primarily toward the testing of the experimental apparatus for the laboratory scale heat exchanger models. Some additional work has been done on the computer predictive model for dry kiln performance.

Taylor, F.

1996-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

K – Goldschmidt Abstracts 2011  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...data, a/layan Formation and Ekinveren oil seep are well correlated to each other...same as cement kilns (fossil fuel from oil shale). Maqarin area represents an early...echinoid Echinocyamus pusillus, red algea Corallina officinalis, brachiopod Terebratula...

382

Analysis of Energy-Efficiency Opportunities for the Cement Industry in Shandong Province, China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the production costs of all waste-burning cement kilns, andthree cement plants are burning waste fuels. Beijing Cementof waste; the plant is burning solid waste from the chemical

Price, Lynn

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the production costs of all waste-burning cement kilns, andthree cement plants are burning waste fuels. Beijing Cementof waste; the plant is burning solid waste from the chemical

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Growing Roots in STEM Engineering Challenge Camp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Robot Demonstration ESB Atrium John Dowling- Army ROTC Enrollment Operation Officer 10:00 a.m. Travel to Wow! Factory Leave from ESB Daytime Counselors 1:30 p.m. Science Behind Kiln/Paint Your Own

Mohaghegh, Shahab

385

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

December. Busato, L.C. n.d. Dioxins and Furans in Brazil:release and control of dioxins in cement kilns - A review.and Quantification of Dioxin and Furan Releases. Geneva,

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

E-Print Network 3.0 - apc cutting equipment Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Refurbishment Of An Existing Hazardous Waste Incinerator In Eastern Germany On a Tum-Key Contract Basis Summary: of erection of the new rotary kiln and remaining BOP-equipment...

387

Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

B. , 1990. “Utilisation of Waste Heat from the Cement RotaryAdvanced Concepts of Waste Heat Recovery in Cement Plants”a roller mill. Utilizing waste heat from the kiln exhaust,

Worrell, Ernst

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Case Study of the California Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for delivery to the pyroprocessing systems. More than 1.5raw materials before pyroprocessing is done utilizing wasteClinker is produced by pyroprocessing in large kilns. These

Coito, Fred; Powell, Frank; Worrell, Ernst; Price, Lynn; Friedmann, Rafael

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type of high-heat or pyroprocessing kiln used today is theinternal scrubber SO 2 Pyroprocessing system design SO 2 AG,and turbulence) Pyroprocessing system design (time, Material

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

An overview of air emission intensities and environmental performance of grey cement manufacturing in Canada  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Air emissions generated in grey cement manufacturing originate primarily from the combustion of fossil fuels required to heat the kiln and the chemical reaction of raw materials in the pyroprocessing phase. Gi...

Darren Brown; Rehan Sadiq; Kasun Hewage

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Emerging Energy-efficiency and CO2 Emission-reduction Technologies for Cement and Concrete Production  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

type of high-heat or pyroprocessing kiln used today is theis decarbonated in the pyroprocessing stage (main reaction:water (H 2 O) during pyroprocessing (e.g. , ,in a cement

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Reduction of Multi-pollutant Emissions from Industrial Sectors: The U.S. Cement Industry – A Case Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from cement kilns result from the sulfur in the fuel and the sulfur in the feed materials. Sulfur in the fuel will oxidize to SO2during pyroprocessing and a significant amount is li...

Ravi K. Srivastava; Samudra Vijay…

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Development of a CO?b2?s laser-based system for characterization of high-temperature structural ceramics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-based testing systems for high-temperature ceramic materials have limited capabilities. To test in these severe testing environments requires special grips that will withstand the elevated temperatures and the environment. Furthermore, kilns severely restrict... because the time response of the system is not constrained by the thermal inertia of the kiln. ~ Thermal shock to the ceramics can be avoided by using the laser at low power to slowly heat the sainple to the desired temperature. Heating would be done...

Bowman, David Winslow

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Using waste wood as fuel saves $2000 per day  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Sawdust and wood residue replaced natural gas or number 2 fuel oil to fire 2 kilns at the Cherokee Brick Co. in Raleigh, NC, resulting in savings of $2000/day. Exhaust air from the kilns was sent directly back to a rotating dryer to dry the waste wood. The dried wood containing 8 to 12% moisture was supplied, around the clock, at a rate of 140 ton/day of dry material. (BLM)

Ragland, W. (Cherokee Brick Co., Raleigh, NC); Byrnes, D.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

An overview of the formation of SO sub x and NO sub x in various pyroprocessing systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The regulations on SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emission from cement plants in the United States are briefly described in this paper and compared with European regulations. The formation of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in various types of cement kilns is explained, and typical emission levels are identified. Finally, various recent methods of reducing SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions from cement kiln systems are outlined.

Nielsen, P.B. (Technical Div., F.L. Smidth and Co., Copenhagen (DK)); Jepsen, O.L. (Technical Div., Fuller Co., Lehigh Valley, PA (US))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

ONE-DIMENSIONAL PSEUDO-HOMOGENEOUS PACKED BED REACTOR MODELING INCLUDING NO-CO KINETICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the chemical species and energy equations for dynamically incompressible flow in one-dimension. Furthermore, the chemical kinetics on the reduction reaction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide over rhodium-alumina and platinum-alumina catalysts is investigated...

Srinivasan, Anand

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

397

Controlled gas adsorption properties of various pillared clays  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microporous pillared clays (PILC) were prepared by the intercalation of montmorillonite with particles of titania (Ti-PILC), zirconia (Zr-PILC), alumina (Al-PILC), iron oxide (Fe-PILC) and mixed lanthania/alumina...

A. Molinard; E. F. Vansant

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Thermal conductivity of highly-ordered mesoporous titania thin films from 30 to 320 K  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermal resistance of grain boundaries in alumina ceramicsThermal conductivity of highly porous zirconia”. Journal of the European Ceramic

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Effect of micro-arc oxidation surface modification on the properties of the NiTi shape memory alloy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper, the effects of micro-arc oxidation (MAO) surface modification (alumina coatings)...P < 0.05).

J. L. Xu; Z. C. Zhong; D. Z. Yu; F. Liu…

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Catalysis by Design: Bridging the Gap Between Theory and Experiments at Nanoscale Level  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Studies on a simple platinum-alumina system constitute a first step toward a "catalyst by design" approach.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Life-Cycle Water Impacts of U.S. Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Acid Lime Ammonia Alpha-Amylase Glucoamylase Cooling waterEtOH) Glucoamylase & Alpha-Amylase (kg/MJ EtOH) Diammonium

Scown, Corinne Donahue

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Chemical Treatment Fosters Zero Discharge by Making Cooling Water Reusable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mechanical methods in this category are lime-soda side stream softening and vapor compression blowdown evaporation. Another approach is chemical treatment to promote scale inhibition and dispersion....

Boffardi, B. P.

403

Evidence for magma-carbonate interaction beneath Syrtis Major, Mars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

lime (CaO), periclase (MgO), portlandite (Ca(OH)2), and brucite (Mg(OH)2), are present on the surface

Glotch, Timothy D.

404

MOORE, JOHNNIE N. The origin of calcium carbonate nodules ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nov 10, 1980 ... number of green and yellow-green algae form in minute patches ..... Biochemical cycling of mineral- ... lime concentrate brines. J. Sediment.

2000-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

405

e  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

decision for using the blue-green alga, Nostoc .... the presence of phenolphthalein, whereas the cipitation of lime involved the ... The influence of the mineral.

1999-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

406

19 - American Society of Limnology and Oceanography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Apr 16, 1973 ... Bedrock on Cornwallis Island is lime- stone, usually thinly ... munication) , and filamentous green algal mats and ..... The total mineral content.

1999-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

407

E-Print Network 3.0 - agricultural field amended Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ducedfromJournalofEnvironmentalQuality.PublishedbyASA,CSSA,andSSSA.Allcopyrightsreserved. Ecosystem Function in Alluvial Tailings after Biosolids and Lime Addition Summary: . Field...

408

E-Print Network 3.0 - absolute oral bioavailability Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

bioavailability and potential health risks. Much research has been conducted on metal sorption... that had been treated and untreated with lime, were employed in greenhouse and...

409

Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

integrity issues System: accessibility to RELAP5 capabilities Infrastructure: buildtest system, LIME and coupling model evaluators, data transfer and coupling toolkits,...

410

USE OF ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF NANOPOROUS BIOMATERIALS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to its chemical stability, uniform pore size, and high pore density, nanoporous alumina is being investigated for use in biosensing, drug delivery, hemodialysis, and other medical applications. In recent work, we have examined the use of atomic layer deposition for coating the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes. Zinc oxide coatings were deposited on nanoporous alumina membranes using atomic layer deposition. The zinc oxide-coated nanoporous alumina membranes demonstrated antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. These results suggest that atomic layer deposition is an attractive technique for modifying the surfaces of nanoporous alumina membranes and other nanostructured biomaterials.

Brigmon, R.; Narayan, R.; Adiga, S.; Pellin, M.; Curtiss, L.; Stafslien, S.; Chisholm, B.; Monteiro-Riviere, N.; Elam, J.

2010-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

411

SOx/NOx sorbent and process of use  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An alumina sorbent capable of adsorbing NOx and SOx from waste gases and being regenerated by heating above 600 C. is made by incorporating an alumina stabilizing agent into the sorbent. A preferred method is to add the stabilizer when the alumina is precipitated. The precipitated powder is formed subsequently into a slurry, milled and dripped to form the stabilizing spheroidal alumina particles. These particles are impregnated with an alkali metal or alkaline earth metal to form the stabilized sorbent. Alumina stabilizers include one or more of silica, lanthana, other rare earths, titania, zirconia and alkaline earths.

Ziebarth, M.S.; Hager, M.J.; Beeckman, J.W.; Plecha, S.

1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

412

Pre-industrial charcoal production in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, Germany): Detection and evaluation of a large charcoal-burning field by combining archaeological studies, GIS-based analyses of shaded-relief maps and dendrochronological age determination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In pre-industrial times, charcoal burning was a common source of energy across Europe. Charcoal production and its related consequences for the upland environment are well known due to historical and palaeoenvironmental research. In recent years, awareness has grown regarding the use of woods in the lowlands for charcoal production. In the last 20 years, a large charcoal-burning field in Lower Lusatia (Brandenburg, North German Lowlands) was discovered by systematic archaeological excavations of the opencast mine of Jänschwalde. However, the excavations are limited to the mine, which only covers a portion of the Jänschwalder Heide and the surrounding forests. In this paper, we present the results of our study regarding the spatial extension and timing of charcoal production in the Jänschwalder Heide and its surrounding areas. We applied a combined approach using archaeological research results, GIS-analyses of shaded-relief maps (SRMs) and tree-ring dating of selected charcoal kiln remains. Approximately 900 excavated charcoal kiln ground plans were analysed, which provided a solid data basis for our GIS analyses. For an extensive evaluation, we enlarged our study area beyond the limits of the lignite mine. We identified and digitised the remains of the charcoal kilns by creating \\{SRMs\\} from digital elevation models (DEMs) that were based on high-resolution airborne laser scanning data (ALS). The data from the excavated and digitised charcoal kiln remains were analysed in terms of their sizes and spatial distributions. In addition, the dendrochronological ages of 16 selected charcoal kiln remains were determined. This study shows that charcoal production was more extensive than initially proven by archaeological excavations. The remains of more than 5000 charcoal kilns were detected on the \\{SRMs\\} across an area that was twice as large as the excavated charcoal-burning field. In the Jänschwalder Heide, considerably more charcoal kiln relicts exist compared with the surrounding communal areas. Furthermore, the charcoal kiln remains in the Jänschwalder Heide have larger diameters, suggesting large-scale charcoal production for supplying energy to the nearby ironworks at Peitz. However, the charcoal production on the communal land was most likely for local crafts. The ages of the charcoal kiln remains indicated that charcoal production occurred between the 17th and 19th centuries, corresponding with the main period of charcoal burning. Overall, our study suggested that charcoal production sites are underestimated in the modern landscapes of the North German Lowlands.

A. Raab; M. Takla; T. Raab; A. Nicolay; A. Schneider; H. Rösler; K.-U. Heußner; E. Bönisch

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

University of Minnesota Energy Conservation and Use  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

stateoftheart circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler. The CFB burns solid fuels, natural gas, or a mixture in combination with lime. The CFB's design allows it to produce more steam from the fuel burned than other in the CFB, a chemical reaction occurs between the fuel's sulfur and the lime resulting in calcium sulfate

Gulliver, Robert

414

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tropical Fruit Ambrosia Makes 6 servings 1 jar (26 oz.) mixed tropical fruit, drained 1 large coconut Lettuce leaves Directions: 1. In a large bowl, combine the tropical fruit and banana. 2. In a small bowl, stir together the yogurt, lime zest, and lime juice until blended. 3. Spoon over the fruit

Florida, University of

415

Stratigraphic implications of palaeomagnetic data from Honduras  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......thick sections of grey to green shale and siltstone, sandstone...Formation and Cenomanian lime- stones in the overlying...is about 30Myr (K-Ar mineral ages: McDowell, personal...overlies a thick-bedded lime- stone. However, quadrangle......

W. A. Gose; R. C. Finch

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Morphological Evidence for the Translocation of Lysosomal Organelles from Cytotoxic Macrophages into the Cytoplasm of Tumor Target Cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...were exam med first by lime lapse cinematography...injection of 10 to 20 ml of mineral oil. The dose of mineral oil was based on the...daylight filter and a green filter were used to...15 mm at 5 ,washed 4 limes in PBS, and mounted...

C. Bucana; L. C. Hoyer; B. Hobbs; S. Breesman; M. McDaniel; and M. G. Hanna, Jr.

1976-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Culture- and Quantitative IS900 Real-Time PCR-Based Analysis of the Persistence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in a Controlled Dairy Cow Farm Environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with chloramine B and ammonium as well as lime application in adjacent places around barns...Wackernagel. 1991. Adsorption of plasmid DNA to mineral surfaces and protection against DNase I...areas (on the field and field midden) lime was applied. Environmental samples were...

M. Moravkova; V. Babak; A. Kralova; I. Pavlik; I. Slana

2012-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

418

Page 1 Vol. 18 No. 12 A Rutgers Cooperative Extension Publication  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of crops where silicon nutrition helped to control powdery mildew disease in field trials and/or green as a liming material. For example, calcium silicate slag, a product produced during the manufacture of steel research has demonstrated that calcium silicate slag is an effec- tive liming material that it can

Goodman, Robert M.

419

A Peculiar Clay from near the City of Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with a solution of 'malachite green' merely showed the fine discrete...that greatl in excess of the lime presentlTherent reationshp to ie saponite or sepiolite group of minerals, but the extremely ready decom...treatment, instead of that with lime, were the only possible effective...

E. W. Hilgard

1916-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Re-Os geochronology and coupled Os-Sr isotope constraints on the Sturtian snowball Earth  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...consists of >600 m of green-gray, yellow weathering...finely laminated lime mudstone and siltstone...meters of gray-green siltstone and sandstone...amounts of Sr from clay minerals. Consequently, we...Mining via Colorado Minerals. We thank...alternating between lime mudstone dominated...

Alan D. Rooney; Francis A. Macdonald; Justin V. Strauss; Francis Ö. Dudás; Christian Hallmann; David Selby

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Production of Biodispersan by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus A2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...surfaces of inorganic minerals. Such surfactants might...examine this concept, lime- stone (calcite) was chosen as a model mineral because it is inexpensive...polymers which disperse lime- stone in water. These...colorimeter fitted with a green filter. Standard limestone...

E. Rosenberg; C. Rubinovitz; A. Gottlieb; S. Rosenhak; E. Z. Ron

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

A Contribution to the Petrography of the Island of Bawéan, Netherlands Indies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nephelite. These minerals vary in relative...augite, which are green in thin section...molecules in the lime-soda-feldspars...phenocrysts of green augite which are...poikilitic, lime-soda-feldspars...nephelite and pale green augite, with...any hy- drous mineral. The chlorine...

J. P. Iddings; E. W. Morley

1917-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Notes from the Field: “Green” Chemoprevention as Frugal Medicine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...supplementation with vitamins and minerals (50 mug selenium, 30...Tea. Both black and green teas are abundant sources...pineapple juice, and lime juice. This admixture...mango juice, pineapple/lime juice, or cheese soup...Frugal Medicine Getting greener Although good science...

Jed W. Fahey; Paul Talalay; and Thomas W. Kensler

2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Negative pH, efflorescent mineralogy, and consequences for environmental restoration at the Iron Mountain Superfund site, California  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...as white, blue-green, yellow to orange...soluble efflorescent minerals can make certain remediation...tailings removal, and lime neutralization of the...by 80–90% The mineral deposits are primarily...routing them to a lime neutralization plant...metals Iron Mountain mineral composition neutralization...

D. Kirk Nordstrom; Charles N. Alpers

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

APPLIED PHYSICS REVIEWS Erbium implanted thin film photonic materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, phosphosilicate, borosilicate, and soda-lime glasses , ceramic thin films Al2O3, Y2O3, LiNbO3 , and amorphous. Phosphosilicate glass. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 C. Soda-lime silicate glass Er-doped thin film photonic materials is described. It focuses on oxide glasses pure SiO2

Polman, Albert

426

ENGINEERING A NEW MATERIAL FOR HOT GAS CLEANUP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall purpose of this project was to develop a superior, regenerable, calcium-based sorbent for desulfurizing hot coal gas with the sorbent being in the form of small pellets made with a layered structure such that each pellet consists of a highly reactive lime core enclosed within a porous protective shell of strong but relatively inert material. The sorbent can be very useful for hot gas cleanup in advanced power generation systems where problems have been encountered with presently available materials. An economical method of preparing the desired material was demonstrated with a laboratory-scale revolving drum pelletizer. Core-in-shell pellets were produced by first pelletizing powdered limestone or other calcium-bearing material to make the pellet cores, and then the cores were coated with a mixture of powdered alumina and limestone to make the shells. The core-in-shell pellets were subsequently calcined at 1373 K (1100 C) to sinter the shell material and convert CaCO{sub 3} to CaO. The resulting product was shown to be highly reactive and a very good sorbent for H{sub 2}S at temperatures in the range of 1113 to 1193 K (840 to 920 C) which corresponds well with the outlet temperatures of some coal gasifiers. The product was also shown to be both strong and attrition resistant, and that it can be regenerated by a cyclic oxidation and reduction process. A preliminary evaluation of the material showed that while it was capable of withstanding repeated sulfidation and regeneration, the reactivity of the sorbent tended to decline with usage due to CaO sintering. Also it was found that the compressive strength of the shell material depends on the relative proportions of alumina and limestone as well as their particle size distributions. Therefore, an extensive study of formulation and preparation conditions was conducted to improve the performance of both the core and shell materials. It was subsequently determined that MgO tends to stabilize the high-temperature reactivity of CaO. Therefore, a sorbent prepared from dolomite withstands the effects of repeated sulfidation and regeneration better than one prepared from limestone. It was also determined that both the compressive strength and attrition resistance of core-in-shell pellets depend on shell thickness and that the compressive strength can be improved by reducing both the particle size and amount of limestone in the shell preparation mixture. A semiempirical model was also found which seems to adequately represent the absorption process. This model can be used for analyzing and predicting sorbent performance, and, therefore, it can provide guidance for any additional development which may be required. In conclusion, the overall objective of developing an economical, reusable, and practical material was largely achieved. The material appears suitable for removing CO{sub 2} from fuel combustion products as well as for desulfurizing hot coal gas.

T.D. Wheelock; L.K. Doraiswamy; K.P. Constant

2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: Finding of No Significant Impact 5: Finding of No Significant Impact EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal Burning Cement Kilns, Passamaquoddy Tribe Thomaston, Maine The Department of Energy prepared EA-0405 for the Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns at Dragon Products Cement Plant at Thomaston, Maine and determined it is not a major threat to the quality of the environment and issued a Finding of No Significant Impact. Finding of No Significant Impact for the Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns at Dragon Products Cement Plant at Thomaston, Maine More Documents & Publications EA-0405: Final Environmental Assessment Department of Energy Technical Support Document National Environmental

428

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round 2  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 2 Industrial Applications Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber - Project Brief [PDF-247KB] Passamaquoddy Technology Limited Partnership, Thomaston, ME Program Publications Final Reports Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber(tm) Final Report, Volume 1 [PDF-5.4MB] (Feb 1994) Final Report, Volume 2 and Appendices A - M [PDF-10.4MB] (Feb 1994) CCT Reports: Project Performance Summaries, Post-Project Assessments, & Topical Reports Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber Project: A DOE Assessment [PDF-246KB] (Nov 2001) Cement Kiln Flue Gas Recovery Scrubber, Project Performance Summary [PDF-2MB] (June 1999) Design Reports Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber(tm) Public Design Report (Oct 1993) [PDF-2.7MB) Interim Reports Interim Technical Report [PDF-973KB] (Mar 1992)

429

EA-0405: Final Environmental Assessment | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

5: Final Environmental Assessment 5: Final Environmental Assessment EA-0405: Final Environmental Assessment Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns This Environmental Assessment evaluates the environmental impacts of a clean coal technology demonstration project that is proposed for cost-shared federal funding by Department of Energy under the Innovative Clean Coal Technology program. The proposed action is the design, construction, and operation of a sulfur dioxide scrubbing system for coal burning cement kilns to be conducted at the Dragon Products Company Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine. Environmental Assessment Innovative Sulfur Dioxide Scrubbing System for Coal-Burning Cement Kilns, DOE/EA-0405, March 1990 More Documents & Publications EA-0405: Finding of No Significant Impact

430

Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} at the Dragon Products, Inc. Cement Plant located in Thomaston, Maine. 1990 Annual technical report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The background and process of the Passamaquoddy Technology Recovery Scrubber{trademark} are described. The Scrubber was developed for Dragon Cement Plant in Thomaston, Maine and facilitates a number of process improvements. The exhaust gas is scrubbed of SO{sub 2} with better than 90% efficiency. The kiln dust is cleaned of alkalines and so can be returned to kiln feed instead of dumped to landfill. Potassium sulfate in commercial quantity and purity can be recovered. Distilled water is recovered which also has commercial potential. Thus, various benefits are accrued and no waste streams remain for disposal. The process is applicable to both wet and dry process cement kilns and appears to have potential in any industry which generates acidic gaseous exhausts and/or basic solid or liquid wastes.

Not Available

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

431

High efficiency shale oil recovery. Fourth quarterly report, October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall project objective is to demonstrate the high efficiency of the Adams Counter-Current shale oil recovery process. The efficiency will first be demonstrated on a small scale, in the current phase, after which the demonstration will be extended to the operation of a small pilot plant. Thus the immediate project objective is to obtain data on oil shale retorting operations in a small batch rotary kiln that will be representative of operations in the proposed continuous process pilot plant. Although an oil shale batch sample is sealed in the batch kiln from the start until the end of the run, the process conditions for the batch are the same as the conditions that an element of oil shale would encounter in a continuous process kiln. Similar chemical and physical (heating, mixing) conditions exist in both systems. The two most important data objectives in this phase of the project are to demonstrate (1) that the heat recovery projected for this project is reasonable and (2) that an oil shale kiln will run well and not plug up due to sticking and agglomeration. The following was completed and is reported on this quarter: (1) A software routine was written to eliminate intermittently inaccurate temperature readings. (2) We completed the quartz sand calibration runs, resolving calibration questions from the 3rd quarter. (3) We also made low temperature retorting runs to identify the need for certain kiln modifications and kiln modifications were completed. (4) Heat Conductance data on two Pyrolysis runs were completed on two samples of Occidental oil shale.

Adams, D.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

432

Energy Efficiency Improvement Opportunities for the Cement Industry  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides information on the energy savings, costs, and carbon dioxide emissions reductions associated with implementation of a number of technologies and measures applicable to the cement industry. The technologies and measures include both state-of-the-art measures that are currently in use in cement enterprises worldwide as well as advanced measures that are either only in limited use or are near commercialization. This report focuses mainly on retrofit measures using commercially available technologies, but many of these technologies are applicable for new plants as well. Where possible, for each technology or measure, costs and energy savings per tonne of cement produced are estimated and then carbon dioxide emissions reductions are calculated based on the fuels used at the process step to which the technology or measure is applied. The analysis of cement kiln energy-efficiency opportunities is divided into technologies and measures that are applicable to the different stages of production and various kiln types used in China: raw materials (and fuel) preparation; clinker making (applicable to all kilns, rotary kilns only, vertical shaft kilns only); and finish grinding; as well as plant wide measures and product and feedstock changes that will reduce energy consumption for clinker making. Table 1 lists all measures in this report by process to which they apply, including plant wide measures and product or feedstock changes. Tables 2 through 8 provide the following information for each technology: fuel and electricity savings per tonne of cement; annual operating and capital costs per tonne of cement or estimated payback period; and, carbon dioxide emissions reductions for each measure applied to the production of cement. This information was originally collected for a report on the U.S. cement industry (Worrell and Galitsky, 2004) and a report on opportunities for China's cement kilns (Price and Galitsky, in press). The information provided in this report is based on publicly-available reports, journal articles, and case studies from applications of technologies around the world.

Price, Lynn; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Price, Lynn

2008-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

433

CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

83: Categorical Exclusion Determination 83: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-004383: Categorical Exclusion Determination Pine Hall Brick Company Energy Efficiency Improvements for Lighting, Kiln and Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems CX(s) Applied: B5.1 Date: 11/02/2010 Location(s): North Carolina Office(s): Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory Involves installing more efficient lighting, replacing old heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, upgrading kiln pressure controls, and changing operational processes, to increase energy efficiency and reduce energy needs. DOCUMENT(S) AVAILABLE FOR DOWNLOAD CX-004383.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-001793: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-000382: Categorical Exclusion Determination

434

Specifying Waste Heat Boilers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, refineries,kilns, incineration systems and cogeneration and combined cycle plants,to mention a few applications.Depending on several factors such as quantity of gas or steam floW,cleanl1ness of gas,gas and steam pressure and space availabilitY,they may... of incinerator.whether fixed bed.rotary kiln or fluid bed.Sla9ging constituents present in the gas can result in bridging of tubes by molten salts if tube spacing is not wide,particularly at the boiler inlet.Ash hoppers ,soot blowers and cleaning lanes...

Ganapathy, V.

435

A study of the feasibility of the increased use of wage incentives in the brick manufacturing industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are moved by conveyor belt to workers who stack them on the decks of kiln cars. The units are stacked in large cubes called "hacks. " There are approx- imately from 500 to 850 brick in a hack depending on the style and size of the bricks. (See Figure 2... in the process. At the present time, the unfired units are placed by hand on the kiln car deck. A group of men stand before the conveyor belt carrying the green brick. (See Figures 4 and 5. ) As these brick come within reach of a work- er, he removes thea...

Stringer, James Lewis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

436

Environmentally Benign Repair of Composites | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of this project is to design and evaluate a new class of environmentally benign, low viscosity resins reinforced with nanosize alumina particles. The use temperature for these...

437

Reflectance Spectra of Some Mercury (II) Compounds on Active Adsorbents  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... 1) the iodide, bromide, and chloride; (2) the sulphide and oxide. The adsorbents used were neutral Woelm alumina, silica gel, and sodium fluoride.

HARRY ZEITLIN; HARRY GOYA; JOHN L. T. WAUGH

1963-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

438

Fluorous membrane-based separations and reactions.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Porous alumina membranes were rendered compatible with fluorous liquids by surface modification with a carboxylic acid terminated perfluoropolyether (Krytox 157FSH). FTIR and contact angle measurements… (more)

Yang, Yanhong

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

E-Print Network 3.0 - added polymer chains Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2) polymer chains molecularly dispersed into ceramic matrix. Recently, strength... in the fracture strength of the alumina that is also dependent on the amount of polymer added....

440

E-Print Network 3.0 - aluminium ions Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Otty, Mass and heat transfer in ion-exchange membranes (1996) 7. Belinda Flem, Peltier... heats in cryolite melts with alumina (1996) 8. Ellen Marie Hansen, Modelling of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Dirac Point of Photonic Graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Photonic graphene is an optical analogue to electronic graphene. We introduce Dirac maps to design a structure of alumina rods and experimentally demonstrate the existence of an Dirac...

de Dood, Michiel J

442

Preparation and Characterisation of Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents the preparation of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes using porous anodic alumina templates via thermal chemical vapour deposition. The characteristics of prepared carbon… (more)

Xu, Rui

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

PRODUCTION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Booklet describing in pictorial sequence the process of reducing alumina to aluminum pig at the Reynolds Metals' plant in Troutdale, Ore. ...

1952-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

444

EMSL - CO2 sequestration  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

co2-sequestration en Low-Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation Catalysed by Regenerable Atomically Dispersed Palladium on Alumina. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublications...

445

Next Generation Materials | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

energy productivity. The goal is to increase service life tenfold, decreasing the energy intensity of the materials and components. Alumina-Forming Austenitic Stainless...

446

INDUSTRY THIS WEEK IN BRIEF  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

El Paso Natural Gas Co . ... Reynolds Metals' Sherwin Alumina plant has increased daily capacity from 3000 to 3250 tons at its Corpus Christi facility. ...

1968-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

447

Integrated thermal treatment system study: Phase 1 results. Appendix B, Flow sheets and material balances: Volume 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document accompanies a full report which describes the testing and evaluation of ten different methods for incinerating mixed low-level radioactive wastes. It consists of flowsheets and diagrams of a rotary kiln, pyrolysis methods, a plasma furnace, a fixed hearth, and thermal desorption methods.

Feizollahi, F.; Quapp, W.J.; Hempill, H.G.; Groffie, F.J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

On a Perpetual Form of Secondary Cell  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... with lampblack for some days in a pottery kiln, until its smooth surface becomes thereby roughened with a dull drossy coat. To whatever assimilation of metalloids from the pure lampblack, ... have not tried the effect of electro-depositing platinum upon it as a means of roughening the surface of platinum foil; but experiments with clean platinum in sulphuric acid, and ...

A. S. HERSCHEL

1882-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

449

Charcoal Making in the Brazilian Amazon: Economic Aspects of Production and Carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 2004). The efficiency of biomass conversion into charcoal becomes important in con- junction, biomass conversion efficiency, the WI Woods et al. (eds.), Amazonian Dark Earths: Wim Sombroek's Vision Conversion Efficiencies of Kilns SN Swami, C Steiner, WG Teixeira, and J Lehmann 23.1 Introduction Charcoal

Lehmann, Johannes

450

PUBLICATIONS LIST Louisiana Forest Products Development Center  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to Air-Drying and Kiln-drying from the Green Condition. Gibson, Grozdits #29 Southern Forest ProductsPUBLICATIONS LIST Louisiana Forest Products Development Center School of Renewable Natural Forest Products Development Center RESEARCH BRIEFS #1 An Overview of the Louisiana Secondary Wood

451

Targeted removal of ant colonies in ecological experiments, using hot water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a large tank through a long coil of copper tubing within the kiln to produce 4 to 5 l. of hot water per colonies were formed, and mature colonies expanded into the plots. A third treatment was made in the spring

452

Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida RECYLCING OF GUYPSUM DRYWALL IN FLORIDA  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Soil and Water Science Department University of Florida RECYLCING OF GUYPSUM DRYWALL IN FLORIDA of landfills in Florida, it is more cost- effective to reuse them. However, there are some concerns the recycling of three important solid wastes in Florida, i.e. #1 cement kiln dust (CKD) and #16 gypsum drywalls

Ma, Lena

453

(Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use: In 1996, clays were produced in most States except Alaska, Delaware, Hawaii, Rhode  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

46 CLAYS (Data in thousand metric tons, unless otherwise noted) Domestic Production and Use% kiln furniture, 6% fiberglass, 4% paint, and 3% rubber; ball clay--25% floor and wall tile, 21 Statistics--United States: 1992 1993 1994 1995 19961 e Production, mine: Kaolin 8,740 8,830 8,770 9,480 9

454

CEWEP -Confederation of European Waste-to-Energy Plants Boulevard Clovis 12A  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recovered Fuel) as a fuel in both cement kilns and power plants, dedicated Biomass Energy Plants (BEP; BEP ­ Biomass Energy Plants; LFG ­ Landfill Gas; WtE ­ Waste-to-Energy 1 Excluding agricultural is considered biomass, thus a renewable energy source. Summary of the overall development of Renewable Energy

455

URANIUM METAL POWDER PRODUCTION, PARTICLE DISTRIBUTION ANALYSIS, AND REACTION RATE STUDIES OF A HYDRIDE-DEHYDRIDE PROCESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

atmosphere to reduce sample oxidation .................................................................................................. 13 12 Aluminum oxide crucible located at the bottom of the hydride-dehydride rig. ... 14 13 Furnace and furnace... at 60 minutes, 5psig, 250?C hydride, 325?C dehydride ................................................................................................... 30 27 Rotary kiln designed at ORNL for use in voloxidation...

Sames, William

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

456

2007 Minerals Yearbook U.S. Department of the Interior  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

technology (MACT) for hazardous air pollutants for the brick, clay ceramic, and structural clay kilns. The court ruled that standards set by MACT violated the Clean Air Act (U.S. Court of Appeals, 2007 underground production was in Ohio, where the clays are mainly underclays associated with coal. Ball Clay

457

Acknowledgments: UNEP/WMO, IIASA, JRC, US EPA, SEI, Scripps, Middlebury, U York,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(particle filters+) ­ Replacing coal in residential stoves ­ Replacing residential wood burning in Industrialized countries ­ Clean-burning cookstoves in developing countries ­ Modern brick kilns ­ Modern coke + Sri Lanka South East Asia China Rice paddies Livestock manure Wastewater Municipal waste Coal mines

458

www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk EPRGWORKINGPAPERNON-TECHNICALSUMMARY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, most cement kilns today use coal and petroleum coke as primary fuels, whereas aluminum smelters-energy purposes, such as coking coal, petrochemical feedstocks, or lubricants, have few available substitutes are based on electrochemical operational processes. Therefore, observable substitution of coal

de Gispert, Adrià

459

JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE IV ColloqueC7, supplkmentau Journal de Physique 111, Volume3,novembre 1993  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to that of a mixture of light benzene and bitumious coal tar if the pyrolysis gas is used as fluidizing gas. The other in the gas conditioning. Furthermore, the pollutants are concentrated in a coke-like residue surrounding them in melting vessels, blast furnaces, autoclaves, tube reactors, rotary kilns, coking chambers and fluidized

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

460

Engi 9601, In Class Assignment, 25 Sept. 2012 Shindell et al., 2012, Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) Coal mining, oil and gas production, long distance gas transmission, municipal waste and landfills, wastewater, livestock manure, rice paddies, diesel vehicles, clean-burning biomass stoves, brick kilns, coke Change. (3 marks) coal mining in China, oil and gas production in Central Africa, the Middle East

Coles, Cynthia

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Purdue extension Hardwood Lumber  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

woodworking projects. Strength At 12 percent moisture content, the wood weighs 32.2 pounds per cubic foot to the appropriate moisture content, the wood will move very little. Decay Resistance Sassafras lumber is reported for bending. Drying The wood can be dried with a moderate kiln schedule. Sassafras tree and Dan Cassens Chip

462

schedule6_2003.xls  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Winfield Danville 21 OH P B 1272 ACSR 1 1 1 -19 I1 0 U SERC SOU AC 230 230 807 Jun-11 Smith Laguna Beach 14 OH P S 1351 OT 1 2 2 7801 I1 0 U SERC SOU AC 230 230 602 Jun-11 Kiln...

463

A framework for the evaluation of the environmental merits of waste co-incineration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Co-incineration of waste in conventional power plants and industrial plants is increasingly gaining interest. In power stations, like in many dedicated waste incinerators, the calorific value of the waste is used to generate electricity. The energy is used more effectively in a power plant, however, because the energetic efficiency of the power plant is higher. Another promising option for waste treatment is co-incineration in a cement kiln. In that case, the energy in the waste serves to heat the materials to the desired temperature. In addition, the ashes that result from the incineration are incorporated in the cement, which means a reduction of both the primary material demand and the output waste flows. The amount of primary energy saved by the co-incineration is usually taken to be equal to the calorific value of the waste. However, that approach is not always justifiable. If, for example, waste is used in a cement kiln rather than treated in a waste incinerator with generation of electricity, the electricity must still be generated by a power plant, because the electricity demand is unchanged. Therefore, the energetic gain of co-incineration in a cement kiln should be corrected for the energy needed for the generation of electricity. In this paper, three processes are evaluated in an integrated systems approach: a dedicated waste incinerator combined with electricity generation, a power plant and a cement kiln. The effects of the incineration of three typical examples of waste are evaluated: mixed plastic waste, rubber, and sludge from a waste water treatment plant. The calorific value and the material contribution of the waste are compared with those of the primary fuel and the raw materials used in the processes. The integrated approach shows that the equivalent of one joule of waste saves 0.5 joule of primary fuel if the waste is burnt in either the power plant or the cement kiln rather than in the waste incinerator. The additional advantage of co-incineration in a cement kiln is the use of the material content of the waste. Even though the gain is less than often claimed, the substitution value can be substantial and application of waste in a power plant or a cement kiln can have considerable advantages, taken that other environmental criteria are met.

Bouwmans, I.; Hakvoort, R.A.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

Southern California Institute of Architecture and California Institute of Technology Solar Decathlon 2011 Menu and Recipes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

SCI-Arc/Caltech Dinner Competition Menus and Recipes Dinner 1 Menu Custom Laser Cut 1/16" Basswood 11" x 3" Produce: Tomatoes Cabbage Onions Limes Cilantro Red and green peppers Black beans Meat: Talapia Wheat: Flour tortillas Tortilla chips Rice Dairy: Light sour cream Adobo sauce from chipotle peppers Comprehensive List of Ingredients Dinner 1 Condiments and Spices: Extra virgin olive oil Distilled white vinegar Lime juice Lime zest Honey Garlic Cumin Chilli powder Black pepper Salt Old Bay Seafood seasoning Oregano Dessert: Pre-made churro dough Drinks: Sparkling and still water Sierra Mist Coke Diet Coke Horchata Equipment: Bosch Cooktop Food processor Hand mixer RECIPE - CHIPS and GUACAMOLE Ingredients 3 Haas avocadoes, halved, seeded and peeled 1 lime, juiced 1/2 teaspoon salt

465

A Locally Conservative Eulerian-Lagrangian Numerical Method and ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Li-Ming Yeh. z. November 3, 2000 ...... [35] J. Glimm, B. Lindquist, F. Pereira, and Q. Zhang, A theory of macrodispersion. for the scale up problem, Transport in ...

466

Improvement of the Protein Quality of Corn With Soybean Protein  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In most Central American countries, lime-treated corn provides 31% of the total protein and 45% of the energy intake, and beans 24% of the ... quality and quantity, as well as in energy. To overcome these deficie...

Ricardo Bressani; Luiz G. Elías…

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Application of Multivariable Model Predictive Advanced Control for a 2×310T/H CFB Boiler Unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

When a CFB boiler is in automatic control, there are ... non-linear combustion model, based on the CFB combustion characteristics of bed fuel inventory, heating values, bed lime inventory and consumption. CFB adv...

Zhao Weijie; Dai Zongllao; Gou Rong…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Journal of Sedimentary Research, 2006, v. 76, 116129 DOI: 10.2110/jsr.2006.07  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-water carbonates and large sand bodies might develop in the same high-energy shelf environments. Tide in the seaway resulting from sea-level fall. Lime mud is pervasive in the matrix of even the highest-energy

Demouchy, Sylvie

469

Citrus tristeza virus: characterization of Texas isolates, studies on aphid transmission and pathogen-derived control strategies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

propagative material also became apparent. 7 A disease of lime, (C. aurantifolia [Christm.] Swingle), in the West Indies with ?vein-clearing? leaf symptoms was reported as being caused by a pathogenic root fungus long before Ashby (1929) suggested another...

Herron, Caroline Mary

2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

470

Perception and Value of the Fresco in the Bronze Age Aegean  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

directly onto wet lime plaster, was distinctly Aegean andof pigment onto dry plaster for only a portion ofthe fresco due to the plaster’s drying too quickly. 8 Thus,

Giffin, Sarah J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Evaluation of the filler effects on fatique cracking and permanent deformation of asphalt concrete mixtures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The addition of hydrated lime to asphalt has shown to be beneficial with an improvement in the Theological properties of the binder, as well as resistance to permanent deformation (rutting) and fatigue cracking of asphalt concrete mixtures...

Izzo, Richard P

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Electromechanics of dielectric particles in dielectric liquids acted on by a microelectrode array  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Arrays of microelectrodes were used to apply forces to dielectric (soda lime glass) spheres in a thin (200 micrometer thick) layer of a dielectric liquid polymer (EOPN 8021). The microelectrodes were fabricated using standard photolithographic...

Seo, Cheong Soo

2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

473

Chemical-looping combustion of solid fuels in a 10 kW reactor system using natural minerals as oxygen carrier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is an unmixed combustion concept where fuel and combustion air are kept separate by means of an oxygen carrier, and the CO2 capture is inherently achieved. This work presents findings from a continuously operated 10 kW pilot for solid fuels. Using petcoke as fuel, the following oxygen carriers are compared: (a) ilmenite, (b) ilmenite + lime, (c) manganese ore, and (d) manganese ore + lime. Compared to ilmenite, the use of manganese ore as oxygen carrier greatly enhanced the rate of gasification. By adding lime particles to the Mn ore, performance improved further. The addition of lime to ilmenite had a small beneficial effect on gas conversion and char gasification rate.

Carl Linderholm; Anders Lyngfelt; Cristina Dueso

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

Calcium hydroxide nanosols for the consolidation of porous building materials - results from EU-STONECORE  

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The use of water-free lime-based grouts for the conservation of wall paintings, plaster and stucco is of great interest, for...9...] still contains a fraction of water. The aim was to develop suitable grouting ma...

Arnulf Daehne; Christoph Herm

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Engineering geology at Imperial College London; 1907–2007  

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...Building Stones; Bricks and Clays, Limes, Cements and Plasters; Roads and Canals; Rivers; Coastal Erosion; Use of Minerals...and studentships were reduced and staff not replaced. To consolidate resources Dr de Freitas initiated a Centre for Geological...

M.H. de Freitas; M.S. Rosenbaum

476

L2:VRI.P3.01 John Turner ORNL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Sandia National Laboratories P.O. Box 5800 Albuquerque, NM 87185 Abstract LIME is a small software package for creating multiphysics simulation codes. The name was formed as an...

477

A Review of Lighthouse Work and Economy in the United Kingdom during the Past Fifty Years1  

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... It was followed by the Drurnmond lime-light, and by ignited platinum wire and various pyrotechnic mixtures. The Bude and Drummond lights were tried by the Trinity House without successful ...

J. KENWARD

1887-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

478

PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS AS FOUND IN OHIO  

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...outcrop of the rock. In the first...Berea. These reservoirs, whether sandstone or lime-stone...called the rock-pressure...depend on the porosity of its immediate reservoir. Free communication...or universal permeability. The changes...

Edward Orton

1886-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

479

Societies and Academies  

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... mineral acids, and yields tetracidic derivatives; it seems to be allied to its isomeride fisetin.-An examination of the products obtained by the dry distillation of bran with lime, ...

1896-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

480

The Characterization of Arsenic in Mine Waste  

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...Excess lime is usually present to buffer any acid although As concentration in...SADC (2012) Environmental Legislation Handbook. Third Edition. Development Bank of...predictive geochemical modelling to determine backfill requirements at Turquoise ridge Joint...

Dave Craw; Robert J. Bowell

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lime kiln alumina" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

BURDIGE, DAVID J., AND RICHARD C. ZIMMERMAN Impact of sea ...  

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eventually leads to carbonate mineral supersaturation (Morse and Mackenzie 1990). .... skeletal debris (mollusks, coral, red and green algae, calcar- eous sponges, and ...... Subtidal stromatolites, ooids and crusted-lime mud beds at the Great ...

2002-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

482

The Analysis of Hydrocarbon Distillates for Group Types Using HPLC With Dielectric Constant Detection: A Review  

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......David Talbot Day, chief of the Division of Mineral Resources of the American Geological Survey...the color and composition of Pennsylvania green petroleum after percolation through a column of powdered lime stone. In August of 1900, Day reported......

Paul C. Hayes; Jr.; Steven D. Anderson

1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

E-Print Network 3.0 - acid maltase deficiency Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to "lime-induced chlorosis" or iron (Fe) deficiency in soybean. High p... fairly dark green in typical Fe deficiency symptoms (Fig. 1). Soybean is widely known to be much more...

484

Global climate policy impacts on livestock, land use, livelihoods, and food security  

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...per year. For comparison, the Green Climate Fund, established at the...forestry total abatement curve (green) and the intensification curve...products 34 nmm Non-Metallic Minerals: cement, plaster, lime, gravel, concrete 35 i_s Iron...

Alla A. Golub; Benjamin B. Henderson; Thomas W. Hertel; Pierre J. Gerber; Steven K. Rose; Brent Sohngen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Magnetic mineralogy of pelagic limestones  

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......are found in pelagic lime- 434 R. Freeman stones...each phase of magnetic mineral, and indicates some...to the Rock-forming Minerals, Long- mans, Green & Co., London. El...1976. Opaque oxide minerals in meteorites, in Oxide......

Roy Freeman

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

486

E-Print Network 3.0 - acetoacetyl-coa thiolase deficiency Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to "lime-induced chlorosis" or iron (Fe) deficiency in soybean. High p... fairly dark green in typical Fe deficiency symptoms (Fig. 1). Soybean is widely known to be much more...

487

A rock engraving made by Neanderthals in Gibraltar  

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...Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals . Eur J Mineral 22 ( 2 ): 163 – 179 . 40 Marin-Arroyo...featured in the assemblage: grey-green, black...surfaces of the fine-grained lime-dolostone of...

Joaquín Rodríguez-Vidal; Francesco d’Errico; Francisco Giles Pacheco; Ruth Blasco; Jordi Rosell; Richard P. Jennings; Alain Queffelec; Geraldine Finlayson; Darren A. Fa; José María Gutiérrez López; José S. Carrión; Juan José Negro; Stewart Finlayson; Luís M. Cáceres; Marco A. Bernal; Santiago Fernández Jiménez; Clive Finlayson

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

E-Print Network 3.0 - antioxidant nutrient intakes Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a person's energy & nutrient needs. How big is a serving? You don't need... of lemon, lime, or orange vTips for Increasing Water Intake: Yogurt smoothies String Cheese ......

489

Pulse of atmospheric oxygen during the late Cambrian  

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...relative to the prasinophyte green algae (which were members of the green plastid group, and likely the dominant...approximately 6N HCl to remove carbonate minerals. Insoluble...rhythmically bedded argillaceous lime- stones and calcareous shales...

Matthew R. Saltzman; Seth A. Young; Lee R. Kump; Benjamin C. Gill; Timothy W. Lyons; Bruce Runnegar

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Curie temperature analyses of Upper Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous pelagic limestones  

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......strongly ferromagnetic minerals, IRM acquisition and...weakly ferromagnetic minerals such as goethite and...thermomagnetic analysis, pelagic lime- stones 1 Introduction...magnetite, other magnetic minerals including haematite...sandy limestone gray-green marly limestone "Ammonitico......

Bruno Galbrun; Robert F. Butler

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Bibliography and Index to the Literature on Gas Chromatography—1966 November 1, 1965 to November 1, 1966  

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......ESSEN- TIAL OILS OF GRAPEFRUIT, LEMON, LIME AND TANGERINE, Hunter, G. L. K...IONIZATION DETECTORS, Jones, K., and Green, R., Nature 210, No. 5043: 1355...AND APPLICATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN MINERAL OIL ANALYSIS, Kemmner, Gunther, Kolb......

Seaton T. Preston; Jr.; Mignon Gill

1966-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Ascorbic Acid (Vitamin C) Educational programs of the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service are open to all people without regard to race, color, sex, religion, age or national origin.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

damaging compounds in the environment Sources: Oranges, grapefruit, lemons, limes, strawberries, cantaloupe, fruit juices, strawberries, broccoli, cauliflower, raw cabbage, spinach, turnip greens, collards, kale, Brussels sprouts, green leafy vegetables, green or red peppers, tomatoes, and potatoes Deficiency: Scurvy

493

Evidence for rapid climate change in the Mesozoic–Palaeogene greenhouse world  

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...J.-F. & Bernoulli, D. 1991 Clay mineral assemblages of Mesozoic pelagic and flysch...Farrimond, P., Morgans Bell, H. S. & Green, O. 2000 Massive dissociation of gas...Carbon-isotope fluctuations in Cretaceous pelagic lime- stones: potential stratigraphic and...

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

494

In situ crystallization of barium zinc silicate in glass-ceramics studied by hot stage scanning electron microscopy  

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......Glasses and glass ceramics with blue, green and red photoluminescence. Phys. Chem...implications for melt inclusion analysis. Am. Mineral. (2006) 91:667-679. doi:10...formation of gold nanoparticles in soda lime silicate glass: suppressed Ostwald ripening......

Christian Bocker; Marlen Michaelis; Christian Rüssel

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Structural models of bioactive glasses from molecular dynamics simulations  

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...to adsorb and dissociate a water molecule (Tilocca Cormack 2008...the available computational power steadily grows, it will become...surface of bioactive glasses: water adsorption and reactivity...soda-lime silicate glasses by Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics...

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

MSU Extension Publication Archive Archive copy of publication, do not use for current recommendations. Up-to-date  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Michigan Soils Michigan State University Extension Service John Sims Issued January 1929 4 pages The PDF ,\\ ct (Ii ('()llgrl'~'. ,\\l:t \\. S, 1f)1 ~ . #12;, LIME FOR MICHIGAN SOILS BY JOHN SIMS Clover failures

497

Weighting across safeguard subjects for LCIA through the application of conjoint analysis  

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LCA National Project (METI/NEDO/JEMAI) has conducted a study aimed at the development of a Japanese version of the damage-oriented impact assessment method called LIME (Life-cycle Impact assessment Method based o...

Norihiro Itsubo; Masaji Sakagami…

2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Bisected Humble Bees  

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... observed recently under his lime trees, namely, the heads and thoracic segments of severed humble bees lying on the ground, with legs and wings attached, still retaining their vitality ...

R. V. D.

1881-08-18T23:59:59.000Z

499

The mechanism of the formation and transformation of ettringite  

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The formation and transformation of ettringite were studied by measuring the ion concentration...3A, gypsum, lime and C?S?H gel on ettringite formation and transformation were also investigated. The ... compositi...

Peng Jiahui; Zhang Jianxin; Qu Jindong

2006-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

UPPER CAMBRIAN STRATIGRAPHY IN THE CENTRAL APPALACHIANS  

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...conglomerate with crystal- line matrix grading up into lime- stone 1 9. Black finely crystalline to aphanitic limestone weathering steel blue and with yellow mottling 2 47-1lw.2, float at approximately this position, primitive orthoid, Taeni...