National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lignocellulose recalcitrance screening

  1. High Throughput Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis of Biomass: Screening Recalcitrance in Large Sample Populations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, S. R.

    2010-10-01

    Presentation on the execution of the first high-throughput thermochemical pretreatment/enzyme digestion pipeline for screening biomass for recalcitrance.

  2. Novel System for Recalcitrance Screening Will Reduce Biofuels Production Costs; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01

    Fact sheet describes a high-throughput screening process, developed at NREL, that enables researchers to screen a large variety of biomass feedstocks for traits that indicate they would easily convert to fermentable sugars.

  3. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  4. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, R.W.; Kadam, K.L.; Hsu, T.A.; Philippidis, G.P.; Wyman, C.E.

    1996-04-02

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions. 7 figs.

  5. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, R.W.; Kadam, K.L.; Hsu, T.A.; Philippidis, G.P.; Wyman, C.E.

    1998-01-06

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions. 7 figs.

  6. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, R.W.; Kadam, K.L.; Hsu, T.A.; Philippidis, G.P.; Wyman, C.E.

    1995-06-13

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions. 7 figs.

  7. BSCL use plan: Solving biomass recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Vinzant, T.; Bower, S.; Jechura, J.

    2005-08-01

    Saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass has long been recognized as a potential low-cost source of mixed sugars for fermentation to fuel ethanol or chemicals. Several technologies have been developed over the years that allow this conversion process to occur, yet the significant challenge remaining is to make the process cost competitive.

  8. Sandia Energy - Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory ofDid youOxygenLaboratory Fellows Jerry Simmons Is One ofLignocellulosic

  9. Screening

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Screening is typically performed by an outside party or an independent renewable energy expert or team. It is a review of the possible technology options that identifies dead-ends and further...

  10. 1. Lignocellulosic materials Lignocellulose is a renewable organic material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qin, Wensheng

    aromatic biopolymer on Earth, is extremely recalcitrant to degradation. By linking to both hemicellulose to degrade lignin efficiently using a combination of extracellular ligninolytic enzymes, organic acids. These enzymes include phenol oxidase (laccase) and heme peroxidases [lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese

  11. An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

    2012-01-10

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  12. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  13. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological...

  14. Development of a Commerical Enzyme System for Lignocellulosic Biomass Saccharification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-02-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  15. RESEARCH Open Access Agave proves to be a low recalcitrant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    is well known for tequila and other liquor production in Mexico, has recently gained attention because will be critical to estab- lishing a lignocellulosic industry with a major long term impact on sustainably inputs of water and nutrients [5]. In addition, agave offers environmental attributes such as preventing

  16. Supramolecular self-assembled chaos: polyphenolic lignin's barrier to cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2014-01-01

    thereby  cost-­? effective  biofuels  production.   PMID:  effective  lignocellulosic  biofuels.   Achyuthan  KE,  effective   lignocellulosic  biofuels.  Post-­?synthesis  

  17. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance Henrik Vibeenergy stored in plant biomass. The papers in this volumefeedstocks development and biomass deconstruction. Keywords

  18. Development of a commercial enzymes system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Manoj

    2012-12-20

    DSM Innovation Inc., in its four year effort was able to evaluate and develop its in-house DSM fungal cellulolytic enzymes system to reach enzyme efficiency mandates set by DoE Biomass program MYPP goals. DSM enzyme cocktail is uniquely active at high temperature and acidic pH, offering many benefits and product differentiation in 2G bioethanol production. Under this project, strain and process development, ratio optimization of enzymes, protein and genetic engineering has led to multitudes of improvement in productivity and efficiency making development of a commercial enzyme system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification viable. DSM is continuing further improvement by additional biodiversity screening, protein engineering and overexpression of enzymes to continue to further lower the cost of enzymes for saccharification of biomass.

  19. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  20. Simultaneous consumption of pentose and hexose sugars: an optimal microbial phenotype for efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E.; Mills, David A.

    2010-01-01

    bacteria for lignocellulosic biomass utilization CCR forfermentation of lignocellulosic biomass Jae-Han Kim & DavidAbstract Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive carbon

  1. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (Lynd et al. , 1991;as well as superior biomass feedstocks be intelligentlyrecalcitrance for all biomass feedstocks. Consequently, more

  2. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  3. Processes for converting lignocellulosics to reduced acid pyrolysis oil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kocal, Joseph Anthony; Brandvold, Timothy A

    2015-01-06

    Processes for producing reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In a process, lignocellulosic material is fed to a heating zone. A basic solid catalyst is delivered to the heating zone. The lignocellulosic material is pyrolyzed in the presence of the basic solid catalyst in the heating zone to create pyrolysis gases. The oxygen in the pyrolysis gases is catalytically converted to separable species in the heating zone. The pyrolysis gases are removed from the heating zone and are liquefied to form the reduced acid lignocellulosic-derived pyrolysis oil.

  4. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons:...

  5. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover Process...

  6. Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production from lignocellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartley, Laura E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2009-01-01

    sugar yields for biofuel production. Nat Biotechnol 25(7):research seeks biofuel production from lignocellulose A keylignocellulosic biofuel production and highlight scientific

  7. Engineering the Surface of Bacillus subtilis to Degrade Lignocellulose for Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    Hydrolysis and Biofuel Production. Industrial & EngineeringDegrade Lignocellulose for Biofuel Production A dissertationLignocellulose for Biofuel Production by Timothy David

  8. Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01

    A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

  9. Fully Integrated Lignocellulosic Biorefinery with Onsite Production of Enzymes and Yeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2010-06-14

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  10. Engineering the Surface of Bacillus subtilis to Degrade Lignocellulose for Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    technologies for bioethanol production from lignocellulose.aqueous ammonia for bioethanol production. Methods Mol Biol

  11. Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup

    Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

  12. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  13. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  14. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  15. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  16. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1461 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially microorganisms. Aged PAH-polluted soil with a total PAH level of 753 mg kg-1 soil dry weight was planted with 18. The size of soil microbial populations of PAH degraders was also monitored. Planting significantly enhanced

  17. Fundamental study of structural features affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Li

    2006-10-30

    Lignocellulose is a promising and valuable alternative energy source. Native lignocellulosic biomass has limited accessibility to cellulase enzyme due to structural features; therefore, pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to make biomass...

  18. June 2002 NREL/TP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, Robert B.

    ··· ··· June 2002 · NREL/TP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design;··· ··· June 2002 · NREL/TP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics

  19. Design and construction of modular genetic devices and the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Damian Kelly

    2012-11-29

    The enzymatic deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass is performed by specialist microbial species. It is a ubiquitous process within nature and central to the global recycling of carbon and energy. Lignocellulose ...

  20. Differential growth responses of soil bacterial taxa to carbon substrates of varying chemical recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldfarb, K.C.; Karaoz, U.; Hanson, C.A.; Santee, C.A.; Bradford, M.A.; Treseder, K.K.; Wallenstein, M.D.; Brodie, E.L.

    2011-04-18

    Soils are immensely diverse microbial habitats with thousands of co-existing bacterial, archaeal, and fungal species. Across broad spatial scales, factors such as pH and soil moisture appear to determine the diversity and structure of soil bacterial communities. Within any one site however, bacterial taxon diversity is high and factors maintaining this diversity are poorly resolved. Candidate factors include organic substrate availability and chemical recalcitrance, and given that they appear to structure bacterial communities at the phylum level, we examine whether these factors might structure bacterial communities at finer levels of taxonomic resolution. Analyzing 16S rRNA gene composition of nucleotide analog-labeled DNA by PhyloChip microarrays, we compare relative growth rates on organic substrates of increasing chemical recalcitrance of >2,200 bacterial taxa across 43 divisions/phyla. Taxa that increase in relative abundance with labile organic substrates (i.e., glycine, sucrose) are numerous (>500), phylogenetically clustered, and occur predominantly in two phyla (Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria) including orders Actinomycetales, Enterobacteriales, Burkholderiales, Rhodocyclales, Alteromonadales, and Pseudomonadales. Taxa increasing in relative abundance with more chemically recalcitrant substrates (i.e., cellulose, lignin, or tannin-protein) are fewer (168) but more phylogenetically dispersed, occurring across eight phyla and including Clostridiales, Sphingomonadalaes, Desulfovibrionales. Just over 6% of detected taxa, including many Burkholderiales increase in relative abundance with both labile and chemically recalcitrant substrates. Estimates of median rRNA copy number per genome of responding taxa demonstrate that these patterns are broadly consistent with bacterial growth strategies. Taken together, these data suggest that changes in availability of intrinsically labile substrates may result in predictable shifts in soil bacterial composition.

  1. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  2. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass Recalcitrance Factors Using Reference Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-04-01

    Three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, Dupont Accellerase® 1500, and DSM Cytolase CL, were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity using a set of reference biomass substrates with controlled substrate characteristics. It was found that lignin remains a significant recalcitrance factor to all the preparations, although different enzyme preparations respond to the inhibitory effect of lignin differently. Also, different types of biomass lignin can inhibit cellulose enzymes in different manners. Enhancing enzyme activity toward biomass fiber swelling is an area significantly contributing to potential improvement in cellulose performance. While the degree of polymerization of cellulose in the reference substrates did not present a major recalcitrance factor to Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, cellulose crystallite has been shown to have a significant lower reactivity toward all enzyme mixtures. The presence of polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) in Novozymes Ctec2 appears to enhance enzyme activity toward decrystallization of cellulose. This study demonstrated that reference substrates with controlled chemical and physical characteristics of structural features can be applied as an effective and practical strategy to identify cellulosic enzyme activities toward specific biomass recalcitrance factor(s) and provide specific targets for enzyme improvement.

  3. Process Optimization of FT-Diesel Production from Lignocellulosic Switchgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Process Optimization of FT-Diesel Production from Lignocellulosic Switchgrass Mariano Martín Abstract. In this paper we present the conceptual design for the optimization of FT-diesel production to increase the yield towards green diesel. The optimization of the system is formulated as an equation

  4. Colloid-based multiplexed screening for plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hazen, Terry

    is highly dependent on petroleum based fuels. However, the world's oil resources are limited and emissions.Theresultsshowthesuitabilityofthe described method for the rapid screening of crude environmental samples under a wide range of conditions,causingclimatechangesandglobalwarming.Recently, thereisgrowing interest in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass (e.g. switchgrass

  5. Molecular Siganture and Sources of Biochemical Recalcitrance of Organic C in Amozonian Dark Earths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solomon,D.; Lehmann, J.; Thies, J.; Schafer, T.; Liang, B.; Kinyangi, J.; Neves, E.; Peterson, J.; Liuzao, F.; Skjemstad, J.

    2007-01-01

    Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils developed through intense anthropogenic activities that transformed the original soils into Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin. We conducted a comparative molecular-level investigation of soil organic C (SOC) speciation in ADE (ages between 600 and 8700 years B.P.) and adjacent soils using ultraviolet photo-oxidation coupled with {sup 13}C cross polarization-magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (CP-MAS NMR), synchrotron-based Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance (Sr-FTIR-ATR) and C (1s) near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy to obtain deeper insights into the structural chemistry and sources of refractory organic C compounds in ADE. Our results show that the functional group chemistry of SOC in ADE was considerably different from adjacent soils. The SOC in ADE was enriched with: (i) aromatic-C structures mostly from H- and C-substituted aryl-C, (ii) O-rich organic C forms from carboxylic-C, aldehyde-C, ketonic-C and quinine-C, and (iii) diverse group of refractory aliphatic-C moieties. The SOC in adjacent soils was predominantly composed of O-alkyl-C and methoxyl-C/N-alkyl-C structures and elements of labile aliphatic-C functionalities. Our study suggests that the inherent molecular structures of organic C due to selective accumulation of highly refractory aryl-C structures seems to be the key factor for the biochemical recalcitrance and stability of SOC in ADE. Anthropogenic enrichment with charred carbonaceous residues from biomass-derived black C (BC) is presumed to be the precursor of these recalcitrant polyaromatic structures. Our results also highlight the complementary role that might be played by organic C compounds composed of O-containing organic C moieties and aliphatic-C structures that persisted for millennia in these anthropic soils as additional or secondary sources of chemical recalcitrance of SOC in ADE. These organic C compounds could be the products of: (i) primary recalcitrant biomolecules from non-BC sources or (ii) secondary processes involving microbial mediated oxidative or extracellular neoformation reactions of SOC from BC and non-BC sources; and stabilized through physical inaccessibility to decomposers due to sorption onto the surface or into porous structures of BC particles, selective preservation or through intermolecular interactions involving clay and BC particles.

  6. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  7. Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.; Donohoe, B.; Katahira, R.; Ashutosh, M.; Beckham, G.; Himmel, M.; Decker, S.

    2014-04-01

    Fungal free enzymes and bacterial complexed cellulosomes deconstruct biomass using different physical mechanisms. Free enzymes, which typically contain a large proportion of GH7 cellobiohydrolase, diffuse throughout the substrate and hydrolyze primarily from the cellulose reducing end, resulting in 'sharpened' macrofibrils. In contrast, complexed cellulosomes contain a diverse array of carbohydrate binding modules and multiple catalytic specificities leading to delamination and physical peeling of the cellulose macrofibril structures. To investigate how cellulose structure contributes to recalcitrance, we compared the deconstruction of cellulose I, II, and III; using free and complexed enzyme systems. We also evaluated both systems on Clean Fractionation and alkaline pretreated biomass, which remove much of the lignin, to determine the impact on enzyme loading reduction. Free fungal enzymes demonstrated a swelling of the outer surface of the plant cell walls while removing localized disruptions, resulting in a smooth surface appearance. Cellulosomes produced cell wall surfaces with localized areas of disruption and little surface layer swelling. These studies contribute to the overall understanding of biomass recalcitrance and how combining different enzymatic paradigms may lead to the formulation of new enzyme cocktails to reduce the cost of producing sugars from plant cell wall carbohydrates.

  8. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  9. Engineering the Surface of Bacillus subtilis to Degrade Lignocellulose for Biofuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Timothy David

    2013-01-01

    and T. K. Ghose. 2003. Bioethanol in India: recent past andZhao, and M. Emptage. 2006. Bioethanol. Current Opinion intechnologies for bioethanol production from lignocellulose.

  10. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  11. Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nair, Sankar

    Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

  12. Cultivation of recalcitrant microbes: cells are alive, well and revealing their secrets in the 21st century laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leadbetter, Jared R.

    Cultivation of recalcitrant microbes: cells are alive, well and revealing their secrets in the 21st and phylogenetically distinct microbes as were the first years of the 20th century. The diversity of organic by microbes in the biosphere. Either guided and instigated by, or independent of, the results of gene

  13. 17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol: The Path to Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol of transport fuels from biomass is essential if the EU aspiration to substitute 10% of transport fuels investment in R&D in the US, Europe and Asia. The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

  14. Study of lignocellulose components for production of lactic acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padukone, N.; Schmidt, S.L.; Goodman, B.J.; Wyman, C.E.

    1993-12-31

    Lactic acid promises to be an important chemical feedstock in the future for the production of biodegradable and biocompatible polymers. About half of the current US consumption is imported to meet the escalating demand from both the food and chemical industries. The potential future market for polylactide products would further stress the domestic capacity of lactic acid production. Renewable resources such as lignocellulosic crops and wastes are abundant and could be utilized for the production of important fuels and chemicals. This would not only reduce our dependence on limited reserves of fossil fuels but also alleviate the environmental burden of waste accumulation and disposal.

  15. Preliminary Screening

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The first step in assessing renewable energy options is to conduct a preliminary screening to decide which technologies are worth investigating and which can be eliminated immediately. Preliminary...

  16. On using rational enzyme redesign to improve enzyme-mediated microbial dehalogenation of recalcitrant substances in deep-subsurface environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ornstein, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    Heavily halogenated hydrocarbons are one of the most prevalent classes of man-made recalcitrant environmental contaminants and often make their way into subsurface environments. Biodegradation of heavily chlorinated compounds in the deep subsurface often occurs at extremely slow rates because native enzymes of indigenous microbes are unable to efficiently metabolize such synthetic substances. Cost-effective engineering solutions do not exist for dealing with disperse and recalcitrant pollutants in the deep subsurface (i.e., ground water, soils, and sediments). Timely biodegradation of heavily chlorinated compounds in the deep subsurface may be best accomplished by rational redesign of appropriate enzymes that enhance the ability of indigenous microbes to metabolize these substances. The isozyme family cytochromes P450 are catalytically very robust and are found in all aerobic life forms and may be active in may anaerobes as well. The author is attempting to demonstrate proof-of-principle rational enzyme redesign of cytochromes P450 to enhance biodehalogenation.

  17. New Innovations in Highly Ion Specific Media for Recalcitrant Waste stream Radioisotopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denton, M. S.; Wilson, J.; Ahrendt, M. [RWE NUKEM Corporation (RNC), 800 Oak Ridge Tnpk., Suite A701, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Bostick, W. D. [Materials and Chemistry Laboratory (MCL), Inc., East Tennessee Technology Park, Building K-1006, 2010 Highway 58, Suite 1000, Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); DeSilva, F.; Meyers, P. [ResinTech, Inc., 1 ResinTech Plaza, 160 Cooper Road, West Berlin, NJ 08091 (United States)

    2006-07-01

    Specialty ion specific media were examined and developed for, not only pre- and post-outage waste streams, but also for very difficult outage waste streams. This work was carried out on first surrogate waste streams, then laboratory samples of actual waste streams, and, finally, actual on-site waste streams. This study was particularly focused on PWR wastewaters such as Floor Drain Tank (FDT), Boron Waste Storage Tank (BWST), and Waste Treatment Tank (WTT, or discharge tank). Over the last half decade, or so, treatment technologies have so greatly improved and discharge levels have become so low, that certain particularly problematic isotopes, recalcitrant to current treatment skids, are all that remain prior to discharge. In reality, they have always been present, but overshadowed by the more prevalent and higher activity isotopes. Such recalcitrants include cobalt, especially Co 58 [both ionic/soluble (total dissolved solids, TDS) and colloidal (total suspended solids, TSS)] and antimony (Sb). The former is present in most FDT and BWST wastewaters, while the Sb is primarily present in BWST waste streams. The reasons Co 58 can be elusive to granulated activated carbon (GAC), ultrafiltration (UF) and ion exchange (IX) demineralizers is that it forms submicron colloids as well as has a tendency to form metal complexes with chelating agents (e.g., ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, or EDTA). Such colloids and non-charged complexes will pass through the entire treatment skid. Antimony (Sb) on the other hand, has little or no ionic charge, and will, likewise, pass through both the filtration and de-min skids into the discharge tanks. While the latter will sometimes (the anionic vs. the cationic or neutral species) be removed on the anion bed(s), it will slough off (snow-plow effect) when a higher affinity anion (iodine slugs, etc.) comes along; thus causing effluents not meeting discharge criteria. The answer to these problems found in this study, during an actual Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) outage cycle and recovery (four months), was the down-select and development of a number of highly ion specific media for the specific removal of such elusive isotopes. Over three dozen media including standard cation and anion ion exchangers, specialty IX, standard carbons, and, finally, chemically doped media (e.g., carbon and alumina substrates). The latter involved doping with iron, manganese, and even metals. The media down-select was carried out on actual plant waste streams so that all possible outage affects were accounted for, and distribution coefficients (Kd's) were determined (vs. decontamination factors, DF's, or percent removals). Such Kd's, in milliliters of solution per gram of media (mug), produce data indicative of the longevity of the media in that particular waste stream. Herein, the down-select is reported in Pareto (decreasing order) tables. Further affects such as the presence of high cobalt concentrations, high boron concentrations, the presence of hydrazine and chelating agents, and extreme pH conditions. Of particular importance here is to avoid the affinity of competing ions (e.g., a Sb specific media having more than a slight affinity for Co). The latter results in the snow-plow effect of sloughing off 3 to 4 times the cobalt into the effluent as was in the feed upon picking up the Sb. The study was quite successful and resulted in the development of and selection of a resin-type and two granular media for antimony removal, and two resin-types and a granular media for cobalt removal. The decontamination factors for both media were hundreds to thousands of times that of the full filtration and de-min. (authors)

  18. Revealing the Differences Between Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.

    2014-09-08

    Enzymatic depolymerization of polysaccharides is a key step in the production of fuels and chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass, and discovery of synergistic biomass-degrading enzyme paradigms will enable improved conversion processes. Historically, revealing insights into enzymatic saccharification mechanisms on plant cell walls has been hindered by uncharacterized substrates and low resolution imaging techniques. Also, translating findings between model substrates to intact biomass is critical for evaluating enzyme performance. Here we employ a fungal free enzyme cocktail, a complexed cellulosomal system, and a combination of the two to investigate saccharification mechanisms on cellulose I, II and III along with corn stover from Clean Fractionation (CF), which is an Organosolv pretreatment. The insoluble Cellulose Enriched Fraction (CEF) from CF contains mainly cellulose with minor amounts of residual hemicellulose and lignin, the amount of which depends on the CF pretreatment severity. Enzymatic digestions at both low and high-solids loadings demonstrate that CF reduces the amount of enzyme required to depolymerize polysaccharides relative to deacetylated, dilute acid pretreated corn stover. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy of the biomass provides evidence for the different mechanisms of enzymatic deconstruction between free and complexed enzyme systems, and reveals the basis for the synergistic relationship between the two enzyme paradigms on a process-relevant substrate for the first time. These results also demonstrate that the presence of lignin, rather than cellulose morphology, is more detrimental to cellulosome action than to free cellulases. As enzyme costs are a major economic driver for biorefineries, this study provides key inputs for the evaluation of CF as a pretreatment method for biomass conversion.

  19. CONVERSION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC MATERIAL TO CHEMICALS AND FUELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin S. Olson

    2001-06-30

    A direct conversion of cellulosic wastes, including resin-bonded furniture and building waste, to levulinate esters is being investigated with the view to producing fuels, solvents, and chemical intermediates as well as other useful by-products in an inexpensive process. The acid-catalyzed reaction of cellulosic materials with ethanol or methanol at 200 C gives good yields of levulinate and formate esters, as well as useful by-products, such as a solid residue (charcoal) and a resinous lignin residue. An initial plant design showed reasonable rates of return for production of purified ethyl levulinate and by-products. In this project, investigations have been performed to identify and develop reactions that utilize esters of levulinic acid produced during the acid-catalyzed ethanolysis reaction. We wish to develop uses for levulinate esters that allow their marketing at prices comparable to inexpensive polymer intermediates. These prices will allow a sufficient rate of return to justify building plants for utilizing the waste lignocellulosics. If need is demonstrated for purified levulinate, the initial plant design work may be adequate, at least until further pilot-scale work on the process is performed.

  20. Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01

    Biofuels that are produced from biobased materials are a good alternative to petroleum based fuels. They offer several benefits to society and the environment. Producing second generation biofuels is even more challenging than producing first generation biofuels due the complexity of the biomass and issues related to producing, harvesting, and transporting less dense biomass to centralized biorefineries. In addition to this logistic challenge, other challenges with respect to processing steps in converting biomass to liquid transportation fuel like pretreatment, hydrolysis, microbial fermentation, and fuel separation still exist and are discussed in this review. The possible coproducts that could be producedmore »in the biorefinery and their importance to reduce the processing cost of biofuel are discussed. About $1 billion was spent in the year 2012 by the government agencies in US to meet the mandate to replace 30% existing liquid transportation fuels by 2022 which is 36?billion gallons/year. Other countries in the world have set their own targets to replace petroleum fuel by biofuels. Because of the challenges listed in this review and lack of government policies to create the demand for biofuels, it may take more time for the lignocellulosic biofuels to hit the market place than previously projected.« less

  1. Supercritical carbon dioxide pretreatment of corn stover and switchgrass for lignocellulosic ethanol production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gu, Tingyue

    ethanol production Naveen Narayanaswamy a , Ahmed Faik b , Douglas J. Goetz a , Tingyue Gu a, a Department). Increased demand in biofuels cannot be met by the use of corn and sugarcane. In the US, corn ethanol has in and Liska, 2007). The production of lignocellulosic ethanol from biomass gener- ally involves four major

  2. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-05-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) promotes the production of ethanol and other liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in the program, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) investigates the production economics of these fuels.

  3. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL’s ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks.

  4. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eakle, Robert F. (New Ellenton, SC); Pak, Donald J. (Martine, GA)

    2004-10-26

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  5. Old and stable soil organic matter is not necessarily chemically recalcitrant: Implications for modeling concepts and temperature sensitivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kleber, M.; Nico, P.S.; Plante, A.; Filley, T.; Kramer, M.; Swanston, C.; Sollins, P.

    2010-03-01

    Soil carbon turnover models generally divide soil carbon into pools with varying intrinsic decomposition rates. Although these decomposition rates are modified by factors such as temperature, texture, and moisture, they are rationalized by assuming chemical structure is a primary controller of decomposition. In the current work, we use near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy in combination with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and alkaline cupric oxide (CuO) oxidation to explore this assumption. Specifically, we examined material from the 2.3-2.6 kg L{sup -1} density fraction of three soils of different type (Oxisol, Alfisol, Inceptisol). The density fraction with the youngest {sup 14}C age (Oxisol, 107 years) showed the highest relative abundance of aromatic groups and the lowest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio as determined by NEXAFS. Conversely, the fraction with the oldest C (Inceptisol, 680 years) had the lowest relative abundance of aromatic groups and highest O-alkyl C/aromatic C ratio. This sample also had the highest proportion of thermally labile materials as measured by DSC, and the highest ratio of substituted fatty acids to lignin phenols as indicated by CuO oxidation. Therefore, the organic matter of the Inceptisol sample, with a {sup 14}C age associated with 'passive' pools of carbon (680 years), had the largest proportion of easily metabolizable organic molecules with low thermodynamic stability, whereas the organic matter of the much younger Oxisol sample (107 years) had the highest proportion of supposedly stable organic structures considered more difficult to metabolize. Our results demonstrate that C age is not necessarily related to molecular structure or thermodynamic stability, and we suggest that soil carbon models would benefit from viewing turnover rate as codetermined by the interaction between substrates, microbial actors, and abiotic driving variables. Furthermore, assuming that old carbon is composed of complex or 'recalcitrant' compounds will erroneously attribute a greater temperature sensitivity to those materials than they may actually possess.

  6. Electrostatic screening by semiconductors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krcmar, Maja

    1998-01-01

    distributions. We determine the sluice screening length for the screening of a charged surface defect, and the interaction energy between two charged surface defects. We find the spatial scales over which dielectric and metallic properties of the semiconductors...

  7. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  8. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  9. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

    2012-03-27

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  10. Composite scintillator screen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zeman, Herbert D. (1687 Peach St., Memphis, TN 38112)

    1994-01-01

    A scintillator screen for an X-ray system includes a substrate of low-Z material and bodies of a high-Z material embedded within the substrate. By preselecting the size of the bodies embedded within the substrate, the spacial separation of the bodies and the thickness of the screen, the sensitivity of the screen to X-rays within a predetermined energy range can be predicted.

  11. Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

    2012-01-24

    This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

  12. Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidionycetes (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hibbett, David [Clark University

    2013-01-15

    David Hibbett from Clark University on "Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidiomycetes" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  13. Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidionycetes (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbett, David [Clark University] [Clark University

    2012-03-21

    David Hibbett from Clark University on "Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidiomycetes" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  14. Search for: All records | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Genes identified in this study represent novel targets for reducing cell wall recalcitrance for lignocellulosic biofuels production using plant biomass. less January 2015...

  15. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  16. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  17. Conventional Medical Screening Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Medical screening is a strategy used to identify diseases or conditions in a select population at an early stage, often before signs and symptoms develop, and to refer individuals with suspicious findings to their personal physician or a specialist for further testing, diagnosis, and treatment. The program is not intended to serve as a substitute for routine medical exams through an individual's personal physician.

  18. Instructions: Making the screen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    of the Styrofoam cup as shown below: 2) Using a straight edge, draw a ling perpendicular to the slit as shown below of a Styrofoam cup using masking tape as in the figure below: Flashlight Tape #12 the zero centimeter line with the front of the screen and the edge of the meter stick against the Styrofoam

  19. EL INCIDENTE Film Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EL INCIDENTE Film Screening A PART OF THE "SAWYER SEMINAR ON ALTERNATIVE FUTURISMS" Director Isaac Ezban's science fiction and horror films have been well received at international film festivals, with his first feature length film El Incidente winning awards for Best Original Screenplay for a Feature

  20. Automated macromolecular crystallization screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Segelke, Brent W.; Rupp, Bernhard; Krupka, Heike I.

    2005-03-01

    An automated macromolecular crystallization screening system wherein a multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced. A multiplicity of analysis plates is produced utilizing the reagent mixes combined with a sample. The analysis plates are incubated to promote growth of crystals. Images of the crystals are made. The images are analyzed with regard to suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A design of reagent mixes is produced based upon the expected suitability of the crystals for analysis by x-ray crystallography. A second multiplicity of mixes of the reagent components is produced utilizing the design and a second multiplicity of reagent mixes is used for a second round of automated macromolecular crystallization screening. In one embodiment the multiplicity of reagent mixes are produced by a random selection of reagent components.

  1. Dynamic Screening and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei V. Gruzinov

    1997-02-06

    We show that there are no dynamic screening corrections to the Salpeter's enhancement factor in the weak-screening limit.

  2. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  3. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Maple, T. Grant (Sunnyvale, CA); Sklensky, Alden F. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1981-01-01

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  4. Rapid characterization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for fuels and chemicals: Molecular beam mass spectrometric approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Rapid characterization of biomass feedstocks has a pivotal role in the development of biomass energy because of the large number of samples that must be analyzed due to the diversity of biomass feedstocks and the significant differences in the chemical and physical properties of these feedstocks. Several biomass feedstocks (herbaceous, woody, and agricultural residues) were screened for the effects of storage, season of harvest, geographic location, clonal, and species variation on the pyrolysis products of the feed stocks. For herbaceous species such as sericea lespedeza, the season of harvest had a significant effect on the pyrolysis products. Effects of clonal variation on the composition of hybrid poplar feedstocks was easily discerned with the molecular beam mass spectrometric analysis. The effect of geographic location on the poplar clones pyrolysis products was minimal. However in the case of switchgrass, varietal influence on the pyrolysis products was minimal, but where the plant was grown had a strong influence on the pyrolysis products of the feedstock. Significant differences because of species variation could also be shown from the pyrolysis products of various biomass feedstocks. The influence of storage time on biomass samples stored outside in the open could also be discerned from the pyrolysis products of the feedstocks. The differences noted in the pyrolysis products of the feedstocks were noted for samples which were significantly degraded during storage either through the action of microflora or weathering.

  5. Microelectroporation device for genomic screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Negrete, Oscar; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2014-09-09

    We have developed an microelectroporation device that combines microarrays of oligonucleotides, microfluidic channels, and electroporation for cell transfection and high-throughput screening applications (e.g. RNA interference screens). Microarrays allow the deposition of thousands of different oligonucleotides in microscopic spots. Microfluidic channels and microwells enable efficient loading of cells into the device and prevent cross-contamination between different oligonucleotides spots. Electroporation allows optimal transfection of nucleic acids into cells (especially hard-to-transfect cells such as primary cells) by minimizing cell death while maximizing transfection efficiency. This invention has the advantage of a higher throughput and lower cost, while preventing cross-contamination compared to conventional screening technologies. Moreover, this device does not require bulky robotic liquid handling equipment and is inherently safer given that it is a closed system.

  6. Screening length in plasma winds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elena Caceres; Makoto Natsuume; Takashi Okamura

    2007-06-04

    We study the screening length L_s of a heavy quark-antiquark pair in strongly coupled gauge theory plasmas flowing at velocity v. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence we investigate, analytically, the screening length in the ultra-relativistic limit. We develop a procedure that allows us to find the scaling exponent for a large class of backgrounds. We find that for conformal theories the screening length is (boosted energy density)^{-1/d}. As examples of conformal backgrounds we study R-charged black holes and Schwarzschild-anti-deSitter black holes in (d+1)-dimensions. For non-conformal theories, we find that the exponent deviates from -1/d and as examples we study the non-extremal Klebanov-Tseytlin and Dp-brane geometries. We find an interesting relation between the deviation of the scaling exponent from the conformal value and the speed of sound.

  7. DOE: Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FWP provides no-cost medical screenings to all former DOE Federal, contractor and subcontractor employees. The screening exams are offered by third party providers from universities, labor unions,...

  8. Portuguese Ships on Japanese Namban Screens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamafune, Kotaro

    2012-10-19

    scenes of the first European activities in Japan. Among the subjects depicted on Namban screens, some of the most intriguing are ships: the European ships of the Age of Discovery. Namban screens were created by skillful Japanese traditional painters who...

  9. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DE-FG02-07ER64500 Study of Lignocellulosic Material Degradation with CARS Microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Ding, Shi-You

    2013-09-30

    The program of research undertaken by our Harvard group, in collaboration with Dr. Ding at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in Golden, CO, seeks to introduce, validate and apply a new analytical technique to study the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into ethanol. This conversion process has been the subject of intense interest over the past few years because of its potential to provide a clean, renewable source of energy to meet increasing global demand. During the funding period, we have clearly demonstrated visualization of lignin and cellulose using intrinsic vibrational contrast with simulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, developed at Harvard. Our approach offers high spatial resolution and time resolution that is sufficient to capture the kinetics of a pre?treatment process. This is reflected by the publications listed below, as well as the use of SRS microscopy at NREL as a routine analysis tool for research on lignocellulosic biomass. In our original proposal, we envisioned moving to near?field CARS imaging in order to perform chemical mapping at the nanoscale. However, given the dramatic progress made by our group in SRS imaging, we concentrated our efforts on using multi?component SRS (lignin, cellulose, lipid, water, protein, deuterated metabolites, etc.) to quantitatively understand the spatially dispersed kinetics in a variety of plant samples under a variety of conditions. In addition, we built a next generation laser system based on fiber laser technology that allowed rugged and portable instrumentation for SRS microscopy. We also pursued new imaging approaches to improve the acquisition speed of SRS imaging of lignocellulose without sacrificing signal?to?noise ratio. This allowed us to image larger volumes of tissue with higher time resolution to get a more comprehensive picture of the heterogeneity of this chemical process from the submicron up to the centimeter scale.

  10. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  11. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  12. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  13. Coal storage hopper with vibrating screen agitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, Charles S. (Knoxville, TN); Lackey, Mack E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sy, Ronald L. (Clinton, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyor mechanism. The vibrating screen agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  14. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  15. Coiled tubing cuts horizontal screen repair cost

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crow, W.; Hill, P.; Johnston, R.

    1996-01-01

    This article presents a case history of the successful workover performed by a coiled tubing unit (CTU) on Mississippi Canyon (MC) Block 109 Well A-24 in the US Gulf of Mexico to clean out sand and install new concentric screen for sand control. Workover design and operational details discussed are: Workover design -- hole-cleaning hydraulics, CT and screen predictions and comparison considerations; Workover operations -- cleanout, running packer and screens, coiled tubing (CT) weights, acid treatment and nitrogen lift and flow back.

  16. Screening of Hydrocarbon Sources in JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Strachan; W. Fundamenski; M. Charlet; K. Erents; J. Gafert; C. Giroud; M. von Hellermann; G. Matthews; G. McCracken; V. Philipps; J. Spence; M.F. Stamp; K-D. Zastrow; and EFDA-JET Work Programme Collaborators

    2001-06-15

    Carbon is the principal impurity in the Joint European Torus (JET). Methane screening experiments quantify the ability of the scrape-off layer (SOL)/divertor system to ionize carbon and transport it to the divertor, preventing core plasma contamination. Previous JET publications studied edge-localized-mode-averaged high-confinement mode screening, and separately, evaluated the methodology of low-confinement mode (L-mode) screening measurements. This paper extends the L-mode measurements to include relevant plasma parameter scans and DIVIMP modeling of the L-mode screening.

  17. Vermont Small Hydropower Assistance Program Screening Criteria...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Vermont Small Hydropower Assistance Program Screening Criteria Summary and Application Instructions Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Permitting...

  18. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  19. Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies...

  20. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  1. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design and costing for the lignin combustor and boiler turbogenerator was reviewed by Reaction Engineering Inc. (REI) and Merrick & Company reviewed the wastewater treatment. Since then, NREL has engaged Harris Group (Harris) to perform vendor testing, process design, and costing of critical equipment identified during earlier work. This included solid/liquid separation and pretreatment reactor design and costing. Corn stover handling was also investigated to support DOE's decision to focus on corn stover as a feedstock for lignocellulosic ethanol. Working with Harris, process design and costing for these areas were improved through vendor designs, costing, and vendor testing in some cases. In addition to this work, enzyme costs were adjusted to reflect collaborative work between NREL and enzyme manufacturers (Genencor International and Novozymes Biotech) to provide a delivered enzyme for lignocellulosic feedstocks. This report is the culmination of our work and represents an updated process design and cost basis for the process using a corn stover feedstock. The process design and economic model are useful for predicting the cost benefits of proposed research. Proposed research results can be translated into modifications of the process design, and the economic impact can be assessed. This allows DOE, NREL, and other researchers to set priorities on future research with an understanding of potential reductions to the ethanol production cost. To be economically viable, ethanol production costs must be below market values for ethanol. DOE has chosen a target ethanol selling price of $1.07 per gallon as a goal for 2010. The conceptual design and costs presented here are based on a 2010 plant start-up date. The key research targets required to achieve this design and the $1.07 value are discussed in the report.

  2. CHEST Supplement Screening for Lung Cancer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    e78S CHEST Supplement Screening for Lung Cancer DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF LUNG CANCER, 3RD ED individuals). 3.2.2. In patients at risk for developing lung cancer, screening for lung cancer with sputum are age 55 to 74 and who have smoked for Background: Lung cancer is by far the major cause of cancer

  3. www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    www.yalecancercenter.org Lung Cancer Screening Guest Experts: Lynn Tanoue, MD Professor of Therapeutic Radiology and an expert in the use of radiation to treat lung cancers and cutaneous lymphomas Oncology Program. Dr. Detterbeck and I also co- direct the new Yale Lung Cancer and Lung Nodule Screening

  4. Fusion Protein Products Screen Purify Detect Cleave

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Fusion Protein Products · Screen · Purify · Detect · Cleave Fusion Protein Products · Screen researchers look to plasmid vectors to express fusion proteins, they find themselves in need of methods proteins is also included for those fusion proteins that may have an inaccessible tag. Pierce offers a host

  5. Mixed Alcohol Synthesis Catalyst Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, Mark A.; White, James F.; Stevens, Don J.

    2007-09-03

    National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are conducting research to investigate the feasibility of producing mixed alcohols from biomass-derived synthesis gas (syngas). PNNL is tasked with obtaining commercially available or preparing promising mixed-alcohol catalysts and screening them in a laboratory-scale reactor system. Commercially available catalysts and the most promising experimental catalysts are provided to NREL for testing using a slipstream from a pilot-scale biomass gasifier. From the standpoint of producing C2+ alcohols as the major product, it appears that the rhodium catalyst is the best choice in terms of both selectivity and space-time yield (STY). However, unless the rhodium catalyst can be improved to provide minimally acceptable STYs for commercial operation, mixed alcohol synthesis will involve significant production of other liquid coproducts. The modified Fischer-Tropsch catalyst shows the most promise for providing both an acceptable selectivity to C2+ alcohols and total liquid STY. However, further optimization of the Fischer-Tropsch catalysts to improve selectivity to higher alcohols is highly desired. Selection of a preferred catalyst will likely entail a decision on the preferred coproduct slate. No other catalysts tested appear amenable to the significant improvements needed for acceptable STYs.

  6. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08

    The conventional screening machines used in processing plants have had undesirable high noise and vibration levels. They also have had unsatisfactorily low screening efficiency, high energy consumption, high maintenance cost, low productivity, and poor worker safety. These conventional vibrating machines have been used in almost every processing plant. Most of the current material separation technology uses heavy and inefficient electric motors with an unbalanced rotating mass to generate the shaking. In addition to being excessively noisy, inefficient, and high-maintenance, these vibrating machines are often the bottleneck in the entire process. Furthermore, these motors, along with the vibrating machines and supporting structure, shake other machines and structures in the vicinity. The latter increases maintenance costs while reducing worker health and safety. The conventional vibrating fine screens at taconite processing plants have had the same problems as those listed above. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. The focus of this work is on the design of a high performance screening machine suitable for taconite processing plants. SmartScreens{trademark} technology uses miniaturized motors, based on smart materials, to generate the shaking. The underlying technologies are Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}. These concepts are used to direct energy flow and confine energy efficiently and effectively to the screen function. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, and maintenance cost and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic changes to the screening and physical separation industry. The final designs for key components of the SmartScreens{trademark} have been developed. The key components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated and have been tested.

  7. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  8. Schrödinger Spacetimes with Screen and Reduced Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvendra Singh

    2014-10-15

    We study a particular class of type II string vacua which become Schr\\"odinger like spacetime in the IR region but are conformally AdS in asymptotic UV region. These solutions are found to possess some unique properties such as the presence of a spacetime `screen'. This Schr\\"odinger (spacetime) screen is however very different from a black-hole horizon. It requires the presence of finite chemical potential and a negative charge density in the Schr\\"odinger CFT. We find that these vacua give rise to reduced entanglement entropy as compared to Lifshitz-AdS counterpart, perhaps due to the screening effects.

  9. FEMP Completes 2000th Renewable Energy Optimization Screening...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Completes 2000th Renewable Energy Optimization Screening FEMP Completes 2000th Renewable Energy Optimization Screening July 23, 2015 - 12:03pm Addthis REopt models the complex...

  10. High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)...

  11. HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Presentation for...

  12. BSCL Use Plan: Solving Biomass Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Vinzant, T.; Bower, S.; Jechura, J.

    2005-08-01

    Technical report describing NREL's new Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL). The BSCL was constructed to provide the most modern commercial surface characterization equipment for studying biomass surfaces.

  13. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Scarlata, C.; Tan, E. C. D.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Sexton, D.

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  14. High-throughput in vivo vertebrate screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pardo-Martin, Carlos

    We demonstrate a high-throughput platform for cellular-resolution in vivo chemical and genetic screens on zebrafish larvae. The system automatically loads zebrafish from reservoirs or multiwell plates, and positions and ...

  15. Visceral material: cinematic bodies on screen 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bugaj, Malgorzata

    2014-11-25

    This thesis investigates cinema’s attempts to engage in a dialogue with the trace of the physical body. My concern is with the on-screen presentation of the body rather than its treatment as a representation of gender, ...

  16. Screening Tool for Desiccant Dehumidification Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czachorski, M.; Worek, W. M.

    1998-01-01

    (from a library of typical systems) and compares performance of a conventional system to an alternative electric system supplemented with a commercially available desiccant dehumidifier providing the required air-conditioning performance. The screening...

  17. Supplementary Files: Screening negative compound-protein samples

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brendel, Volker

    compounds/proteins. Table S1. AUC/Recall/Precision values of six classical classifiers on screened and randomly generated negative samples of C. elegans (pairwise cross-validation). Measure Negative sample ratio Naive Bayes kNN Random Forest L1-logistic L2-logistic SVM screened random screened random screened

  18. 111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . In the future, CDC will support grantees in developing and disseminating screening recommendations. #12

  19. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  20. The Shape Dependence of Vainshtein Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jolyon K. Bloomfield; Clare Burrage; Anne-Christine Davis

    2015-08-17

    Scalar field theories that possess a Vainshtein mechanism are able to dynamically suppress the associated fifth forces in the presence of massive sources through derivative non-linearities. The resulting equations of motion for the scalar are highly non-linear and therefore very few analytic solutions are known. Here we present a brief investigation of the structure of Vainshtein screening in symmetrical configurations, focusing in particular on the spherical, cylindrical and planar solutions that are relevant for observations of the cosmic web. We consider Vainshtein screening in both the Galileon model, where the non-linear terms involve second derivatives of the scalar, and a k-essence theory, where the non-linear terms involve only first derivatives of the scalar. We find that screening, and consequently the suppression of the scalar force, is most efficient around spherical sources, weaker around cylindrical sources and can be absent altogether around planar sources.

  1. Confinement and screening in tachyonic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. A. Brito; M. L. F. Freire; W. Serafim

    2014-11-20

    In this paper we consider confinement and screening of the electric field. We study the behavior of a static electric field coupled to a dielectric function with the intent of obtaining an electrical confinement similar to what happens with the field of gluons that bind quarks in hadronic matter. For this we use the phenomenon of `anti-screening' in a medium with exotic dielectric. We show that tachyon matter behaves like an exotic way whose associated dielectric function modifies the Maxwell's equations and affects the fields which results in confining and Coulombian-like potentials in three spatial dimensions. We note that the confining regime coincides with the tachyon condensation, which resembles the effect of confinement due to condensation of magnetic monopoles. The Coulombian-like regime is developed at large distance which is associated with {a screening phase

  2. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  3. Page 1 of 9 Full Screen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levene, Mark

    Evolution of Database Systems Graph-Based Relational Object-Relational 1960's-1970's 1980's-1990's 1990's-Oriented programming language with a DBMS 3 One approach is to implement on top of a relational DBMS. · Object #12;Home Page Title Page Page 5 of 9 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Object-Relational Evolution

  4. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  5. Final Paper Drug Screening and Genomics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brutlag, Doug

    for a particular disease using only a computer. In this type of high-throughput screening (HTS), large libraries to the public after World War II. That same decade also witnessed the #12;growth of synthetic organic chemistry candidates was economically feasible. Synthetic organic chemistry was a very important advance at the time

  6. This is a special screening of The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    This is a special screening of The Dialogue ahead of the film's release in 2014! Watch the trailer, is a 70-minute documentary that follows four American students (one from Michigan State University to deepen their understanding of the "other" and themselves. Although the film is set in Hong Kong and China

  7. Page 1 of 18 Full Screen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    the booking process is controlled by seat protection levels or (so-called) bid prices. Aims: · Development Page 3 of 18 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Notation Input data n : probability of node n; stochastic,j,k, zd,n i,j,k: slack variables; ~zn i,j,k: auxiliary integer variables; Indices t = 0, . . . , T: data

  8. Development and optimization of high-throughput zebrafish screening platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Bryan Kyo

    2010-01-01

    The high-throughput zebrafish screening platform is a revolutionary tool that enables subcellular precision in vivo whole animal screening of Danio Rerio. It can perform laser surgery and/or imaging in less than twenty ...

  9. Experimental and numerical studies of aerosol penetration through screens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Tae Won

    2009-05-15

    for one particular type of screen would collapse to a single curve if the collection efficiency is expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. Correlations characterizing the aerosol deposition process on different types of screens were developed...

  10. Microfluidic in vivo screen identifies compounds enhancing neuronal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggarty, Stephen J.

    Compound screening is a powerful tool to identify new therapeutic targets, drug leads, and elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of biological processes. We report here the results of the first in vivo small-molecule screens ...

  11. HUD CHP GUIDE #2 - FEASIBILITY SCREENING FOR CHP IN MULTIFAMILY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HUD CHP GUIDE 2 - FEASIBILITY SCREENING FOR CHP IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING, May 2009 HUD CHP GUIDE 2 - FEASIBILITY SCREENING FOR CHP IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING, May 2009 The U.S....

  12. Laboratory to change vehicle traffic-screening regimen at vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Changes to vehicle traffic-screening Laboratory to change vehicle traffic-screening regimen at vehicle inspection station Lanes two through five will be open 24 hours a day and...

  13. Analysis of Assembly Bill 547: Ovarian Cancer Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California Health Benefits Review Program (CHBRP)

    2004-01-01

    al. (1999). Screening for ovarian cancer: a pilot randomizedLung, Colorectal & Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial ( P L CA Snapshot of Ovarian Cancer. http://prg.nci.nih.gov/

  14. Weakly screened thermonuclear reactions in astrophysical plasmas: Improving Salpeter's model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2003-06-23

    This paper presents a detailed study of the electron degeneracy and nonlinear screening effects which play a crucial role in the validity of Salpeter's weak-screening model. The limitations of that model are investigated and an improved one is proposed which can take into account nonlinear screening effects. Its application to the solar pp reaction derives an accurate screening enhancement factor and provides a very reliable estimation of the associated neutrino flux uncertanties.

  15. MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGE VIEWING ``SCREEN REAL ESTATE'' PROBLEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atkins, M. Stella

    MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGE VIEWING AND THE ``SCREEN REAL ESTATE'' PROBLEM By Johanna van der Heyden B Degree: Master of Science Title of thesis: Magnetic Resonance Image Viewing and the ``Screen Real Estate. These ``screen real estate'' issues are extensively explored in the literature but not consistently applied

  16. Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using Absolute Risk Prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brent, Roger

    Targeted CT Screening for Lung Cancer using Absolute Risk Prediction Stephanie A. Kovalchik skovalch@rand.org FHCRC 2014 Risk Prediction Symposium June 11, 2014 1 #12;Outline · Lung Cancer Epidemiology and Screening · Screening Benefit and Absolute Risk · Absolute Risk Model for Lung Cancer

  17. Nonperturbative screening of the Landau pole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Giacosa; Ralf Hofmann

    2007-04-19

    Based on the trace anomaly for the energy-momentum tensor, an effective theory for the thermodynamics of the deconfining phase, and by assuming the asymptotic behavior to be determined by one-loop perturbation theory we compute the nonperturbative beta function for the fundamental coupling $g$ in SU(2) and SU(3) Yang-Mills theory. With increasing temperature we observe a very rapid approach to the perturbative running. The Landau pole is nonperturbatively screened.

  18. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  19. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2007-05-15

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  20. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets. The 2012 $35 programmatic target included only logistics costs with a limited focus on biomass quality

  1. Cosmic Web and Environmental Dependence of Screening: Vainshtein vs. Chameleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridget Falck; Kazuya Koyama; Gong-bo Zhao

    2015-07-30

    Theories which modify general relativity to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe often use screening mechanisms to satisfy constraints on Solar System scales. We investigate the effects of the cosmic web and the local environmental density of dark matter halos on the screening properties of the Vainshtein and chameleon screening mechanisms. We compare the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, mass functions of dark matter halos, mass and radial dependence of screening, velocity dispersions and peculiar velocities, and environmental dependence of screening mechanisms in $f(R)$ and nDGP models. Using the ORIGAMI cosmic web identification routine we find that the Vainshtein mechanism depends on the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, since these are defined according to the dimensionality of their collapse, while the chameleon mechanism shows no morphology dependence. The chameleon screening of halos and their velocity dispersions depend on halo mass, and small halos and subhalos can be environmentally screened in the chameleon mechanism. On the other hand, the screening of halos in the Vainshtein mechanism does not depend on mass nor environment, and their velocity dispersions are suppressed. The peculiar velocities of halos in the Vainshtein mechanism are enhanced because screened objects can still feel the fifth force generated by external fields, while peculiar velocities of chameleon halos are suppressed when the halo centers are screened.

  2. Screening analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2008-03-01

    A screening analysis was performed to identify concentrating solar power (CSP) concepts that produce hydrogen with the highest efficiency. Several CSP concepts were identified that have the potential to be much more efficient than today's low-temperature electrolysis technology. They combine a central receiver or dish with either a thermochemical cycle or high-temperature electrolyzer that operate at temperatures >600 C. The solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of the best central receiver concepts exceed 20%, significantly better than the 14% value predicted for low-temperature electrolysis.

  3. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  4. Accelerating Horndeski cosmologies screening the vacuum energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin-Moruno, Prado; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2015-01-01

    In the context of Horndeski cosmologies, we consider a dynamical adjustment mechanism able to screen any value of the vacuum energy of the matter fields leading to a fixed de Sitter geometry. Thus, we present the most general scalar-tensor cosmological models without higher than second order derivatives in the field equation that have a fixed spatially flat de Sitter critical point for any kind of material content or vacuum energy. These models allow us to understand the current accelerated expansion of the universe as the result of the evolution towards the critical point when it is an attractor.

  5. Electron screening effect on stellar thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potekhin, A Y

    2013-01-01

    We study the impact of plasma correlation effects on nonresonant thermonuclear reactions for various stellar objects, namely in the liquid envelopes of neutron stars, and the interiors of white dwarfs, low-mass stars, and substellar objects. We examine in particular the effect of electron screening on the enhancement of thermonuclear reactions in dense plasmas within and beyond the linear mixing rule approximation as well as the corrections due to quantum effects at high density. In addition, we examine some recent unconventional (Yukawa-potential and "quantum-tail") theoretical results on stellar thermonuclear fusions and show that these scenarios do not apply to stellar conditions.

  6. Screening Tools and Guidelines | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,EnergyEastCarbonOpenSchulthess Group JumpScreening Tools and

  7. Protein Dynamics Hit the Big Screen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass mapSpeedingProgramExemptionsProtein Dynamics Hit the Big Screen Protein Dynamics Hit

  8. Cosmic Web and Environmental Dependence of Screening: Vainshtein vs. Chameleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falck, Bridget; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2015-01-01

    Theories which modify general relativity to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe often use screening mechanisms to satisfy constraints on Solar System scales. We investigate the effects of the cosmic web and the local environmental density of dark matter halos on the screening properties of the Vainshtein and chameleon screening mechanisms. We compare the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, mass functions of dark matter halos, mass and radial dependence of screening, velocity dispersions and peculiar velocities, and environmental dependence of screening mechanisms in $f(R)$ and nDGP models. Using the ORIGAMI cosmic web identification routine we find that the Vainshtein mechanism depends on the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, since these are defined according to the dimensionality of their collapse, while the chameleon mechanism shows no morphology dependence. The chameleon screening of halos and their velocity dispersions depend on halo mass, and small halos and subhal...

  9. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Kravchuk; D. G. Yakovlev

    2014-01-11

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  10. Electron screening and its effects on big-bang nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Biao; Bertulani, C. A.; Balantekin, A. B. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, Commerce, Texas 75429 (United States); Physics Department, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    We study the effects of electron screening on nuclear reaction rates occurring during the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch. The sensitivity of the predicted elemental abundances on electron screening is studied in detail. It is shown that electron screening does not produce noticeable results in the abundances unless the traditional Debye-Hueckel model for the treatment of electron screening in stellar environments is enhanced by several orders of magnitude. This work rules out electron screening as a relevant ingredient to big-bang nucleosynthesis, confirming a previous study [see Itoh et al., Astrophys. J. 488, 507 (1997)] and ruling out exotic possibilities for the treatment of screening beyond the mean-field theoretical approach.

  11. Visualizing the Behavior of Polar Domains and Screening Charges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visualizing the Behavior of Polar Domains and Screening Charges Under Electric and Mechanical Fields Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science - LANS Seminar Start Date: Sep...

  12. Roof screening for underground coal mines: recent developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, C.S.; Gallagher, S.; Molinda, G.M.; Mark, C.; Wilson, G.

    2008-06-15

    The use of screens to control falls of the immediate roof or roof skin (that is between the installed primary and secondary roof supports) is described. 5 figs.

  13. Host Lipid and Temperature as Important Screening Variables for...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and Temperature as Important Screening Variables for Crystallizing Integral Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. Trials with Diacylglycerol Kinase Citation Details In-Document...

  14. Electric and Magnetic Screening Masses around the Deconfinement Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Attilio Cucchieri; Tereza Mendes

    2012-01-29

    We report on the status of our study of gluon propagators and screening masses around the de- confining transition for pure SU(2) gauge theory in Landau gauge.

  15. Combining in vivo and in silico screening for protein stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barakat, Nora Hisham

    2007-01-01

    Implications for the Protein Folding Code". Biochemistry 44(Proteolytic selection for protein folding using filamentousin vivo screening for protein folding and increased protein

  16. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil Friday, G. P. 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; SOILS; SURFACE WATERS; SEDIMENTS; ECOLOGICAL CONCENTRATION; ENVIRONMENTAL...

  17. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify...

  18. Coal storage hopper with vibrating-screen agitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1982-04-27

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyer mechanism. The vibrating scrren agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  19. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials (presentation) High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting...

  20. High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami UNREL DoDDLA Project) (presentation) High...

  1. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials: UOP Approaches High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches Presentation by Adriaan Sachtler from the High Throughput...

  2. Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu

    2014-08-01

    Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.

  3. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  4. Screening system and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, David A; Gresham, Christopher A; Basiliere, Marc L; Spates, James J; Rodacy, Philip J

    2014-04-15

    An integrated apparatus and method for screening an object for a target material is provided. The integrated apparatus comprises a housing and an integrated screener. The housing is positionable adjacent the object, and has a channel therethrough. The integrated screener is positionable in the housing, and comprises a fan, at least one filter, a heater and an analyzer. The fan is for drawing air carrying particles and vapor through the channel of the housing. The filter(s) is/are positionable in the channel of the housing for passage of the air therethrough. The filter(s) comprise(s) at least one metal foam having a plurality of pores therein for collecting and adsorbing a sample from the particles and vapor passing therethrough. The heater is for applying heat to the at least one metal foam whereby the collected sample is desorbed from the metal foam. The analyzer detects the target material from the desorbed sample.

  5. Metallic transmission screen for sub-wavelength focusing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    an approach to designing a general transmission func- tion T(x), which converts an arbitrary electric fieldMetallic transmission screen for sub-wavelength focusing A.M.H. Wong, C.D. Sarris and G.V. Eleftheriades A simple metallic transmission screen is proposed that is capable of focusing an incident plane

  6. 'ELECTRIC FISH SCREEN By F. O. McMILLAN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    'ELECTRIC FISH SCREEN .:f- By F. O. McMILLAN Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering, Oregon State College .:f- CONTENTS Fish-protection problem _ Protective laws " _ Mechanical screens- _ Water resistivity 6f various streams ~ ~ _ Do fish sense the source of an electric field and avoidit

  7. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Dafni; V. Alvarez; I. Bandac; A. Bettini; F. I. G. M. Borges; M. Camargo; S. Carcel; S. Cebrian; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; J. Diaz; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; M. Fernandez; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; H. Gomez; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas; D. Gonzalez-Diaz; R. M. Gutierrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzon; A. Mari; J. Martin-Albo; A. Martinez; G. Martinez-Lema; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Munoz Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; J. Perez; J. L. Perez Aparicio; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Segui; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simon; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

    2014-11-05

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  8. Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Lock Your Computer Screen Before Leaving Your Desk Locking your computer's screen is an easy and effective step to take to protect the information on your computer system while it's unattended. Create Virus Protection Computers are infected with a virus more often than most people. Make sure antivirus

  9. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  10. Screening in Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei V. Gruzinov; John N. Bahcall

    1998-01-20

    We evaluate the effect of electrostatic screening by ions and electrons on low-Z thermonuclear reactions in the sun. We use a mean field formalism and calculate the electron density of the screening cloud using the appropriate density matrix equation of quantum statistical mechanics. Because of well understood physical effects that are included for the first time in our treatment, the calculated enhancement of reaction rates does not agree with the frequently used interpolation formulae. Our result does agree, within small uncertainties, with Salpeter's weak screening formula. If weak screening is used instead of the commonly employed screening prescription of Graboske et al., the predicted $^8$B neutrino flux is increased by 7% and the predicted chlorine rate is increased by 0.4 SNU.

  11. Experimental investigations of flat plate heat pipes with screen meshes or grooves covered with screen meshes as

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Experimental investigations of flat plate heat pipes with screen meshes or grooves covered: frederic.lefevre@insa-lyon.fr) Abstract Experimental investigations of two different flat plate heat pipes FPHP and screen mesh covered grooves for the second FPHP. The heat pipes, filled with methanol, were

  12. Development of a screening method for drought tolerance in cotton seedlings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenberger, Polly Suzanne

    2007-04-25

    The key to an efficient screening method is the ability to screen large amounts of plant material in the shortest time possible. Unfortunately, due to the complexity of drought tolerance, a quick and effective screen for this trait has yet...

  13. Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear, expansion and screening of Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power concepts capable of achieving planetary left blank 2 #12;Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class

  14. Physician and Nurse Acceptance of Technicians to Screen for Geriatric Syndromes in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Chris; Griffey, Richard T; Stark, Susan; Coopersmith, Craig M; Gage, Brian F

    2011-01-01

    nurses and physicians do not believe that screening older adultsnurses and physicians believe that an individual dedicated to screening older adultsnurses felt that geriatric technician screening would adversely impact older adult

  15. Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2015-02-20

    We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb impurity. The period of variation depends on the conical defect. In the presence of the conical defect, the Fano resonances begin to appear in the transport cross-section for a lower value of the Coulomb charge. For both sub and supercritical regime we derive the dependence of LDOS on the conical defect. The effects of generalized boundary condition on the physical observables are also discussed.

  16. Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

    2002-01-01

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  17. Synthesis and screening combinatorial arrays of zeolites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2003-11-18

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  18. ANALYSIS OF DUST DELIQUESCENCE FOR FEP SCREENING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Bryan

    2005-08-26

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential for penetration of the Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) waste package outer barrier by localized corrosion due to the deliquescence of soluble constituents in dust present on waste package surfaces. The results support a recommendation to exclude deliquescence-induced localized corrosion (pitting or crevice corrosion) of the outer barrier from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Preparation of this report, and supporting laboratory studies and calculations, were performed as part of the planned effort in Work Package AEBM21, as implemented in ''Technical Work Plan for: Screening Evaluation for Dust Deliquescence and Localized Corrosion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172804]), by Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, and staff from three national laboratories: Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis and conclusions presented in this report are quality affecting, as determined in the controlling technical work plan. A summary of background information, based on work that was not performed under a quality assurance program, is provided as Appendix E. In this instance, the use of unqualified information is provided for transparency and corroboration only, and is clearly separated from uses of qualified information. Thus, the qualification status of this information does not affect the conclusions of this report. The acceptance criteria addressed in Sections 4.2 and 7.2 were changed from the technical work plan in response to review comments received during preparation of this report.

  19. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Danville, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Brice{hacek over (n)}o, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xiao-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2008-10-28

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  20. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  1. Photodetachment of hydrogen negative ions with screened Coulomb interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Song Bin; Chen, Xiang Jun; Wang, Jian Guo; Janev, R. K.; Qu, Yi Zhi

    2010-06-15

    The effects of Coulomb interaction screening on photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions below the n =2 excitation threshold is investigated by using the R-matrix method with pseudostates. The contributions of Feshbach and shape resonances to H{sup -} photodetachment cross section are presented when screening length (D) varies from D = {infinity} to D = 4.6 a.u. It is found that the interaction screening has dramatic effects on the photodetachment cross sections of hydrogen negative ions in the photoelectron energy region around the n = 2 excitation threshold by strongly affecting the evolution of near-threshold resonances.

  2. Positron scattering from hydrogen atom with screened Coulomb potentials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghoshal, Arijit [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal, India and Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Nayek, Sujay [Department of Mathematics, Burdwan University, Golapbag, Burdwan 713 104, West Bengal (India); Kamali, M. Z. M. [Centre for Foundation Studies in Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Ratnavelu, K. [Institute of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    Elastic positron-hydrogen collisions with screened Coulomb potentials have been investigated using a second-order distorted wave Born approximation in the momentum space. Two types of potentials have been considered, namely, static screened Coulomb potential and exponential cosine-screened Coulomb potential. Using a simple variationally determined hydrogenic wave function it has been possible to obtain the scattering amplitude in a closed form. A detailed study has been made on the differential and total cross sections in the energy range 20–300 eV.

  3. Biocompatible polymer microarrays for cellular high-content screening 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernagallo, Salvatore

    2010-11-25

    The global aim of this thesis was to study the use of microarray technology for the screening and identification of biocompatible polymers, to understand physiological phenomena, and the design of biomaterials, implant ...

  4. High-throughput vertebrate total analysis/screening platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Tsung-Yao, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput screening (HTS) is seen as one of the most promising technologies to facilitate biomedical studies and pharmaceutical discoveries. Although large varieties of in vitro HTS technologies have opened great ...

  5. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Steve

    2004-02-01

    The primary goal of the Oregon Screens Project was to implement 20 replacement screens projects in the John Day sub-basin and any projects identified in the Umatilla and Walla Walla sub-basins. A secondary goal is to complete a passage project, if one is identified, in any of the above sub-basins. Mid-Columbia ESU listed steelhead and USF&W listed bull trout inhabit these sub-basins and are present at most locations, along with a variety of resident fish species. We also provide assistance to our Enterprise Screen Shop, in the Grande Ronde/Imnaha sub-basins, if needed. All projects were designed and implemented under current National Marine Fisheries Service screening and passage criteria.

  6. A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Carl L.

    A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization Billy T. C. Lau integration, and low reagent consumption, microfluidic devices have emerged as viable technologies for protein crystallization. Current microfluidic crystallization technologies have focused on two separate strategies: one

  7. Magnetic and electric screening masses from Polyakov-loop correlations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Maezawa; S. Aoki; S. Ejiri; T. Hatsuda; N. Ishii; K. Kanaya; N. Ukita; T. Umeda

    2008-11-04

    Screening properties of the quark gluon plasma are studied from Polyakov-loop correlation in lattice QCD simulations with two flavors of improved Wilson quarks at temperatures $T/\\Tpc \\simeq 1$--4 where $\\Tpc$ is the pseudocritical temperature. Using the Euclidean-time reflection symmetry and the charge conjugation symmetry, we introduce various types of Polyakov-loop correlation functions and extract screening masses in magnetic and electric sectors. We find that the temperature dependence of the screening masses are well described by the weak coupling expansion. We also find that a ratio of the screening masses in the electric sector to the magnetic sector shows qualitative agreement with a prediction from the dimensionally-reduced effective field theory and the N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory at $1.3 < T/\\Tpc < 3$.

  8. Stochastic dominance for project screening and selection under uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyemo, Adekunle M

    2013-01-01

    At any given moment, engineering and chemical companies have a host of projects that they are either trying to screen to advance to the next stage of research or select from for implementation. These choices could range ...

  9. Bush Administration to Expand Beryllium Disease Screening Program...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Former employees of DOE vendors eligible for free screening WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel W. Bodman today announced the Department of Energy (DOE) will expand a...

  10. Screening of Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es028lu2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Screen Electrode...

  11. Psychometric validation of the Hispanic Bilingual Gifted Screening Instrument (HBGSI) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fultz, Monica V.

    2005-08-29

    research is recommended to establish the concurrent validity of the HBGSI with other achievement measures. In conclusion, there has been a contemporary move to the incorporation of inclusive screening instruments for use with language minority students...

  12. Properties of plain weave metallic wire mesh screens Zenghui Zhao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    , heat pipes, solar energy collector, thermal insu- lation, etc. Structures or laminates made of wire heat transfer by coating the heat transfer surface with a mesh screen is found in [2]. In recent years

  13. Improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery using polymer injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchett, R.T.; McGough, K.M.; Luttrell, G.H.

    2006-08-15

    The paper reports the improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery process using polymer injection technology. Field test and economic analysis are also included in the paper. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Revised 60-day safety screening and ferrocyanide results for tank 241-BY-108, rotary samples core 98 and core 104

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldwin, J.H.

    1996-02-01

    Revised Report for 60-Day Safety Screening Results, Rotary Samples Core 98 and Core 104, Safety Screening and Ferrocyanide Results.

  15. Systematic quantum corrections to screening in thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chitanvis, S M

    2006-01-01

    We develop a series expansion of the plasma screening length away from the classical limit in powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. It is shown that the leading order quantum correction increases the screening length in solar conditions by approximately 2% while it decreases the fusion rate by approximately $ 0.34%$. We also calculate the next higher order quantum correction which turns out to be approximately 0.05%.

  16. Systematic quantum corrections to screening in thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirish M. Chitanvis

    2006-06-13

    We develop a series expansion of the plasma screening length away from the classical limit in powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. It is shown that the leading order quantum correction increases the screening length in solar conditions by approximately 2% while it decreases the fusion rate by approximately $ 0.34%$. We also calculate the next higher order quantum correction which turns out to be approximately 0.05%.

  17. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

  18. Creating a Lost/Write-Off Retirement Document On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box in the middle of the screen look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creating a Lost/Write-Off Retirement Document On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup to the main screen of the document and the asset number is showing in the Asset Number field you must click

  19. Creating a Trade-In Document in Kuali On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box in the middle of the screen look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creating a Trade-In Document in Kuali On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box to the main screen of the document and the asset number is showing in the Asset Number field you must click

  20. John Day Fish Passage and Screening; 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartlerode, Ray; Dabashinsky, Annette; Allen, Steve

    2003-01-28

    This project is necessary to insure that replacement of fish screening devices and fishways meet current NMFS design criteria for the protection of all salmonid life stages. The mission of the fish passage program in Northeast Oregon is to protect and enhance fish populations by assisting private landowners, public landowners, irrigation districts and others by maintaining fish screening devices and fishways. These facilities reduce or eliminate fish loss associated with irrigation withdrawals, and as a result insure fish populations are maintained for enjoyment by present and future generations. Assistance is provided through state and federal programs. This can range from basic technical advice to detailed construction, fabrication and maintenance of screening and passage facilities. John Day screens personnel identified 50 sites for fish screen replacement, and one fish passage project. These sites are located in critical spawning, rearing and migration areas for spring chinook, summer steelhead and bull trout. All projects were designed and implemented to meet current NMFS criteria. It is necessary to have a large number of sites identified due to changes in weather, landowner cooperation and access issues that come up as we try and implement our goal of 21 completed projects.

  1. 15STOCHASTIC SCREENING:WHAT TO DO WHENYOUR RIP DOESN'T SUPPORT IT AND COMPARISON WITH CONVENTIONAL SCREENING ON AN OFFSET PRESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fleming, Paul D. "Dan"

    SCREENING ON AN OFFSET PRESS Introduction: AM and FM screening take two totally different approaches"diffusiondither"arealsooftenusedtodescribethisprocess. This paper shows the on-press production of both AM and FM screened images,simultaneously,from the same plates and on the same press sheets. In addition, we show that FM, or stochasticallyscreenedimages

  2. KUALI INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADDING NON-CAPITAL ASSETS On the main menu screen locate the Lookup and Maintenance box in the middle of the screen. Under the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 KUALI INSTRUCTIONS FOR ADDING NON-CAPITAL ASSETS On the main menu screen locate the Lookup SCREEN) When you have entered the acquisition type code you will arrive at the main screen for the asset are as follows: Campus ­ put in your campus code (MC = main campus, FC = foothills campus etc.) Building Code

  3. High-throughput screening for modulators of cellular contractile force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Park, Chan Young; Tambe, Dhananjay; Chen, Bohao; Lavoie, Tera; Dowell, Maria; Simeonov, Anton; Maloney, David J; Marinkovic, Aleksandar; Tschumperlin, Daniel J; Burger, Stephanie; Frykenberg, Matthew; Butler, James P; Stamer, W Daniel; Johnson, Mark; Solway, Julian; Fredberg, Jeffrey J; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2014-01-01

    When cellular contractile forces are central to pathophysiology, these forces comprise a logical target of therapy. Nevertheless, existing high-throughput screens are limited to upstream signaling intermediates with poorly defined relationship to such a physiological endpoint. Using cellular force as the target, here we screened libraries to identify novel drug candidates in the case of human airway smooth muscle cells in the context of asthma, and also in the case of Schlemm's canal endothelial cells in the context of glaucoma. This approach identified several drug candidates for both asthma and glaucoma. We attained rates of 1000 compounds per screening day, thus establishing a force-based cellular platform for high-throughput drug discovery.

  4. Screen bowl centrifuge: a high-efficiency particle size separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Zhang, B.; Khanna, N.; Palit, A.; Dube, B.

    2008-05-15

    Over the years, screen bowl centrifuges have been widely used for dewatering fine coal in coal preparation plants in the United States and elsewhere. It is generally recognized in the engineering and scientific communities that screen bowl centrifuges provide some degree of particle size separation while dewatering fine coal in a common application. However, the extent of differential partitioning of coarse and fine particles achievable by a screen bowl centrifuge has not been systematically studied in the past. The present investigation was aimed at conducting a parametric study using a statistically designed experimental program to better understand and optimize the size classification performance of a screen bowl centrifuge. A continuously operating screen bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 0.5 m was used for this study at the Illinois Coal Development Park. Three key operating parameters, i.e., feed flow rate, feed solid content and pool depth, were varied to conduct a total of 17 experiments using a three-level factorial test matrix. Some of the best size separation performances achieved in this study may be described as having an imperfection value of 0.13 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 38 mu m and an imperfection value of 0.27 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 2.8 mu m. Due to an effective separation of ultrafine high ash materials, the ash content of the screen bowl feed was reduced from 22.3% to a minimum of 8.84% with a combustible recovery of 84.1% and an ash rejection of 71.6%. A higher combustible recovery of 92.1% was achieved at a product ash content of 12.5% with a d(50c) of 2.8 mu m and imperfection of 0.27.

  5. Piercing the Vainshtein screen: local constraints on modified gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Beltran Jimenez; Federico Piazza; Hermano Velten

    2015-09-03

    By using observations of the Hulse-Taylor pulsar we constrain the gravitational wave (GW) speed to the level of $10^{-2}$. We apply this result to scalar-tensor theories that generalize Galileon 4 and 5 models, which display anomalous propagation speed and coupling to matter for GWs. We argue that this effect survives conventional screening due to the persistence of a scalar field gradient inside virialized overdensities, which effectively "pierces" the Vainshtein screening. In specific branches of solutions, our result allows to directly constrain the cosmological couplings in the effective field theory of dark energy formalism.

  6. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-05-03

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  7. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  8. Apremilast and adalimumab: a novel combination therapy for recalcitrant psoriasis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danesh, Melissa J; Beroukhim, Kourosh; Nguyen, Catherine; Levin, Ethan; Koo, John

    2015-01-01

    antibody, in patients with psoriasis: 52-week results from aet al. , Biologic fatigue in psoriasis. J Dermatolog Treat,of moderate to severe psoriasis: results from a phase IIb

  9. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-15

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  10. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman; Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-29

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  11. Structural Properties of Screened Coulomb Balls M. Bonitz,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bonitz, Michael

    Structural Properties of Screened Coulomb Balls M. Bonitz,1 D. Block,2 O. Arp,2 V. Golubnychiy,1 H, computer simulations, and theoretical analysis, the sensitivity of their structural properties to the type. Coulomb balls consist of hundreds of micrometer sized plastic spheres embedded in a gas plasma

  12. Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Screening genomes of Gram-positive bacteria for double-glycine-motif- containing peptides Secreted-positive bacteria, the double-glycine (GG) motif plays a key role in many peptide secretion systems involved Microbiology Comment #12;peptides and class II bacteriocins, produced by streptococci and lactic acid bacteria

  13. Hazard screening application guide. Safety Analysis Report Update Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1992-06-01

    The basic purpose of hazard screening is to group precesses, facilities, and proposed modifications according to the magnitude of their hazards so as to determine the need for and extent of follow on safety analysis. A hazard is defined as a material, energy source, or operation that has the potential to cause injury or illness in human beings. The purpose of this document is to give guidance and provide standard methods for performing hazard screening. Hazard screening is applied to new and existing facilities and processes as well as to proposed modifications to existing facilities and processes. The hazard screening process evaluates an identified hazards in terms of the effects on people, both on-site and off-site. The process uses bounding analyses with no credit given for mitigation of an accident with the exception of certain containers meeting DOT specifications. The process is restricted to human safety issues only. Environmental effects are addressed by the environmental program. Interfaces with environmental organizations will be established in order to share information.

  14. Nonlocal exchange correlation in screened-exchange densityfunctional methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Byounghak; Wang, Lin-Wang; Spataru, Catalin D.; Louie,Steven G.

    2007-04-22

    We present a systematic study on the exchange-correlationeffects in screened-exchange local density functional method. Toinvestigate the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the bandgap correction, we have compared the exchange-correlation potential termin the sX-LDA formalism with the self-energy term in the GWapproximation. It is found that the band gap correction of the sX-LDAmethod primarily comes from the downshift of valence band states,resulting from the enhancement of bonding and the increase of ionizationenergy. The band gap correction in the GW method, on the contrary, comesin large part from the increase of theconduction band energies. We alsostudied the effects of the screened-exchange potential in the totalenergy by investigating the exchange-correlation hole in comparison withquantum Monte Carlo calculations. When the Thomas-Fermi screening isused, the sX-LDA method overestimates (underestimates) theexchange-correlation hole in short (long) range. From theexchange-correlation energy analysis we found that the LDA method yieldsbetter absolute total energy than sX-LDA method.

  15. Electron Screening in 7Be + p --> 8B + photon reaction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. B. Belyaev; D. E. Monakhov; D. V. Naumov; F. M. Penkov

    1998-03-02

    We evaluate the effect of screening by bound electron in (7Be,e) + p --> (8B,e) + photon transition in the framework of the adiabatic representation of the three particle problem. Comparison with two approaches (united nucleus and static) is presented. We discuss possible applications of this effect both for Solar Neutrinos and low energy fusion experiments.

  16. Screen-Space Perceptual Rendering of Human Skin JORGE JIMENEZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gutierrez, Diego

    SUNDSTEDT Trinity College Dublin and DIEGO GUTIERREZ Universidad de Zaragoza We propose a novel skin shader., Sundstedt, V., and Gutierrez, D. 2009. Screen-Space perceptual rendering of human skin. ACM Trans. Appl.Sundstedt@cs.tcd.ie; D. Gutierrez, Departamento de Inform´atica e Ingenier´ia de Sistemas, Universidad de Zaragoza

  17. Sedimentation, Pclet number, and hydrodynamic screening Kiley Benes,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tong, Penger

    Sedimentation, Péclet number, and hydrodynamic screening Kiley Benes,1 Penger Tong,2 and Bruce J January 2007; revised manuscript received 7 May 2007; published 8 November 2007 The sedimentation of hard. Two functional forms for the sedimentation velocity as a function of particle concen- tration

  18. High-content screening in oncology using fluorescence microplate cytometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Long

    number of cells and the inability to analyze adherent cell lines in situ. CCD imagers offer very high-lead optimization screens. Acumen Explorer product configuration Acumen Explorer is unique for cell-based primary with plate handling robotics to suit all levels of automation. Data acquisition and analysis Acumen Explorer

  19. Screened Coulomb potentials for astrophysical nuclear fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2000-09-04

    The electron-screening acceleration of laboratory fusion reactions at astrophysical energies is an unsolved problem of great importance to astrophysics. That effect is modeled here by considering the fusion of hydrogen-like atoms whose electron probability density is used in Poisson's equation in order to derive the corresponding screened Coulomb potential energy. That way atomic excitations and deformations of the fusing atoms can be taken into account. Those potentials are then treated semiclassically in order to obtain the screening (accelerating) factor of the reaction. By means of the proposed model the effect of a superstrong magnetic field on laboratory Hydrogen fusion reactions is investigated here for the first time showing that, despite the considerable increase in the cross section of the $% dd$ reaction, the $pp$ reaction is still too slow to justify experimentation. The proposed model is finally applied on the $H^{2}(d,p) H^{3}$ fusion reaction describing satisfactorily the experimental data although some ambiguity remains regarding the molecular nature of the deuteron target. Notably, the present method gives a sufficiently high screening energy for Hydrogen fusion reactions so that the take-away energy of the spectator nucleus can also be taken into account.

  20. Fatigue failure of regenerator screens in a high frequency Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, D.R.; Alger, D.L.; Moore, T.J.; Sheuermann, C.M.

    1987-03-01

    Failure of Stirling Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) regenerator screens was investigated. After several hours of operation the SPDE was shut down for inspection and upon removal of the regenerator screens, debris of an unknown origin was discovered along with considerable cracking of the screens in localized areas. Metallurgical analysis of the debris determined it to be cracked-off-deformed pieces of the 41 pm thickness Type 304 stainless steel wire screen. Scanning electron microscopy of the cracked screens revealed failures occurring at wire crossovers and fatigue striations on the fracture surface of the wires. Thus, the screen failure can be characterized as a fatigue failure of the wires. The crossovers were determined to contain a 30 percent reduction in wire thickness and a highly worked microstructure occurring from the manufacturing process of the wire screens. Later it was found that reduction in wire thickness occurred because the screen fabricator had subjected the screen to a light cold-roll process after weaving. Installation of this screen left a clearance in the regenerator allowing the screens to move. The combined effects of the reduction in wire thickness, stress concentration (caused by screen movement), and highly worked microstructure at the wire crossovers led to the fatigue failure of the screens.

  1. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons via Indirect Liquefaction. Thermochemical Research Pathway to High-Octane Gasoline Blendstock Through Methanol/Dimethyl Ether Intermediates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, Eric C. D.; Talmadge, Michael; Dutta, Abhijit; Hensley, Jesse; Schaidle, Josh; Biddy, Mary; Humbird, David; Snowden-Swan, Lesley J.; Ross, Jeff; Sexton, Danielle; Yap, Raymond; Lukas, John

    2015-03-01

    This report was developed as part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Bioenergy Technologies Office’s (BETO’s) efforts to enable the development of technologies for the production of infrastructure-compatible, cost-competitive liquid hydrocarbon fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks. The research funded by BETO is designed to advance the state of technology of biomass feedstock supply and logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. It is expected that these research improvements will be made within the 2022 timeframe. As part of their involvement in this research and development effort, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory investigate the economics of conversion pathways through the development of conceptual biorefinery process models and techno-economic analysis models. This report describes in detail one potential conversion process for the production of high-octane gasoline blendstock via indirect liquefaction of biomass. The processing steps of this pathway include the conversion of biomass to synthesis gas or syngas via indirect gasification, gas cleanup, catalytic conversion of syngas to methanol intermediate, methanol dehydration to dimethyl ether (DME), and catalytic conversion of DME to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon blendstock product. The conversion process configuration leverages technologies previously advanced by research funded by BETO and demonstrated in 2012 with the production of mixed alcohols from biomass. Biomass-derived syngas cleanup via reforming of tars and other hydrocarbons is one of the key technology advancements realized as part of this prior research and 2012 demonstrations. The process described in this report evaluates a new technology area for the downstream utilization of clean biomass-derived syngas for the production of high-octane hydrocarbon products through methanol and DME intermediates. In this process, methanol undergoes dehydration to DME, which is subsequently converted via homologation reactions to high-octane, gasoline-range hydrocarbon products.

  2. High-Throughput Assay of 9 Lysosomal Enzymes for Newborn Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelb, Michael

    transfers before injection into a dual-column HPLC equipped with switching valves to direct the flow for LSD expanded newborn screening has passed in several states. Newborn screening for Pompe and Fabry

  3. Electro-osmotic flow through a two-dimensional screen-pump filter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Ying-Hung

    The electro-osmotic flow driven by a screen pump, composed of a line array of evenly spaced identical rectangular solid blocks, is investigated under the Debye-Hückel approximation. The geometry of the screen pump is ...

  4. "Flying Through the Known Universe" Screens at 3D Film Festival...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "Flying Through the Known Universe" Screens at 3D Film Festival in L.A. "Flying Through the Known Universe" Screens at 3D Film Festival in L.A. September 19, 2012 perseus This...

  5. First principles high throughput screening of oxynitrides for water-splitting photocatalysts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Yabi

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a first principles high throughput screening system to search for new water-splitting photocatalysts. We use the approach to screen through nitrides and oxynitrides. Most of the known photocatalytic ...

  6. Application of a new screening model to thermonuclear reactions of the rp process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore Liolios

    2003-05-09

    A new screening model for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions was derived recently which improved Salpeter's weak-screening one. In the present work we prove that the new model can also give very reliable screening enhancement factors (SEFs) when applied to the rp process. According to the results of the new model, which agree well with Mitler's SEFs, the screened rp reaction rates can be, at most, twice as fast as the unscreened ones.

  7. Screening for Real Options “In” an Engineering System: A Step Towards Flexible System Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartolomei, Jason E.

    2006-04-07

    The goal of this research is to develop an analytical framework for screening for real options “in” an

  8. Argonne National Laboratory-West Former Workers, Construction Worker Screening Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory-West Former Construction Workers (now known as Idaho National Laboratory), Construction Worker Screening Projects

  9. Division of IT University of Maryland Quick Guide: Free Image and Screen Capture Tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yorke, James

    and Screen Capture Tools Two free screen capture tools are currently in use tools. Using Jing for Image and Screen Capture Jing is a free, cross-platform tool that is a useful aid in creating images for "how-to" documentation

  10. A new protein folding screen: Application to the ligand binding domains of a glutamate and kainate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    A new protein folding screen: Application to the ligand binding domains of a glutamate and kainate of determining and evaluating protein folding conditions, we have designed a new fractional factorial protein folding screen. The screen includes 12 factors shown by previous experiments to enhance protein folding

  11. Oregon State University Extension Service 4-H Volunteer Screening and Education Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Oregon State University Extension Service 4-H Volunteer Screening and Education Process Screening Process Rationale: The Extension Service is committed to providing a safe environment for young people participating in its programs. With this in mind, the Extension Service will provide the needed screening

  12. PHYSICAL REVIEW C 83, 018801 (2011) Electron screening and its effects on big-bang nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    2011-01-01

    PHYSICAL REVIEW C 83, 018801 (2011) Electron screening and its effects on big-bang nucleosynthesis screening on nuclear reaction rates occurring during the big-bang nucleosynthesis epoch. The sensitivity. This work rules out electron screening as a relevant ingredient to big-bang nucleosynthesis, confirming

  13. From screen to structure with a harvestable microfluidic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanoff V.; Jakonic, J.; Oren, D.A.; Nagarajan, V.; Navarro Poulsen, J.C.; Adams-Cioaba, M.A.; Bergfors, T. and Sommer, M.O.A.

    2011-06-21

    Advances in automation have facilitated the widespread adoption of high-throughput vapor-diffusion methods for initial crystallization screening. However, for many proteins, screening thousands of crystallization conditions fails to yield crystals of sufficient quality for structural characterization. Here, the rates of crystal identification for thaumatin, catalase and myoglobin using microfluidic Crystal Former devices and sitting-drop vapour-diffusion plates are compared. It is shown that the Crystal Former results in a greater number of identified initial crystallization conditions compared with vapor diffusion. Furthermore, crystals of thaumatin and lysozyme obtained in the Crystal Former were used directly for structure determination both in situ and upon harvesting and cryocooling. On the basis of these results, a crystallization strategy is proposed that uses multiple methods with distinct kinetic trajectories through the protein phase diagram to increase the output of crystallization pipelines.

  14. Screening of hydrodynamic interactions for polyelectrolytes in salt solution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jens Smiatek; Friederike Schmid

    2008-09-30

    We provide numerical evidence that hydrodynamic interactions are screened for charged polymers in salt solution on time scales below the Zimm time. At very short times, a crossover to hydrodynamic behavior is observed. Our conclusions are drawn from extensive coarse-grained computer simulations of polyelectrolytes in explicit solvent and explicit salt, and discussed in terms of analytical arguments based on the Debye-Hueckel approximation.

  15. Reserving Media for Classroom Screening: A Library Guide for Instructors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasternack, Gregory B.

    number. b: If your search term brought up a single title, click on the call number. #12;4) If the item://harvest.lib.ucdavis.edu) with your library card number and PIN. 2) Once you are logged in, search for the item you wish to book. #12, the "booking" link will not appear. 5) In the booking screen, enter the date/time you wish to use the item

  16. Holographic Screening Length in a Hot Plasma of Two Sphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ardian Nata Atmaja; Hasan Abu Kassim; Norhasliza Yusof

    2015-04-16

    We study the screening length of a quark-antiquark pair moving in a hot plasma living in two sphere $S^2$ manifold using AdS/CFT correspondence where the background metric is four dimensional Schwarzschild-AdS black hole. The geodesic solution of the string ends at the boundary is given by a stationary motion in the equatorial plane as such the separation length $L$ of quark-antiquark pair is parallel to the angular velocity $\\omega$. The screening length and the bound energy are computed numerically using Mathematica. We find that the plots are bounded from below by some functions related to the momentum transfer $P_c$ of the drag force configuration. We compare the result by computing the screening length in the quark-antiquark reference frame where the gravity dual are "Boost-AdS" and Kerr-AdS black holes. Finding relations of the parameters of both black holes, we argue that the relation between mass parameters $M_{Sch}$ of the Schwarzschild-AdS black hole and $M_{Kerr}$ of the Kerr-AdS black hole in high temperature is given by $M_{Kerr}=M_{Sch}(1-a^2l^2)^{3/2}$, where $a$ is the angular momentum parameter.

  17. Transferring Capital Equipment To Surplus First you need to find the asset you wish to surplus. On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box in the middle of the screen look under

  18. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three explosive benchmarks combinations, and conducted modeling and simulation studies to begin populating the matrix of commodities, threats, and detection technologies. (4) Designed and fabricated basic (homogeneous) commodity test pallets and fabricated inert stimulants to support experiments and to validate modeling/simulation results. (5) Developed/expanded the team's capabilities to conduct full-scale imaging (neutron and x-ray) experiments of air cargo commodities and explosive benchmarks. (6) Conducted experiments to improve the collection of trace particles of explosives from a variety of surfaces representative of air cargo materials by means of mechanical (air/vibration/pressure), thermal, and electrostatic methods. Air cargo screening is a difficult challenge that will require significant investment in both research and development to find a suitable solution to ensure the safety of passengers without significantly hindering the flow of commodities. The initiative funded by Battelle has positioned this group to make major contributions in meeting the air cargo challenge by developing collaborations, developing laboratory test systems, improving knowledge of the challenges (both technical and business) for air cargo screening, and increasing the understanding of the capabilities for current inspection methods (x-ray radiography, x-ray backscatter, etc.) and potential future inspection methods (neutron radiography, fusion of detector modalities, advanced trace detection, etc.). Lastly, air cargo screening is still an issue that will benefit from collaboration between Department of Energy Laboratories and Battelle. On January 7, 2010, DHS Secretary Napolitano joined White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs and Assistant to the President for Counterterrorism and Homeland Security John Brennan to announce several recommendations DHS has made to the President for improving the technology and procedures used to protect air travel from acts of terrorism. (This announcement followed the 25 Dec'09 Delta/Northwest Airlines Flight 253 terror attack.) Secretary Napolitano out

  19. Advanced Millimeter-Wave Imaging Enhances Security Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheen, David M.; Bernacki, Bruce E.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2012-01-12

    Millimeter-wave imaging is rapidly gaining acceptance for passenger screening at airports and other secured facilities. This paper details a number of techniques developed over the last several years including novel image reconstruction and display techniques, polarimetric imaging techniques, array switching schemes, as well as high frequency high bandwidth techniques. Implementation of some of these methods will increase the cost and complexity of the mm-wave security portal imaging systems. RF photonic methods may provide new solutions to the design and development of the sequentially switched linear mm-wave arrays that are the key element in the mm-wave portal imaging systems.

  20. Medical Screening Protocol for the Former Worker Medical Screening Program U.S. Department of Energy, October 7, 2015

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on DeliciousMathematicsEnergyInterested Parties - WAPAEnergy May 28 Webinar to Focus on7/15 1 MEDICAL SCREENING

  1. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeb, Jennifer L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Smith, Nicholas A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lee, Denise L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Huckabay, Heath A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ticknor, Brian W. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  2. Non-linear BFKL dynamics: color screening vs. gluon fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Fiore; P. V. Sasorov; V. R. Zoller

    2012-11-01

    A feasible mechanism of unitarization of amplitudes of deep inelastic scattering at small values of Bjorken $x$ is the gluon fusion. However, its efficiency depends crucially on the vacuum color screening effect which accompanies the multiplication and the diffusion of BFKL gluons from small to large distances. From the fits to lattice data on field strength correlators the propagation length of perturbative gluons is $R_c\\simeq 0.2-0.3$ fermi. The probability to find a perturbative gluon with short propagation length at large distances is suppressed exponentially. It changes the pattern of (dif)fusion dramatically. The magnitude of the fusion effect appears to be controlled by the new dimensionless parameter $\\sim R_c^2/8B$, with the diffraction cone slope $B$ standing for the characteristic size of the interaction region. It should slowly $\\propto 1/\\ln Q^2$ decrease at large $Q^2$. Smallness of the ratio $R_c^2/8B$ makes the non-linear effects rather weak even at lowest Bjorken $x$ available at HERA. We report the results of our studies of the non-linear BFKL equation which has been generalized to incorporate the running coupling and the screening radius $R_c$ as the infrared regulator.

  3. Protein crystallization with microseed matrix screening: application to human germline antibody Fabs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obmolova, Galina Malia, Thomas J.; Teplyakov, Alexey; Sweet, Raymond W.; Gilliland, Gary L.

    2014-07-23

    The power of microseed matrix screening is demonstrated in the crystallization of a panel of antibody Fab fragments. The crystallization of 16 human antibody Fab fragments constructed from all pairs of four different heavy chains and four different light chains was enabled by employing microseed matrix screening (MMS). In initial screening, diffraction-quality crystals were obtained for only three Fabs, while many Fabs produced hits that required optimization. Application of MMS, using the initial screens and/or refinement screens, resulted in diffraction-quality crystals of these Fabs. Five Fabs that failed to give hits in the initial screen were crystallized by cross-seeding MMS followed by MMS optimization. The crystallization protocols and strategies that resulted in structure determination of all 16 Fabs are presented. These results illustrate the power of MMS and provide a basis for developing future strategies for macromolecular crystallization.

  4. Effect of Screening on Thermonuclear Fusion in Stellar and Laboratory Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Wilets; B. G. Giraud; M. J. Watrous; J. J. Rehr

    1999-06-21

    The fusion enhancement factor due to screening in the solar plasma is calculated. We use the finite temperature Green's function method and a self consistent mean field approximation. We reduce this to one center problems, because in the collision of two fusing ions, the turning point where tunneling may occur lies far inside the screening radius. The numerical results given by this method indicate that screening may be slightly weaker than that obtained in the most recent previous calculations.

  5. Construction and phenotypic screening of mid-size insert marine microbial environmental genomic libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braff, Jennifer C

    2008-01-01

    Functional screening of environmental genomic libraries permits the identification of clones expressing activities of interest without requiring prior knowledge of the genes responsible. In this study, protocols were ...

  6. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-01-01

    interpretation of the Choquet integral. IEEE Transactions onUsing the Choquet integral for screening geological CO 2the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores.

  7. iScreening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Foreword..........................................................................................v

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    iScreening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Contents Foreword Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention 1. Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States

  8. Automated MEMS-based Drosophila embryo injection system for high-throughput RNAi screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scott, Matthew

    Automated MEMS-based Drosophila embryo injection system for high-throughput RNAi screens Stefan developed an automated system based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) injectors for reliable mass

  9. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1985-04-01

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  10. Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A bench-top engine testing system was used to fast screen the efficiency of fuel additives or fuel blends on NOx reduction

  11. New Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Presentation for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to Date: Novel pretreatment and deconstruction New deconstruction medium (inexpensive, green) Minimize ash contamination, degradation, and humin formation Levulinic acid (LA)...

  12. GIS-Based Allocation of Lignocellulosic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    renewable energy production. ­ Biofuels for 2022 · 15 BGY conventional biofuel (corn) · 21 BGY advanced Mentor: Laurence Eaton TAMU Advisor: Dr. Stephen Searcy August 14th, 2014 #12;MOTIVATION · Increase price level at the farmgate · 1% annual increase in corn yield · 1% annual increase in energy crop yield

  13. Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-06-09

    The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.

  14. Fuel alcohol production from agricultural lignocellulosic feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farina, G.E.; Barrier, J.W.; Forsythe, M.L. )

    1988-01-01

    A two-stage, low-temperature, ambient pressure, acid hydrolysis process that utilizes separate unit operations to convert hemicellulose and cellulose in agricultural residues and crops to fermentable sugars is being developed and tested. Based on the results of the bench-scale tests, an acid hydrolysis experimental plant to demonstrate the concepts of low-temperature acid hydrolysis on a much larger scale was built. Plant tests using corn stover have been conducted for more that a year and conversion efficiences have equaled those achieved in the laboratory. Laboratory tests to determine the potential for low-temperature acid hydrolysis of other feedstocks - including red clover, alfalfa, kobe lespedeza, winter rape, and rye grass - are being conducted. Where applicable, process modifications to include extraction before or after hydrolysis also are being studied. This paper describes the experimental plant and process, results obtained in the plant, results of alternative feedstocks testing in the laboratory, and a plan for an integrated system that will produce other fuels, feed, and food from crops grown on marginal land.

  15. und Lignocellulose heimischer Pflanzen anwenden und somit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nejdl, Wolfgang

    Produktion von Biogas einsetzen. Derzeit installierte Biogasanlagen nutzen zumeist den Fruchtanteil, also die

  16. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of...

  17. Diethylamine and ammonia pretreatment of lignocellulose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holthus, Robert Earl

    1993-01-01

    , residence time, reactor temperature, water loading, and calcium hydroxide loading. Reactor temperature and residence time greatly affected bagasse reactivity, whereas water loading and diethylamine loading had only a minor effect. Adding calcium hydroxide...

  18. Processes for pretreating lignocellulosic biomass: A review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McMillan, J.D.

    1992-11-01

    This paper reviews existing and proposed pretreatment processes for biomass. The focus is on the mechanisms by which the various pretreatments act and the influence of biomass structure and composition on the efficacy of particular pretreatment techniques. This analysis is used to identify pretreatment technologies and issues that warrant further research.

  19. Metagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Bibtex Format Close 0 pages in this document matching the terms "" Search For Terms: Enter terms in the toolbar above to search the full text of this document for pages...

  20. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  1. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.

    2014-07-08

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  2. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram:Y-12Power, Inc | DepartmentPeer20InsulatedofBEST OFFERJune 2013Gnana S.

  3. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuels DataEnergy Webinar:I DueBETO Quiz - Interactive Content BETO Quiz

  4. Screening for ovarian cancer in women with varying levels of risk, using annual tests, results in high recall for repeat screening tests.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nobbenhuis, Marielle A. E.; Bancroft, Elizabeth; Moskovic, Eleanor; Lennard, Fiona; Pharoah, Paul D. P.; Jacobs, Ian; Ward, Ann; Barton, Desmond P. J.; Ind, Thomas E. J.; Shepherd, John H.; Bridges, Jane E.; Gore, Martin; Haracopos, Chris; Shanley, Susan; Ardern-Jones, Audrey; Thomas, Sarah; Eeles, Rosalind A.

    2011-11-23

    Abstract Background We assessed ovarian cancer screening outcomes in women with a positive family history of ovarian cancer divided into a low-, moderate- or high-risk group for development of ovarian cancer. Methods 545 women with a positive family...

  5. Screening portal, system and method of using same

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hunter, John A.; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2013-04-30

    A portal, system and method for screening an object for a target substance is provided. The portal includes an inflatable bladder expandable to form a test space for receiving the object and a plurality of nozzles positioned about the inflatable bladder. The nozzles are in fluid communication with a fluid source for directing air over the object whereby samples are removed from the object for examination. A collector is operatively connected to the inflatable bladder for collecting the samples removed from the object. A detector is operatively connected to the collector for examining the removed samples for the presence of the target substance. At least one preconcentrator may be operatively connected to the collector for concentrating the samples collected thereby.

  6. Method for screening inhibitors of the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cirino, Nick M. (Los Alamos, NM); Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Lehnert, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is integral to the mechanism of anthrax poisoning. The cloning, expression and purification of a 32 kDa B. anthracis PA fragment (PA32) is described. This fragment has also been expressed as a fusion construct to stabilized green fluorescent protein (EGFP-PA32). Both proteins were capable of binding to specific cell surface receptors as determined by fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometric assay. To confirm binding specificity in the flow cytometric assay, non-fluorescent PA83 or PA32 was used to competitively inhibit fluorescent EGFP-PA32 binding to cell receptors. This assay can be employed as a rapid screen for compounds which disrupts binding of PA to cells. Additionally, the high intracellular expression levels and ease of purification make this recombinant protein an attractive vaccine candidate or therapeutic treatment for anthrax poisoning.

  7. In silico screening of carbon-capture materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, LC; Berger, AH; Martin, RL; Kim, J; Swisher, JA; Jariwala, K; Rycroft, CH; Bhown, AS; Deem, MW; Haranczyk, M; Smit, B

    2012-05-27

    One of the main bottlenecks to deploying large-scale carbon dioxide capture and storage (CCS) in power plants is the energy required to separate the CO2 from flue gas. For example, near-term CCS technology applied to coal-fired power plants is projected to reduce the net output of the plant by some 30% and to increase the cost of electricity by 60-80%. Developing capture materials and processes that reduce the parasitic energy imposed by CCS is therefore an important area of research. We have developed a computational approach to rank adsorbents for their performance in CCS. Using this analysis, we have screened hundreds of thousands of zeolite and zeolitic imidazolate framework structures and identified many different structures that have the potential to reduce the parasitic energy of CCS by 30-40% compared with near-term technologies.

  8. Biomarkers of acute respiratory allergen exposure: Screening for sensitization potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pucheu-Haston, Cherie M.; Copeland, Lisa B.; Vallanat, Beena; Boykin, Elizabeth; Ward, Marsha D.W.

    2010-04-15

    Effective hazard screening will require the development of high-throughput or in vitro assays for the identification of potential sensitizers. The goal of this preliminary study was to identify potential biomarkers that differentiate the response to allergens vs non-allergens following an acute exposure in naive individuals. Female BALB/c mice received a single intratracheal aspiration exposure to Metarhizium anisopliae crude antigen (MACA) or bovine serum albumin (BSA) in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) or HBSS alone. Mice were terminated after 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 h. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was evaluated to determine total and differential cellularity, total protein concentration and LDH activity. RNA was isolated from lung tissue for microarray analysis and qRT-PCR. MACA administration induced a rapid increase in BALF neutrophils, lymphocytes, eosinophils and total protein compared to BSA or HBSS. Microarray analysis demonstrated differential expression of genes involved in cytokine production, signaling, inflammatory cell recruitment, adhesion and activation in 3 and 12 h MACA-treated samples compared to BSA or HBSS. Further analyses allowed identification of approx 100 candidate biomarker genes. Eleven genes were selected for further assessment by qRT-PCR. Of these, 6 demonstrated persistently increased expression (Ccl17, Ccl22, Ccl7, Cxcl10, Cxcl2, Saa1), while C3ar1 increased from 6-24 h. In conclusion, a single respiratory exposure of mice to an allergenic mold extract induces an inflammatory response which is distinct in phenotype and gene transcription from the response to a control protein. Further validation of these biomarkers with additional allergens and irritants is needed. These biomarkers may facilitate improvements in screening methods.

  9. Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Capecchi, Mario R.

    Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern Pharmaceutical R · Introduction · Theoretical Considerations · pH-solubility profiles, pKa and salt formation · Prediction of salt solubility · Solubility product and in situ salt screening · Solubility/dissolution rate of salts

  10. Choosing optional units in SAMIS 1. Accessing the unit selection screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burton, Geoffrey R.

    Choosing optional units in SAMIS 1 of 6 1. Accessing the unit selection screens Log in to SAMIS/View compulsory modules' link to access the unit selection screens #12;Choosing optional units in SAMIS 2 of 6 2 compulsory units which have been added to your records automatically Groups of modules from which you should

  11. A microfluidic platform for pharmaceutical salt screening Michael R. Thorson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    A microfluidic platform for pharmaceutical salt screening Michael R. Thorson,a Sachit Goyal*a Received 16th July 2011, Accepted 15th September 2011 DOI: 10.1039/c1lc20645a We describe a microfluidic presents a microfluidic approach that addresses these challenges by enabling extensive salt screenings

  12. Screening fungi isolated from historic Discovery Hut on Ross Island, Antarctica for cellulose degradation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blanchette, Robert A.

    Screening fungi isolated from historic Discovery Hut on Ross Island, Antarctica for cellulose isolated on selective media. Of these, 108 were screened for hydrolytic activity on carboxymethyl cellulose oxysporum and Geomyces sp. were shown to grow on a variety of synthetic cellulose substrates and to use

  13. Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parrott, Wayne

    Screening Methods to Develop Alfalfa Germplasms Tolerant of Acid, Aluminum Toxic Soils M. Dall'Agnol, J. H. Bouton,* and W. A. Parrott ABSTRACT Soil acidity and aluminum (Al)toxicity are major problems different screening methods for selection of acid soil tolerant alfalfa germplasms in the greenhouse during

  14. CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 6. End User Screening Against U.S. Government Watch Lists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 6. End User Screening Against U.S. Government Watch Lists This Section addresses required screening of export recipients and certain collaborative research partners of State, Treasury, and Commerce separately maintain published lists of known export violators. These lists

  15. Microfluidic cartridges preloaded with nanoliter plugs of reagents: an alternative to 96-well plates for screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    Microfluidic cartridges preloaded with nanoliter plugs of reagents: an alternative to 96-well to control the flow of plugs. By using cartridges pre-loaded with nanoliter plugs of reagents, only two pumps and a merging junction are needed to set up a screen. Screening with preloaded cartridges uses only nanoliters

  16. Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening of an antioomycete chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

    Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011://bmf.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening

  17. Ceiling-mounted Projector with 5200 ANSI lumens Large motorized screen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hutcheon, James M.

    Room 111 Ceiling-mounted Projector with 5200 ANSI lumens Large motorized screen Wireless-mounted Projector with 3500 ANSI lumens Pull-down screen Wireless microphones available Laptop running Windows 7 Mac users must bring VGA or HDMI adapter Auditorium Ceiling-mounted Projector with 7000 ANSI lumens Large

  18. Screening Prosopis (Mesquite or Algarrobo) for Biofuel Production on Semiarid Lands1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Screening Prosopis (Mesquite or Algarrobo) for Biofuel Production on Semiarid Lands1 Peter Felker of Prosopis have been screened in field experiments for biomass production, frost tolerance, and heat with 600 mm total water applica- tion. Dry matter production of 14,000 kg/ha has been obtained at projected

  19. Pi sampling: a methodical and flexible approach to initial macromolecular crystallization screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorrec, Fabrice, E-mail: fgorrec@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk; Palmer, Colin M.; Lebon, Guillaume; Warne, Tony [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-01

    Pi sampling, derived from the incomplete factorial approach, is an effort to maximize the diversity of macromolecular crystallization conditions and to facilitate the preparation of 96-condition initial screens. The Pi sampling method is derived from the incomplete factorial approach to macromolecular crystallization screen design. The resulting ‘Pi screens’ have a modular distribution of a given set of up to 36 stock solutions. Maximally diverse conditions can be produced by taking into account the properties of the chemicals used in the formulation and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions. The Pi sampling method has been implemented in a web-based application that generates screen formulations and recipes. It is particularly adapted to screens consisting of 96 different conditions. The flexibility and efficiency of Pi sampling is demonstrated by the crystallization of soluble proteins and of an integral membrane-protein sample.

  20. Geographic variations in access and utilization of cancer screening services: examining disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native Elders 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-06-09

    and rurality, areas with higher levels of AIAN individuals were more likely to see disparities with regard to health care services related to mammograms (p???.05; longer distance, lower screening) and colonoscopies (p???.05; longer distance, lower screening...

  1. In vivo pool-based shRNA screens to identify modulators of disease progression in hematopoietic malignancies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meacham, Corbin Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    shRNA screens have been very effective in identifying novel cancer genes in mammalian cells, but they have primarily been limited to in vitro applications in tumor cell lines. Whereas in vivo retroviral mutagenesis screens ...

  2. Argonne National Laboratory-West, Former Production Workers Screening Projects (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory-West, Former Production Workers Screening Projects (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory)

  3. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  4. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Zawodzinski, Christine (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  5. Screening-level approach for estimating contaminant export from tributaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velleux, M. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Gailani, J. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Endicott, D. [EPA Large Lakes Research Station, Grosse Ile, MI (United States)

    1996-06-01

    The in-place pollutant export model (IPX) is a screening-level model for estimating contaminant export from tributaries with contaminated sediments to receiving waterbodies. IPX is a modified version of the USEPA`s WASP4 modeling framework. IPX synthesizes sediment transport processes for sediment aging, decreased sediment resuspendability with increasing age, and resuspension of freshly deposited sediments as a function of water velocity, into an expanded WASP4 contaminant transport and fate chassis while retaining the computational flexibility of the original framework. These process descriptions are needed to accurately simulate contaminant transport and substantially improve the framework for application to tributary systems subject to significant deposition and resuspension events. The potential for applying IPX is broad; water quality impairments attributable to contaminated sediments are widespread due to discharges from industry, agriculture, and mining and ore processing. IPX has been successfully applied to the upper and lower Fox River in Wisconsin, and the Buffalo and Oswego Rivers in New York, all impaired by contaminated sediments.

  6. Screening combinatorial arrays of inorganic materials with spectroscopy or microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2004-02-03

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  7. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of non-biological polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2006-04-25

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  8. White Oak Creek Embayment site characterization and contaminant screening analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Ford, C.J.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of sediment samples collected near the mouth of White Oak Creek during the summer of 1990 revealed [sup 137]Cs concentrations [> 10[sup 6] Bq/kg dry wt (> 10[sup 4] pCi/g dry wt)] near the sediment surface. Available evidence indicates that these relatively high concentrations of [sup 137]Cs now at the sediment surface were released from White Oak Dam in the mid-1950s and had accumulated at depositionalsites in the embayment. These accumulated sediments are being eroded and transported downstream primarily during winter low-water levels by flood events and by a combination of normal downstream flow and the water turbulence created by the release of water from Melton Hill Dam during hydropower generation cycles. This report provides a more thorough characterization of the extent of contamination in WOCE than was previously available. Environmental samples collected from WOCE were analyzed for organic, inorganic, and radiological contaminants in fish, water, and sediment. These results were used to conduct a human health effects screening analysis. Walkover radiation surveys conducted inside the fenced area surrounding the WOCE at summer-pool (741 ft MSL) and at winter-pool (733 ft MSL) level, indicated a maximum exposure rate of 3 mR h[sup 1] 1 m above the soil surface.

  9. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

    1998-08-25

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

  10. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun.huang@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Hu, Zhirun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, Peiguo [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-11-15

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  11. First Prev Next Last Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Model Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spang, Rainer

    ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Model Assessment and Selection Axel ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Model Assessment and Selection 2 Topics Predictive · Restriction · Selection · Regularization #12;·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Model

  12. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung-Hou (Moraga, CA); Kim, Rosalind (Moraga, CA); Jancarik, Jamila (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2012-01-31

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  13. Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y [NETL; Sorescu, D C [NETL; Luebke, D [NETL; Morreale, B [NETL; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; Johnson, J K; Zhang, K; Li, X S; King, D

    2013-04-11

    By combining thermodynamic database searches with density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, a screening methodology was developed to identify promising solid sorbent candidates for CO{sub 2} capture. This methodology has been used to screen hundreds of solid compounds and some of the promising candidates to date have been reported in literature. This screening methodology is particularly relevant for the case of materials for which experimental thermodynamic data is not available. Such areas of interest are represented by the case of solid mixtures and doped materials, where thermodynamic data are generally not available but for which the crystallographic structure is known or can be easily determined.

  14. How to estimate solid-electrolyte interphase features when screening electrolyte materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Husch, Tamara

    2015-01-01

    Computational screening of battery electrolyte components is an extremely challenging task because very complex features like solidelectrolyte-interphase (SEI) formation and graphite exfoliation need to be taken into account at least at the final screening stage. We present estimators for both SEI formation and graphite exfoliation based on a combinatorial approach with quantum chemistry calculations on model system reactions, which can be applied automatically for a large number of compounds and thus allows for a systematic first assessment of the relevant properties within screening approaches. Thermodynamic effects are assessed with quantum mechanical calculations, a more heuristic approach is used to estimate kinetic effects.

  15. Screening of the coulomb potential in a nondegenerate hydrogen isotope gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fedorovich, G.V. )

    1994-01-01

    To explain the mechanism of deuterium reactions in palladium and titanium (cold fusion), a model of an exotic deuterium plasma with possibly short nuclear distances due to thermal motion was considered. The screening parameter is increased by lowering the ion temperature. This is the usual feature of the screening phenomenon in plasma. Fully ionized gases of high density and low temperature are never possible outside the lattice. Hence, the growth of the screening parameter can be significant only for the hydrogen isotopes in the metal lattice. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  17. Hydroprocessing of solvent-refined coal: catalyst-screening results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stiegel, G.J.; Tischer, R.E.; Polinski, L.M.

    1982-03-01

    This report presents the results of screening four catalysts for hydroprocessing a 50 wt% mixture of SRC-I in a prehydrogenated creosote oil using a continuous flow unit. All catalysts employed were nickel-molybdates with varying properties. Reaction conditions were 2000 psi, 8 SCFH of hydrogen, volume hourly space velocity of 0.6 to 1.0 cc of SRC-I/hr/cc of catalyst, and 48 hours at 750/sup 0/F followed by 72 hours at 780/sup 0/F. The results indicate that the Shell 324 catalyst is best for hydrogenation of the feedstock but only marginally better than CB 81-44 for denitrogenation. The CB 81-44 catalyst may be slightly better than Shell 324 for the conversion of the +850/sup 0/F fraction of the feedstock. Desulfurization was uniformly high for all catalysts. Catalysts with a bimodal pore size distribution (i.e., SMR7-6137(1)) appear to be better for denitrogenation than unimodal catalysts (i.e., SMR7-6137(4)) containing the same metals loading. Unimodal catalysts (i.e., Shell 324) with higher metals loadings are comparable to bimodal catalysts (i.e., CB 81-44) containing less metals. The results indicate that pore size distribution and metals loading are important parameters for high activity. Catalysts with a unimodal pore volume distribution are capable of being restored to their original state, while bimodal ones experience a loss in surface area and pore volume and an increase in pellet density. This is attributed to the more efficient use of the interior surface area of the catalyst, which results in higher accumulation of coke and metals. Since coke can be removed via controlled oxidation, the irreversible loss is due to the higher concentrations of metals in the catalyst.

  18. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  19. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore »plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  20. Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

    2012-01-01

    A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

  1. Precision medicine in chronic disease management: The multiple sclerosis BioScreen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2014-01-01

    Disease Management: The Multiple Sclerosis BioScreen Pierre-unpredictable disease like multiple sclerosis? Eur J NeurolHL. The challenge of multiple sclerosis: how do we cure a

  2. Infrastructure to support ultra high throughput biodosimetry screening after a radiological event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    GUY GARTY1 , ANDREW KARAM2 , & DAVID J. BRENNER3 1 Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, Nevis Laboratories, Columbia UniverInfrastructure to support ultra high throughput biodosimetry screening after a radiological event

  3. Development of high performance structure and ligand based virtual screening techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shave, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Virtual Sreening (VS) is an in silico technique for drug discovery. An overview of VS methods is given and is seen to be approachable from two sides: structure based and ligand based. Structure based virtual screening ...

  4. Precise manipulation of GUI on a touch screen with haptic cues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinivasan, Mandayam A.

    In this work, we designed a haptic stylus interface interacting with a touch screen. The stylus has functions of providing vibration, impact, and sound and it is a stand-alone system including its own battery and wireless ...

  5. A cancer screen in zebrafish identifies many ribosomal proteins as haploinsufficient tumor suppressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    A collection of over 500 lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio), each heterozygous for a recessive embryonic lethal mutation caused by a retroviral insertion, was screened for lines that displayed early mortality and externally ...

  6. Software for supporting large scale data processing for High Throughput Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tai, David

    2011-12-31

    High Throughput Screening for is a valuable data generation technique for data driven knowledge discovery. Because the rate of data generation is so great, it is a challenge to cope with the demands of post experiment data analysis. This thesis...

  7. An Examination of Systematic Screenings in a Rural Elementary School: Initial Lessons Learned

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bireley, Kellie Elizabeth

    2014-08-31

    In this study, Student Risk Screening Scale - Internalizing Externalizing (SRSS-IE; Lane, Oakes, Harris, et al., 2012) scores were examined to assess changes in student behavioral performance over time. A rural elementary school in a Midwestern...

  8. Electric and magnetic screenings of gluons in a model with dimension-2 gluon condensate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fukun Xu; Mei Huang

    2011-11-22

    Electric and magnetic screenings of the thermal gluons are studied by using the background expansion method in a gluodynamic model with dimension-2 gluon condensate. At low temperature, the electric and magnetic gluons are degenerate. With the increasing of temperature, it is found that the electric and magnetic gluons start to split at certain temperature $T_0$. The electric screening mass changes rapidly with temperature when $T>T_0$, and the Polyakov loop expectation value rises sharply around $T_0$ from zero in the vacuum to a value around 0.8 at high temperature. This suggests that the color electric deconfinement phase transition is driven by electric gluons. It is also observed that the magnetic screening mass keeps almost the same as its vacuum value, which manifests that the magnetic gluons remains confined. Both the screening masses and the Polyakov loop results are qualitatively in agreement with the Lattice calculations.

  9. Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 1 Supporting Information 1.0 Produced Water Regulatory Framework for WY and NM.................................................................................................................... 4 2.0 Background on Interstate Water Marketing Using Produced Water

  10. Black Bear Prep plant replaces high-frequency screens with fine wire sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, C.J.; Nottingham, J.

    2007-12-15

    At the Black Bear prep plant (near Wharncliffe, WV, USA) the clean coal from the spirals traditionally reported to high-frequency screens, which removed high-ash clay fines. Screens have inherent inefficiencies that allow clean coal to report to the screen underflow. The goal of this project was to capture the maximum amount of spiral clean coal while still removing the high-ash clay material found in the spiral product. The reduction of the circulating load and plant downtime for unscheduled maintenance were projected as additional benefits. After the plant upgrade, the maintenance related to the high frequency screens was eliminated and an additional 2.27 tons per hour (tph) of fine coal was recovered, which resulted in a payback period of less than one year. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal Prep 2007 in April 2007, Lexington, KY, USA. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity in the Initial Screening of Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Neil, Brian; Prichep, Leslie S.; Naunheim, Roseanne; Chabot, Robert

    2012-01-01

    J, et al. Use of Brain Electrical 32. Slobounov S, Cao C,device measuring brain electrical activity can be used inet al Quantitative Brain Electrical Activity in Screening of

  12. Hypothesis-based RNAi screening identifies neuroprotective genes in a Parkinson's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caldwell, Guy

    Hypothesis-based RNAi screening identifies neuroprotective genes in a Parkinson's disease model intracellular misfolding, results in Parkinson's disease (PD). Here we report the results from systematic- sent heritable susceptibility factors for Parkinson's disease (PD). PD involves the progressive loss

  13. Chemical Genetic Screen for AMPK?2 Substrates Uncovers a Network of Proteins Involved in Mitosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banko, Max R.

    The energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by low nutrient levels. Functions of AMPK, other than its role in cellular metabolism, are just beginning to emerge. Here we use a chemical genetics screen ...

  14. Universal Screening for Behavior: Considerations in the Use of Behavior Rating Scales 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Benjamin 1972-

    2012-08-20

    Universal screening for behavior is the use of a measure of social, emotional or behavioral function across an entire population with a goal of preventing future difficulties by intervening with students identified by the ...

  15. Development of Data Quality Control Limits for Data Screening through the "Energy Balance" Method 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Ji, J.; Claridge, D.

    2008-01-01

    screening using “Energy Balance” methodology (Shao and Claridge, 2005). Energy Balance (EBL) parameter represents quasi-steady state thermal energy storage in a building and indicates a predominant linear behavior when it is plotted versus the outside air...

  16. High-throughput screening of perovskite alloys for piezoelectric performance and thermodynamic stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armiento, Rickard R.

    We screen a large chemical space of perovskite alloys for systems with optimal properties to accommodate a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) in their composition-temperature phase diagram, a crucial feature for high ...

  17. The Psychometric Properties of the Hispanic Bilingual Gifted Screening Instrument (HBGSI) 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Contreras-Vanegas, Alma Linda

    2012-02-14

    The psychometric properties of the Hispanic Bilingual Gifted Screening Instrument (HBGSI) were investigated in this study. The participants in the study were a part of a large 4-year longitudinal randomized study titled English Language and Literacy...

  18. Methods and technologies for high-throughput and high-content small animal screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohde, Christopher, 1979-

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput and high-content screening (HTS and HCS) of whole animals requires their immobilization for high-resolution imaging and manipulation. Here we present methods to enable HTS and HCS of the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

  19. Agenda from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput Screening...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop on June 26, 2007 Agenda from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput...

  20. PROGRESS IN DEVELOPING AN OVARIAN CANCER SCREEN BASED ON WHISPERING GALLERY MODE IMAGING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huckabay, Heath Aaron

    2012-05-31

    Despite considerable research devoted to identifying biomarkers for ovarian cancer, no screening method is currently available for routine early detection of the disease. While highly treatable in its early stages, a lack of symptoms early...

  1. High-Content Chemical and RNAi Screens for Suppressors of Neurotoxicity in a Huntington's Disease Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Chaohong

    To identify Huntington's Disease therapeutics, we conducted high-content small molecule and RNAi suppressor screens using a Drosophila primary neural culture Huntingtin model. Drosophila primary neurons offer a sensitive ...

  2. Application of the Recovery Potential Screening Tool in the Matagorda Bay Watershed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory, L.; Brown, M.; Skow, K.; Engling, A.; Wagner, K.; Berthold, A.

    2014-01-01

    intensive, thus prioritizing future water quality restoration efforts is a means to efficiently allocate available resources and achieve timely restoration results. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Recovery Potential Screening...

  3. Water Velocity Measurements on a Vertical Barrier Screen at the Bonneville Dam Second Powerhouse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, James S.; Deng, Zhiqun; Weiland, Mark A.; Martinez, Jayson J.; Yuan, Yong

    2011-11-22

    Fish screens at hydroelectric dams help to protect rearing and migrating fish by preventing them from passing through the turbines and directing them towards the bypass channels by providing a sweeping flow parallel to the screen. However, fish screens may actually be harmful to fish if they become impinged on the surface of the screen or become disoriented due to poor flow conditions near the screen. Recent modifications to the vertical barrier screens (VBS) at the Bonneville Dam second powerhouse (B2) intended to increase the guidance of juvenile salmonids into the juvenile bypass system (JBS) have resulted in high mortality and descaling rates of hatchery subyearling Chinook salmon during the 2008 juvenile salmonid passage season. To investigate the potential cause of the high mortality and descaling rates, an in situ water velocity measurement study was conducted using acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADV) in the gatewell slot at Units 12A and 14A of B2. From the measurements collected the average approach velocity, sweep velocity, and the root mean square (RMS) value of the velocity fluctuations were calculated. The approach velocities measured across the face of the VBS varied but were mostly less than 0.3 m/s. The sweep velocities also showed large variances across the face of the VBS with most measurements being less than 1.5 m/s. This study revealed that the approach velocities exceeded criteria recommended by NOAA Fisheries and Washington State Department of Fish and Wildlife intended to improve fish passage conditions.

  4. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  5. A phase screen model for simulating numerically the propagation of a laser beam in rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukin, I P; Rychkov, D S; Falits, A V [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lai, Kin S; Liu, Min R [DSO National Laboratories 20 (Singapore)

    2009-09-30

    The method based on the generalisation of the phase screen method for a continuous random medium is proposed for simulating numerically the propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere with precipitation. In the phase screen model for a discrete component of a heterogeneous 'air-rain droplet' medium, the amplitude screen describing the scattering of an optical field by discrete particles of the medium is replaced by an equivalent phase screen with a spectrum of the correlation function of the effective dielectric constant fluctuations that is similar to the spectrum of a discrete scattering component - water droplets in air. The 'turbulent' phase screen is constructed on the basis of the Kolmogorov model, while the 'rain' screen model utiises the exponential distribution of the number of rain drops with respect to their radii as a function of the rain intensity. Theresults of the numerical simulation are compared with the known theoretical estimates for a large-scale discrete scattering medium. (propagation of laser radiation in matter)

  6. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  7. Electric and Magnetic Screening Masses at Finite Temperature from Generalized Polyakov-Line Correlations in Two-flavor Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Maezawa; S. Aoki; S. Ejiri; T. Hatsuda; N. Ishii; K. Kanaya; N. Ukita; T. Umeda

    2010-05-11

    Screenings of the quark-gluon plasma in electric and magnetic sectors are studied on the basis of generalized Polyakov-line correlation functions in lattice QCD simulations with two flavors of improved Wilson quarks. Using the Euclidean-time reflection ($\\R$) and the charge conjugation ($\\Ca$), electric and magnetic screening masses are extracted in a gauge invariant manner. Long distance behavior of the standard Polyakov-line correlation in the quark-gluon plasma is found to be dictated by the magnetic screening. Also, ratio of the two screening masses agrees with that obtained from the dimensionally-reduced effective field theory and the ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  8. Non-linear screening corrections of stellar nuclear reaction rates and their effects on solar neutrino fluxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2000-02-14

    Non-linear electron screening corrections of stellar nuclear fusion rates are calculated analytically in the framework of the Debye-Huckel model and compared with the respective ones of Salpeter's weak screening approximation. In typical solar conditions, the deviation from Salpeter's screening factor is less than one percent, while for hotter stars such corrections turn out to be of the order of one percent only over the limits of the Debye-Huckel model. Moreover, an investigation of the impact of the derived non-linear screening effects on the solar neutrino fluxes yields insignificant corrections for both the pp and CNO chain reactions.

  9. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Dresel, P. EVAN; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.

    2006-09-21

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-BP-5 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final (EPA 1988). The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers) identified in the groundwater sampling and analysis plan for the operable unit (DOE/RL-2001-49, Rev. 1) with additions.

  10. First-principles thermodynamic screening approach to photo-catalytic water splitting with co-catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oberhofer, Harald; Reuter, Karsten

    2013-07-28

    We adapt the computational hydrogen electrode approach to explicitly account for photo-generated charges and use it to computationally screen for viable catalyst/co-catalyst combinations for photo-catalytic water splitting. The hole energy necessary to thermodynamically drive the reaction is employed as descriptor for the screening process. Using this protocol and hybrid-level density-functional theory, we show that water oxidation on bare TiO{sub 2} surfaces is thermodynamically more complex than previously thought. This motivates a screening for suitable co-catalysts for this half-reaction, which we carry out for Au particles down to the non-scalable size regime. We find that almost all small Au clusters studied are better suited for water photo-oxidation than an extended Au(111) surface or bare TiO{sub 2} facets.

  11. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

  12. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota: 1996 revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tsao, C.L. [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of the Environment] [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States). School of the Environment

    1996-06-01

    This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life form contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening for benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. This report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate the benchmarks and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility. Also included is the updates of benchmark values where appropriate, new benchmark values, secondary sources are replaced by primary sources, and a more complete documentation of the sources and derivation of all values are presented.

  13. Laboratory evaluation of filtercake cleanup techniques and metallic-screens plugging mechanisms in horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Orrego, Gloria Stella

    1999-01-01

    . Unconsolidated Sand Core Set up 4. 3. 2. Metallic Screen Loading . 4. 3. 3. Cell Assembly 4. 3. 4. Base Permeability Determination. . 4. 3. 5. Filtercake Buildup . . 26 . . . . 26 27 29 29 29 29 4. 3. 6. Regained Permeability Study after Filtercake... Cleanup Phase . . . . , . . . . . , . . . 31 4. 3. 7. Screen Permeabilities . 4. 4. DIF Characterization 4. 4. 1. Density. 4. 4. 2. Viscosity . . 4. 4. 3. Plastic Viscosity. 4. 4. 4. Yield point. 4. 4. 5. Gel Strength. . 4. 4. 6. Fluid-Loss Control...

  14. Automated High Throughput Protein Crystallization Screening at Nanoliter Scale and Protein Structural Study on Lactate Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fenglei Li

    2006-08-09

    The purposes of our research were: (1) To develop an economical, easy to use, automated, high throughput system for large scale protein crystallization screening. (2) To develop a new protein crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and complete compatibility with high throughput screening system. (3) To determine the structure of lactate dehydrogenase complexed with NADH by x-ray protein crystallography to study its inherent structural properties. Firstly, we demonstrated large scale protein crystallization screening can be performed in a high throughput manner with low cost, easy operation. The overall system integrates liquid dispensing, crystallization and detection and serves as a whole solution to protein crystallization screening. The system can dispense protein and multiple different precipitants in nanoliter scale and in parallel. A new detection scheme, native fluorescence, has been developed in this system to form a two-detector system with a visible light detector for detecting protein crystallization screening results. This detection scheme has capability of eliminating common false positives by distinguishing protein crystals from inorganic crystals in a high throughput and non-destructive manner. The entire system from liquid dispensing, crystallization to crystal detection is essentially parallel, high throughput and compatible with automation. The system was successfully demonstrated by lysozyme crystallization screening. Secondly, we developed a new crystallization method with high screening efficiency, low protein consumption and compatibility with automation and high throughput. In this crystallization method, a gas permeable membrane is employed to achieve the gentle evaporation required by protein crystallization. Protein consumption is significantly reduced to nanoliter scale for each condition and thus permits exploring more conditions in a phase diagram for given amount of protein. In addition, evaporation rate can be controlled or adjusted in this method during the crystallization process to favor either nucleation or growing processes for optimizing crystallization process. The protein crystals gotten by this method were experimentally proven to possess high x-ray diffraction qualities. Finally, we crystallized human lactate dehydrogenase 1 (H4) complexed with NADH and determined its structure by x-ray crystallography. The structure of LDH/NADH displays a significantly different structural feature, compared with LDH/NADH/inhibitor ternary complex structure, that subunits in LDH/NADH complex show open conformation or two conformations on the active site while the subunits in LDH/NADH/inhibitor are all in close conformation. Multiple LDH/NADH crystals were obtained and used for x-ray diffraction experiments. Difference in subunit conformation was observed among the structures independently solved from multiple individual LDH/NADH crystals. Structural differences observed among crystals suggest the existence of multiple conformers in solution.

  15. Screening properties of four mesoscale smoothed charge models, with application to dissipative particle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick B. Warren; Andrey Vlasov

    2014-02-25

    We extend our previous study [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204907 (2013)] to quantify the screening properties of four mesoscale smoothed charge models used in dissipative particle dynamics. Using a combination of the hypernetted chain integral equation closure and the random phase approximation, we identify regions where the models exhibit a real-valued screening length, and the extent to which this agrees with the Debye length in the physical system. We find that the second moment of the smoothed charge distribution is a good predictor of this behaviour. We are thus able to recommend a consistent set of parameters for the models.

  16. Yakima and Touchet River Basins Phase II Fish Screen Evaluation, 2006-2007 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, Mickie; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-03-01

    In 2006, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers evaluated 27 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima and Touchet river basins. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory performs these evaluations for Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to determine whether the fish screening devices meet those National Marine Fisheries (NMFS) criteria for juvenile fish screen design, that promote safe and timely passage of juvenile salmonids. The NMFS criteria against which the sites were evaluated are as follows: (1) a uniform flow distribution over the screen surface to minimize approach velocity; (2) approach velocities less than or equal to 0.4 ft/s protects the smallest salmonids from impingement; (3) sweep velocities that are greater than approach velocities to minimize delay of out-migrating juveniles and minimize sediment deposition near the screens; (4) a bypass flow greater than or equal to the maximum flow velocity vector resultant upstream of the screens to also minimize delay of out-migrating salmonids; (5) a gradual and efficient acceleration of flow from the upstream end of the site into the bypass entrance to minimize delay of out-migrating salmonids; and (6) screen submergence between 65% and 85% for drum screen sites. In addition, the silt and debris accumulation next to the screens should be kept to a minimum to prevent excessive wear on screens, seals and cleaning mechanisms. Evaluations consist of measuring velocities in front of the screens, using an underwater camera to assess the condition and environment in front of the screens, and noting the general condition and operation of the sites. Results of the evaluations in 2006 include the following: (1) Most approach velocities met the NMFS criterion of less than or equal to 0.4 ft/s. Of the sites evaluated, 31% exceeded the criterion at least once. Thirty-three percent of flat-plate screens had problems compared to 25% of drum screens. (2) Woody debris and gravel deposited during high river levels were a problem at several sites. In some cases, it was difficult to determine the bypass pipe was plugged until several weeks had passed. Slow bypass flow caused by both the obstructions and high river levels may have discouraged fish from entering the bypass, but once they were in the bypass, they may have had no safe exit. Perhaps some tool or technique can be devised that would help identify whether slow bypass flow is caused by pipe blockage or by high river levels. (3) Bypass velocities generally were greater than sweep velocities, but sweep velocities often did not increase toward the bypass. The latter condition could slow migration of fish through the facility. (4) Screen and seal materials generally were in good condition. (5) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well-greased and operative. (6) Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR) generally operated and maintained fish screen facilities in a way that provided safe passage for juvenile fish. (7) Efforts with WDFW to find optimal louver settings at Naches-Selah were partly successful. The number of spots with excessive approach velocities was decreased, but we were unable to adjust the site to bring all approach values below 0.4 ft/s. (8) In some instances, irrigators responsible for specific maintenance at their sites (e.g., debris removal) did not perform their tasks in a way that provided optimum operation of the fish screen facility. Enforcement personnel proved effective at reminding irrigation districts of their responsibilities to maintain the sites for fish protection as well as irrigation. (9) We recommend placing datasheets providing up-to-date operating criteria and design flows in each site's logbox. The datasheet should include bypass design flows and a table showing depths of water over the weir and corresponding bypass flow. A similar datasheet relating canal gage readings and canal discharge in cubic feet per second would help identify times when the canal is taking mo

  17. Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Amar S.

    Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae-producing algae of interest in 2nd generation biofuels. By conducting 96 experiments in parallel, photoirradiance the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

  18. User, Robot and Automation Evaluations in High-Throughput Biological Screening Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaber, David B.

    User, Robot and Automation Evaluations in High-Throughput Biological Screening Processes Noa Segall Cognitive Ergonomics Laboratory North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC +1 (919) 513-4494 nsegall@ncsu.edu Rebecca S. Green Cognitive Ergonomics Laboratory North Carolina State University Raleigh, NC +1 (919) 513

  19. Outline Motivation Theory Validation Application Conclusions Correlation screening in high dimension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tourneret, Jean-Yves

    Outline Motivation Theory Validation Application Conclusions Correlation screening in high dimension Alfred Hero University of Michigan - Ann Arbor June 14, 2011 1 / 45 #12;Outline Motivation Theory Validation Application Conclusions 1 Motivation 2 Theory 3 Validation 4 Application 5 Conclusions 2 / 45 #12

  20. High-Performance Binary Protein Interaction Screening in a Microfluidic Format

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    and Micro-Architecture; Protein-Protein Interaction; High-Throughput Technology Introduction MicrofluidicHigh-Performance Binary Protein Interaction Screening in a Microfluidic Format Matthias Meier1. For this, synergistic effects between the micro- and chemical architecture of the chip are exploited

  1. Isolation of C. elegans gene knockouts by PCR screening of chemically mutagenized libraries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesa, Giovanni

    presented here uses chemical mutagenesis. Treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and trimethyl psoralen (TMP) followed by UV irradiation are the two chemical mutagen-based methods normally used1 Isolation of C. elegans gene knockouts by PCR screening of chemically mutagenized libraries

  2. Forcing interactions as a genetic screen to identify proteins that exert a defined activity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fields, Stan

    Forcing interactions as a genetic screen to identify proteins that exert a defined activity Michael to the Jun zipper and a library of open reading frames fused to the Fos zipper, we demonstrate this approach to force the interaction of each member of a library with a protein of interest. A library-encoded protein

  3. Phylogenetic Screening of Ribosomal RNA Gene-Containing Clones in Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) Libraries from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Torre, José R.

    (BAC) Libraries from Different Depths in Monterey Bay M.T. Suzuki1 , C.M. Preston2 , O. Be´ja`2 , J processes, but much of their biology and ecology remains ill defined. One approach to better defining. Previously, we constructed and phylogenetically screened a Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) library from

  4. Nutrient-sensitized screening for drugs that shift energy metabolism from mitochondrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beimel, Amos

    Nutrient-sensitized screening for drugs that shift energy metabolism from mitochondrial respiration energy metabolism. (a) Fibroblasts grown on glucose- or galactose-containing media are exposed and concomitant increase in ECAR in all cell types tested, including immortalized mouse striatal cells, human

  5. Efficient screening of fungal cellobiohydrolase class I enzymes for thermostabilizing sequence blocks by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snow, Christopher

    Efficient screening of fungal cellobiohydrolase class I enzymes for thermostabilizing sequence has been used to generate active, thermostable cellobiohy- drolase class I (CBH I) enzymes from., 2007). Class I cellobiohydrolases (CBH Is or family 7 glycosyl hydrolases) are the principal components

  6. CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF BIOMASS FROM WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: SCREENING OF CHEMICALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF BIOMASS FROM WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: SCREENING OF CHEMICALS OF POTENTIAL INTEREST H. H. J. COX and M. A. DESHUSSES* Department of Chemical and Environmental Engineering October 1998) AbstractÐA protocol was developed to rapidly assess the eciency of chemical washing

  7. A Microarray-Based Antibiotic Screen Identifies a Regulatory Role for Supercoiling in the Osmotic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Church, George M.

    A Microarray-Based Antibiotic Screen Identifies a Regulatory Role for Supercoiling in the Osmotic that an increase in negative supercoiling is necessary for transcriptional activation of a large subset of osmotic uncharacterized genes in the osmotic stress regulon, and offer evidence for a broader role for supercoiling

  8. Performance assessment of CsI(Tl) screens on various substrates for X-ray imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhaodong; Zhang, Hongkai; Zhao, Bozhen; Qin, Xiubo; Wei, Cunfeng; Liu, Yu; Wei, Long

    2015-01-01

    Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) screens are widely used in X-ray imaging devices because of the columnar structure of CsI(Tl) layer, but few reports focus on the optical role of the substrate in the screen system. In this paper, four substrates including fused silica (SiO2), silver-film coated SiO2, graphite (C) and fiber optic plate (FOP) are used to fabricate CsI(Tl) screens by thermal evaporation. Their imaging performance is evaluated by relative light output (RLO), modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ). The results reveal that although CsI(Tl) film on graphite plate yields images with the lowest light output, it presents relatively higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise characteristics. However, films on SiO2 plate obtain low MTF but high NNPS curves, whether or not coated with silver film. Furthermore, scintillation screens on FOP have bright images with low NNPS and high NEQ, but have the lowest MTF. By controll...

  9. Small Molecule Screen Reveals Regulation of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Abundance by Ras Proteins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stockwell, Brent R.

    Small Molecule Screen Reveals Regulation of Survival Motor Neuron Protein Abundance by Ras Proteins States *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: Small molecule modulators of protein activity have proven invaluable in the study of protein function and regulation. While inhibitors of protein activity

  10. Exploring Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    to Offshore Petroleum Projects by Jijun Lin B.E., Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum, such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital

  11. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrimon, Norbert

    LETTERS A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling Adam-regulated kinases (ERKs) has pivotal roles during metazoan development, underlying processes as diverse as fate deter- mination, differentiation, proliferation, survival, migration and growth. Abnormal RTK/ERK

  12. Using Ligand-Based Virtual Screening to Allosterically Stabilize the Activated State of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Garland R.

    virtually screening the Maybridge library, whereas no hits resulted with the National Cancer Institute-protein coupled receptors play an essential role in many biological processes. Despite an increase in the number the possible discovery of novel scaffolds. Maybridge Hitfinder and National Cancer Institute diversity

  13. Velocity Dependence of Baryon Screening in a Hot Strongly Coupled Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christiana Athanasiou; Hong Liu; Krishna Rajagopal

    2008-05-12

    The L-dependence of the static potential between Nc quarks arranged in a circle of radius L (a "baryon") immersed in the hot plasma of a gauge theory with Nc colors defines a screening length Ls. We use the AdS/CFT correspondence to compute this screening length for the case of heavy quarks in the plasma of strongly coupled N=4 super Yang-Mills theory moving with velocity v relative to the baryon. We find that in the v -> 1 limit, Ls \\propto (1-v^2)^{1/4}/T, and find that corrections to this velocity dependence are small at lower velocities. This result provides evidence for the robustness of the analogous behavior of the screening length defined by the static quark-antiquark pair, which has been computed previously and in QCD is relevant to quarkonium physics in heavy ion collisions. Our results also show that as long as the hot wind is not blowing precisely perpendicular to the plane of the baryon configuration that we analyze, the Nc different quarks are not all affected by the wind velocity to the same degree, with those quarks lying perpendicular to the wind direction screened most effectively.

  14. Stimulators of translation identified during a small molecule screening Unkyung Shin a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vajda, Sandor

    of natural and synthetic products for eukaryotic translation modulators, we iden- tified two natural products of these compounds led to the insight that mRNA used to program the translation extracts during high-throughput assay identify a source of ``false positives'' for high-through- put screen campaigns using translation extracts

  15. Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen Department) The origin of light is a unsolved mystery in nature. Recently, it was suggested that light may originate from magnetic/electric dipoles in 2D and 3D lattices. We show that our models contain an artificial light

  16. Browsing on Small Screens: Recasting Web-Page Segmentation into an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cortes, Corinna

    Browsing on Small Screens: Recasting Web-Page Segmentation into an Efficient Machine Learning is a challenging task. One approach is to present the user with a thumbnail image of the full web page and allow separated. Here, we cast the web page segmentation problem into a machine learning framework, where we re

  17. Screening effect on the optical absorption in graphene and metallic monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Soljaèiæ, Marin

    to be doped with electrons since it is a zero band gap semiconductor. On the other hand, graphene has superiorScreening effect on the optical absorption in graphene and metallic monolayers Marinko Jablan,1 concepts in solid state physics. It has a great impact on the electronic properties of graphene where huge

  18. Altered 3 Substrate Specificity of Escherichia coli Signal Peptidase 1 Mutants as Revealed by Screening a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paetzel, Mark

    by Screening a Combinatorial Peptide Library* Received for publication,September 11, 2006, and in revised form Signal peptidase functions to cleave signal peptides from pre- proteins at the cell membrane. It has of a fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based peptide library revealed that the I144A, I144C, and I144C/I86T

  19. Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrimon, Norbert

    Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening Eric Brouzesa,b,1 (received for review March 31, 2009) We present a droplet-based microfluidic technology that enables high our droplet microfluidic platform is modular, robust, uses no moving parts, and has a wide range

  20. General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

    2009-05-15

    Shale gas reservoirs are gaining importance in United States as conventional oil and gas resources are dwindling at a very fast pace. The purpose of this study is twofold. First aim is to help operators with simple screening criteria which can help...

  1. Screening Insurrection: The Containment of Working-Class Rebellion in New Deal Era Hollywood Cinema 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilson, Galen James

    2014-03-28

    COLLECTIVISM IN AMERICA AND ON SCREEN ........................................................ 17 Notes ........................................................................................................ 83 CHAPTER III HOME ON THE MAIN STEM: THE HOBO... Thought in the Depression Years and The Cultural Front: The Laboring of American Culture, 3 serve as important background for the beginning of my research, as does Michael Kimmel’s history of American masculinity, Manhood in America: A Cultural...

  2. Screened thermonuclear reactions and predictive stellar evolution of detached double-lined eclipsing binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore Liolios; Theocharis Kosmas

    2005-07-06

    The low energy fusion cross sections of charged-particle nuclear reactions (and the respective reaction rates) in stellar plasmas are enhanced due to plasma screening effects. We study the impact of those effects on predictive stellar evolution simulations for detached double-lined eclipsing binaries. We follow the evolution of binary systems (pre-main sequence or main sequence stars) with precisely determined radii and masses from 1.1Mo to 23Mo (from their birth until their present state). The results indicate that all the discrepancies between the screened and unscreened models (in terms of luminosity, stellar radius, and effective temperature) are within the observational uncertainties. Moreover, no nucleosynthetic or compositional variation was found due to screening corrections. Therefore all thermonuclear screening effects on the charged-particle nuclear reactions that occur in the binary stars considered in this work (from their birth until their present state) can be totally disregarded. In other words, all relevant charged-particle nuclear reactions can be safely assumed to take place in a vacuum, thus simplifying and accelerating the simulation processes.

  3. Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures Preston Baxter, M.ASCE1 ; Thomas H. Miller, M.ASCE2 ; and Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 Abstract: Seismic Database subject headings: Seismic analysis; Seismic design; Wood structures; Shear walls; Diaphragms

  4. An analysis and validation pipeline for large-scale RNAi-based screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Magalhães, João Pedro

    An analysis and validation pipeline for large-scale RNAi-based screens Michael Plank1 , Guang Hu2 pipeline to prioritize these candidates incorporating effect sizes, functional enrichment analysis associated with oxidative stress resistance, as a proof-of-concept of our pipeline we demonstrate

  5. FEPs Screening of Processes and Issues in Drip Shield and Waste Package Degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Mon

    2004-10-11

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate and document the inclusion or exclusion of features, events and processes (FEPs) with respect to drip shield and waste package modeling used to support the Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Thirty-three FEPs associated with the waste package and drip shield performance have been identified (DTN: MO0407SEPFEPLA.000 [DIRS 170760]). A screening decision, either ''included'' or ''excluded,'' has been assigned to each FEP, with the technical bases for screening decisions, as required by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in 10 CFR 63.114 (d, e, and f) [DIRS 156605]. The FEPs analyses in this report address issues related to the degradation and potential failure of the drip shield and waste package over the post closure regulatory period of 10,000 years after permanent closure. For included FEPs, this report summarizes the disposition of the FEP in TSPA-LA. For excluded FEPs, this report provides the technical bases for the screening arguments for exclusion from TSPA-LA. The analyses are for the TSPA-LA base-case design (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]), where a drip shield is placed over the waste package without backfill over the drip shield (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168489]). Each FEP includes one or more specific issues, collectively described by a FEP name and description. The FEP description encompasses a single feature, event, or process, or a few closely related or coupled processes, provided the entire FEP can be addressed by a single specific screening argument or TSPA-LA disposition. The FEPs were assigned to associated Project reports, so the screening decisions reside with the relevant subject-matter experts.

  6. Accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures, Part II: Experimental comparison and verification of methods. Volume 2, In situ conductivity data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kauffman, R.

    1995-09-01

    Data are presented for the accelerated screening methods for determining chemical and thermal stability of refrigerant-lubricant mixtures.

  7. Developed by the Yale Lung Screening and Nodule Program at Yale Cancer Center Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven Copyright 2013, Yale Cancer Center

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Hern, Corey S.

    Developed by the Yale Lung Screening and Nodule Program at Yale Cancer Center Smilow Cancer Hospital at Yale-New Haven ©Copyright 2013, Yale Cancer Center Summary of Lung Cancer Screening Guidelines Program American Cancer Society (ACS) American Cancer Society. Interim Guidance on Lung Cancer Screening

  8. Effects of dynamic screening on the electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Redmer, R.A.; Roepke, G.; Morales, F.; Kilimann, K. )

    1990-02-01

    The electrical conductivity of fully ionized, nondegenerate hydrogen plasma is expressed within the Zubarev method by equilibrium correlation functions. Using the Green's function technique, the Lenard--Balescu--Gurnsey collision integral of a generalized Boltzmann equation is derived that accounts for the effects of dynamic screening. Applying the usual random phase approximation, numerical results for the collision integral and the electrical conductivity are compared with the case of static screening ({omega}=0) and the long-wavelength limit ({ital q}{r arrow}0) for the dielectric function {Epsilon}({ital q},{omega}). Effective low-density expansions are given for the collision integrals as well as for the electrical conductivity that are applicable for a wide range of density and temperature.

  9. Large-Scale Computational Screening of Zeolites for Ethane/Ethene Separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J; Lin, LC; Martin, RL; Swisher, JA; Haranczyk, M; Smit, B

    2012-08-14

    Large-scale computational screening of thirty thousand zeolite structures was conducted to find optimal structures for seperation of ethane/ethene mixtures. Efficient grand canonical Monte Carlo (GCMC) simulations were performed with graphics processing units (GPUs) to obtain pure component adsorption isotherms for both ethane and ethene. We have utilized the ideal adsorbed solution theory (LAST) to obtain the mixture isotherms, which were used to evaluate the performance of each zeolite structure based on its working capacity and selectivity. In our analysis, we have determined that specific arrangements of zeolite framework atoms create sites for the preferential adsorption of ethane over ethene. The majority of optimum separation materials can be identified by utilizing this knowledge and screening structures for the presence of this feature will enable the efficient selection of promising candidate materials for ethane/ethene separation prior to performing molecular simulations.

  10. Nonabelian Debye screening and the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pisarski, R.D. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1997-09-22

    The phenomenon of Debye screening is familiar from electrolytes and many other systems. Recently, it has been recognized that in nonabelian gauge theories at high temperature, even perturbatively Debye screening is much more complicated than in nonrelativistic systems. This was originally derived as {open_quotes}hard thermal loops{close_quotes}. Hard thermal loops have been derived perturbatively, by a semiclassical truncation of the Schwinger-Dyson equations, and by classical kinetic theory. In this talk I give a pedagogical derivation, following that of Kelly, Liu, Lucchesi, and Manuel. The derivation is valid not just for a thermal distribution, but (modulo certain obvious restrictions) for an arbitrary initial distribution of particles. Consider, for example, the {open_quotes}tsunami{close_quotes} problem: suppose that one starts, at time t = 0, with a spatially homogenous, infinite wall of particles, all moving with the same velocity at the speed of light.

  11. Schiff Screening of Relativistic Nucleon Electric-Dipole Moments by Electrons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. -P. Liu; J. Engel

    2007-05-14

    We show, at leading-order in the multipole expansion of the electron-nucleus interaction, that nucleon electric-dipole moments are completely shielded by electrons so that they contribute nothing to atomic electric-dipole moments, even when relativity in the nucleus is taken into account. It is well known that relativistic electron motion, by contrast, leads to dipole moments that are not screened; we discuss the reasons for the difference.

  12. Weak lensing of large scale structure in the presence of screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tessore, Nicolas; Metcalf, R Benton; Ferreira, Pedro G

    2015-01-01

    A number of alternatives to general relativity exhibit gravitational screening in the non-linear regime of structure formation. We describe a set of algorithms that can produce weak lensing maps of large scale structure in such theories and can be used to generate mock surveys for cosmological analysis. By analysing a few basic statistics we indicate how these alternatives can be distinguished from general relativity with future weak lensing surveys.

  13. Impact of informed-choice invitations on diabetes screening knowledge, attitude and intentions: an analogue study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mann, Eleanor; Kellar, Ian; Sutton, Stephen; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Hankins, Matthew; Griffin, Simon J.; Marteau, Theresa M.

    2010-12-17

    reflecting low motivation to attend. Saidi, Sutton and Bickler [31] found practical barriers were the most commonly reported reason for non-attendance in the unemployed. Most interventions designed to facilitate informed choices concentrate on increasing... , Fiset V, Barry M: Decision aids for people facing health treatment or screening decisions. Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) 2003, , 2: CD001431. 31. Saidi G, Sutton S, Bickler G: A predictive study of reasons for attendance and non...

  14. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  15. Development of an Fe efficiency screening procedure for sorghum based on realistic soil parameters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Francisco

    1987-01-01

    , are considered to be good indicators of Fe use efficiency in plants, and thus were the basis determining Fe-efficiency of the sorghum cultivars. Rodriguez de Cianzio et al. (1979) reported that visual chlorosis ratings weze highly correlated (r=0. 90...DEVELOPMENT OF AN FE EFFICIENCY SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR SORGHUH BASED ON REAl ISTIC SOIL PARAHETERS A Thesis by FRANCISCO HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  16. SU-E-P-03: Implementing a Low Dose Lung Screening CT Program Meeting Regulatory Requirements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaFrance, M; Marsh, S; O'Donnell, G

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To provide information pertaining to IROC Houston QA Center's (RPC) credentialing process for institutions participating in NCI-sponsored clinical trials. Purpose: Provide guidance to the Radiology Departments with the intent of implementing a Low Dose CT Screening Program using different CT Scanners with multiple techniques within the framework of the required state regulations. Method: State Requirements for the purpose of implementing a Low Dose CT Lung Protocol required working with the Radiology and Pulmonary Department in setting up a Low Dose Screening Protocol designed to reduce the radiation burden to the patients enrolled. Radiation dose measurements (CTDIvol) for various CT manufacturers (Siemens16, Siemens 64, Philips 64, and Neusoft128) for three different weight based protocols. All scans were reviewed by the Radiologist. Prior to starting a low dose lung screening protocol, information had to be submitted to the state for approval. Performing a Healing Arts protocol requires extensive information. This not only includes name and address of the applicant but a detailed description of the disease, the x-ray examination and the population to be examined. The unit had to be tested by a qualified expert using the technique charts. The credentials of all the operators, the supervisors and the Radiologists had to be submitted to the state. Results: All the appropriate documentation was sent to the state for review. The measured results between the Low Dose Protocol versus the default Adult Chest Protocol showed that there was a dose reduction of 65% for small (100-150 lb.) patient, 75% for the Medium patient (151-250 lbs.), and a 55% reduction for the Large patient ( over 250 lbs.). Conclusion: Measured results indicated that the Low Dose Protocol indeed lowered the screening patient's radiation dose and the institution was able to submit the protocol to the State's regulators.

  17. Heavy quark free energies and screening at finite temperature and density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Doring; S. Ejiri; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann

    2005-09-27

    We study the free energies of heavy quarks calculated from Polyakov loop correlation functions in full 2-flavour QCD using the p4-improved staggered fermion action. A small but finite Baryon number density is included via Taylor expansion of the fermion determinant in the Baryo-chemical potential mu. For temperatures above Tc we extract Debye screening masses from the large distance behaviour of the free energies and compare their mu-dependence to perturbative results.

  18. Heavy Quark Free Energies and Screening in SU(2) Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Digal; S. Fortunato; P. Petreczky

    2002-11-17

    We investigate the singlet, triplet and colour average heavy quark free energies in SU(2) pure gauge theory at various temperatures T. We focus on the long distance behaviour of the free energies, studying in particular the temperature dependence of the string tension and the screening masses. The results are qualitatively similar to the SU(3) scenario, except near the critical temperature Tc of the deconfining transition. Finally we test a recently proposed method to renormalize the Polyakov loop.

  19. Initial Screening for Gifted and Talented Programs: Increasing Participation of Hispanic English Language Learners 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquierdo, J. Joy; Lara-Alecio, Rafael; Irby, Beverly

    2010-10-22

    -1 Initial Screening for Gifted and Talented Programs: Increasing Participation of Hispanic English Language Learners Dr. J. Joy Esquierdo, University of Texas-Pan American esquierdo@utpa.edu Dr. Rafael Lara-Alecio, Texas A&M University a... significant difference in performance of Hispanic kindergarten English language learners on the HBGSI by educational placement those who are served in transitional bilingual education (TBE) program versus those who are served in an English as a Second...

  20. Pre-Screening for Solar Projects on Federal Sites | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyAprilEnergyPartnershipSitePost-ClosurePowerPre-Screening for

  1. Nonlinear Screening and Effective Electrostatic Interactions in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal Suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. R. Denton

    2004-05-06

    A nonlinear response theory is developed and applied to electrostatic interactions between spherical macroions, screened by surrounding microions, in charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions. The theory describes leading-order nonlinear response of the microions (counterions, salt ions) to the electrostatic potential of the macroions and predicts microion-induced effective many-body interactions between macroions. A linear response approximation [Phys. Rev. E 62, 3855 (2000)] yields an effective pair potential of screened-Coulomb (Yukawa) form, as well as a one-body volume energy, which contributes to the free energy. Nonlinear response generates effective many-body interactions and essential corrections to both the effective pair potential and the volume energy. By adopting a random-phase approximation (RPA) for the response functions, and thus neglecting microion correlations, practical expressions are derived for the effective pair and triplet potentials and for the volume energy. Nonlinear screening is found to weaken repulsive pair interactions, induce attractive triplet interactions, and modify the volume energy. Numerical results for monovalent microions are in good agreement with available ab initio simulation data and demonstrate that nonlinear effects grow with increasing macroion charge and concentration and with decreasing salt concentration. In the dilute limit of zero macroion concentration, leading-order nonlinear corrections vanish. Finally, it is shown that nonlinear response theory, when combined with the RPA, is formally equivalent to the mean-field Poisson-Boltzmann theory and that the linear response approximation corresponds, within integral-equation theory, to a linearized hypernetted-chain closure.

  2. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alex C; Hitt, Austin N; Voisin, Sophie; Tourassi, Georgia

    2013-01-01

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  3. Method used to estimate screening-level Total Failure Probability for human error events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, R.S.; Turner, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

    1994-12-31

    This document briefly describes the method used to estimate a screening value for the Total Failure Probability (F{sub T}) of human error events that are identified in the fault trees which describe potential liquid UF{sub 6} release accidents at two US Gaseous Diffusion Plants. A discussion is provided of the assumptions, limitations, and overall logic of the F{sub T} assignment method, and a description is presented of how the method is employed. The description herein presents the screening technique used to quantify human errors in the accident analysis portion of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program. Specifically, the basic events analyzed here are given in the fault trees for one facility at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and one at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). These plants are primarily chemical processing facilities that deal with a slightly radioactive process gas, low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). A Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) was not accomplished while drawing the fault trees; the accomplishment of an HRA would be determined by the overall study results. The method described herein provides a framework within which a conservative estimate of human error probability can be made at the screening level for use in the event trees and fault trees.

  4. Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borns, D.J.; Brady, P.V.; Brady, W.D.; Krupka, K.M.; Spalding, B.P.; Waters, R.D.; Zhang, P.

    1999-03-01

    Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites briefly outlines the biological and geochemical origins of natural attenuation, the tendency for natural processes in soils to mitigate contaminant transport and availability, and the means for relying on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of contaminated soils and groundwaters. This report contains a step-by-step guide for (1) screening contaminated soils and groundwaters on the basis of their potential for remediation by natural attenuation and (2) implementing MNA consistent with EPA OSWER Directive 9200.4-17. The screening and implementation procedures are set up as a web-based tool (http://www.sandia.gov/eesector/gs/gc/na/mnahome.html) to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) site environmental managers and their staff and contractors to adhere to EPA guidelines for implementing MNA. This document is intended to support the Decision Maker's Framework Guide and Monitoring Guide both to be issued from DOE EM-40. Further technical advances may cause some of the approach outlined in this document to change over time.

  5. Generalized Landau-level representation: effect of static screening in quantum Hall effect in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor A. Shovkovy; Lifang Xia

    2015-08-18

    By making use of the generalized Landau-level representation (GLLR) for the quasiparticle propagator, we study the effect of screening on the properties of the quantum Hall states with integer filling factors in graphene. The analysis is performed in the low-energy Dirac model in the improved rainbow approximation, in which the long-range Coulomb interaction is modified by the one-loop static screening effects in the presence of a background magnetic field. By utilizing a rather general ansatz for the propagator, in which all dynamical parameters are running functions of the Landau-level index $n$, we derive a self-consistent set of the Schwinger-Dyson (gap) equations and solve them numerically. The explicit solutions demonstrate that static screening leads to a substantial suppression of the gap parameters in the quantum Hall states with a broken $U(4)$ flavor symmetry. The temperature dependence of the energy gaps is also studied. The corresponding results mimic well the temperature dependence of the activation energies measured in experiment. It is also argued that, in principle, the Landau-level running of the quasiparticle dynamical parameters could be measured via optical studies of the integer quantum Hall states.

  6. Generalized Landau-level representation: effect of static screening in quantum Hall effect in graphene

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shovkovy, Igor A

    2015-01-01

    By making use of the generalized Landau-level representation (GLLR) for the quasiparticle propagator, we study the effect of screening on the properties of the quantum Hall states with integer filling factors in graphene. The analysis is performed in the low-energy Dirac model in the improved rainbow approximation, in which the long-range Coulomb interaction is modified by the one-loop static screening effects in the presence of a background magnetic field. By utilizing a rather general ansatz for the propagator, in which all dynamical parameters are running functions of the Landau-level index $n$, we derive a self-consistent set of the Schwinger-Dyson (gap) equations and solve them numerically. The explicit solutions demonstrate that static screening leads to a substantial suppression of the gap parameters in the quantum Hall states with a broken $U(4)$ flavor symmetry. The temperature dependence of the energy gaps is also studied. The corresponding results mimic well the temperature dependence of the activa...

  7. Investigating the Operational Capabilities of Custom and Pedestrian Portal Monitoring Systems for Screening Livestock for Radioactive Contamination 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erchinger, Jennifer

    2013-05-01

    in livestock screening due to sensitive alarm algorithms, greater position discrimination with four detectors, and ease of adjustment for agricultural purposes. The last phase of this project included designing and constructing a portal system that included...

  8. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G.

    2010-04-15

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  9. Essays on employer credit screening, manufacturing skill gaps, and the relationship between skill demands and capital intensity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Andrew, 1968-

    2015-01-01

    This thesis consists of three essays that explore hiring criteria, skill demands and labor market outcomes. The first essay investigates the use of worker credit status as a hiring screen. The practice has sparked debate, ...

  10. Process of Integrating Screening and Detailed Risk-based Modeling Analyses to Ensure Consistent and Scientifically Defensible Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, John W.; McDonald, John P.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2002-11-01

    To support cleanup and closure of these tanks, modeling is performed to understand and predict potential impacts to human health and the environment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a screening tool for the United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection that estimates the long-term human health risk, from a strategic planning perspective, posed by potential tank releases to the environment. This tool is being conditioned to more detailed model analyses to ensure consistency between studies and to provide scientific defensibility. Once the conditioning is complete, the system will be used to screen alternative cleanup and closure strategies. The integration of screening and detailed models provides consistent analyses, efficiencies in resources, and positive feedback between the various modeling groups. This approach of conditioning a screening methodology to more detailed analyses provides decision-makers with timely and defensible information and increases confidence in the results on the part of clients, regulators, and stakeholders.

  11. An evaluation of the respiratory hazards found in silk screen printing, Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Beto I unit 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertson, Christina Elisabeth

    1995-01-01

    This thesis documents the steps taken to determine if the inmates working in the silk screen printing facility of the Texas Department of Criminal Justice, Tennessee Colony, Beto Unit I, are receiving occupational exposures ...

  12. Development of an Automated Microfluidic Reaction Platform for Multidimensional Screening: Reaction Discovery Employing Bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid Scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodell, John R.

    An automated, silicon-based microreactor system has been developed for rapid, low-volume, multidimensional reaction screening. Use of the microfluidic platform to identify transformations of densely functionalized bicyclo ...

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCREENING TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING YOUNG PEOPLE AT RISK FOR NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megerson, Susan C.

    2010-07-23

    This study surveyed common noise activities of young adults, quantified their annual equivalent noise exposures, and examined the efficacy of a self-assessment screening tool for identifying risk of noise-induced hearing loss. One hundred fourteen...

  14. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    Wheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. BiotechnolWheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. Biotechnol1996) Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization (

  15. Characterization of biochars to evaluate recalcitrance and agronomic performance Akio Enders a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    a , Kelly Hanley a , Thea Whitman a , Stephen Joseph b , Johannes Lehmann a, a Department of Crop and Soil Keywords: Biomass Black carbon Charcoal Proximate analysis Pyrolysis a b s t r a c t Biochars (n = 94) were from 0% to 77.4% (w/w). Greater pyrolysis temperature for low-ash biochars increased fixed carbon

  16. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    1996. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden,Decker, SR. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden,2008. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden,

  17. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    and Function of an Arabinoxylan-specific Xylanase. Journaland Function of an Arabinoxylan-specific Xylanase. Journalare xyloglucan and arabinoxylan. In the primary wall,

  18. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    facts- average carbon dioxide emissions resulting fromFacts - Average Carbon Dioxide Emissions Resulting FromTable 11.2. Carbon dioxide emissions from the production,

  19. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    170. Bertaud F, Holmbom B. Chemical Composition of EarlywoodV, Wyman CE. Physical and Chemical Characterizations of CornRapid Analysis of the Chemical Composition of Agricultural

  20. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    from hydrocarbons such as oil sands, oil shale, methane orfrom hydrocarbons such as oil sands, oil shale, methane orblend that is 2% Canadian oil sands, 6.86% Alaskan crude,

  1. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  2. Key gene regulating cell wall biosynthesis and recalcitrance in Populus, gene Y

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jay; Engle, Nancy; Gunter, Lee E.; Jawdy, Sara; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Tuskan, Gerald A.

    2015-12-08

    This disclosure provides methods and transgenic plants for improved production of renewable biofuels and other plant-derived biomaterials by altering the expression and/or activity of Gene Y, an O-acetyltransferase. This disclosure also provides expression vectors containing a nucleic acid (Gene Y) which encodes the polypeptide of SEQ ID NO: 1 and is operably linked to a heterologous promoter.

  3. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01

    JD (2009) Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases.JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomassthe next-generation of biofuels— liquid fuels derived from

  4. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. Biotechnol forStraw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. Biotechnol for1996) Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization (

  5. Molecular signature and sources of biochemical recalcitrance of organic C in Amazonian Dark Earths

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Johannes

    -C, aldehyde-C, ketonic-C and quinine-C, and (iii) diverse group of refractory aliphatic-C moieties. The SOC

  6. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    Module……57 Figure 3.4. The NREL HTPH reactor system usesRenewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) also developed an HTPHthe channels in the plate. NREL’s HTPH system was capable of

  7. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    conventional petroleum, a combination of “geologic, economic, environmental, [and] political difficulties” will likely result in increased gasoline production from hydrocarbons

  8. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    to Identify Cellulosic Biomass, Pretreatments, and EnzymeFundamental Factors Affecting Biomass Enzymatic Reactivity.U.S. Billion-Ton Update: Biomass Supply for a Bioenergy and

  9. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    cooled by flashing the steam and flooding with cold water.cooled by flashing the steam and flooding with cold water.to release the steam, followed by flooding the chamber with

  10. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    and Farrell (2007). Coal to liquid (CTL) fuel production9.50 E-05 1 2.47 E-04 2 Coal to Liquid 2.10E-04 1 3.62 E-04such as oil sands and coal to liquids is another. Figure

  11. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    in Three Perennial Grasses. Crop Science 2008; 48: 424-433.Society of Agronomy/ Crop Science Society of America/SoilCell Wall Degradability. Crop Science 2006; 46: 1801-1809.

  12. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01

    Sugar Yields for Biofuel Production. Nat. Biotechnol. 2007;Lignin's Grip on Biofuel Production. Nat. Biotechnol. 2007;Sugar Yields for Biofuel Production. Nat. Biotechnol. 2007;

  13. High-Speed Biomass Recalcitrance Pipeline Speeds Up Bio-Mass Analysis -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverse (JournalvivoHigh energy neutronHigh-Pressure MOF ResearchEnergy Innovation

  14. Screen Animals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Laura

    2015-03-01

    into the space of human fiction the particular charge of the real.11 These overt and visible links between animal death and film aesthetics mask a still more material yet less visible sacrificial economy at work. Pointing to the use of gelatin in the production...

  15. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krmar, M.; Kuzmanovi?, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia)] [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia); Nikoli?, D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)] [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Kuzmanovi?, Z. [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina)] [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Ganezer, K. [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)] [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door.Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen.Results: The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product ?·E at the screen.

  16. Toxicological benchmarks for screening potential contaminants of concern for effects on aquatic biota: 1994 Revision

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suter, G.W. II [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mabrey, J.B. [University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)] [University of West Florida, Pensacola, FL (United States)

    1994-07-01

    This report presents potential screening benchmarks for protection of aquatic life from contaminants in water. Because there is no guidance for screening benchmarks, a set of alternative benchmarks is presented herein. The alternative benchmarks are based on different conceptual approaches to estimating concentrations causing significant effects. For the upper screening benchmark, there are the acute National Ambient Water Quality Criteria (NAWQC) and the Secondary Acute Values (SAV). The SAV concentrations are values estimated with 80% confidence not to exceed the unknown acute NAWQC for those chemicals with no NAWQC. The alternative chronic benchmarks are the chronic NAWQC, the Secondary Chronic Value (SCV), the lowest chronic values for fish and daphnids from chronic toxicity tests, the estimated EC20 for a sensitive species, and the concentration estimated to cause a 20% reduction in the recruit abundance of largemouth bass. It is recommended that ambient chemical concentrations be compared to all of these benchmarks. If NAWQC are exceeded, the chemicals must be contaminants of concern because the NAWQC are applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). If NAWQC are not exceeded, but other benchmarks are, contaminants should be selected on the basis of the number of benchmarks exceeded and the conservatism of the particular benchmark values, as discussed in the text. To the extent that toxicity data are available, this report presents the alternative benchmarks for chemicals that have been detected on the Oak Ridge Reservation. It also presents the data used to calculate benchmarks and the sources of the data. It compares the benchmarks and discusses their relative conservatism and utility.

  17. Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, Martin J. Bloomquist, Aili K.; Hunter, David M.; Mawdsley, Gordon E.; Chiarelli, Anna M.; Muradali, Derek; Mainprize, James G.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: To compare physical measures pertaining to image quality among digital mammography systems utilized in a large breast screening program. To examine qualitatively differences in these measures and differences in clinical cancer detection rates between CR and DR among sites within that program. Methods: As part of the routine quality assurance program for screening, field measurements are made of several variables considered to correlate with the diagnostic quality of medical images including: modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, d? (an index of lesion detectability) and air kerma to allow estimation of mean glandular dose. In addition, images of the mammography accreditation phantom are evaluated. Results: It was found that overall there were marked differences between the performance measures of DR and CR mammography systems. In particular, the modulation transfer functions obtained with the DR systems were found to be higher, even for larger detector element sizes. Similarly, the noise equivalent quanta, d?, and the phantom scores were higher, while the failure rates associated with low signal-to-noise ratio and high dose were lower with DR. These results were consistent with previous findings in the authors’ program that the breast cancer detection rates at sites employing CR technology were, on average, 30.6% lower than those that used DR mammography. Conclusions: While the clinical study was not large enough to allow a statistically powered system-by-system assessment of cancer detection accuracy, the physical measures expressing spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio are consistent with the published finding that sites employing CR systems had lower cancer detection rates than those using DR systems for screening mammography.

  18. Combinatorial Screening of Advanced Scintillators for High Resolution X-ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Shifan; Tao, Dejie; Lynch, Michael; Yuan, Xianglong; Li, Yiqun

    2008-05-12

    The lack of efficient scintillators is a major problem for developing powerful x-ray detectors that are widely used in homeland security, industrial and scientific research. Intematix has developed and applied a high throughput screening process and corresponding crystal growth technology to significantly speed up the discovery process for new efficient scintillators. As a result, Intematix has invented and fabricated three new scintillators both in powder and bulk forms, which possess promising properties such as better radiation hardness and better matching for silicon diode.

  19. A microfluidic device based on droplet storage for screening solubility diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Laval; N. Lisai; J. -B. Salmon; M. Joanicot

    2007-04-04

    This work describes a new microfluidic device developed for rapid screening of solubility diagrams. In several parallel channels, hundreds of nanoliter-volume droplets of a given solution are first stored with a gradual variation in the solute concentration. Then, the application of a temperature gradient along these channels enables us to read directly and quantitatively phase diagrams, concentration vs. temperature. We show, using a solution of adipic acid, that we can measure ten points of the solubility curve in less than 1 hr and with only 250 $\\mu$L of solution.

  20. Electroanalytical applications of screen-printable surfactant-induced sol-gel graphite composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guadalupe, Ana R. (San Juan, PR); Guo, Yizhu (San Juan, PR)

    2001-05-15

    A process for preparing sol-gel graphite composite electrodes is presented. This process preferably uses the surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and eliminates the need for a cosolvent, an acidic catalyst, a cellulose binder and a thermal curing step from prior art processes. Fabrication of screen-printed electrodes by this process provides a simple approach for electroanalytical applications in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. Examples of applications for such composite electrodes produced from this process include biochemical sensors such as disposable, single-use glucose sensors and ligand modified composite sensors for metal ion sensitive sensors.

  1. Direct laser immobilization of photosynthetic material on screen printed electrodes for amperometric biosensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boutopoulos, Christos; Zergioti, Ioanna; Touloupakis, Eleftherios; Pezzotti, Ittalo; Giardi, Maria Teresa

    2011-02-28

    This letter demonstrates the direct laser printing of photosynthetic material onto low cost nonfunctionalized screen printed electrodes for the fabrication of photosynthesis-based amperometric biosensors. The high kinetic energy of the transferred material induces direct immobilization of the thylakoids onto the electrodes without the use of linkers. This type of immobilization is able to establish efficient electrochemical contact between proteins and electrode, stabilizing the photosynthetic biomolecule and transporting electrons to the solid state device with high efficiency. The functionality of the laser printed biosensors was evaluated by the detection of a common herbicide such as Linuron.

  2. A Screening Method for Guiding R&D Decisions: Pilot Application to Nuclear

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s s iof1 of 8(May 1983)Reactor Cooling2,|A Screening

  3. A summary of 22 Years of Fish Screen Evaluation in the Yakima River Basin, Summary Report 1985-2007.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, Mickie A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-12-03

    Sixty fish screen facilities were constructed in the Yakima River basin between 1985 and 2006 as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council plan to mitigate the effects of federal hydroelectric projects on fish and wildlife populations. This report summarizes evaluations of some of those and other fish screen facilities conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) from 1985 through 2006. The objective of these studies was to determine if the newly designed and constructed fish screens were effective at providing juvenile salmonids safe passage past irrigation diversions. To answer that question, PNNL conducted release-and-catch studies at eight Phase I sites in the Yakima River basin. Increasing concerns about the impacts of hatchery fish releases on the wild fish population, as well as the cost and time necessary to perform these kinds of biological studies at more than 60 planned Phase II sites, required development of techniques to evaluate the effectiveness of the sites without releasing fish. The new techniques involved collecting information on screen design, operation, and effectiveness at guiding fish safely through the fish screen facility. Performance measures including water velocities and passage conditions provide a good alternative to biological studies at significantly lower cost and time. Physical techniques were used at all 10 Phase I and 28 Phase II sites evaluated by PNNL over the following 19 years. Results of these studies indicate the Phase I and II fish screen facilities are designed and capable of providing safe passage for juvenile salmonids so long as construction, maintenance, and operations meet the criteria used in the design of each site and the National Marine Fisheries Service criteria for juvenile fish screen design.

  4. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  5. Measurement of the Enhanced Screening Effect of the d+d Reactions in Metals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Huke; K. Czerski; P. Heide

    2007-01-26

    The investigation of the d+d fusion reactions in metallic environments at sub-Coulomb energies demands especially adapted techniques beyond standard procedures in nuclear physics. The measurements which were performed with an electrostatic accelerator at different self-implanted metallic target materials show an enhancement of the reaction cross-section compared to the gas target experiments. The resulting electron screening energy values are about one order of magnitude larger relative to the gas target experiments and exceed significantly the theoretical predictions. The measurements on deuterium inside metals are heavily affected by the interference of two peculiarities of this system: the possibly very high mobility of deuterium in solids and the formation of surface contamination layers under ion beam irradiation in high vacuum systems. Thorough investigations of these processes show their crucial influence on the interpretation of the experimental raw data. The differential data acquisition and analysis method employed to it is outlined. Non observance of these problems by using standard procedures results in fatal errors for the extraction of the screening energies.

  6. Identification and Prioritization of Analysis Cases for Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Risk Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Richard M.; Unwin, Stephen D.; Van Cleve, Frances B.

    2010-06-16

    In this report we describe the development of the Environmental Risk Evaluation System (ERES), a risk-informed analytical process for estimating the environmental risks associated with the construction and operation of marine and hydrokinetic energy generation projects. The development process consists of two main phases of analysis. In the first phase, preliminary risk analyses will take the form of screening studies in which key environmental impacts and the uncertainties that create risk are identified, leading to a better-focused characterization of the relevant environmental effects. Existence of critical data gaps will suggest areas in which specific modeling and/or data collection activities should take place. In the second phase, more detailed quantitative risk analyses will be conducted, with residual uncertainties providing the basis for recommending risk mitigation and monitoring activities. We also describe the process used for selecting three cases for fiscal year 2010 risk screening analysis using the ERES. A case is defined as a specific technology deployed in a particular location involving certain environmental receptors specific to that location. The three cases selected satisfy a number of desirable criteria: 1) they correspond to real projects whose deployment is likely to take place in the foreseeable future; 2) the technology developers are willing to share technology and project-related data; 3) the projects represent a diversity of technology-site-receptor characteristics; 4) the projects are of national interest, and 5) environmental effects data may be available for the projects.

  7. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-07-28

    A method is disclosed for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer. 5 figs.

  8. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, William L. (Albuquerque, NM); Vanheusden, Karel J. R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schwank, James R. (Albuquerque, NM); Fleetwood, Daniel M. (Albuquerque, NM); Shaneyfelt, Marty R. (Albuquerque, NM); Winokur, Peter S. (Albuquerque, NM); Devine, Roderick A. B. (St. Martin le Vinoux, FR)

    1998-01-01

    A method for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus-voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer.

  9. Phase Separation in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal Suspensions: Influence of Nonlinear Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alan R. Denton

    2006-05-03

    The phase behavior of charge-stabilized colloidal suspensions is modeled by a combination of response theory for electrostatic interparticle interactions and variational theory for free energies. Integrating out degrees of freedom of the microions (counterions, salt ions), the macroion-microion mixture is mapped onto a one-component system governed by effective macroion interactions. Linear response of microions to the electrostatic potential of the macroions results in a screened-Coulomb (Yukawa) effective pair potential and a one-body volume energy, while nonlinear response modifies the effective interactions [A. R. Denton, \\PR E {\\bf 70}, 031404 (2004)]. The volume energy and effective pair potential are taken as input to a variational free energy, based on thermodynamic perturbation theory. For both linear and first-order nonlinear effective interactions, a coexistence analysis applied to aqueous suspensions of highly charged macroions and monovalent microions yields bulk separation of macroion-rich and macroion-poor phases below a critical salt concentration, in qualitative agreement with predictions of related linearized theories [R. van Roij, M. Dijkstra, and J.-P. Hansen, \\PR E {\\bf 59}, 2010 (1999); P. B. Warren, \\JCP {\\bf 112}, 4683 (2000)]. It is concluded that nonlinear screening can modify phase behavior but does not necessarily suppress bulk phase separation of deionized suspensions.

  10. Features of promising technologies for pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    Engineering Building, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA d National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 16253 Denver West and national security concerns have motivated research over the last 25 years into renewable, domestic sources,* a Laboratory of Renewable Resources Engineering, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, Purdue

  11. Developing genome-enabled sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    's Liquid Bioethanol Technology www.glbrc.org 7 #12;Fermentation Glucose Ethanol Sugar Cane Corn (kernels

  12. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dee, Sean Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Yoshida, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research [21] G.Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 1945, 37, 43-52; B.Yoshida, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 2007,

  13. Hydrolyzed Lignocellulose as a Feedstock for Fuels Synthesis...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partners * Samples provided by National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) & Joint Bio-Energy Institute (JBEI) Partners Total Costs FY 10 - FY 12 FY 13 Costs FY 14 Costs Total...

  14. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dee, Sean Joseph

    2012-01-01

    R. T. Raines, Energy & Environmental Science 2010, 3, 765-R. T. Raines, Energy & Environmental Science 2010, 3, 765-R. T. Raines, Energy & Environmental Science 2010, 3, 765-

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO. Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Bioenergy Technologies Office Country of Publication:...

  16. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Center aims...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    center co-director Daniel Cosgrove, professor of biology in the Eberly College of Science, and other colleagues at the center will have substantial resources to aid their...

  17. Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production from lignocellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartley, Laura E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2009-01-01

    sugar yields for biofuel production. Nat Biotechnol 25(7):Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production fromA key strategy for biofuel produc- tion is making use of the

  18. Integrating and Piloting Lignocellulose Biomass Conversion Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D. J.

    2009-06-15

    Presentation on NREL's integrated biomass conversion capabilities. Presented at the 2009 Advanced Biofuels Workshop in Denver, CO, Cellulosic Ethanol session.

  19. Caloramator sp. Tolerance of Pretreatment Inhibitors from Lignocellulosics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReports from the CloudGEGR-N GoodsCaliforniaofCallCalling All-

  20. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Upcoming Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D B LReportsDeterminatIonFornl71: Inverse Band Structure

  1. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits theCommitteeCrystallineReserve |Demonstration Project and theElectricDC;

  2. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Financing Tool Fits theCommitteeCrystallineReserve |Demonstration Project and theElectricDC;to

  3. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Symposium: Cellulose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMay 1,Center OrganizationInfraredEFRCInverse

  4. Nanoporous Membranes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulose and Other

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines lightGeospatialDevelopmentEnergyApplications - Energy Innovation Portal

  5. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment of Energy3-1Department of

  6. CLSF (Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation) - About the Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecovery ActToolsForNorth CarolinaCCI - CommunityAbout the

  7. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Contact Us

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecoveryplanning Career Planning forTheoryContact Us Daniel

  8. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - In the News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecoveryplanning Career Planning forTheoryContact Us DanielIn

  9. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Open Positions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecoveryplanning Career Planning forTheoryContact Us

  10. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Our People

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecoveryplanning Career Planning forTheoryContact UsPeople

  11. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Our Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of raregovAboutRecoveryplanning Career Planning forTheoryContact

  12. Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing BacteriaConnect Collider

  13. Metagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelement methodbyoxideLagrangeLarsen

  14. Metagenomic Profiling Reveals Lignocellulose Degrading System in a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfate Reducing(JournalspectroscopyReport) | SciTechelement methodbyoxideLagrangeLarsenMicrobial

  15. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers'(x≤2)Article) |Nuclearand Implications for Test Banto

  16. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTech ConnectSpeeding accessusers'(x≤2)Article) |Nuclearand Implications for Test Bantoto

  17. Thermophilic lignocellulose deconstruction (Journal Article) | SciTech

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaon and Pion decaysArticle) | SciTech Connect

  18. CLSF (Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation) Homepage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of NaturalDukeWakefieldSulfateSciTechtail.Theory of rare Kaonforsupernovae modelsearch this siteSearchA Nanoscale

  19. Wiki-based Techno Economic Analysis of a Lignocellulosic Biorefinery -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking WithTelecentricNCubicthe FOIA? The FOIA,DepartmentWhoWhy:

  20. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof EnergyApril 2014 | InternationalLand andDepartmentCo-Current Dilute Acid

  1. Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMass map shines light on dark matterEnergy Innovation PortalPrinceton PlasmaUsing

  2. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  3. Method for formation of high quality back contact with screen-printed local back surface field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Meemongkolkiat, Vichai (Atlanta, GA)

    2010-11-30

    A thin silicon solar cell having a back dielectric passivation and rear contact with local back surface field is described. Specifically, the solar cell may be fabricated from a crystalline silicon wafer having a thickness from 50 to 500 micrometers. A barrier layer and a dielectric layer are applied at least to the back surface of the silicon wafer to protect the silicon wafer from deformation when the rear contact is formed. At least one opening is made to the dielectric layer. An aluminum contact that provides a back surface field is formed in the opening and on the dielectric layer. The aluminum contact may be applied by screen printing an aluminum paste having from one to 12 atomic percent silicon and then applying a heat treatment at 750 degrees Celsius.

  4. Synthetic crude oils carcinogenicity screening tests. Progress report, September 15, 1979-March 15, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calkins, W.H.; Deye, J.F.; King, C.F.; Hartgrove, R.W.; Krahn, D.F.

    1980-01-01

    Four crude oils (H Coal-Fuel Oil Mode, Occidental in situ Shale Oil, Exxon Donor Solvent Liquid, and SRC II) which were distilled into four fractions (naphtha, mid-distillate, gas oil and residue) for analysis and biological screening testing during the last report period were tested for mutagenicity by the Ames test and for tumor initiating activity by an initiation/promotion (skin painting) test. Substantial agreement exists between Ames and skin painting results. Low boiling naphtha fractions of the 4 crude oils showed little or no mutagenicity or tumor initiating activity by the two tests used. The higher boiling fractions (gas oils and residues) and the crude oils themselves were mutagenic and exhibited tumor initiation activity. The coal derived fractions were more active by both tests than the shale oil fractions.

  5. Screening effects on the elastic nucleon-nucleon cross section in relativistic nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. Diaz Alonso; L. Mornas

    1997-11-18

    We investigate the screening effects on the nucleon-nucleon elastic cross section inside nuclear matter at zero and finite temperature. The N-N interaction is described phenomenologically via meson exchanges ($\\sigma$, $\\pi$ and $\\omega$) in the framework of a relativistic lagrangian model. The expressions for the in-medium meson propagators, which take into account the effects of matter polarization and renormalized vacuum polarization, are used in the calculation of the various meson contributions to the total cross section in the one-boson exchange approximation. The final expressions allow a satisfactory fit of the Coulomb substracted proton-proton cross section data in vacuum. At finite density or temperature the cross section is reduced as compared to the vacuum values and compatible with the existing experimental constraints. At high density the $p$-$p$ differential cross section gets increasingly forward and backward peaked. The $\\sigma$-$\\omega$ mixing plays a key role in the understanding of the results.

  6. Visualizations, Screen Shots, and Data Input Files from VisIT

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    VisIt is a free interactive parallel visualization and graphical analysis tool for viewing scientific data on Unix and PC platforms. Users can quickly generate visualizations from their data, animate them through time, manipulate them, and save the resulting images for presentations. VisIt contains a rich set of visualization features so that you can view your data in a variety of ways. It can be used to visualize scalar and vector fields defined on two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) structured and unstructured meshes. VisIt was designed to handle very large data set sizes in the terascale range and yet can also handle small data sets in the kilobyte range. The VisIT website provides a gallery of vizualizations, another set of screen shots, and allows downloads of data files for input and source codes and executables for the VisIT software suite.

  7. Evaluation of ELISA screening test for detecting aflatoxin in biogenic dust samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durant, J.T.

    1996-05-01

    Aflatoxin is a carcinogenic chemical that is sometimes produced when agricultural commodities are infested by the fungi Aspergillus flavus and A. Parasiticus. Aflatoxin has been found to be present in air samples taken around persons handling materials likely to be contaminated. The purpose of this investigation was to demonstrate the feasibility of using an Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) test kit that was developed to screen for aflatoxin in bulk agricultural commodities, to an air sample. Samples were taken from two environments likely to be contaminated with aflatoxin, a dairy farm feed mixing operation and a peanut bagging operation. The dust collected from these environments was considered to be biogenic, in that it originated primarily from biological materials.

  8. Thermonuclear fusion in dense stars: Electron screening, conductive cooling, and magnetic field effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potekhin, A Y

    2012-01-01

    We study the plasma correlation effects on nonresonant thermonuclear reactions of carbon and oxygen in the interiors of white dwarfs and liquid envelopes of neutron stars. We examine the effects of electron screening on thermodynamic enhancement of thermonuclear reactions in dense plasmas beyond the linear mixing rule. Using these improved enhancement factors, we calculate carbon and oxygen ignition curves in white dwarfs and neutron stars. The energy balance and ignition conditions in neutron star envelopes are evaluated, taking their detailed thermal structure into account. The result is compared to the simplified "one-zone model," which is routinely used in the literature. We also consider the effect of strong magnetic fields on the ignition curves in the ocean of magnetars.

  9. E-commerce between a large firm and a SME supplier: a screening model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Veronica, Alderete Maria

    2009-01-01

    This paper derives a model of screening contracts in the presence of positive network effects when building an electronic commerce network (e-commerce) between a large firm and a small and medium sized enterprise (SME) supplier based on Compte (2008). Compte (2008) main insight is that when several potential candidates compete for the task, the principal will in general improve the performance of his firm by inducing the member candidates to assess their competence before signing the contract (through an appropriate choice of contracts). The large firm (principal) must choose between different SME suppliers (agents) to build a business to business e-commerce network. In the presence of positive network externalities, we show that social surplus increases.

  10. Screening masses in quenched (2+1)d Yang-Mills theory: universality from dynamics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael B. Frigori

    2010-02-25

    We compute the spectrum of gluonic screening-masses in the $0^{++}$ channel of quenched 3d Yang-Mills theory near the phase-transition. Our finite-temperature lattice simulations are performed at scaling region, using state-of-art techniques for thermalization and spectroscopy, which allows for thorough data extrapolations to thermodynamic limit. Ratios among mass-excitations with the same quantum numbers on the gauge theory, 2d Ising and $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ models are compared, resulting in a nice agreement with predictions from universality. In addition, a gauge-to-scalar mapping, previously employed to fit QCD Green's functions at deep IR, is verified to dynamically describe these universal spectroscopic patterns

  11. Dynamical Screening of Gravitational Interaction and Planetary Motions in Modified Solar Potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. G. Bashkirov; A. V. Vityazev; G. V. Pechernikova

    2001-12-18

    A density disturbance in a system of gravitating mass, induced by a moving selected body gives rise to a dynamical screening of Newtonian potential of this body. When applied to the solar planetary system it means that as a result of the motion of the Sun in the Galaxy its effective force potential appears more weak than the Newtonian potential. The relevant modifications of main relations of the solar dynamics are considered here and it is found in particular that the reestimated period of the Earth revolution around the Sun rises in 1 second per year and semimajor axis of the Earth orbit increases on 4 kilometers. Similar relations are obtained for other planets too. It may be supposed that the inclusion of these effects can help to explain the observable anomalous acceleration of spacecrafts Pioneer 10 and 11.

  12. An evaluation of chemical screening test kits for lead in paint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oglesby, L.S.

    1996-04-01

    The Residential Lead-Based Paint Hazard Reduction Act (Title X) requires abatement and management of lead-based paint. The purpose of this study was to evaluate three chemical screening test kits using materials and methods from one study and subjecting the results to the statistical analysis of another. The three kits were used to predict the presence of lead in paint at ten weight concentrations from 0.04 to 3.97%. Paint was applied to four wood boards yielding a sample size of 40. Four boards were painted with lead-free paint and used as blanks. All of the boards were tested with the three test kits by an untrained individual having no knowledge of the actual lead content. Sensitivity, specificity, and false positive and negative rates were calculated for the test kit results. The manufactures` detection limits, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.80, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.42, false positive ranged from 0 to 58%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. At the 0.5% Federal threshold level, the observed sensitivity ranged from 1.00 to 0.94, specificity ranged from 1.00 to 0.5, false positives ranged from 0 to 11.1%, and false negatives ranged from 0 to 20%. The observed false positive and false negative rates for all three kits were found to be significantly lower than those reported in a previous study. These results indicate that the kits perform very well at the Federal threshold, with two of the kits having false negative rates below 12.5% and false positive rates of 3.13%. These results indicate that these two kits would probably be acceptable screening tests for lead in paint.

  13. Acoustic transfer of protein crystals from agarose pedestals to micromeshes for high-throughput screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuttitta, Christina M.; Ericson, Daniel L.; Scalia, Alexander; Roessler, Christian G.; Teplitsky, Ella; Joshi, Karan; Campos, Olven; Agarwal, Rakhi; Allaire, Marc; Orville, Allen M.; Sweet, Robert M.; Soares, Alexei S.

    2015-01-01

    An acoustic high-throughput screening method is described for harvesting protein crystals and combining the protein crystals with chemicals such as a fragment library. Acoustic droplet ejection (ADE) is an emerging technology with broad applications in serial crystallography such as growing, improving and manipulating protein crystals. One application of this technology is to gently transfer crystals onto MiTeGen micromeshes with minimal solvent. Once mounted on a micromesh, each crystal can be combined with different chemicals such as crystal-improving additives or a fragment library. Acoustic crystal mounting is fast (2.33 transfers s{sup ?1}) and all transfers occur in a sealed environment that is in vapor equilibrium with the mother liquor. Here, a system is presented to retain crystals near the ejection point and away from the inaccessible dead volume at the bottom of the well by placing the crystals on a concave agarose pedestal (CAP) with the same chemical composition as the crystal mother liquor. The bowl-shaped CAP is impenetrable to crystals. Consequently, gravity will gently move the crystals into the optimal location for acoustic ejection. It is demonstrated that an agarose pedestal of this type is compatible with most commercially available crystallization conditions and that protein crystals are readily transferred from the agarose pedestal onto micromeshes with no loss in diffraction quality. It is also shown that crystals can be grown directly on CAPs, which avoids the need to transfer the crystals from the hanging drop to a CAP. This technology has been used to combine thermolysin and lysozyme crystals with an assortment of anomalously scattering heavy atoms. The results point towards a fast nanolitre method for crystal mounting and high-throughput screening.

  14. Use of Time-Aggregated Data in Economic Screening Analyses of Combined Heat and Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hudson II, Carl Randy

    2004-09-01

    Combined heat and power (CHP) projects (also known as cogeneration projects) usually undergo a series of assessments and viability checks before any commitment is made. A screening analysis, with electrical and thermal loads characterized on an annual basis, may be performed initially to quickly determine the economic viability of the proposed project. Screening analyses using time-aggregated data do not reflect several critical cost influences, however. Seasonal and diurnal variations in electrical and thermal loads, as well as time-of-use utility pricing structures, can have a dramatic impact on the economics. A more accurate economic assessment requires additional detailed data on electrical and thermal demand (e.g., hourly load data), which may not be readily available for the specific facility under study. Recent developments in CHP evaluation tools, however, can generate the needed hourly data through the use of historical data libraries and building simulation. This article utilizes model-generated hourly load data for four potential CHP applications and compares the calculated cost savings of a CHP system when evaluated on a time-aggregated (i.e., annual) basis to the savings when evaluated on an hour-by-hour basis. It is observed that the simple, aggregated analysis forecasts much greater savings (i.e., greater economic viability) than the more detailed hourly analysis. The findings confirm that the simpler tool produces results with a much more optimistic outlook, which, if taken by itself, might lead to erroneous project decisions. The more rigorous approach, being more reflective of actual requirements and conditions, presents a more accurate economic comparison of the alternatives, which, in turn, leads to better decision risk management.

  15. Secondary Waste Form Screening Test Results—Cast Stone and Alkali Alumino-Silicate Geopolymer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Cantrell, Kirk J.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Parker, Kent E.; Um, Wooyong; Valenta, Michelle M.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2010-06-28

    PNNL is conducting screening tests on the candidate waste forms to provide a basis for comparison and to resolve the formulation and data needs identified in the literature review. This report documents the screening test results on the Cast Stone cementitious waste form and the Geopolymer waste form. Test results suggest that both the Cast Stone and Geopolymer appear to be viable waste forms for the solidification of the secondary liquid wastes to be treated in the ETF. The diffusivity for technetium from the Cast Stone monoliths was in the range of 1.2 × 10-11 to 2.3 × 10-13 cm2/s during the 63 days of testing. The diffusivity for technetium from the Geopolymer was in the range of 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s through the 63 days of the test. These values compare with a target of 1 × 10-9 cm2/s or less. The Geopolymer continues to show some fabrication issues with the diffusivities ranging from 1.7 × 10-10 to 3.8 × 10-12 cm2/s for the better-performing batch to from 1.2 × 10-9 to 1.8 × 10-11 cm2/s for the poorer-performing batch. In the future more comprehensive and longer term performance testing will be conducted, to further evaluate whether or not these waste forms will meet the regulation and performance criteria needed to cost-effectively dispose of secondary wastes.

  16. Rationale and design of the ADDITION-Leicester study, a systematic screening programme and Randomised Controlled Trial of multi-factorial cardiovascular risk intervention in people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus detected by screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, D. R.; Khunti, K.; Srinivasan, B.; Gray, L. J.; Taub, N.; Campbell, S.; Barnett, J.; Henson, J.; Hiles, S.; Farooqi, A.; Griffin, Simon J.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Davies, M. J.

    2010-02-19

    thousand (30% of South Asian ethnic origin) volunteers over three years will be recruited to identify a screen-detected T2DM cohort (n = 285) powered to detected a 6% relative difference (80% power, alpha 0.05) between treatment groups at one year...

  17. Following up on a work order The main screen of the customer portal lists all work orders you've submitted, with most recent

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    1 Following up on a work order The main screen of the customer portal lists all work orders you: On the main screen, find your work order and look under the "Status" column. 2. Send a message about a work order: On the main page, right-click the appropriate work order, and select "New Communication" from

  18. 15.02.99.Q0.01 Export Control Screening of TAMUQ Personnel Actions and Requests for Authorization for Visiting Scholars Page 1 of 5

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    15.02.99.Q0.01 Export Control Screening of TAMUQ Personnel Actions and Requests for Authorization for Visiting Scholars Page 1 of 5 STANDARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE 15.02.99.Q0.01 Export Control Screening of Texas A&M University to comply with United States export control laws and regulations including, without

  19. Self-screening of the quantum confined Stark effect by the polarization induced bulk charges in the quantum barriers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    GaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) grown along the polar orientations significantly suffer from the quantum avoiding the electric field in the quantum wells. Consequently, the optical output power and the external quantum efficiency are substantially improved for the LEDs. The ability to self-screen the QCSE using

  20. Francois Glineur, Topics in Convex Optimization First Prev Next Last Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Topics in Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glineur, François

    Fran¸cois Glineur, Topics in Convex Optimization ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Topics in Convex Optimization: Interior-Point Methods, Conic Duality and Approximations Fran January 11, 2001 T. Terlaky #12;Fran¸cois Glineur, Topics in Convex Optimization ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last

  1. Francois Glineur, Topics in Convex Optimization First Prev Next Last Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Topics in Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glineur, François

    Fran¸cois Glineur, Topics in Convex Optimization ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Topics in Convex Optimization: Interior-Point Methods, Conic Duality and Approximations Fran January 26, 2001 T. Terlaky #12;Fran¸cois Glineur, Topics in Convex Optimization ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last

  2. Fluorescence energy transfer efficiency in labeled yeast cytochrome c: a rapid screen for ion biocompatibility in aqueous ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, Sheila N; Zhao, Hua; Pandey, Siddharth; Heller, William T; Bright, Frank; Baker, Gary A

    2011-01-01

    A fluorescence energy transfer de-quenching assay was implemented to follow the equilibrium unfolding behaviour of site-specific tetramethylrhodamine-labelled yeast cytochrome c in aqueous ionic liquid solutions; additionally, this approach offers the prospect of naked eye screening for biocompatible ion combinations in hydrated ionic liquids.

  3. 19.4% -EFFICIENT LARGE AREA REAR-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED SILICON SOLAR CELLS T. Dullweber*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -printed cells by 0.2% [6,7]. The electrical and optical losses of the full- area Al-BSF at the rear side can19.4% -EFFICIENT LARGE AREA REAR-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED SILICON SOLAR CELLS T. Dullweber*1 , S implemented a baseline solar cell process based on today's standard industrially manufactured silicon solar

  4. Supplementary Information for Friedman and Perrimon, "A functional genomic RNAi screen for novel regulators of RTK and ERK signaling," 2006.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Higgins, Darren

    regulators of RTK and ERK signaling," 2006. Supplementary Methods Genome-wide RNAi Screening The genome of S2R+ cells overexpressing cDNAs for the Drosophila ERK ortholog Rolled, tagged at its CUAST and expressed under actinGal4 control. We observed similar kinetics of ERK activation in response to stimulus

  5. Staring at a computer screen for hours at a time can result in fatigue, eyestrain, headaches and other problems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    and clarity. The computer should be placed at right angles to any windows. Light from windows either aheadStaring at a computer screen for hours at a time can result in fatigue, eyestrain, headaches make computer use more comfortable for your eyes. These are signs of eye problems that can be caused

  6. Proppant transport in hydraulic fracturing: Crack tip screen-out in KGD and P3D models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peirce, Anthony

    Proppant transport in hydraulic fracturing: Crack tip screen-out in KGD and P3D models E.V. Dontsov February 2015 Available online 14 March 2015 Keywords: Hydraulic fracturing Proppant transport Numerical, the equations that govern the propagation of hydraulic fractures and the proppant transport inside them

  7. J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 137 (2006) 103109 Charge screening effects on filament dynamics in xanthan gum solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smolka, Linda B.

    2006-01-01

    J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 137 (2006) 103­109 Charge screening effects on filament dynamics January 2006 Abstract We experimentally investigate the filament dynamics of non-Newtonian drops falling as an order of magnitude with the addition of KCl. The qualitative dynamics of bead formation on the filament

  8. A Cell-Based High-Throughput Screen for Novel Chemical Inducers of Fetal Hemoglobin for Treatment of Hemoglobinopathies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peterson, Kenneth R.; Costa, Flá via C.; Fedosyuk, Halyna; Neades, Renee Y.; Chazelle, Allen M.; Zelenchuk, Lesya; Fonteles, Andrea H.; Dalal, Parmita; Roy, Anuradha; Chaguturu, Rathnam; Li, Biaoru; Pace, Betty S.

    2014-09-16

    , with minimal off-target effects, continues to be an elusive goal. One hurdle has been an assay amenable to a high-throughput screen (HTS) of chemicals that displays a robust c-globin off-on switch to identify potential lead compounds. Assay systems developed...

  9. Quantum Mechanical Energy-Based Screening of Combinatorially Generated Library of Tautomers. TauTGen: A Tautomer Generator Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Jack

    Quantum Mechanical Energy-Based Screening of Combinatorially Generated Library of Tautomers. TauTGen: A Tautomer Generator Program Maciej Haran´czyk, and Maciej Gutowski*,,,§ Department of Chemistry, University of finding low-energy tautomers of a molecule. The procedure consists of (i) combinatorial generation

  10. Laser direct writing of phosphor screens for high-definition displays J. M. Fitz-Gerald,a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Laser direct writing of phosphor screens for high-definition displays J. M. Fitz-Gerald,a) A. Pique was performed in air at room temperature. Cathodoluminescent measurements showed that the luminous efficiency that the process is carried out near the energy threshold to remove only the film mate- rial and not to damage

  11. Inhibitor of Ovarian Cancer Cells Growth by Virtual Screening: A New Thiazole Derivative Targeting Human Thymidylate Synthase

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroud, Robert

    Inhibitor of Ovarian Cancer Cells Growth by Virtual Screening: A New Thiazole Derivative Targeting-type inhibition pattern, with a Ki of 1.3 M and activity against ovarian cancer cell lines with the same potency ovarian cancer cells. INTRODUCTION The only biosynthetic pathway for 2-deoxythymidine 5- monophosphate

  12. Measurement of Screening Enhancement to Nuclear Reaction Rates using a Strongly Magnetized and Strongly Correlated Non-neutral Plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    Measurement of Screening Enhancement to Nuclear Reaction Rates using a Strongly Magnetized) An analogy is uncovered between the nuclear reaction rate in a dense neutral plasma and the energy, like nuclear energy, is released only through rare close collisions between charges. The probability

  13. Methods for transforming and expression screening of filamentous fungal cells with a DNA library

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Teter, Sarah; Lamsa, Michael; Cherry, Joel; Ward, Connie

    2015-06-02

    The present invention relates to methods for expression screening of filamentous fungal transformants, comprising: (a) isolating single colony transformants of a DNA library introduced into E. coli; (b) preparing DNA from each of the single colony E. coli transformants; (c) introducing a sample of each of the DNA preparations of step (b) into separate suspensions of protoplasts of a filamentous fungus to obtain transformants thereof, wherein each transformant contains one or more copies of an individual polynucleotide from the DNA library; (d) growing the individual filamentous fungal transformants of step (c) on selective growth medium, thereby permitting growth of the filamentous fungal transformants, while suppressing growth of untransformed filamentous fungi; and (e) measuring activity or a property of each polypeptide encoded by the individual polynucleotides. The present invention also relates to isolated polynucleotides encoding polypeptides of interest obtained by such methods, to nucleic acid constructs, expression vectors, and recombinant host cells comprising the isolated polynucleotides, and to methods of producing the polypeptides encoded by the isolated polynucleotides.

  14. Screening Analysis for EPACT-Covered Commercial HVAC and Water-Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaram, Sriram; Armstrong, Peter R; Belzer, David B; Gaines, Suzanne C; Hadley, Donald L; Smith, David L; Winiarski, David W

    2000-04-25

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) as amended by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT) establishes that the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) regulate efficiency levels of certain categories of commercial heating, cooling, and water-heating equipment. EPACT establishes the initial minimum efficiency levels for products falling under these categories, based on ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-1989 requirements. EPCA states that, if ASHRAE amends Standard 90.1-1989 efficiency levels, then DOE must establish an amended uniform national manufacturing standard at the minimum level specified in the amended Standard 90.1 and that it can establish higher efficiency levels if they would result in significant additional energy savings. 011Standard 90.1-1999 increases minimum efficiency levels for some of the equipment categories covered by EPCA 92. DOE conducted a screening analysis to determine the energy-savings potential for EPACT-covered products meet and exceeding these levels. This paper describes the methodology, data assumptions, and results of the analysis.

  15. Hanford ferrocyanide waste chemistry and reactivity preliminary catalyst and initiator screening studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheele, R.D.; Bryan, S.A.; Johnston, J.W.; Tingey, J.M.; Burger, L.L.; Hallen, R.T.

    1992-05-01

    During the 1950s, ferrocyanide was used to scavenge radiocesium from aqueous nitrate-containing Hanford wastes. During the production of defense materials and while these wastes were stored in high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, some of these wastes were likely mixed with other waste constituents and materials. Recently, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) was commissioned by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to investigate the chemical reactivity of these ferrocyanide-bearing wastes. Because of known or potential thermal reactivity hazards associated with ferrocyanide- and nitrate-bearing wastes, and because of the potential for different materials to act as catalysts or initiators of the reactions about which there is concern, we at PNL have begun investigating the effects of the other potential waste constituents. This report presents the results of a preliminary screening study to identify classes of materials that might be in the Hanford high-level waste tanks and that could accelerate or reduce the starting temperature of the reaction(s) of concern. We plan to use the resulted of this study to determine which materials or class of materials merit additional research.

  16. Environmental fate and transport of chemical signatures from buried landmines -- Screening model formulation and initial simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelan, J.M.; Webb, S.W.

    1997-06-01

    The fate and transport of chemical signature molecules that emanate from buried landmines is strongly influenced by physical chemical properties and by environmental conditions of the specific chemical compounds. Published data have been evaluated as the input parameters that are used in the simulation of the fate and transport processes. A one-dimensional model developed for screening agricultural pesticides was modified and used to simulate the appearance of a surface flux above a buried landmine, estimate the subsurface total concentration, and show the phase specific concentrations at the ground surface. The physical chemical properties of TNT cause a majority of the mass released to the soil system to be bound to the solid phase soil particles. The majority of the transport occurs in the liquid phase with diffusion and evaporation driven advection of soil water as the primary mechanisms for the flux to the ground surface. The simulations provided herein should only be used for initial conceptual designs of chemical pre-concentration subsystems or complete detection systems. The physical processes modeled required necessary simplifying assumptions to allow for analytical solutions. Emerging numerical simulation tools will soon be available that should provide more realistic estimates that can be used to predict the success of landmine chemical detection surveys based on knowledge of the chemical and soil properties, and environmental conditions where the mines are buried. Additional measurements of the chemical properties in soils are also needed before a fully predictive approach can be confidently applied.

  17. Identification of GPR65, a novel regulator of matrix metalloproteinases using high through-put screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hongbo; Chen, Xiaohong; Huang, Junwei [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Deng, Weiwei [Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China)] [Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Zhong, Qi [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China); Yue, Changli [Department of Pathology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China)] [Department of Pathology, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing (China); Wang, Pingzhang, E-mail: wangpzh@bjmu.edu.cn [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health (China) [Department of Immunology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University Health Science Center, Peking University Center for Human Disease Genomics, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health (China); Functional Genomics Group, Chinese National Human Genome Center (CHGB) at Beijing (China); Huang, Zhigang, E-mail: enthuangzhigang@sohu.com [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China)] [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing Tongren Hospital, Capital Medical University, Key Laboratory of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Beijing (China)

    2013-06-21

    Highlights: •A novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors was defined. •GPR65 was identified to induce the MMP3 expression. •GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. •AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. •GPR65 overexpression can accelerate the invision of A549 cells. -- Abstract: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are over-expressed in nearly all cancers. To study novel regulatory factors of MMP expression in head and neck cancer (HNC), we screened a total of 636 candidate genes encoding putative human transmembrane proteins using MMP promoter reporter in a dual luciferase assay system. Three genes GPR65, AXL and TNFRSF10B dramatically activated the induction of MMP3 expression. The induction of MMP expression by GPR65 was further confirmed in A549 and/or FaDu cells. GPR65 mediated MMP induction under acidic conditions. The AP-1 binding site in MMP3 promoter was crucial for MMP3 induction. Moreover, the A549 cells infected by recombinant adenovirus of GPR65 showed accelerated cell invasion. In conclusion, we validate that GPR65 is vital regulatory genes upstream of MMP3, and define a novel mechanism of MMP3 regulation by proton-sensing G-protein-coupled receptors.

  18. An AdS/CFT Calculation of Screening in a Hot Wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong Liu; Krishna Rajagopal; Urs Achim Wiedemann

    2006-12-11

    One of the challenges in relating experimental measurements of the suppression in the number of J/\\psi mesons produced in heavy ion collisions to lattice QCD calculations is that whereas the lattice calculations treat J/\\psi mesons at rest, in a heavy ion collision a c\\bar c pair can have a significant velocity with respect to the hot fluid produced in the collision. The putative J/\\psi finds itself in a hot wind. We present the first rigorous non-perturbative calculation of the consequences of a wind velocity v on the screening length L_s for a heavy quark-antiquark pair in hot N=4 supersymmetric QCD. We find L_s(v,T) = f(v)[1-v^2]^{1/4}/\\pi T with f(v) only mildly dependent on v and the wind direction. This L_s(v,T)\\sim L_s(0,T)/\\sqrt{\\gamma} velocity scaling, if realized in QCD, provides a significant additional source of J/\\Psi suppression at transverse momenta which are high but within experimental reach.

  19. Source rock screening studies of Ordovician Maquoketa shale in western Illinois

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Autrey, A.; Crockett, J.E.; Dickerson, D.R.; Oltz, D.F.; Seyler, B.J.; Warren, R.

    1987-09-01

    Rock-Eval (pyrolysis) studies of Ordovician Maquoketa Shale samples (cuttings and cores) from the shallow subsurface (500-800 ft deep) in western Illinois indicate that facies within the Maquoketa have potential as hydrocarbon source rocks. Dark, presumably organic-rich zones within the Maquoketa Shale were selected and analyzed for total organic carbon (TOC), Rock-Eval (pyrolysis), and bulk and clay mineralogy using x-ray diffraction. Preliminary results from six samples from Schuyler, McDonough, and Fulton Counties show TOC values ranging from 4.70% to as high as 12.90%. Rock-Eval parameters, measured by heating organic matter in an inert atmosphere, indicate source rock maturity and petroleum-generative potential. Screening studies, using the Rock-Eval process, describe very good source rock potential in facies of the Maquoketa Shale. Further studies at the Illinois State Geological Survey will expand on these preliminary results. This study complements a proposed exploration model in western Illinois and further suggests the possibility of source rocks on the flanks of the Illinois basin. Long-distance migration from more deeply buried effective source rocks in southern Illinois has been the traditional mechanism proposed for petroleum in basin-flank reservoirs. Localized source rocks can be an alternative to long-distance migration, and can expand the possibilities of basin-flank reservoirs, encouraging further exploration in these areas.

  20. Preparation and screening of crystalline zeolite and hydrothermally-synthesized materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2005-03-08

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.