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Sample records for like wise excluded

  1. THE WISE BLAZAR-LIKE RADIO-LOUD SOURCES: AN ALL-SKY CATALOG OF CANDIDATE γ-RAY BLAZARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Abrusco, R.; Paggi, A.; Smith, H. A.; Massaro, F.; Masetti, N.

    2014-11-01

    We present a catalog of radio-loud candidate γ-ray emitting blazars with WISE mid-infrared colors similar to the colors of confirmed γ-ray blazars. The catalog is assembled from WISE sources detected in all four WISE filters, with colors compatible with the three-dimensional locus of the WISE γ-ray emitting blazars, and which can be spatially cross-matched with radio sources from one of the three radio surveys: NVSS, FIRST, and/or SUMSS. Our initial WISE selection uses a slightly modified version of previously successful algorithms. We then select only the radio-loud sources using a measure of the radio-to-IR flux, the q {sub 22} parameter, which is analogous to the q {sub 24} parameter known in the literature but which instead uses the WISE band-four flux at 22 μm. Our final catalog contains 7855 sources classified as BL Lacs, FSRQs, or mixed candidate blazars; 1295 of these sources can be spatially re-associated as confirmed blazars. We describe the properties of the final catalog of WISE blazar-like radio-loud sources and consider possible contaminants. Finally, we discuss why this large catalog of candidate γ-ray emitting blazars represents a new and useful resource to address the problem of finding low-energy counterparts to currently unidentified high-energy sources.

  2. Huntsville WISE Flyer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SAVE MONEY SAVE ENERGY BE WISE With Nexus Energy Center What is WISE? The Huntsville ... Through Nexus Energy Center and its partners, the Huntsville WISE Gold Program provides up ...

  3. Huntsville WISE Flier

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This is a document from Huntsville WISE posted on the website of the U.S. Department of Energy's Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.

  4. WiseEnergy | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search Name: WiseEnergy Place: Italy Sector: Solar Product: WiseEnergy manages solar plants in Italy. References: WiseEnergy1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by...

  5. World Wise Technologies Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Wise Technologies Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: World Wise Technologies Inc Place: Carson City, Nevada Zip: 89701 Sector: Renewable Energy Product: Develops renewable...

  6. City of Charleston- CharlestonWISE Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CharlestonWISE is an energy efficiency program for homeowners within the City of Charleston. The program offers rebates on completed home performance improvements for qualified residential...

  7. PNNL GridWise | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    GridWise AgencyCompany Organization Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Sector Energy Resource Type Case studiesexamples Website http:gridwise.pnl.gov Country United...

  8. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding ... This document contains the Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from ...

  9. Climate wise case study compendium: Report 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-02-01

    This case study compendium is one of several Climate Wise tools available to help interested companies identify cost-effective options. Climate Wise, a private-public partnership program, is a key Federal initiative to return greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2000.

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: Pollution Prevention: EPA WasteWise

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    EPA WasteWise EPA WasteWise Logo Sandia National Laboratories has been an EPA WasteWise partner through Pollution Prevention (P2) since 1997. P2 participates in the annual waste...

  11. Wise County, Virginia: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Appalachia, Virginia Big Stone Gap, Virginia Coeburn, Virginia Pound, Virginia St. Paul, Virginia Wise, Virginia Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWiseCo...

  12. CenterPoint Energy's Energy Wise Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    CenterPoint Energy's Energy Wise program provides take-home kits containing efficiency devices with classroom and in-home education techniques with the aim to inspire families to adopt new resource...

  13. "ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ENDING STOCKS OF CRUDE OIL (excluding SPR)" "Sourcekey","WCESTP11","WCESTP11","WCESTP21","... 1) Ending Stocks excluding SPR of Crude Oil (Thousand Barrels)","Weekly East Coast ...

  14. Evaluation Ratings Definitions (Excluding Utilization of Small...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    (Excluding Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ... Definitions (Utilization of Small Business) Rating Definition Note Exceptional ...

  15. GridWise Standards Mapping Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosquet, Mia L.

    2004-04-01

    ''GridWise'' is a concept of how advanced communications, information and controls technology can transform the nation's energy system--across the spectrum of large scale, central generation to common consumer appliances and equipment--into a collaborative network, rich in the exchange of decision making information and an abundance of market-based opportunities (Widergren and Bosquet 2003) accompanying the electric transmission and distribution system fully into the information and telecommunication age. This report summarizes a broad review of standards efforts which are related to GridWise--those which could ultimately contribute significantly to advancements toward the GridWise vision, or those which represent today's current technological basis upon which this vision must build.

  16. Three new cool brown dwarfs discovered with the wide-field infrared survey explorer (WISE) and an improved spectrum of the Y0 dwarf wise J041022.71+150248.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Mace, Gregory N.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Gould, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    As part of a larger search of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data for cool brown dwarfs with effective temperatures less than 1000 K, we present the discovery of three new cool brown dwarfs with spectral types later than T7. Using low-resolution, near-infrared spectra obtained with the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility and the Hubble Space Telescope, we derive spectral types of T9.5 for WISE J094305.98+360723.5, T8 for WISE J200050.19+362950.1, and Y0: for WISE J220905.73+271143.9. The identification of WISE J220905.73+271143.9 as a Y dwarf brings the total number of spectroscopically confirmed Y dwarfs to 17. In addition, we present an improved spectrum (i.e., higher signal-to-noise ratio) of the Y0 dwarf WISE J041022.71+150248.4 that confirms the Cushing et al. classification of Y0. Spectrophotometric distance estimates place all three new brown dwarfs at distances less than 12 pc, with WISE J200050.19+362950.1 lying at a distance of only 3.9-8.0 pc. Finally, we note that brown dwarfs like WISE J200050.19+362950.1 that lie in or near the Galactic plane offer an exciting opportunity to directly measure the mass of a brown dwarf via astrometric microlensing.

  17. Enforcement Letter, Wise Services, Inc - July 9, 2014 | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Wise Services, Inc - July 9, 2014 Enforcement Letter, Wise Services, Inc - July 9, 2014 July 9, 2014 Worker Safety and Health Enforcement Letter issued to Wise Services, Inc. On July 9, 2014, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Independent Enterprise Assessment's Office of Enforcement issued an Enforcement Letter (WEL-2014-04) to Wise Services, Inc.(Wise Services) related to a track hoe operated by a Wise Services employee that struck a fiber optics line at the DOE

  18. NOLA Wise Helps Spur Statewide Energy Efficiency Program | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy NOLA Wise Helps Spur Statewide Energy Efficiency Program NOLA Wise Helps Spur Statewide Energy Efficiency Program The logo for NOLA Wise. Louisiana's statewide energy efficiency program is back on track, thanks in part to NOLA Wise. In February 2013, the Louisiana Public Service Commission halted the program, just two months after it was adopted, but on June 26, 2013, the commission voted to restore the program. "A major source of the commission's change of heart was data we

  19. CONSORTIUM GETS WISE ABOUT ENERGY UPGRADES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONSORTIUM GETS WISE ABOUT ENERGY UPGRADES CONSORTIUM GETS WISE ABOUT ENERGY UPGRADES CONSORTIUM GETS WISE ABOUT ENERGY UPGRADES In a region where energy efficiency is a relatively new concept, the Southeast Energy Efficiency Alliance (SEEA) joined with a consortium of 13 cities across eight states and one territory to build a framework for energy efficiency programs that could be replicated and implemented across the Southeast. Because each city took a unique approach to developing and

  20. Wise County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Apps Datasets Community Login | Sign Up Search Page Edit with form History Wise County, Texas: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates...

  1. NOLA Wise Helps Spur Statewide Energy Efficiency Program | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In February 2013, the Louisiana Public Service Commission halted the program, just two ... a NOLA Wise partner that provides quality control over each home energy upgrade to ...

  2. V-082: Novell GroupWise Client Two Vulnerabilities

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Two vulnerabilities have been reported in Novell GroupWise Client, which can be exploited by malicious people to compromise a user's system.

  3. CONSORTIUM GETS WISE ABOUT ENERGY UPGRADES | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Better Buildings Neighborhood program, the 13 SEEA programs relied on ... SEEA also created the "Worthwhile Investments Save Energy" (WISE) brand many communities adopted for ...

  4. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers residential customers rebates on a variety of HVAC equipment through its WISE Rebate program. This program encourages residential customers and...

  5. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  6. Mr. David Abney Chief Executive Officer Wise Services, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    9, 2014 Mr. David Abney Chief Executive Officer Wise Services, Inc. 1705 Guenther Road P.O. Box 159 Dayton, Ohio 45417 WEL-2014-04 Dear Mr. Abney: This letter refers to the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) investigation into the facts and circumstances associated with a track hoe operated by a Wise Services, Inc. (Wise Services) employee that struck a fiber optics line at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant on November 8, 2012. The results of the investigation, conducted April 8-12,

  7. Enforcement Letter, Wise Services, Inc - July 9, 2014 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    related to a track hoe operated by a Wise Services employee that struck a fiber optics line at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant on November 8, 2012. Enforcement...

  8. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers rebates on a variety of HVAC equipment through its WISE Rebate program. This program encourages residential customers and builders to upgrade to...

  9. Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority- WISE Energy Efficiency Loan Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority (OMPA) offers loans for a variety of measures and equipment through its "Ways I Save Electricity" (WISE) Loan Program. This program encourages residential and...

  10. SCE&G (Electric)- Commercial EnergyWise Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G) provides EnergyWise efficiency incentives to any non-residential customers in its service territory which have not opted out of the DSM programs by...

  11. Wising Up Uncle Sam to Cybertricks | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wising Up Uncle Sam to Cybertricks Wising Up Uncle Sam to Cybertricks November 22, 2011 - 12:15pm Addthis Oak Ridge National Laboratory’s main entrance is marked by a limestone sign. Several new buildings visible in the background house more than 1,000 of the lab’s 4,300 employees. | Photo courtesy of Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge National Laboratory's main entrance is marked by a limestone sign. Several new buildings visible in the background house more than 1,000 of the

  12. QER- Comment of GridWise Alliance 2

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Dear Melanie: I want to express my gratitude to you, again, for having taken time to meet with me and my GridWise Alliance client in the past, and for the opportunity for the Alliance and one of our members each to have participated in a QER public meeting.

  13. Warm dust around cool stars: field M dwarfs with Wise 12 or 22 ?m excess emission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theissen, Christopher A.; West, Andrew A.

    2014-10-20

    Using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 7 (SDSS DR7) spectroscopic catalog, we searched the WISE AllWISE catalog to investigate the occurrence of warm dust, as inferred from IR excesses, around field M dwarfs (dMs). We developed SDSS/WISE color selection criteria to identify 175 dMs (from 70,841) that show IR flux greater than the typical dM photosphere levels at 12 and/or 22 ?m, including seven new stars within the Orion OB1 footprint. We characterize the dust populations inferred from each IR excess and investigate the possibility that these excesses could arise from ultracool binary companions by modeling combined spectral energy distributions. Our observed IR fluxes are greater than levels expected from ultracool companions (>3?). We also estimate that the probability the observed IR excesses are due to chance alignments with extragalactic sources is <0.1%. Using SDSS spectra we measure surface gravity-dependent features (K, Na, and CaH 3) and find <15% of our sample indicates low surface gravities. Examining tracers of youth (H?, UV fluxes, and Li absorption), we find <3% of our sample appear young, indicating we are observing a population of field stars ?1 Gyr, likely harboring circumstellar material. We investigate age-dependent properties probed by this sample, studying the disk fraction as a function of Galactic height. The fraction remains small and constant to |Z| ? 700 pc and then drops, indicating little to no trend with age. Possible explanations for disks around field dMs include (1) collisions of planetary bodies, (2) tidal disruption of planetary bodies, or (3) failed planet formation.

  14. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy NEPA » National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded Actions Categorical Exclusions (CX) - Categorical exclusions are categories of actions that DOE has determined, by regulation, do not individually or cumulatively have a significant effect on the human environment and for which neither an environmental assessment nor an environmental impact statement is typically required. Title

  15. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xin; Do, Changwoo; Liu, Yun; Hong, Kunlun; Smith, Greg; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffnessmore » of its constituent branch.« less

  16. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Do, Changwoo [ORNL; Liu, Yun [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Hong, Kunlun [ORNL; Smith, Greg [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    In this work we present a new model for the form factor of a star polymer consisting of self-avoiding branches. This new model incorporates excluded volume effects and is derived from the two point correlation function for a star polymer.. We compare this model to small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements from polystyrene (PS) stars immersed in a good solvent, tetrahydrofuran (THF). It is shown that this model provides a good description of the scattering signature originating from the excluded volume effect and it explicitly elucidates the connection between the global conformation of a star polymer and the local stiffness of its constituent branch.

  17. GridWise Alliance: Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenges | Department of Energy GridWise Alliance: Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges GridWise Alliance: Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges The GridWise Alliance is a coalition of over 150 companies, organizations, and academic institutions advocating for a smart grid for a more sustainable future. We are consensus-driven and technology neutral and do not advocate for specific platforms or technologies, but, rather, for policies that will

  18. GridWise Alliance: Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    reliability, flexibility, and efficiency of our electric grid. PDF icon GridWise Alliance: Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges More Documents & ...

  19. QER - Comment of GridWise Alliance 1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 QER - Comment of GridWise Alliance 1 From: Becky Harrison [BHarrison@gridwise.org] Sent: Friday, April 11, 2014 5:00 PM To: QERcomments CC: Ladeene Freimuth; Lee Coogan Subject: Comments on QER Attachment: GridWise Alliance - QER Workshop 04112014 Remarks.docx; GridWise Improving Electric Grid Reliability and Resilience Report June 2013.pdf Please find attached the GridWise Alliance's Improving Electric Grid Reliability and Resilience report and my comments from today's workshop. Thank to the

  20. GridWise Transactive Energy Framework (DRAFT Version)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, Ronald B.

    2013-11-06

    Over the past decade, the use of demand response and other flexible distributed resources for market efficiency and grid reliability has grown dramatically. Federal and state policy objectives point to an important role for customers loads, generation and storage in the management of an increasingly unpredictable power system. As we consider the need to substantially scale the use of flexible distributed energy resources, there has been growing attention to the need to address not only the economics, but also the control system implications to ensure grid reliability. This has led to a focus on an area of activity called Transactive Energy. Transactive Energy refers to the combination of economic and control techniques to improve grid reliability and efficiency. These techniques may also be used to optimize operations within a customers facility. The Department of Energy has supported the GridWise Architecture Council (the Council) in developing a conceptual framework that can be used in developing architectures, and designing solutions related to transactive energy. The goal of this effort is to encourage and facilitate collaboration among the many stakeholders involved in the transformation of the power system and thereby advance the practical implementation of transactive energy.

  1. Nissan Showcases the Results of an Energy-Wise Corporate Culture |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Showcases the Results of an Energy-Wise Corporate Culture Nissan Showcases the Results of an Energy-Wise Corporate Culture This case study describes the benefits of Nissan instilling a deep-rooted, company-wide culture of energy efficiency and how it informed long-term success in energy management and plant-wide energy performance. Nissan Showcases the Results of an Energy-Wise Corporate Culture (June 2010) (1.3 MB) More Documents & Publications Nissan North America:

  2. WISE TF: A MID-INFRARED, 3.4 {mu}m EXTENSION OF THE TULLY-FISHER RELATION USING WISE PHOTOMETRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagattuta, David J.; Mould, Jeremy R.; Staveley-Smith, Lister; Hong Tao; Springob, Christopher M.; Masters, Karen L.; Koribalski, Baerbel S.; Jones, D. Heath

    2013-07-10

    We present a mid-infrared Tully-Fisher (TF) relation using photometry from the 3.4 {mu}m W1 band of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) satellite. The WISE TF relation is formed from 568 galaxies taken from the all-sky 2MASS Tully-Fisher (2MTF) galaxy catalog, spanning a range of environments including field, group, and cluster galaxies. This constitutes the largest mid-infrared TF relation constructed to date. After applying a number of corrections to galaxy magnitudes and line widths, we measure a master TF relation given by M{sub corr} = -22.24 - 10.05[log (W{sub corr}) - 2.5], with an average dispersion of {sigma}{sub WISE} = 0.686 mag. There is some tension between WISE TF and a preliminary 3.6 {mu}m relation, which has a shallower slope and almost no intrinsic dispersion. However, our results agree well with a more recent relation constructed from a large sample of cluster galaxies. We additionally compare WISE TF to the near-infrared 2MTF template relations, finding a good agreement between the TF parameters and total dispersions of WISE TF and the 2MTF K-band template. This fact, coupled with typical galaxy colors of (K - W1) {approx} 0, suggests that these two bands are tracing similar stellar populations, including the older, centrally-located stars in the galactic bulge which can (for galaxies with a prominent bulge) dominate the light profile.

  3. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xin [ORNL; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E [ORNL; Smith, Gregory Scott [ORNL; Chen, Wei-Ren [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugate and the microstructure of its constituent components.

  4. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume Effect

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Li, Xin; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E.; Smith, Gregory Scott; Chen, Wei-Ren

    2015-01-13

    This work presents scattering functions of conjugates consisting of a colloid particle and a self-avoiding polymer chain as a model for protein-polymer conjugates and nanoparticle-polymer conjugates in solution. The model is directly derived from the two-point correlation function with the inclusion of excluded volume effects. The dependence of the calculated scattering function on the geometric shape of the colloid and polymer stiffness is investigated. The model is able to describe the experimental scattering signature of the solutions of suspending hard particle-polymer conjugates and provide additional conformational information. This model explicitly elucidates the link between the global conformation of a conjugatemore » and the microstructure of its constituent components.« less

  5. Duke Energy Florida- SunSense Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Duke Energy Florida (DEF) launched the Solar Water Heating with EnergyWise Program in February 2007 to encourage its residential customers to participate in its load control program and install a...

  6. QER - Comment of GridWise Alliance 3 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 QER - Comment of GridWise Alliance 3 From: Wayland, Karen Sent: Tuesday, August 12, 2014 8:50 PM To: QERcomments Subject: Fw: GridWise Alliance's Comments on the First Phase of the Quadrennial Energy Review Attached Attachment: GWA_QER Comments_August_2014_Final.pdf From: ladeene@freimuthgroup.com [mailto:ladeene@freimuthgroup.com] Sent: Tuesday, August 12, 2014 07:52 PM To: Secretary Moniz; John Holdren; Daniel_G._Utech@who.eop.gov <Daniel_G._Utech@who.eop.gov>; Kenderdine, Melanie Cc:

  7. A spectroscopic survey of WISE-selected obscured quasars with the southern african large telescope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Carroll, Christopher M.; Myers, Adam D.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Trouille, Laura

    2014-11-10

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of 40 candidate obscured quasars identified on the basis of their mid-infrared emission detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Optical spectra for this survey were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope. Our sample was selected with WISE colors characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), as well as red optical to mid-IR colors indicating that the optical/UV AGN continuum is obscured by dust. We obtain secure redshifts for the majority of the objects that comprise our sample (35/40), and find that sources that are bright in the WISE W4 (22 μm) band are typically at moderate redshift ((z) = 0.35) while sources fainter in W4 are at higher redshifts ((z) = 0.73). The majority of the sources have narrow emission lines with optical colors and emission line ratios of our WISE-selected sources that are consistent with the locus of AGN on the rest-frame g – z color versus [Ne III] λ3869/[O II] λλ3726+3729 line ratio diagnostic diagram. We also use empirical AGN and galaxy templates to model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the objects in our sample, and find that while there is significant variation in the observed SEDs for these objects, the majority require a strong AGN component. Finally, we use the results from our analysis of the optical spectra and the SEDs to compare our selection criteria to alternate criteria presented in the literature. These results verify the efficacy of selecting luminous obscured AGNs based on their WISE colors.

  8. Rural Alaska Community Action Program Inc.'s Energy Wise Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Rural Alaska Community Action Program, Inc. Ellen Kazary, Community Development Manager (907) 865-7358, ekazary@ruralcap.com GOALS: * Create jobs for rural Alaskans * Lower residential energy burden in tribal communities Additional Goals - Demonstrate that education and simple efficiency improvements can make an important difference in lowering residential energy costs - Provide a model component for energy plans - important to incorporate Energy Wise strategies in holistic energy plans Energy

  9. Microsoft Word - GridWise Alliance Membership_10_29_10

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    GridWise Alliance Response to Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges November 1, 2010 Ms. Patricia Hoffman Assistant Secretary for Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability United States Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW, Room 8H033 Washington, DC 20585 RE: Smart Grid RFI: Addressing Policy and Logistical Challenges Dear Secretary Hoffman, Thank you for the opportunity to provide information to the Department of Energy Federal Register Doc. 2010-23251 filed

  10. US adopts {open_quote}Wise{close_quote} program to combat global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herman, P.; Kenchington, H.

    1996-12-31

    Relying on their Yankee ingenuity, some 60 American companies have pledged to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions by more than 5 million metric tons by 2000. Inspired by the Clinton administration`s Climate Change Action Plan, companies such as Dupont and General Motors have joined with the Department of Energy and the Environmental Protection Agency to implement voluntary reductions in pollution, say Pamela Herman and Hank Kenchington, co-directors of the Climate Wise Program. {open_quotes}Climate Wise provides a flexible program that encourages industries to put forth their best ideas. The government, in turn, offers companies access to technical information and help in learning from the experience of others,{close_quotes} the authors say. Conservation of resources translates into financial savings as well. In curbing its emissions of greenhouse gases, Dupont {open_quotes}anticipates savings $30 million this year,{close_quotes} say Herman and Kechington. As a result, such cooperative initiatives as Climate Wise boost both the nation`s productivity and competitiveness.

  11. Discovery of the young L dwarf wise J174102.78-464225.5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Mace, Gregory N.; Gelino, Christopher R.; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sheppard, Scott S.

    2014-02-01

    We report the discovery of the L dwarf WISE J174102.78464225.5, which was discovered as part of a search for nearby L dwarfs using the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). The distinct triangular peak of the H-band portion of its near-infrared spectrum and its red near-infrared colors (J K{sub S} = 2.35 0.08 mag) are indicative of a young age. Via comparison to spectral standards and other red L dwarfs, we estimate a near-infrared spectral type of L7 2 (pec). From a comparison to spectral and low-mass evolutionary models, we determine self-consistent effective temperature, log g, age, and mass values of 1450 100 K, 4.0 0.25 (cm s{sup 2}), 10-100 Myr, and 4-21 M {sub Jup}, respectively. With an estimated distance of 10-30 pc, we explore the possibility that WISE J174102.78464225.5 belongs to one of the young nearby moving groups via a kinematic analysis and we find potential membership in the ? Pictoris or AB Doradus associations. A trigonometric parallax measurement and a precise radial velocity can help to secure its membership in either of these groups.

  12. Effects of excluded volume and correlated molecular orientations on Frster resonance energy transfer in liquid water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Mino

    2014-04-14

    Frster theory for the survival probability of excited chromophores is generalized to include the effects of excluded volume and orientation correlation in the molecular distribution. An analytical expression for survival probability was derived and written in terms of a few simple elementary functions. Because of the excluded volume, the survival probability exhibits exponential decay at early times and stretched exponential decay at later times. Experimental schemes to determine the size of the molecular excluded volume are suggested. With the present generalization of theory, we analyzed vibrational resonance energy transfer kinetics in neat water. Excluded volume effects prove to be important and slow down the kinetics at early times. The majority of intermolecular resonance energy transfer was found to occur with exponential kinetics, as opposed to the stretched exponential behavior predicted by Frster theory. Quantum yields of intra-molecular vibrational relaxation, intra-, and intermolecular energy transfer were calculated to be 0.413, 0.167, and 0.420, respectively.

  13. Fluid simulations with atomistic resolution: a hybrid multiscale method with field-wise coupling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, Matthew K. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)] [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom); Lockerby, Duncan A., E-mail: duncan.lockerby@warwick.ac.uk [School of Engineering, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Reese, Jason M., E-mail: jason.reese@strath.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G1 1XJ (United Kingdom)

    2013-12-15

    We present a new hybrid method for simulating dense fluid systems that exhibit multiscale behaviour, in particular, systems in which a NavierStokes model may not be valid in parts of the computational domain. We apply molecular dynamics as a local microscopic refinement for correcting the NavierStokes constitutive approximation in the bulk of the domain, as well as providing a direct measurement of velocity slip at bounding surfaces. Our hybrid approach differs from existing techniques, such as the heterogeneous multiscale method (HMM), in some fundamental respects. In our method, the individual molecular solvers, which provide information to the macro model, are not coupled with the continuum grid at nodes (i.e. point-wise coupling), instead coupling occurs over distributed heterogeneous fields (here referred to as field-wise coupling). This affords two major advantages. Whereas point-wise coupled HMM is limited to regions of flow that are highly scale-separated in all spatial directions (i.e. where the state of non-equilibrium in the fluid can be adequately described by a single strain tensor and temperature gradient vector), our field-wise coupled HMM has no such limitations and so can be applied to flows with arbitrarily-varying degrees of scale separation (e.g. flow from a large reservoir into a nano-channel). The second major advantage is that the position of molecular elements does not need to be collocated with nodes of the continuum grid, which means that the resolution of the microscopic correction can be adjusted independently of the resolution of the continuum model. This in turn means the computational cost and accuracy of the molecular correction can be independently controlled and optimised. The macroscopic constraints on the individual molecular solvers are artificial body-force distributions, used in conjunction with standard periodicity. We test our hybrid method on the Poiseuille flow problem for both Newtonian (Lennard-Jones) and non

  14. RESOLVED NEAR-INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY OF WISE J104915.57-531906.1AB: A FLUX-REVERSAL BINARY AT THE L DWARF/T DWARF TRANSITION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgasser, Adam J.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Luhman, K. L.

    2013-08-01

    We report resolved near-infrared spectroscopy and photometry of the recently identified brown dwarf binary WISE J104915.57-531906.1AB, located 2.02 {+-} 0.15 pc from the Sun. Low-resolution spectral data from Magellan/FIRE and IRTF/SpeX reveal strong H{sub 2}O and CO absorption features in the spectra of both components, while the secondary also exhibits weak CH{sub 4} absorption at 1.6 {mu}m and 2.2 {mu}m. Spectral indices and comparison to low-resolution spectral standards indicate component types of L7.5 and T0.5 {+-} 1, the former consistent with the optical classification of the primary. Both sources also have unusually red spectral energy distributions for their spectral types, which we attribute to enhanced condensate opacity (thick clouds). Relative photometry reveals a flux reversal between the J and K bands, with the T dwarf component being brighter in the 0.95-1.3 {mu}m region ({Delta}J = -0.31 {+-} 0.05). As with other L/T transition binaries, this reversal likely reflects the depletion of condensate opacity in the T dwarf, with the contrast enhanced by the thick clouds present in the photosphere of the L dwarf primary. The 1 {mu}m flux from the T dwarf most likely emerges from gaps in its cloud layer, as suggested by the significant optical variability detected from this source by Gillon et al. Component mass measurements of the WISE J1049-5319AB system through astrometric and component radial velocity monitoring may resolve the current debate as to whether the loss of photospheric condensate clouds at the L dwarf/T dwarf boundary is a slow or rapid process, a conceivable endeavor given its proximity, brightness, small separation (3.1 {+-} 0.3 AU), and reasonable orbital period (20-30 yr)

  15. CATCHING QUENCHING GALAXIES: THE NATURE OF THE WISE INFRARED TRANSITION ZONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alatalo, Katherine; Appleton, Philip N.; Rich, Jeffrey A.; Cales, Sabrina L.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Lacy, Mark; Lisenfeld, Ute; Nyland, Kristina

    2014-10-10

    We present the discovery of a prominent bifurcation between early-type galaxies and late-type galaxies, in [4.6]-[12] μm colors from the Wide Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). We then use an emission-line diagnostic comparison sample to explore the nature of objects found both within and near the edges of this WISE infrared transition zone (IRTZ). We hypothesize that this bifurcation might be due to the presence of hot dust and polyaromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in late-type galaxies. Using a sample of galaxies selected through the Shocked Poststarburst Galaxy Survey (SPOGS), we are able to identify galaxies with strong Balmer absorption (EW(Hδ) > 5 Å) as well as emission lines inconsistent with star formation (deemed SPOG candidates, or SPOGs*) that lie within the optical green valley. Seyferts and low-ionization nuclear emission line regions, whose u – r colors tend to be red, are strongly represented within IRTZ, whereas SPOGs* tend to sit near the star-forming edge. Although active galactic nuclei are well represented in the IRTZ, we argue that the dominant IRTZ population is composed of galaxies that are in late stages of transitioning across the optical green valley, shedding the last of their remnant interstellar media.

  16. The calibration of the WISE W1 and W2 Tully-Fisher relation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neill, J. D. [California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 278-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Seibert, Mark; Scowcroft, Victoria [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Tully, R. Brent [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Courtois, Hlne; Sorce, Jenny G. [Institut de Physique Nucleaire, Universit Claude Bernard Lyon I, F-69100 Lyon (France); Jarrett, T. H. [University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Republic of South Africa (South Africa); Masci, Frank J. [Image Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC), California Institute of Technology, 1200 East California Boulevard, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2014-09-10

    In order to explore local large-scale structures and velocity fields, accurate galaxy distance measures are needed. We now extend the well-tested recipe for calibrating the correlation between galaxy rotation rates and luminositiescapable of providing such distance measuresto the all-sky, space-based imaging data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) W1 (3.4 ?m) and W2 (4.6 ?m) filters. We find a correlation of line width to absolute magnitude (known as the Tully-Fisher relation, TFR) of M{sub W1}{sup b,i,k,a}=?20.35?9.56(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5) (0.54 mag rms) and M{sub W2}{sup b,i,k,a}=?19.76?9.74(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5) (0.56 mag rms) from 310 galaxies in 13 clusters. We update the I-band TFR using a sample 9% larger than in Tully and Courtois. We derive M{sub I}{sup b,i,k}=?21.34?8.95(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5) (0.46 mag rms). The WISE TFRs show evidence of curvature. Quadratic fits give M{sub W1}{sup b,i,k,a}=?20.48?8.36(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5)+3.60(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5){sup 2} (0.52 mag rms) and M{sub W2}{sup b,i,k,a}=?19.91?8.40(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5)+4.32(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5){sup 2} (0.55 mag rms). We apply an I-band WISE color correction to lower the scatter and derive M{sub C{sub W{sub 1}}}=?20.22?9.12(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5) and M{sub C{sub W{sub 2}}}=?19.63?9.11(log?W{sub mx}{sup i}?2.5) (both 0.46 mag rms). Using our three independent TFRs (W1 curved, W2 curved, and I band), we calibrate the UNION2 Type Ia supernova sample distance scale and derive H {sub 0} = 74.4 1.4(stat) 2.4(sys) km s{sup 1} Mpc{sup 1} with 4% total error.

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE NEARBY L/T BINARY BROWN DWARF WISE J104915.57-531906.1 AT 2 pc FROM THE SUN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kniazev, A. Y.; Vaisanen, P.; Potter, S. B.; Crawford, S.; Gulbis, A. A. S.; Muzic, K.; Mehner, A.; Boffin, H. M. J.; Melo, C.; Ivanov, V. D.; Girard, J.; Mawet, D.; Schmidtobreick, L.; Kurtev, R.; Borissova, J.; Huelamo, N.; Minniti, D.; Ishibashi, K.; Beletsky, Y.; Buckley, D. A. H.; and others

    2013-06-20

    WISE J104915.57-531906.1 is a L/T brown dwarf binary located 2 pc from the Sun. The pair contains the closest known brown dwarfs and is the third closest known system, stellar or sub-stellar. We report comprehensive follow-up observations of this newly uncovered system. We have determined the spectral types of both components (L8 {+-} 1, for the primary, agreeing with the discovery paper; T1.5 {+-} 2 for the secondary, which was lacking spectroscopic type determination in the discovery paper) and, for the first time, their radial velocities (V{sub rad} {approx} 23.1, 19.5 km s{sup -1}) using optical spectra obtained at the Southern African Large Telescope and other facilities located at the South African Astronomical Observatory (SAAO). The relative radial velocity of the two components is smaller than the range of orbital velocities for theoretically predicted masses, implying that they form a gravitationally bound system. We report resolved near-infrared JHK{sub S} photometry from the Infrared Survey Facility telescope at the SAAO which yields colors consistent with the spectroscopically derived spectral types. The available kinematic and photometric information excludes the possibility that the object belongs to any of the known nearby young moving groups or associations. Simultaneous optical polarimetry observations taken at the SAAO 1.9 m give a non-detection with an upper limit of 0.07%. For the given spectral types and absolute magnitudes, 1 Gyr theoretical models predict masses of 0.04-0.05 M{sub Sun} for the primary, and 0.03-0.05 M{sub Sun} for the secondary.

  18. A SEARCH FOR HIGH PROPER MOTION T DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 + 2MASS + WISE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Michael C.; Deacon, Niall R.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Bowler, Brendan P.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Goldman, Bertrand; Price, P. A.

    2011-10-20

    We have searched {approx}8200 deg{sup 2} for high proper motion ({approx}0.''5-2.''7 year{sup -1}) T dwarfs by combining first-epoch data from the Pan-STARRS1 (PS1) 3{pi} Survey, the Two Micron All Sky Survey (2MASS) All-Sky Point Source Catalog, and the WISE Preliminary Data Release. We identified two high proper motion objects with the very red (W1 - W2) colors characteristic of T dwarfs, one being the known T7.5 dwarf GJ 570D. Near-IR spectroscopy of the other object (PSO J043.5395+02.3995 {identical_to} WISEP J025409.45+022359.1) reveals a spectral type of T8, leading to a photometric distance of 7.2 {+-} 0.7 pc. The 2.''56 year{sup -1} proper motion of PSO J043.5+02 is the second highest among field T dwarfs, corresponding to a tangential velocity of 87 {+-} 8 km s{sup -1}. According to the Besancon galaxy model, this velocity indicates that its galactic membership is probably in the thin disk, with the thick disk an unlikely possibility. Such membership is in accord with the near-IR spectrum, which points to a surface gravity (age) and metallicity typical of the field population. We combine 2MASS, Sloan Digital Sky Survey, WISE, and PS1 astrometry to derive a preliminary parallax of 171 {+-} 45 mas (5.8{sup +2.0} {sub -1.2} pc), the first such measurement using PS1 data. The proximity and brightness of PSO J043.5+02 will facilitate future characterization of its atmosphere, variability, multiplicity, distance, and kinematics. The modest number of candidates from our search suggests that the immediate ({approx}10 pc) solar neighborhood does not contain a large reservoir of undiscovered T dwarfs earlier than about T8.

  19. THE INFRARED PROPERTIES OF SOURCES MATCHED IN THE WISE ALL-SKY AND HERSCHEL ATLAS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Nicholas A.; Benford, Dominic J.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Amblard, Alexandre; Blain, Andrew W.; Dunne, Loretta; Maddox, Steve J.; Hoyos, Carlos; Bourne, Nathan; Smith, Daniel J. B.; Bonfield, David; Baes, Maarten; Bridge, Carrie; Buttiglione, Sara; De Zotti, Gianfranco; Cava, Antonio; Clements, David; Cooray, Asantha; Dariush, Ali; and others

    2012-05-01

    We describe the infrared properties of sources detected over {approx}36 deg{sup 2} of sky in the GAMA 15 hr equatorial field, using data from both the Herschel Astrophysical Terahertz Large-Area Survey (H-ATLAS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey (WISE). With 5{sigma} point-source depths of 34 and 0.048 mJy at 250 {mu}m and 3.4 {mu}m, respectively, we are able to identify 50.6% of the H-ATLAS sources in the WISE survey, corresponding to a surface density of {approx}630 deg{sup -2}. Approximately two-thirds of these sources have measured spectroscopic or optical/near-IR photometric redshifts of z < 1. For sources with spectroscopic redshifts at z < 0.3, we find a linear correlation between the infrared luminosity at 3.4 {mu}m and that at 250 {mu}m, with {+-}50% scatter over {approx}1.5 orders of magnitude in luminosity, {approx}10{sup 9}-10{sup 10.5} L{sub Sun }. By contrast, the matched sources without previously measured redshifts (r {approx}> 20.5) have 250-350 {mu}m flux density ratios which suggest either high-redshift galaxies (z {approx}> 1.5) or optically faint low-redshift galaxies with unusually low temperatures (T {approx}< 20). Their small 3.4-250 {mu}m flux ratios favor a high-redshift galaxy population, as only the most actively star-forming galaxies at low redshift (e.g., Arp 220) exhibit comparable flux density ratios. Furthermore, we find a relatively large active galactic nucleus fraction ({approx}30%) in a 12 {mu}m flux-limited subsample of H-ATLAS sources, also consistent with there being a significant population of high-redshift sources in the no-redshift sample.

  20. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404). Environmental guidance program reference book: Revision 6

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  1. Method for excluding salt and other soluble materials from produced water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phelps, Tommy J [Knoxville, TN; Tsouris, Costas [Oak Ridge, TN; Palumbo, Anthony V [Oak Ridge, TN; Riestenberg, David E [Knoxville, TN; McCallum, Scott D [Knoxville, TN

    2009-08-04

    A method for reducing the salinity, as well as the hydrocarbon concentration of produced water to levels sufficient to meet surface water discharge standards. Pressure vessel and coflow injection technology developed at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to mix produced water and a gas hydrate forming fluid to form a solid or semi-solid gas hydrate mixture. Salts and solids are excluded from the water that becomes a part of the hydrate cage. A three-step process of dissociation of the hydrate results in purified water suitable for irrigation.

  2. A PRELIMINARY CALIBRATION OF THE RR LYRAE PERIOD-LUMINOSITY RELATION AT MID-INFRARED WAVELENGTHS: WISE DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madore, Barry F.; Freedman, Wendy L.; Kollmeier, Juna A.; Monson, Andy; Eric Persson, S.; Rich, Jeff A. Jr.; Scowcroft, Victoria; Seibert, Mark; Hoffman, Douglas E-mail: wendy@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: amonson@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: jrich@obs.carnegiescience.edu E-mail: mseibert@obs.carnegiescience.edu

    2013-10-20

    Using time-resolved, mid-infrared data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and geometric parallaxes from the Hubble Space Telescope for four Galactic RR Lyrae variables, we derive the following Population II period-luminosity (PL) relations for the WISE [W1], [W2], and [W3] bands at 3.4, 4.6, and 12 ?m, respectively: The slopes and the scatter around the fits are consistent with a smooth extrapolation of those same quantities from previously published K-band observations at 2.2 ?m, where the asymptotic (long-wavelength) behavior is consistent with a period-radius relation with a slope of 0.5. No obvious correlation with metallicity (spanning 0.4 dex in [Fe/H]) is found in the residuals of the four calibrating RR Lyrae stars about the mean PL regression line.

  3. Radiation detector device for rejecting and excluding incomplete charge collection events

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bolotnikov, Aleksey E.; De Geronimo, Gianluigi; Vernon, Emerson; Yang, Ge; Camarda, Giuseppe; Cui, Yonggang; Hossain, Anwar; Kim, Ki Hyun; James, Ralph B.

    2016-05-10

    A radiation detector device is provided that is capable of distinguishing between full charge collection (FCC) events and incomplete charge collection (ICC) events based upon a correlation value comparison algorithm that compares correlation values calculated for individually sensed radiation detection events with a calibrated FCC event correlation function. The calibrated FCC event correlation function serves as a reference curve utilized by a correlation value comparison algorithm to determine whether a sensed radiation detection event fits the profile of the FCC event correlation function within the noise tolerances of the radiation detector device. If the radiation detection event is determined to be an ICC event, then the spectrum for the ICC event is rejected and excluded from inclusion in the radiation detector device spectral analyses. The radiation detector device also can calculate a performance factor to determine the efficacy of distinguishing between FCC and ICC events.

  4. Unexpected Complication with the New C3 Excluder: Cause and Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katsargyris, Athanasios; Oikonomou, Kyriakos; Bracale, Umberto M.; Verhoeven, Eric L. G.

    2013-04-15

    The new C3 Gore Excluder delivery system enables both up/downward and rotational repositioning of the device before complete deployment. This contributes to more precise proximal landing and permits facilitation of the contralateral gate cannulation. During separate deployment, the position of the ipsilateral limb can also be readjusted. We have used the modified C3 delivery system in more than 50 patients, and in most cases, we were able to utilize the repositioning options of the device to achieve optimal fixation and sealing. However, we present a case where our attempt to readjust the position of the ipsilateral limb led to upward migration of the main body with coverage of the left renal artery origin. The latter was secured with a bare stent implantation.

  5. THE DISCOVERY OF Y DWARFS USING DATA FROM THE WIDE-FIELD INFRARED SURVEY EXPLORER (WISE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cushing, Michael C.; Mainzer, A.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Gelino, Christopher R.; Griffith, Roger L.; Marsh, Kenneth A.; Beichman, Charles A.; Skrutskie, Michael F.; Burgasser, Adam J.; Prato, Lisa A.; Simcoe, Robert A.; Marley, Mark S.; Freedman, Richard S.; Saumon, D.; Wright, Edward L.

    2011-12-10

    We present the discovery of seven ultracool brown dwarfs identified with the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Near-infrared spectroscopy reveals deep absorption bands of H{sub 2}O and CH{sub 4} that indicate all seven of the brown dwarfs have spectral types later than UGPS J072227.51-054031.2, the latest-type T dwarf currently known. The spectrum of WISEP J182831.08+265037.8 is distinct in that the heights of the J- and H-band peaks are approximately equal in units of f{sub {lambda}}, so we identify it as the archetypal member of the Y spectral class. The spectra of at least two of the other brown dwarfs exhibit absorption on the blue wing of the H-band peak that we tentatively ascribe to NH{sub 3}. These spectral morphological changes provide a clear transition between the T dwarfs and the Y dwarfs. In order to produce a smooth near-infrared spectral sequence across the T/Y dwarf transition, we have reclassified UGPS 0722-05 as the T9 spectral standard and tentatively assign WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 as the Y0 spectral standard. In total, six of the seven new brown dwarfs are classified as Y dwarfs: four are classified as Y0, one is classified as Y0 (pec?), and WISEP J1828+2650 is classified as >Y0. We have also compared the spectra to the model atmospheres of Marley and Saumon and infer that the brown dwarfs have effective temperatures ranging from 300 K to 500 K, making them the coldest spectroscopically confirmed brown dwarfs known to date.

  6. WISE J233237.05–505643.5: A double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus with a spiral-shaped radio morphology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Chao-Wei; Jarrett, T. H.; Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Wu, Jingwen; Emonts, Bjorn; Barrows, R. Scott; Norris, Ray P.; Lonsdale, Carol; Blain, Andrew W.; Benford, Dominic J.; Stalder, Brian; Stubbs, Christopher W.; High, F. William; Li, K. L.; Kong, Albert K. H.

    2013-12-10

    We present radio continuum mapping, optical imaging, and spectroscopy of the newly discovered double-peaked, broad-lined active galactic nucleus (AGN) WISE J233237.05–505643.5 at redshift z = 0.3447. This source exhibits an FR-I and FR-II hybrid morphology, characterized by a bright core, jet, and Doppler-boosted lobe structures in Australian Telescope Compact Array continuum maps at 1.5, 5.6, and 9 GHz. Unlike most FR-II objects, W2332–5056 is hosted by a disk-like galaxy. The core has a projected 5'' linear radio feature that is perpendicular to the curved primary jet, hinting at unusual and complex activity within the inner 25 kpc. The multi-epoch, optical-near-IR photometric measurements indicate significant variability over a 3-20 yr baseline from the AGN component. Gemini South optical data show unusual double-peaked emission-line features: the centroids of the broad-lined components of Hα and Hβ are blueshifted with respect to the narrow lines and host galaxy by ∼3800 km s{sup –1}. We examine possible cases that involve single or double supermassive black holes in the system and discuss the required future investigations to disentangle the mysterious nature of this system.

  7. WEATHER ON THE NEAREST BROWN DWARFS: RESOLVED SIMULTANEOUS MULTI-WAVELENGTH VARIABILITY MONITORING OF WISE J104915.57531906.1AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biller, Beth A.; Crossfield, Ian J. M.; Mancini, Luigi; Ciceri, Simona; Kopytova, Taisiya G.; Bonnefoy, Mickal; Deacon, Niall R.; Schlieder, Joshua E.; Buenzli, Esther; Brandner, Wolfgang; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A. L.; Henning, Thomas; Goldman, Bertrand; Southworth, John; Allard, France; Homeier, Derek; Freytag, Bernd; Greiner, Jochen

    2013-11-20

    We present two epochs of MPG/ESO 2.2m GROND simultaneous six-band (r'i'z' JHK) photometric monitoring of the closest known L/T transition brown dwarf binary WISE J104915.57531906.1AB. We report here the first resolved variability monitoring of both the T0.5 and L7.5 components. We obtained 4 hr of focused observations on the night of 2013 April 22 (UT), as well as 4 hr of defocused (unresolved) observations on the night of 2013 April 16 (UT). We note a number of robust trends in our light curves. The r' and i' light curves appear to be anti-correlated with z' and H for the T0.5 component and in the unresolved light curve. In the defocused dataset, J appears correlated with z' and H and anti-correlated with r' and i', while in the focused dataset we measure no variability for J at the level of our photometric precision, likely due to evolving weather phenomena. In our focused T0.5 component light curve, the K band light curve displays a significant phase offset relative to both H and z'. We argue that the measured phase offsets are correlated with atmospheric pressure probed at each band, as estimated from one-dimensional atmospheric models. We also report low-amplitude variability in i' and z' intrinsic to the L7.5 component.

  8. THE MASSIVE AND DISTANT CLUSTERS OF WISE SURVEY. II. INITIAL SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF z ? 1 GALAXY CLUSTERS SELECTED FROM 10,000 deg{sup 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stanford, S. A.; Gonzalez, Anthony H.; Gettings, Daniel P.; Brodwin, Mark; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika

    2014-08-01

    We present optical and infrared imaging and optical spectroscopy of galaxy clusters which were identified as part of an all-sky search for high-redshift galaxy clusters, the Massive and Distant Clusters of WISE Survey (MaDCoWS). The initial phase of MaDCoWS combined infrared data from the all-sky data release of the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) with optical data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to select probable z ? 1 clusters of galaxies over an area of 10,000 deg{sup 2}. Our spectroscopy confirms 19 new clusters at 0.7 < z < 1.3, half of which are at z > 1, demonstrating the viability of using WISE to identify high-redshift galaxy clusters. The next phase of MaDCoWS will use the greater depth of the AllWISE data release to identify even higher redshift cluster candidates.

  9. Luminosity and redshift dependence of the covering factor of active galactic nuclei viewed with WISE and Sloan digital sky survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toba, Y.; Matsuhara, H.; Oyabu, S.; Malkan, M. A.; Gandhi, P.; Nakagawa, T.; Isobe, N.; Shirahata, M.; Oi, N.; Takita, S.; Yano, K.; Ohyama, Y.; Yamauchi, C.

    2014-06-10

    In this work, we investigate the dependence of the covering factor (CF) of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) on the mid-infrared (MIR) luminosity and the redshift. We constructed 12 and 22 μm luminosity functions (LFs) at 0.006 ≤z ≤ 0.3 using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) data. Combining the WISE catalog with Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic data, we selected 223,982 galaxies at 12 μm and 25,721 galaxies at 22 μm for spectroscopic classification. We then identified 16,355 AGNs at 12 μm and 4683 AGNs at 22 μm by their optical emission lines and cataloged classifications in the SDSS. Following that, we estimated the CF as the fraction of Type 2 AGN in all AGNs whose MIR emissions are dominated by the active nucleus (not their host galaxies) based on their MIR colors. We found that the CF decreased with increasing MIR luminosity, regardless of the choice of Type 2 AGN classification criteria, and the CF did not change significantly with redshift for z ≤ 0.2. Furthermore, we carried out various tests to determine the influence of selection bias and confirmed that similar dependences exist, even when taking these uncertainties into account. The luminosity dependence of the CF can be explained by the receding torus model, but the 'modified' receding torus model gives a slightly better fit, as suggested by Simpson.

  10. Water treatment facilities (excluding wastewater facilities). (Latest citations from the Selected Water Resources Abstracts database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the design, construction, costs, and operation of water treatment facilities. Facilities covered include those that provide drinking water, domestic water, and water for industrial use. Types of water treatment covered include reverse osmosis, chlorination, filtration, and ozonization. Waste water treatment facilities are excluded from this bibliography. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  11. GammeV: Fermilab axion-like particle photon regeneration results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wester, William; /Fermilab

    2008-09-01

    GammeV is an axion-like particle photon regeneration experiment conducted at Fermilab that employs the light shining through a wall technique. They obtain limits on the coupling of a photon to an axion-like particle that extend previous limits for both scalar and pseudoscalar axion-like particles in the milli-eV mass range. They are able to exclude the axion-like particle interpretation of the anomalous PVLAS 2006 result by more than 5 standard deviations.

  12. The angular clustering of WISE-selected active galactic nuclei: Different halos for obscured and unobscured active galactic nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoso, E.; Yan, Lin; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.

    2014-07-01

    We calculate the angular correlation function for a sample of ?170,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs) extracted from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, selected to have red mid-IR colors (W1 W2 > 0.8) and 4.6 ?m flux densities brighter than 0.14 mJy). The sample is expected to be >90% reliable at identifying AGNs and to have a mean redshift of (z) = 1.1. In total, the angular clustering of WISE AGNs is roughly similar to that of optical AGNs. We cross-match these objects with the photometric Sloan Digital Sky Survey catalog and distinguish obscured sources with r W2 > 6 from bluer, unobscured AGNs. Obscured sources present a higher clustering signal than unobscured sources. Since the host galaxy morphologies of obscured AGNs are not typical red sequence elliptical galaxies and show disks in many cases, it is unlikely that the increased clustering strength of the obscured population is driven by a host galaxy segregation bias. By using relatively complete redshift distributions from the COSMOS survey, we find that obscured sources at (z) ? 0.9 have a bias of b = 2.9 0.6 and are hosted in dark matter halos with a typical mass of log (M/M {sub ?} h {sup 1}) ? 13.5. In contrast, unobscured AGNs at (z) ? 1.1 have a bias of b = 1.6 0.6 and inhabit halos of log (M/M {sub ?} h {sup 1}) ? 12.4. These findings suggest that obscured AGNs inhabit denser environments than unobscured AGNs, and they are difficult to reconcile with the simplest AGN unification models, where obscuration is driven solely by orientation.

  13. ORIGIN OF 12 {mu}m EMISSION ACROSS GALAXY POPULATIONS FROM WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoso, E.; Yan Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 {mu}m with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of {approx}10{sup 5} galaxies at (z) = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 {mu}m emission. We find that most ({approx}80%) of the 12 {mu}m emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 {mu}m emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L{sub [Oiii]} < 10{sup 7} L{sub .}) is produced by older stars, with ages of {approx}1-3 Gyr. We find that L{sub 12{mu}m} linearly correlates with stellar mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 {mu}m luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L{sub 12{mu}m}-SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 {mu}m emission at low SFR (0.02-1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by {approx}3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L[{sub Oiii]} > 10{sup 7} L{sub .}), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 {mu}m color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  14. Finite element approximation of the radiative transport equation in a medium with piece-wise constant refractive index

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lehtikangas, O.; Tarvainen, T.; Kim, A.D.; Arridge, S.R.

    2015-02-01

    The radiative transport equation can be used as a light transport model in a medium with scattering particles, such as biological tissues. In the radiative transport equation, the refractive index is assumed to be constant within the medium. However, in biomedical media, changes in the refractive index can occur between different tissue types. In this work, light propagation in a medium with piece-wise constant refractive index is considered. Light propagation in each sub-domain with a constant refractive index is modeled using the radiative transport equation and the equations are coupled using boundary conditions describing Fresnel reflection and refraction phenomena on the interfaces between the sub-domains. The resulting coupled system of radiative transport equations is numerically solved using a finite element method. The approach is tested with simulations. The results show that this coupled system describes light propagation accurately through comparison with the Monte Carlo method. It is also shown that neglecting the internal changes of the refractive index can lead to erroneous boundary measurements of scattered light.

  15. Fertility and Pregnancy Outcome After Abdominal Irradiation That Included or Excluded the Pelvis in Childhood Tumor Survivors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sudour, Helene; Chastagner, Pascal; Claude, Line; Desandes, Emmanuel; Klein, Marc; Carrie, Christian; Bernier, Valerie

    2010-03-01

    Purpose: To evaluate fertility after abdominal and/or pelvic irradiation in long-term female survivors. Methods and Materials: Puberty and pregnancy outcome were analyzed in female survivors of childhood cancer (aged <18 years) treated with abdominal and/or pelvic radiotherapy (RT) at one of two French centers (Nancy and Lyon) between 1975 and 2004. Data were obtained from medical records and questionnaires sent to the women. Results: A total of 84 patients who had received abdominal and/or pelvic RT during childhood and were alive and aged more than 18 years at the time of the study made up the study population. Of the 57 female survivors treated with abdominal RT that excluded the pelvis, 52 (91%) progressed normally through puberty and 23 (40%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Of the 27 patients treated with pelvic RT, only 10 (37%) progressed normally through puberty and 5 (19%) had at least one recorded pregnancy. Twenty-two women (seventeen of whom were treated with pelvic RT) had certain subfertility. A total of 50 births occurred in 28 women, with one baby dying at birth; one miscarriage also occurred. There was a high prevalence of prematurity and low birth weight but not of congenital malformations. Conclusions: Fertility can be preserved in patients who undergo abdominal RT that excludes the pelvis, taking into account the other treatments (e.g., chemotherapy with alkylating agents) are taken into account. When RT includes the pelvis, fertility is frequently impaired and women can have difficulty conceiving. Nevertheless, pregnancies can occur in some of these women. The most important factor that endangers a successful pregnancy after RT is the total dose received by the ovaries and uterus. This radiation dose has to be systematically recorded to improve our ability to follow up patients.

  16. OpWise: Operons

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... genes in the same operon to improve our estimates of the sig- nificance of each gene. ... We then tested for systematic bias in the real data and examined sig- nificance estimates ...

  17. Charleston Wise Impact Project

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes how the program conducted community outreach to educate residents on the value of energy efficiency; gathered data on the condition of homes, best practices for efficiency improvements, and the real potential for energy savings; and grew the capacity of the local workforce to provide quality service and good customer experience.

  18. B2, B7 or B10: Which palm-based blend mandate wise to be chosen in Malaysia?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Applanaidu, Shri-Dewi Ali, Anizah Md.; Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal

    2015-12-11

    The diminishing fossil energy resources, coupled with heightened interest in the abatement of greenhouse gas emissions and concerns about energy security have motivated Malaysia to produce palm-based biodiesel and it has been started to be exported since 2006. In line with this issue, the government in Malaysia launched the palm-based biodiesel blending mandate of five percent (B5) in the federal administration of Putrajaya on 1{sup st} June 2011. This was then followed by four states: Malacca on July 11, Negeri Sembilan on August 1, Kuala Lumpur on September 1 and Selangor on October 1 of the same year but it is yet to be implemented nationwide. However what is the wise blend mandate to be chosen? Thus, this paper seeks to examine the possible impact of various blend mandates implementation (B2, B7 and B10) on the palm oil industry market variables (stock and price) since the main aim of biodiesel industry in Malaysia is to reduce domestic palm oil stock to below one million tones and provide a floor price to support Crude Palm Oil (CPO) prices at RM2,000 per tonne. A structural econometric model consisting of nine structural equations and three identities was proposed in this study. The model has been estimated by two stage least squares (2SLS) method using annual data for the period 1976-2013. The study indicates that counterfactual simulation of a decrease from B5 to B2 predicts a decrease (11.2 per cent) in CPO domestic consumption for biodiesel usage, 731.02 per cent reduction in CPO stock and an increase of 27.41 percent in domestic price of CPO. However the increase in the blend mandate from B5 to B7 and B10 suggest that domestic consumption of CPO for biodiesel purpose increase 7.40 and 18.55 percent respectively. The interesting findings in this study suggest that no matter whether Malaysian government increase or decrease the blend mandate the increase in the price of CPO are the same with an increase of is 27.41 percent. Hence, this study suggests that

  19. Excluded volume and ion-ion correlation effects on the ionic atmosphere around B-DNA: Theory, simulations, and experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Marucho, Marcelo; Medasani, Bharat; Fenley, Marcia O.; Guerrero-García, Guillermo Iván; Olvera de la Cruz, Mónica

    2014-12-14

    The ionic atmosphere around a nucleic acid regulates its stability in aqueous salt solutions. One major source of complexity in biological activities involving nucleic acids arises from the strong influence of the surrounding ions and water molecules on their structural and thermodynamic properties. Here, we implement a classical density functional theory for cylindrical polyelectrolytes embedded in aqueous electrolytes containing explicit (neutral hard sphere) water molecules at experimental solvent concentrations. Our approach allows us to include ion correlations as well as solvent and ion excluded volume effects for studying the structural and thermodynamic properties of highly charged cylindrical polyelectrolytes. Several models of size and charge asymmetric mixtures of aqueous electrolytes at physiological concentrations are studied. Our results are in good agreement with Monte Carlo simulations. Our numerical calculations display significant differences in the ion density profiles for the different aqueous electrolyte models studied. However, similar results regarding the excess number of ions adsorbed to the B-DNA molecule are predicted by our theoretical approach for different aqueous electrolyte models. These findings suggest that ion counting experimental data should not be used alone to validate the performance of aqueous DNA-electrolyte models.

  20. Excluding the light dark matter window of a 331 model using LHC and direct dark matter detection data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cogollo, D.; Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.; Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Teles, P. Rebello E-mail: alxogonz@ucsc.edu E-mail: patricia.rebello.teles@cern.ch

    2014-11-01

    We sift the impact of the recent Higgs precise measurements, and recent dark matter direct detection results, on the dark sector of an electroweak extension of the Standard Model that has a complex scalar as dark matter. We find that in this model the Higgs decays with a large branching ratio into dark matter particles, and charged scalars when these are kinematically available, for any coupling strength differently from the so called Higgs portal. Moreover, we compute the abundance and spin-independent WIMP-nucleon scattering cross section, which are driven by the Higgs and Z{sup '} boson processes. We decisively exclude the 1–500 GeV dark matter window and find the most stringent lower bound in the literature on the scale of symmetry breaking of the model namely 10 TeV, after applying the LUX-2013 limit. Interestingly, the projected XENON1T constraint will be able to rule out the entire 1 GeV–1000 GeV dark matter mass range. Lastly, for completeness, we compute the charged scalar production cross section at the LHC and comment on the possibility of detection at current and future LHC runnings.

  1. Using interlayer step-wise triplet transfer to achieve an efficient white organic light-emitting diode with high color-stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Qi; Ma, Dongge Ding, Junqiao; Wang, Lixiang; Leo, Karl; Qiao, Qiquan; Jia, Huiping; Gnade, Bruce E.

    2014-05-12

    An efficient phosphorescent white organic light emitting-diode with a red-green-blue tri-emitting-layer structure is reported. The host of the red dopant possesses a lower triplet-energy than the green dye. An interlayer step-wise triplet transfer via blue dye ? green dye ? red host ? red dye is achieved. This mechanism allows an efficient triplet harvesting by the three dopants, thus maintaining a balanced white light and reducing energy loss. Moreover, the color stability of the device is improved significantly. The white device not only achieves a peak external quantum efficiency of 21.1??0.8% and power efficiency of 37.5??1.4?lm/W but shows no color shift over a wide range of voltages.

  2. Tissue-like phantoms

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frangioni, John V.; De Grand, Alec M.

    2007-10-30

    The invention is based, in part, on the discovery that by combining certain components one can generate a tissue-like phantom that mimics any desired tissue, is simple and inexpensive to prepare, and is stable over many weeks or months. In addition, new multi-modal imaging objects (e.g., beads) can be inserted into the phantoms to mimic tissue pathologies, such as cancer, or merely to serve as calibration standards. These objects can be imaged using one, two, or more (e.g., four) different imaging modalities (e.g., x-ray computed tomography (CT), positron emission tomography (PET), single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence) simultaneously.

  3. A SEARCH FOR L/T TRANSITION DWARFS WITH Pan-STARRS1 AND WISE: DISCOVERY OF SEVEN NEARBY OBJECTS INCLUDING TWO CANDIDATE SPECTROSCOPIC VARIABLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Best, William M. J.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, Eugene A.; Aller, Kimberly M.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Hodapp, K. W.; Kaiser, N.; Kudritzki, R.-P.; Morgan, J. S.; Tonry, J. L.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Deacon, Niall R.; Dupuy, Trent J.; Redstone, Joshua; Price, P. A.

    2013-11-10

    We present initial results from a wide-field (30,000 deg{sup 2}) search for L/T transition brown dwarfs within 25 pc using the Pan-STARRS1 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) surveys. Previous large-area searches have been incomplete for L/T transition dwarfs, because these objects are faint in optical bands and have near-infrared (near-IR) colors that are difficult to distinguish from background stars. To overcome these obstacles, we have cross-matched the Pan-STARRS1 (optical) and WISE (mid-IR) catalogs to produce a unique multi-wavelength database for finding ultracool dwarfs. As part of our initial discoveries, we have identified seven brown dwarfs in the L/T transition within 9-15 pc of the Sun. The L9.5 dwarf PSO J140.2308+45.6487 and the T1.5 dwarf PSO J307.6784+07.8263 (both independently discovered by Mace et al.) show possible spectroscopic variability at the Y and J bands. Two more objects in our sample show evidence of photometric J-band variability, and two others are candidate unresolved binaries based on their spectra. We expect our full search to yield a well-defined, volume-limited sample of L/T transition dwarfs that will include many new targets for study of this complex regime. PSO J307.6784+07.8263 in particular may be an excellent candidate for in-depth study of variability, given its brightness (J = 14.2 mag) and proximity (11 pc)

  4. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print Wednesday, 26 March 2014 00:00 A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can

  5. A classification scheme for young stellar objects using the wide-field infrared survey explorer AllWISE catalog: revealing low-density star formation in the outer galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koenig, X. P.; Leisawitz, D. T.

    2014-08-20

    We present an assessment of the performance of WISE and the AllWISE data release for a section of the Galactic Plane. We lay out an approach to increasing the reliability of point-source photometry extracted from the AllWISE catalog in Galactic Plane regions using parameters provided in the catalog. We use the resulting catalog to construct a new, revised young star detection and classification scheme combining WISE and 2MASS near- and mid-infrared colors and magnitudes and test it in a section of the outer Milky Way. The clustering properties of the candidate Class I and II stars using a nearest neighbor density calculation and the two-point correlation function suggest that the majority of stars do form in massive star-forming regions, and any isolated mode of star formation is at most a small fraction of the total star forming output of the Galaxy. We also show that the isolated component may be very small and could represent the tail end of a single mechanism of star formation in line with models of molecular cloud collapse with supersonic turbulence and not a separate mode all to itself.

  6. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  7. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  8. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  9. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  10. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  11. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  12. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like Print A Berkeley Lab research team working at the ALS has observed an unusual pairing that seems to go against a universal scientific truth-that opposite charges attract and like charges repel. Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated that, when hydrated in water, positively charged ions (cations) can actually pair up with one another. A New Law of Water Affinities Late 19th century

  13. Alpha image reconstruction (AIR): A new iterative CT image reconstruction approach using voxel-wise alpha blending

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hofmann, Christian; Sawall, Stefan; Knaup, Michael; Kachelrieß, Marc

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Iterative image reconstruction gains more and more interest in clinical routine, as it promises to reduce image noise (and thereby patient dose), to reduce artifacts, or to improve spatial resolution. Among vendors and researchers, however, there is no consensus of how to best achieve these aims. The general approach is to incorporatea priori knowledge into iterative image reconstruction, for example, by adding additional constraints to the cost function, which penalize variations between neighboring voxels. However, this approach to regularization in general poses a resolution noise trade-off because the stronger the regularization, and thus the noise reduction, the stronger the loss of spatial resolution and thus loss of anatomical detail. The authors propose a method which tries to improve this trade-off. The proposed reconstruction algorithm is called alpha image reconstruction (AIR). One starts with generating basis images, which emphasize certain desired image properties, like high resolution or low noise. The AIR algorithm reconstructs voxel-specific weighting coefficients that are applied to combine the basis images. By combining the desired properties of each basis image, one can generate an image with lower noise and maintained high contrast resolution thus improving the resolution noise trade-off. Methods: All simulations and reconstructions are performed in native fan-beam geometry. A water phantom with resolution bar patterns and low contrast disks is simulated. A filtered backprojection (FBP) reconstruction with a Ram-Lak kernel is used as a reference reconstruction. The results of AIR are compared against the FBP results and against a penalized weighted least squares reconstruction which uses total variation as regularization. The simulations are based on the geometry of the Siemens Somatom Definition Flash scanner. To quantitatively assess image quality, the authors analyze line profiles through resolution patterns to define a contrast

  14. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document contains the Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from the Energy Performance Requirements of Section 543 of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act as Amended by the Energy Policy Act of 2005

  15. I. Excluded Volume Effects in Ising Cluster Distributions and Nuclear Multifragmentation II. Multiple-Chance Effects in Alpha-Particle Evaporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breus, Dimitry E.

    2005-05-16

    In Part 1, geometric clusters of the Ising model are studied as possible model clusters for nuclear multifragmentation. These clusters may not be considered as non-interacting (ideal gas) due to excluded volume effect which predominantly is the artifact of the cluster's finite size. Interaction significantly complicates the use of clusters in the analysis of thermodynamic systems. Stillinger's theory is used as a basis for the analysis, which within the RFL (Reiss, Frisch, Lebowitz) fluid-of-spheres approximation produces a prediction for cluster concentrations well obeyed by geometric clusters of the Ising model. If thermodynamic condition of phase coexistence is met, these concentrations can be incorporated into a differential equation procedure of moderate complexity to elucidate the liquid-vapor phase diagram of the system with cluster interaction included. The drawback of increased complexity is outweighted by the reward of greater accuracy of the phase diagram, as it is demonstrated by the Ising model. A novel nuclear-cluster analysis procedure is developed by modifying Fisher's model to contain cluster interaction and employing the differential equation procedure to obtain thermodynamic variables. With this procedure applied to geometric clusters, the guidelines are developed to look for excluded volume effect in nuclear multifragmentation. In part 2, an explanation is offered for the recently observed oscillations in the energy spectra of {alpha}-particles emitted from hot compound nuclei. Contrary to what was previously expected, the oscillations are assumed to be caused by the multiple-chance nature of {alpha}-evaporation. In a semi-empirical fashion this assumption is successfully confirmed by a technique of two-spectra decomposition which treats experimental {alpha}-spectra has having contributions from at least two independent emitters. Building upon the success of the multiple-chance explanation of the oscillations, Moretto's single-chance evaporation

  16. Template:FacebookLike | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FacebookLike Jump to: navigation, search This template puts a Facebook "Like" button onto the current page. Parameters Parameter Type Required? Example Description url URL Y...

  17. Young, Jupiter-like planet discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Young, Jupiter-like planet discovered Young, Jupiter-like planet discovered A team of researchers has discovered a Jupiter-like planet within a young system that could provide a new understanding of how planets formed around our sun. August 13, 2015 A team of researchers has discovered a Jupiter-like planet within a young system that could provide a new understanding of how planets formed around our sun. Jupiter-like planet Contact Los Alamos National Laboratory Nancy Ambrosiano Communications

  18. Young, Jupiter-like planet discovered

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Young, Jupiter-like planet discovered Alumni Link: Opportunities, News and Resources for Former Employees Latest Issue:September 2015 all issues All Issues » submit Young, Jupiter-like planet discovered A team of researchers has discovered a Jupiter-like planet within a young system that could provide a new understanding of how planets formed around our sun. September 1, 2015 Jupiter-like planet Jupiter-like planet Contact Linda Anderman Email A team of researchers has discovered a Jupiter-like

  19. National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Categorically Excluded...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and Road Repair at the L-Bar, New Mexico, Disposal Site 07192016 B1.3 LM 10-16 Unmanned Aerial Systems Operations at the Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Site 07132016 B1.3 ...

  20. Guidelines Establishing Criteria for Excluding Buildings from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... item is completed along with explanations for items in which performance falls short. ... of All Life Cycle Cost-Effective Projects To satisfy this finding, the head of the ...

  1. National Grid EnergyWise Financing program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    National Grid offers 0% financing to its customers to install energy efficient heating equipment in Rhode Island homes. Only residential customers of National Grid (electric or gas) with 1-4 unit...

  2. Wise Electric Coop Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Electric Coop Inc Place: Texas Phone Number: (940) 627-2167 Website: www.wiseec.com Outage Hotline: (940) 627-2167 Outage Map: www.outageentry.comdvOSM4dvO References: EIA...

  3. KIUC- Energy Wise Commercial Energy Efficiency Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kauai Island Utility Cooperative offers incentives to its commercial customers for installing energy efficient equipment. The eligible replacements are identified by a survey and reported by KIUC...

  4. PNNL GridWise | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Overview This is a case study of two year-long demonstration projects that tested demand-response concepts. The Grid Friendly Appliance Project demonstrated how household...

  5. AlabamaWISE Home Energy Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The program also provides financing for energy efficiency measures identified in the assessment. To be eligible for the loan, the homeowner must have a minimum credit score of 660 and must be a...

  6. ALABAMA GETS WISE ABOUT SELLING UPGRADES

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With goal of sharing knowledge about each state’s efforts, the Alabama Department of Economic and Community Affairs (ADECA) teamed up with the National Association of State Energy Offices (NASEO)...

  7. Near-infrared spectroscopy of the Y0 WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 and the Y1 WISE J035000.32–565830.2: The importance of non-equilibrium chemistry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Leggett, Sandy K.; Tremblin, Patrick; Saumon, Didier; Marley, Mark S.; Morley, Caroline V.; Amundsen, David S.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Chabrier, Gilles

    2016-06-03

    Here, we present new near-infrared spectra, obtained at Gemini Observatory, for two Y dwarfs: WISE J035000.32–565830.2 (W0350) and WISEP J173835.52+273258.9 (W1738). A FLAMINGOS-2 R = 540 spectrum was obtained for W0350, coveringmore » $$1.0\\lt \\lambda \\;\\mu {\\rm{m}}$$ $$\\lt \\;1.7$$, and a cross-dispersed Gemini near-infrared spectrograph R = 2800 spectrum was obtained for W1738, covering 0.993–1.087 μm, 1.191–1.305 μm, 1.589–1.631 μm, and 1.985–2.175 μm, in four orders. We also present revised YJH photometry for W1738, using new NIRI Y and J imaging, and a re-analysis of the previously published NIRI H-band images. We compare these data, together with previously published data for late-T and Y dwarfs, to cloud-free models of solar metallicity, calculated both in chemical equilibrium and with disequilibrium driven by vertical transport. We find that for the Y dwarfs, the non-equilibrium models reproduce the near-infrared data better than the equilibrium models. The remaining discrepancies suggest that fine-tuning the CH4/CO and NH3/N2 balance is needed. Improved trigonometric parallaxes would improve the analysis. Despite the uncertainties and discrepancies, the models reproduce the observed near-infrared spectra well. We find that for the Y0, W1738, $${T}_{{\\rm{eff}}}=425\\pm 25\\;{\\rm{K}}$$, and log $$g=4.0\\pm 0.25$$, and for the Y1, W0350, $${T}_{{\\rm{eff}}}=350\\pm 25\\;{\\rm{K}}$$, and log $$g=4.0\\pm 0.25$$. W1738 may be metal-rich. Based on evolutionary models, these temperatures and gravities correspond to a mass range for both Y dwarfs of 3–9 Jupiter masses, with W0350 being a cooler, slightly older, version of W1738; the age of W0350 is 0.3–3 Gyr, and the age of W1738 is 0.15–1 Gyr.« less

  8. Dromion-like structures and stability analysis in the variable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dromion-like structures and stability analysis in the variable coefficients complex Ginzburg-Landau equation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dromion-like structures and ...

  9. States with NEPA-like Environmental Planning Requirements | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    States with NEPA-like Environmental Planning Requirements States with NEPA-like Environmental Planning Requirements Several states have environmental planning requirements that are...

  10. Cassette for handling banknotes or the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lundblad, Leif

    1981-08-11

    A cassette for banknotes and like valuable articles is provided with a displaceable lid (6) and locking means (10) for latching the lid of the cassette when the cassette is located outside a housing (25) in which it is intended to be placed. An operating means (8) is arranged to co-act with the locking means and with a latching element (15). The latching element is arranged to be released in dependence upon a pre-set program. A signal circuit is arranged to send a code signal to a detector circuit (23) when electrical contact elements on the cassette and the housing co-act with one another, which detector circuit, when the signal coincides with the signal program in the detector circuit, causes a signal to be sent for moving the latching means to a non-latching position.

  11. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in "kit" form.

  12. Apparatus for insulating windows and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mitchell, R.A.

    1984-06-19

    Apparatus for insulating window openings through walls and the like includes a thermal shutter, a rail for mounting the shutter adjacent to the window opening and a coupling for connecting the shutter to the rail. The thermal shutter includes an insulated panel adhered to frame members which surround the periphery of the panel. The frame members include a hard portion for providing the frame and a soft portion for providing a seal with that portion of the wall adjacent to the periphery of the opening. The coupling means is preferably integral with the attachment rail. According to a preferred embodiment, the coupling means includes a continuous hinge of reduced thickness. The thermal shutter can be permanently attached, hinged, bi-folded, or sliding with respect to the window and wall. A distribution method is to market the apparatus in kit'' form. 11 figs.

  13. Search for single vector-like quarks in $p\\bar{p}$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, Victor Mukhamedovich; Abbott, Braden Keim; Acharya, Bannanje Sripath; Adams, Mark Raymond; Adams, Todd; Alexeev, Guennadi D.; Alkhazov, Georgiy D.; Alton, Andrew K.; Alverson, George O.; Alves, Gilvan Augusto; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; /Nijmegen U. /Fermilab

    2010-10-01

    We present a search for hypothetical vector-like quarks in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV. The data were collected by the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider and correspond to an integrated luminosity of 5.4 fb{sup -1}. We select events with a final state composed of a W or Z boson and a jet consistent with a heavy object decay. We observe no significant excess in comparison to the background prediction and set limits on production cross sections for vector-like quarks decaying to W+jet and Z+jet. Assuming a vector-like quark to standard model quark coupling parameter {tilde {kappa}}{sub qQ} of unity, we exclude vector-like quarks with mass below 693 GeV for decays to W+jet and mass below 449 GeV for decays to Z+jet. These are the most stringent mass limits for electroweak single vector-like quark production at hadron colliders.

  14. Graphene diamond-like carbon films heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Fang; Afandi, Abdulkareem; Jackman, Richard B.

    2015-03-09

    A limitation to the potential use of graphene as an electronic material is the lack of control over the 2D materials properties once it is deposited on a supporting substrate. Here, the use of Diamond-like Carbon (DLC) interlayers between the substrate and the graphene is shown to offer the prospect of overcoming this problem. The DLC films used here, more properly known as a-C:H with ?25% hydrogen content, have been terminated with N or F moieties prior to graphene deposition. It is found that nitrogen terminations lead to an optical band gap shrinkage in the DLC, whilst fluorine groups reduce the DLC's surface energy. CVD monolayer graphene subsequently transferred to DLC, N terminated DLC, and F terminated DLC has then been studied with AFM, Raman and XPS analysis, and correlated with Hall effect measurements that give an insight into the heterostructures electrical properties. The results show that different terminations strongly affect the electronic properties of the graphene heterostructures. G-F-DLC samples were p-type and displayed considerably higher mobility than the other heterostructures, whilst G-N-DLC samples supported higher carrier densities, being almost metallic in character. Since it would be possible to locally pattern the distribution of these differing surface terminations, this work offers the prospect for 2D lateral control of the electronic properties of graphene layers for device applications.

  15. Search for a Heavy Top-Like Quark in $p\\bar{p}$ Collisions at ${\\surd}s = 1.96$~TeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Amerio, S.; Amidei, D.; Anastassov, A.; Annovi, A.; Antos, J.; Apollinari, G.; Appel, J.A.; Apresyan, A.; Arisawa, T.; /Waseda U. /Dubna, JINR

    2011-07-01

    We present the results of a search for pair production of a heavy top-like (t') quark decaying to W q final states using data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 5.6 fb{sup -1} collected by the CDF II detector in p{anti p} collisions at {radical}{ovr s} = 1.96 TeV. We perform parallel searches for t' {yields} W b and t' {yields} W q (where q is a generic down-type quark) in events containing a lepton and four or more jets. By performing a fit to the two-dimensional distribution of total transverse energy versus reconstructed t' quark mass, we set upper limits on the t'{anti t}' production cross section and exclude a standard model fourth-generation t' quark decaying to W b (W q) with mass below 358 (340) GeV/c{sup 2} at 95% CL.

  16. States with NEPA-like Environmental Planning Requirements | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy States with NEPA-like Environmental Planning Requirements States with NEPA-like Environmental Planning Requirements Several states have environmental planning requirements that are similar to NEPA. These requirements are either State laws, regulations, or executive orders. Please click below for additional information on those requirements. States with NEPA-like Environmental Planning Requirements (60.65 KB) More Documents & Publications Federal NEPA Contacts Directory of

  17. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to design ...

  18. Leptogenesis from a Non Commutative FRW Like Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mebarki, O.; Mebarki, N.; Aissaoui, H.

    2010-10-31

    A pure NCG leptonic asymmetry is obtained for particles propagating in a curved non commutative FRW universe. It is shown that because of the space-time deformation, an axial like symmetry is generated.

  19. Memristor comprising film with comb-like structure of nanocolumns...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Films having a comb-like structure of nanocolumns of Sm.sub.2O.sub.3 embedded in a SrTiO.sub.3 formed spontaneously on a substrate surface by pulsed laser deposition. In an ...

  20. Hydrodynamic interactions in metal rod-like particle suspensions...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and experimental study of the role of hydrodynamic interactions on the motion and dispersion of metal rod-like particles in the presence of an externally applied electric field. ...

  1. February most likely month for flu season to peak

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    February most likely month for flu season to peak February most likely month for flu season to peak The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather, presidential elections, and sporting events. December 20, 2015 The Los Alamos team's model is an ongoing research project that forecasts the current flu season probabilistically, similar to best-practice forecasts of weather,

  2. Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors Why Onion-Like Carbons Make High-Energy Supercapacitors Simulations explain experimental results for electrical storage devices June 1, 2012 JiangCummingsCoverLarge.gif Capacitance and geometry effects revealed by molecular dynamics simulations. The OLC and the ionic liquid that were the basis of the simulation are shown in the lower left. (Guang Feng, De-en Jiang, Peter T. Cummings, © ACS Publications) The two most important electrical

  3. Lab employees don't treat their trash like garbage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lab Employees Don't Treat Their Trash Like Garbage Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Lab employees don't treat their trash like garbage Last year, the Lab recycled 47 percent of its solid, non-hazardous waste. January 1, 2013 dummy image Read our archives Contacts Editor Linda Anderman Email Community Programs Office Kurt Steinhaus Email The Lab's recycle rate of 47

  4. Skin-Like Prosthetic Polymer Surfaces - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Startup America Startup America Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Skin-Like Prosthetic Polymer Surfaces Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary Artificial limbs help to restore normal function to amputees. Surface materials for prostheses need to look realistic, hold up to exposure, and mimic skin. ORNL scientists combined superhydrophobic polymer

  5. Soft x-ray laser using pumping of 3p and 4p levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1985-07-05

    X-ray laser method and apparatus for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of at least 40 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like N, O, F, C or rare gases, with associated laser transition gains of 4 to 50 cm/sup -1/.

  6. Soft X-ray laser using pumping of 3P and 4P levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1987-01-01

    X-ray laser method and apparatus for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of at least 40 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like N, O, F, C or rare gases, with associated laser transition gains of 4-50 cm.sup.-1.

  7. Analysis of a New Variational Model to Restore Point-Like and Curve-Like Singularities in Imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aubert, Gilles; Blanc-Feraud, Laure Graziani, Daniele

    2013-02-15

    The paper is concerned with the analysis of a new variational model to restore point-like and curve-like singularities in biological images. To this aim we investigate the variational properties of a suitable energy which governs these pathologies. Finally in order to realize numerical experiments we minimize, in the discrete setting, a regularized version of this functional by fast descent gradient scheme.

  8. Plasma deposited diamond-like carbon films for large neutralarrays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, I.G.; Blakely, E.A.; Bjornstad, K.A.; Galvin, J.E.; Monteiro, O.R.; Sangyuenyongpipat, S.

    2004-07-15

    To understand how large systems of neurons communicate, we need to develop methods for growing patterned networks of large numbers of neurons. We have found that diamond-like carbon thin films formed by energetic deposition from a filtered vacuum arc carbon plasma can serve as ''neuron friendly'' substrates for the growth of large neural arrays. Lithographic masks can be used to form patterns of diamond-like carbon, and regions of selective neuronal attachment can form patterned neural arrays. In the work described here, we used glass microscope slides as substrates on which diamond-like carbon was deposited. PC-12 rat neurons were then cultured on the treated substrates and cell growth monitored. Neuron growth showed excellent contrast, with prolific growth on the treated surfaces and very low growth on the untreated surfaces. Here we describe the vacuum arc plasma deposition technique employed, and summarize results demonstrating that the approach can be used to form large patterns of neurons.

  9. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Jones, Philip H.; Wedge, David C.; Sale, Julian E.; Campbell, Peter J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of a lifetime, somatic cells acquire mutations. Different mutational processes may contribute to the mutations accumulated in a cell, with each imprinting a mutational signature on the cell's genome. Some processes generate mutations throughout life at a constant rate in all individuals, and the number of mutations in a cell attributable to these processes will be proportional to the chronological age of the person. Using mutations from 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 cancer types, we investigated clock-like mutational processes that have been operating in normal human cells. Two mutational signatures show clock-like properties. Both exhibit different mutation rates in different tissues. However, their mutation rates are not correlated, indicating that the underlying processes are subject to different biological influences. For one signature, the rate of cell division may influence its mutation rate. This paper provides the first survey of clock-like mutational processes operating in human somatic cells.

  10. Capacitively coupled RF diamond-like-carbon reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Devlin, David James; Coates, Don Mayo; Archuleta, Thomas Arthur; Barbero, Robert Steven

    2000-01-01

    A process of coating a non-conductive fiber with diamond-like carbon, including passing a non-conductive fiber between a pair of parallel metal grids within a reaction chamber, introducing a hydrocarbon gas into the reaction chamber, forming a plasma within the reaction chamber for a sufficient period of time whereby diamond-like carbon is formed upon the non-conductive fiber, is provided together with a reactor chamber for deposition of diamond-like carbon upon a non-conductive fiber, including a vacuum chamber, a cathode assembly including a pair of electrically isolated opposingly parallel metal grids spaced apart at a distance of less than about 1 centimeter, an anode, a means of introducing a hydrocarbon gas into said vacuum chamber, and a means of generating a plasma within said vacuum chamber.

  11. Proton Form Factors Measurements in the Time-Like Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anulli, F.; /Frascati

    2007-10-22

    I present an overview of the measurement of the proton form factors in the time-like region. BABAR has recently measured with great accuracy the e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} p{bar p} reaction from production threshold up to an energy of {approx} 4.5 GeV, finding evidence for a ratio of the electric to magnetic form factor greater than unity, contrary to expectation. In agreement with previous measurements, BABAR confirmed the steep rise of the magnetic form factor close to the p{bar p} mass threshold, suggesting the possible presence of an under-threshold N{bar N} vector state. These and other open questions related to the nucleon form factors both in the time-like and space-like region, wait for more data with different experimental techniques to be possibly solved.

  12. Process for hydroliquefying coal or like carbonaceous solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Malek, John Michael

    1977-01-01

    In this process the products of the dissolution-hydrogenation of coal or the like material in a hydrocarbon rich solvent are subjected in their slurryform fraction to an asphaltenes decomposing action of an alkali, like caustic soda or, being admixed after the gasiform fraction of the hydrogenation products has been taken off the slurryform fraction of the hydrogenation products now including the admixed alkali is subjected to a rehydrogenation by a hydrogen rich gas which after its rehydrogenating use is preferably applied, as source of hydrogen, to said dissolution-hydrogenation of coal. Optionally the admixed alkali includes minor amounts of a carboxylic acid salt of calcium.

  13. Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Friedel-Like Oscillations from Interstitial Iron in Superconducting Fe1+yTe0.62Se0.38 Using polarized and ...

  14. Vibration dissipation mount for motors or the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Small, Thomas R.

    1987-01-01

    A vibration dissipation mount which permits the mounting of a motor, generator, or the like such that the rotatable shaft thereof passes through the mount and the mount permits the dissipation of self-induced and otherwise induced vibrations wherein the mount comprises a pair of plates having complementary concave and convex surfaces, a semi-resilient material being disposed therebetween.

  15. Scattering from Colloid-Polymer Conjugates with Excluded Volume...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Li, Xin 1 ; Sanchez-Diaz, Luis E. 1 ; Smith, Gregory Scott 1 ; Chen, Wei-Ren 1 + Show Author Affiliations Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United ...

  16. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Li, Xin 1 ; Do, Changwoo 1 ; Liu, Yun 2 ; Hong, Kunlun 1 ; Smith, Greg 1 ; Chen, Wei-Ren 1 + Show Author Affiliations ORNL National Institute of Standards and ...

  17. Apparatus and method for excluding gas from a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J. (Bellaire, TX)

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for preventing diffusion of a gas under high pressure into the bulk of a liquid filling a substantially closed chamber. This apparatus and method is particularly useful in connection with test devices for testing fluid characteristics under harsh conditions of extremely high pressure and high temperature. These devices typically pressurize the liquid by placing the liquid in pressure and fluid communication with a high pressure inert gas. The apparatus and method of the present invention prevent diffusion of the pressurizing gas into the bulk of the test liquid by decreasing the chamber volume at a rate sufficient to maintain the bulk of the liquid free of absorbed or dissolved gas by expelling that portion of the liquid which is contaminated by the pressurizing gas.

  18. When linear stability does not exclude nonlinear instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Pelinovsky, D. E.; Saxena, A.

    2015-05-29

    We describe a mechanism that results in the nonlinear instability of stationary states even in the case where the stationary states are linearly stable. In this study, this instability is due to the nonlinearity-induced coupling of the linearization’s internal modes of negative energy with the continuous spectrum. In a broad class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations considered, the presence of such internal modes guarantees the nonlinear instability of the stationary states in the evolution dynamics. To corroborate this idea, we explore three prototypical case examples: (a) an antisymmetric soliton in a double-well potential, (b) a twisted localized mode in a one-dimensional lattice with cubic nonlinearity, and (c) a discrete vortex in a two-dimensional saturable lattice. In all cases, we observe a weak nonlinear instability, despite the linear stability of the respective states.

  19. When linear stability does not exclude nonlinear instability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Pelinovsky, D. E.; Saxena, A.

    2015-05-29

    We describe a mechanism that results in the nonlinear instability of stationary states even in the case where the stationary states are linearly stable. In this study, this instability is due to the nonlinearity-induced coupling of the linearization’s internal modes of negative energy with the continuous spectrum. In a broad class of nonlinear Schrödinger equations considered, the presence of such internal modes guarantees the nonlinear instability of the stationary states in the evolution dynamics. To corroborate this idea, we explore three prototypical case examples: (a) an antisymmetric soliton in a double-well potential, (b) a twisted localized mode in a one-dimensionalmore » lattice with cubic nonlinearity, and (c) a discrete vortex in a two-dimensional saturable lattice. In all cases, we observe a weak nonlinear instability, despite the linear stability of the respective states.« less

  20. Scattering from Star Polymers including Excluded Volume Effects...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    GrantContract Number: AC05-00OR22725 Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Journal of Applied Crystallography Additional Journal Information: Journal Volume: 47; Journal Issue: ...

  1. A MAGNETAR-LIKE EVENT FROM LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 AND ITS NATURE AS A GAMMA-RAY BINARY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torres, Diego F.; Rea, Nanda; Esposito, Paolo; Li Jian; Chen Yupeng; Zhang Shu

    2012-01-10

    We report on the Swift Burst Alert Telescope detection of a short burst from the direction of the TeV binary LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303, resembling those generally labeled as magnetar-like. We show that it is likely that the short burst was indeed originating from LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 (although we cannot totally exclude the improbable presence of a far-away, line-of-sight magnetar) and that it is a different phenomenon with respect to the previously observed ks-long flares from this system. Accepting the hypothesis that LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 is the first magnetar detected in a binary system, we study those implications. We find that a magnetar-composed LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 system would most likely be (i.e., for the usual magnetar parameters and mass-loss rate) subject to a flip-flop behavior, from a rotationally powered regime (in the apastron) to a propeller regime (in the periastron) along each of the LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 eccentric orbital motion. We prove that, unlike near an apastron, where an interwind shock can lead to the normally observed LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303 behavior, during TeV emission the periastron propeller is expected to efficiently accelerate particles only to sub-TeV energies. This flip-flop scenario would explain the system's behavior when a recurrent TeV emission only appears near the apastron, the anti-correlation of the GeV and TeV emission, and the long-term TeV variability (which seems correlated to LS I +61 Degree-Sign 303's super-orbital period), including the appearance of a low TeV state. Finally, we qualitatively put the multi-wavelength phenomenology into the context of our proposed model and make some predictions for further testing.

  2. Flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3} porous nanostructures: Selective synthesis and their photocatalysis property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Jiarui; Xu, Xiaojuan; Gu, Cuiping; Fu, Gujun; Wang, Weizhi; Liu, Jinhuai

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: -- Abstract: Nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow microsphere-like hydrated tungsten oxide architectures were selectively synthesized by acidic precipitation of sodium tungstate solution at mild temperature. Several techniques, such as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric-differential thermalgravimetric analysis, transmission electron microscopy, and BrunauerEmmettTeller N{sub 2} adsorptiondesorption analyses, were used to characterize the structure and morphology of the products. The experimental results show that the nanoflake-based flower-like and hollow sphere-like WO{sub 3}H{sub 2}O architectures can be obtained by changing the concentration of sodium tungstate solution. The possible formation process based on the aggregationrecrystallization mechanism is proposed. The corresponding tungsten oxide three-dimensional architectures were obtained after calcination at 450 C. Finally, the obtained WO{sub 3} three-dimensional architectures were used as photocatalyst in the experiments. Compared with WO{sub 3} microflowers, the as-prepared WO{sub 3} hollow microspheres exhibit superior photocatalytic property on photocatalytic decomposition of Rhodamine B due to their hollow porous hierarchical structures.

  3. Soft x-ray laser using pumping of 3P and 4P levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.

    1982-03-26

    X-ray laser method and apparatus for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of 40 to 189 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like rare gases or N, O, F, or C gases, with associated laser transition gains of 20 to 50 cm/sup -1/.

  4. Soft X-ray laser using pumping of 3P and 4P levels of He-like and H-like ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1987-04-21

    X-ray laser method and apparatus are disclosed for producing coherent radiation at, for example, energies of at least 40 eV, using Be-like Cr, N-like Ni, He-like Na, B-like Cr, Be-like Mn or similar multiply ionized species to pump appropriate high energy transitions in He-like or H-like N, O, F, C or rare gases, with associated laser transition gains of 4-50 cm[sup [minus]1]. 8 figs.

  5. Shapiro like steps reveals molecular nanomagnets’ spin dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdollahipour, Babak; Abouie, Jahanfar Ebrahimi, Navid

    2015-09-15

    We present an accurate way to detect spin dynamics of a nutating molecular nanomagnet by inserting it in a tunnel Josephson junction and studying the current voltage (I-V) characteristic. The spin nutation of the molecular nanomagnet is generated by applying two circularly polarized magnetic fields. We demonstrate that modulation of the Josephson current by the nutation of the molecular nanomagnet’s spin appears as a stepwise structure like Shapiro steps in the I-V characteristic of the junction. Width and heights of these Shapiro-like steps are determined by two parameters of the spin nutation, frequency and amplitude of the nutation, which are simply tuned by the applied magnetic fields.

  6. Method for producing fluorinated diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hakovirta, Marko J.; Nastasi, Michael A.; Lee, Deok-Hyung; He, Xiao-Ming

    2003-06-03

    Fluorinated, diamond-like carbon (F-DLC) films are produced by a pulsed, glow-discharge plasma immersion ion processing procedure. The pulsed, glow-discharge plasma was generated at a pressure of 1 Pa from an acetylene (C.sub.2 H.sub.2) and hexafluoroethane (C.sub.2 F.sub.6) gas mixture, and the fluorinated, diamond-like carbon films were deposited on silicon <100>substrates. The film hardness and wear resistance were found to be strongly dependent on the fluorine content incorporated into the coatings. The hardness of the F-DLC films was found to decrease considerably when the fluorine content in the coatings reached about 20%. The contact angle of water on the F-DLC coatings was found to increase with increasing film fluorine content and to saturate at a level characteristic of polytetrafluoroethylene.

  7. Town of Carrboro - Worthwhile Investments Save Energy (WISE)...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Nonprofit Savings Category Solar Water Heat Solar Photovoltaics Water Heaters Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Heat Pumps Air conditioners Programmable Thermostats Building...

  8. SCE&G (Electric)- Residential EnergyWise Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G) provides energy efficiency incentives to home owners in its service territory.

  9. OpWise: Operons aid the identification of differentially expressedgene...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 59 BASIC BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES; GENES; PATTERN RECOGNITION; BACTERIA; COMPUTER CALCULATIONS; DATA COVARIANCES; O ...

  10. Seattle HomeWise: Weatherization | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Program Type Grant Program Rebate Amount Varies Summary The City of Seattle offers free weatherization services to residents who meet income qualifications. Services are...

  11. SRP- PowerWise Business Solutions Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    SRPBusiness Solutions is a program designed to help SRP business customers manage energy usage and increase the energy efficiency of participating facilities. Within this program there are several...

  12. ALABAMA GETS WISE ABOUT SELLING UPGRADES | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Association of State Energy Offices (NASEO) and the energy departments of Washington, Massachusetts, and Virginia to form a multistate residential energy efficiency collaborative. ...

  13. SCE&G (Gas)- Residential EnergyWise Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    South Carolina Electric and Gas (SCE&G) provides energy efficiency incentives to home owners in its service territory. Natural gas customers are eligible for rebates on water heaters, gas logs...

  14. Mr. David Abney Chief Executive Officer Wise Services, Inc.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Services) employee that struck a fiber optics line at the DOE Portsmouth Gaseous ... The boom on the track hoe struck an overhead fiber optics communications cable and broke ...

  15. Town of Chapel Hill - Worthwhile Investments Save Energy (WISE...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Rebate Amount 20% - 40% of cost, depending on equipment or repair types. Summary Chapel Hill is using money made available to it from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of...

  16. Step-wise supercritical extraction of carbonaceous residua

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warzinski, Robert P.

    1987-01-01

    A method of fractionating a mixture containing high boiling carbonaceous material and normally solid mineral matter includes processing with a plurality of different supercritical solvents. The mixture is treated with a first solvent of high critical temperature and solvent capacity to extract a large fraction as solute. The solute is released as liquid from solvent and successively treated with other supercritical solvents of different critical values to extract fractions of differing properties. Fractionation can be supplemented by solute reflux over a temperature gradient, pressure let down in steps and extractions at varying temperature and pressure values.

  17. `Climate wise` program at the Cosmair, Inc. Clark Manufacturing Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kraly, K.

    1997-12-31

    Viewgraphs from the conference presentation are reproduced in this paper, which outlines energy efficiency improvements and emissions reductions at a hair care products manufacturing facility. Program management focuses on employee involvement in internal audits, utility tracking, public relations, and preventative maintenance. Energy savings, cost savings, and emission reductions are presented for 1996 and projected to the year 2000. Other program aspects outlined include a summary of utility costs; solid waste; chilled water system modifications; lighting modifications; boiler upgrades; and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning improvements.

  18. Single-qubit tests of Bell-like inequalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zela, F. de

    2007-10-15

    This paper discusses some tests of Bell-like inequalities not requiring entangled states. The proposed tests are based on consecutive measurements on a single qubit. Available hidden-variable models for a single qubit [see, e.g., J. S. Bell, Rev. Mod. Phys. 38, 447 (1966)] reproduce the predictions of quantum mechanics and hence violate the Bell-like inequalities addressed in this paper. It is shown how this fact is connected with the state 'collapse' and with its random nature. Thus, it becomes possible to test truly realistic and deterministic hidden-variable models. In this way, it can be shown that a hidden-variable model should entail at least one of the following features: (i) nonlocality, (ii) contextuality, or (iii) discontinuous measurement-dependent probability functions. The last two features are put to the test with the experiments proposed in this paper. A hidden-variable model that is noncontextual and deterministic would be at variance with some predictions of quantum mechanics. Furthermore, the proposed tests are more likely to be loophole-free, as compared to former ones.

  19. Clock-like mutational processes in human somatic cells

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Alexandrov, Ludmil B.; Jones, Philip H.; Wedge, David C.; Sale, Julian E.; Campbell, Peter J.; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Stratton, Michael R.

    2015-11-09

    During the course of a lifetime, somatic cells acquire mutations. Different mutational processes may contribute to the mutations accumulated in a cell, with each imprinting a mutational signature on the cell's genome. Some processes generate mutations throughout life at a constant rate in all individuals, and the number of mutations in a cell attributable to these processes will be proportional to the chronological age of the person. Using mutations from 10,250 cancer genomes across 36 cancer types, we investigated clock-like mutational processes that have been operating in normal human cells. Two mutational signatures show clock-like properties. Both exhibit different mutationmore » rates in different tissues. However, their mutation rates are not correlated, indicating that the underlying processes are subject to different biological influences. For one signature, the rate of cell division may influence its mutation rate. This paper provides the first survey of clock-like mutational processes operating in human somatic cells.« less

  20. Structural Basis for Metallic-Like Conductivity in Microbial Nanowires

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Malvankar, Nikhil S.; Vargas, Madeline; Nevin, Kelly; Tremblay, Pier-Luc; Evans-Lutterodt, Kenneth; Nykypanchuk, Dmytro; Martz, Eric; Tuominen, Mark T.; Lovley, Derek R.

    2015-03-03

    Direct measurement of multiple physical properties of Geobacter sulfurreducens pili have demonstrated that they possess metallic-like conductivity, but several studies have suggested that metallic-like conductivity is unlikely based on the structures of the G. sulfurreducens pilus predicted from homology models. In order to further evaluate this discrepancy, pili were examined with synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction and rocking-curve X-ray diffraction. Both techniques revealed a periodic 3.2-Å spacing in conductive, wild-type G. sulfurreducens pili that was missing in the nonconductive pili of strain Aro5, which lack key aromatic acids required for conductivity. The intensity of the 3.2-Å peak increased 100-fold when the pHmore » was shifted from 10.5 to 2, corresponding with a previously reported 100-fold increase in pilus conductivity with this pH change. These results suggest a clear structure-function correlation for metallic-like conductivity that can be attributed to overlapping π-orbitals of aromatic amino acids. A homology model of the G. sulfurreducens pilus was constructed with a Pseudomonas aeruginosa pilus model as a template as an alternative to previous models, which were based on a Neisseria gonorrhoeae pilus structure. This alternative model predicted that aromatic amino acids in G. sulfurreducens pili are packed within 3 to 4 Å, consistent with the experimental results. Thus, the predictions of homology modeling are highly sensitive to assumptions inherent in the model construction. Finally, the experimental results reported here further support the concept that the pili of G. sulfurreducens represent a novel class of electronically functional proteins in which aromatic amino acids promote long-distance electron transport.« less

  1. Piezo-antiferromagnetic effect of sawtooth-like graphene nanoribbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Shangqian; Lu, Yan; Zhang, Yuchun; Lu, Wengang Liang, Wenjie

    2014-05-19

    A type of sawtooth-like graphene nanoribbon (SGNR) with piezo-antiferromagnetic effect is studied numerically. The ground state of the studied SGNR changes from nonmagnetic state to antiferromagnetic state with uniaxial strain. The changes of the spin-charge distributions during the stretching are investigated. The Hubbard model reveals that the hopping integrals between the π-orbitals of the carbon atoms are responsible to the piezo-antiferromagnetic effect. The study sheds light on the application of graphene-based structures to nanosensors and spintronic devices.

  2. Method and apparatus for making diamond-like carbon films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pern, Fu-Jann; Touryan, Kenell J.; Panosyan, Zhozef Retevos; Gippius, Aleksey Alekseyevich

    2008-12-02

    Ion-assisted plasma enhanced deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films on the surface of photovoltaic solar cells is accomplished with a method and apparatus for controlling ion energy. The quality of DLC layers is fine-tuned by a properly biased system of special electrodes and by exact control of the feed gas mixture compositions. Uniform (with degree of non-uniformity of optical parameters less than 5%) large area (more than 110 cm.sup.2) DLC films with optical parameters varied within the given range and with stability against harmful effects of the environment are achieved.

  3. Synthetic muscle experiment will likely return to Earth in March |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Synthetic muscle experiment will likely return to Earth in March By Jeanne Jackson DeVoe October 26, 2015 Tweet Widget Google Plus One Share on Facebook A photo taken by Astronaut Scott Kelly of a sample of the synthetic muscle experiment floating in the International Space Station. (Photo by Scott Kelly, Courtesy of NASA ) A photo taken by Astronaut Scott Kelly of a sample of the synthetic muscle experiment floating in the International Space Station. Gallery: A

  4. Diamond and diamond-like films for transportation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    This section is a compilation of transparency templates which describe the goals of the Office of Transportation Materials (OTM) Tribology Program. The positions of personnel on the OTM are listed. The role and mission of the OTM is reviewed. The purpose of the Tribology Program is stated to be `to obtain industry input on program(s) in tribology/advanced lubricants areas of interest`. The objective addressed here is to identify opportunities for cost effective application of diamond and diamond-like carbon in transportation systems.

  5. Keep It Simple: Learning How to Think Like the Customer | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Keep It Simple: Learning How to Think Like the Customer Keep It Simple: Learning How to Think Like the Customer Presents lessons learned from Tennessee Valley Authority's home ...

  6. DETECTABILITY OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS IN CIRCUMSTELLAR HABITABLE ZONES OF BINARY STAR SYSTEMS WITH SUN-LIKE COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke; Haghighipour, Nader

    2013-02-20

    Given the considerable percentage of stars that are members of binaries or stellar multiples in the solar neighborhood, it is expected that many of these binaries host planets, possibly even habitable ones. The discovery of a terrestrial planet in the {alpha} Centauri system supports this notion. Due to the potentially strong gravitational interaction that an Earth-like planet may experience in such systems, classical approaches to determining habitable zones (HZ), especially in close S-type binary systems, can be rather inaccurate. Recent progress in this field, however, allows us to identify regions around the star permitting permanent habitability. While the discovery of {alpha} Cen Bb has shown that terrestrial planets can be detected in solar-type binary stars using current observational facilities, it remains to be shown whether this is also the case for Earth analogs in HZs. We provide analytical expressions for the maximum and rms values of radial velocity and astrometric signals, as well as transit probabilities of terrestrial planets in such systems, showing that the dynamical interaction of the second star with the planet may indeed facilitate the planets' detection. As an example, we discuss the detectability of additional Earth-like planets in the averaged, extended, and permanent HZs around both stars of the {alpha} Centauri system.

  7. Likely social impacts of proposed national-level policy initiatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piernot, C.A.; Rothweiler, M.A.; Levine, A.; Crews, R.

    1981-03-01

    The results are described of an investigation of likely social effects of enacting nine proposed national-level policy initiatives to accelerate development and use of solar energy. This study is part of the Technology Assessment of Solar Energy Systems (TASE) project supported by the US Department of Energy. The report presents general social impact information about the variety of ways in which the American people could be affected by enactment of these initiatives. It identifies the effects of each initiative on individuals, groups, organizations, communities, and society as a whole. In addition, it provides a framework for organizing a myriad of impact information into a set of conceptually exclusive impact categories. It illustrates that social impacts means effects on people as individuals, groups, organizations, and communities as well as on the infrastructure of society. Finally, it demonstrates the importance of specifying an audience of impact with a case example from the residential rental market.

  8. Self-cleaning skin-like prosthetic polymer surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, John T.; Ivanov, Ilia N.; Shibata, Jason

    2012-03-27

    An external covering and method of making an external covering for hiding the internal endoskeleton of a mechanical (e.g., prosthetic) device that exhibits skin-like qualities is provided. The external covering generally comprises an internal bulk layer in contact with the endoskeleton of the prosthetic device and an external skin layer disposed about the internal bulk layer. The external skin layer is comprised of a polymer composite with carbon nanotubes embedded therein. The outer surface of the skin layer has multiple cone-shaped projections that provide the external skin layer with superhydrophobicity. The carbon nanotubes are preferably vertically aligned between the inner surface and outer surface of the external skin layer in order to provide the skin layer with the ability to transmit heat. Superhydrophobic powders may optionally be used as part of the polymer composite or applied as a coating to the surface of the skin layer to enhance superhydrophobicity.

  9. Optically transparent, scratch-resistant, diamond-like carbon coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    He, Xiao-Ming; Lee, Deok-Hyung; Nastasi, Michael A.; Walter, Kevin C.; Tuszewski, Michel G.

    2003-06-03

    A plasma-based method for the deposition of diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings is described. The process uses a radio-frequency inductively coupled discharge to generate a plasma at relatively low gas pressures. The deposition process is environmentally friendly and scaleable to large areas, and components that have geometrically complicated surfaces can be processed. The method has been used to deposit adherent 100-400 nm thick DLC coatings on metals, glass, and polymers. These coatings are between three and four times harder than steel and are therefore scratch resistant, and transparent to visible light. Boron and silicon doping of the DLC coatings have produced coatings having improved optical properties and lower coating stress levels, but with slightly lower hardness.

  10. Global constraints on vector-like WIMP effective interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Blennow, Mattias; Coloma, Pilar; Fernandez-Martinez, Enrique; Machado, Pedro A. N.; Zaldivar, Bryan

    2016-04-07

    In this work we combine information from relic abundance, direct detection, cosmic microwave background, positron fraction, gamma rays, and colliders to explore the existing constraints on couplings between Dark Matter and Standard Model constituents when no underlying model or correlation is assumed. For definiteness, we include independent vector-like effective interactions for each Standard Model fermion. Our results show that low Dark Matter masses below 20 GeV are disfavoured at the 3 σ  level with respect to higher masses, due to the tension between the relic abundance requirement and upper constraints on the Dark Matter couplings. Lastly, large couplings are typically onlymore » allowed in combinations which avoid effective couplings to the nuclei used in direct detection experiments.« less

  11. Sister Dehalobacter Genomes Reveal Specialization in Organohalide Respiration and Recent Strain Differentiation Likely Driven by Chlorinated Substrates

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tang, Shuiquan; Wang, Po Hsiang; Higgins, Steven A.; Löffler, Frank E.; Edwards, Elizabeth A.

    2016-02-12

    Here we report that the genomes of two closely related Dehalobacter strains (strain CF and strain DCA) were assembled from the metagenome of an anaerobic enrichment culture that reductively dechlorinates chloroform (CF), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA). The 3.1 Mbp genomes of strain CF (that dechlorinates CF and 1,1,1-TCA) and strain DCA (that dechlorinates 1,1-DCA) each contain 17 putative reductive dehalogenase homologous (rdh) genes. These two genomes were systematically compared to three other available organohalide-respiring Dehalobacter genomes (Dehalobacter restrictus strain PER-K23, Dehalobacter sp. strain E1 and Dehalobacter sp. strain UNSWDHB), and to the genomes of Dehalococcoides mccartyi strain 195 andmore » Desulfitobacterium hafniense strain Y51. This analysis compared 42 different metabolic and physiological categories. The genomes of strains CF and DCA share 90% overall average nucleotide identity and >99.8% identity over a 2.9 Mbp alignment that excludes large insertions, indicating that these genomes differentiated from a close common ancestor. This differentiation was likely driven by selection pressures around two orthologous reductive dehalogenase genes, cfrA and dcrA, that code for the enzymes that reduce CF or 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1-DCA. The many reductive dehalogenase genes found in the five Dehalobacter genomes cluster into two small conserved regions and were often associated with Crp/Fnr transcriptional regulators. Specialization is on-going on a strain-specific basis, as some strains but not others have lost essential genes in the Wood-Ljungdahl (strain E1) and corrinoid biosynthesis pathways (strains E1 and PER-K23). The gene encoding phosphoserine phosphatase, which catalyzes the last step of serine biosynthesis, is missing from all five Dehalobacter genomes, yet D. restrictus can grow without serine, suggesting an alternative or unrecognized biosynthesis route exists. In contrast to D. mccartyi, a

  12. Tungsten dust impact on ITER-like plasma edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, R. D. Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2015-01-15

    The impact of tungsten dust originating from divertor plates on the performance of edge plasma in ITER-like discharge is evaluated using computer modeling with the coupled dust-plasma transport code DUSTT-UEDGE. Different dust injection parameters, including dust size and mass injection rates, are surveyed. It is found that tungsten dust injection with rates as low as a few mg/s can lead to dangerously high tungsten impurity concentrations in the plasma core. Dust injections with rates of a few tens of mg/s are shown to have a significant effect on edge plasma parameters and dynamics in ITER scale tokamaks. The large impact of certain phenomena, such as dust shielding by an ablation cloud and the thermal force on tungsten ions, on dust/impurity transport in edge plasma and consequently on core tungsten contamination level is demonstrated. It is also found that high-Z impurities provided by dust can induce macroscopic self-sustained plasma oscillations in plasma edge leading to large temporal variations of edge plasma parameters and heat load to divertor target plates.

  13. PLANETESIMALS IN DEBRIS DISKS OF SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shannon, Andrew; Wu Yanqin

    2011-09-20

    Observations of dusty debris disks can be used to test theories of planetesimal coagulation. Planetesimals of sizes up to a couple of thousand kilometers are embedded in these disks and their mutual collisions generate the small dust grains that are observed. The dust luminosities, when combined with information on the dust spatial extent and the system age, can be used to infer initial masses in the planetesimal belts. Carrying out such a procedure for a sample of debris disks around Sun-like stars, we reach the following two conclusions. First, if we assume that colliding planetesimals satisfy a primordial size spectrum of the form dn/ds{proportional_to}s{sup -q}, observed disks strongly favor a value of q between 3.5 and 4, while both current theoretical expectations and statistics of Kuiper belt objects favor a somewhat larger value. Second, number densities of planetesimals are two to three orders of magnitude higher in detected disks than in the Kuiper belt, for comparably sized objects. This is a surprise for the coagulation models. It would require a similar increase in the disk surface density over that of the Minimum Mass Solar Nebula, which is unreasonable. Both of our conclusions are driven by the need to explain the presence of bright debris disks at a few gigayears of age.

  14. Tungsten dust impact on ITER-like plasma edge

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2015-01-12

    The impact of tungsten dust originating from divertor plates on the performance of edge plasma in ITER-like discharge is evaluated using computer modeling with the coupled dust-plasma transport code DUSTT-UEDGE. Different dust injection parameters, including dust size and mass injection rates, are surveyed. It is found that tungsten dust injection with rates as low as a few mg/s can lead to dangerously high tungsten impurity concentrations in the plasma core. Dust injections with rates of a few tens of mg/s are shown to have a significant effect on edge plasma parameters and dynamics in ITER scale tokamaks. The large impactmore » of certain phenomena, such as dust shielding by an ablation cloud and the thermal force on tungsten ions, on dust/impurity transport in edge plasma and consequently on core tungsten contamination level is demonstrated. Lastly, it is also found that high-Z impurities provided by dust can induce macroscopic self-sustained plasma oscillations in plasma edge leading to large temporal variations of edge plasma parameters and heat load to divertor target plates.« less

  15. Tungsten dust impact on ITER-like plasma edge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smirnov, R. D.; Krasheninnikov, S. I.; Pigarov, A. Yu.; Rognlien, T. D.

    2015-01-12

    The impact of tungsten dust originating from divertor plates on the performance of edge plasma in ITER-like discharge is evaluated using computer modeling with the coupled dust-plasma transport code DUSTT-UEDGE. Different dust injection parameters, including dust size and mass injection rates, are surveyed. It is found that tungsten dust injection with rates as low as a few mg/s can lead to dangerously high tungsten impurity concentrations in the plasma core. Dust injections with rates of a few tens of mg/s are shown to have a significant effect on edge plasma parameters and dynamics in ITER scale tokamaks. The large impact of certain phenomena, such as dust shielding by an ablation cloud and the thermal force on tungsten ions, on dust/impurity transport in edge plasma and consequently on core tungsten contamination level is demonstrated. Lastly, it is also found that high-Z impurities provided by dust can induce macroscopic self-sustained plasma oscillations in plasma edge leading to large temporal variations of edge plasma parameters and heat load to divertor target plates.

  16. Injection of ?-like suprathermal particles into diffusive shock acceleration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kang, Hyesung; Petrosian, Vah; Ryu, Dongsu; Jones, T. W. E-mail: vahe@stanford.edu E-mail: twj@msi.umn.edu

    2014-06-20

    We consider a phenomenological model for the thermal leakage injection in the diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) process, in which suprathermal protons and electrons near the shock transition zone are assumed to have the so-called ?-distributions produced by interactions of background thermal particles with pre-existing and/or self-excited plasma/MHD waves or turbulence. The ?-distribution has a power-law tail, instead of an exponential cutoff, well above the thermal peak momentum. So there are a larger number of potential seed particles with momentum, above that required for participation in the DSA process. As a result, the injection fraction for the ?-distribution depends on the shock Mach number much less severely compared to that for the Maxwellian distribution. Thus, the existence of ?-like suprathermal tails at shocks would ease the problem of extremely low injection fractions, especially for electrons and especially at weak shocks such as those found in the intracluster medium. We suggest that the injection fraction for protons ranges 10{sup 4}-10{sup 3} for a ?-distribution with 10 ? ? {sub p} ? 30 at quasi-parallel shocks, while the injection fraction for electrons becomes 10{sup 6}-10{sup 5} for a ?-distribution with ? {sub e} ? 2 at quasi-perpendicular shocks. For such ? values the ratio of cosmic ray (CR) electrons to protons naturally becomes K {sub e/p} ? 10{sup 3}-10{sup 2}, which is required to explain the observed ratio for Galactic CRs.

  17. Nova-like cataclysmic variables in the infrared

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoard, D. W.; Long, Knox S.; Howell, Steve B.; Wachter, Stefanie; Brinkworth, Carolyn S.; Knigge, Christian; Drew, J. E.; Szkody, Paula; Kafka, S.; Belle, Kunegunda; Ciardi, David R.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Van Belle, Gerard T.; Pretorius, M. L.

    2014-05-01

    Nova-like (NL) cataclysmic variables have persistently high mass transfer rates and prominent steady state accretion disks. We present an analysis of infrared observations of 12 NLs obtained from the Two Micron All Sky Survey, the Spitzer Space Telescope, and the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer All Sky Survey. The presence of an infrared excess at ? ? 3-5 ?m over the expectation of a theoretical steady state accretion disk is ubiquitous in our sample. The strength of the infrared excess is not correlated with orbital period, but shows a statistically significant correlation (but shallow trend) with system inclination that might be partially (but not completely) linked to the increasing view of the cooler outer accretion disk and disk rim at higher inclinations. We discuss the possible origin of the infrared excess in terms of emission from bremsstrahlung or circumbinary dust, with either mechanism facilitated by the mass outflows (e.g., disk wind/corona, accretion stream overflow, and so on) present in NLs. Our comparison of the relative advantages and disadvantages of either mechanism for explaining the observations suggests that the situation is rather ambiguous, largely circumstantial, and in need of stricter observational constraints.

  18. Penguin-like diagrams from the standard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ping, Chia Swee

    2015-04-24

    The Standard Model is highly successful in describing the interactions of leptons and quarks. There are, however, rare processes that involve higher order effects in electroweak interactions. One specific class of processes is the penguin-like diagram. Such class of diagrams involves the neutral change of quark flavours accompanied by the emission of a gluon (gluon penguin), a photon (photon penguin), a gluon and a photon (gluon-photon penguin), a Z-boson (Z penguin), or a Higgs-boson (Higgs penguin). Such diagrams do not arise at the tree level in the Standard Model. They are, however, induced by one-loop effects. In this paper, we present an exact calculation of the penguin diagram vertices in the ‘tHooft-Feynman gauge. Renormalization of the vertex is effected by a prescription by Chia and Chong which gives an expression for the counter term identical to that obtained by employing Ward-Takahashi identity. The on-shell vertex functions for the penguin diagram vertices are obtained. The various penguin diagram vertex functions are related to one another via Ward-Takahashi identity. From these, a set of relations is obtained connecting the vertex form factors of various penguin diagrams. Explicit expressions for the gluon-photon penguin vertex form factors are obtained, and their contributions to the flavor changing processes estimated.

  19. Search for the production of single vector-like and excited quarks in the Wt final state in pp collisions at √s = 8 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2016-02-17

    A search for vector-like quarks and excited quarks in events containing a top quark and a W boson in the final state is reported here. The search is based on 20.3 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data taken at the LHC at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector. Events with one or two leptons, and one, two or three jets are selected with the additional requirement that at least one jet contains a b-quark. Single-lepton events are also required to contain at least one large-radius jet from the hadronic decay of a high-pT W boson ormore » a top quark. No significant excess over the expected background is observed and upper limits on the cross-section times branching ratio for different vector-like quark and excited-quark model masses are derived. As a result, for the excited-quark production and decay to Wt with unit couplings, quarks with masses below 1500 GeV are excluded and coupling-dependent limits are set.« less

  20. X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line ...

  1. Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Ultrathin Li3VO4 NanoribbonGraphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties Two-dimensional (2D) "graphene-like" inorganic materials, ...

  2. The Search of Axion-Like-Particles With Fermi and Cherenkov Telescopes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The Search of Axion-Like-Particles With Fermi and Cherenkov Telescopes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The Search of Axion-Like-Particles With Fermi and Cherenkov...

  3. Structural basis for Notch1 engagement of Delta-like 4 (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Structural basis for Notch1 engagement of Delta-like 4 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural basis for Notch1 engagement of Delta-like 4 Authors: Luca, Vincent C. ; ...

  4. Heavy standard model-like Higgs boson and a light stop fromYukawa...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Heavy standard model-like Higgs boson and a light stop from Yukawa-deflected gauge mediation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Heavy standard model-like Higgs boson and a ...

  5. Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting ft008_szybist_2012_o.pdf (1.87 MB) More Documents & Publications Gasoline-like fuel effects on advanced combustion regimes High Efficiency Clean Combustion in Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Engines Load Expansion of Stoichiometric HCCI Using Spark

  6. The GammeV suite of experimental searches for axion-like particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Upadhye, Amol; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI

    2009-08-01

    We report on the design and results of the GammeV search for axion-like particles and for chameleon particles. We also discuss plans for an improved experiment to search for chameleon particles, one which is sensitive to both cosmological and power-law chameleon models. Plans for an improved axion-like particle search using coupled resonant cavities are also presented. This experiment will be more sensitive to axion-like particles than stellar astrophysical models or current helioscope experiments.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility Better Buildings Residential Data and Evaluation Peer Exchange Call Series: Cost-Effectiveness Tests and Measuring Like a Utility, April 10, 2014. Call Slides and Discussion Summary (1.61 MB) More Documents & Publications DOE Webinar: Translating Behavior Change Research Into Consumer Action Cost-Effective, Customer-Focused, and Contractor-Focused Data Tracking Systems Trends in

  8. Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire Citation ... Type: Accepted Manuscript Journal Name: Scientific Reports ...

  9. Structural basis for the prion-like MAVS filaments in antiviral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in antiviral innate immunity Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structural basis for the prion-like MAVS filaments in antiviral innate immunity Authors: Xu, Hui ; He, ...

  10. NATURAL GAS FROM SHALE: Questions and Answers It Seems Like Shale...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    It Seems Like Shale Gas Came Out of Nowhere - What Happened? Knowledge of gas shale resources and even production techniques has been around a long time (see "Technological ...

  11. Caltech researchers make discovery that hints at origin of phenomenon like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solar flares | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Caltech researchers make discovery that hints at origin of phenomenon like solar flares American Fusion News Category: U.S. Universities Link: Caltech researchers make discovery that hints at origin of phenomenon like solar flares

  12. Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions (Kr XXXII-XXVIII)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aggarwal, K.M. Keenan, F.P.; Lawson, K.D.

    2008-05-15

    Energy levels, radiative rates, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and lifetimes have been calculated for transitions in B-like to F-like Kr ions, Kr XXXIII-XXVIII. For the calculations, the fully relativistic GRASP code has been adopted, and results are reported for all electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2) transitions among the lowest 125, 236, 272, 226, and 113 levels of Kr XXXII, Kr XXXI, Kr XXX, Kr XXIX, and Kr XXVIII, respectively, belonging to the n {<=} 3 configurations. Comparisons are made with earlier available theoretical and experimental results, and some discrepancies have been noted and explained.

  13. Natural SM-like 126 GeV Higgs boson via nondecoupling D terms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bertuzzo, Enrico; Frugiuele, Claudia

    2016-02-16

    Accommodating both a 126 GeV mass and standard model (SM)-like couplings for the Higgs has a fine-tuning price in supersymmetric models. Examples are the minimal supersymmetric standard model, in which SM-like couplings are natural, but raising the Higgs mass to 126 GeV requires a considerable tuning, and the nonminimal supersymmetric standard model, in which the situation is reversed: the Higgs is naturally heavier, but being SM-like requires some tuning. Finally, we show that models with nondecoupling D terms alleviate this tension—a 126 GeV SM-like Higgs comes out basically with no fine-tuning cost. In addition, the analysis of the fine-tuning of the extended gaugemore » sector shows that naturalness requires the heavy gauge bosons to likely be within the reach of LHC run II.« less

  14. Method and apparatus for assessing material properties of sheet-like materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Telschow, Kenneth L.; Deason, Vance A.

    2002-01-01

    Apparatus for producing an indication of a material property of a sheet-like material according to the present invention may comprise an excitation source for vibrating the sheet-like material to produce at least one traveling wave therein. A light source configured to produce an object wavefront and a reference wavefront directs the object wavefront toward the sheet-like material to produce a modulated object wavefront. A modulator operatively associated with the reference wavefront modulates the reference wavefront in synchronization with the traveling wave on the sheet-like material to produce a modulated reference wavefront. A sensing medium positioned to receive the modulated object wavefront and the modulated reference wavefront produces an image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material, the image of the anti-symmetric traveling wave being related to a displacement amplitude of the anti-symmetric traveling wave over a two-dimensional area of the vibrating sheet-like material. A detector detects the image of the traveling wave in the sheet-like material.

  15. Influence of Solvent-Like Sidechains on the Adsorption of Light...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Solvent-Like Sidechains on the Adsorption of Light Hydrocarbons in Metal-Organic ... Here, we present a new approach in which the pores of a framework are lined with four ...

  16. Synthesis of low-size flower-like AlOOH structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bakina, Olga V. E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Glazkova, Elena A. E-mail: eagl@ispms.tsc.ru; Lozhkomoev, Aleksandr S. Psakhie, Sergey G.; Svarovskaya, Natalia V.; Khorobraya, Elena G.

    2014-11-14

    Al/Cu, Al/Zn, and Al/Fe bimetallic nanoparticles have been obtained using the method of simultaneous electrical explosion of metal pairs in an argon atmosphere. The nanoparticles are chemically active and interact with water at 60°C forming flower-like hierarchical porous structures with a high specific surface area. As the Al/Cu nanopowder is oxidized with water, flower-like pseudoboehmite composite structures are formed with the size of under 1.0 μm; structurally heterogeneous electron-dense spherical inclusions of unreacted metal copper and intermetallides are identified inside them. Al/Fe product transformations are presented by the flower-like pseudoboehmite surrounded by lamellar structures enriched with ferric oxides. Al/Zn nanoparticles react with water, forming the flower-like pseudoboehmite and mainly hexagonal zinc oxide laminae. The composite particles obtained can be used as antibacterial agents in manufacturing medical supplies.

  17. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Gasoline-Like Fuel Effects on Advanced Combustion Regimes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about gasoline-like...

  19. X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We apply the magnetic-sublevel atomic kinetics model POLAR to the calculation of polarization properties of satellite lines in Li-like Si driven by subpicosecond-duration laser ...

  20. IBEX satellite finds ribbon-like structure at edge of heliosphere

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    IBEX satellite finds ribbon-like structure at edge of heliosphere The NASA IBEX mission ... Using the High Energy Neutral Atom Imager, led by Los Alamos National Laboratory, the NASA ...

  1. Structure of Human Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Ligand-binding...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Human Toll-like Receptor 3 (TLR3) Ligand-binding Domain Jungwoo Choe1, Matthew S. Kelker1, ... Figure 1. Overall structure of human TLR3 ECD. The N-terminal region is colored blue, the ...

  2. Photo-oxidation of polymer-like amorphous hydrogenated carbon under visible light illumination

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Baxamusa, Salmaan; Laurence, Ted; Worthington, Matthew; Ehrmann, Paul

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), a polymer-like network typically synthesized by plasma chemical vapor deposition, has long been understood to exhibit optical absorption of visible light (? > 400 nm). In this report we explain that this absorption is accompanied by rapid photo-oxidation (within minutes) that behaves in most respects like classic polymer photo-oxidation with the exception that it occurs under visible light illumination rather than ultraviolet illumination.

  3. Resonantly photo-pumped nickel-like erbium X-ray laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nilsen, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    A resonantly photo-pumped X-ray laser (10) that enhances the gain of seve laser lines that also lase because of collisional excitations and recombination processes, is described. The laser comprises an aluminum (12) and erbium (14) foil combination (16) that is driven by two beams (18, 20) of intense line focused (22, 24) optical laser radiation. Ground state nickel-like erbium ions (34) are resonantly photo-pumped by line emission from hydrogen-like aluminum ions (32).

  4. Wall-associated kinase-like polypeptide mediates nutritional status perception and response

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Zhenbiao; Karr, Stephen

    2014-02-11

    The disclosure relates to methods for modulating plant growth and organogenesis using dominant-negative receptor-like kinases. The disclosure further provides a method for increasing plant yield relative to corresponding wild type plants comprising modulating the expression in a plant of a nucleic acid encoding a Wall-Associated Kinase-like 14 polypeptide or a homolog thereof, and selecting for plants having increased yield or growth on a nutrient deficient substrate.

  5. Photo-oxidation of polymer-like amorphous hydrogenated carbon under visible light illumination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxamusa, Salmaan; Laurence, Ted; Worthington, Matthew; Ehrmann, Paul

    2015-11-10

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H), a polymer-like network typically synthesized by plasma chemical vapor deposition, has long been understood to exhibit optical absorption of visible light (λ > 400 nm). In this report we explain that this absorption is accompanied by rapid photo-oxidation (within minutes) that behaves in most respects like classic polymer photo-oxidation with the exception that it occurs under visible light illumination rather than ultraviolet illumination.

  6. Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication Share Description Argonne scientists discovered a technique to create a layer of diamond-like carbon on the surfaces between moving parts. This could change the future of lubrication-potentially making engines more efficient, more reliable, and even greener (by reducing heavy metal additives needed in engine oils.) Duration 0:45 Topic Energy Energy efficiency Manufacturing Credit Argonne

  7. Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Self-healing diamond-like carbon coating could revolutionize lubrication Share Description Argonne scientists discovered a technique to create a layer of diamond-like carbon on the surfaces between moving parts. This could change the future of lubrication-potentially making engines more efficient, more reliable, and even greener (by reducing heavy metal additives needed in engine oils.) Duration 0:45 Credit Argonne National Laboratory Browse By - Any - General

  8. Janus-like Nanoparticle Membranes | U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Janus-like Nanoparticle Membranes Advanced Scientific Computing Research (ASCR) ASCR Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of ASCR Funding Opportunities Advanced Scientific Computing Advisory Committee (ASCAC) Community Resources Contact Information Advanced Scientific Computing Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-21/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-7486 F: (301) 903-4846 E: Email Us More Information » 03.31.16 Janus-like

  9. Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    insulator nanowire (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Kondo-like zero-bias conductance anomaly in a three-dimensional topological insulator nanowire Zero-bias anomalies in topological nanowires have recently captured significant attention, as they are possible signatures of Majorana modes. Yet there are many other possible origins of zero-bias peaks in

  10. Controlled synthesis of snowflake-like self-assemblies palladium nanostructures under microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Ting; Ma, Yue; Yang, Hanmin Li, Jinlin

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: We demonstrated the synthesis of snowflake-like palladium nanostructures for the first time. We discussed the influencing factors on the synthesis of snowflake-like Pd nanostructures. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}Pd{sub 4} to PVP at 5 is the optimal selection. The growth process was discussed. - Abstract: Self-assembly snowflake-like palladium nanostructures were synthesized under microwave irradiation using H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4} as precursor, benzyl alcohol as both solvent and reducing agent, and PVP as stabilizer. The Pd snowflake-like nanostructures were formed and then characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray powder diffraction. The TEM images showed that the Pd nano-snowflakes were self-assemblies organized by hundreds of small spherical nanoparticles. Pd snowflake-like nanostructures with well-defined shape and uniform size can be obtained by tuning the concentration of palladium precursor, the molar ratio of H{sub 2}PdCl{sub 4}/PVP, as well as the heating time by microwave irradiation. The possible growing process of the snowflake-like Pd structures was also proposed on the basis of investigating the properties of as-synthesized Pd nanostructures under different conditions.

  11. Efficient removal rhodamine B over hydrothermally synthesized fishbone like BiVO{sub 4}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xue; Li, Hongji; Yu, Lili; Zhao, Han; Yan, Yongsheng; Liu, Chunbo; Zhai, Hongjv

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product was synthesized through hydrothermal method. BiVO{sub 4} sample was characterized by various characterization technologies. Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} presented outstanding photocatalytic performance. - Abstract: Fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} product has been successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method without using any surfactant or template. The pH value was found to play an important role in the formation of this morphology. The band gap of the as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample was estimated to be about 2.36 eV from the onset of UVvis diffuse reflectance spectrum (UVvis DRS) of the photocatalyst. The as-prepared fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample exhibited excellent visible-light-driven photocatalytic efficiency. Over this catalyst, the 100% degradation of rhodamine B (Rh B) (0.005 mmol L{sup ?1}) was obtained after visible light irradiation (? > 420 nm) for 180 min. This is much higher than that of bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample prepared by solid-state reaction. The reason for the differences in the photocatalytic activities of fishbone like BiVO{sub 4} sample and bulk BiVO{sub 4} sample was further investigated.

  12. Catalytic synthesis of bamboo-like multiwall BN nanotubes via SHS-annealing process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, L.P.; Gu, Y.L.; Wang, J.L.; Zhao, G.W.; Qian, Q.L.; Li, J.; Pan, X.Y.; Zhang, Z.H.

    2011-03-15

    Bamboo-like multiwall boron nitride (BN) nanotubes were synthesized via annealing porous precursor prepared by self-propagation high temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The as-synthesized BN nanotubes were characterized by the field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. These nanotubes have uniform diameters of about 60 nm and an average length of about 10 {mu}m. Four growth models, including tip, base, based tip and base-tip growth models, are proposed based on the catalytic vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) growth mechanism for explaining the formation of the as-synthesized bamboo-like BN nanotubes. Chemical reactions and annealing mechanism are also discussed. -- Graphical Abstract: A novel and effective annealing porous precursor route to bulk synthesis of bamboo-like multiwall BN nanotubes. Four growth models of VLS growth mechanism for these nanotubes are proposed. Display Omitted Research highlights: {yields} Bulk bamboo-like BN nanotubes were synthesized by SHS-annealing method. {yields} Boron-containing, porous precursor played a crucial role in bulk synthesis process. {yields} Four possible growth models were proposed to explain the formation of the bamboo-like BN nanotubes.

  13. Dromion-like structures and stability analysis in the variable coefficients complex Ginzburg–Landau equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Pring; Pang, Li-Hui; Huang, Long-Gang; Li, Yan-Qing; Lei, Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun

    2015-09-15

    The study of the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation, which can describe the fiber laser system, is of significance for ultra-fast laser. In this paper, dromion-like structures for the complex Ginzburg–Landau equation are considered due to their abundant nonlinear dynamics. Via the modified Hirota method and simplified assumption, the analytic dromion-like solution is obtained. The partial asymmetry of structure is particularly discussed, which arises from asymmetry of nonlinear and dispersion terms. Furthermore, the stability of dromion-like structures is analyzed. Oscillation structure emerges to exhibit strong interference when the dispersion loss is perturbed. Through the appropriate modulation of modified exponent parameter, the oscillation structure is transformed into two dromion-like structures. It indicates that the dromion-like structure is unstable, and the coherence intensity is affected by the modified exponent parameter. Results in this paper may be useful in accounting for some nonlinear phenomena in fiber laser systems, and understanding the essential role of modified Hirota method.

  14. In vitro assembly of a prohead-like structure of the Rhodobacter capsulatus gene transfer agent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spano, Anthony J. . E-mail: ajs6z@virginia.edu; Chen, Frank S.; Goodman, Benjamin E.; Sabat, Agnes E.; Simon, Martha N.; Wall, Joseph S.; Correia, John J.; McIvor, Wilson; Newcomb, William W.; Brown, Jay C.; Schnur, Joel M.; Lebedev, Nikolai

    2007-07-20

    The gene transfer agent (GTA) is a phage-like particle capable of exchanging double-stranded DNA fragments between cells of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus. Here we show that the major capsid protein of GTA, expressed in E. coli, can be assembled into prohead-like structures in the presence of calcium ions in vitro. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of uranyl acetate staining material and thin sections of glutaraldehyde-fixed material demonstrates that these associates have spherical structures with diameters in the range of 27-35 nm. The analysis of scanning TEM images revealed particles of mass {approx} 4.3 MDa, representing 101 {+-} 11 copies of the monomeric subunit. The establishment of this simple and rapid method to form prohead-like particles permits the GTA system to be used for genome manipulation within the photosynthetic bacterium, for specific targeted drug delivery, and for the construction of biologically based distributed autonomous sensors for environmental monitoring.

  15. Studies of Intermittency-like Phenomena in Plasma turbulence at IPR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jha, R.; Das, A.; Bisai, N.; Kaw, P. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Near Indira Bridge, Gandhinagar-382428 (India)

    2010-11-23

    The observation of intermittency in the turbulent scrape-off layer plasma of ADITYA tokamak was first reported about one and a half decade ago. In the last decade or so, several aspects of intermittency-like phenomena have been observed on tokamaks and other fusion devices throughout the world. A review of the research carried out at the Institute for Plasma Research (IPR) is presented, which closely follow the research trend on intermittency-like phenomena in plasmas worldwide. We also present our analysis of particle flux data in order to test the recently proposed fluctuation theorem, which states that the probability of 'entropy consuming' flux events falls off exponentially with the averaging time. This theorem, proposed in the context of small systems, is applied to macroscopic system like tokamak edge plasma by invoking an 'effective temperature' of the bath of drift waves from which, plasma objects take energy and carry out work of transporting matter

  16. Oscillation characteristics of zero-field spin transfer oscillators with field-like torque

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yuan-Yuan; Xue, Hai-Bin; Liu, Zhe-Jie

    2015-05-15

    We theoretically investigate the influence of the field-like spin torque term on the oscillation characteristics of spin transfer oscillators, which are based on MgO magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) consisting of a perpendicular magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer. It is demonstrated that the field-like torque has a strong impact on the steady-state precession current region and the oscillation frequency. In particular, the steady-state precession can occur at zero applied magnetic field when the ratio between the field-like torque and the spin transfer torque takes up a negative value. In addition, the dependence of the oscillation properties on the junction sizes has also been analyzed. The results indicate that this compact structure of spin transfer oscillator without the applied magnetic field is practicable under certain conditions, and it may be a promising configuration for the new generation of on-chip oscillators.

  17. Nonlinear rescaling principle and entropy-like prox-methods in constrained optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polyak, B.; Teboulle, M.

    1994-12-31

    The Nonlinear Rescaling Principle (NRP) consists of transforming the objective function and/or constraints into an equivalent problem and using the Classical Lagrangean (CL) of it for both theoretical analysis and numerical methods. The transformation is parametrized by a positive scalar parameter. The methods, based on NRP, consist of sequential unconstrained optimization of the CL for the equivalent problem in primal space and Lagrange multipliers update, using the current minimizer, while the parameter can be fixed or can be changed from step to step. It turns out that such a method is nothing but the prox-method with entropy like kernel for the dual problem. The entropy-like kernel is defined by the Legendre transformation of the scaling function. We will consider the convergence of both the NRP and prox-method with entropy-like kernel and also we will discuss some particular realization of NRP for Linear and Nonlinear Programming.

  18. THE OCCURRENCE RATE OF EARTH ANALOG PLANETS ORBITING SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Catanzarite, Joseph; Shao, Michael

    2011-09-10

    Kepler is a space telescope that searches Sun-like stars for planets. Its major goal is to determine {eta}{sub Earth}, the fraction of Sun-like stars that have planets like Earth. When a planet 'transits' or moves in front of a star, Kepler can measure the concomitant dimming of the starlight. From analysis of the first four months of those measurements for over 150,000 stars, Kepler's Science Team has determined sizes, surface temperatures, orbit sizes, and periods for over a thousand new planet candidates. In this paper, we characterize the period probability distribution function of the super-Earth and Neptune planet candidates with periods up to 132 days, and find three distinct period regimes. For candidates with periods below 3 days, the density increases sharply with increasing period; for periods between 3 and 30 days, the density rises more gradually with increasing period, and for periods longer than 30 days, the density drops gradually with increasing period. We estimate that 1%-3% of stars like the Sun are expected to have Earth analog planets, based on the Kepler data release of 2011 February. This estimate of {eta}{sub Earth} is based on extrapolation from a fiducial subsample of the Kepler planet candidates that we chose to be nominally 'complete' (i.e., no missed detections) to the realm of the Earth-like planets, by means of simple power-law models. The accuracy of the extrapolation will improve as more data from the Kepler mission are folded in. Accurate knowledge of {eta}{sub Earth} is essential for the planning of future missions that will image and take spectra of Earth-like planets. Our result that Earths are relatively scarce means that a substantial effort will be needed to identify suitable target stars prior to these future missions.

  19. Facile synthesis of pompon-like ZnO-Ag nanocomposites and their enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Yang; An, Liang; Lan, Jing; Gao, Fang; Tan, Ruiqin; Li, Xiao-min; Wang, Guang-hui

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Pompon-like ZnO-Ag was prepared via heterothermal and photodeposition method. • Pompon-like ZnO-Ag is a excellent photocatalyst for degradation of azo dyes. • The photocatalytic and wetting properties were studied upon UV irradiation. • The discoloring efficiency of ZnO-Ag heterostructure toward to azo dyes is 99.1%. - Abstract: A series of pompon-like ZnO-Ag nanocomposites were prepared by hydrothermal method and photochemical deposition technique. Several characterizations indicated the successful deposition of Ag nanoparticles on ZnO. As a whole, the as-prepared composites present pompon-like nanostructures with a diameter of ∼10 μm. In detail, the nanostructural, chemical and optical properties were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), ultra-visible spectra (UV). The photocatalytic degradation experiments under UV irradiation using Methyl Orange (MO) as a model dye were executed here. The relative results demonstrated that the pompon-like ZnO-Ag nanocomposite with a suitable content of Ag nanoparticles (about 4.82 wt%) has the highest photochemical activity, and the removal ratio of MO was 99.1% after 0.5 h adsorption and subsequent 2 h photodegradation processes. The excellent photocatalytic performance was attributed to the high surface areas of ZnO nanostructure and effectively separation of photo-generated charge on flower-like ZnO by employing Ag nanoparticles as a conductor.

  20. Phantom-like behavior of a DGP-inspired Scalar-Gauss-Bonnet gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozari, Kourosh; Azizi, Tahereh; Setare, M.R. E-mail: t.azizi@umz.ac.ir

    2009-10-01

    We study the phantom-like behavior of a DGP-inspired braneworld scenario where curvature correction on the brane is taken into account. We include a possible modification of the induced gravity on the brane by incorporating higher order curvature terms of Gauss-Bonnet type. We investigate the cosmological implications of the model and we show that the normal branch of the scenario self-accelerates in this modified scenario without introducing any dark energy component. Also, a phantom-like behavior can be realized in this model without introducing any phantom field that suffers from serious difficulties such as violation of the null energy condition.

  1. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W.; Dusek, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice.

  2. Magnetic configuration dependence of magnetoresistance in a Fe-porphyrin-like carbon nanotube spintronic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Jing; Chen, Ke-Qiu

    2014-01-20

    By using nonequilibrium Green's functions in combination with the density functional theory, we investigate the spin-dependent transport properties in a Fe-porphyrin-like carbon nanotube spintronic device. The results show that magnetoresistance ratio is strongly dependent on the magnetic configuration of the Fe-porphyrin-like carbon nanotube. Under the application of the external magnetic field, the magnetoresistance ratio of the device can be increased from about 19% to about 1020% by tuning the magnetic configuration in the device. Our results confirm that the magnetic configuration is a key factor for obtaining a high-performance spintronic device.

  3. Kondo-like 4f delocalization in Gd at high pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddox, B R; Lazicki, A; Yoo, C S; Iota, V; Chen, M; McMahan, A K; Hu, M Y; Chow, P; Scalettar, R T; Pickett, W E

    2005-11-28

    We present resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) and x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) results which suggest Kondo-like aspects in the delocalization of 4f electrons in Gd metal to 113 GPa. Analysis of the RIXS data reveal a prolonged and continuous process throughout the entire pressure range, so that the volume collapse transition at 59 GPa is only part of the delocalization phenomenon. Moreover, the L{sub {gamma}1} XES spectra indicate no apparent change in the bare 4f moment across the collapse, suggesting that Kondo screening is responsible for the expected Pauli-like behavior in magnetic susceptibility.

  4. Scattering of Klein–Gordon particles by a Kink-like potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassanabadi, H.; Lu, Liangliang; Maghsoodi, E.; Liu, Guanghui; Zarrinkamar, S.

    2014-03-15

    The Klein–Gordon equation for the non-minimal vector and a scalar Kink-like potential is solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The scattering problem, i.e. the transmission and reflection coefficients, is studied as well. -- Highlights: •The Klein–Gordon equation for the non-minimal vector and a scalar Kink-like potential is solved. •We have calculated the corresponding transmission and reflection coefficients. •We discussed the behavior of the reflection and transmission coefficients vs. energy.

  5. Molecular dynamics simulations of soliton-like structures in a dusty plasma medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tiwari, Sanat Kumar Das, Amita; Sen, Abhijit; Kaw, Predhiman

    2015-03-15

    The existence and evolution of soliton-like structures in a dusty plasma medium are investigated in a first principles approach using molecular dynamic (MD) simulations of particles interacting via a Yukawa potential. These localized structures are found to exist in both weakly and strongly coupled regimes with their structures becoming sharper as the correlation effects between the dust particles get stronger. A surprising result, compared to fluid simulations, is the existence of rarefactive soliton-like structures in our non-dissipative system, a feature that arises from the charge conjugation symmetry property of the Yukawa fluid. Our simulation findings closely resemble many diverse experimental results reported in the past.

  6. Project Profile: Fractal-Like Receiver Designs for High-Temperature

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Efficiency Operation (SuNLaMP) | Department of Energy Project Profile: Fractal-Like Receiver Designs for High-Temperature High-Efficiency Operation (SuNLaMP) Project Profile: Fractal-Like Receiver Designs for High-Temperature High-Efficiency Operation (SuNLaMP) Funding Program: SuNLaMP SunShot Subprogram: CSP Location: Sandia National Laboratory, Albuquerque, NM SunShot Award Amount: $882,232 This project designs, develops, and tests novel particle receivers with configurations that use

  7. Observation of a Higgs-like Boson in CMS at the LHC (Conference) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Connect Conference: Observation of a Higgs-like Boson in CMS at the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Observation of a Higgs-like Boson in CMS at the LHC Authors: Bhat, Pushpalatha C. ; /Fermilab Publication Date: 2012-11-01 OSTI Identifier: 1059970 Report Number(s): FERMILAB-CONF-12-613-CMS-PPD DOE Contract Number: AC02-07CH11359 Resource Type: Conference Research Org: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL Sponsoring Org: DOE Office of Science Country of

  8. Large amplitude oscillation of magnetization in spin-torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi; Tsunegi, Sumito

    2015-05-07

    Oscillation frequency of spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer and an in-plane magnetized pinned layer is theoretically investigated by taking into account the field-like torque. It is shown that the field-like torque plays an important role in finding the balance between the energy supplied by the spin torque and the dissipation due to the damping, which results in a steady precession. The validity of the developed theory is confirmed by performing numerical simulations based on the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation.

  9. Metal oxide superconducting powder comprised of flake-like single crystal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dusek, J.

    1994-10-18

    Powder of a ceramic superconducting material is synthesized such that each particle of the powder is a single crystal having a flake-like, nonsymmetric morphology such that the c-axis is aligned parallel to the short dimension of the flake. Nonflake powder is synthesized by the normal methods and is pressed into pellets or other shapes and fired for excessive times to produce a coarse grained structure. The fired products are then crushed and ground producing the flake-like powder particles which exhibit superconducting characteristics when aligned with the crystal lattice. 3 figs.

  10. Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stallard, B.W.; Makowski, M.A.; Byers, J.A.

    1992-05-19

    An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam is described. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k[sub [phi

  11. Facile synthesis of one-dimensional peapod-like Sb@C submicron-structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, W; Lorger, S; Wang, B; Bommier, C; Ji, XL

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a novel synthetic route to fabricate a one-dimensional peapod-like Sb@C structure with disperse Sb submicron-particles encapsulated in carbon submicron-tubes. The synthetic route may well serve as a general methodology for fabricating carbon/metallic fine structures by thermally reducing their carbon-coated metal oxide composites.

  12. Synthesis of flower-like Boehmite (AlOOH) via a simple solvothermal process without surfactant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Guangci; Liu, Yunqi; Liu, Di; Liu, Lihua; Liu, Chenguang

    2010-10-15

    Boehmite (AlOOH) with hierarchical flower-like structures was synthesized by the solvothermal reaction of AlCl{sub 3}.6H{sub 2}O in the presence of ethanol and toluene at 200 {sup o}C for 24 h. The product was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results show that boehmite with flower-like nanostructures, which aggregated together by the weak hydrogen bonds, was formed through dissolution-deposition process of boehmite microcrystals and the toluene has a great effect on the morphology of product in the reaction system. Meanwhile, the {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was also obtained by calcination of above product at 500 {sup o}C for 2 h, and the flower-like morphology kept no change. The surface area of {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder was determined to be 166.8 m{sup 2}/g by N{sub 2} adsorption measurement. The possible formation mechanism of flower-like boehmite nanostructures was proposed and discussed.

  13. Theoretical Treatment of the Thermophysical Properties of Fluids Containing Chain-like Molecules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carol K. Hall

    2008-11-14

    This research program was designed to enhance our understanding of the behavior of fluids and fluid mixtures containing chain-like molecules. The original objective was to explain and predict the experimentally observed thermophysical properties, including phase equilibria and dynamics, of systems containing long flexible molecules ranging in length from alkanes to polymers. Over the years the objectives were expanded to include the treatment of molecules that were not chain-like. Molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo computer simulations were used to investigate how variations in molecular size, shape and architecture influence the types of phase equilibria, thermodynamic properties, structure and surface interactions that are observed experimentally. The molecular insights and theories resulting from this program could eventually serve as the foundation upon which to build correlations of the properties of fluids that are both directly and indirectly related to the Nations energy resources including: petroleum, natural gas, and polymer solutions, melts, blends, and materials.

  14. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William; Dubendorff, John W.

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods.

  15. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA poly,erases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F. William; Dubendorff, John W.

    1998-01-01

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods.

  16. A Comparison of New TATBs, FK-800 binder and LX-17-like PBXs to Legacy Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willey, T M; DePiero, S C; Hoffman, D M

    2009-05-01

    Two newly synthesized versions of the insensitive high explosive (IHE) 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzenes (TATBs) were compared to two legacy explosives currently used by the Department of Energy. Except for thermal analysis, small scale safety tests could not distinguish between the different synthetic routes. Morphologies of new TATBs were less faceted and more spherical. The particle size distribution of one new material was similar to legacy TATBs, but the other was very fine. Densities and submicron structure of the new TATBs were also significantly different from the legacy explosives. Pressed pellets of the new explosives were less dense. New FK-800 binder was used to prepare LX-17-like plastic bonded explosives (PBXs) from new and wet aminated TATB. Some mechanical, thermal and performance characterization of the new binder and LX-17-like PBXs was done. Significant differences were found. The reason for a number of these differences is not well understood.

  17. Unexplained Excess of Electron-Like Events From a 1-GeV Neutrino Beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aguilar-Arevalo, A.A.; Anderson, C.E.; Bazarko, A.O.; Brice, Stephen J.; Brown, B.C.; Bugel, L.; Cao, J.; Coney, L.; Conrad, J.M.; Cox, D.C.; Curioni, A.; /Yale U. /Columbia U.

    2008-12-01

    The MiniBooNE Collaboration observes unexplained electron-like events in the reconstructed neutrino energy range from 200 to 475 MeV. With 6.46 x 10{sup 20} protons on target, 544 electron-like events are observed in this energy range, compared to an expectation of 415.2 {+-} 43.4 events, corresponding to an excess of 128.8 {+-} 20.4 {+-} 38.3 events. The shape of the excess in several kinematic variables is consistent with being due to either {nu}{sub e} and {bar {nu}}{sub e} charged-current scattering or to {nu}{sub {mu}} neutral-current scattering with a photon in the final state. No significant excess of events is observed in the reconstructed neutrino energy range from 475 to 1250 MeV, where 408 events are observed compared to an expectation of 385.9 {+-} 35.7 events.

  18. MAGNETIC BRAKING FORMULATION FOR SUN-LIKE STARS: DEPENDENCE ON DIPOLE FIELD STRENGTH AND ROTATION RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matt, Sean P.; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; Greene, Thomas P. E-mail: kmac@ucar.edu E-mail: thomas.p.greene@nasa.gov

    2012-08-01

    We use two-dimensional axisymmetric magnetohydrodynamic simulations to compute steady-state solutions for solar-like stellar winds from rotating stars with dipolar magnetic fields. Our parameter study includes 50 simulations covering a wide range of relative magnetic field strengths and rotation rates, extending from the slow- and approaching the fast-magnetic-rotator regimes. Using the simulations to compute the angular momentum loss, we derive a semi-analytic formulation for the external torque on the star that fits all of the simulations to a precision of a few percent. This formula provides a simple method for computing the magnetic braking of Sun-like stars due to magnetized stellar winds, which properly includes the dependence on the strength of the magnetic field, mass loss rate, stellar radius, surface gravity, and spin rate, and which is valid for both slow and fast rotators.

  19. Wire like link for cycle reproducible and cycle accurate hardware accelerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Asaad, Sameh; Kapur, Mohit; Parker, Benjamin D

    2015-04-07

    First and second field programmable gate arrays are provided which implement first and second blocks of a circuit design to be simulated. The field programmable gate arrays are operated at a first clock frequency and a wire like link is provided to send a plurality of signals between them. The wire like link includes a serializer, on the first field programmable gate array, to serialize the plurality of signals; a deserializer on the second field programmable gate array, to deserialize the plurality of signals; and a connection between the serializer and the deserializer. The serializer and the deserializer are operated at a second clock frequency, greater than the first clock frequency, and the second clock frequency is selected such that latency of transmission and reception of the plurality of signals is less than the period corresponding to the first clock frequency.

  20. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-10-20

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  1. Cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7-like bacteriophages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Studier, F.W.; Dubendorff, J.W.

    1998-11-03

    This invention relates to the cloning and expression of autogenes encoding RNA polymerases of T7 and T7-like bacteriophages, in which the RNA polymerase gene is transcribed from a promoter which is recognized by the encoded RNA polymerase. Cloning of T7 autogenes was achieved by reducing the activity of the RNA polymerase sufficiently to permit host cell growth. T7 RNA polymerase activity was controlled by combining two independent methods: lac-repression of the recombinant lac operator-T7 promoter in the autogene and inhibition of the polymerase by T7 lysozyme. Expression systems for producing the RNA polymerases of T7 and other T7-like bacteriophages, and expression systems for producing selected gene products are described, as well as other related materials and methods. 12 figs.

  2. AN ENIGMATIC POINT-LIKE FEATURE WITHIN THE HD 169142 TRANSITIONAL DISK ,

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biller, Beth A.; Males, Jared; Morzinski, Katie; Close, Laird M.; Follette, Katherine B.; Hinz, Philip M.; Rodigas, Timothy; Weinberger, Alycia; Juhász, Attila; Lacour, Sylvestre; Henning, Thomas; Pott, Jörg-Uwe; Köhler, Rainer; Bonnefoy, Mickaël

    2014-09-01

    We report the detection of a faint point-like feature possibly related to ongoing planet-formation in the disk of the transition disk star HD 169142. The point-like feature has a Δmag(L) ∼ 6.4, at a separation of ∼0.''11 and position angle ∼0°. Given its lack of an H or K{sub S} counterpart despite its relative brightness, this candidate cannot be explained by purely photospheric emission and must be a disk feature heated by an as yet unknown source. Its extremely red colors make it highly unlikely to be a background object, but future multi-wavelength follow up is necessary for confirmation and characterization of this feature.

  3. Chaotic parametric soliton-like pulses in ferromagnetic-film active ring resonators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grishin, S. V. Golova, T. M.; Morozova, M. A.; Romanenko, D. V.; Seleznev, E. P.; Sysoev, I. V.; Sharaevskii, Yu. P.

    2015-10-15

    The generation of quasi-periodic sequences of parametric soliton-like pulses in an active ring resonator with a ferromagnetic film via the three-wave parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave is studied theoretically and experimentally. These dissipative structures form in time due to the competition between the cubic nonlinearity caused by parametric coupling between spin waves and the time dispersion caused by the resonant cavity that is present in a self-oscillatory system. The development of dynamic chaos due to the parametric instability of a magnetostatic surface wave results in irregular behavior of a phase. However, this behavior does not break a quasi-periodic pulse sequence when the gain changes over a wide range. The generated soliton-like pulses have a chaotic nature, which is supported by the maximum Lyapunov exponent estimated from experimental time series.

  4. LPM Interference and Cherenkov-like Gluon Bremsstrahlung in DenseMatter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majumder, Abhijit; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2005-07-26

    Gluon bremsstrahlung induced by multiple parton scattering in a finite dense medium has a unique angular distribution with respect to the initial parton direction. A dead-cone structure with an opening angle; theta2{sub 0}; approx 2(1-z)/(zLE) for gluons with fractional energy z arises from the Landau-Pomeran chuck-Migdal (LPM) interference. In a medium where the gluon's dielectric constant is; epsilon>1, the LPM interference pattern is shown to become Cherenkov-like with an increased opening angle determined by the dielectric constant$/cos2/theta{sub c}=z+(1-z)//epsilon$. For a large dielectric constant/epsilon; gg 1+2/z2LE, the corresponding total radiative parton energy loss is about twice that from normal gluon bremsstrahlung. Implications of this Cherenkov-like gluon bremsstrahlung to the jet correlation pattern in high-energy heavy-ion collisions is discussed.

  5. Direct observation and imaging of a spin-wave soliton with p-like symmetry

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bonetti, S.; Kukreja, R.; Chen, Z.; Macià, F.; Hernàndez, J. M.; Eklund, A.; Backes, D.; Frisch, J.; Katine, J.; Malm, G.; et al

    2015-11-16

    Spin waves, the collective excitations of spins, can emerge as nonlinear solitons at the nanoscale when excited by an electrical current from a nanocontact. These solitons are expected to have essentially cylindrical symmetry (that is, s-like), but no direct experimental observation exists to confirm this picture. Using a high-sensitivity time-resolved magnetic X-ray microscopy with 50 ps temporal resolution and 35 nm spatial resolution, we are able to create a real-space spin-wave movie and observe the emergence of a localized soliton with a nodal line, that is, with p-like symmetry. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations explain the measurements and reveal that the symmetrymore » of the soliton can be controlled by magnetic fields. Our results broaden the understanding of spin-wave dynamics at the nanoscale, with implications for the design of magnetic nanodevices.« less

  6. Direct observation and imaging of a spin-wave soliton with p-like symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonetti, S.; Kukreja, R.; Chen, Z.; Macià, F.; Hernàndez, J. M.; Eklund, A.; Backes, D.; Frisch, J.; Katine, J.; Malm, G.; Urazhdin, S.; Kent, A. D.; Stöhr, J.; Ohldag, H.; Dürr, H. A.

    2015-11-16

    Spin waves, the collective excitations of spins, can emerge as nonlinear solitons at the nanoscale when excited by an electrical current from a nanocontact. These solitons are expected to have essentially cylindrical symmetry (that is, s-like), but no direct experimental observation exists to confirm this picture. Using a high-sensitivity time-resolved magnetic X-ray microscopy with 50 ps temporal resolution and 35 nm spatial resolution, we are able to create a real-space spin-wave movie and observe the emergence of a localized soliton with a nodal line, that is, with p-like symmetry. Moreover, micromagnetic simulations explain the measurements and reveal that the symmetry of the soliton can be controlled by magnetic fields. Our results broaden the understanding of spin-wave dynamics at the nanoscale, with implications for the design of magnetic nanodevices.

  7. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Seals, Roland D.; Price, R. Eugene

    1997-01-01

    A method and composition for the deposition of a thick layer (10) of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition (12) including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate (20). The softened or molten composition (18) crystallizes on the substrate (20) to form a thick deposition layer (10) comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition (12) includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent (14) and may include at least one secondary constituent (16). Preferably, the secondary constituents (16) are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B.sub.4 C) powder and mixtures thereof.

  8. Plasma spraying method for forming diamond and diamond-like coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Seals, R.D.; Price, R.E.

    1997-06-03

    A method and composition is disclosed for the deposition of a thick layer of diamond or diamond-like material. The method includes high temperature processing wherein a selected composition including at least glassy carbon is heated in a direct current plasma arc device to a selected temperature above the softening point, in an inert atmosphere, and is propelled to quickly quenched on a selected substrate. The softened or molten composition crystallizes on the substrate to form a thick deposition layer comprising at least a diamond or diamond-like material. The selected composition includes at least glassy carbon as a primary constituent and may include at least one secondary constituent. Preferably, the secondary constituents are selected from the group consisting of at least diamond powder, boron carbide (B{sub 4}C) powder and mixtures thereof. 9 figs.

  9. Self-oscillation in spin torque oscillator stabilized by field-like torque

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro; Tsunegi, Sumito; Kubota, Hitoshi; Imamura, Hiroshi

    2014-04-14

    The effect of the field-like torque on the self-oscillation of the magnetization in spin torque oscillator with a perpendicularly magnetized free layer was studied theoretically. A stable self-oscillation at zero field is excited for negative β while the magnetization dynamics stops for β = 0 or β > 0, where β is the ratio between the spin torque and the field-like torque. The reason why only the negative β induces the self-oscillation was explained from the view point of the energy balance between the spin torque and the damping. The oscillation power and frequency for various β were also studied by numerical simulation.

  10. Sandia-Developed LED Pulser Delivers Laser-Like Performance at Fraction of

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the Cost LED Pulser Delivers Laser-Like Performance at Fraction of the Cost - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing

  11. Effects of coupling and asymmetries on load resilience of IC ITER-like structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bosia, G.; Bremond, S.; Colas, L.

    2005-09-26

    ITER-like structures feature an intrinsic resilience to load variations, which is related to the symmetry of the currents in the two branches of the structure. It has been suggested that the effects of coupling between the array elements would significantly impair the load resilience of the structure. In this paper the effect of inter strap coupling and of however induced electrical array asymmetries on the structure load resilience are quantitatively examined.

  12. Optical limiting and bleaching effects in a suspension of onion-like carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mikheev, Gen M; Bulatov, D L; Mogileva, T N; Kuznetsov, V L; Moseenkov, S I; Ishchenko, A V

    2009-04-30

    We have studied the effect of nanosecond laser pulses ({lambda} = 1064 nm) on the optical properties of onion-like carbon (OLC) prepared by high-temperature vacuum annealing of detonation nanodiamond and dispersed in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The results demonstrate that, under low-intensity irradiation, the OLC suspension displays optical limiting behaviour. Increasing the incident intensity leads to bleaching of the suspension in the visible and near-IR spectral regions. (nanostructures)

  13. "Permanent Magnet Generator-like AC Current Drive for Torroidal Fusion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Devices" Inventor..--.. Ali Zolfaghari | Princeton Plasma Physics Lab Permanent Magnet Generator-like AC Current Drive for Torroidal Fusion Devices" Inventor..--.. Ali Zolfaghari The scheme is similar to a permanent magnet generator. Large strong permanent magnets placed toroidally on the outside of a torus are used to create a magnetic flux that links the center of the torus through an iron (ferromagnetic material) spherical shell connected to an iron center column core. Pulsing

  14. Argonne discovery yields self-healing diamond-like carbon | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Leadership Computing Facility Argonne discovery yields self-healing diamond-like carbon Author: Greg Cunningham and Katie Jones August 5, 2016 Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Google E-mail Printer-friendly version Large-scale reactive molecular dynamics simulations carried out on the Mira supercomputer at the Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, along with experiments conducted by researchers in Argonne's Energy Systems Division, enabled the design of a "self-healing," anti-wear

  15. Novel Porous Materials Made from Flexible "Spaghetti-like" Molecules |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Novel Porous Materials Made from Flexible "Spaghetti-like" Molecules Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Benefits of BES Funding Opportunities Basic Energy Sciences Advisory Committee (BESAC) Community Resources Contact Information Basic Energy Sciences U.S. Department of Energy SC-22/Germantown Building 1000 Independence Ave., SW Washington, DC 20585 P: (301) 903-3081 F: (301) 903-6594 E: Email Us More

  16. Polymeric Ionic Networks with High Charge Density: Solid-like Electrolytes in Lithium Metal Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Mingtao; Jiang, Xueguang; Fang, Youxing; Veith, Gabriel M.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Polymerized ionic networks (PINs) with six ion pairs per repeating unit are synthesized by nucleophilic-substitution-mediated polymerization or radical polymerization of monomers bearing six 1-vinylimidazolium cations. PIN-based solid-like electrolytes show good ionic conductivities (up to 5.32 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 22 °C), wide electrochemical stability windows (up to 5.6 V), and good interfacial compatibility with the electrodes.

  17. Polymeric Ionic Networks with High Charge Density: Solid-like Electrolytes in Lithium Metal Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Pengfei; Li, Mingtao; Jiang, Xueguang; Fang, Youxing; Veith, Gabriel M.; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2015-11-02

    Polymerized ionic networks (PINs) with six ion pairs per repeating unit are synthesized by nucleophilic-substitution-mediated polymerization or radical polymerization of monomers bearing six 1-vinylimidazolium cations. PIN-based solid-like electrolytes show good ionic conductivities (up to 5.32 × 10-3 S cm-1 at 22 °C), wide electrochemical stability windows (up to 5.6 V), and good interfacial compatibility with the electrodes.

  18. Constitutional Isomers of Dendrimer-like Star Polymers: Design, Synthesis and Conformational and Structural Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pople, John A.

    2001-03-22

    The design, synthesis and solution properties of six constitutional isomers of dendrimer-like star polymers is described. Each of the polymers have comparable molecular weights ({approx} 80,000 g/mol), narrow polydispersities (< 1.19) and an identical number of branching junctures (45) and surface hydroxyl functionalities (48). The only difference in the six isomers is the placement of the branching junctures. The polymers are constructed from high molecular weight poly(e-caprolactone) with branching junctures derived from 2,2'-bis(hydroxylmethyl) propionic acid (bis-MPA) emanating from a central core. The use of various generations of dendritic initiators and dendrons coupled with the ring opening polymerization of e-caprolactones allowed a modular approach to the dendrimer-like star polymer isomers. The most pronounced effects on the physical properties/morphology and hydrodynamic volume was for those polymers in which the branching was distributed throughout the sample in a dendrimer-like fashion. The versatility of this approach has provided the possibility of understanding the relationship between architecture and physical properties. Dynamic light scattering and small angle X-ray scattering techniques were used to determine the hydrodynamic radius Rh and radius of gyration Rg respectively. The relationship between Rg and molecular weight was indicative of a compact star-like structure, and did not show advanced bias towards either the dense core or dense shell models. The radial density distribution of the isomers was therefore modeled according to a many arm star polymer, and good agreement was found with experimental measures of Rh/Rg.

  19. Superior Conductive Solid-like Electrolytes: Nanoconfining Liquids within the Hollow Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jinshui; Bai, Ying; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Li, Yunchao; Guo, Bingkun; Chen, Jihua; Veith, Gabriel M; Hensley, Dale K; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Goodenough, John B; Dai, Sheng

    2015-01-01

    The growth and proliferation of lithium (Li) dendrites during cell recharge is unavoidable, which seriously hinders the development and application of rechargeable Li metal batteries. Solid electrolytes with robust mechanical modulus are regarded as a promising approach to overcome the dendrite problems. However, their room-temperature ionic conductivities are usually too low to reach the level required for normal battery operation. Here, a class of novel solid electrolytes with liquid-like room-temperature ionic conductivities (> 1 mS cm-1) has been successfully synthesized by taking advantage of the unique nanoarchitectures of hollow silica (HS) spheres to confine liquid electrolytes in hollow space to afford high conductivities. In a symmetric lithium/lithium cell, such kind of solid-like electrolytes demonstrates a robust performance against Li dendrite problems, well stabilizing the cell system from short circuiting in a long-time operation at current densities ranging from 0.16 to 0.32 mA cm-2. Moreover, the high flexibility and compatibility of HS nanoarchitectures, in principle, enables broad tunability to choose desired liquids for the fabrication of other kinds of solid-like electrolytes, such as those containing Na+, Mg2+ or Al3+ as conductive media, providing a useful alternative strategy for the development of next generation rechargeable batteries.

  20. Temperature-dependent morphology of hybrid nanoflowers from elastin-like polypeptides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Koushik; Balog, Eva Rose M.; Sista, Prakash; Williams, Darrick J.; Martinez, Jennifer S. E-mail: rcrocha@lanl.gov; Rocha, Reginaldo C. E-mail: rcrocha@lanl.gov; Kelly, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    We report a method for creating hybrid organic-inorganic nanoflowers using calcium or copper ions as the inorganic component and a recombinantly expressed elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) as the organic component. Polypeptides provide binding sites for the dynamic coordination with metal ions, and then such noncovalent complexes become nucleation sites for primary crystals of metal phosphates. We have shown that the interaction between the stimuli-responsive ELP and Ca{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+}, in the presence of phosphate, leads to the growth of micrometer-sized particles featuring nanoscale patterns shaped like flower petals. The morphology of these flower-like composite structures is dependent upon the temperature of growth and has been characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The composition of nanoflowers has also been analyzed by energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The temperature-dependent morphologies of these hybrid nanostructures, which arise from the controllable phase transition of ELPs, hold potential for morphological control of biomaterials in emerging applications such as tissue engineering and biocatalysis.

  1. SOLAR MAGNETIZED TORNADOES: ROTATIONAL MOTION IN A TORNADO-LIKE PROMINENCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Yang; Veronig, Astrid; Temmer, Manuela; Vanninathan, Kamalam; Gmry, Peter; Wang, Tongjiang; Gan, Weiqun; Li, YouPing

    2014-04-10

    Su et al. proposed a new explanation for filament formation and eruption, where filament barbs are rotating magnetic structures driven by underlying vortices on the surface. Such structures have been noticed as tornado-like prominences when they appear above the limb. They may play a key role as the source of plasma and twist in filaments. However, no observations have successfully distinguished rotational motion of the magnetic structures in tornado-like prominences from other motions such as oscillation and counter-streaming plasma flows. Here we report evidence of rotational motions in a tornado-like prominence. The spectroscopic observations in two coronal lines were obtained from a specifically designed Hinode/EIS observing program. The data revealed the existence of both cold and million-degree-hot plasma in the prominence leg, supporting the so-called prominence-corona transition region. The opposite velocities at the two sides of the prominence and their persistent time evolution, together with the periodic motions evident in SDO/AIA dark structures, indicate a rotational motion of both cold and hot plasma with a speed of ?5kms{sup 1}.

  2. The Notch ligand Delta-like 1 integrates inputs from TGFbeta/Activin and Wnt pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bordonaro, Michael Tewari, Shruti Atamna, Wafa Lazarova, Darina L.

    2011-06-10

    Unlike the well-characterized nuclear function of the Notch intracellular domain, it has been difficult to identify a nuclear role for the ligands of Notch. Here we provide evidence for the nuclear function of the Notch ligand Delta-like 1 in colon cancer (CC) cells exposed to butyrate. We demonstrate that the intracellular domain of Delta-like 1 (Dll1icd) augments the activity of Wnt signaling-dependent reporters and that of the promoter of the connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene. Data suggest that Dll1icd upregulates CTGF promoter activity through both direct and indirect mechanisms. The direct mechanism is supported by co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous Smad2/3 proteins and Dll1 and by chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses that revealed the occupancy of Dll1icd on CTGF promoter sequences containing a Smad binding element. The indirect upregulation of CTGF expression by Dll1 is likely due to the ability of Dll1icd to increase Wnt signaling, a pathway that targets CTGF. CTGF expression is induced in butyrate-treated CC cells and results from clonal growth assays support a role for CTGF in the cell growth-suppressive role of butyrate. In conclusion, integration of the Notch, Wnt, and TGFbeta/Activin signaling pathways is in part mediated by the interactions of Dll1 with Smad2/3 and Tcf4.

  3. Who Will More Likely Buy PHEV: A Detailed Market Segmentation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the diverse PHEV purchase behaviors among prospective new car buyers is key for designing efficient and effective policies for promoting new energy vehicle technologies. The ORNL MA3T model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy is described and used to project PHEV purchase probabilities by different consumers. MA3T disaggregates the U.S. household vehicle market into 1458 consumer segments based on region, residential area, driver type, technology attitude, home charging availability and work charging availability and is calibrated to the EIA s Annual Energy Outlook. Simulation results from MA3T are used to identify the more likely PHEV buyers and provide explanations. It is observed that consumers who have home charging, drive more frequently and live in urban area are more likely to buy a PHEV. Early adopters are projected to be more likely PHEV buyers in the early market, but the PHEV purchase probability by the late majority consumer can increase over time when PHEV gradually becomes a familiar product. Copyright Form of EVS25.

  4. Flower-like NiO structures: Controlled hydrothermal synthesis and electrochemical characteristic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chai, Hui; Chen, Xuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Jia, Dianzeng; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Bao, Shujuan; Key Laboratory of Advanced Functional Materials, Institute of Applied Chemistry, Xinjiang University, Urumqi 830046, Xinjiang ; Zhou, Wanyong

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained via thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process using hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results of electrochemical measurements demonstrated that the flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials of electrochemical capacitors (ECs), which may be attributed to the unique microstrcture of NiO. Data analyses indicated that NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical and large-scale applications in electrochemical capacitors. Display Omitted Highlights: ? Synthesis and characterization of NiO with novel porous structure is presented in this work. ? The electrochemical performance of product was examined. ? NiO with excellent performance as electrode materials may be due to the unique microstrcture. ? NiO with novel porous structure attractive for practical with high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}). -- Abstract: Flower-like porous NiO was obtained by thermal decomposition of the precursor prepared by a hydrothermal process with hexamethylenetetramine and polyethylene glycol as hydrolysis-controlling agent and surfactant, respectively. The morphology and microstructure of as-synthesized NiO were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The resulting structures of NiO exhibited porous like petal building blocks. The electrochemical measurements results demonstrated that flower-like porous NiO has high capacity (340 F g{sup ?1}) with excellent cycling performance as electrode materials for electrochemical capacitors

  5. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Fuel additives: Excluding aviation fuels. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-02-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning compositions, applications and performance of additives in fuels. Evaluations and environmental testing of additives in automotive, diesel, and boiler fuels are discussed. Additive effects on air pollution control, combustion stability, fuel economy and fuel storage are presented. Aviation fuel additives are covered in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 231 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  8. Water Resources Data. Ohio - Water Year 1992. Volume 1. Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    H.L. Shindel; J.H. Klingler; J.P. Mangus; L.E. Trimble

    1993-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1992 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 121 gaging stations, 336 wells, and 72 partial-record sites; and water levels at 312 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. Volume 1 covers the central and southern parts of Ohio, emphasizing the Ohio River Basin. (See Order Number DE95010451 for Volume 2 covering the northern part of Ohio.)

  9. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding project data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    Water-resources data for the 1991 water year for Ohio consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams; stage and contents of lakes and reservoirs; and water levels and water quality of ground-water wells. This report, in two volumes, contains records for water discharge at 131 gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and water levels at 431 observation wells. Also included are data from miscellaneous sites. Additional water data were collected at various sites not involved in the systematic data-collection program and are published as miscellaneous measurements and analyses. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the US Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio.

  10. Denitrification in wastewater treatment (excluding biological methods). (Latest citations from pollution abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-12-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemical and physical methods for the removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from wastewater. Filtration, absorption, air-lift loop reactors, and fluidized bed processes are among the techniques presented. The citations cover process design, evaluation, economic analysis, and applications in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters. Special attention is given to the use of computers for process automation and mathematical simulation of denitrification processes. Biological denitrification methods are referenced in a related bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  11. Denitrification in wastewater treatment (excluding biological methods). (Latest citations from Pollution abstracts). NewSearch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning chemical and physical methods for the removal of nitrogen-containing compounds from wastewater. Filtration, absorption, air-lift loop reactors, and fluidized bed processes are among the techniques presented. The citations cover process design, evaluation, economic analysis, and applications in the treatment of industrial and municipal wastewaters. Special attention is given to the use of computers for process automation and mathematical simulation of denitrification processes. Biological denitrification methods are referenced in a related bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 130 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  12. LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wan, Jinrong; Stacey, Gary; Stacey, Minviluz; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2013-10-15

    Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

  13. Optical apparatus for conversion of whispering-gallery modes into a free space gaussian like beam

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stallard, Barry W.; Makowski, Michael A.; Byers, Jack A.

    1992-01-01

    An optical converter for efficient conversion of millimeter wavelength whispering-gallery gyrotron output into a linearly polarized, free-space Gaussian-like beam. The converter uses a mode-converting taper and three mirror optics. The first mirror has an azimuthal tilt to eliminate the k.sub..phi. component of the propagation vector of the gyrotron output beam. The second mirror has a twist reflector to linearly polarize the beam. The third mirror has a constant phase surface so the converter output is in phase.

  14. X-ray crystal spectrometer upgrade for ITER-like wall experiments at JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shumack, A. E.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Chernyshova, M.; Czarski, T.; Karpinski, L.; Jakubowska, K.; Scholz, M.; Byszuk, A.; Cieszewski, R.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Wojenski, A.; Zabolotny, W.; Dominik, W.; Conway, N. J.; Dalley, S.; Tyrrell, S.; Zastrow, K.-D.; Figueiredo, J. [EFDA-CSU, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB; Associação EURATOM and others

    2014-11-15

    The high resolution X-Ray crystal spectrometer at the JET tokamak has been upgraded with the main goal of measuring the tungsten impurity concentration. This is important for understanding impurity accumulation in the plasma after installation of the JET ITER-like wall (main chamber: Be, divertor: W). This contribution provides details of the upgraded spectrometer with a focus on the aspects important for spectral analysis and plasma parameter calculation. In particular, we describe the determination of the spectrometer sensitivity: important for impurity concentration determination.

  15. Carbon charge exchange analysis in the ITER-like wall environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Menmuir, S.; Giroud, C.; Hawkes, N. C.; Biewer, T. M.; Coffey, I. H.; Delabie, E.; Sertoli, M.

    2014-11-15

    Charge exchange spectroscopy has long been a key diagnostic tool for fusion plasmas and is well developed in devices with Carbon Plasma-Facing Components. Operation with the ITER-like wall at JET has resulted in changes to the spectrum in the region of the Carbon charge exchange line at 529.06 nm and demonstrates the need to revise the core charge exchange analysis for this line. An investigation has been made of this spectral region in different plasma conditions and the revised description of the spectral lines to be included in the analysis is presented.

  16. Terrace-like morphology of the boundary created through basal-prismatic transformation in magnesium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Bo -Yu; Wan, Liang; Wang, Jian; Ma, Evan; Shan, Zhi -Wei

    2015-01-24

    Here, the boundaries created through basal-prismatic transformation in submicron-sized single crystal magnesium have been investigated systematically using in situ transmission electron microscopy. We found that these boundaries not only deviated significantly from the twin plane associated with {101¯2} twin, but also possessed a non-planar morphology. After the sample was thinned to be less than 90 nm, aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy observation found that the basic components of these boundaries are actually terrace-like basal-prismatic interfaces.

  17. Zeolite-like metal–organic frameworks (ZMOFs): Design, synthesis, and properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Sava, Dorina F.; Eubank, Jarrod F.; Adil, Karim; Guillerm, Vincent

    2015-10-24

    This study highlights various design and synthesis approaches toward the construction of ZMOFs, which are metal–organic frameworks (MOFs) with topologies and, in some cases, features akin to traditional inorganic zeolites. The interest in this unique subset of MOFs is correlated with their exceptional characteristics arising from the periodic pore systems and distinctive cage-like cavities, in conjunction with modular intra- and/or extra-framework components, which ultimately allow for tailoring of the pore size, pore shape, and properties towards specific applications.

  18. Possible Diamond-Like Nanoscale Structures Induced by Slow Highly-Charged Ions on Graphite (HOPG)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sideras-Haddad, E.; Schenkel, T.; Shrivastava, S.; Makgato, T.; Batra, A.; Weis, C. D.; Persaud, A.; Erasmus, R.; Mwakikunga, B.

    2009-01-06

    The interaction between slow highly-charged ions (SHCI) of different charge states from an electron-beam ion trap and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surfaces is studied in terms of modification of electronic states at single-ion impact nanosizeareas. Results are presented from AFM/STM analysis of the induced-surface topological features combined with Raman spectroscopy. I-V characteristics for a number of different impact regions were measured with STM and the results argue for possible formation of diamond-like nanoscale structures at the impact sites.

  19. 'Exotic' material is like a switch when super thin > Archived News Stories

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    > The Energy Materials Center at Cornell 'Exotic' material is like a switch when super thin April 17th, 2014 › By Anne Ju Hanfei Wei An artist's rendering of the thickness-driven, metal-insulator transition in sub-nanometer films of a lanthanum nickelate. Nickel atoms are shown in gold, oxygen atoms in white, and lanthanum atoms in red, and metallicity is achieved in going from two to three atomic layers. Ever-shrinking electronic devices could get down to atomic dimensions with the

  20. McMillan-Rowell Like Oscillations in a Superconductor-InAs/GaSb-Superconductor Junction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xiaoyan; Yu, Wenlong; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Klem, John F.; Pan, Wei

    2015-08-04

    We fabricated a superconductor (Ta)-InAs/GaSb bilayer-superconductor (Ta) junction device that has a long mean free path and can preserve the wavelike properties of particles (electrons and holes) inside the junction. Differential conductance measurements were also carried out at low temperatures in this device, and McMillan-Rowell like oscillations (MROs) were observed. A much larger Fermi velocity, compared to that from Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations, was obtained from the frequency of MROs. Possible mechanisms are discussed for this discrepancy.

  1. Non-statistically populated autoionizing levels of Li-like carbon: Hidden-crossings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deveney, E.F.; Krause, H.F.; Jones, N.L.

    1995-12-31

    The intensities of the Auger-electron lines from autoionizing (AI) states of Li-like (1s2s2l) configurations excited in ion-atom collisions vary as functions of the collision parameters such as, for example, the collision velocity. A statistical population of the three-electron levels is at best incomplete and underscores the intricate dynamical development of the electronic states. The authors compare several experimental studies to calculations using ``hidden-crossing`` techniques to explore some of the details of these Auger-electron intensity variation phenomena. The investigations show promising results suggesting that Auger-electron intensity variations can be used to probe collision dynamics.

  2. Southwestern piñon forests likely to disappear by end of century

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STEM skills Community Connections: Your link to news and opportunities from Los Alamos National Laboratory Latest Issue: September 1, 2016 all issues All Issues » submit Southwestern piñon forests likely to disappear by end of century Conifers throughout much of Northern Hemisphere possibly on similar path February 1, 2016 PBS NewsHour reporter Miles O'Brien (l) and Los Alamos scientist Nate McDowell discuss how climate change is killing trees. PBS NewsHour reporter Miles O'Brien (l) and Los

  3. Panel 2 - properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blau, P.J.; Clausing, R.E.; Ajayi, O.O.; Liu, Y.Y.; Purohit, A.; Bartelt, P.F.; Baughman, R.H.; Bhushan, B.; Cooper, C.V.; Dugger, M.T.; Freedman, A.; Larsen-Basse, J.; McGuire, N.R.; Messier, R.F.; Noble, G.L.; Ostrowki, M.H.; Sartwell, B.D.; Wei, R.

    1993-01-01

    This panel attempted to identify and prioritize research and development needs in determining the physical, mechanical and chemical properties of diamond and diamond-like-carbon films (D/DLCF). Three specific goals were established. They were: (1) To identify problem areas which produce concern and require a better knowledge of D/DLCF properties. (2) To identify and prioritize key properties of D/DLCF to promote transportation applications. (3) To identify needs for improvement in properties-measurement methods. Each of these goals is addressed subsequently.

  4. Zeolite-like metalorganic frameworks (ZMOFs): Design, synthesis, and properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Sava, Dorina F.; Eubank, Jarrod F.; Adil, Karim; Guillerm, Vincent

    2015-10-24

    This study highlights various design and synthesis approaches toward the construction of ZMOFs, which are metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) with topologies and, in some cases, features akin to traditional inorganic zeolites. The interest in this unique subset of MOFs is correlated with their exceptional characteristics arising from the periodic pore systems and distinctive cage-like cavities, in conjunction with modular intra- and/or extra-framework components, which ultimately allow for tailoring of the pore size, pore shape, and properties towards specific applications.

  5. Multicolor Luminescence from Conjugates of Genetically Encoded Elastin-like Polymers and Terpyridine-Lanthanides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ghosh, Koushik; Balog, Eva Rose M.; Kahn, Jennifer L.; Shepherd, Douglas P.; Martinez, Jennifer S.; Rocha, Reginaldo C.

    2015-08-20

    Functional hybrid materials with optically active metal-ligand moieties embedded within a polymer matrix have a great potential in (bio)materials science, including applications in light-emitting diode devices. Here, we report a simple strategy to incorporate terpyridine derivatives into the side chains of elastin-like polymers (ELPs). The further binding of trivalent lanthanide ions with the terpyridine ligands generated an array of photoluminescence ranging from the visible to the near-infrared regions. Lastly, as thin films, these ELP-based optical materials also exhibited distinct morphologies that depend upon the temperature of the aqueous solutions from which the hybrid polymers were spin coated or drop cast.

  6. LysM receptor-like kinases to improve plant defense response against fungal pathogens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wan, Jinrong; Stacey, Gary; Stacey, Minviluz; Zhang, Xuecheng

    2012-01-17

    Perception of chitin fragments (chitooligosaccharides) is an important first step in plant defense response against fungal pathogen. LysM receptor-like kinases (LysM RLKs) are instrumental in this perception process. LysM RLKs also play a role in activating transcription of chitin-responsive genes (CRGs) in plants. Mutations in the LysM kinase receptor genes or the downstream CRGs may affect the fungal susceptibility of a plant. Mutations in LysM RLKs or transgenes carrying the same may be beneficial in imparting resistance against fungal pathogens.

  7. Resonant-like behaviour during edge-localised mode cycles in the Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webster, A. J.; Morris, J.; Todd, T. N.; Coad, P.; Brezinsek, S.; Likonen, J.; Rubel, M.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2015-08-15

    A unique sequence of 120 almost identical plasmas in the Joint European Torus (JET) recently provided two orders of magnitude more statistically equivalent data than ever previously available. The purpose was to study movement of eroded plasma-facing material from JET's new Beryllium wall, but it has allowed the statistical detection of otherwise unobservable phenomenon. This includes a sequence of resonant-like waiting times between edge-localised plasma instabilities (ELMs), instabilities that must be mitigated or avoided in large magnetically confined plasmas such as those planned for ITER. Here, we investigate the cause of this phenomenon, using the unprecedented quantity of data to produce a detailed picture of the plasma's behaviour. After combining the data, oscillations are clearly observable in the plasma's vertical position, in edge losses of ions, and in Beryllium II (527 nm) light emissions. The oscillations are unexpected, are not obvious in data from a single pulse alone, and are all clearly correlated with each other. They are likely to be caused by a small vertical oscillation that the plasma control system is not reacting to prevent, but a more complex explanation is possible. The clearly observable but unexpected link between small changes in the plasma's position and changes to edge-plasma transport and stability suggest that these characteristics cannot always be studied in isolation. It also suggests new opportunities for ELM mitigation and control that may exist.

  8. Ferroelectric-like response from the surface of SrTiO₃ crystals at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jyotsna, Shubhra; Arora, Ashima; Sekhon, Jagmeet S.; Sheet, Goutam

    2014-09-14

    Since SrTiO₃ has a high dielectric constant, it is used as a substrate for a large number of complex physical systems for electrical characterization. Since SrTiO₃ crystals are known to be non-ferroelectric/non-piezoelectric at room temperature and above, SrTiO₃ has been believed to be a good choice as a substrate/base material for PFM (Piezoresponse Force Microscopy) on novel systems at room temperature. In this paper, from PFM-like measurement using an atomic force microscope on bare crystals of (110) SrTiO₃ we show that ferroelectric and piezoelectric-like response may originate from bare SrTiO₃ at remarkably high temperatures up to 420 K. Electrical domain writing and erasing are also possible using a scanning probe tip on the surface of SrTiO₃ crystals. This observation indicates that the role of the electrical response of SrTiO₃ needs to be revisited in the systems where signature of ferroelectricity/piezoelectricity has been previously observed with SrTiO₃ as a substrate/base material.

  9. Feynman-like rules for calculating n-point correlators of the primordial curvature perturbation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valenzuela-Toledo, Csar A.; Rodrguez, Yeinzon; Almeida, Juan P. Beltrn E-mail: yeinzon.rodriguez@uan.edu.co

    2011-10-01

    A diagrammatic approach to calculate n-point correlators of the primordial curvature perturbation ? was developed a few years ago following the spirit of the Feynman rules in Quantum Field Theory. The methodology is very useful and time-saving, as it is for the case of the Feynman rules in the particle physics context, but, unfortunately, is not very well known by the cosmology community. In the present work, we extend such an approach in order to include not only scalar field perturbations as the generators of ?, but also vector field perturbations. The purpose is twofold: first, we would like the diagrammatic approach (which we would call the Feynman-like rules) to become widespread among the cosmology community; second, we intend to give an easy tool to formulate any correlator of ? for those cases that involve vector field perturbations and that, therefore, may generate prolonged stages of anisotropic expansion and/or important levels of statistical anisotropy. Indeed, the usual way of formulating such correlators, using the Wick's theorem, may become very clutter and time-consuming.

  10. Stochastic differentiation into an osteoclast lineage from cloned macrophage-like cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Murata, Akihiko; Okuyama, Kazuki; Shimoda, Yuhki; Hikosaka, Mari; Yasuda, Hisataka; Yoshino, Miya

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The frequency of C7 differentiation into osteoclast was low and constant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only extended C7 cell cultures exponentially increased osteoclast+ cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C7 cell differentiation into committed osteoclast precursors is on 'autopilot'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may maintain the stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. -- Abstract: Differentiation into osteoclasts is induced by a macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand. The macrophage-like cell line, C7 has the potential to differentiate into osteoclasts when it is cultured with both factors for 6 days. Although C7 is an established cell line, the frequency of differentiation into this lineage was less than 10%, and the ratio was maintained at a constant level, even after repeated cloning. In this study, to increase the differentiation of C7 cells to osteoclasts, C7 derivative treatments with several activators and/or inhibitors were performed for 3 days prior to setting osteoclast induction analysis; however, a reagent to significantly up-regulate the frequency of differentiation was not found. Only extended cultures for osteoclastogenesis exponentially increased the frequency of osteoclast precursors. It is likely that C7 cell differentiation into committed osteoclast precursors is on 'autopilot' rather than requiring specific signals to drive this process.

  11. Strain-engineered band parameters of graphene-like SiC monolayer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Behera, Harihar; Mukhopadhyay, Gautam

    2014-10-06

    Using full-potential density functional theory (DFT) calculations we show that the band gap and effective masses of charge carriers in SiC monolayer (ML-SiC) in graphene-like two-dimensional honeycomb structure are tunable by strain engineering. ML-SiC was found to preserve its flat 2D graphene-like structure under compressive strain up to 7%. A transition from indirect-to-direct gap-phase is predicted to occur for a strain value lying within the interval (1.11 %, 1.76%). In both gap-phases band gap decreases with increasing strain, although the rate of decrease is different in the two gap-phases. Effective mass of electrons show a non-linearly decreasing trend with increasing tensile strain in the direct gap-phase. The strain-sensitive properties of ML-SiC, may find applications in future strain-sensors, nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS) and nano-optomechanical systems (NOMS) and other nano-devices.

  12. Methods for estimating wake flow and effluent dispersion near simple block-like buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hosker, R.P. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    This report is intended as an interim guide for those who routinely face air quality problems associated with near-building exhaust stack placement and height, and the resulting concentration patterns. Available data and methods for estimating wake flow and effluent dispersion near isolated block-like structures are consolidated. The near-building and wake flows are described, and quantitative estimates for frontal eddy size, height and extent of roof and wake cavities, and far wake behavior are provided. Concentration calculation methods for upwind, near-building, and downwind pollutant sources are given. For an upwind source, it is possible to estimate the required stack height, and to place upper limits on the likely near-building concentration. The influences of near-building source location and characteristics relative to the building geometry and orientation are considered. Methods to estimate effective stack height, upper limits for concentration due to flush roof vents, and the effect of changes in rooftop stack height are summarized. Current wake and wake cavity models are presented. Numerous graphs of important expressions have been prepared to facilitate computations and quick estimates of flow patterns and concentration levels for specific simple buildings. Detailed recommendations for additional work are given.

  13. Dissipative soliton-like plasmon-polariton pulses in extended medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zabolotskii, A. A.

    2012-05-15

    The propagation of the coupled state of the electron density perturbation in an extended metallic medium and the excitation of a two-level resonant medium are analyzed. The one- and two-photon transitions in the resonant medium are considered. The electron density perturbation is described using the hydrodynamic approximation. The formation of plasmon-polariton pulses is analyzed in the case when losses in the extended medium are compensated for by the pumping of the two-level dielectric medium. Numerical analysis carried out for the two models revealed that the losses in a soliton-like pulse in a thin metallic medium can be compensated for due to the energy transfer from the amplifying medium to electron density waves. It is shown that the dispersion of a medium containing a two-level component may considerably affect the characteristics of the pulses. The possibility of effectively controlling the evolution of soliton-like pulses by varying an external electromagnetic field and the characteristics of the matrix is demonstrated.

  14. The hydrophobic effect in a simple isotropic water-like model: Monte Carlo study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huš, Matej; Urbic, Tomaz

    2014-04-14

    Using Monte Carlo computer simulations, we show that a simple isotropic water-like model with two characteristic lengths can reproduce the hydrophobic effect and the solvation properties of small and large non-polar solutes. Influence of temperature, pressure, and solute size on the thermodynamic properties of apolar solute solvation in a water model was systematically studied, showing two different solvation regimes. Small particles can fit into the cavities around the solvent particles, inducing additional order in the system and lowering the overall entropy. Large particles force the solvent to disrupt their network, increasing the entropy of the system. At low temperatures, the ordering effect of small solutes is very pronounced. Above the cross-over temperature, which strongly depends on the solute size, the entropy change becomes strictly positive. Pressure dependence was also investigated, showing a “cross-over pressure” where the entropy and enthalpy of solvation are the lowest. These results suggest two fundamentally different solvation mechanisms, as observed experimentally in water and computationally in various water-like models.

  15. Thermal conductivity of high performance carbon nanotube yarn-like fibers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayhew, Eric; Prakash, Vikas

    2014-05-07

    In the present paper, we present results of thermal conductivity measurements in free standing carbon nanotube (CNT) yarn-like fibers. The measurements are made using a T-type experimental configuration utilizing a Wollaston-wire hot probe inside a scanning electron microscope. In this technique, a suspended platinum wire is used both as a heater and a thermal sensor. A low frequency alternating current source is used to heat the probe wire while the third harmonic voltage across the wire is measured by a lock-in amplifier. The conductivity is deduced from an analytical model that relates the drop in the spatially averaged temperature of the wire to that of the sample. The average thermal conductivity of the neat CNT fibers and the CNT polymer composite fibers is found to be 448?W/m-K and 225?W/m-K, respectively. These values for conductivity are amongst the highest measured for CNT yarn-like fibers fabricated using a dry spinning process from vertically aligned CNT arrays. The enhancement in thermal conductivity is understood to be due to an increase in the CNT fiber elastic stiffness during the draw and twist operations, lower CNT thermal contact resistance due to increase in CNT contact area, and better alignment of the CNT fibrils along the length of the fiber.

  16. Notch-modifying xylosyltransferase structures support an SNi-like retaining mechanism

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Hongjun; Li, Huilin; Takeuchi, Megumi; LeBarron, Jamie; Kantharia, Joshua; London, Erwin; Bakker, Hans; Haltiwanger, Robert S.; Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2015-09-28

    A major question remaining in glycobiology is how a glycosyltransferase (GT) that retains the anomeric linkage of a sugar catalyzes the reaction. Xyloside α-1,3-xylosyltransferase (XXYLT1) is a retaining GT that regulates Notch receptor activation by adding xylose to the Notch extracellular domain. Here, using natural acceptor and donor substrates and active Mus musculus XXYLT1, we report a series of crystallographic snapshots along the reaction, including an unprecedented natural and competent Michaelis reaction complex for retaining enzymes. These structures strongly support the SNi-like reaction as the retaining mechanism for XXYLT1. Unexpectedly, the epidermal growth factor–like repeat acceptor substrate undergoes a largemore » conformational change upon binding to the active site, providing a structural basis for substrate specificity. As a result, our improved understanding of this retaining enzyme will accelerate the design of retaining GT inhibitors that can modulate Notch activity in pathological situations in which Notch dysregulation is known to cause cancer or developmental disorders.« less

  17. Notch-modifying xylosyltransferase structures support an SNi-like retaining mechanism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Hongjun; Li, Huilin; Takeuchi, Megumi; LeBarron, Jamie; Kantharia, Joshua; London, Erwin; Bakker, Hans; Haltiwanger, Robert S.; Takeuchi, Hideyuki

    2015-09-28

    A major question remaining in glycobiology is how a glycosyltransferase (GT) that retains the anomeric linkage of a sugar catalyzes the reaction. Xyloside α-1,3-xylosyltransferase (XXYLT1) is a retaining GT that regulates Notch receptor activation by adding xylose to the Notch extracellular domain. Here, using natural acceptor and donor substrates and active Mus musculus XXYLT1, we report a series of crystallographic snapshots along the reaction, including an unprecedented natural and competent Michaelis reaction complex for retaining enzymes. These structures strongly support the SNi-like reaction as the retaining mechanism for XXYLT1. Unexpectedly, the epidermal growth factor–like repeat acceptor substrate undergoes a large conformational change upon binding to the active site, providing a structural basis for substrate specificity. As a result, our improved understanding of this retaining enzyme will accelerate the design of retaining GT inhibitors that can modulate Notch activity in pathological situations in which Notch dysregulation is known to cause cancer or developmental disorders.

  18. Workshop on diamond and diamond-like-carbon films for the transportation industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, F.A.; Moores, D.K.

    1993-01-01

    Applications exist in advanced transportation systems as well as in manufacturing processes that would benefit from superior tribological properties of diamond, diamond-like-carbon and cubic boron nitride coatings. Their superior hardness make them ideal candidates as protective coatings to reduce adhesive, abrasive and erosive wear in advanced diesel engines, gas turbines and spark-ignited engines and in machining and manufacturing tools as well. The high thermal conductivity of diamond also makes it desirable for thermal management not only in tribological applications but also in high-power electronic devices and possibly large braking systems. A workshop has been recently held at Argonne National Laboratory entitled ``Diamond and Diamond-Like-Carbon Films for Transportation Applications`` which was attended by 85 scientists and engineers including top people involved in the basic technology of these films and also representatives from many US industrial companies. A working group on applications endorsed 18 different applications for these films in the transportation area alone. Separate abstracts have been prepared.

  19. Like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry in the Randall-Sundrum model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Datta, Alakabha; Duraisamy, Murugeswaran; Khalil, Shaaban

    2011-05-01

    We confirm that in order to account for the recent D0 result of large like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry, a considerable large new physics effect in {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s} is required in addition to a large CP violating phase in B{sub s}-B{sub s} mixing. In the Randall-Sundrum model of warped geometry, where the fermion fields reside in the bulk, new sources of flavor and CP violation are obtained. We analyze the like-sign dimuon asymmetry in this class of model as an example of the desired new physics. We show that the wrong-charge asymmetry, a{sub sl}{sup s}, which is related to the dimuon asymmetry, is significantly altered compared to the standard model value. However, experimental limits from {Delta}M{sub s}, {Delta}{Gamma}{sub s} as well as K mixing and electroweak corrections constrain it to be greater than a {sigma} away from its experimental average value. This model cannot fully account for the D0 anomaly due to its inability to generate a sufficient new contribution to the width difference {Gamma}{sub 12}{sup s}, even though the model can generate large contribution to the mass difference M{sub 12}{sup s}.

  20. Nissan Showcases the Results of an Energy-Wise Corporate Culture

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to improve their technologies, operations, and processes. ... productive energy management program that has yielded reduction in energy usage even as the production scheduling has ...

  1. Nissan Showcases the Results of an Energy-Wise Corporate Culture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-06-11

    The corporate leadership at Nissan cultivates a culture of energy efficiency, encouraging employees to practice good energy management at work and in every part of their lives. Read about Nissan's energy-conscience culture.

  2. U-115: Novell GroupWise Client Address Book Processing Buffer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    is vulnerable to an exploit where a malformed address book could cause heap memory corruption, which could lead to remote code execution under the privilege of the user that...

  3. Thermochemical plots using JCZS2i piece-wise curve fits.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, David L.; Schoof, Justin C.; Hobbs, Michael L.

    2013-10-01

    This report presents plots of specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy for 1439 species in the JCZS2i database. Included in this set of species are 496 condensed-phase species and 943 gas-phase species. The gas phase species contain 80 anions and 112 cations for a total of 192 ions. The JCZS2i database is used in conjunction with the TIGER thermochemical code to predict thermodynamic states from ambient conditions to high temperatures and pressures. Predictions from the TIGER code using the JCZS2i database can be used in shock physics codes where temperatures may be as high as 20,000 K and ions may be present. Such high temperatures were not considered in the original JCZS database, and extrapolations made for these temperatures were unrealistic. For example, specific heat would sometimes go negative at high temperatures which fails the definition of specific heat. The JCZS2i database is a new version of the JCZS database that is being created to address these inaccuracies. The purpose of the current report is to visualize the high temperature extrapolations to insure that the specific heat, enthalpy, entropy, and Gibbs free energy predictions are reasonable up to 20,000 K.

  4. Secretary Chu to Attend Inaugural GridWise Global Forum | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    WHEN: Thursday, September 23, 2010 12:30 PM EDT *** Press Availability to follow*** WHERE: Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center 1300 Pennsylvannia Avenue, NW ...

  5. Volume-wise destruction of the antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state through quantum tuning

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    B. A. Frandsen; Liu, L.; Cheung, S. C.; Guguchia, Z.; Khasanov, R.; Morenzoni, E.; Munsie, T. J.S.; Hallas, A. M.; Wilson, M. N.; Cai, Y.; et al

    2016-08-17

    RENiO3 (RE=rare-earth element) and V2O3 are archetypal Mott insulator systems. When tuned by chemical substitution (RENiO3) or pressure (V2O3), they exhibit a quantum phase transition (QPT) between an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating state and a paramagnetic metallic state. Because novel physics often appears near a Mott QPT, the details of this transition, such as whether it is first or second order, are important. Here, we demonstrate through muon spin relaxation/rotation (μSR) experiments that the QPT in RENiO3 and V2O3 is first order: the magnetically ordered volume fraction decreases to zero at the QPT, resulting in a broad region of intrinsic phasemore » separation, while the ordered magnetic moment retains its full value until it is suddenly destroyed at the QPT. These findings bring to light a surprising universality of the pressure-driven Mott transition, revealing the importance of phase separation and calling for further investigation into the nature of quantum fluctuations underlying the transition.« less

  6. Pacific Northwest GridWise Testbed Demonstration Projects; Part I. Olympic Peninsula Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Ambrosio, Ron; Carlon, Teresa A.; DeSteese, John G.; Horst, Gale R.; Kajfasz, Robert; Kiesling, Laura L.; Michie, Preston; Pratt, Robert G.; Yao, Mark; Brous, Jerry; Chassin, David P.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Jarvegren, Olof M.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Le, N. T.; Oliver, Terry V.; Thompson, Sandra E.

    2008-01-09

    This report describes the implementation and results of a field demonstration wherein residential electric water heaters and thermostats, commercial building space conditioning, municipal water pump loads, and several distributed generators were coordinated to manage constrained feeder electrical distribution through the two-way communication of load status and electric price signals. The field demonstration took place in Washington and Oregon and was paid for by the U.S. Department of Energy and several northwest utilities. Price is found to be an effective control signal for managing transmission or distribution congestion. Real-time signals at 5-minute intervals are shown to shift controlled load in time. The behaviors of customers and their responses under fixed, time-of-use, and real-time price contracts are compared. Peak loads are effectively reduced on the experimental feeder. A novel application of portfolio theory is applied to the selection of an optimal mix of customer contract types.

  7. Rural Alaska Community ACtion Program, Inc.'s Energy Wise Program

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Jolene John, Community Development Manager (907) 865-7358, jjohn@ruralcap.com GOALS * Reduce residential energy consumption - Behavior change - Low-cost home upgrades * Create jobs ...

  8. Town of Carrboro- Worthwhile Investments Save Energy (WISE) Homes and Buildings Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Town of Carrboro is providing loans to Carrboro businesses and non-profits with fewer than 50 employees to increase their energy efficiency. The current interest rate is 3% and the maximum loan...

  9. U-115: Novell GroupWise Client Address Book Processing Buffer Overflow Vulnerability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The vulnerability is caused due to an error when processing Novell Address Book (".nab") files and can be exploited to cause a heap-based buffer overflow via an overly long email address.

  10. Town of Chapel Hill- Worthwhile Investments Save Energy (WISE) Homes and Buildings Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Chapel Hill is using money made available to it from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 to help subsidize energy efficiency improvements in Chapel Hill homes. Qualified homeowners...

  11. Comparative analysis of INTOR-like designs: Status and preliminary results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flanagan, C.A.; Galambos, J.D.; Peng, P.K.M.; Reid, R.L.; Strickler, D.J.

    1987-07-01

    This document provides an interim status report on the INTOR tasks related to the critical analysis of INTOR-like designs. At the INTOR Workshop in December 1986, and updated at the INTOR related Specialists' Meeting in March 1987, a series of comparative analysis studies was established. Initial results were targeted for completion for the July INTOR meeting and final results completed for the November INTOR meeting. The goal of the analytic comparisons is to evaluate and determine the specific impact of how different choices affect the design. The results of such an analytic determination should allow the international community to identify and agree upon which aspects of choice have what influence on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design.

  12. On classical and quantum dynamics of tachyon-like fields and their cosmological implications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrijević, Dragoljub D. Djordjević, Goran S. Milošević, Milan; Vulcanov, Dumitru

    2014-11-24

    We consider a class of tachyon-like potentials, motivated by string theory, D-brane dynamics and inflation theory in the context of classical and quantum mechanics. A formalism for describing dynamics of tachyon fields in spatially homogenous and one-dimensional - classical and quantum mechanical limit is proposed. A few models with concrete potentials are considered. Additionally, possibilities for p-adic and adelic generalization of these models are discussed. Classical actions and corresponding quantum propagators, in the Feynman path integral approach, are calculated in a form invariant on a change of the background number fields, i.e. on both archimedean and nonarchimedean spaces. Looking for a quantum origin of inflation, relevance of p-adic and adelic generalizations are briefly discussed.

  13. Measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry with 9 fb? of pp? collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; Aoki, M.; Arov, M.; Askew, A.; sman, B.; Atramentov, O.; Avila, C.; BackusMayes, J.; Badaud, F.; Bagby, L.; Baldin, B.; Bandurin, D. V.; Banerjee, S.; Barberis, E.; Baringer, P.; Barreto, J.; Bartlett, J. F.; Bassler, U.; Bazterra, V.; Beale, S.; Bean, A.; Begalli, M.; Begel, M.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bellantoni, L.; Beri, S. B.; Bernardi, G.; Bernhard, R.; Bertram, I.; Besanon, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Bezzubov, V. A.; Bhat, P. C.; Bhatnagar, V.; Blazey, G.; Blessing, S.; Bloom, K.; Boehnlein, A.; Boline, D.; Boos, E. E.; Borissov, G.; Bose, T.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, O.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Bross, A.; Brown, D.; Brown, J.; Bu, X. B.; Buehler, M.; Buescher, V.; Bunichev, V.; Burdin, S.; Burnett, T. H.; Buszello, C. P.; Calpas, B.; Camacho-Prez, E.; Carrasco-Lizarraga, M. A.; Casey, B. C. K.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; Chakrabarti, S.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, K. M.; Chandra, A.; Chen, G.; Chevalier-Thry, S.; Cho, D. K.; Cho, S. W.; Choi, S.; Choudhary, B.; Cihangir, S.; Claes, D.; Clutter, J.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, W. E.; Corcoran, M.; Couderc, F.; Cousinou, M.-C.; Croc, A.; Cutts, D.; Das, A.; Davies, G.; De, K.; de Jong, S. J.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Dliot, F.; Demarteau, M.; Demina, R.; Denisov, D.; Denisov, S. P.; Desai, S.; Deterre, C.; DeVaughan, K.; Diehl, H. T.; Diesburg, M.; Ding, P. F.; Dominguez, A.; Dorland, T.; Dubey, A.; Dudko, L. V.; Duggan, D.; Duperrin, A.; Dutt, S.; Dyshkant, A.; Eads, M.; Edmunds, D.; Ellison, J.; Elvira, V. D.; Enari, Y.; Evans, H.; Evdokimov, A.; Evdokimov, V. N.; Facini, G.; Ferbel, T.; Fiedler, F.; Filthaut, F.; Fisher, W.; Fisk, H. E.; Fortner, M.; Fox, H.; Fuess, S.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Gavrilov, V.; Gay, P.; Geng, W.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gerber, C. E.; Gershtein, Y.; Ginther, G.; Golovanov, G.; Goussiou, A.; Grannis, P. D.; Greder, S.; Greenlee, H.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregores, E. M.; Grenier, G.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohsjean, A.; Grnendahl, S.; Grnewald, M. W.; Guillemin, T.; Guo, F.; Gutierrez, G.; Gutierrez, P.; Haas, A.; Hagopian, S.; Haley, J.; Han, L.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hauptman, J. M.; Hays, J.; Head, T.; Hebbeker, T.; Hedin, D.; Hegab, H.; Heinson, A. P.; Heintz, U.; Hensel, C.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Herner, K.; Hesketh, G.; Hildreth, M. D.; Hirosky, R.; Hoang, T.; Hobbs, J. D.; Hoeneisen, B.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hubacek, Z.; Huske, N.; Hynek, V.; Iashvili, I.; Ilchenko, Y.; Illingworth, R.; Ito, A. S.; Jabeen, S.; Jaffr, M.; Jamin, D.; Jayasinghe, A.; Jesik, R.; Johns, K.; Johnson, M.; Johnston, D.; Jonckheere, A.; Jonsson, P.; Joshi, J.; Jung, A. W.; Juste, A.; Kaadze, K.; Kajfasz, E.; Karmanov, D.; Kasper, P. A.; Katsanos, I.; Kehoe, R.; Kermiche, S.; Khalatyan, N.; Khanov, A.; Kharchilava, A.; Kharzheev, Y. N.; Kirby, M. H.; Kohli, J. M.; Kozelov, A. V.; Kraus, J.; Kulikov, S.; Kumar, A.; Kupco, A.; Kur?a, T.; Kuzmin, V. A.; Kvita, J.; Lammers, S.; Landsberg, G.; Lebrun, P.; Lee, H. S.; Lee, S. W.; Lee, W. M.; Lellouch, J.; Li, L.; Li, Q. Z.; Lietti, S. M.; Lim, J. K.; Lincoln, D.; Linnemann, J.; Lipaev, V. V.; Lipton, R.; Liu, Y.; Liu, Z.; Lobodenko, A.; Lokajicek, M.; Lopes de Sa, R.; Lubatti, H. J.; Luna-Garcia, R.; Lyon, A. L.; Maciel, A. K. A.; Mackin, D.; Madar, R.; Magaa-Villalba, R.; Malik, S.; Malyshev, V. L.; Maravin, Y.; Martnez-Ortega, J.; McCarthy, R.; McGivern, C. L.; Meijer, M. M.; Melnitchouk, A.; Menezes, D.; Mercadante, P. G.; Merkin, M.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, J.; Miconi, F.; Mondal, N. K.; Muanza, G. S.; Mulhearn, M.; Nagy, E.; Naimuddin, M.; Narain, M.; Nayyar, R.; Neal, H. A.; Negret, J. P.; Neustroev, P.; Novaes, S. F.; Nunnemann, T.; Obrant, G.; Orduna, J.; Osman, N.; Osta, J.; Otero y Garzn, G. J.; Padilla, M.; Pal, A.; Parashar, N.; Parihar, V.; Park, S. K.; Parsons, J.; Partridge, R.; Parua, N.; Patwa, A.; Penning, B.; Perfilov, M.; Peters, K.; Peters, Y.; Petridis, K.; Petrillo, G.; Ptroff, P.; Piegaia, R.; Pleier, M.-A.; Podesta-Lerma, P. L. M.; Podstavkov, V. M.; Polozov, P.; Popov, A. V.; Prewitt, M.; Price, D.; Prokopenko, N.; Protopopescu, S.; Qian, J.; Quadt, A.; Quinn, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Ranjan, K.; Ratoff, P. N.; Razumov, I.; Renkel, P.; Rijssenbeek, M.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Rizatdinova, F.; Rominsky, M.; Ross, A.; Royon, C.; Rubinov, P.; Ruchti, R.; Safronov, G.; Sajot, G.; Salcido, P.; Snchez-Hernndez, A.; Sanders, M. P.; Sanghi, B.; Santos, A. S.; Savage, G.; Sawyer, L.; Scanlon, T.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scheglov, Y.; Schellman, H.; Schliephake, T.; Schlobohm, S.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwienhorst, R.; Sekaric, J.; Severini, H.; Shabalina, E.; Shary, V.; Shchukin, A. A.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Simak, V.; Sirotenko, V.; Skubic, P.; Slattery, P.; Smirnov, D.; Smith, K. J.

    2011-09-16

    We present an updated measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry Absl for semileptonic b-hadron decays in 9.0 fb? of pp? collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of ?s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain Absl=(-0.7870.172(stat)0.093(syst))%. This result differs by 3.9 standard deviations from the prediction of the standard model and provides evidence for anomalously large CP violation in semileptonic neutral B decay. The dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.

  14. Axion-Like Particle Imprint in Cosmological Very-High-Energy Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dominguez, A.; Sanchez-Conde, M.A.; Prada, F.; /IAA, Granada

    2012-06-13

    Discoveries of very high energy (VHE) photons from distant blazars suggest that, after correction by extragalactic background light (EBL) absorption, there is a flatness or even a turn-up in their spectra at the highest energies that cannot be easily explained by the standard framework. Here, it is shown that a possible solution to this problem is achieved by assuming the existence of axion-like particles (ALPs) with masses {approx} 1 neV. The ALP scenario is tested making use of observations of the highest redshift blazars known in the VHE energy regime, namely 3C 279, 3C 66A, PKS 1222+216 and PG 1553+113. In all cases, better fits to the observed spectra are found when including ALPs rather than considering EBL only. Interestingly, quite similar critical energies for photon/ALP conversions are also derived, independently of the source considered.

  15. Aggresome-like structure induced by isothiocyanates is novel proteasome-dependent degradation machinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mi, Lixin; Gan, Nanqin; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2009-10-16

    Unwanted or misfolded proteins are either refolded by chaperones or degraded by the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When UPS is impaired, misfolded proteins form aggregates, which are transported along microtubules by motor protein dynein towards the juxta-nuclear microtubule-organizing center to form aggresome, a single cellular garbage disposal complex. Because aggresome formation results from proteasome failure, aggresome components are degraded through the autophagy/lysosome pathway. Here we report that small molecule isothiocyanates (ITCs) can induce formation of aggresome-like structure (ALS) through covalent modification of cytoplasmic {alpha}- and {beta}-tubulin. The formation of ALS is related to neither proteasome inhibition nor oxidative stress. ITC-induced ALS is a proteasome-dependent assembly for emergent removal of misfolded proteins, suggesting that the cell may have a previously unknown strategy to cope with misfolded proteins.

  16. Quantum confinement effect in cheese like silicon nano structure fabricated by metal induced etching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxena, Shailendra K. Sahu, Gayatri; Sagdeo, Pankaj R.; Kumar, Rajesh

    2015-08-28

    Quantum confinement effect has been studied in cheese like silicon nano-structures (Ch-SiNS) fabricated by metal induced chemical etching using different etching times. Scanning electron microscopy is used for the morphological study of these Ch-SiNS. A visible photoluminescence (PL) emission is observed from the samples under UV excitation at room temperature due to quantum confinement effect. The average size of Silicon Nanostructures (SiNS) present in the samples has been estimated by bond polarizability model using Raman Spectroscopy from the red-shift observed from SiNSs as compared to its bulk counterpart. The sizes of SiNS present in the samples decreases as etching time increase from 45 to 75 mintunes.

  17. An interpolation between the wave and diffusion equations through the fractional evolution equations Dirac like

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierantozzi, T.; Vazquez, L.

    2005-11-01

    Through fractional calculus and following the method used by Dirac to obtain his well-known equation from the Klein-Gordon equation, we analyze a possible interpolation between the Dirac and the diffusion equations in one space dimension. We study the transition between the hyperbolic and parabolic behaviors by means of the generalization of the D'Alembert formula for the classical wave equation and the invariance under space and time inversions of the interpolating fractional evolution equations Dirac like. Such invariance depends on the values of the fractional index and is related to the nonlocal property of the time fractional differential operator. For this system of fractional evolution equations, we also find an associated conserved quantity analogous to the Hamiltonian for the classical Dirac case.

  18. Simplified models for Higgs physics: singlet scalar and vector-like quark phenomenology

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dolan, Matthew J.; Hewett, J. L.; Krämer, M.; Rizzo, T. G.

    2016-07-08

    Simplified models provide a useful tool to conduct the search and exploration of physics beyond the Standard Model in a model-independent fashion. In this study, we consider the complementarity of indirect searches for new physics in Higgs couplings and distributions with direct searches for new particles, using a simplified model which includes a new singlet scalar resonance and vector-like fermions that can mix with the SM top-quark. We fit this model to the combined ATLAS and CMS 125 GeV Higgs production and coupling measurements and other precision electroweak constraints, and explore in detail the effects of the new matter contentmore » upon Higgs production and kinematics. Finally, we highlight some novel features and decay modes of the top partner phenomenology, and discuss prospects for Run II.« less

  19. Metastable primordial germ cell-like state induced from mouse embryonic stem cells by Akt activation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamano, Noriko; Kimura, Tohru; Watanabe-Kushima, Shoko; Shinohara, Takashi; Nakano, Toru; Department of Pathology, Medical School, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871

    2010-02-12

    Specification to primordial germ cells (PGCs) is mediated by mesoderm-induction signals during gastrulation. We found that Akt activation during in vitro mesodermal differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) generated self-renewing spheres with differentiation states between those of ESCs and PGCs. Essential regulators for PGC specification and their downstream germ cell-specific genes were expressed in the spheres, indicating that the sphere cells had commenced differentiation to the germ lineage. However, the spheres did not proceed to spermatogenesis after transplantation into testes. Sphere cell transfer to the original feeder-free ESC cultures resulted in chaotic differentiation. In contrast, when the spheres were cultured on mouse embryonic fibroblasts or in the presence of ERK-cascade and GSK3 inhibitors, reversion to the ESC-like state was observed. These results indicate that Akt signaling promotes a novel metastable and pluripotent state that is intermediate to those of ESCs and PGCs.

  20. Mixtures of ions and amphiphilic molecules in slit-like pores: A density functional approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pizio, O.; Rżysko, W. Sokołowski, S.; Sokołowska, Z.

    2015-04-28

    We investigate microscopic structure and thermodynamic properties of a mixture that contains amphiphilic molecules and charged hard spheres confined in slit-like pores with uncharged hard walls. The model and the density functional approach are the same as described in details in our previous work [Pizio et al., J. Chem. Phys. 140, 174706 (2014)]. Our principal focus is in exploring the effects brought by the presence of ions on the structure of confined amphiphilic particles. We have found that for some cases of anisotropic interactions, the change of the structure of confined fluids occurs via the first-order transitions. Moreover, if anions and cations are attracted by different hemispheres of amphiphiles, a charge at the walls appears at the zero value of the wall electrostatic potential. For a given thermodynamic state, this charge is an oscillating function of the pore width.

  1. A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benkovitz, Carmen; Bernholc, Nicole; Cohen, Anita; Eng, Susan; Enriquez-Leder, Rosario; Franz, Barbara; Gorden, Patricia; Hanson, Louise; Lamble, Geraldine; Martin, Harriet; Mastrangelo, Iris; McLane, Victoria; Villela, Maria-Alicia; Vivirito, Katherine; Woodhead, Avril

    1991-01-01

    This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

  2. A woman like you: Women scientists and engineers at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Careers in action

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    This publication by the women in Science and Engineering introduces career possibilities in science and engineering. It introduces what work and home life are like for women who have already entered these fields. Women at Brookhaven National Laboratory work in a variety of challenging research roles -- from biologist and environmental scientist to safety engineer, from patent lawyer to technician. Brookhaven National Laboratory is a multi-program laboratory which carries out basic and applied research in the physical, biomedical and environmental sciences and in selected energy technologies. The Laboratory is managed by Associated University, Inc., under contract with the US Department of Energy. Brookhaven and the other national laboratories, because of their enormous research resources, can play a critical role in a education and training of the workforce.

  3. SCIENCE PARAMETRICS FOR MISSIONS TO SEARCH FOR EARTH-LIKE EXOPLANETS BY DIRECT IMAGING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Robert A.

    2015-01-20

    We use N{sub t} , the number of exoplanets observed in time t, as a science metric to study direct-search missions like Terrestrial Planet Finder. In our model, N has 27 parameters, divided into three categories: 2 astronomical, 7 instrumental, and 18 science-operational. For various ''27-vectors'' of those parameters chosen to explore parameter space, we compute design reference missions to estimate N{sub t} . Our treatment includes the recovery of completeness c after a search observation, for revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, observational overhead, and follow-on spectroscopy. Our baseline 27-vector has aperture D = 16 m, inner working angle IWA = 0.039'', mission time t = 0-5 yr, occurrence probability for Earth-like exoplanets η = 0.2, and typical values for the remaining 23 parameters. For the baseline case, a typical five-year design reference mission has an input catalog of ∼4700 stars with nonzero completeness, ∼1300 unique stars observed in ∼2600 observations, of which ∼1300 are revisits, and it produces N {sub 1} ∼ 50 exoplanets after one year and N {sub 5} ∼ 130 after five years. We explore offsets from the baseline for 10 parameters. We find that N depends strongly on IWA and only weakly on D. It also depends only weakly on zodiacal light for Z < 50 zodis, end-to-end efficiency for h > 0.2, and scattered starlight for ζ < 10{sup –10}. We find that observational overheads, completeness recovery and revisits, solar and antisolar avoidance, and follow-on spectroscopy are all important factors in estimating N.

  4. A Godunov-like point-centered essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; Charest, Marc R.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Wohlbier, John G.

    2014-10-28

    We present an essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedron meshes. The scheme reduces to a purely Lagrangian approach when the flow is linear or if the mesh size is equal to zero; as a result, we use the term essentially Lagrangian for the proposed approach. The motivation for developing a hydrodynamic method for tetrahedron meshes is because tetrahedron meshes have some advantages over other mesh topologies. Notable advantages include reduced complexity in generating conformal meshes, reduced complexity in mesh reconnection, and preserving tetrahedron cells with automatic mesh refinement. A challenge, however, is tetrahedron meshes do not correctly deform with a lower order (i.e. piecewise constant) staggered-grid hydrodynamic scheme (SGH) or with a cell-centered hydrodynamic (CCH) scheme. The SGH and CCH approaches calculate the strain via the tetrahedron, which can cause artificial stiffness on large deformation problems. To resolve the stiffness problem, we adopt the point-centered hydrodynamic approach (PCH) and calculate the evolution of the flow via an integration path around the node. The PCH approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the node. The evolution equations for momentum and total energy are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is introduced at the center of the tetrahedron to account for discontinuities in the flow such as a shock. Conservation is enforced at each tetrahedron center. The multidimensional Riemann-like problem used here is based on Lagrangian CCH work [8, 19, 37, 38, 44] and recent Lagrangian SGH work [33-35, 39, 45]. In addition, an approximate 1D Riemann problem is solved on each face of the nodal control volume to advect mass, momentum, and total energy. The 1D Riemann problem produces fluxes [18] that remove a volume error in the PCH

  5. A Godunov-like point-centered essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic approach

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Morgan, Nathaniel R.; Waltz, Jacob I.; Burton, Donald E.; Charest, Marc R.; Canfield, Thomas R.; Wohlbier, John G.

    2014-10-28

    We present an essentially Lagrangian hydrodynamic scheme suitable for modeling complex compressible flows on tetrahedron meshes. The scheme reduces to a purely Lagrangian approach when the flow is linear or if the mesh size is equal to zero; as a result, we use the term essentially Lagrangian for the proposed approach. The motivation for developing a hydrodynamic method for tetrahedron meshes is because tetrahedron meshes have some advantages over other mesh topologies. Notable advantages include reduced complexity in generating conformal meshes, reduced complexity in mesh reconnection, and preserving tetrahedron cells with automatic mesh refinement. A challenge, however, is tetrahedron meshesmore » do not correctly deform with a lower order (i.e. piecewise constant) staggered-grid hydrodynamic scheme (SGH) or with a cell-centered hydrodynamic (CCH) scheme. The SGH and CCH approaches calculate the strain via the tetrahedron, which can cause artificial stiffness on large deformation problems. To resolve the stiffness problem, we adopt the point-centered hydrodynamic approach (PCH) and calculate the evolution of the flow via an integration path around the node. The PCH approach stores the conserved variables (mass, momentum, and total energy) at the node. The evolution equations for momentum and total energy are discretized using an edge-based finite element (FE) approach with linear basis functions. A multidirectional Riemann-like problem is introduced at the center of the tetrahedron to account for discontinuities in the flow such as a shock. Conservation is enforced at each tetrahedron center. The multidimensional Riemann-like problem used here is based on Lagrangian CCH work [8, 19, 37, 38, 44] and recent Lagrangian SGH work [33-35, 39, 45]. In addition, an approximate 1D Riemann problem is solved on each face of the nodal control volume to advect mass, momentum, and total energy. The 1D Riemann problem produces fluxes [18] that remove a volume error in the PCH

  6. Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Solution-Derived Bi(ZnTi)O3 - BaTiO3 Thin Films with Bulk-like Permittivity. Abstract not provided. Authors: Meyer, Kelsey Elizabeth ; Kotula, Paul Gabriel ; Brennecka, ...

  7. Evidence for graphite-like hexagonal AlN nanosheets epitaxially grown on single crystal Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsipas, P.; Kassavetis, S.; Tsoutsou, D.; Xenogiannopoulou, E.; Golias, E.; Giamini, S. A.; Dimoulas, A.; Grazianetti, C.; Fanciulli, M.; Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universit degli Studi di Milano Bicocca, I-20126, Milano ; Chiappe, D.; Molle, A.

    2013-12-16

    Ultrathin (sub-monolayer to 12 monolayers) AlN nanosheets are grown epitaxially by plasma assisted molecular beam epitaxy on Ag(111) single crystals. Electron diffraction and scanning tunneling microscopy provide evidence that AlN on Ag adopts a graphite-like hexagonal structure with a larger lattice constant compared to bulk-like wurtzite AlN. This claim is further supported by ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy indicating a reduced energy bandgap as expected for hexagonal AlN.

  8. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; et al

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile ismore » consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.« less

  9. Crystal structure of enterococcus faecalis sly A-like transcriptional factor.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, R.; Zhang, R.; Zagnitko, O.; Dementieva, I.; Maltsev, N.; Watson, J. D.; Laskowski, R.; Gornicki, P.; Joachimiak, A.; Univ. of Chicago; European Bioinformatics Inst.

    2003-05-30

    The crystal structure of a SlyA transcriptional regulator at 1.6 {angstrom} resolution is presented, and structural relationships between members of the MarR/SlyA family are discussed. The SlyA family, which includes SlyA, Rap, Hor, and RovA proteins, is widely distributed in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Current evidence suggests that SlyA-like factors act as repressors, activators, and modulators of gene transcription. These proteins have been shown to up-regulate the expression of molecular chaperones, acid-resistance proteins, and cytolysin, and down-regulate several biosynthetic enzymes. The structure of SlyA from Enterococcus faecalis, determined as a part of an ongoing structural genomics initiative (www.mcsg.anl.gov), revealed the same winged helix DNA-binding motif that was recently found in the MarR repressor from Escherichia coli and the MexR repressor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a sequence homologue of MarR. Phylogenetic analysis of the MarR/SlyA family suggests that Sly is placed between the SlyA and MarR subfamilies and shows significant sequence similarity to members of both subfamilies.

  10. The influence of an ITER-like wall on disruptions at JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vries, P. C. de Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Baruzzo, M.; Murari, A.; Jachmich, S.; Lomas, P. J.; Matthews, G. F.; Pütterich, T.; Vega, J.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2014-05-15

    In order to preserve the integrity of large tokamaks such as ITER, the number of disruptions has to be limited. JET has operated previously with a low frequency of disruptions (i.e., disruption rate) of 3.4% [P. C. de Vries et al., Nucl. Fusion 51, 053018 (2011)]. The start of operations with the new full-metal ITER-like wall at JET showed a marked rise in the disruption rate to 10%. A full survey was carried out to identify the root causes, the chain-of-events and classifying each disruption, similar to a previous analysis for carbon-wall operations. It showed the improvements made to avoid various disruption classes, but also indicated those disruption types responsible for the enhanced disruption rate. The latter can be mainly attributed to disruptions due to too high core radiation but also due to density control issues and error field locked modes. Detailed technical and physics understanding of disruption causes is essential for devising optimized strategies to avoid or mitigate these events.

  11. A squalene synthase-like enzyme initiates production of tetraterpenoid hydrocarbons in Botryococcus braunii Race L

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Thapa, Hem R.; Naik, Mandar T.; Okada, Shigeru; Takada, Kentaro; Molnar, Istvan; Xu, Yuquan; Devarenne, Timothy P.

    2016-04-06

    Here, the green microalga Botryococcus braunii is considered a promising biofuel feedstock producer due to its prodigious accumulation of hydrocarbon oils that can be converted into fuels. B. braunii Race L produces the C40 tetraterpenoid hydrocarbon lycopadiene via an uncharacterized biosynthetic pathway. Structural similarities suggest this pathway follows a biosynthetic mechanism analogous to that of C30 squalene. Confirming this hypothesis, the current study identifies C20 geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP) as a precursor for lycopaoctaene biosynthesis, the first committed intermediate in the production of lycopadiene. Two squalene synthase (SS)-like complementary DNAs are identified in race L with one encoding a true SSmore » and the other encoding an enzyme with lycopaoctaene synthase (LOS) activity. Interestingly, LOS uses alternative C15 and C20 prenyl diphosphate substrates to produce combinatorial hybrid hydrocarbons, but almost exclusively uses GGPP in vivo. In conclusion, this discovery highlights how SS enzyme diversification results in the production of specialized tetraterpenoid oils in race L of B. braunii.« less

  12. Preparations and characterizations of novel graphite-like materials and some high oxidation state fluorine chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shen, Ciping

    1992-11-01

    Novel graphite-like materials, BC{sub x} (6>x{ge}3), have been prepared using BCl{sub 3} and C{sub 6}H{sub 6} at 800--1000C, and C{sub x}N (14>x{ge}5) have been synthesized using C{sub 5}H{sub 5}N and Cl{sub 2} at 680C--986C. Bulk and thin film characterization were used to study the structure and bonding in these solids. C{sub 8}K(NH{sub 3}){sub 1.1} was prepared by reacting C{sub 8}K with gaseous NH{sub 3}. The carbon sub-lattice is hexagonal: a = 2.47 {Angstrom}, c = 6.47 {Angstrom}. The smaller a parameter and lower conductivity are attributed to smaller electron transfer from K to the conduction band solvation of K by NH{sub 3}. A simplified liquid phase method for synthesizing Li-graphite intercalation compounds has been developed; synthesis of a lamellar mixed conductor, C{sub x}{sup +}Li{sub 2}N{sup {minus}}, has been attempted. Stability and conductivity of (BN){sub 3}SO{sub 3}F have been studied; it was shown to be metallic with a specific conductivity of 1.5 S{center_dot}cm{sup {minus}1}. Its low conductivity is attributed to the low mobility of holes in BN sheets.

  13. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ? Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ? Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ?40 km s{sup 1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ?200 km s{sup 1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup 1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup 1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ? Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ? Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  14. Method for loading lipid like vesicles with drugs of other chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehlhorn, Rolf Joachim

    1998-01-01

    A method for accumulating drugs or other chemicals within synthetic, lipid-like vesicles by means of a pH gradient imposed on the vesicles just prior to use is described. The method is suited for accumulating molecules with basic or acid moieties which are permeable to the vesicles membranes in their uncharged form and for molecules that contain charge moieties that are hydrophobic ions and can therefore cross the vesicle membranes in their charged form. The method is advantageous over prior art methods for encapsulating biologically active materials within vesicles in that is achieves very high degrees of loading with simple procedures that are economical and require little technical expertise, furthermore kits which can be stored for prolonged periods prior to use without impairment of the capacity to achieve drug accumulation are described. A related application of the method consists of using this technology to detoxify animals that have been exposed to poisons with basic, weak acid or hydrophobic charge groups within their molecular structures.

  15. Method for loading lipid like vesicles with drugs of other chemicals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mehlhorn, R.J.

    1998-06-09

    A method for accumulating drugs or other chemicals within synthetic, lipid-like vesicles by means of a pH gradient imposed on the vesicles just prior to use is described. The method is suited for accumulating molecules with basic or acid moieties which are permeable to the vesicles membranes in their uncharged form and for molecules that contain charge moieties that are hydrophobic ions and can therefore cross the vesicle membranes in their charged form. The method is advantageous over prior art methods for encapsulating biologically active materials within vesicles in that is achieves very high degrees of loading with simple procedures that are economical and require little technical expertise, furthermore kits which can be stored for prolonged periods prior to use without impairment of the capacity to achieve drug accumulation are described. A related application of the method consists of using this technology to detoxify animals that have been exposed to poisons with basic, weak acid or hydrophobic charge groups within their molecular structures. 2 figs.

  16. The hydrogen-bond network of water supports propagating optical phonon-like modes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Elton, Daniel C.; Fernández-Serra, Marivi

    2016-01-04

    The local structure of liquid water as a function of temperature is a source of intense research. This structure is intimately linked to the dynamics of water molecules, which can be measured using Raman and infrared spectroscopies. The assignment of spectral peaks depends on whether they are collective modes or single-molecule motions. Vibrational modes in liquids are usually considered to be associated to the motions of single molecules or small clusters. Using molecular dynamics simulations, here we find dispersive optical phonon-like modes in the librational and OH-stretching bands. We argue that on subpicosecond time scales these modes propagate through water’smore » hydrogen-bond network over distances of up to 2 nm. In the long wavelength limit these optical modes exhibit longitudinal–transverse splitting, indicating the presence of coherent long-range dipole–dipole interactions, as in ice. Lastly, our results indicate the dynamics of liquid water have more similarities to ice than previously thought.« less

  17. Expression of lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 in smooth muscle cells after vascular injury

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eto, Hideyuki; Miyata, Masaaki . E-mail: miyatam@m3.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp; Kume, Noriaki; Minami, Manabu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Orihara, Koji; Hamasaki, Shuichi; Biro, Sadatoshi; Otsuji, Yutaka; Kita, Toru; Tei, Chuwa

    2006-03-10

    Lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) is an oxidized LDL receptor, and its role in restenosis after angioplasty remains unknown. We used a balloon-injury model of rabbit aorta, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that LOX-1 mRNA expression was modest in the non-injured aorta, reached a peak level 2 days after injury, and remained elevated until 24 weeks after injury. Immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization showed that LOX-1 was not detected in the media of non-injured aorta but expressed in both medial and neointimal smooth muscle cells (SMC) at 2 and 24 weeks after injury. Low concentrations of ox-LDL (10 {mu}g/mL) stimulated the cultured SMC proliferation, which was inhibited by antisense oligonucleotides of LOX-1 mRNA. Double immunofluorescense staining showed the colocalization of LOX-1 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen in human restenotic lesion. These results suggest that LOX-1 mediates ox-LDL-induced SMC proliferation and plays a role in neointimal formation after vascular injury.

  18. Closed-cage (fullerene-like) structures of NiBr{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bar-Sadan, M.; Popovitz-Biro, R.; Prior, Yehiam; Tenne, R. . E-mail: reshef.tenne@weizmann.ac.il

    2006-11-09

    It is well accepted by now that nanoparticles of inorganic layered compounds form closed-cage structures (IF). In particular closed-cage nanoparticles of metal dihalides, like NiCl{sub 2}, CdCl{sub 2} and CdI{sub 2} were shown to produce such structures in the past. In the present report IF-NiBr{sub 2} polyhedra and quasi-spherical structures were obtained by the evaporation/recrystallization technique as well as by laser ablation. When the nanoclusters were formed in humid atmosphere, nickel perbromate hydrate [Ni(BrO{sub 4}){sub 2}(H{sub 2}O){sub 6}] polyhedra and short tubules were produced, as a result of a reaction with water. Nanooctahedra of NiBr{sub 2} were found occasionally in the irradiated soot. The reoccurrence of this structure in the IF family suggests that it is a generic one. Consistent with previous observations, this study showed that formation of the IF materials stabilized the material under the electron-beam irradiation. The growth mechanism of these nanostructures is briefly discussed.

  19. THE MASS-DEPENDENCE OF ANGULAR MOMENTUM EVOLUTION IN SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matt, Sean P.; Baraffe, Isabelle; Chabrier, Gilles; Brun, A. Sacha

    2015-02-01

    To better understand the observed distributions of the rotation rate and magnetic activity of Sun-like and low-mass stars, we derive a physically motivated scaling for the dependence of the stellar wind torque on the Rossby number. The torque also contains an empirically derived scaling with stellar mass (and radius), which provides new insight into the mass-dependence of stellar magnetic and wind properties. We demonstrate that this new formulation explains why the lowest mass stars are observed to maintain rapid rotation for much longer than solar-mass stars, and simultaneously why older populations exhibit a sequence of slowly rotating stars, in which the low-mass stars rotate more slowly than solar-mass stars. The model also reproduces some previously unexplained features in the period-mass diagram for the Kepler field, notably: the particular shape of the ''upper envelope'' of the distribution, suggesting that ∼95% of Kepler field stars with measured rotation periods are younger than ∼4 Gyr; and the shape of the ''lower envelope'', corresponding to the location where stars transition between magnetically saturated and unsaturated regimes.

  20. Extended space expectation values of position related operators for hydrogen-like quantum system evolutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalay, Berfin; Demiralp, Metin

    2014-10-06

    The expectation value definitions over an extended space from the considered Hilbert space of the system under consideration is given in another paper of the second author in this symposium. There, in that paper, the conceptuality rather than specification is emphasized on. This work uses that conceptuality to investigate the time evolutions of the position related operators' expectation values not in its standard meaning but rather in a new version of the definition over not the original Hilbert space but in the space obtained by extensions via introducing the images of the given initial wave packet under the positive integer powers of the system Hamiltonian. These images may not be residing in the same space of the initial wave packet when certain singularities appear in the structure of the system Hamiltonian. This may break down the existence of the integrals in the definitions of the expectation values. The cure is the use of basis functions in the abovementioned extended space and the sandwiching of the target operator whose expectation value is under questioning by an appropriately chosen operator guaranteeing the existence of the relevant integrals. Work specifically focuses on the hydrogen-like quantum systems whose Hamiltonians contain a polar singularity at the origin.

  1. Advanced Characterization of Molecular Interactions in TALSPEAK-like Separations Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nash, Kenneth; Guelis, Artem; Lumetta, Gregg J.; Sinkov, Sergey

    2015-10-21

    Combining unit operations in advanced aqueous reprocessing schemes brings obvious process compactness advantages, but at the same time greater complexity in process design and operation. Unraveling these interactions requires increasingly sophisticated analytical tools and unique approaches for adequate analysis and characterization that probe molecular scale interactions. Conventional slope analysis methods of solvent extraction are too indirect to provide much insight into such interactions. This project proposed the development and verification of several analytical tools based on studies of TALSPEAK-like aqueous processes. As such, the chemistry of trivalent fission product lanthanides, americium, curium, plutonium, neptunium and uranium figure prominently in these studies. As the project was executed, the primary focus fell upon the chemistry or trivalent lanthanides and actinides. The intent of the investigation was to compare and contrast the results from these various complementary techniques/studies to provide a stronger basis for predicting the performance of extractant/diluent mixtures as media for metal ion separations. As many/most of these techniques require the presence of metal ions at elevated concentrations, it was expected that these studies would take this investigation into the realm of patterns of supramolecular organization of metal complexes and extractants in concentrated aqueous/organic media. We expected to advance knowledge of the processes that enable and limit solvent extraction reactions as a result of the application of fundamental chemical principles to explaining interactions in complex media.

  2. Measurement of adiabatic burning velocity in natural gas-like mixtures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ratna Kishore, V.; Duhan, Nipun; Ravi, M.R.; Ray, Anjan

    2008-10-15

    Experimental measurements of the adiabatic burning velocities were carried out for natural gas-like mixtures burning in air over a range of equivalence ratios at atmospheric pressure. Effect of CO{sub 2} dilution up to 60%, N{sub 2} dilution up to 40% and 25% enrichment of ethane on burning velocity of methane-air flames were studied. Heat flux method with setup similar to that of [K.J. Bosschaart, L.P.H. de Goey, Detailed analysis of the heat flux method for measuring burning velocity, Combustion and Flame 132 (2003) 170-180] was used for measurement of burning velocities. Initially experiments were done for methane-air and ethane-air mixtures at various equivalence ratios and the results were in good agreement with published data in the literature. Computations were performed using PREMIX code with GRI 3.0 reaction mechanism for all the mixtures. Predicted flame structures were used to the explain the effect of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} dilution on burning velocity of methane-air flames. Peak burning velocity for CH{sub 4}/CO{sub 2}-air mixtures occur near to {phi} = 1.0. (author)

  3. Peptide affinity labels for thrombin and other trypsin-like proteases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, E.N.; Kettner, C.A.

    1982-03-09

    A peptide affinity label is disclosed of the formula (I): as given in the patent wherein X is a radical capable of acting as a leaving group in a nucleophilic substitution reaction; A is an aromatic amino acid residue; B is H, or a C[sub 1]--C[sub 4] alkyl group, or aryl; Y is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aroyl, C[sub 1]--C[sub 6] acyl, and Q--(A)--[sub n], wherein Q = hydrogen, aroyl, or C[sub 1]--C[sub 6] acyl, n = 1--10, A is an amino acid residue selected from the aliphatic, hydroxy-containing, carboxylic acid group, and amide-thereofcontaining, aromatic, sulfur-containing and imino-containing amino acids; and wherein J is selected from the group consisting of --CH[sub 2]--, --CH[sub 2]--CH[sub 2]--, --CH[sub 2]--CH[sub 2]--CH[sub 2]--, --CH[double bond]CH-- and --CH(OH)--CH[sub 2]. The affinity label is useful for irreversibly inactivating thrombin and trypsin-like enzymes and may be used as a potential anticlotting agent. 2 figs.

  4. Magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles with diluted magnet-like behavior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garza-Navarro, Marco; Gonzalez, Virgilio; Ortiz, Ubaldo; De la Rosa, Elder

    2010-01-15

    In the present work is reported the use of the biopolymer chitosan as template for the preparation of magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems, following a two step procedure of magnetite nanoparticles in situ precipitation and subsequent silver ions reduction. The crystalline and morphological characteristics of both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems were analyzed by high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nanobeam diffraction patterns (NBD). The results of these studies corroborate the core/shell morphology and the crystalline structure of the magnetite core and the silver shell. Moreover, magnetization temperature dependent, M(T), measurements show an unusual diluted magnetic behavior attributed to the dilution of the magnetic ordering in the magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles systems. - Graphical abstract: Biopolymer chitosan was used as stabilization media to synthesize both magnetite and magnetite/silver core/shell nanoparticles. Results of HRTEM and NBD patterns confirm core/shell morphology of the obtained nanoparticles. It was found that the composites show diluted magnet-like behavior.

  5. WHERE DOES FLUID-LIKE TURBULENCE BREAK DOWN IN THE SOLAR WIND?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perri, S.; Carbone, V.; Veltri, P.

    2010-12-10

    Power spectra of the magnetic field in solar wind display a Kolmogorov law f {sup -5/3} at intermediate range of frequencies f, say within the inertial range. Two spectral breaks are also observed: one separating the inertial range from an f {sup -1} spectrum at lower frequencies, and another one between the inertial range and an f {sup -7/3} spectrum at higher frequencies. The breaking of fluid-like turbulence at high frequencies has been attributed to either the occurrence of kinetic Alfven wave fluctuations above the ion-cyclotron frequency or to whistler turbulence above the frequency corresponding to the proton gyroradius. Using solar wind data, we show that the observed high-frequency spectral break seems to be independent of the distance from the Sun, and then of both the ion-cyclotron frequency and the proton gyroradius. We suppose that the observed high-frequency break could be either caused by a combination of different physical processes or associated with a remnant signature of coronal turbulence.

  6. Leaf-like nanotips synthesized on femtosecond laser-irradiated dielectric material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiani, Amirkianoosh; Patel, Nikunj B.; Tan, Bo; Venkatakrishnan, Krishnan

    2015-02-21

    Nanotips are the key nanostructures for the improvement of field emission, flat panel displays, force microscopy, and biosensor applications. We propose a single-step, rapid synthesis method to generate nanotips using femtosecond laser irradiation at megahertz frequency with a background flow of nitrogen gas at ambient conditions. Two different types of leaf-like nanotips can be grown on the target surface: randomly oriented multiple tips growing from a single large droplet and single tips growing from small droplets. In this report, we explain the mechanism accountable for the formation of such nanotips using known concepts of laser breakdown of dielectric materials, plasma plume generation, plasma interactions with incoming laser pulses and surrounding gas, as well as known thermal properties of target material. Nitrogen gas plays an interesting role for the resultant structural changes on the target surface and thus it is given special attention in our discussion. Our unique fabrication technique has enabled us to produce tips with nanoscale apexes with a stem and length ranging from few hundred nanometers to few micrometers.

  7. BPS-like bound and thermodynamics of the charged BTZ black hole

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cadoni, Mariano; Monni, Cristina

    2009-07-15

    The charged Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black hole is plagued by several pathologies: (a) Divergent boundary terms are present in the action; hence, we have a divergent black-hole mass. (b) Once a finite, renormalized, mass M is defined, black-hole states exist for arbitrarily negative values of M. (c) There is no upper bound on the charge Q. We show that these pathological features are an artifact of the renormalization procedure. They can be completely removed by using an alternative renormalization scheme leading to a different definition M{sub 0} of the black-hole mass, which is the total energy inside the horizon. The new mass satisfies a BPS-like bound M{sub 0}{>=}({pi}/2)Q{sup 2}, and the heat capacity of the hole is positive. We also discuss the black-hole thermodynamics that arises when M{sub 0} is interpreted as the internal energy of the system. We show, using three independent approaches (black-hole thermodynamics, Einstein equations, and Euclidean action formulation), that M{sub 0} satisfies the first law if a term describing the mechanical work done by the electrostatic pressure is introduced.

  8. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, Veerabhadra R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  9. Peptide affinity labels for thrombin and other trypsin-like proteases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shaw, Elliott N.; Kettner, Charles A.

    1982-03-09

    A peptide affinity label of the formula (I): ##STR1## wherein X is a radical capable of acting as a leaving group in a nucleophilic substitution reaction; A is an aromatic amino acid residue; B is H, or a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 alkyl group, or aryl; Y is selected from the group consisting of hydrogen, aroyl, C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 acyl, and Q--(A)--.sub.n, wherein Q=hydrogen, aroyl, or C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 acyl, n=1-10, A is an amino acid residue selected from the aliphatic, hydroxy-containing, carboxylic acid group, and amide-thereof-containing, aromatic, sulfur-containing and imino-containing amino acids; and wherein J is selected from the group consisting of --CH.sub.2 --, --CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --,--CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --CH.sub.2 --, --CH.dbd.CH-- and --CH(OH)--CH.sub.2. The affinity label is useful for irreversibly inactivating thrombin and trypsin-like enzymes and may be used as a potential anticlotting agent.

  10. Shapiro-like resonance in ultracold molecule production via an oscillating magnetic field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu Bin; Fu Libin; Liu Jie

    2010-01-15

    We study the process of the production of ultracold molecules from ultracold atoms using a sinusoidally oscillating magnetic-field modulation. Our study is based on a two-mode mean-field treatment of the problem. When the magnetic field is resonant roughly with the molecular binding energy, Shapiro-like resonances are observed. Their resonance profiles are well fitted by the Lorentzian functions. The linewidths depend on both the amplitude and the duration of the applied modulations and are found to be dramatically broadened by the thermal dephasing effect. The resonance centers shift due to both the many-body effect and the finite temperature effect. Our theory is consistent with a recent experiment [S. T. Thompson, E. Hodby, and C. E. Wieman, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 190404 (2005)]. Our model predicts a 1/3 ceiling for the molecular production yield in uncondensed ultracold atomic clouds for a long coupling time, while for condensed atoms the optimal conversion yield could be beyond the limit.

  11. Cellular response to low dose radiation: Role of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balajee, A.S.; Meador, J.A.; Su, Y.

    2011-03-24

    It is increasingly realized that human exposure either to an acute low dose or multiple chronic low doses of low LET radiation has the potential to cause different types of cancer. Therefore, the central theme of research for DOE and NASA is focused on understanding the molecular mechanisms and pathways responsible for the cellular response to low dose radiation which would not only improve the accuracy of estimating health risks but also help in the development of predictive assays for low dose radiation risks associated with tissue degeneration and cancer. The working hypothesis for this proposal is that the cellular mechanisms in terms of DNA damage signaling, repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation are different for low and high doses of low LET radiation and that the mode of action of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase like kinases (PIKK: ATM, ATR and DNA-PK) determines the dose dependent cellular responses. The hypothesis will be tested at two levels: (I) Evaluation of the role of ATM, ATR and DNA-PK in cellular response to low and high doses of low LET radiation in simple in vitro human cell systems and (II) Determination of radiation responses in complex cell microenvironments such as human EpiDerm tissue constructs. Cellular responses to low and high doses of low LET radiation will be assessed from the view points of DNA damage signaling, DNA double strand break repair and cell cycle checkpoint regulation by analyzing the activities (i.e. post-translational modifications and kinetics of protein-protein interactions) of the key target proteins for PI-3 kinase like kinases both at the intra-cellular and molecular levels. The proteins chosen for this proposal are placed under three categories: (I) sensors/initiators include ATM ser1981, ATR, 53BP1, gamma-H2AX, MDC1, MRE11, Rad50 and Nbs1; (II) signal transducers include Chk1, Chk2, FANCD2 and SMC1; and (III) effectors include p53, CDC25A and CDC25C. The primary goal of this proposal is to elucidate the

  12. A dynamo model of magnetic activity in solar-like stars with different rotational velocities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Choudhuri, Arnab Rai; Kitchatinov, Leonid L.

    2014-08-10

    We attempt to provide a quantitative theoretical explanation for the observations that Ca II H/K emission and X-ray emission from solar-like stars increase with decreasing Rossby number (i.e., with faster rotation). Assuming that these emissions are caused by magnetic cycles similar to the sunspot cycle, we construct flux transport dynamo models of 1 M{sub ☉} stars rotating with different rotation periods. We first compute the differential rotation and the meridional circulation inside these stars from a mean-field hydrodynamics model. Then these are substituted in our dynamo code to produce periodic solutions. We find that the dimensionless amplitude f{sub m} of the toroidal flux through the star increases with decreasing rotation period. The observational data can be matched if we assume the emissions to go as the power 3-4 of f{sub m}. Assuming that the Babcock-Leighton mechanism saturates with increasing rotation, we can provide an explanation for the observed saturation of emission at low Rossby numbers. The main failure of our model is that it predicts an increase of the magnetic cycle period with increasing rotation rate, which is the opposite of what is found observationally. Much of our calculations are based on the assumption that the magnetic buoyancy makes the magnetic flux tubes rise radially from the bottom of the convection zone. Taking into account the fact that the Coriolis force diverts the magnetic flux tubes to rise parallel to the rotation axis in rapidly rotating stars, the results do not change qualitatively.

  13. Insulin like growth factor 2 regulation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tomblin, Justin K.; Salisbury, Travis B.

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: IGF-2 stimulates concurrent increases in AHR and CCND1 expression. IGF-2 promotes the binding of AHR to the endogenous cyclin D1 promoter. AHR knockdown inhibits IGF-2 stimulated increases in CCND1 mRNA and protein. AHR knockdown inhibits IGF-2 stimulated increases in MCF-7 proliferation. -- Abstract: Insulin like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-2 stimulate normal growth, development and breast cancer cell proliferation. Cyclin D1 (CCND1) promotes cell cycle by inhibiting retinoblastoma protein (RB1). The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a major xenobiotic receptor that also regulates cell cycle. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether IGF-2 promotes MCF-7 breast cancer proliferation by inducing AHR. Western blot and quantitative real time PCR (Q-PCR) analysis revealed that IGF-2 induced an approximately 2-fold increase (P < .001) in the expression of AHR and CCND1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), followed by Q-PCR indicated that IGF-2 promoted (P < .001) a 7-fold increase in AHR binding on the CCND1 promoter. AHR knockdown significantly (P < .001) inhibited IGF-2 stimulated increases in CCND1 mRNA and protein. AHR knockdown cells were less (P < .001) responsive to the proliferative effects of IGF-2 than control cells. Collectively, our findings have revealed a new regulatory mechanism by which IGF-2 induction of AHR promotes the expression of CCND1 and the proliferation of MCF-7 cells. This previously uncharacterized pathway could be important for the proliferation of IGF responsive cancer cells that also express AHR.

  14. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamada, Shin [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Masamune, Atsushi, E-mail: amasamune@med.tohoku.ac.jp [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan); Hamada, Hirofumi [Laboratory of Oncology, Department of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji (Japan)] [Laboratory of Oncology, Department of Life Sciences, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Hachioji (Japan); Kobune, Masayoshi [Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan)] [Fourth Department of Internal Medicine, Sapporo Medical University School of Medicine, Sapporo (Japan); Satoh, Kennichi [Division of Cancer Stem Cell, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan)] [Division of Cancer Stem Cell, Miyagi Cancer Center Research Institute, Natori (Japan); Shimosegawa, Tooru [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)] [Division of Gastroenterology, Tohoku University Graduate School of Medicine, Sendai (Japan)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called 'cancer stem cells', within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the 'stemness' of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  15. When and how does a prominence-like jet gain kinetic energy?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jiajia; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Quanhao; Liu, Kai; Shen, Chenglong; Wang, S.; Wang, Yuming

    2014-02-20

    A jet is a considerable amount of plasma being ejected from the chromosphere or lower corona into the higher corona and is a common phenomenon. Usually, a jet is triggered by a brightening or a flare, which provides the first driving force to push plasma upward. In this process, magnetic reconnection is thought to be the mechanism to convert magnetic energy into thermal, nonthermal, and kinetic energies. However, most jets could reach an unusual high altitude and end much later than the end of its associated flare. This fact implies that there is another way to continuously transfer magnetic energy into kinetic energy even after the reconnection. The picture described above is well known in the community, but how and how much magnetic energy is released through a way other than reconnection is still unclear. By studying a prominence-like jet observed by SDO/AIA and STEREO-A/EUVI, we find that the continuous relaxation of the post-reconnection magnetic field structure is an important process for a jet to climb up higher than it could through only reconnection. The kinetic energy of the jet gained through the relaxation is 1.6 times that gained from the reconnection. The resultant energy flux is hundreds of times larger than the flux required for the local coronal heating, suggesting that such jets are a possible source to keep the corona hot. Furthermore, rotational motions appear all the time during the jet. Our analysis suggests that torsional Alfvn waves induced during reconnection could not be the only mechanism to release magnetic energy and drive jets.

  16. Relationship between the structure and electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takabayashi, Susumu Otsuji, Taiichi; Yang, Meng; Ogawa, Shuichi; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Jeko, Radek; Takakuwa, Yuji

    2014-09-07

    To elucidate the relationship between the structure and the electrical characteristics of diamond-like carbon (DLC) films, DLC films were synthesized in a well-controlled glow discharge with the aid of photoelectrons in an argon/methane atmosphere. The dielectric constant and breakdown strength of the films exhibited opposite behaviors, depending on the total pressure during the synthesis. The product of these two values decreased monotonically as the pressure increased. The Raman spectra were analyzed with a Voigt-type formula. Based on the results, the authors propose the sp{sup 2} cluster model for the DLC structure. This model consists of conductive clusters of sp{sup 2} carbons surrounded by a dielectric matrix sea of sp{sup 2} carbon, sp{sup 3} carbon, and hydrogen, and indicates that the dielectric constant of the whole DLC film is determined by the balance between the dielectric constant of the matrix and the total size of the clusters, while the breakdown strength is determined by the reciprocal of the cluster size. The model suggests that a high-? DLC film can be synthesized at a middle pressure and consists of well-grown sp{sup 2} clusters and a dense matrix. A low-? DLC film can be synthesized both at low and high pressures. The sp{sup 2} cluster model explains that a low-? DLC film synthesized at low pressure consists of a dense matrix and a low density of sp{sup 2} clusters, and exhibits a high breakdown strength. On the other hand, a low-? film synthesized at high pressure consists of a coarse matrix and a high density of clusters and exhibits a low breakdown strength.

  17. Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 promotes skeletal muscle regeneration through satellite cell expansion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, Somik; Yin, Hongshan; Nam, Deokhwa; Li, Yong; Ma, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Circadian clock is an evolutionarily conserved timing mechanism governing diverse biological processes and the skeletal muscle possesses intrinsic functional clocks. Interestingly, although the essential clock transcription activator, Brain and muscle Arnt-like 1 (Bmal1), participates in maintenance of muscle mass, little is known regarding its role in muscle growth and repair. In this report, we investigate the in vivo function of Bmal1 in skeletal muscle regeneration using two muscle injury models. Bmal1 is highly up-regulated by cardiotoxin injury, and its genetic ablation significantly impairs regeneration with markedly suppressed new myofiber formation and attenuated myogenic induction. A similarly defective regenerative response is observed in Bmal1-null mice as compared to wild-type controls upon freeze injury. Lack of satellite cell expansion accounts for the regeneration defect, as Bmal1{sup −/−} mice display significantly lower satellite cell number with nearly abolished induction of the satellite cell marker, Pax7. Furthermore, satellite cell-derived primary myoblasts devoid of Bmal1 display reduced growth and proliferation ex vivo. Collectively, our results demonstrate, for the first time, that Bmal1 is an integral component of the pro-myogenic response that is required for muscle repair. This mechanism may underlie its role in preserving adult muscle mass and could be targeted therapeutically to prevent muscle-wasting diseases. - Highlights: • Bmal1 is highly inducible by muscle injury and myogenic stimuli. • Genetic ablation of Bmal1 significantly impairs muscle regeneration. • Bmal1 promotes satellite cell expansion during muscle regeneration. • Bmal1-deficient primary myoblasts display attenuated growth and proliferation.

  18. The effects of refraction on transit transmission spectroscopy: application to Earth-like exoplanets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, Amit; Meadows, Victoria; Crisp, Dave

    2014-09-01

    We quantify the effects of refraction in transit transmission spectroscopy on spectral absorption features and on temporal variations that could be used to obtain altitude-dependent spectra for planets orbiting stars of different stellar types. We validate our model against altitude-dependent transmission spectra of the Earth from ATMOS and against lunar eclipse spectra from Pallé et al. We perform detectability studies to show the potential effects of refraction on hypothetical observations of Earth analogs with the James Webb Space Telescope NIRSPEC. Due to refraction, there will be a maximum tangent pressure level that can be probed during transit for each given planet-star system. We show that because of refraction, for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of a Sun-like star only the top 0.3 bars of the atmosphere can be probed, leading to a decrease in the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of absorption features by 60%, while for an Earth-analog planet orbiting in the habitable zone of an M5V star it is possible to probe almost the entire atmosphere with minimal decreases in S/N. We also show that refraction can result in temporal variations in the transit transmission spectrum which may provide a way to obtain altitude-dependent spectra of exoplanet atmospheres. Additionally, the variations prior to ingress and subsequent to egress provide a way to probe pressures greater than the maximum tangent pressure that can be probed during transit. Therefore, probing the maximum range of atmospheric altitudes, and in particular the near-surface environment of an Earth-analog exoplanet, will require looking at out-of-transit refracted light in addition to the in-transit spectrum.

  19. Ultrathin Li3VO4 Nanoribbon/Graphene Sandwich-Like Nanostructures with Ultrahigh Lithium ion Storage Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Pei-Jun; Liu, Jun N.; Liang, Shuquan; Liu, Jun; Wang, W. J.; Lei, Ming; Tang, Shasha; Yang, Qian

    2015-03-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) "graphene-like" inorganic materials, because of the short lithium ion diffusion path and unique 2D carrier pathways, become a new research focus of the lithium storages. Some "graphene-like" binary compounds, such as, MnO2, MoS2 and VO2 ultrathin nanosheets, have been synthesized by a peeling method, which also exhibit enhanced lithium storage performances. However, it still remains a great challenge to synthesize widely-used lithium-containing ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures, because the lithium-containing ternary oxides, unlike ternary layered double hydroxides (LDH), are very hard to be directly peeled. Herein, we successfully synthesized ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbons with a thickness of about 3 nm by transformation from ultrathin V2O5•xH2O nanoribbons, moreover, we achieved the preparation of ultrathin Li3VO4 nanoribbon@graphene sandwich-like nanostructures (LVO/G) through a layer-by-layer assembly method. The unique sandwich-like nanostructures shows not only a high specific reversible capacitance (up to 452.5 mA h•g-1 after 200 cycles) but also an excellent cycling performance (with more than 299.2 mA h•g-1 of the capacity at 10 C after 1000 cycles) as well as very high rate capability. Such template strategy, using "graphene-like" binary inorganic nanosheets as templates to synthesize lithium-containing ternary oxide nanosheets, may be extended to prepare other ternary oxides with "graphene-like" nanostructures

  20. Circuit model of the ITER-like antenna for JET and simulation of its control algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durodié, Frédéric Křivská, Alena; Helou, Walid; Collaboration: EUROfusion Consortium

    2015-12-10

    The ITER-like Antenna (ILA) for JET [1] is a 2 toroidal by 2 poloidal array of Resonant Double Loops (RDL) featuring in-vessel matching capacitors feeding RF current straps in conjugate-T manner, a low impedance quarter-wave impedance transformer, a service stub allowing hydraulic actuator and water cooling services to reach the aforementioned capacitors and a 2nd stage phase-shifter-stub matching circuit allowing to correct/choose the conjugate-T working impedance. Toroidally adjacent RDLs are fed from a 3dB hybrid splitter. It has been operated at 33, 42 and 47MHz on plasma (2008-2009) while it presently estimated frequency range is from 29 to 49MHz. At the time of the design (2001-2004) as well as the experiments the circuit models of the ILA were quite basic. The ILA front face and strap array Topica model was relatively crude and failed to correctly represent the poloidal central septum, Faraday Screen attachment as well as the segmented antenna central septum limiter. The ILA matching capacitors, T-junction, Vacuum Transmission Line (VTL) and Service Stubs were represented by lumped circuit elements and simple transmission line models. The assessment of the ILA results carried out to decide on the repair of the ILA identified that achieving routine full array operation requires a better understanding of the RF circuit, a feedback control algorithm for the 2nd stage matching as well as tighter calibrations of RF measurements. The paper presents the progress in modelling of the ILA comprising a more detailed Topica model of the front face for various plasma Scrape Off Layer profiles, a comprehensive HFSS model of the matching capacitors including internal bellows and electrode cylinders, 3D-EM models of the VTL including vacuum ceramic window, Service stub, a transmission line model of the 2nd stage matching circuit and main transmission lines including the 3dB hybrid splitters. A time evolving simulation using the improved circuit model allowed to design and

  1. Hydrothermal synthesis of coral-like Au/ZnO catalyst and photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, P.K.; Lee, G.J.; Davies, S.H.; Masten, S.J.; Amutha, R.; Wu, J.J.

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ? Coral-like Au/ZnO was successfully prepared using green synthetic method. ? Gold nanoparticles were deposited on the ZnO structure using NaBH{sub 4} and ?-D-glucose. ? Coral-like Au/ZnO exhibited superior photocatalytic activity to degrade Orange II. - Abstract: A porous coral-like zinc oxide (c-ZnO) photocatalyst was synthesized by the hydrothermal method. The coral-like structure was obtained by precipitating Zn{sub 4}(CO{sub 3})(OH){sub 6}H{sub 2}O (ZnCH), which forms nanosheets that aggregate together to form microspheres with the coral-like structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies indicate that after heating at 550 C the ZnCH microspheres can be converted to ZnO microspheres with a morphology similar to that of ZnCH microspheres. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows this conversion takes place at approximately 260 C. A simple electrostatic self-assembly method has been employed to uniformly disperse Au nanoparticles (1 wt.%) on the ZnO surface. In this procedure ?-D-glucose was used to stabilize the Au nanoparticles. Scanning electron microscope images indicate that the diameter of coral-like ZnO microspheres (c-ZnO) is about 8 ?m. X-ray diffraction reveals that the ZnO is highly crystalline with a wurtzite structure and the Au metallic particles have an average size of about 13 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic (XPS) studies have confirmed the presence of ZnO and also showed that the Au is present in the metallic state. The photocatalytic degradation of Orange II dye, with either ultraviolet or visible light, is faster on Au/c-ZnO than on c-ZnO.

  2. Diamond/diamond-like thin film growth in a butane plasma on unetched, unheated, N-type Si(100) substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, E.S.; Richardson, J.S. Jr.; Anderson, D.; Starkey, K.

    1995-06-01

    Deposition of diamond/diamond-like thin films on unetched, unheated, n-type Si(100) substrates in a butane plasma is reported. An interconnection between values of index of refraction, hydrogen flow rate, butane flow rate and Rf power was determined. The H{sub 2} and C{sub 4}H{sub 10} molecules are disassociated by Rf energy to create a plasma. Carbon from the butane forms a thin diamond/diamond-like film on a suitable substrate, which in the current investigation, is n-type Si(100).

  3. Detection of a new 'nematic-like' phase in liquid crystal-amphiphile mixture by differential scanning calorimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan, Kaustabh Roy, Madhusudan Datta, Alokmay

    2014-04-24

    Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies on phase transitions of the pure liquid crystalline material N-4-methoxybenzylidene-4-butylaniline (MBBA) and mixtures of MBBA and the amphiphile Stearic Acid (StA) show significant changes in the behavior of mixture from pure MBBA, as regards the nematic-isotropic (N-I) transition temperature (T{sub c}) and other thermodynamic parameters like enthalpy, specific heat and activation energy with concentration of StA. In particular, the convexity of the Arrhenius plot in pure MBBA vanishes with StA concentration pointing to the formation of a new, perhaps 'nematic-like', phase in the mixtures.

  4. Structurally Distinct Bacterial TBC-like GAPs Link Arf GTPase to Rab1 Inactivation to Counteract Host Defenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Na; Zhu, Yongqun; Lu, Qiuhe; Hu, Liyan; Zheng, Yuqing; Shao, Feng

    2012-10-10

    Rab GTPases are frequent targets of vacuole-living bacterial pathogens for appropriate trafficking of the vacuole. Here we discover that bacterial effectors including VirA from nonvacuole Shigella flexneri and EspG from extracellular Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) harbor TBC-like dual-finger motifs and exhibits potent RabGAP activities. Specific inactivation of Rab1 by VirA/EspG disrupts ER-to-Golgi trafficking. S. flexneri intracellular persistence requires VirA TBC-like GAP activity that mediates bacterial escape from autophagy-mediated host defense. Rab1 inactivation by EspG severely blocks host secretory pathway, resulting in inhibited interleukin-8 secretion from infected cells. Crystal structures of VirA/EspG-Rab1-GDP-aluminum fluoride complexes highlight TBC-like catalytic role for the arginine and glutamine finger residues and reveal a 3D architecture distinct from that of the TBC domain. Structure of Arf6-EspG-Rab1 ternary complex illustrates a pathogenic signaling complex that rewires host Arf signaling to Rab1 inactivation. Structural distinctions of VirA/EspG further predict a possible extensive presence of TBC-like RabGAP effectors in counteracting various host defenses.

  5. FRW Like Cosmological Model and Accelerated Expansion of the Universe from Non Commutative Seiberg-Witten Geometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aissaoui, H.; Bouhalouf, H.; Mebarki, N.

    2010-10-31

    An FRW like cosmological model in the non commutative Seiberg-Witten space-time is proposed. The pure NCG dynamical apparent horizon and Hawking temperature are obtained and explicit expressions of the scale factor, Hubble and deceleration parameters are derived. The accelerated expansion of the universe scenario is also discussed.

  6. Dynamics of frequency-modulated soliton-like pulses in a longitudinally inhomogeneous, anomalous group velocity dispersion fibre amplifier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zolotovskii, Igor' O; Korobko, D A; Okhotnikov, Oleg G; Sysolyatin, A A; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-09-30

    We examine conditions for the formation and amplification of frequency-modulated soliton-like pulses in longitudinally inhomogeneous, anomalous group velocity dispersion fibres. The group velocity dispersion profiles necessary for the existence and amplification of such pulses in active fibres are identified and the pulse duration and chirp are determined as functions of propagation distance. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  7. Does the Use of Diamond-Like Carbon Coating and Organophosphate Lubricant Additive Together Cause Excessive Tribochemical Material Removal?

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhou, Yan; Leonard, Donovan N.; Meyer, Harry M.; Luo, Huimin; Qu, Jun

    2015-08-22

    We observe unexpected wear increase on a steel surface that rubbed against diamond-like carbon (DLC) coatings only when lubricated by phosphate-based antiwear additives. Contrary to the literature hypothesis of a competition between zinc dialkyldithiophosphate produced tribofilms and DLC-induced carbon transfer, here a new wear mechanism based on carbon-catalyzed tribochemical interactions supported by surface characterization is proposed

  8. Blue supergiant model for ultra-long gamma-ray burst with superluminous-supernova-like bump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakauchi, Daisuke; Nakamura, Takashi; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Suwa, Yudai

    2013-11-20

    Long gamma-ray bursts (LGRBs) have a typical duration of ∼30 s, and some of them are associated with hypernovae, such as Type Ic SN 1998bw. Wolf-Rayet stars are the most plausible LGRB progenitors, since the free fall time of the envelope is consistent with the duration, and the natural outcome of the progenitor is a Type Ic SN. While a new population of ultra-long GRBs (ULGRBs), GRB 111209A, GRB 101225A, and GRB 121027A, has a duration of ∼10{sup 4} s, two of them are accompanied by superluminous-supernova-like (SLSN-like) bumps, which are ≲ 10 times brighter than typical hypernovae. Wolf-Rayet progenitors cannot explain ULGRBs because of durations that are too long and SN-like bumps that are too bright. A blue supergiant (BSG) progenitor model, however, can explain the duration of ULGRBs. Moreover, SLSN-like bumps can be attributed to the so-called cocoon fireball photospheric emissions (CFPEs). Since a large cocoon is inevitably produced during the relativistic jet piercing though the BSG envelope, this component can be smoking gun evidence of the BSG model for ULGRBs. In this paper, we examine u-, g-, r-, i-, and J-band light curves of three ULGRBs and demonstrate that they can be fitted quite well by our BSG model with the appropriate choices of the jet opening angle and the number density of the ambient gas. In addition, we predict that for 121027A, SLSN-like bump could have been observed for ∼20-80 days after the burst. We also propose that some SLSNe might be CFPEs of off-axis ULGRBs without visible prompt emissions.

  9. Rv2969c, essential for optimal growth in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is a DsbA-like enzyme that interacts with VKOR-derived peptides and has atypical features of DsbA-like disulfide oxidases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premkumar, Lakshmanane, E-mail: p.lakshmanane@imb.uq.edu.au; Heras, Begoa; Duprez, Wilko; Walden, Patricia; Halili, Maria; Kurth, Fabian; Fairlie, David P.; Martin, Jennifer L., E-mail: p.lakshmanane@imb.uq.edu.au [University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4067 (Australia)

    2013-10-01

    The gene product of M. tuberculosis Rv2969c is shown to be a disulfide oxidase enzyme that has a canonical DsbA-like fold with novel structural and functional characteristics. The bacterial disulfide machinery is an attractive molecular target for developing new antibacterials because it is required for the production of multiple virulence factors. The archetypal disulfide oxidase proteins in Escherichia coli (Ec) are DsbA and DsbB, which together form a functional unit: DsbA introduces disulfides into folding proteins and DsbB reoxidizes DsbA to maintain it in the active form. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), no DsbB homologue is encoded but a functionally similar but structurally divergent protein, MtbVKOR, has been identified. Here, the Mtb protein Rv2969c is investigated and it is shown that it is the DsbA-like partner protein of MtbVKOR. It is found that it has the characteristic redox features of a DsbA-like protein: a highly acidic catalytic cysteine, a highly oxidizing potential and a destabilizing active-site disulfide bond. Rv2969c also has peptide-oxidizing activity and recognizes peptide segments derived from the periplasmic loops of MtbVKOR. Unlike the archetypal EcDsbA enzyme, Rv2969c has little or no activity in disulfide-reducing and disulfide-isomerase assays. The crystal structure of Rv2969c reveals a canonical DsbA fold comprising a thioredoxin domain with an embedded helical domain. However, Rv2969c diverges considerably from other DsbAs, including having an additional C-terminal helix (H8) that may restrain the mobility of the catalytic helix H1. The enzyme is also characterized by a very shallow hydrophobic binding surface and a negative electrostatic surface potential surrounding the catalytic cysteine. The structure of Rv2969c was also used to model the structure of a paralogous DsbA-like domain of the Ser/Thr protein kinase PknE. Together, these results show that Rv2969c is a DsbA-like protein with unique properties and a limited

  10. Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock calculations on multi-valence-electron systems: Benchmarks on Ga-like ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Feng; Yang Jiamin; Wang Chuanke; Jing Longfei; Chen Shubo; Jiang Gang; Liu Hao; Hao Lianghuan

    2011-10-15

    High-accuracy calculations of term energies and wavelengths of resonance lines in Ga-like ions have been performed as benchmarks in the request for accurate treatments of relativity, electron correction, and QED effects in multi-valence-electron systems. The calculated energy levels are in excellent agreement with the experimental results and the experimentally compiled energy values of the National Institute for Standards and Technology wherever available. The calculated values including core-valence correction are found to be in good agreement with other theoretical and experimental values for low- to medium-Z ions. On the basis of our calculations, some theoretical wavelengths for Ga-like Rb vii to Mo xii are also given. For higher-Z ions, computed wavelengths are compared well with the experimental results [E. Traebert, J. Clementson, P. Beiersdorfer, J. A. Santana, and Y. Ishikawa, Phys. Rev. A 82, 062519 (2010), I. N Draganicet al., J. Phys. B 44, 025001 (2011)].

  11. Improvement in the degradation resistance of silicon nanostructures by the deposition of diamond-like carbon films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klyui, N. I. Semenenko, M. A.; Khatsevich, I. M.; Makarov, A. V.; Kabaldin, A. N.; Fomovskii, F. V.; Han, Wei

    2015-08-15

    It is established that the deposition of a diamond-like film onto a structure with silicon nanoclusters in a silicon dioxide matrix yields an increase in the long-wavelength photoluminescence intensity of silicon nanoclusters due to the passivation of active-recombination centers with hydrogen and a shift of the photoluminescence peak to the region of higher photosensitivity of silicon-based solar cells. It is also shown that, due to the deposited diamond-like film, the resistance of such a structure to degradation upon exposure to γ radiation is improved, which is also defined by the effect of the passivation of radiation-induced activerecombination centers by hydrogen that is released from the films during treatment.

  12. Binding-induced folding of prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein on the mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase targets substrates for degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, T.; Li, H.; Darwin, K. H.

    2010-11-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

  13. Binding-induced Folding of Prokaryotic Ubiquitin-like Protein on the Mycobacterium Proteasomal ATPase Targets Substrates for Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T Wang; K Heran Darwin; H Li

    2011-12-31

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses a proteasome system that is analogous to the eukaryotic ubiquitin-proteasome pathway and is required for pathogenesis. However, the bacterial analog of ubiquitin, prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein (Pup), is an intrinsically disordered protein that bears little sequence or structural resemblance to the highly structured ubiquitin. Thus, it was unknown how pupylated proteins were recruited to the proteasome. Here, we show that the Mycobacterium proteasomal ATPase (Mpa) has three pairs of tentacle-like coiled coils that recognize Pup. Mpa bound unstructured Pup through hydrophobic interactions and a network of hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of an {alpha}-helix in Pup. Our work describes a binding-induced folding recognition mechanism in the Pup-proteasome system that differs mechanistically from substrate recognition in the ubiquitin-proteasome system. This key difference between the prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems could be exploited for the development of a small molecule-based treatment for tuberculosis.

  14. Search for new physics in high pT like-sign dilepton events at CDF II

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-10-25

    We present a search for new physics in events with two high pT leptons of the same electric charge, using data with an integrated luminosity of 6.1 fb-1. The observed data are consistent with standard model predictions. We set 95% C.L. lower limits on the mass of doubly-charged scalars decaying to like-sign dileptons, mH±± > 190 - 245 GeV/c2, depending on the decay mode and coupling.

  15. A three-colour graph as acomplete topological invariant for gradient-like diffeomorphisms of surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grines, V Z; Pochinka, O V; Kapkaeva, S Kh

    2014-10-31

    In apaper of Oshemkov and Sharko, three-colour graphs were used to make the topological equivalence of Morse-Smale flows on surfaces obtained by Peixoto more precise. In the present paper, in the language of three-colour graphs equipped with automorphisms, we obtain acomplete (including realization) topological classification of gradient-like cascades on surfaces. Bibliography: 25 titles.

  16. Using the X-FEL to photo-pump X-ray laser transitions in He-like Ne

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nilsen, J; Rohringer, N

    2011-08-30

    Nearly four decades ago H-like and He-like resonantly photo-pumped laser schemes were proposed for producing X-ray lasers. However, demonstrating these schemes in the laboratory has proved to be elusive because of the difficulty of finding a strong resonant pump line. With the advent of the X-ray free electron laser (X-FEL) at the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) we now have a tunable X-ray laser source that can be used to replace the pump line in previously proposed laser schemes and allow researchers to study the physics and feasibility of resonantly photo-pumped laser schemes. In this paper we use the X-FEL at 1174 eV to photo-pump the singly excited 1s2p state of He-like Ne to the doubly excited 2p3p state and model gain on the 2p3p-2p2s transition at 175 eV and the 2p3p-1s3p transition at 1017 eV. One motivation for studying this scheme is to explore possible quenching of the gain due to strong non-linear coupling effects from the intense X-FEL beam We compare this scheme with photo-pumping the He-like Ne ground state to the 1s3p singly excited state followed by lasing on the 3p-2s and 3d-2p transitions at 158 and 151 eV. Experiments are being planned at LCLS to study these laser processes and coherent quantum effects.

  17. Colloidal Cutin-like Siderophoric Molecules Mobilize Plutonium from Contaminated Soils of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, C.; Santschi, P; Roberts, K; Zhong, J; Hatcher, P; Hung, C; Francis, A; Dodge, C; Honeyman, B

    2008-01-01

    Relatively recently, inorganic colloids have been invoked to reconcile the apparent contradictions between expectations based on classical dissolved-phase Pu transport and field observations of 'enhanced' Pu mobility (Kersting et al. Nature 1999, 397, 56-59). A new paradigm for Pu transport is mobilization and transport via biologically produced ligands. This study for the first time reports a new finding of Pu being transported, at sub-pM concentrations, by a cutin-like natural substance containing siderophore-like moieties and virtually all mobile Pu. Most likely, Pu is complexed by chelating groups derived from siderophores that are covalently bound to a backbone of cutin-derived soil degradation products, thus revealing the history of initial exposure to Pu. Features such as amphiphilicity and small size make this macromolecule an ideal collector for actinides and other metals and a vector for their dispersal. Cross-linking to the hydrophobic domains (e.g., by polysaccharides) gives this macromolecule high mobility and a means of enhancing Pu transport. This finding provides a new mechanism for Pu transport through environmental systems that would not have been predicted by Pu transport models.

  18. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point tomore » highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.« less

  19. Coherent quantum transport in disordered systems: A unified polaron treatment of hopping and band-like transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Chee Kong; Moix, Jeremy; Cao, Jianshu

    2015-04-28

    Quantum transport in disordered systems is studied using a polaron-based master equation. The polaron approach is capable of bridging the results from the coherent band-like transport regime governed by the Redfield equation to incoherent hopping transport in the classical regime. A non-monotonic dependence of the diffusion coefficient is observed both as a function of temperature and system-phonon coupling strength. In the band-like transport regime, the diffusion coefficient is shown to be linearly proportional to the system-phonon coupling strength and vanishes at zero coupling due to Anderson localization. In the opposite classical hopping regime, we correctly recover the dynamics described by the Fermis Golden Rule and establish that the scaling of the diffusion coefficient depends on the phonon bath relaxation time. In both the hopping and band-like transport regimes, it is demonstrated that at low temperature, the zero-point fluctuations of the bath lead to non-zero transport rates and hence a finite diffusion constant. Application to rubrene and other organic semiconductor materials shows a good agreement with experimental mobility data.

  20. A SUPER-EARTH-SIZED PLANET ORBITING IN OR NEAR THE HABITABLE ZONE AROUND A SUN-LIKE STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barclay, Thomas; Burke, Christopher J.; Howell, Steve B.; Rowe, Jason F.; Huber, Daniel; Jenkins, Jon M.; Quintana, Elisa V.; Still, Martin; Twicken, Joseph D.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Borucki, William J.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Clarke, Bruce D.; Christiansen, Jessie L; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.; Ciardi, David; Fischer, Debra A.; and others

    2013-05-10

    We present the discovery of a super-Earth-sized planet in or near the habitable zone of a Sun-like star. The host is Kepler-69, a 13.7 mag G4V-type star. We detect two periodic sets of transit signals in the 3-year flux time series of Kepler-69, obtained with the Kepler spacecraft. Using the very high precision Kepler photometry, and follow-up observations, our confidence that these signals represent planetary transits is >99.3%. The inner planet, Kepler-69b, has a radius of 2.24{sup +0.44}{sub -0.29} R{sub Circled-Plus} and orbits the host star every 13.7 days. The outer planet, Kepler-69c, is a super-Earth-sized object with a radius of 1.7{sup +0.34}{sub -0.23} R{sub Circled-Plus} and an orbital period of 242.5 days. Assuming an Earth-like Bond albedo, Kepler-69c has an equilibrium temperature of 299 {+-} 19 K, which places the planet close to the habitable zone around the host star. This is the smallest planet found by Kepler to be orbiting in or near the habitable zone of a Sun-like star and represents an important step on the path to finding the first true Earth analog.

  1. Selection for Unequal Densities of Sigma70 Promoter-like Signalsin Different Regions of Large Bacterial Genomes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huerta, Araceli M.; Francino, M. Pilar; Morett, Enrique; Collado-Vides, Julio

    2006-03-01

    The evolutionary processes operating in the DNA regions that participate in the regulation of gene expression are poorly understood. In Escherichia coli, we have established a sequence pattern that distinguishes regulatory from nonregulatory regions. The density of promoter-like sequences, that are recognizable by RNA polymerase and may function as potential promoters, is high within regulatory regions, in contrast to coding regions and regions located between convergently-transcribed genes. Moreover, functional promoter sites identified experimentally are often found in the subregions of highest density of promoter-like signals, even when individual sites with higher binding affinity for RNA polymerase exist elsewhere within the regulatory region. In order to investigate the generality of this pattern, we have used position weight matrices describing the -35 and -10 promoter boxes of E. coli to search for these motifs in 43 additional genomes belonging to most established bacterial phyla, after specific calibration of the matrices according to the base composition of the noncoding regions of each genome. We have found that all bacterial species analyzed contain similar promoter-like motifs, and that, in most cases, these motifs follow the same genomic distribution observed in E. coli. Differential densities between regulatory and nonregulatory regions are detectable in most bacterial genomes, with the exception of those that have experienced evolutionary extreme genome reduction. Thus, the phylogenetic distribution of this pattern mirrors that of genes and other genomic features that require weak selection to be effective in order to persist. On this basis, we suggest that the loss of differential densities in the reduced genomes of host-restricted pathogens and symbionts is the outcome of a process of genome degradation resulting from the decreased efficiency of purifying selection in highly structured small populations. This implies that the differential

  2. Large-scale and shape-controlled synthesis and characterization of nanorod-like nickel powders under microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Yajie; Wang, Guangjian; Wang, Yuran; Huang, Yanhong; Wang, Fei

    2012-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The nanorod-like pure nickel were fabricated via hydrothermal liquid phase reduction route under microwave irradiation with hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent as well as polyvinyl alcohol as a dispersant and/or structure directing agent. The materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, EDS, HRTEM, and selected-area electron diffraction, etc. The lattice expansion for Ni powders was explained in detail. As-prepared Ni sample was of obvious shape anisotropy with length diameter ratio of 5. Magnetic measurements shown that the magnetic properties of Ni nanorod-like (fcc) were quite different from those of hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) Ni nanoparticles. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The synthesis of nanorod-like nickel under microwave irradiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen generated in reaction as a shielding gas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The lattice expansion for Ni powders was explained in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic properties of Ni were quite different from those of Ni nanoparticles. -- Abstract: The nanorod-like nickel powders were fabricated via hydrothermal liquid phase reduction route under microwave irradiation with hydrazine hydrate as a reducing agent as well as polyvinyl alcohol as a dispersant and/or structure directing agent. The morphology and structure of as-prepared products could be easily tuned by adjusting process parameters such as pH value and microwave irradiation time. The resulting materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED). The results demonstrated that pure nickel powders with face-centered cubic (fcc) structure were prepared at relatively mild condition and no characteristic peaks of nickel oxide in the XRD pattern were found. The phenomenon of lattice expansion for Ni powders was explained in details according to the XRD theory. As-prepared Ni sample was

  3. Space and time resolved spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas: A study of density-sensitive x-ray transitions in helium-like and neon-like ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, Bruce Kai Fong

    1988-09-01

    The determination of level populations and detailed population mechanisms in dense plasmas has become an increasingly important problem in atomic physics. In this work, the density variation of line intensities and level populations in aluminum K-shell and molybdenum and silver L-shell emission spectra have been measured from high-powered, laser-produced plasmas. For each case, the density dependence of the observed line emission is due to the effect of high frequency electron-ion collisions on metastable levels. The density dependent line intensities vary greatly in laser-produced plasmas and can be used to extract detailed information concerning the population kinetics and level populations of the ions. The laser-plasmas had to be fully characterized in order to clearly compare the observed density dependence with atomic theory predictions. This has been achieved through the combined use of new diagnostic instruments and microdot targets which provided simultaneously space, time, and spectrally resolved data. The plasma temperatures were determined from the slope of the hydrogen-like recombination continuum. The time resolved electron density profiles were measured using multiple frame holographic interferometry. Thus, the density dependence of K-shell spectral lines could be clearly examined, independent of assumptions concerning the dynamics of the plasma. In aluminum, the electron density dependence of various helium-like line intensity ratios were measured. Standard collisional radiative equilibrium models fail to account for the observed density dependence measured for the ''He/sub ..cap alpha..//IC'' ratio. Instead, a quasi-steady state atomic model based on a purely recombining plasma is shown to accurately predict the measured density dependence. This same recombining plasma calculation successfully models the density dependence of the high-n ''He/sub ..gamma..//He/sub ..beta../'' and ''He/sub delta//He/sub ..beta../'' helium-like resonance line intensity

  4. The internal disruption as hard Magnetohydrodynamic limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity in large helical device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varela, J.; Watanabe, K. Y.; Ohdachi, S.

    2012-08-15

    Large helical device (LHD) inward-shifted configurations are unstable to resistive MHD pressure-gradient-driven modes. Sawtooth like activity was observed during LHD operation. The main drivers are the unstable modes 1/2 and 1/3 in the middle and inner plasma region which limit the plasma confinement efficiency of LHD advanced operation scenarios. The aim of the present research is to study the hard MHD limit of 1/2 sawtooth like activity, not observed yet in LHD operation, and to predict its effects on the device performance. Previous investigations pointed out this system relaxation can be an internal disruption [J. Varela et al., 'Internal disruptions and sawtooth like activity in LHD,' 38th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics (2011), P5.077]. In the present work, we simulate an internal disruption; we study the equilibria properties before and after the disruptive process, its effects on the plasma confinement efficiency during each disruptive phase, the relation between the n/m = 1/2 hard MHD events and the soft MHD events, and how to avoid or reduce their adverse effects. The simulation conclusions point out that the large stochastic region in the middle plasma strongly deforms and tears the flux surfaces when the pressure gradient increases above the hard MHD limit. If the instability reaches the inner plasma, the iota profiles will be perturbed near the plasma core and three magnetic islands can appear near the magnetic axis. If the instability is strong enough to link the stochastic regions in the middle plasma (around the half minor radius {rho}) and the plasma core ({rho}<0.25), an internal disruption is driven.

  5. FAR-ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF THE NOVA-LIKE VARIABLE KQ MONOCEROTIS: A NEW SW SEXTANTIS STAR?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wolfe, Aaron; Sion, Edward M.; Bond, Howard E. E-mail: edward.sion@villanova.edu

    2013-06-01

    New optical spectra obtained with the SMARTS 1.5 m telescope and archival International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) far-ultraviolet (FUV) spectra of the nova-like variable KQ Mon are discussed. The optical spectra reveal Balmer lines in absorption as well as He I absorption superposed on a blue continuum. The 2011 optical spectrum is similar to the KPNO 2.1 m IIDS spectrum we obtained 33 years earlier except that the Balmer and He I absorption is stronger in 2011. Far-ultraviolet IUE spectra reveal deep absorption lines due to C II, Si III, Si IV, C IV, and He II, but no P Cygni profiles indicative of wind outflow. We present the results of the first synthetic spectral analysis of the IUE archival spectra of KQ Mon with realistic optically thick, steady-state, viscous accretion-disk models with vertical structure and high-gravity photosphere models. We find that the photosphere of the white dwarf (WD) contributes very little FUV flux to the spectrum and is overwhelmed by the accretion light of a steady disk. Disk models corresponding to a WD mass of {approx}0.6 M {sub Sun }, with an accretion rate of order 10{sup -9} M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} and disk inclinations between 60 Degree-Sign and 75 Degree-Sign , yield distances from the normalization in the range of 144-165 pc. KQ Mon is discussed with respect to other nova-like variables. Its spectroscopic similarity to the FUV spectra of three definite SW Sex stars suggests that it is likely a member of the SW Sex class and lends support to the possibility that the WD is magnetic.

  6. On the Use of the Polynomial Annihilation Edge Detection for Locating Cracks in Beam-Like Structures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saxena, Rishu; Surace, Cecilia; Archibald, Richard K

    2013-01-01

    A crack in a structure causes a discontinuity in the first derivative of the mode shapes: On this basis, a numerical method for detecting discontinuities in smooth piecewise functions and their derivatives, based on a polynomial annihilation technique, has been applied to the problem of crack detection and localisation in beam-like structures for which only post-damage mode shapes are available. Using a finite-element model of a cracked beam, the performance of this methodology has been analysed for different crack depths and increasing amounts of noise. Given the crack position, a procedure to estimate its depth is also proposed and corresponding results shown.

  7. Memristor comprising film with comb-like structure of nanocolumns of metal oxide embedded in a metal oxide matrix

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Driscoll, Judith L; Lee, ShinBuhm; Jia, Quanxi

    2015-05-12

    Films having a comb-like structure of nanocolumns of Sm.sub.2O.sub.3 embedded in a SrTiO.sub.3 formed spontaneously on a substrate surface by pulsed laser deposition. In an embodiment, the nanocolumns had a width of about 20 nm with spaces between nanocolumns of about 10 nm. The films exhibited memristive behavior, and were extremely uniform and tunable. Oxygen deficiencies were located at vertical interfaces between the nanocolumns and the matrix. The substrates may be single-layered or multilayered.

  8. Search for new physics in high pT like-sign dilepton events at CDF II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aaltonen, T.

    2011-10-25

    We present a search for new physics in events with two high pT leptons of the same electric charge, using data with an integrated luminosity of 6.1 fb-1. The observed data are consistent with standard model predictions. We set 95% C.L. lower limits on the mass of doubly-charged scalars decaying to like-sign dileptons, mH > 190 - 245 GeV/c2, depending on the decay mode and coupling.

  9. Efficient Schottky-like junction GaAs nanowire photodetector with 9?GHz modulation bandwidth with large active area

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seyedi, M. A. Yao, M.; O'Brien, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Dapkus, P. D.

    2014-07-28

    Efficient, low capacitance density GaAs/Indium-Tin-Oxide Schottky-like junction photodetectors with a 50??m square active are fabricated for operation in the gigahertz range. Modulation bandwidth is experimentally measured up to 10?GHz at various applied reverse biases and optical intensities to explore the effects of photo-generated carrier screening on modulation bandwidth. Last, the bandwidth dependence on applied reverse bias and optical intensity is simulated as a means to quantify average carrier velocities in nanowire material systems.

  10. New Benchmarks from Tokamak Experiments for Theoretical Calculations of the Dielectronic Satellite Spectra of Helium-like Ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Bitter; M.F. Gu; L.A. Vainshtein; P. Beiersdorfer; G. Bertschinger; O. Marchuk; R. Bell; B. LeBlanc; K.W. Hill; D. Johnson; L. Roquemore

    2003-08-29

    Dielectronic satellite spectra of helium-like argon, recorded with a high-resolution X-ray crystal spectrometer at the National Spherical Torus Experiment, were found to be inconsistent with existing predictions resulting in unacceptable values for the power balance and suggesting the unlikely existence of non-Maxwellian electron energy distributions. These problems were resolved with calculations from a new atomic code. It is now possible to perform reliable electron temperature measurements and to eliminate the uncertainties associated with determinations of non-Maxwellian distributions.

  11. Pseudoscalar boson and standard model-like Higgs boson productions at the LHC in the simplest little Higgs model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Lei; Han Xiaofang

    2010-11-01

    In the framework of the simplest little Higgs model, we perform a comprehensive study for the pair productions of the pseudoscalar boson {eta} and standard model-like Higgs boson h at LHC, namely gg(bb){yields}{eta}{eta}, gg(qq){yields}{eta}h, and gg(bb){yields}hh. These production processes provide a way to probe the couplings between Higgs bosons. We find that the cross section of gg{yields}{eta}{eta} always dominates over that of bb{yields}{eta}{eta}. When the Higgs boson h which mediates these two processes is on-shell, their cross sections can reach several thousand fb and several hundred fb, respectively. When the intermediate state h is off-shell, those two cross sections are reduced by 2 orders of magnitude, respectively. The cross sections of gg{yields}{eta}h and qq{yields}{eta}h are about in the same order of magnitude, which can reach O(10{sup 2} fb) for a light {eta} boson. Besides, compared with the standard model prediction, the cross section of a pair of standard model-like Higgs bosons production at LHC can be enhanced sizably. Finally, we briefly discuss the observable signatures of {eta}{eta}, {eta}h, and hh at the LHC.

  12. L-shell Resonant Transfer Excitation Followed by X-rays for N-like P8+ and Ca13+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omar, G.; El-Kafrawy, T.; Ramadan, H.

    2005-03-17

    The present work deals with the calculations of the cross sections of resonant transfer excitation followed by X-rays (RTEX) in the collisions of N-like P8+ and Ca13+ with He and H2 targets. The ab initio calculations are carried out using the adapted AMA scheme in the isolated resonance approximation (IRA). The adapted method was previously used in the calculations of RTEX cross sections for Be-like Ca16+, where such preceding data were available. The results of Ca16+ were found in a good agreement with both experimental and theoretical works, in other coupling schemes, at low and high-energy regions. However, only slight deviation was found at the middle energy region. Thus, this method is then applied in the calculations of RTEX cross sections for P8+ and Ca13+ ions with L-shell excitations. The present calculations may be considered as a database for future comparison with experimental and theoretical data in other coupling schemes. The isoelectronic trends of RTEX cross sections with some atomic parameters, for P8+ and Ca13+, are discussed.

  13. Effect of attractive interactions on the water-like anomalies of a core-softened model potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pant, Shashank; Gera, Tarun; Choudhury, Niharendu E-mail: niharc2002@yahoo.com

    2013-12-28

    It is now well established that water-like anomalies can be reproduced by a spherically symmetric potential with two length scales, popularly known as core-softened potential. In the present study we aim to investigate the effect of attractive interactions among the particles in a model fluid interacting with core-softened potential on the existence and location of various water-like anomalies in the temperature-pressure plane. We employ extensive molecular dynamic simulations to study anomalous nature of various order parameters and properties under isothermal compression. Order map analyses have also been done for all the potentials. We observe that all the systems with varying depth of attractive wells show structural, dynamic, and thermodynamic anomalies. As many of the previous studies involving model water and a class of core softened potentials have concluded that the structural anomaly region encloses the diffusion anomaly region, which in turn, encloses the density anomaly region, the same pattern has also been observed in the present study for the systems with less depth of attractive well. For the systems with deeper attractive well, we observe that the diffusion anomaly region shifts toward higher densities and is not always enclosed by the structural anomaly region. Also, density anomaly region is not completely enclosed by diffusion anomaly region in this case.

  14. KEPLER-63b: A GIANT PLANET IN A POLAR ORBIT AROUND A YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchis-Ojeda, Roberto; Winn, Joshua N.; Albrecht, Simon; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Howard, Andrew W.; Johnson, John Asher; Torres, Guillermo; Carter, Joshua A.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Geary, John C.; Campante, Tiago L.; Chaplin, William J.; Davies, Guy R.; Lund, Mikkel N.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Everett, Mark E.; Fischer, Debra A.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Horch, Elliott P.; and others

    2013-09-20

    We present the discovery and characterization of a giant planet orbiting the young Sun-like star Kepler-63 (KOI-63, m{sub Kp} = 11.6, T{sub eff} = 5576 K, M{sub *} = 0.98 M{sub ☉}). The planet transits every 9.43 days, with apparent depth variations and brightening anomalies caused by large starspots. The planet's radius is 6.1 ± 0.2 R{sub ⊕}, based on the transit light curve and the estimated stellar parameters. The planet's mass could not be measured with the existing radial-velocity data, due to the high level of stellar activity, but if we assume a circular orbit, then we can place a rough upper bound of 120 M{sub ⊕} (3σ). The host star has a high obliquity (ψ = 104°), based on the Rossiter-McLaughlin effect and an analysis of starspot-crossing events. This result is valuable because almost all previous obliquity measurements are for stars with more massive planets and shorter-period orbits. In addition, the polar orbit of the planet combined with an analysis of spot-crossing events reveals a large and persistent polar starspot. Such spots have previously been inferred using Doppler tomography, and predicted in simulations of magnetic activity of young Sun-like stars.

  15. Local perturbations of the upper layers of a sun-like star: The impact on the acoustic oscillation spectrum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brito, Ana; Lopes, Ilídio E-mail: ilidio.lopes@ist.utl.pt

    2014-02-10

    In the last decade, the quality and the amount of observational asteroseismic data that has been made available by space based missions had a tremendous upgrowth. The determination of asteroseismic parameters to estimate the fundamental physical processes occurring in stars' interiors can be done today in a way that has never been possible before. In this work, we propose to compute the seismic observable β, which is a proxy of the phase shift of the acoustic modes propagating in the envelope of the Sun-like stars. This seismic parameter β can be used to identify rapid variation regions usually known as glitches. We show that a small variation in the structure, smaller than 1% in the sound speed, produces a glitch in the acoustic potential that could explain the oscillatory character of β. This method allows us to determine the location and the thickness of the glitch with precision. We applied this idea to the Sun-like star α Centauri A and found a glitch located at approximately 0.94 R (1400 s) and with a thickness of 0.2% of the stars' radius. This is fully consistent with the data and also validates other seismic tests.

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the kinase domain of human tousled-like kinase 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrote, Ana M.; Redondo, Pilar; Montoya, Guillermo; Muoz, Ins G.

    2014-02-19

    The C-terminal kinase domain of TLK2 (a human tousled-like kinase) has been cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-?-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. Tousled-like kinases (TLKs) are an evolutionarily conserved family of serine/threonine protein kinases involved in chromatin dynamics, including DNA replication and repair, transcription and chromosome segregation. The two members of the family reported in humans, namely TLK1 and TLK2, localize to the cell nucleus and are capable of forming homo- or hetero-oligomers by themselves. To characterize the role of TLK2, its C-terminal kinase domain was cloned and overexpressed in Escherichia coli followed by purification to homogeneity. Crystallization experiments in the presence of ATP-?-S yielded crystals suitable for X-ray diffraction analysis belonging to two different space groups: tetragonal I4{sub 1}22 and cubic P2{sub 1}3. The latter produced the best diffracting crystal (3.4 resolution using synchrotron radiation), with unit-cell parameters a = b = c = 126.05 , ? = ? = ? = 90. The asymmetric unit contained one protein molecule, with a Matthews coefficient of 4.59 {sup 3} Da{sup ?1} and a solvent content of 73.23%.

  17. Functional and genomic analyses of FOXP3-transduced Jurkat-T cells as regulatory T (Treg)-like cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Joon-Young Kim, Han-Jong; Hurt, Elaine M.; Chen, Xin; Howard, O.M. Zack; Farrar, William L.

    2007-10-12

    FOXP3, a forkhead transcription factor is essential for the development and function of CD4{sup +}CD25{sup +} regulatory T cells (Tregs). In contrast to conversion of murine naive T cells to Tregs by transduction of Foxp3, it is controversial whether ectopic expression of FOXP3 in human CD4{sup +} T cells is sufficient for acquisition of suppressive activity. Here, we show that retroviral transduction of FOXP3 induces a Treg phenotype in human leukemic CD4{sup +} Jurkat-T cells, evidenced by increased expression of Treg-associated cell surface markers as well as inhibition of cytokine production. Furthermore, FOXP3-transduced Jurkat-T cells suppress the proliferation of human CD4{sup +}CD25{sup -} T cells. Additionally, DNA microarray analysis identifies Treg-related genes regulated by FOXP3. Our study demonstrates that enforced expression of FOXP3 confers Treg-like properties on Jurkat-T cells, which can be a convenient and efficient Treg-like cell model for further study to identify Treg cell surface markers and target genes regulated by FOXP3.

  18. Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and radiative rates for Si-like Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abou El-Maaref, A.; Allam, S.H.; El-Sherbini, Th.M.

    2014-01-15

    The energy levels, oscillator strengths, line strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the terms belonging to the 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 2}, 3s3p{sup 3}, 3s{sup 2}3p3d, 3s{sup 2}3p4s, 3s{sup 2}3p4p and 3s{sup 2}3p4d configurations of silicon-like ions (Zn XVII, Ga XVIII, Ge XIX, and As XX) have been calculated using the configuration-interaction code CIV3. The calculations have been carried out in the intermediate coupling scheme using the BreitPauli Hamiltonian. The present calculations have been compared with the available experimental data and other theoretical calculations. Most of our calculations of energy levels and oscillator strengths (in length form) show good agreement with both experimental and theoretical data. Lifetimes of the excited levels have also been calculated. -- Highlights: We have calculated the fine-structure energy levels of Si-like Zn, Ga, Ge and As. The calculations are performed using the configuration interaction method (CIV3). We have calculated the oscillator strengths, line strengths and transition rates. The wavelengths of the transitions are listed in this article. We also have made comparisons between our data and other calculations.

  19. WPN 05-4a- 2005 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income to Exclude Combat Zone Pay

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    To provide states with the 2005 Poverty Income Guidelines and Definition of Income for use in the low-income Weatherization Assistance Program.

  20. Synthesis and luminescent properties of spindle-like CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tian, Yue [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China) [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China); Liu, Yu [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China)] [Faculty of Chemical, Environmental and Biological Science and Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian, Liaoning 116024 (China); Hua, Ruinian, E-mail: rnhua@dlnu.edu.cn [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)] [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Na, Liyan [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China)] [College of Life Science, Dalian Nationalities University, Dalian, Liaoning 116600 (China); Chen, Baojiu, E-mail: chenmbj@sohu.com [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)] [Department of Physics, Dalian Maritime University, Dalian, Liaoning 116026 (China)

    2012-01-15

    Graphical abstract: In this paper, spindle-like CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared via a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted sonochemical process. Dependence of emission intensity on Sm{sup 3+} ions concentration in the CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphor were also calculated via a nonlinear fitting by using the formula y = ax/(1 + bx{sup c}). Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The samples were prepared via a PVP assisted sonochemical process. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The color coordinates for 1 mol% Sm{sup 3+} doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphor were calculated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The D-D interaction is responsible for concentration quenching between Sm{sup 3+} ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The critical energy transfer distances (R{sub c}) were obtained. -- Abstract: Spindle-like CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors were prepared via a Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-assisted sonochemical process, and characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and photoluminescence spectroscopy (PL). The XRD results suggested that the prepared samples are single-phase. The FE-SEM images indicated that the prepared CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors are composed of many spindles with maximum average diameter of 150 nm and maximum average length of 500 nm. Under 404 nm excitation, the characteristic emissions corresponding to {sup 4}G{sub 5/2} {yields} {sup 6}H{sub J} (J = 5/2, 7/2, 9/2 and 11/2) transitions of Sm{sup 3+} in CaWO{sub 4} phosphors were observed. The color coordinates for 1 mol% Sm{sup 3+} doped CaWO{sub 4} phosphor were calculated to be (0.595, 0.404). The fluorescent concentration quenching of Sm{sup 3+} doped spindle-like phosphors was studied based on the Van Uitert's model, and it was found that the electric dipole-dipole (D-D) interaction is the dominant energy transfer mechanism between Sm{sup 3+} ions in the CaWO{sub 4}:Sm{sup 3+} phosphors. The critical energy transfer distance was

  1. TiO{sub 2} flower-like nanostructures decorated with CdS/PbS nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trenczek-Zajac, Anita; Kusior, Anna; Lacz, Agnieszka; Radecka, Marta; Zakrzewska, Katarzyna

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: TiO{sub 2} flower-like nanostructures were prepared with the use of Ti foil and 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. QDs of CdS and PbS were deposited using the SILAR method. The SILAR method makes it possible to control the size of QDs. Band gap energy of CdS was found to be 2.35 eV. Sensitization of TiO{sub 2} with CdS or PbS improves the photoelectrochemical properties. - Abstract: Flower-like nanostructures of TiO{sub 2} were prepared by immersing Ti foil in 30% H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at 80 C for times varying from 15 to 240 min. Upon annealing at 450 C in an Ar atmosphere, the received amorphous samples crystallized in an anatase structure with rutile as a minority phase. SEM images revealed that partially formed flowers were present at the surface of the prepared samples as early as after 15 min of immersion. The size of the individual flowers increased from 400800 nm after 15 min of reaction to 2.56.0 ?m after 240 min. It was also found that surface is very rough and surface development is considerable. After 45 min of immersion, the nanoflowers were sensitized with CdS and PbS quantum dots (QDs-CdS/QDs-PbS) deposited using the SILAR method from water- and methanol-based precursor solutions at different concentrations (0.0010.1 M). QDs-CdS crystallized in the hawleyite structure, while QDs-PbS in the galena form. SEM analysis showed the tendency of quantum dots to agglomerate at high concentrations of the precursor in water-based solutions. QDs obtained from methanol-based solutions were uniformly distributed. The produced QDs-PbS were smaller than QDs-CdS. Based on the optical reflectance spectra, the band-gap energies of TiO{sub 2} nanostructures with and without QDs were calculated to be 3.32 eV for flower-like TiO{sub 2} nanostructures and 2.35 eV for QDs-CdS. The photoelectrochemical behaviour of nanoflowers was found to improve significantly after the deposition of QDs-CdS.

  2. Robust diamond-like Fe-Si network in the zero-strain NaxFeSiO4 cathode

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Zhuo; Zhao, Xin; Li, Shouding; Wu, Shunqing; Wu, Ping; Nguyen, Manh Cuong; Guo, Jianghuai; Mi, Jinxiao; Gong, Zhengliang; Zhu, Zi -Zhong; et al

    2016-07-14

    Sodium orthosilicates Na2MSiO4 (M denotes transition metals) have attracted much attention due to the possibility of exchanging two electrons per formula unit. In this work, we report a group of sodium iron orthosilicates Na2FeSiO4. Their crystal structures are characterized by a diamond-like Fe-Si network. The Fe-Si network is quite robust against the charge/discharge process, which explains the high structural stability observed in experiment. Furthermore, using the density functional theory within the GGA + U framework and X-ray diffraction studies, the crystal structures and structural stabilities during the sodium extraction/re-insertion process are systematically investigated.

  3. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multi-modal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-10-28

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, all focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  4. Modeling most likely pathways for smuggling radioactive and special nuclear materials on a worldwide multimodal transportation network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeger, Kevin J; Cuellar, Leticia

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear weapons proliferation is an existing and growing worldwide problem. To help with devising strategies and supporting decisions to interdict the transport of nuclear material, we developed the Pathway Analysis, Threat Response and Interdiction Options Tool (PATRIOT) that provides an analytical approach for evaluating the probability that an adversary smuggling radioactive or special nuclear material will be detected during transit. We incorporate a global, multi-modal transportation network, explicit representation of designed and serendipitous detection opportunities, and multiple threat devices, material types, and shielding levels. This paper presents the general structure of PATRIOT, and focuses on the theoretical framework used to model the reliabilities of all network components that are used to predict the most likely pathways to the target.

  5. OBSERVATIONS OF INTENSITY FLUCTUATIONS ATTRIBUTED TO GRANULATION AND FACULAE ON SUN-LIKE STARS FROM THE KEPLER MISSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karoff, C.; Campante, T. L.; Ballot, J.; Kallinger, T.; Gruberbauer, M.; Garcia, R. A.

    2013-04-10

    Sun-like stars show intensity fluctuations on a number of timescales due to various physical phenomena on their surfaces. These phenomena can convincingly be studied in the frequency spectra of these stars-while the strongest signatures usually originate from spots, granulation, and p-mode oscillations, it has also been suggested that the frequency spectrum of the Sun contains a signature of faculae. We have analyzed three stars observed for 13 months in short cadence (58.84 s sampling) by the Kepler mission. The frequency spectra of all three stars, as for the Sun, contain signatures that we can attribute to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations. The temporal variability of the signatures attributed to granulation, faculae, and p-mode oscillations was analyzed and the analysis indicates a periodic variability in the granulation and faculae signatures-comparable to what is seen in the Sun.

  6. Curvature Effect on the Capacitance of Electric Double Layers at Ionic Liquid/Onion-Like Carbon Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feng, Guang; Jiang, Deen; Cummings, Peter T

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments have revealed that onion-like carbons (OLCs) offer high energy density and charging/discharging rates when used as the electrodes in supercapacitors. To understand the physical origin of this phenomenon, molecular dynamics simulations were performed for a room-temperature ionic liquid near idealized spherical OLCs with radii ranging from 0.356 to 1.223 nm. We find that the surface charge density increases almost linearly with the potential applied on electric double layers (EDLs) near OLCs. This leads to a nearly flat shape of the differential capacitance versus the potential, unlike the bell or camel shape observed on planar electrodes. Moreover, our simulations reveal that the capacitance of EDLs on OLCs increases with the curvature or as the OLC size decreases, in agreement with experimental observations. The curvature effect is explained by dominance of charge overscreening over a wide potential range and increased ion density per unit area of electrode surface as the OLC becomes smaller.

  7. SYSTEMATIC CALCULATIONS OF ENERGY LEVELS AND TRANSITION RATES OF C-LIKE IONS WITH Z = 13-36

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, K.; Li, D. F.; Liu, H. T.; Han, X. Y.; Duan, B.; Li, C. Y.; Li, J. G.; Yan, J.; Guo, X. L.; Chen, C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Based on systematic calculations using a combined relativistic configuration interaction and a many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) approach, we provide a complete and consistent data set for 46 levels belonging to the 2s {sup 2}2p {sup 2}, 2s2p {sup 3}, 2p {sup 4}, 2s {sup 2}2p3s, 2s {sup 2}2p3p, and 2s {sup 2}2p3d configurations in C-like ions with 13 ≤ Z ≤ 36. The data set includes energy levels as well as electric dipole, magnetic dipole, electric quadrupole, and magnetic quadrupole transition properties. Extensive comparisons with available observed and calculated results are made and indicate that the present MBPT calculations are highly accurate. The present data set can be used reliably for many purposes, such as the line identification of observed spectra, and modeling and diagnostics of astrophysical and fusion plasmas.

  8. Micromagnetic analysis of dynamical bubble-like solitons based on the time domain evolution of the topological density

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puliafito, Vito Azzerboni, Bruno; Finocchio, Giovanni; Torres, Luis; Ozatay, Ozhan

    2014-05-07

    Dynamical bubble-like solitons have been recently investigated in nanocontact-based spin-torque oscillators with a perpendicular free layer. Those magnetic configurations can be excited also in different geometries as long as they consist of perpendicular materials. Thus, in this paper, a systematic study of the influence of both external field and high current on that kind of dynamics is performed for a spin-valve point-contact geometry where both free and fixed layers present strong perpendicular anisotropy. The usage of the topological density tool highlights the excitation of complex bubble/antibubble configurations. In particular, at high currents, a deformation of the soliton and its simultaneous shift from the contact area are observed and can be ascribable to the Oersted field. Results provide further detailed information on the excitation of solitons in perpendicular materials for application in spintronics, magnonics, and domain wall logic.

  9. Nickel nano-particle modified nitrogen-doped amorphous hydrogenated diamond-like carbon film for glucose sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Aiping; Jin, Chunyan; Cho, Sang-Jin; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Young Dok; Lim, Dong Chan; Kim, Doo Hwan; Hong, Byungyou; Boo, Jin-Hyo

    2012-10-15

    Electrochemical method has been employed in this work to modify nitrogen-doped hydrogen amorphous diamond-like carbon (N-DLC) film to fabricate nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes. The electrochemical behavior of the nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrodes has been characterized at the presence of glucose in electrolyte. Meanwhile, the N-DLC film structure and the morphology of metal nano-particles on the N-DLC surface have been investigated using micro-Raman spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy. The nickel nano-particle-modified N-DLC electrode exhibits a high catalytic activity and low background current. This result shows that the nickel nano-particle deposition on N-DLC surface could be a promising method to fabricate novel electrode materials for glucose sensing.

  10. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graves, Steven W.; Habberset, Robert C.

    2010-11-16

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  11. Measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry with 9 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Abazov, V. M.; Abbott, B.; Acharya, B. S.; Adams, M.; Adams, T.; Alexeev, G. D.; Alkhazov, G.; Alton, A.; Alverson, G.; Alves, G. A.; et al

    2011-09-16

    We present an updated measurement of the anomalous like-sign dimuon charge asymmetry Absl for semileptonic b-hadron decays in 9.0 fb⁻¹ of pp̄ collisions recorded with the D0 detector at a center-of-mass energy of √s=1.96 TeV at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. We obtain Absl=(-0.787±0.172(stat)±0.093(syst))%. This result differs by 3.9 standard deviations from the prediction of the standard model and provides evidence for anomalously large CP violation in semileptonic neutral B decay. The dependence of the asymmetry on the muon impact parameter is consistent with the hypothesis that it originates from semileptonic b-hadron decays.

  12. Photocatalytic degradation mechanisms of self-assembled rose-flower-like CeO{sub 2} hierarchical nanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabari Arul, N.; Department of Nanoscience and Technology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641 046 ; Mangalaraj, D.; Whan Kim, Tae

    2013-06-03

    Hierarchical rose-flower-like CeO{sub 2} nanostructures were formed by using solvothermal and thermal annealing processes. The CeCO{sub 3}OH thin film was transformed into CeO{sub 2} roses due to thermal annealing. CeO{sub 2} nanostructured roses exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity with a degradation rate of 65% for the azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7) under ultraviolet illumination. The fitting of the absorbance maximum versus time showed that the degradation of AO7 obeyed pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics. The enhancement of the photocatalytic activity for the CeO{sub 2} roses was attributed to the high adsorptivity resulting from the surface active sites and special 4f electron configuration.

  13. Tunable exchange bias-like effect in patterned hard-soft two-dimensional lateral composites with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hierro-Rodriguez, A. Alvarez-Prado, L. M.; Martín, J. I.; Alameda, J. M.; Teixeira, J. M.; Vélez, M.

    2014-09-08

    Patterned hard-soft 2D magnetic lateral composites have been fabricated by e-beam lithography plus dry etching techniques on sputter-deposited NdCo{sub 5} thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. Their magnetic behavior is strongly thickness dependent due to the interplay between out-of-plane anisotropy and magnetostatic energy. Thus, the spatial modulation of thicknesses leads to an exchange coupled system with hard/soft magnetic regions in which rotatable anisotropy of the thicker elements provides an extra tool to design the global magnetic behavior of the patterned lateral composite. Kerr microscopy studies (domain imaging and magneto-optical Kerr effect magnetometry) reveal that the resulting hysteresis loops exhibit a tunable exchange bias-like shift that can be switched on/off by the applied magnetic field.

  14. MSSM Higgs Boson Searches at the LHC: Benchmark Scenarios after the Discovery of a Higgs-like Particle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carena, M.; Heinemeyer, S.; Stål, O.; Wagner, C.E.M.; Weiglein, G.

    2013-09-01

    A Higgs-like particle with a mass of about 125.5 GeV has been discovered at the LHC. Within the current experimental uncertainties, this new state is compatible with both the predictions for the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson and with the Higgs sector in the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM). We propose new low-energy MSSM benchmark scenarios that, over a wide parameter range, are compatible with the mass and production rates of the observed signal. These scenarios also exhibit interesting phenomenology for the MSSM Higgs sector. We propose a slightly updated version of the well-known mh-max scenario, and a modified scenario (mh-mod), where the light CP-even Higgs boson can be interpreted as the LHC signal in large parts of the MA-tan \\beta\\ plane. Furthermore, we define a light stop scenario that leads to a suppression of the lightest CP-even Higgs gluon fusion rate, and a light stau scenario with an enhanced decay rate of h to \\gamma\\gamma\\ at large tan \\beta. We also suggest a \\tau-phobic Higgs scenario in which the lightest Higgs can have suppressed couplings to down-type fermions. We propose to supplement the specified value of the \\mu\\ parameter in some of these scenarios with additional values of both signs. This has a significant impact on the interpretation of searches for the non SM-like MSSM Higgs bosons. We also discuss the sensitivity of the searches to heavy Higgs decays into light charginos and neutralinos, and to decays of the form H to hh. Finally, in addition to all the other scenarios where the lightest CP-even Higgs is interpreted as the LHC signal, we propose a low-MH scenario, where instead the heavy CP-even Higgs boson corresponds to the new state around 125.5 GeV.

  15. Non-dioxin-like PCBs interact with benzo[a]pyrene-induced p53-responses and inhibit apoptosis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Anati, Lauy Hoegberg, Johan; Stenius, Ulla

    2010-12-01

    Non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (NDL-PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants often co-existing in contaminated environments. However, there are few studies on the effects of co-exposure, in particular on effects of pure NDL-PCB congeners and PAHs. We have evaluated the effects of some highly purified NDL-PCBs and benzo[a]pyrene (BP) on BP-induced Raf, Erk, Mdm2, p53 signaling and on BP-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. PCBs (1 {mu}M) were added to HepG2 cells 1 h prior to BP and the incubation was stopped at 24 h. Employing Western blotting we found that NDL-PCBs (28, 101 and 153) amplified the BP-induced inactivating phosphorylation of Raf (pRaf Ser 259) and decreased levels of pErk Tyr 204. This treatment also resulted in the attenuation of BP-induced Mdm2 phosphorylation at Ser166 and amplification of the p53 Ser15 response. These effects were associated with an unexpected inhibition of BP-induced apoptosis. A dioxin-like PCB (DL-PCB 126) was used as reference and gave results that were predictable from previous studies, i.e. it attenuated BP-induced p53 response and apoptosis. In an effort to explain why the NDL-PCB-induced amplification of the p53 response was associated with a decreased apoptotic response we analyzed FoxO3a, which may translocate p53 to the cytoplasm. We found that NDL-PCBs reduced the level of phosphorylated FoxO3a at Thr32. This phosphorylation promotes a cytoplasmic translocation of FoxO3a and p53 and our data suggest that NDL-PCBs may inhibit BP-induced apoptosis by preventing a FoxO3a-dependent translocation of p53 to the cytoplasm.

  16. Proteomics and transcriptomics analyses of Arabidopsis floral buds uncover important functions of ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lu, Dihong; Ni, Weimin; Stanley, Bruce A.; Ma, Hong

    2016-03-03

    The ARABIDOPSIS SKP1-LIKE1 (ASK1) protein functions as a subunit of SKP1-CUL1-F-box (SCF) E3 ubiquitin ligases. Previous genetic studies showed that ASK1 plays important roles in Arabidopsis flower development and male meiosis. However, the molecular impact of ASK1-containing SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases (ASK1-E3s) on the floral proteome and transcriptome is unknown. Here we identified proteins that are potentially regulated by ASK1-E3s by comparing floral bud proteomes of wild-type and the ask1 mutant plants. More than 200 proteins were detected in the ask1 mutant but not in wild-type and >300 were detected at higher levels in the ask1 mutant than in wild-type,more » but their RNA levels were not significantly different between wild-type and ask1 floral buds as shown by transcriptomics analysis, suggesting that they are likely regulated at the protein level by ASK1-E3s. Integrated analyses of floral proteomics and transcriptomics of ask1 and wild-type uncovered several potential aspects of ASK1-E3 functions, including regulation of transcription regulators, kinases, peptidases, and ribosomal proteins, with implications on possible mechanisms of ASK1-E3 functions in floral development. In conclusion, our results suggested that ASK1-E3s play important roles in Arabidopsis protein degradation during flower development. This study opens up new possibilities for further functional studies of these candidate E3 substrates.« less

  17. KECK/MOSFIRE SPECTROSCOPIC CONFIRMATION OF A VIRGO-LIKE CLUSTER ANCESTOR AT z = 2.095

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Tiantian; Kewley, Lisa J.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Glazebrook, Karl; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Tomczak, Adam R.; Spitler, Lee R.; Poole, Gregory B.; Labbé, Ivo; Straatman, Caroline M. S.

    2014-11-01

    We present spectroscopic confirmation of a galaxy cluster at z = 2.095 in the COSMOS field. This galaxy cluster was first reported in the ZFOURGE survey as harboring evolved massive galaxies using photometric redshifts derived with deep near-infrared (NIR) medium-band filters. We obtain medium-resolution (R ∼ 3600) NIR spectroscopy with MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope and secure 180 redshifts in a 12' × 12' region. We find a prominent spike of 57 galaxies at z = 2.095 corresponding to the galaxy cluster. The cluster velocity dispersion is measured to be σ{sub v1D}  =  552 ± 52 km s{sup –1}. This is the first study of a galaxy cluster in this redshift range (z ≳ 2.0) with the combination of spectral resolution (∼26 km s{sup –1}) and the number of confirmed members (>50) needed to impose a meaningful constraint on the cluster velocity dispersion and map its members over a large field of view. Our ΛCDM cosmological simulation suggests that this cluster will most likely evolve into a Virgo-like cluster with M {sub vir} = 10{sup 14.4} {sup ±} {sup 0.3} M {sub ☉} (68% confidence) at z ∼ 0. The theoretical probability of finding such a cluster is ∼4%. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of studying galaxy clusters at z > 2 in the same detailed manner using multi-object NIR spectrographs as has been done in the optical in lower-redshift clusters.

  18. Simulation of ENSO-like phenomena with a low-resolution coupled GCM of the global ocean and atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Ngarcheung; Philander, S.G.H.; Nath, M.J. )

    1992-04-01

    A 140-year simulation of the ocean-atmosphere climate system has been performed by the GFDL Climate Dynamics Project using a low-resolution coupled general circulation model (GCM). The model was subjected to annually averaged insolation throughout the integration. This coupled system exhibits well-defined fluctuations in the tropical Pacific, with a preferred time scale of 3-4 years. The characteristics of these recurrent anomalies were examined by applying an extended empirical orthogonal function (EEOF) analysis to selected model variables. These results indicate that the simulated oscillations are accompanied by coherent changes in the atmospheric and oceanic circulation. The spatial patterns associated with the leading EEOF mode indicate that SST anomalies make their first appearance off the Peru-Ecuador coast and then migrate steadily westward, with an average transit time of 12-15 months. The arrival and eventual decay of SST fluctuations in the western Pacific is typically followed by the initiation of anomalies of the opposite polarity along the American coasts. The space-time evolution of various meteorological and oceanographic signals exhibits well-defined phase relationships with the SST perturbations. Some aspects of the model behavior during these warm and cold episodes are reminiscent of observed phenomena associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Analysis of the climatological heat budget for the top ocean layer indicates a near balance between horizontal and vertical temperature advection by the time-mean flow, vertical diffusion, and heat input from the overlying atmosphere. The principal mechanisms associated with the simulated ENSO-like cycles were then studied by examining the local heat budget for the SST perturbations. The relative importance of various linear advective processes in the heat budget exhibits a notable dependence on geographical location and on the specific phase of the ENSO-like cycle.

  19. Understanding the El Niño-like Oceanic Response in the Tropical Pacific to Global Warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luo, Yiyong; Lu, Jian; Liu, Fukai; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-10

    The enhanced central and eastern Pacific SST warming and the associated ocean processes under global warming are investigated using the ocean component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM), Parallel Ocean Program version 2 (POP2). The tropical SST warming pattern in the coupled CESM can be faithfully reproduced by the POP2 forced with surface fluxes computed using the aerodynamic bulk formula. By prescribing the wind stress and/or wind speed through the bulk formula, the effects of wind stress change and/or the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback are isolated and their linearity is evaluated in this ocean-alone setting. Result shows that, although the weakening of the equatorial easterlies contributes positively to the El Niño-like SST warming, 80% of which can be simulated by the POP2 without considering the effects of wind change in both mechanical and thermodynamic fluxes. This result points to the importance of the air-sea thermal interaction and the relative feebleness of the ocean dynamical process in the El Niño-like equatorial Pacific SST response to global warming. On the other hand, the wind stress change is found to play a dominant role in the oceanic response in the tropical Pacific, accounting for most of the changes in the equatorial ocean current system and thermal structures, including the weakening of the surface westward currents, the enhancement of the near-surface stratification and the shoaling of the equatorial thermocline. Interestingly, greenhouse gas warming in the absence of wind stress change and WES feedback also contributes substantially to the changes at the subsurface equatorial Pacific. Further, this warming impact can be largely replicated by an idealized ocean experiment forced by a uniform surface heat flux, whereby, arguably, a purest form of oceanic dynamical thermostat is revealed.

  20. Structure of Naegleria Tet-like dioxygenase (NgTet1) in complexes with a reaction intermediate 5-hydroxymethylcytosine DNA

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Pais, June E.; Dai, Nan; Corrêa, Jr., Ivan R.; Zhang, Xing; Zheng, Yu; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2015-08-31

    The family of ten-eleven translocation (Tet) dioxygenases is widely distributed across the eukaryotic tree of life, from mammals to the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi. Like mammalian Tet proteins, the Naegleria Tet-like protein, NgTet1, acts on 5-methylcytosine (5mC) and generates 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC), 5-formylcytosine (5fC) and 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC) in three consecutive, Fe(II)- and α-ketoglutarate-dependent oxidation reactions. The two intermediates, 5hmC and 5fC, could be considered either as the reaction product of the previous enzymatic cycle or the substrate for the next cycle. Here we present a new crystal structure of NgTet1 in complex with DNA containing a 5hmC. Along with the previously solvedmore » NgTet1–5mC structure, the two complexes offer a detailed picture of the active site at individual stages of the reaction cycle. In the crystal, the hydroxymethyl (OH-CH2-) moiety of 5hmC points to the metal center, representing the reaction product of 5mC hydroxylation. The hydroxyl oxygen atom could be rotated away from the metal center, to a hydrophobic pocket formed by Ala212, Val293 and Phe295. Such rotation turns the hydroxyl oxygen atom away from the product conformation, and exposes the target CH2 towards the metal-ligand water molecule, where a dioxygen O2 molecule would occupy to initiate the next round of reaction by abstracting a hydrogen atom from the substrate. The Ala212-to-Val (A212V) mutant profoundly limits the product to 5hmC, probably due to the reduced hydrophobic pocket size restricts the binding of 5hmC as a substrate.« less

  1. The first-principle coupled calculations using TMCC and CFX for the pin-wise simulation of LWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, L.; Wang, K.

    2012-07-01

    The coupling of neutronics and thermal-hydraulics plays an important role in the reactor safety, core design and operation of nuclear power facilities. This paper introduces the research on the coupling of Monte Carlo method and CFD method, specifically using TMCC and CFX. The methods of the coupling including the coupling approach, data transfer, mesh mapping and transient coupling scheme are studied firstly. The coupling of TMCC and CFX for the steady state calculations is studied and described for the single rod model and the 3 x 3 Rod Bundle model. The calculation results prove that the coupling method is feasible and the coupled calculation can be used for steady state calculations. However, the oscillation which occurs during the coupled calculation indicates that this method still needs to be improved for the accuracy. Then the coupling for the transient calculations is also studied and tested by two cases of the steady state and the lost of heat sink. The preliminary results of the transient coupled calculations indicates that the transient coupling with TMCC and CFX is able to simulate the transients but instabilities are occurring. It is also concluded that the transient coupling of TMCC and CFX needs to be improved due to the limitation of computational resource and the difference of time scales. (authors)

  2. Reservoir characterization of the Clough area, Barnett Shale, Wise County, Texas. Topical report, January-July 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, N.C.; Lancaster, D.E.

    1995-07-01

    The objective of this work was to learn more about the reservoir characteristics in the Barnett Shale. Specifically, from an analysis of pressure, production, interference, and fracture treatment data in three Mitchell Energy Corporation Cough area wells, the authors can infer the relationship between the induced hydraulic fractures and the natural fracture system in the reservoir. The authors are learning something about drainage area size, shape, and orientation.

  3. Search for doubly charged Higgs bosons in like-sign dilepton final states at √s¯= 7 TeV with the ATLAS detector

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Aad, G.

    2012-12-04

    A search for doubly-charged Higgs bosons decaying to pairs of electrons and/or muons is presented. The search is performed using a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 4.7 fb-1 of pp collisions at √s¯ = 7 TeV collected by the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Pairs of prompt, isolated, high-pT leptons with the same electric charge (e±e±, e±μ±, μ±μ±) are selected, and their invariant mass distribution is searched for a narrow resonance. No significant excess over Standard Model background expectations is observed, and limits are placed on the cross section times branching ratio for pair production of doubly-chargedmore » Higgs bosons. The masses of doubly-charged Higgs bosons are constrained depending on the branching ratio into these leptonic final states. Assuming pair production, coupling to left-handed fermions, and a branching ratio of 100% for each final state, masses below 409 GeV, 375 GeV, and 398 GeV are excluded for e±e±, e±μ±, and μ±μ±, respectively.« less

  4. STAT3 signaling pathway is necessary for cell survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +} stem cell-like human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Li; Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030 ; Fuchs, James; Li, Chenglong; Olson, Veronica; Bekaii-Saab, Tanios; Lin, Jiayuh

    2011-12-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 inhibitor, FLLL32 inhibits P-STAT3 and STAT3 target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of STAT3 resulted in decreased cell viability and reduced numbers of tumorspheres. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer STAT3 is required for survival and tumorsphere forming capacity in colon cancer stem-like cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Targeting STAT3 in cancer stem-like cells may offer a novel treatment approach for colon cancer. -- Abstract: Persistent activation of Signal Transducers and Activators of Transcription 3 (STAT3) is frequently detected in colon cancer. Increasing evidence suggests the existence of a small population of colon cancer stem or cancer-initiating cells may be responsible for tumor initiation, metastasis, and resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. Whether STAT3 plays a role in colon cancer-initiating cells and the effect of STAT3 inhibition is still unknown. Flow cytometry was used to isolate colon cancer stem-like cells from three independent human colon cancer cell lines characterized by both aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)-positive and CD133-positive subpopulation (ALDH{sup +}/CD133{sup +}). The effects of STAT3 inhibition in colon cancer stem-like cells were examined. The phosphorylated or activated form of STAT3 was expressed in colon cancer stem-like cells and was reduced by a STAT3-selective small molecular inhibitor, FLLL32. FLLL32 also inhibited the expression of potential STAT3 downstream target genes in colon cancer stem-like cells including survivin, Bcl-XL, as well as Notch-1, -3, and -4, which may be involved in stem cell function. Furthermore, FLLL32 inhibited cell viability and tumorsphere formation as well as induced cleaved caspase-3 in colon cancer stem-like cells. FLLL32 is more potent than curcumin as evidenced with lower

  5. Functional Toll-like receptor 4 expressed in lactotrophs mediates LPS-induced proliferation in experimental pituitary hyperplasia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sabatino, Mara Eugenia; Sosa, Liliana del Valle; Petiti, Juan Pablo; Mukdsi, Jorge Humberto; Mascanfroni, Ivn Daro; Pellizas, Claudia Gabriela; Gutirrez, Silvina; Torres, Alicia Ins; De Paul, Ana Luca

    2013-11-15

    Toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been characterized for its ability to recognize bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Considering that infections or inflammatory processes might contribute to the progression of pituitary tumors, we analyzed the TLR4 functional role by evaluating the LPS effect on lactotroph proliferation in primary cultures from experimental pituitary tumors, and examined the involvement of PI3K-Akt and NF-?B activation in this effect. In addition, the role of 17?-estradiol as a possible modulator of LPS-induced PRL cell proliferation was further investigated. In estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, LPS triggered lactotroph cell proliferation. However, endotoxin failed to increase the number of lactotrophs taking up BrdU in normal pituitaries. Moreover, incubation with anti-TLR4 antibody significantly reduced LPS-induced lactotroph proliferation, suggesting a functional role of this receptor. As a sign of TLR4 activation, an LPS challenge increased IL-6 release in normal and tumoral cells. By flow cytometry, TLR4 baseline expression was revealed at the plasma membrane of tumoral lactotrophs, without changes noted in the percentage of double PRL/TLR4 positive cells after LPS stimulus. Increases in TLR4 intracellular expression were detected as well as rises in CD14, p-Akt and NF-?B after an LPS challenge, as assessed by western blotting. The TLR4/PRL and PRL/NF-?B co-localization was also corroborated by immunofluorescence and the involvement of PI3K/Akt signaling in lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release was revealed through the PI3K inhibitor Ly-294002. In addition, 17?-estradiol attenuated the LPS-evoked increase in tumoral lactotroph proliferation and IL-6 release. Collectively these results demonstrate the presence of functional TLR4 in lactotrophs from estrogen-induced hyperplasic pituitaries, which responded to the proliferative stimulation and IL-6 release induced by LPS through TLR4/CD14, with a contribution of the PI3K

  6. Depth profiling analysis of solar wind helium collected in diamond-like carbon film from Genesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajo, Ken-ichi; Olinger, Chad T.; Jurewicz, Amy J.G.; Burnett, Donald S.; Sakaguchi, Isao; Suzuki, Taku; Itose, Satoru; Ishihara, Morio; Uchino, Kiichiro; Wieler, Rainer; Yurimoto, Hisayoshi

    2015-10-01

    The distribution of solar-wind ions in Genesis mission collectors, as determined by depth profiling analysis, constrains the physics of ion solid interactions involving the solar wind. Thus, they provide an experimental basis for revealing ancient solar activities represented by solar-wind implants in natural samples. We measured the first depth profile of ⁴He in a collector; the shallow implantation (peaking at <20 nm) required us to use sputtered neutral mass spectrometry with post-photoionization by a strong field. The solar wind He fluence calculated using depth profiling is ~8.5 x 10¹⁴ cm⁻². The shape of the solar wind ⁴He depth profile is consistent with TRIM simulations using the observed ⁴He velocity distribution during the Genesis mission. It is therefore likely that all solar-wind elements heavier than H are completely intact in this Genesis collector and, consequently, the solar particle energy distributions for each element can be calculated from their depth profiles. Ancient solar activities and space weathering of solar system objects could be quantitatively reproduced by solar particle implantation profiles.

  7. Magnetoresistance effects and spin-valve like behavior of an arrangement of two MnAs nanoclusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, M.; Klar, P. J.; Elm, M. T.; Sakita, S.; Hara, S.

    2015-01-19

    We report on magnetotransport measurements on a MnAs nanocluster arrangement consisting of two elongated single-domain clusters connected by a metal spacer. The arrangement was grown on GaAs(111)B-substrates by selective-area metal organic vapor phase epitaxy. Its structural properties were investigated using scanning-electron microscopy and atomic-force microscopy, while its magnetic domain structure was analyzed by magnetic-force microscopy. The magnetoresistance of the arrangement was investigated at 120 K for two measurement geometries with the magnetic field oriented in the sample plane. For both geometries, discrete jumps of the magnetoresistance of the MnAs nanocluster arrangement were observed. These jumps can be explained by magnetic-field induced switching of the relative orientation of the magnetizations of the two clusters which affects the spin-dependent scattering in the interface region between the clusters. For a magnetic field orientation parallel to the nanoclusters' elongation direction a spin-valve like behavior was observed, showing that ferromagnetic nanoclusters may be suitable building blocks for planar magnetoelectronic devices.

  8. Molecular characterization of a CpTRIM35-like protein and its splice variants from whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xinshang Zhao, Heng Chen, Yeyu Luo, Huiying Yao, Bin

    2014-10-24

    Highlights: • A TRIM gene and three splice variants were firstly cloned from elasmobranch fish. • The genes were constitutively expressed with high levels in spleen and kidney. • The gene products were distributed in cytoplasm alone or cytoplasm and nucleus. • As E3 ubiquitin ligases, the proteins differed in immune responses to challenges. - Abstract: The tripartite motif (TRIM) proteins play important roles in a broad range of biological processes, including apoptosis, cell proliferation and innate immunity response. In this study, a TRIM gene and its three splice variants were cloned from an elasmobranch fish—whitespotted bamboo shark (Chiloscyllium plagiosum Bennett). Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the gene was closely related to TRIM35 homologs, thus termed CpTRIM35-like. Deduced CpTRIM35 has a RBCC-PRY/SPRY structure typical of TRIM proteins, and its splice variants (CpTRIM35-1–3) have different truncations at the C-terminus. The gene products were constitutively expressed in adult sharks with the highest levels in spleen and kidney. The different subcellular locations, upregulation upon LPS and poly I:C stimulation, and significant E3 ubiquitin ligase activities suggested their different roles in immune responses as an E3 ubiquitin ligase. This is the first TRIM protein ever characterized in elasmobranch fish.

  9. Functionalization of Hydrogen-free Diamond-like Carbon Films using Open-air Dielectric Barrier Discharge Atmospheric Plasma Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA; Instituto de Materiales de Madrid, C.S.I.C., Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid, Spain; Instituto de Quimica-Fisica"Rocasolano"C.S.I.C., 28006 Madrid, Spain; Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham 44150, Thailand; CASTI, CNR-INFM Regional Laboratory, L'Aquila 67100, Italy; SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, USA; Endrino, Jose; Endrino, J. L.; Marco, J. F.; Poolcharuansin, P.; Phani, A.R.; Allen, M.; Albella, J. M.; Anders, A.

    2007-12-28

    A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) technique has been employed to produce uniform atmospheric plasmas of He and N2 gas mixtures in open air in order to functionalize the surface of filtered-arc deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films. XPS measurements were carried out on both untreated and He/N2 DBD plasma treated DLC surfaces. Chemical states of the C 1s and N 1s peaks were collected and used to characterize the surface bonds. Contact angle measurements were also used to record the short- and long-term variations in wettability of treated and untreated DLC. In addition, cell viability tests were performed to determine the influence of various He/N2 atmospheric plasma treatments on the attachment of osteoblast MC3T3 cells. Current evidence shows the feasibility of atmospheric plasmas in producing long-lasting variations in the surface bonding and surface energy of hydrogen-free DLC and consequently the potential for this technique in the functionalization of DLC coated devices.

  10. X-ray structure and inhibition of 3C-like protease from porcine epidemic diarrhea virus

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    St. John, Sarah E.; Anson, Brandon J.; Mesecar, Andrew D.

    2016-05-13

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a coronavirus that infects pigs and can have mortality rates approaching 100% in piglets, causing serious economic impact. The 3C-like protease (3CLpro) is essential for the coronaviral life cycle and is an appealing target for the development of therapeutics. We report the expression, purification, crystallization and 2.10 angstrom X-ray structure of 3CLpro from PEDV. Analysis of the PEDV 3CLpro structure and comparison to other coronaviral 3CLpro's from the same alpha-coronavirus phylogeny shows that the overall structures and active site architectures across 3CLpro's are conserved, with the exception of a loop that comprises the proteasemore » S-2 pocket. We found a known inhibitor of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) 3CLpro, (R)-16, to have inhibitor activity against PEDV 3CLpro, despite that SARS-3CLpro and PEDV 3CLpro share only 45.4% sequence identity. Structural comparison reveals that the majority of residues involved in (R)-16 binding to SARS-3CLpro are conserved in PEDV-3CLpro; however, the sequence variation and positional difference in the loop forming the S-2 pocket may account for large observed difference in IC50 values. In conclusion, this work advances our understanding of the subtle, but important, differences in coronaviral 3CLpro architecture and contributes to the broader structural knowledge of coronaviral 3CLpro's.« less

  11. Shock-induced irreversible transition from {alpha}-quartz to CaCl{sub 2}-like silica

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berterretche, P.; Resseguier, T. de; Hallouin, M.; Petitet, J. P.

    2004-10-15

    Previous analyses of quartz samples recovered after being submitted to laser shocks of very short duration (nanosecond order) have shown the presence of CaCl{sub 2}-like silica [T. de Resseguier, P. Berterretche, M. Hallouin, and J. P. Petitet, J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2123 (2003)]. To date, this transition has never been observed under shocks of longer duration (microsecond order) generated by explosives or plate impacts. While this phase is produced from stishovite under static compression at very high pressure (above 50 GPa) and disappears on pressure release, it is observed after low pressure laser shocks (below 5 GPa) and it is quenched to ambient conditions. The origins of these differences are still unclear. This paper presents complementary laser shock experiments involving setups to provide additional information on the influence of various shock parameters. The results suggest a direct transition from {alpha}-quartz to CaCl{sub 2}-type silica following a diffusionless mechanism involving high shear strains. They also show the presence of vitreous silica characterized by an 'organized' ringlike structure, and we propose that this amorphous phase is an intermediate structure between the quartz lattice and grains of the high-pressure phase.

  12. Evidence regarding the UV sunscreen role of a mycosporine-like compound in the cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Pichel, F.; Wingard, C.E.; Castenholz, R.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) have been thought to serve a UV sunscreen role in organisms that produce or contain them because MAAs present strong absorbance in the UV region and because there is no other apparent biological function. The researchers used the cyanobacterium Gloeocapsa sp. to assess the possible sunscreen role of MAAs. Five conditions are evaluated: (1) absorption of radiation high enough to provide benefit to the organisms; (2) correlation of presence of the compound with enhansed fitness under UV; (3) concentration of the compound and resistance to UV still present under physiological inactivity; (4) effect maximal at wavelengths of maximal absorption; (5) loss of protection after artificial removal of compound. The results indicate that only a small sunscreen effect can be ascribed to the MAA in the Gloecapsa sp. under these experimental conditions. It is possible however, that in the typical undisturbed colonial growth form, MAAs and their screening action may become major factors in resistance to UV radiation. 25 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Study the cytotoxicity of different kinds of water-soluble nanoparticles in human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niu, Lu; Li, Yang; Li, Xiaojie; Gao, Xue; Su, Xingguang

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ? Preparation of three kinds of water-soluble QDs: CdTe, CdTe@SiO{sub 2}, Mn:ZnSe. ? Evaluated the cytotoxicity qualitatively and quantitatively. ? Fluorescent staining. ? Detected the total intracellular cadmium in cells. -- Abstract: Quantum nanoparticles have been applied extensively in biological and medical fields, the cytotoxicity of nanoparticles becomes the key point we should concern. In this paper, the cytotoxicity of three kinds of water-soluble nanoparticles: CdTe, CdTe@SiO{sub 2} and Mn:ZnSe was studied. We evaluated the nanoparticles toxicity qualitatively by observing the morphological changes of human osteoblast-like MG-63 cells at different incubation times and colorimetric 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays were carried out to detect the cell viability quantitatively. The results showed that CdTe nanoparticles with high concentrations caused cells to die largely while CdTe@SiO{sub 2} and Mn:ZnSe nanoparticles had no obvious effect. For further study, we studied the relation between the cell viability and the total cadmium concentration in cells and found that the viability of cells treated with CdTe@SiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was higher than that treated with CdTe nanoparticles. We also discovered that the death rate of cells co-incubated with CdTe nanoparticles was proportional to the total intracellular cadmium concentrations.

  14. Investigation of fracture mechanical behavior of nodular cast iron and welded joints with parent-material-like weld metal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, W.; Pusch, G.

    1995-12-31

    The focus of the investigations was the determination of fracture mechanical characteristics and crack resistance curves of the J-Integral and CTOD concept by application of the partial unloading compliance technique and D.C. potential drop technique (four point bend) under static load. The results show a close correlation between crack initiation values as well as crack resistance curves and graphite morphology parameters determined by means of quantitative microstructural analysis where the influence of the matrix (distance of graphite particles) dominates the crack resistance and fracture performance of ferritic nodular cast iron under consideration of the notch effect of graphite particles. SEM in-situ tensile tests showed that due to a beneficial shielding effect of the strength overmatching parent-material-like weld metal (mis-match ratio M = 1.21), cracks positioned directly in the plane of the fusion line did not deviate into the weld metal in spite of its lower toughness compared to that of the parent material. They also showed an unsymmetrical formation of damage in front of the crack tip.

  15. Pseudospin S = 1 formalism and skyrmion-like excitations in the three-body constrained extended Bose–Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moskvin, A. S.

    2015-09-15

    We discuss the most prominent and intensively studied S = 1 pseudospin formalism for the extended bosonic Hubbard model (EBHM) with the on-site Hilbert space truncated to the three lowest occupation states n = 0, 1, 2. The EBHM Hamiltonian is a paradigmatic model for the highly topical field of ultracold gases in optical lattices. The generalized non-Heisenberg effective pseudospin Hamiltonian does provide a deep link with a boson system and a physically clear description of “the myriad of phases,” from uniform Mott insulating phases and density waves to two types of superfluids and supersolids. We argue that the 2D pseudospin system is prone to a topological phase separation and focus on several types of unconventional skyrmion-like topological structures in 2D boson systems, which have not been analyzed until now. The structures are characterized by a complicated interplay of insulating and two superfluid phases with a single- boson and two-boson condensation, respectively.

  16. TENTATIVE EVIDENCE FOR RELATIVISTIC ELECTRONS GENERATED BY THE JET OF THE YOUNG SUN-LIKE STAR DG Tau

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainsworth, Rachael E.; Ray, Tom P.; Taylor, Andrew M.; Scaife, Anna M. M.; Green, David A.; Buckle, Jane V.

    2014-09-01

    Synchrotron emission has recently been detected in the jet of a massive protostar, providing further evidence that certain jet formation characteristics for young stars are similar to those found for highly relativistic jets from active galactic nuclei. We present data at 325 and 610MHz taken with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope of the young, low-mass star DG Tau, an analog of the Sun soon after its birth. This is the first investigation of a low-mass young stellar object at such low frequencies. We detect emission with a synchrotron spectral index in the proximity of the DG Tau jet and interpret this emission as a prominent bow shock associated with this outflow. This result provides tentative evidence for the acceleration of particles to relativistic energies due to the shock impact of this otherwise very low-power jet against the ambient medium. We calculate the equipartition magnetic field strength B {sub min} ? 0.11mG and particle energy E {sub min} ? 4 10{sup 40}erg, which are the minimum requirements to account for the synchrotron emission of the DG Tau bow shock. These results suggest the possibility of low energy cosmic rays being generated by young Sun-like stars.

  17. The Optimization of an Ionic Liquid-Based TALSPEAK-Like Process for Rare Earth Ions Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Sun, Xiaoqi; Luo, Huimin

    2014-01-01

    Five new functionalized ionic liquids (FILs), tetraethylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([N2222][DEHP]), tetraethylammonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)phosphinite ([N2222][BTMPP]), tetraethylammonium bis(2,4,4-trimethylpentyl)dithiophosphinite ([N2222][BTMPDTP]), tetrahexylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([N6666][DEHP]), and tetraoctylammonium di(2-ethylhexyl)phosphate ([N8888][DEHP]) were synthesized and characterized. These ILs along with two previously synthesized FILs ([N4444][DEHP] & [N1888][DEHP]) were used as ionic extractants and investigated for rare earth elements (REEs) separation in 1-decyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/bis(perfluoroethanesulfonyl)imide ([C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI]). These FILs as ionic extractants were miscible with [C10mim][NTf2]/[BETI]. We herein report the applications of these FILs in an IL-based TALSPEAK-like process and the optimization of the process by adjusting the cations and anions of the FILs, concentrations of the FILs as ionic extractants in the IL phase, concentrations of diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) in the aqueous phase, and acidities of the aqueous phase.

  18. Non-Kondo-like electronic structure in the correlated rare-earth hexaboride YbB6

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Neupane, Madhab; Xu, Su -Yang; Alidoust, Nasser; Bian, Guang; Kim, D. J.; Liu, Chang; Belopolski, I.; Chang, T. -R.; Jeng, H. -T.; Durakiewicz, T.; et al

    2015-01-07

    Here, we present angle-resolved photoemission studies on the rare-earth-hexaboride YbB6, which has recently been predicted to be a topological Kondo insulator. Our data do not agree with the prediction and instead show that YbB6 exhibits a novel topological insulator state in the absence of a Kondo mechanism. We find that the Fermi level electronic structure of YbB6 has three 2D Dirac cone like surface states enclosing the Kramers’s points, while the f orbital that would be relevant for the Kondo mechanism is ~1 eV below the Fermi level. Our first-principles calculation shows that the topological state that we observe inmore » YbB6 is due to an inversion between Yb d and B p bands. These experimental and theoretical results provide a new approach for realizing novel correlated topological insulator states in rare-earth materials.« less

  19. The Structure of the Poxvirus A33 Protein Reveals a Dimer of Unique C-Type Lectin-Like Domains

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Su, Hua-Poo; Singh, Kavita; Gittis, Apostolos G.; Garboczi, David N. (NIH)

    2010-11-03

    The current vaccine against smallpox is an infectious form of vaccinia virus that has significant side effects. Alternative vaccine approaches using recombinant viral proteins are being developed. A target of subunit vaccine strategies is the poxvirus protein A33, a conserved protein in the Chordopoxvirinae subfamily of Poxviridae that is expressed on the outer viral envelope. Here we have determined the structure of the A33 ectodomain of vaccinia virus. The structure revealed C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs) that occur as dimers in A33 crystals with five different crystal lattices. Comparison of the A33 dimer models shows that the A33 monomers have a degree of flexibility in position within the dimer. Structural comparisons show that the A33 monomer is a close match to the Link module class of CTLDs but that the A33 dimer is most similar to the natural killer (NK)-cell receptor class of CTLDs. Structural data on Link modules and NK-cell receptor-ligand complexes suggest a surface of A33 that could interact with viral or host ligands. The dimer interface is well conserved in all known A33 sequences, indicating an important role for the A33 dimer. The structure indicates how previously described A33 mutations disrupt protein folding and locates the positions of N-linked glycosylations and the epitope of a protective antibody.

  20. Structural basis for a hand-like site in the calcium sensor CatchER with fast kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ying; Reddish, Florence; Tang, Shen; Zhuo, You; Wang, Yuan-Fang; Yang, Jenny J.; Weber, Irene T.

    2013-12-01

    High-resolution crystal structures of the designed calcium sensor CatchER revealed snapshots of calcium and gadolinium ions binding within the designed site in agreement with its fast kinetics. Calcium ions, which are important signaling molecules, can be detected in the endoplasmic reticulum by an engineered mutant of green fluorescent protein (GFP) designated CatchER with a fast off-rate. High resolution (1.78–1.20 Å) crystal structures were analyzed for CatchER in the apo form and in complexes with calcium or gadolinium to probe the binding site for metal ions. While CatchER exhibits a 1:1 binding stoichiometry in solution, two positions were observed for each of the metal ions bound within the hand-like site formed by the carboxylate side chains of the mutated residues S147E, S202D, Q204E, F223E and T225E that may be responsible for its fast kinetic properties. Comparison of the structures of CatchER, wild-type GFP and enhanced GFP confirmed that different conformations of Thr203 and Glu222 are associated with the two forms of Tyr66 of the chromophore which are responsible for the absorbance wavelengths of the different proteins. Calcium binding to CatchER may shift the equilibrium for conformational population of the Glu222 side chain and lead to further changes in its optical properties.

  1. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Douglas D.; Hiller, John M.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration.

  2. Sensitivity of the Cherenkov Telescope Array to the detection of axion-like particles at high gamma-ray opacities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Manuel; Conrad, Jan E-mail: conrad@fysik.su.se

    2014-12-01

    Extensions of the Standard Model of particles commonly predict the existence of axion(-like) particles (ALPs) that could be detected through their coupling to photons in external magnetic fields. This coupling could lead to modifications of γ-ray spectra from extragalactic sources. Above a certain energy, the γ-ray flux should be exponentially damped due to the interaction with photons of background radiations fields. ALPs, on the other hand, propagate unimpeded over cosmological distances and a reconversion into γ-rays could lead to an additional component in the spectra. Here, we present the sensitivity of the proposed Cherenkov Telescope Array (CTA) to detect this spectral hardening. Using the full instrumental response functions of CTA, a combined likelihood analysis of four γ-ray sources shows that a significant detection of the ALP signal is possible for couplings g{sub aγ} ≳ 2 × 10{sup −11} GeV{sup −1} and ALP masses m{sub a} ∼< 100 neV. We discuss the dependency of these values on different model assumptions and magnetic-field scenarios and identify the best observation strategy to search for an ALP induced boost of the γ-ray flux.

  3. Saddle-like deformation in a dielectric elastomer actuator embedded with liquid-phase gallium-indium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wissman, J.; Finkenauer, L.; Deseri, L.; Majidi, C.

    2014-10-14

    We introduce a dielectric elastomer actuator (DEA) composed of liquid-phase Gallium-Indium (GaIn) alloy electrodes embedded between layers of poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) and examine its mechanics using a specialized elastic shell theory. Residual stresses in the dielectric and sealing layers of PDMS cause the DEA to deform into a saddle-like geometry (Gaussian curvature K<0). Applying voltage Φ to the liquid metal electrodes induces electrostatic pressure (Maxwell stress) on the dielectric and relieves some of the residual stress. This reduces the longitudinal bending curvature and corresponding angle of deflection ϑ. Treating the elastomer as an incompressible, isotropic, NeoHookean solid, we develop a theory based on the principle of minimum potential energy to predict the principal curvatures as a function of Φ. Based on this theory, we predict a dependency of ϑ on Φ that is in strong agreement with experimental measurements performed on a GaIn-PDMS composite. By accurately modeling electromechanical coupling in a soft-matter DEA, this theory can inform improvements in design and fabrication.

  4. The Role of Subtropical Irreversible PV Mixing in the Zonal Mean Circulation Response to Global Warming-like Thermal Forcing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Jian; Sun, Lantao; Wu, Yutian; Chen, Gang

    2013-11-21

    The atmospheric circulation response to the global warming-like tropical upper tropospheric heating is revisited using a dry atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) in light of a new diagnostics based on the concept of finite-amplitude wave activity (FAWA) on equivalent latitude. For a given tropical heating profile, the linear Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) wave refraction analysis sometimes gives a very different and even opposite prediction of the eddy momentum flux response to that of the actual full model simulation, exposing the limitation of the traditional linear approach in understanding the full dynamics of the atmospheric response under global warming. The implementation of the FAWA diagnostics reveals that in response to the upper tropospheric heating, effective diffusivity, a measure of the mixing efficiency, increases and advances upward and poleward in the subtropics and the resultant enhancement and the poleward encroachment of eddy potential vorticity mixing leads to a poleward displaced potential vorticity (PV) gradient peak in the upper troposphere. The anomalous eddy PV flux, in balance with the PV dissipation, gives rise to a poleward shift in the eddy-driven jet and eddy-driven mean meridional circulation. Sensitivity experiments show that these irreversible dissipation processes in the upper troposphere are robust, regardless of the width of the tropical heating.

  5. Structural and functional analyses of minimal phosphopeptides targeting the polo-box domain of polo-like kinase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yun, Sang-Moon; Moulaei, Tinoush; Lim, Dan; Bang, Jeong K.; Park, Jung-Eun; Shenoy, Shilpa R.; Liu, Fa; Kang, Young H.; Liao, Chenzhong; Soung, Nak-Kyun; Lee, Sunhee; Yoon, Do-Young; Lim, Yoongho; Lee, Dong-Hee; Otaka, Akira; Appella, Ettore; McMahon, James B.; Nicklaus, Marc C.; Burke, Jr., Terrence R.; Yaffe, Michael B.; Wlodawer, Alexander; Lee, Kyung S.

    2009-09-14

    Polo-like kinase-1 (Plk1) has a pivotal role in cell proliferation and is considered a potential target for anticancer therapy. The noncatalytic polo-box domain (PBD) of Plk1 forms a phosphoepitope binding module for protein-protein interaction. Here, we report the identification of minimal phosphopeptides that specifically interact with the PBD of human PLK1, but not those of the closely related PLK2 and PLK3. Comparative binding studies and analyses of crystal structures of the PLK1 PBD in complex with the minimal phosphopeptides revealed that the C-terminal SpT dipeptide functions as a high-affinity anchor, whereas the N-terminal residues are crucial for providing specificity and affinity to the interaction. Inhibition of the PLK1 PBD by phosphothreonine mimetic peptides was sufficient to induce mitotic arrest and apoptotic cell death. The mode of interaction between the minimal peptide and PBD may provide a template for designing therapeutic agents that target PLK1.

  6. Nonlinear space charge dynamics in mixed ionic-electronic conductors: Resistive switching and ferroelectric-like hysteresis of electromechanical response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morozovska, Anna N.; Morozovsky, Nicholas V.; Eliseev, Eugene A.; Varenyk, Olexandr V.; Kim, Yunseok; Strelcov, Evgheni; Tselev, Alexander; Kalinin, Sergei V.

    2014-08-14

    We performed self-consistent modelling of nonlinear electrotransport and electromechanical response of thin films of mixed ionic-electronic conductors (MIEC) allowing for steric effects of mobile charged defects (ions, protons, or vacancies), electron degeneration, and Vegard stresses. We establish correlations between the features of the nonlinear space-charge dynamics, current-voltage, and bending-voltage curves for different types of the film electrodes. A pronounced ferroelectric-like hysteresis of the bending-voltage loops and current maxima on the double hysteresis current-voltage loops appear for the electron-transport electrodes. The double hysteresis loop with pronounced humps indicates a memristor-type resistive switching. The switching occurs due to the strong nonlinear coupling between the electronic and ionic subsystems. A sharp meta-stable maximum of the electron density appears near one open electrode and moves to another one during the periodic change of applied voltage. Our results can explain the nonlinear nature and correlation of electrical and mechanical memory effects in thin MIEC films. The analytical expression proving that the electrically induced bending of MIEC films can be detected by interferometric methods is derived.

  7. Surfactant/detergent titration analysis method and apparatus for machine working fluids, surfactant-containing wastewater and the like

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, D.D.; Hiller, J.M.

    1998-02-24

    The present invention is an improved method and related apparatus for quantitatively analyzing machine working fluids and other aqueous compositions such as wastewater which contain various mixtures of cationic, neutral, and/or anionic surfactants, soluble soaps, and the like. The method utilizes a single-phase, non-aqueous, reactive titration composition containing water insoluble bismuth nitrate dissolved in glycerol for the titration reactant. The chemical reaction of the bismuth ion and glycerol with the surfactant in the test solutions results in formation of micelles, changes in micelle size, and the formation of insoluble bismuth soaps. These soaps are quantified by physical and chemical changes in the aqueous test solution. Both classical potentiometric analysis and turbidity measurements have been used as sensing techniques to determine the quantity of surfactant present in test solutions. This method is amenable to the analysis of various types of new, in-use, dirty or decomposed surfactants and detergents. It is a quick and efficient method utilizing a single-phase reaction without needing a separate extraction from the aqueous solution. It is adaptable to automated control with simple and reliable sensing methods. The method is applicable to a variety of compositions with concentrations from about 1% to about 10% weight. It is also applicable to the analysis of waste water containing surfactants with appropriate pre-treatments for concentration. 1 fig.

  8. REVISITING THE GAMMA-RAY SOURCE 2FGL J1823.8+4312

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stern, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.

    2013-02-20

    One of the great challenges of gamma-ray astronomy is identifying the lower energy counterparts to these high-energy sources. Recently, in this journal, Massaro et al. attempted to find the counterpart of 2FGL J1823.8+4312, a gamma-ray active galactic nucleus (AGN) of uncertain type from the Second Fermi Large Area Telescope catalog. After considering mid-infrared data in the field from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), those authors conclude that the preferred identification of 2FGL J1823.8+4312 is WISE J182352.33+431452.5, despite the fact that the mid-infrared source is undetected at radio energies. They claim that WISE J182352.33+431452.5 constitutes the discovery of a new class of extragalactic X-ray source, either a radio-faint blazar or the prototype of a new class of active galaxy with an enigmatic spectral energy distribution. This conclusion is claimed to be independent of whether or not the WISE source is the actual counterpart to 2FGL J1823.8+4312. Based on a re-analysis of public data in this field and new spectroscopy from Palomar, we conclude that WISE J182352.33+431452.5 is a dust-reddened quasar at z = 0.560, a representative example of a very common extragalactic AGN class. Were WISE J182352.33+431452.5 to be associated with the gamma-ray emission, this would be an unusual and exciting discovery. However, we argue that 2FGL J1823.8+4312 is more likely associated with either WISE J182409.25+431404.7 or, more likely, WISE J182419.04+430949.6, two radio-loud sources in the field. The former is a radio-loud quasar and the latter is an optically variable source with a featureless blue spectrum.

  9. Formation, characterization and dynamics of onion like carbon structures from nanodiamonds using reactive force-fields for electrical energy storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, Panchapakesan; Kent, Paul R; Mochalin, Vadym N

    2011-01-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbon nanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbon nanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about {approx}3.4 {angstrom} for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large ({approx}29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  10. Formation, characterization, and dynamics of onion-like carbon structures for electrical energy storage from nanodiamonds using reactive force fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganesh, P.; Kent, P. R. C.; Mochalin, V.

    2011-10-01

    We simulate the experimentally observed graphitization of nanodiamonds into multi-shell onion-like carbonnanostructures, also called carbon onions, at different temperatures, using reactive force fields. The simulations include long-range Coulomb and van der Waals interactions. Our results suggest that long-range interactions play a crucial role in the phase-stability and the graphitization process. Graphitization is both enthalpically and entropically driven and can hence be controlled with temperature. The outer layers of the nanodiamond have a lower kinetic barrier toward graphitization irrespective of the size of the nanodiamond and graphitize within a few-hundred picoseconds, with a large volume increase. The inner core of the nanodiamonds displays a large size-dependent kinetic barrier, and graphitizes much more slowly with abrupt jumps in the internal energy. It eventually graphitizes by releasing pressure and expands once the outer shells have graphitized. The degree of transformation at a particular temperature is thereby determined by a delicate balance between the thermal energy, long-range interactions, and the entropic/enthalpic free energy gained by graphitization. Upon full graphitization, a multi-shell carbonnanostructure appears, with a shell-shell spacing of about ~3.4 for all sizes. The shells are highly defective with predominantly five- and seven-membered rings to curve space. Larger nanodiamonds with a diameter of 4 nm can graphitize into spiral structures with a large (~29-atom carbon ring) pore opening on the outermost shell. Such a large one-way channel is most attractive for a controlled insertion of molecules/ions such as Li ions, water, or ionic liquids, for increased electrochemical capacitor or battery electrode applications.

  11. DIRECT IMAGING OF A COLD JOVIAN EXOPLANET IN ORBIT AROUND THE SUN-LIKE STAR GJ 504

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuzuhara, M.; Tamura, M.; Kandori, R.; Hori, Y.; Suzuki, R.; Suenaga, T.; Takahashi, Y. H.; Kwon, J.; Kudo, T.; Janson, M.; Brandt, T. D.; Spiegel, D.; Burrows, A.; Turner, E. L.; Moro-Martin, A.; Thalmann, C.; Biller, B.; Henning, T.; Carson, J.; McElwain, M. W.; and others

    2013-09-01

    Several exoplanets have recently been imaged at wide separations of >10 AU from their parent stars. These span a limited range of ages (<50 Myr) and atmospheric properties, with temperatures of 800-1800 K and very red colors (J - H > 0.5 mag), implying thick cloud covers. Furthermore, substantial model uncertainties exist at these young ages due to the unknown initial conditions at formation, which can lead to an order of magnitude of uncertainty in the modeled planet mass. Here, we report the direct-imaging discovery of a Jovian exoplanet around the Sun-like star GJ 504, detected as part of the SEEDS survey. The system is older than all other known directly imaged planets; as a result, its estimated mass remains in the planetary regime independent of uncertainties related to choices of initial conditions in the exoplanet modeling. Using the most common exoplanet cooling model, and given the system age of 160{sup +350}{sub -60} Myr, GJ 504b has an estimated mass of 4{sup +4.5}{sub -1.0} Jupiter masses, among the lowest of directly imaged planets. Its projected separation of 43.5 AU exceeds the typical outer boundary of {approx}30 AU predicted for the core accretion mechanism. GJ 504b is also significantly cooler (510{sup +30}{sub -20} K) and has a bluer color (J - H = -0.23 mag) than previously imaged exoplanets, suggesting a largely cloud-free atmosphere accessible to spectroscopic characterization. Thus, it has the potential of providing novel insights into the origins of giant planets as well as their atmospheric properties.

  12. Effects of aspect ratio and concentration on rheology of epoxy suspensions containing model plate-like nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, K. L.; Takahara, A.; Hawkins, S.; Sue, H.-J.; Miyamoto, M.

    2015-12-15

    Hexagonal 2-dimensional α-zirconium phosphate crystals were prepared with lateral diameters ranging from 110 nm to 1.5 μm to investigate the effect of particle size on suspension rheology. The nanoplatelets were exfoliated to individual sheets with monodisperse thickness and dispersed in a Newtonian epoxy fluid. The steady shear response of dilute and semi-dilute suspensions was measured and compared to expressions obtained from theory for infinitely dilute suspensions. For suspensions containing the smaller nanoplatelets, aspect ratio ∼160, the low shear rate viscosity and transition to shear thinning behavior were well described by theory for loadings up to 0.5 vol. %. The agreement was improved by assuming a moderate polydispersity in lateral diameter, ∼30%–50%, which is consistent with experimental observation. For the higher aspect ratio nanoplatelets, good agreement between theory and experiment was observed only at high shear rates. At lower shear rate, theory consistently over-predicted viscosity, which was attributed to a progressive shift to non-isotropic initial conditions with increasing particle size. The results suggest that at a fixed Peclet number, there is an increasing tendency for the nanoplatelets to form transient, local stacks as particle size increases. The largest particles, aspect ratio ∼2200, showed unusual shear thinning and thickening behaviors that were attributed to particle flexibility. The findings demonstrate the surprising utility of theory for infinitely dilute suspensions to interpret, and in some cases quantitatively describe, the non-Newtonian viscosity of real suspensions containing high aspect ratio plate-like particles. A simple framework is proposed to interpret deviations from ideal behavior based on the local and collective behavior of the suspended nanoplatelets.

  13. Fine-structure calculations of energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for sulfur-like iron, Fe XI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abou El-Maaref, A.; Ahmad, Mahmoud; Allam, S.H.

    2014-05-15

    Energy levels, oscillator strengths, and transition probabilities for transitions among the 14 LS states belonging to configurations of sulfur-like iron, Fe XI, have been calculated. These states are represented by configuration interaction wavefunctions and have configurations 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 4}, 3s3p{sup 5}, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}3d, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}4s, 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}4p, and 3s{sup 2}3p{sup 3}4d, which give rise to 123 fine-structure energy levels. Extensive configuration interaction calculations using the CIV3 code have been performed. To assess the importance of relativistic effects, the intermediate coupling scheme by means of the BreitPauli Hamiltonian terms, such as the one-body mass correction and Darwin term, and spinorbit, spinother-orbit, and spinspin corrections, are incorporated within the code. These incorporations adjusted the energy levels, therefore the calculated values are close to the available experimental data. Comparisons between the present calculated energy levels as well as oscillator strengths and both experimental and theoretical data have been performed. Our results show good agreement with earlier works, and they might be useful in thermonuclear fusion research and astrophysical applications. -- Highlights: Accurate atomic data of iron ions are needed for identification of solar corona. Extensive configuration interaction wavefunctions including 123 fine-structure levels have been calculated. The relativistic effects by means of the BreitPauli Hamiltonian terms are incorporated. This incorporation adjusts the energy levels, therefore the calculated values are close to experimental values.

  14. Crucial role of Toll-like receptors in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsou, Tsui-Chun; Liou, Saou-Hsing; Yeh, Szu-Ching; Tsai, Feng-Yuan; Chao, How-Ran

    2013-12-15

    Our previous studies indicated that zinc induced inflammatory response in both vascular endothelial cells and promonocytes. Here, we asked if other metals could cause the similar effect on vascular endothelial cells and tried to determine its underlying mechanism. Following screening of fifteen metals, zinc and nickel were identified with a marked proinflammatory effect, as determined by ICAM-1 and IL-8 induction, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Inhibiting protein expression of myeloid differentiation primary response protein-88 (MyD88), a Toll-like receptor (TLR) adaptor acting as a TLR-signaling transducer, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, suggesting the critical roles of TLRs in the inflammatory response. Blockage of TLR-4 signaling by CLI-095, a TLR-4 inhibitor, completely inhibited the nickel-induced ICAM-1 and IL-8 expression and NFκB activation. The same CLI-095 treatment significantly blocked the zinc-induced IL-8 expression, however with no significant effect on the ICAM-1 expression and a minor inhibitory effect on the NFκB activation. The finding demonstrated the differential role of TLR-4 in regulation of the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response, where TLR-4 played a dominant role in NFκB activation by nickel, but not by zinc. Moreover, inhibition of NFκB by adenovirus-mediated IκBα expression and Bay 11-7025, an inhibitor of cytokine-induced IκB-α phosphorylation, significantly attenuated the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory responses, indicating the critical of NFκB in the process. The study demonstrates the crucial role of TLRs in the zinc/nickel-induced inflammatory response in vascular endothelial cells and herein deciphers a potential important difference in NFκB activation via TLRs. The study provides a molecular basis for linkage between zinc/nickel exposure and pathogenesis of the metal-related inflammatory vascular disease. - Highlights: • Both zinc and nickel cause

  15. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive flexible metal substrates by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dutta, P. Rathi, M.; Gao, Y.; Yao, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; Zheng, N.; Ahrenkiel, P.; Martinez, J.

    2014-09-01

    We demonstrate heteroepitaxial growth of single-crystalline-like n and p-type doped GaAs thin films on inexpensive, flexible, and light-weight metal foils by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Single-crystalline-like Ge thin film on biaxially textured templates made by ion beam assisted deposition on metal foil served as the epitaxy enabling substrate for GaAs growth. The GaAs films exhibited strong (004) preferred orientation, sharp in-plane texture, low grain misorientation, strong photoluminescence, and a defect density of ?10{sup 7?}cm{sup ?2}. Furthermore, the GaAs films exhibited hole and electron mobilities as high as 66 and 300?cm{sup 2}/V-s, respectively. High mobility single-crystalline-like GaAs thin films on inexpensive metal substrates can pave the path for roll-to-roll manufacturing of flexible III-V solar cells for the mainstream photovoltaics market.

  16. Wavelengths, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths for M-shell transitions in Co-, Ni-, Cu-, Zn-, Ga-, Ge-, and Se-like Au ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Min; Jiang, Gang; Deng, Banglin; Bian, Guojie

    2014-11-15

    Wavelengths, transition probabilities, and oscillator strengths have been calculated for M-shell electric dipole transitions in Co-, Ni-, Cu-, Zn-, Ga-, Ge-, and Se-like Au ions. The fully relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac–Fock method, taking quantum electrodynamical effects and the Breit correction into account, was used in the calculations. Calculated energy levels of M-shell excited states for Cu-, Zn-, Ga-, Ge-, and Se-like Au ions from the method were compared with available theoretical and experimental results, and good agreement with them was achieved.

  17. KEPLER-20: A SUN-LIKE STAR WITH THREE SUB-NEPTUNE EXOPLANETS AND TWO EARTH-SIZE CANDIDATES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gautier, Thomas N. III; Rowe, Jason F.; Bryson, Stephen T.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Isaacson, Howard; Rogers, Leslie A.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Ciardi, David R.; Ford, Eric B.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.; Cochran, William D.; Endl, Michael; and others

    2012-04-10

    We present the discovery of the Kepler-20 planetary system, which we initially identified through the detection of five distinct periodic transit signals in the Kepler light curve of the host star 2MASS J19104752+4220194. From high-resolution spectroscopy of the star, we find a stellar effective temperature T{sub eff} = 5455 {+-} 100 K, a metallicity of [Fe/H] = 0.01 {+-} 0.04, and a surface gravity of log g = 4.4 {+-} 0.1. We combine these estimates with an estimate of the stellar density derived from the transit light curves to deduce a stellar mass of M{sub *} = 0.912 {+-} 0.034 M{sub Sun} and a stellar radius of R{sub *} = 0.944{sup +0.060}{sub -0.095} R{sub Sun }. For three of the transit signals, we demonstrate that our results strongly disfavor the possibility that these result from astrophysical false positives. We accomplish this by first identifying the subset of stellar blends that reproduce the precise shape of the light curve and then using the constraints on the presence of additional stars from high angular resolution imaging, photometric colors, and the absence of a secondary component in our spectroscopic observations. We conclude that the planetary scenario is more likely than that of an astrophysical false positive by a factor of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} (Kepler-20b), 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} (Kepler-20c), and 1.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 3} (Kepler-20d), sufficient to validate these objects as planetary companions. For Kepler-20c and Kepler-20d, the blend scenario is independently disfavored by the achromaticity of the transit: from Spitzer data gathered at 4.5 {mu}m, we infer a ratio of the planetary to stellar radii of 0.075 {+-} 0.015 (Kepler-20c) and 0.065 {+-} 0.011 (Kepler-20d), consistent with each of the depths measured in the Kepler optical bandpass. We determine the orbital periods and physical radii of the three confirmed planets to be 3.70 days and 1.91{sup +0.12}{sub -0.21} R{sub Circled-Plus} for Kepler-20b, 10

  18. A measurement of the muon neutrino charged current quasielastic-like cross section on a hydrocarbon target and final state interaction effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walton, Tammy

    2014-01-01

    Presented is the analysis of the μ charged-current quasielastic-like interaction with a polystyrene (CH or hydrocarbon) target in the MINER A experiment, which was exposed to a neutrino beam that peaked at 3.5 GeV.

  19. EIS-0375: Disposal of Greater-than-Class-C Low-Level Radioactive Waste and Department of Energy GTCC-like Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the reasonably foreseeable environmental impacts associated with the proposed development, operation, and long-term management of a disposal facility or facilities for Greater-Than-Class C (GTCC) low-level radioactive waste and GTCC-like waste. The Environmental Protection Agency is a cooperating agency in the preparation of this EIS.

  20. Synthesis of crystalline carbon nanofern-like structure by dc-PECVD and study of its electrical and field emission properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, D.; Chattopadhyay, K.K.

    2012-11-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? Branched, carbon nanofern like structure have been synthesized on glass substrate via PECVD. ? Ni catalyst played important role in growing such structure. ? The as prepared sample shows good field emission property with turn on field as low as 4.8 V/mm. ? Temperature dependent conductivity of the sample showed non-linearity. -- Abstract: Carbon nanofern-like structure was synthesized by direct current plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition at 400 C using acetylene as carbon precursor and nickel particle as seed. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) study confirmed the fern-like structure of the as-synthesized sample. It was seen that when nickel was not used a cluster deposition took place without forming any structure. Atomic force microscopy study showed the surface topology of the as-prepared samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as HRTEM studies confirmed the presence of nickel in the carbon matrix. Current (I)voltage (V) characteristics have been taken for three different temperatures. A non-linear IV characteristic was obtained for the fern like sample. Field emission study showed that carbon nanofern showed efficient field emission with a turn-on field as low as 4.8 V/?m. Also, the field emission has been studied for different inter-electrode distances.

  1. The structure of the cysteine protease and lectin-like domains of Cwp84, a surface layer-associated protein from Clostridium difficile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, William J.; Kirby, Jonathan M.; Thiyagarajan, Nethaji; Chambers, Christopher J.; Davies, Abigail H.; Roberts, April K.; Shone, Clifford C.; Acharya, K. Ravi

    2014-07-01

    The crystal structure of Cwp84, an S-layer protein from Clostridium difficile is presented for the first time. The cathepsin L-like fold of cysteine protease domain, a newly observed lectin-like domain and several other features are described. Clostridium difficile is a major problem as an aetiological agent for antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. The mechanism by which the bacterium colonizes the gut during infection is poorly understood, but undoubtedly involves a myriad of components present on the bacterial surface. The mechanism of C. difficile surface-layer (S-layer) biogenesis is also largely unknown but involves the post-translational cleavage of a single polypeptide (surface-layer protein A; SlpA) into low- and high-molecular-weight subunits by Cwp84, a surface-located cysteine protease. Here, the first crystal structure of the surface protein Cwp84 is described at 1.4 resolution and the key structural components are identified. The truncated Cwp84 active-site mutant (amino-acid residues 33497; C116A) exhibits three regions: a cleavable propeptide and a cysteine protease domain which exhibits a cathepsin L-like fold followed by a newly identified putative carbohydrate-binding domain with a bound calcium ion, which is referred to here as a lectin-like domain. This study thus provides the first structural insights into Cwp84 and a strong base to elucidate its role in the C. difficile S-layer maturation mechanism.

  2. In vitro cementoblast-like differentiation of postmigratory neural crest-derived p75{sup +} stem cells with dental follicle cell conditioned medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xiujie; Liu, Luchuan; Deng, Manjing; Liu, Rui; Zhang, Li; Nie, Xin

    2015-09-10

    Cranial neural crest-derived cells (CNCCs) play important role in epithelial–mesenchymal interactions during tooth morphogenesis. However, the heterogeneity of CNCCs and their tendency to spontaneously differentiate along smooth muscle or osteoblast lineages in vitro limit further understanding of their biological properties. We studied the differentiation properties of isolated rat embryonic postmigratory CNCCs, expressing p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). These p75NTR positive (p75{sup +}) CNCCs, isolated using fluorescence activated cell sorter, exhibited fibroblast-like morphology and characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells. Incubation of p75{sup +} CNCCs in dental follicle cell conditioned medium (DFCCM) combined with dentin non-collagenous proteins (dNCPs), altered their morphological features to cementoblast-like appearance. These cells also showed low proliferative activity, high ALP activity and significantly increased calcified nodule formation. Markers related to mineralization or specific to cementoblast lineage were highly expressed in dNCPs/DFCCM-treated p75{sup +} cells, suggesting their differentiation along cementoblast-like lineage. p75{sup +} stem cells selected from postmigratory CNCCs represent a pure stem cell population and could be used as a stem cell model for in vitro studies due to their intrinsic ability to differentiate to neuronal cells and transform from neuroectoderm to ectomesenchyme. They can provide a potential stem cell resource for tooth engineering studies and help to further investigate mechanisms of epithelial–mesenchymal interactions in tooth morphogenesis. - Highlights: • Cranial neural crest-derived cells (CNCCs) take part in tooth morphogenesis. • positive (p75{sup +}) CNCCs are fibroblast-like and resemble mesenchymal stem cells. • p75{sup +} CNCCs in dental follicle cell medium (DFCCM/dNCP) appear like cementoblasts. • DFCCM/dNCP-treated p75{sup +} cells express cementoblast specific mineralization

  3. Observations of Improved Stability and Confinement in a High-{beta} Self-Organized Spherical-Torus-Like Field-Reversed Configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, H.Y.; Hoffman, A.L.; Steinhauer, L.C.; Miller, K.E.

    2005-10-21

    An extremely high-{beta} (over 85%) self-organized field-reversed configuration (FRC) with a spherical-torus- (ST-)like core is produced in the translation, confinement, and sustainment experiment by highly super-Alfvenic translation of a spheromaklike plasmoid. Substantial flux conversion from toroidal into poloidal occurs during the capture process, resulting in the ST-like core. This plasma state exhibits a remarkable stabilizing property for the ubiquitous n=2 centrifugally driven interchange modes present in {theta}-pinch formed FRCs. This is explained, for the first time, by a simple model taking into account magnetic shear and centrifugal effects. The FRC-ST configuration has up to 4 times improvement in flux confinement times over the scaling of conventional {theta}-pinch formed FRCs and, thus, a significant improvement in the resistivity and transport.

  4. Reducing volatilization of heavy metals in phosphate-pretreated municipal solid waste incineration fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Ying; Zheng Jianchang; Zou Luquan; Liu Qiang; Zhu Ping; Qian Guangren

    2011-02-15

    This research investigated the feasibility of reducing volatilization of heavy metals (lead, zinc and cadmium) in municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash by forming pyromorphite-like minerals via phosphate pre-treatment. To evaluate the evaporation characteristics of three heavy metals from phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash, volatilization tests have been performed by means of a dedicated apparatus in the 100-1000 deg. C range. The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) test and BCR sequential extraction procedure were applied to assess phosphate stabilization process. The results showed that the volatilization behavior in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash could be reduced effectively. Pyromorphite-like minerals formed in phosphate-pretreated MSWI fly ash were mainly responsible for the volatilization reduction of heavy metals in MSWI fly ash at higher temperature, due to their chemical fixation and thermal stabilization for heavy metals. The stabilization effects were encouraging for the potential reuse of MSWI fly ash.

  5. GaP ring-like nanostructures on GaAs (100) with In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As compensation layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prongjit, Patchareewan Pankaow, Naraporn Boonpeng, Poonyasiri Thainoi, Supachok Panyakeow, Somsak Ratanathammaphan, Somchai

    2013-12-04

    We present the fabrication of GaP ring-like nanostructures on GaAs (100) substrates with inserted In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As compensation layers. The samples are grown by droplet epitaxy using solid-source molecular beam epitaxy. The dependency of nanostructural and optical properties of GaP nanostructures on In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As layer thickness is investigated by ex-situ atomic force microscope (AFM) and photoluminescence (PL). It is found that the characteristics of GaP ring-like structures on GaAs strongly depend on the In{sub 0.15}Ga{sub 0.85}As layer thickness.

  6. An objective rapid screening tool for surfactants used in foam-like dispersions of CO{sub 2} into Permian Basin brines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horton, R.L.; Wicks, J.P.; Prieditis, J.; Turbeville, J.B.

    1995-11-01

    Foam-like dispersions of CO{sub 2} into brines can reduce the mobility of drive fluids in CO{sub 2} floods. To evaluate the effectiveness of such foam-like dispersions, time-consuming laboratory coreflood tests are routinely used. Because of the costliness of such coreflood tests, simple qualitative tests have long been employed to screen potential surfactants. Then only a few of the better candidates are subsequently evaluated in coreflood tests. There are a number of disadvantages of such qualitative tests; therefore the authors developed, instead, a quantitative screening process. Their quantitative process is based on two simple, quick laboratory tests and a neural network interpretation of the test data. The neural network predicted CO{sub 2} mobility reduction values which correlated well with the mobility reductions seen in coreflood tests.

  7. Facile deposition of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on graphene-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets for highly efficient photocatalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Peifu; Shi, Penghui; Hong, Yuanchen; Zhou, Xuejun; Yao, Weifeng

    2015-02-15

    Graphical abstract: The photocatalytic performance of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was highly improved by the in situ deposition of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} particles on graphene-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets. - Highlights: A novel composite photocatalyst was synthesized by depositing Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on the graphene-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets. Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoS{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited a high photocatalytic activity for RhB degradation. Graphene-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets. MoS{sub 2} nanosheets play an important role in photocatalytic activity by serving as an effective acceptor of the photogenerated carriers. - Abstract: A facile method for the in situ deposition of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} on graphene-like MoS{sub 2} nanosheets was developed to improve the photocatalytic performance of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} catalysts. The heterostructure of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoS{sub 2} composites was characterized by using X-ray diffraction spectra (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The prepared Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoS{sub 2} photocatalyst exhibited a much higher photocatalytic activity than that of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} for the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) under visible light irradiation (>400 nm). The improved photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}/MoS{sub 2} is attributed to the efficient separation of photogenerated electronhole pairs in the composite. This result provides a new perspective on the design of high-performance photocatalysts which is promising for energy applications.

  8. Electronic structure, morphology and emission polarization of enhanced symmetry InAs quantum-dot-like structures grown on InP substrates by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mary?ski, A.; S?k, G.; Musia?, A.; Andrzejewski, J.; Misiewicz, J.; Gilfert, C.; Reithmaier, J. P.; Capua, A.; Karni, O.; Gready, D.; Eisenstein, G.; Atiya, G.; Kaplan, W. D.; Klling, S.

    2013-09-07

    The optical and structural properties of a new kind of InAs/InGaAlAs/InP quantum dot (QD)-like objects grown by molecular beam epitaxy have been investigated. These nanostructures were found to have significantly more symmetrical shapes compared to the commonly obtained dash-like geometries typical of this material system. The enhanced symmetry has been achieved due to the use of an As{sub 2} source and the consequent shorter migration length of the indium atoms. Structural studies based on a combination of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and atom probe tomography (APT) provided detailed information on both the structure and composition distribution within an individual nanostructure. However, it was not possible to determine the lateral aspect ratio from STEM or APT. To verify the in-plane geometry, electronic structure calculations, including the energy levels and transition oscillator strength for the QDs have been performed using an eight-band kp model and realistic system parameters. The results of calculations were compared to measured polarization-resolved photoluminescence data. On the basis of measured degree of linear polarization of the surface emission, the in-plane shape of the QDs has been assessed proving a substantial increase in lateral symmetry. This results in quantum-dot rather than quantum-dash like properties, consistent with expectations based on the growth conditions and the structural data.

  9. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow ?-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, scar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.80.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  10. The fabrication of foam-like 3D mesoporous NiO-Ni as anode for high performance Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Peng; Zhang, Xin; Wei, Jumeng; Pan, Jiaqi; Sheng, Yingzhou; Feng, Boxue

    2015-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Foam-like 3 dimensional (3D) mesoporous NiO on 3D micro-porous Ni was fabricated. - Highlights: We prepare NiO-Ni foam composite via hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing. The NiO exhibits novel foam-like 3D mesoporous architecture. The NiO-Ni anode shows good cycle stability. - Abstract: Foam-like three dimensional mesoporous NiO on Ni foam was fabricated via facile hydrothermal etching and subsequent annealing treatment. The porous NiO consists of a large number of nanosheets with mean thickness about 50 nm, among which a large number of mesoscopic pores with size ranges from 100 nm to 1 ?m distribute. The electrochemical performance of the as-prepared NiO-Ni as anode for lithium ion battery was studied by conventional charge/discharge test, which shows excellent cycle stability and rate capability. It exhibits initial discharge and charge capacities of 979 and 707 mA h g{sup ?1} at a charge/discharge rate of 0.7 C, which maintain of 747 and 738 mA h g{sup ?1} after 100 cycles. Even after 60 cycles at various rates from 0.06 to 14 C, the 10th discharge and charge capacities of the NiO-Ni electrode can revert to 699 and 683 mA h g{sup ?1} when lowering the charge/discharge rate to 0.06 C.

  11. Spin-glass-like freezing of inner and outer surface layers in hollow γ-Fe2O3 nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khurshid, Hafsa; Lampen-Kelley, Paula; Iglesias, Òscar; Alonso, Javier; Phan, Manh-Huong; Sun, Cheng-Jun; Saboungi, Marie-Louise; Srikanth, Hariharan

    2015-10-27

    Disorder among surface spins largely dominates the magnetic response of ultrafine magnetic particle systems. In this work, we examine time-dependent magnetization in high-quality, monodisperse hollow maghemite nanoparticles (NPs) with a 14.8±0.5 nm outer diameter and enhanced surface-to-volume ratio. The nanoparticle ensemble exhibits spin-glass-like signatures in dc magnetic aging and memory protocols and ac magnetic susceptibility. The dynamics of the system slow near 50 K, and becomes frozen on experimental time scales below 20 K. Remanence curves indicate the development of magnetic irreversibility concurrent with the freezing of the spin dynamics. A strong exchange-bias effect and its training behavior point to highly frustrated surface spins that rearrange much more slowly than interior spins with bulk coordination. Monte Carlo simulations of a hollow particle reproducing the experimental morphology corroborate strongly disordered surface layers with complex energy landscapes that underlie both glass-like dynamics and magnetic irreversibility. Calculated hysteresis loops reveal that magnetic behavior is not identical at the inner and outer surfaces, with spins at the outer surface layer of the 15 nm hollow particles exhibiting a higher degree of frustration. Lastly, our combined experimental and simulated results shed light on the origin of spin-glass-like phenomena and the important role played by the surface spins in magnetic hollow nanostructures.

  12. Urchin-like m-LaVO{sub 4} and m-LaVO{sub 4}/Ag microspheres: Synthesis and characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Limiao; Wu, Min; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Le; Yu, Na; Zhang, Peisen; Huang, Jianhan; Liu, Xiaohe; Qiu, Guanzhou

    2014-12-15

    The semiconductor nanostructures decorated with noble metals have attracted increasing attention due to their interesting physical and chemical properties. In this work, urchin-like monoclinic (m-) LaVO{sub 4} microspheres were prepared by a hydrothermal method and used as a template to fabricate Ag nanoparticle-decorated m-LaVO{sub 4} composites. The morphology and structure were characterized by transmission electron microscope, high-resolution transmission electron microscope, scanning electron microscope, and energy-dispersive X-ray. It was found that Ag nanoparticles with narrow size distribution were uniformly loaded on urchin-like m-LaVO{sub 4} microspheres, and the resulted composite microspheres showed distinct surface plasmon absorption band compared to pure m-LaVO{sub 4} microspheres. Photocatalytic activities of as-prepared samples were examined by studying the degradation of methyl orange solutions under visible-light irradiation (> 400 nm). Results clearly showed that urchin-like m-LaVO{sub 4}/Ag microspheres possess much higher photocatalytic activity than pure m-LaVO{sub 4} microspheres and P25. - Highlights: • m-LaVO{sub 4}/Ag composites microspheres were fabricated by a hydrothermal method. • m-LaVO{sub 4} microspheres show higher photocatalytic activity than m-LaVO{sub 4} microspheres. • m-LaVO{sub 4}/Ag microspheres exhibit a good stability.

  13. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    R.C. Cohen, D. Prendergast, and R.J. Saykally, "Cation-cation contact pairing in water: Guanidinium," Journal of Chemical Physics 139, 035104 (2013). ALS Science Highlight 286...

  14. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Led by Berkeley Lab chemist Richard Saykally and theorist David Prendergast, researchers demonstrated ... Research conducted by: O. Shih, G.C. Dallinger, J.W. Smith, K.C. Duffey, ...

  15. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the ALS is supported by DOE BES. Publication about this research: O. Shih, A.H. England, G.C. Dallinger, J.W. Smith, K.C. Duffey, R.C. Cohen, D. Prendergast, and R.J....

  16. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by water-binding energy, as predicted by theory. The chemical information that one can extract from such experimental data alone is limited, so researchers interpreted the spectra...

  17. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    closest to each other in their hydration energy - that is, in how strongly they hold onto water. In other words, Hofmeister effects depend on the identity of ions rather than just...

  18. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    shed some light on the issue in 2006. The law says that the least-soluble ion pairs are formed by ions that are closest to each other in their hydration energy - that is, in how...

  19. ALS Capabilities Reveal How Like Can Attract Like

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    theory method for calculating x-ray spectra. Development of this first principles theory method was led by Prendergast, a staff scientist in the Theory of Nanostructures Facility...

  20. Transforming growth factor-beta1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cell subpopulations in esophageal cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Dongli; Zhang, Zhen; Li, Jieyao; Chen, Xinfeng; Ping, Yu; Liu, Shasha; Shi, Xiaojuan; Li, Lifeng; Wang, Liping; Huang, Lan; Zhang, Bin; and others

    2015-08-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most lethal solid malignancies. Mounting evidence demonstrates that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are able to cause tumor initiation, metastasis and responsible for chemotherapy and radiotherapy failures. As CSCs are thought to be the main reason of therapeutic failure, these cells must be effectively targeted to elicit long-lasting therapeutic responses. We aimed to enrich and identify the esophageal cancer cell subpopulation with stem-like properties and help to develop new target therapy strategies for CSCs. Here, we found esophageal cancer cells KYSE70 and TE1 could form spheres in ultra low attachment surface culture and be serially passaged. Sphere-forming cells could redifferentiate and acquire morphology comparable to parental cells, when return to adherent culture. The sphere-forming cells possessed the key criteria that define CSCs: persistent self-renewal, overexpression of stemness genes (SOX2, ALDH1A1 and KLF4), reduced expression of differentiation marker CK4, chemoresistance, strong invasion and enhanced tumorigenic potential. SB525334, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) inhibitor, significantly inhibited migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells and had no effect on sphere-forming ability. In conclusion, esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells from KYSE70 and TE1 cultured in ultra low attachment surface possess cancer stem cell properties, providing a model for CSCs targeted therapy. TGF-β1 promotes the migration and invasion of sphere-forming stem-like cells, which may guide future studies on therapeutic strategies targeting these cells. - Highlights: • Esophageal cancer sphere-forming cells possess cancer stem cell properties. • Sphere-forming cells enhance TGF-β1 pathway activity. • TGF-β 1 inhibitor suppresses the migration and invasion of sphere-forming cells.

  1. SECULAR EVOLUTION OF BINARIES NEAR MASSIVE BLACK HOLES: FORMATION OF COMPACT BINARIES, MERGER/COLLISION PRODUCTS AND G2-LIKE OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prodan, Snezana; Antonini, Fabio; Perets, Hagai B. E-mail: antonini@cita.utoronto.ca

    2015-02-01

    Here we discuss the evolution of binaries around massive black holes (MBHs) in nuclear stellar clusters. We focus on their secular evolution due to the perturbation by the MBHs, while simplistically accounting for their collisional evolution. Binaries with highly inclined orbits with respect to their orbits around MBHs are strongly affected by secular processes, which periodically change their eccentricities and inclinations (e.g., Kozai-Lidov cycles). During periapsis approach, dissipative processes such as tidal friction may become highly efficient, and may lead to shrinkage of a binary orbit and even to its merger. Binaries in this environment can therefore significantly change their orbital evolution due to the MBH third-body perturbative effects. Such orbital evolution may impinge on their later stellar evolution. Here we follow the secular dynamics of such binaries and its coupling to tidal evolution, as well as the stellar evolution of such binaries on longer timescales. We find that stellar binaries in the central parts of nuclear stellar clusters (NSCs) are highly likely to evolve into eccentric and/or short-period binaries, and become strongly interacting binaries either on the main sequence (at which point they may even merge), or through their later binary stellar evolution. The central parts of NSCs therefore catalyze the formation and evolution of strongly interacting binaries, and lead to the enhanced formation of blue stragglers, X-ray binaries, gravitational wave sources, and possible supernova progenitors. Induced mergers/collisions may also lead to the formation of G2-like cloud-like objects such as the one recently observed in the Galactic center.

  2. Scalings of Alfvén-cyclotron and ion Bernstein instabilities on temperature anisotropy of a ring-like velocity distribution in the inner magnetosphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Min, Kyungguk; Liu, Kaijun; Gary, S. Peter

    2016-03-18

    Here, a ring-like proton velocity distribution with ∂fp(v⊥)/∂v⊥>0 and which is sufficiently anisotropic can excite two distinct types of growing modes in the inner magnetosphere: ion Bernstein instabilities with multiple ion cyclotron harmonics and quasi-perpendicular propagation and an Alfvén-cyclotron instability at frequencies below the proton cyclotron frequency and quasi-parallel propagation. Recent particle-in-cell simulations have demonstrated that even if the maximum linear growth rate of the latter instability is smaller than the corresponding growth of the former instability, the saturation levels of the fluctuating magnetic fields can be greater for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the ion Bernstein instabilities. In thismore » study, linear dispersion theory and two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations are used to examine scalings of the linear growth rate and saturation level of the two types of growing modes as functions of the temperature anisotropy T⊥/T|| for a general ring-like proton distribution with a fixed ring speed of 2vA, where vA is the Alfvén speed. For the proton distribution parameters chosen, the maximum linear theory growth rate of the Alfvén-cyclotron waves is smaller than that of the fastest-growing Bernstein mode for the wide range of anisotropies (1≤T⊥/T||≤7) considered here. Yet the corresponding particle-in-cell simulations yield a higher saturation level of the fluctuating magnetic fields for the Alfvén-cyclotron instability than for the Bernstein modes as long as inline image. Since fast magnetosonic waves with ion Bernstein instability properties observed in the magnetosphere are often not accompanied by electromagnetic ion cyclotron waves, the results of the present study indicate that the ring-like proton distributions responsible for the excitation of these fast magnetosonic waves should not be very anisotropic.« less

  3. Synchronous Phasor-like Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirkham, Harold; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2014-02-14

    Phasor measurement units struggle to make acceptable estimates of frequency and rate of change of frequency. The most important cause of the problem is that the quantity being measured is not actually a phasor. The paper substitutes a different equation for the phasor equatin, and obtains its solution by curve-fitting.

  4. Elastic properties, sp³ fraction, and Raman scattering in low and high pressure synthesized diamond-like boron rich carbides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zinin, Pavel V.; Burgess, Katherine; Jia, Ruth; Sharma, Shiv; Ming, Li-Chung; Liu, Yongsheng; Ciston, Jim; Hong, Shiming

    2014-10-07

    Dense BC{sub x} phases with high boron concentration are predicted to be metastable, superhard, and conductors or superconductors depending on boron concentration. However, up to this point, diamond-like boron rich carbides BC{sub x} (dl-BC{sub x}) phases have been thought obtainable only through high pressure and high temperature treatment, necessitating small specimen volume. Here, we use electron energy loss spectroscopy combined with transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, surface Brillouin scattering, laser ultrasonics (LU) technique, and analysis of elastic properties to demonstrate that low pressure synthesis (chemical vapor deposition) of BC{sub x} phases may also lead to the creation of diamond-like boron rich carbides. The elastic properties of the dl-BC{sub x} phases depend on the carbon sp²versus sp³ content, which decreases with increasing boron concentration, while the boron bonds determine the shape of the Raman spectra of the dl-BC{sub x} after high pressure-high temperature treatment. Using the estimation of the density value based on the sp³ fraction, the shear modulus μ of dl-BC₄, containing 10% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, and dl-B₃C₂, containing 38% carbon atoms with sp³ bonds, were found to be μ = 19.3 GPa and μ = 170 GPa, respectively. The presented experimental data also imply that boron atoms lead to a creation of sp³ bonds during the deposition processes.

  5. Table-like magnetocaloric effect in Gd{sub 56}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 27}Zr{sub 2} alloy and its field independence feature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agurgo Balfour, E.; Ma, Z.; Fu, H. E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com; Wang, L.; Luo, Y.; Hadimani, R. L.; Jiles, D. C.; Wang, S. F. E-mail: rockingsandstorm@163.com

    2015-09-28

    In order to obtain “table-like” magnetocaloric effect (MCE), multiple-phase Gd{sub 56}Ni{sub 15}Al{sub 27}Zr{sub 2} alloy was prepared by arc-melting followed by suck-casting method. Powder x-ray diffraction and calorimetric measurements reveal that the sample contains both glassy and crystalline phases. The fraction of the glassy phase is about 62%, estimated from the heat enthalpy of the crystallization. The crystalline phases, Gd{sub 2}Al and GdNiAl further broadened the relatively wider magnetic entropy change (−ΔS{sub M}) peak of the amorphous phase, which resulted in the table-like MCE over a maximum temperature range of 52.5 K to 77.5 K. The plateau feature of the MCE was found to be nearly independent of the applied magnetic field from 3 T to 5 T. The maximum −ΔS{sub M} value of the MCE platforms is 6.0 J/kg K under applied magnetic field change of 5 T. Below 3 T, the field independence of the table-like feature disappears. The relatively large constant values of −ΔS{sub M} for the respective applied magnetic fields have promising applications in magnetic refrigeration using regenerative Ericsson cycle.

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of molecular chaperone-like diol dehydratase-reactivating factor in ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mori, Koichi; Hieda, Naoki; Yamanishi, Mamoru; Shibata, Naoki; Toraya, Tetsuo

    2005-06-01

    The molecular chaperone-like reactivating factor for adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B{sub 12}) dependent diol dehydratase was crystallized in ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms. Preliminary X-ray analysis indicated that crystals are orthorhombic and diffract to 2.0 . Adenosylcobalamin (coenzyme B{sub 12}) dependent diol dehydratase (EC 4.2.1.28) catalyzes the conversion of 1,2-diols and glycerol to the corresponding aldehydes. It undergoes mechanism-based inactivation by glycerol. The diol dehydratase-reactivating factor (DDR) reactivates the inactivated holoenzymes in the presence of adenosylcobalamin, ATP and Mg{sup 2+} by mediating the release of a damaged cofactor. This molecular chaperone-like factor was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified and crystallized in the ADP-bound and nucleotide-free forms by the sandwich-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystals of the ADP-bound form belong to the orthorhombic system, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and unit-cell parameters a = 83.26, b = 84.60, c = 280.09 , and diffract to 2.0 . In the absence of nucleotide, DDR crystals were orthorhombic, with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1} and unit-cell parameters a = 81.92, b = 85.37, c = 296.99 and diffract to 3.0 . Crystals of both forms were suitable for structural analysis.

  7. DISPLAYING THE HETEROGENEITY OF THE SN 2002cx-LIKE SUBCLASS OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE WITH OBSERVATIONS OF THE Pan-STARRS-1 DISCOVERED SN 2009ku

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narayan, G.; Foley, R. J.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Rest, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Botticella, M. T.; Smartt, S.; Valenti, S.; Huber, M. E.; Scolnic, D.; Grav, T.; Burgett, W. S.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H. A.; Gates, G.; Kaiser, N.; Magnier, E. A.; Morgan, J. S. E-mail: rfoley@cfa.harvard.edu

    2011-04-10

    SN 2009ku, discovered by Pan-STARRS-1, is a Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), and a member of the distinct SN 2002cx-like class of SNe Ia. Its light curves are similar to the prototypical SN 2002cx, but are slightly broader and have a later rise to maximum in g. SN 2009ku is brighter ({approx}0.6 mag) than other SN 2002cx-like objects, peaking at M{sub V} = -18.4 mag, which is still significantly fainter than typical SNe Ia. SN 2009ku, which had an ejecta velocity of {approx}2000 km s{sup -1} at 18 days after maximum brightness, is spectroscopically most similar to SN 2008ha, which also had extremely low-velocity ejecta. However, SN 2008ha had an exceedingly low luminosity, peaking at M{sub V} = -14.2 mag, {approx}4 mag fainter than SN 2009ku. The contrast of high luminosity and low ejecta velocity for SN 2009ku is contrary to an emerging trend seen for the SN 2002cx class. SN 2009ku is a counterexample of a previously held belief that the class was more homogeneous than typical SNe Ia, indicating that the class has a diverse progenitor population and/or complicated explosion physics. As the first example of a member of this class of objects from the new generation of transient surveys, SN 2009ku is an indication of the potential for these surveys to find rare and interesting objects.

  8. Disorder-induced anomalously signed Hall effect in crystalline GeTe/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} superlattice-like materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tong, H.; Yu, N. N.; Yang, Z.; Cheng, X. M.; Miao, X. S.

    2015-08-21

    Opposite to the almost persistent p-type conductivity of the crystalline chalcogenides along the GeTe-Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} tie line, n-type Hall mobility is observed in crystalline GeTe/Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 3} superlattice-like material (SLL) with a short period length. We suggest that this unusual carrier characteristic originates from the structural disorder introduced by the lattice strain and dangling bonds at the SLL interfaces, which makes the crystalline SLLs behave like the amorphous chalcogenides. Detailed structural disorder in crystalline SLL has been studied by Raman scattering, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, as well as Variable-energy positron annihilation spectroscopy measurements. First-principles calculations results show that this structural disorder gives rise to three-site junctions that dominate the charge transport as the period length decreases and result in the anomalously signed Hall effect in the crystalline SLL. Our findings indicate a similar tetrahedral structure in the amorphous and crystalline states of SLLs, which can significantly reduce the entropy difference. Due to the reduced entropy loss and increased resistivity of crystalline phase introduced by disorder, it is not surprising that the SLLs exhibit extremely lower RESET current and power consumption.

  9. Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like indium oxide: Controllable synthesis and application as H{sub 2}S cataluminescence sensing materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Pingyang; Bai, Wei; Zhang, Lichun; Song, Hongjie; Su, Yingying; Lv, Yi

    2012-09-15

    Graphical abstract: Hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like In{sub 2}O{sub 3} were controllable fabricated through a novel and simple hydrothermal process, and the former showed superior cataluminescence sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. Highlights: ► In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere were prepared via a hydrothermal route. ► The growth process of In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow sphere has been investigated. ► The sensor based on prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows good sensing performance to H{sub 2}S. -- Abstract: In the present work, In{sub 2}O{sub 3} hierarchical hollow microsphere and flower-like microstructure were achieved controllably by a hydrothermal process in the sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-N,N-dimethyl-formamide (DMF) system. XRD, SEM, HRTEM and N{sub 2} adsorption measurements were used to characterize the as-prepared indium oxide materials and the possible mechanism for the microstructures formation was briefly discussed. The cataluminescence gas sensor based on the as-prepared In{sub 2}O{sub 3} was utilized to detect H{sub 2}S concentrations in flowing air. Comparative gas sensing results revealed that the sensor based on hierarchical hollow microsphere exhibited much higher sensing sensitivity in detecting H{sub 2}S gas than the sensor based on flower-like microstructure. The present gas sensor had a fast response time of 5 s and a recovery time of less than 25 s, furthermore, the cataluminescence intensity vs. H{sub 2}S concentration was linear in range of 2–20 μg mL{sup −1} with a detection limit of 0.5 μg mL{sup −1}. The present highly sensitive, fast-responding, and low-cost In{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based gas sensor for H{sub 2}S would have many practical applications.

  10. Synthesis, properties and phase transitions of pyrochlore- and fluorite-like Ln{sub 2}RMO{sub 7} (Ln = Sm, Ho; R = Lu, Sc; M = Nb, Ta)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shlyakhtina, A.V.; Belov, D.A.; Pigalskiy, K.S.; Shchegolikhin, A.N.; Kolbanev, I.V.; Karyagina, O.K.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Temperature dependences of bulk conductivity for Sm{sub 2}ScTaO{sub 7} pyrochlore prepared at (1) 1400 °C, 20 h; and (2) 1200 °C, 40 h. - Highlights: • The phase formation of Ln{sub 2}RMO{sub 7} (Ln = Sm, Ho; R = Lu, Sc; M = Nb, Ta) at 1200–1600 °C. • The bulk conductivity and magnetic susceptibility were measured. • The bulk conductivity of Sm{sub 2}ScTaO{sub 7} has oxygen ion type at T ≥ 750 °C. • The first-order structural phase transition was observed in Sm{sub 2}ScTaO{sub 7} at ∼650–700 °C. • This phase transformation is not typical for defect fluorites. - Abstract: We have studied the new compounds with fluorite-like (Ho{sub 2}RNbO{sub 7} (R = Lu, Sc)) and pyrochlore-like (Sm{sub 2}ScTaO{sub 7}) structure as potential oxide ion conductors. The phase formation process (from 1200 to 1600 °C) and physical properties (electrical, thermo mechanical, and magnetic) for these compounds were investigated. Among the niobate materials the highest bulk conductivity is offered by the fluorite-like Ho{sub 2}ScNbO{sub 7} synthesized at 1600 °C: 3.8 × 10{sup −5} S/cm at 750 °C, whereas in Sm system the highest bulk conductivity, 7.3 × 10{sup −6} S/cm at 750 °C, is offered by the pyrochlore Sm{sub 2}ScTaO{sub 7} synthesized at 1400 °C. In Sm{sub 2}ScTaO{sub 7} pyrochlore we have observed the first-order phase transformation at ∼650–700 °C is related to rearrangement process in the oxygen sublattice of the pyrochlore structure containing B-site cations in different valence state and actually is absent in the defect fluorites. The two holmium niobates show Curie–Weiss paramagnetic behavior, with the prevalence of antiferromagnetic coupling. The magnetic susceptibility of Sm{sub 2}ScTaO{sub 7} is a weak function of temperature, corresponding to Van Vleck paramagnetism.

  11. Structural basis for thermostability revealed through the identification and characterization of a highly thermostable phosphotriesterase-like lactonase from Geobacillus stearothermophilus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hawwa, Renda; Aikens, John; Turner, Robert J.; Santarsiero, Bernard D.; Mescar, Andrew D.

    2009-08-31

    A new enzyme homologous to phosphotriesterase was identified from the bacterium Geobacillus stearothermophilus (GsP). This enzyme belongs to the amidohydrolase family and possesses the ability to hydrolyze both lactone and organophosphate (OP) compounds, making it a phosphotriesterase-like lactonase (PLL). GsP possesses higher OP-degrading activity than recently characterized PLLs, and it is extremely thermostable. GsP is active up to 100 C with an energy of activation of 8.0 kcal/mol towards ethyl paraoxon, and it can withstand an incubation temperature of 60 C for two days. In an attempt to understand the thermostability of PLLs, the X-ray structure of GsP was determined and compared to those of existing PLLs. Based upon a comparative analysis, a new thermal advantage score and plot was developed and reveals that a number of different factors contribute to the thermostability of PLLs.

  12. Radioxenon detections in the CTBT International Monitoring System likely related to the announced nuclear test in North Korea conducted on February 12, 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ringbom, Anders; Axelssson, A.; Aldener, M.; Auer, M.; Bowyer, Ted W.; Fritioff, T.; Hoffman, Ian; Khrustalev, Kirill; Nikkinen, Mika; Popov, Vladimir Y.; Popov, Y.; Ungar, R. Kurt; Wotawa, G.

    2014-02-01

    Abstract: Observations of the radioxenon isotopes 133Xe and 131mXe collected at the IMS stations RN38 and RN58 on April 7-8, and April 12-13 2013, respectively, are unique with respect to the measurement history of these stations. Comparison of measured data with calculated isotopic ratios as well as analysis using atmospheric transport modeling indicate that it is likely that the xenon measured was created in the underground nuclear test conducted by North Korea on February 12, 2013, and released 7 weeks later. More than one release is required to explain all observations. The 131mXe source terms for each release were calculated to 7x1011 Bq, corresponding to about 1-10% of the total xenon inventory for a 10-kt explosion, depending on fractionation and release scenario. The observed ratios could not be used to obtain any information regarding the fissile material that was used in the test.

  13. A simulation of convective dynamo in the solar convective envelope: Maintenance of the solar-like differential rotation and emerging flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan, Yuhong; Fang, Fang

    2014-07-01

    We report the results of a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of a convective dynamo in a model solar convective envelope driven by the solar radiative diffusive heat flux. The convective dynamo produces a large-scale mean magnetic field that exhibits irregular cyclic behavior with oscillation time scales ranging from about 5 to 15 yr and undergoes irregular polarity reversals. The mean axisymmetric toroidal magnetic field is of opposite signs in the two hemispheres and is concentrated at the bottom of the convection zone. The presence of the magnetic fields is found to play an important role in the self-consistent maintenance of a solar-like differential rotation in the convective dynamo model. Without the magnetic fields, the convective flows drive a differential rotation with a faster rotating polar region. In the midst of magneto-convection, we found the emergence of strong super-equipartition flux bundles at the surface, exhibiting properties that are similar to emerging solar active regions.

  14. Nano-hillock formation in diamond-like carbon induced by swift heavy projectiles in the electronic stopping regime: Experiments and atomistic simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwen, D.; Bringa, E.; Krauser, J.; Weidinger, A.; Trautmann, C.; Hofsaess, H.

    2012-09-10

    The formation of surface hillocks in diamond-like carbon is studied experimentally and by means of large-scale molecular dynamics simulations with 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} atoms combined with a thermal spike model. The irradiation experiments with swift heavy ions cover a large electronic stopping range between {approx}12 and 72 keV/nm. Both experiments and simulations show that beyond a stopping power threshold, the hillock height increases linearly with the electronic stopping, and agree extremely well assuming an efficiency of approximately 20% in the transfer of electronic energy to the lattice. The simulations also show a transition of sp{sup 3} to sp{sup 2} bonding along the tracks with the hillocks containing almost no sp{sup 3} contribution.

  15. Relativistic configuration-interaction calculations of electric dipole n=2−n=3 transitions for medium-charge Li-like ions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Banglin; Jiang, Gang; Zhang, Chuanyu

    2014-09-15

    In this work, the multi-configuration Dirac–Fock and relativistic configuration-interaction methods have been used to calculate the transition wavelengths, electric dipole transition probabilities, line strengths, and absorption oscillator strengths for the 2s–3p, 2p–3s, and 2p–3d transitions in Li-like ions with nuclear charge Z=7–30. Our calculated values are in good agreement with previous experimental and theoretical results. We took the contributions from Breit interaction, finite nuclear mass corrections, and quantum electrodynamics corrections to the initial and final levels into account, and also found that the contributions from Breit interaction, self-energy, and vacuum polarization grow fast with increasing nuclear charge for a fixed configuration. The ratio of the velocity to length form of the transition rate (A{sub v}/A{sub l}) was used to estimate the accuracy of our calculations.

  16. Suppression of the Critical Temperature of Superconducting NdFeAs(OF) Single Crystals by Kondo-Like Defect Sites Induced by {alpha}-Particle Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tarantini, C.; Gurevich, A.; Larbalestier, D. C.; Putti, M.; Shen, Y.; Singh, R. K.; Rowell, J. M.; Newman, N.; Cheng Peng; Jia Ying; Wen Haihu

    2010-02-26

    We report the effect of {alpha}-particle irradiation on the reduction of the critical temperature T{sub c} of a NdFeAs(OF) single crystal. Our data indicate that irradiation defects cause both nonmagnetic and magnetic scattering, resulting in the Kondo-like excess resistance {Delta}{rho}(T)propor tolnT over 2 decades in temperatures above T{sub c}. The critical density of magnetic irradiation defects which suppresses T{sub c} is found to be much higher than those for cuprates and multiband BCS superconductors. We suggest that such anomalously weak pair breaking by irradiation defects indicates that magnetic scattering in pnictides is coupled with pairing interactions mediated by spin fluctuations.

  17. One-dimensional array of point-like light sources based on gold nanoparticles and tetracene: Preparation and possible operation mechanisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cherepanov, V. V.; Fedorovich, R. D.; Kiyayev, O. E.; Naumovets, A. G.; Nechytaylo, V. B. Tomchuk, P. M.; Viduta, L. V.

    2014-11-10

    A method of preparation of a linear close-packed array of point-like light sources based on a nanocomposite of gold nanoparticles and tetracene is proposed. Ordered system of microleads to the light sources with packing density up to 1000 mm{sup −1} consists of linear conducting chains of cobalt nanoparticles self-assembled in a magnetic field. The electroluminescence from the gold-tetracene nanocomposite occurs in the visible range typical of organic light-emitting field-effect transistors based on tetracene. A theoretical substantiation of the possibility of excitation of tetracene molecules by hot electrons emitted from the gold nanoparticles is suggested and compared with other possible physical mechanisms.

  18. Infrared detection of (H2O)20 isomers of exceptional stability: A drop-like and a face-sharing pentagonal prism cluster

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Pradzynski, Christoph C.; Dierking, Christoph W.; Zurheide, Florian; Forck, Richard M.; Buck, Udo; Zeuch, Thomas; Xantheas, Sotiris S.

    2014-09-01

    Water clusters containing fully coordinated water molecules are model systems that mimic the local environment of the condensed phase. Present knowledge about the water cluster size regime in which the transition from the allsurface to the fully solvated water molecules occurs is mainly based on theoretical predictions in lieu of the absence of precisely size resolved experimental measurements. Here, we report size and isomer selective infrared (IR) spectra of (H2O)20 clusters tagged with a sodium atom by employing IR excitation modulated photoionization spectroscopy. The observed absorption patterns in the OH stretching ”fingerprint” region are consistent with the theoretically predicted spectramore » of two structurally distinct isomers: A drop-like cluster with a fully coordinated (interior) water and an edge-sharing pentagonal prism cluster in which all atoms are on the surface. The observed isomers show exceptional stability and are predicted to be nearly isoenergetic.« less

  19. Search for the Higgs Boson Using High-pT Isolated Like-Sign Dil Events in 1.96-TeV Proton-Antiproton Collisions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Hirokazu

    2005-03-01

    Our physics objective is to search for the neutral on using events containing a like-sign dilepton pair in the following reaction: q{bar q} {yields} W{sup {+-}} H {yields} W{sup {+-}} W*W* {yields} {ell}{sup {+-}}{ell}{sup {+-}} + X. The relevant Higgs boson mass region is above 160 GeV/c{sup 2} for the Standard Model Higgs boson where the branching fraction of H {yields} W*W* supersedes that of H {yields} b{bar b}. The search for this signature in the region at low mass (less than 135 GeV/c{sup 2}) is, however, still important because we need to investigate various Higgs boson couplings as an essential test to convince that signals are attributed to the Higgs boson production. This channel also covers the case beyond the Standard Model that the Higgs boson couples only to the gauge bosons, which is referred to as the bosophilic or fermiophobic Higgs boson. The corresponding mass region suitable to our signature is above 110 GeV/c{sup 2} where the branching fraction of H {yields} {gamma}{gamma} is overtaken by this channel. On the experimental side, the like-sign dilepton event is one of the cleanest signature in hadron collisions. This analysis exploiting such a distinctive signature is therefore expected to have a high potential of the sensitivity for the search of the Higgs boson. The data were collected with the CDF II detector between March 2002 and September 2003, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 193.5 pb{sup -1}. At off-line, the central region (|{eta}| < 1.1) is considered for the lepton detection. We require at least one electron with E{sub T} > 20 GeV or muon with p{sub T} > 20 GeV/c which is considered to be responsible for firing the corresponding trigger, and at least one other electron with E{sub T} > 6 GeV or muon with p{sub T} > 6 GeV/c. The leptons are required to be isolated in terms of the calorimeter cone-isolation with a cone size of R = 0.4. We require that the isolation is less than 2 GeV for each lepton. For the events with like

  20. W28 and 3C 400. 2 - Two shell-like radio supernova remnants with centrally peaked X-ray morphologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Long, K.S.; Blair, W.P.; Matsui, Yutaka; White, R.L. Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD )

    1991-06-01

    The paper describes X-ray and optical observations with the Einstein Observatory of two SNRs which are examples of a group of SNRs that have centrally peaked X-ray surface brightness distributions and limb-brightened radio morphologies. X-ray and optical spectra confirm that they are located along lines of sight with substantial intervening absorption, as is the case of other objects that have these morphological characteristics. The hydrogen column density along the line of sight to both remnants is established at (7-11) x 10 to the 21st/sq cm. A thermal origin is proposed as the most likely explanation for the X-ray morphology. It is demonstrated that these SNRs do not have a density and temperature distribution which resembles that of a point explosion in a uniform-density medium, even when the overburden of absorption is considered. 46 refs.