Sample records for lignocellulose recalcitrance screening

  1. Advances in High Throughput Screening of Biomass Recalcitrance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turner, G. B.; Decker, S. R.; Tucker, M. P.; Law, C.; Doeppke, C.; Sykes, R. W.; Davis, M. F.; Ziebell, A.

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This was a poster displayed at the Symposium. Advances on previous high throughput screening of biomass recalcitrance methods have resulted in improved conversion and replicate precision. Changes in plate reactor metallurgy, improved preparation of control biomass, species-specific pretreatment conditions, and enzymatic hydrolysis parameters have reduced overall coefficients of variation to an average of 6% for sample replicates. These method changes have improved plate-to-plate variation of control biomass recalcitrance and improved confidence in sugar release differences between samples. With smaller errors plant researchers can have a higher degree of assurance more low recalcitrance candidates can be identified. Significant changes in plate reactor, control biomass preparation, pretreatment conditions and enzyme have significantly reduced sample and control replicate variability. Reactor plate metallurgy significantly impacts sugar release aluminum leaching into reaction during pretreatment degrades sugars and inhibits enzyme activity. Removal of starch and extractives significantly decreases control biomass variability. New enzyme formulations give more consistent and higher conversion levels, however required re-optimization for switchgrass. Pretreatment time and temperature (severity) should be adjusted to specific biomass types i.e. woody vs. herbaceous. Desalting of enzyme preps to remove low molecular weight stabilizers and improved conversion levels likely due to water activity impacts on enzyme structure and substrate interactions not attempted here due to need to continually desalt and validate precise enzyme concentration and activity.

  2. High Throughput Pretreatment and Enzyme Hydrolysis of Biomass: Screening Recalcitrance in Large Sample Populations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Decker, S. R.

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation on the execution of the first high-throughput thermochemical pretreatment/enzyme digestion pipeline for screening biomass for recalcitrance.

  3. High-Solids Enzymatic Saccharification Screening Method for Lignocellulosic Biomass (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roche, C. M.; Stickel, J. J.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to screen new biomass pretreatments and advanced enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions is key to developing economically viable lignocellulosic ethanol. While much research is being invested in developing pretreatment technologies and enzyme systems that will more efficiently convert cellulosic biomass to sugars, the current standard reactor vessel, a shake flask, that is used for screening enzymatic saccharification of cellulosic biomass is inadequate at high-solids conditions. Shake flasks do not provide adequate mixing at high solids conditions. In this work, a roller bottle reactor was identified as a small-scale high-solids saccharification reaction vessel, and a method was developed for use in screening both pretreated biomass and enzyme systems at process-relevant conditions. This new method addresses mixing issues observed in high-solids saccharifications. In addition, yield calculations from sugar concentrations on a mass basis were used to account for the two-phase nature of the saccharification slurry, which eliminates discontinuities in comparing high-solids to low-solids saccharifications that occur when using concentrations on a volume basis. The roller bottle reactors out-performed the shake flasks by 5% for an initial insoluble solids loading of 15% and 140% for an initial soluble solids loading of 30%. The reactor system and method was compared at bench and floor scales and determined to be scalable for initial insoluble solids loading in the range of 15% to 30%. Pretreatment and enzyme screening results indicate that mid severity pretreated biomass is more digestible than the low and high severity biomass and GC220 is a superior enzyme to Spezyme CP.

  4. Novel System for Recalcitrance Screening Will Reduce Biofuels Production Costs; The Spectrum of Clean Energy Innovation (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fact sheet describes a high-throughput screening process, developed at NREL, that enables researchers to screen a large variety of biomass feedstocks for traits that indicate they would easily convert to fermentable sugars.

  5. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ingram, Lonnie O. (Gainesville, FL); Wood, Brent E. (Gainesville, FL)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  6. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Kadam, Kiran L. (Golden, CO); Hsu, Teh-An (Golden, CO); Philippidis, George P. (Highlands Ranch, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions.

  7. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Kadam, Kiran L. (Golden, CO); Hsu, Teh-An (Golden, CO); Philippidis, George P. (Highlands Ranch, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions.

  8. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Kadam, Kiran L. (Golden, CO); Hsu, Teh-An (Golden, CO); Philippidis, George P. (Highlands Ranch, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions.

  9. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, R.W.; Kadam, K.L.; Hsu, T.A.; Philippidis, G.P.; Wyman, C.E.

    1995-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions. 7 figs.

  10. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, R.W.; Kadam, K.L.; Hsu, T.A.; Philippidis, G.P.; Wyman, C.E.

    1996-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions. 7 figs.

  11. Prehydrolysis of lignocellulose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, R.W.; Kadam, K.L.; Hsu, T.A.; Philippidis, G.P.; Wyman, C.E.

    1998-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to the prehydrolysis of lignocellulose by passing an acidic or alkaline solution through solid lignocellulosic particles with removal of soluble components as they are formed. The technique permits a less severe combination of pH, temperature and time than conventional prehydrolysis. Furthermore, greater extraction of both hemicellulose and lignin occurs simultaneously in the same reactor and under the same conditions. 7 figs.

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: lignocellulosic biofuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    lignocellulosic biofuels Sandia Video Featured by DOE Bioenergy Technologies Office On December 10, 2014, in Biofuels, Biomass, Capabilities, Energy, Facilities, JBEI, News, News &...

  13. Methods for degrading lignocellulosic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlasenko, Elena (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Xu, Feng (Davis, CA)

    2011-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading a lignocellulosic material, comprising: treating the lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying a lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant; (b) fermenting the saccharified lignocellulosic material of step (a) with one or more fermenting microorganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  14. Methods for degrading lignocellulosic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vlasenko, Elena (Davis, CA); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Xu, Feng (Davis, CA)

    2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to methods for degrading a lignocellulosic material, comprising: treating the lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant. The present invention also relates to methods for producing an organic substance, comprising: (a) saccharifying a lignocellulosic material with an effective amount of one or more cellulolytic enzymes in the presence of at least one surfactant selected from the group consisting of a secondary alcohol ethoxylate, fatty alcohol ethoxylate, nonylphenol ethoxylate, tridecyl ethoxylate, and polyoxyethylene ether, wherein the presence of the surfactant increases the degradation of lignocellulosic material compared to the absence of the surfactant; (b) fermenting the saccharified lignocellulosic material of step (a) with one or more fermentating microoganisms; and (c) recovering the organic substance from the fermentation.

  15. Natural attenuation: Chlorinated and recalcitrant compounds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Natural, or intrinsic, attenuation is an increasingly important component of site closure strategy. At first maligned as a do-nothing alternative, natural attenuation is now being recognized as a legitimate approach that can supplement and sometimes even supplant more costly approaches. Having gained more widespread acceptance as an option at hydrocarbon-contaminated sites, natural attenuation is now beginning to emerge as an option for sites contaminated with chlorinated solvents and other recalcitrant compounds such as MTBE. This book brings together the latest research and field applications, with chapters covering field characterization and monitoring, transformation processes, natural attenuation of MTBE, and a number of natural attenuation case studies.

  16. Screening

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Screening is typically performed by an outside party or an independent renewable energy expert or team. It is a review of the possible technology options that identifies dead-ends and further...

  17. Abiotic immobilization/detoxification of recalcitrant organics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whelan, G. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Sims, R.C. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (USA))

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In contrast to many remedial techniques that simply transfer hazardous wastes from one part of the environment to another (e.g., off-site landfilling), in situ restoration may offer a safe and cost-effective solution through transformation (to less hazardous products) or destruction of recalcitrant organics. Currently, the US Environmental Protection Agency and US Department of Energy are encouraging research that addresses the development of innovative alternatives for hazardous-waste control. One such alternative is biotic and abiotic immobilization and detoxification of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PNAs) as associated with the soil humification process. This paper discusses (1) the possibility of using abiotic catalysis (with manganese dioxide) to polymerize organic substances; (2) aspects associated with the thermodynamics and kinetics of the process, and (3) a simple model upon which analyses may be based. 36 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cellulosic biomass to renewable fuels is a plant’sof lignocellulosic biomass to renewable fuels and chemicalsof lignocellulosic biomass to renewable fuels is the plants’

  19. An Index-Based Approach to Assessing Recalcitrance and Soil Carbon Sequestration Potential of Engineered Black Carbons (Biochars)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, Omar R.; Kuo, Li-Jung; Zimmerman, Andrew R.; Louchouarn, Patrick; Amonette, James E.; Herbert, Bruce

    2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability of engineered black carbons (or biochars) to resist abiotic and, or biotic degradation (herein referred to as recalcitrance) is crucial to their successful deployment as a soil carbon sequestration strategy. A new recalcitrance index, the R{sub 50}, for assessing biochar quality for carbon sequestration is proposed. The R{sub 50} is based on the relative thermal stability of a given biochar to that of graphite and was developed and evaluated with a variety of biochars (n = 59), and soot-like black carbons. Comparison of R{sub 50}, with biochar physicochemical properties and biochar-C mineralization revealed the existence of a quantifiable relationship between R{sub 50} and biochar recalcitrance. As presented here, the R{sub 50} is immediately applicable to pre-land application screening of biochars into Class A (R{sub 50} {>=} 0.70), Class B (0.50 {<=} R{sub 50} < 0.70) or Class C (R{sub 50} < 0.50) recalcitrance/carbon sequestration classes. Class A and Class C biochars would have carbon sequestration potential comparable to soot/graphite and uncharred plant biomass, respectively, while Class B biochars would have intermediate carbon sequestration potential. We believe that the coupling of the R{sub 50}, to an index-based degradation, and an economic model could provide a suitable framework in which to comprehensively assess soil carbon sequestration in biochars.

  20. Preprocessing Moist Lignocellulosic Biomass for Biorefinery Feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neal Yancey; Christopher T. Wright; Craig Conner; J. Richard Hess

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass preprocessing is one of the primary operations in the feedstock assembly system of a lignocellulosic biorefinery. Preprocessing is generally accomplished using industrial grinders to format biomass materials into a suitable biorefinery feedstock for conversion to ethanol and other bioproducts. Many factors affect machine efficiency and the physical characteristics of preprocessed biomass. For example, moisture content of the biomass as received from the point of production has a significant impact on overall system efficiency and can significantly affect the characteristics (particle size distribution, flowability, storability, etc.) of the size-reduced biomass. Many different grinder configurations are available on the market, each with advantages under specific conditions. Ultimately, the capacity and/or efficiency of the grinding process can be enhanced by selecting the grinder configuration that optimizes grinder performance based on moisture content and screen size. This paper discusses the relationships of biomass moisture with respect to preprocessing system performance and product physical characteristics and compares data obtained on corn stover, switchgrass, and wheat straw as model feedstocks during Vermeer HG 200 grinder testing. During the tests, grinder screen configuration and biomass moisture content were varied and tested to provide a better understanding of their relative impact on machine performance and the resulting feedstock physical characteristics and uniformity relative to each crop tested.

  1. Leucoagaricus gongylophorus Produces Diverse Enzymes for the Degradation of Recalcitrant Plant Polymers in Leaf-Cutter Ant Fungus Gardens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aylward, Frank O.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Tringe, Susannah G.; Teiling, Clotilde; Tremmel, Daniel; Moeller, Joseph; Scott, Jarrod J.; Barry, Kerrie W.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Malfatti, Stephanie; Monroe, Matthew E.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Goodwin, Lynne A.; Smith, Richard D.; Weinstock, George; Gerardo, Nicole; Suen, Garret; Lipton, Mary S.; Currie, Cameron R.

    2013-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Plants represent a large reservoir of organic carbon comprised largely of recalcitrant polymers that most metazoans are unable to deconstruct. Many herbivores gain access to nutrients in this material indirectly by associating with microbial symbionts, and leaf-cutter ants are a paradigmatic example. These ants use fresh foliar biomass as manure to cultivate fungus gardens composed primarily of Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, a basidiomycetous symbiont that produces specialized hyphal swellings that serve as a food source for the host ant colony. Although leaf-cutter ants are conspicuous herbivores that contribute substantially to carbon turnover in Neotropical ecosystems, the process through which plant biomass is degraded in their fungus gardens is not well understood. Here we present the first draft genome of L. gongylophorus, and using genomic, metaproteomic, and phylogenetic tools we investigate its role in lignocellulose degradation in the fungus gardens of both Atta cephalotes and Acromyrmex echinatior leaf-cutter ants. We show that L. gongylophorus produces a diversity of lignocellulases in fungus gardens, and is likely the primary driver of plant biomass degradation in these ecosystems. We also show that this fungus produces distinct sets of lignocellulases throughout the different stages of biomass degradation, including numerous cellulases and laccases that may be playing an important but previously uncharacterized role in lignocellulose degradation. Our study provides a comprehensive analysis of plant biomass degradation in leaf-cutter ant fungus gardens and provides insight into the molecular dynamics underlying the symbiosis between these dominant herbivores and their obligate fungal cultivar.

  2. Low Solids Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Solids Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: February 4, 2015 M. G. Resch, J. O. Baker, and S. R. Decker...

  3. Development of a Commerical Enzyme System for Lignocellulosic Biomass Saccharification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2011-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  4. RESEARCH Open Access Agave proves to be a low recalcitrant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    : Here, we report sugar release data from fungal enzymatic hydrolysis of non-pretreated and hydrothermally pretreated biomass that shows agave to be much less recalcitrant to deconstruction than poplar or switchgrass. In fact, non-pretreated agave has a sugar release five to eight times greater than that of poplar

  5. Diethylamine and ammonia pretreatment of lignocellulose 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holthus, Robert Earl

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes a process for pretreating bagasse with diethylamine to enhance lignocellulose reactivity. The bagasse was soaked in diethylamine for 1, 3, 6, 12 and 24 hour time intervals, and the pressure was released slowly. The treated...

  6. Supramolecular self-assembled chaos: polyphenolic lignin's barrier to cost-effective lignocellulosic biofuels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Achyuthan, Komandoor

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    thereby  cost-­? effective  biofuels  production.   PMID:  effective  lignocellulosic  biofuels.   Achyuthan  KE,  effective   lignocellulosic  biofuels.  Post-­?synthesis  

  7. Ethanol production with dilute acid hydrolysis using partially dried lignocellulosics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (Chesterfield, MO); Keller, Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Tucker, Melvin P. (Lakewood, CO)

    2003-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A process of converting lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol, comprising hydrolyzing lignocellulosic materials by subjecting dried lignocellulosic material in a reactor to a catalyst comprised of a dilute solution of a strong acid and a metal salt to lower the activation energy (i.e., the temperature) of cellulose hydrolysis and ultimately obtain higher sugar yields.

  8. Development of a commercial enzymes system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Manoj

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    DSM Innovation Inc., in its four year effort was able to evaluate and develop its in-house DSM fungal cellulolytic enzymes system to reach enzyme efficiency mandates set by DoE Biomass program MYPP goals. DSM enzyme cocktail is uniquely active at high temperature and acidic pH, offering many benefits and product differentiation in 2G bioethanol production. Under this project, strain and process development, ratio optimization of enzymes, protein and genetic engineering has led to multitudes of improvement in productivity and efficiency making development of a commercial enzyme system for lignocellulosic biomass saccharification viable. DSM is continuing further improvement by additional biodiversity screening, protein engineering and overexpression of enzymes to continue to further lower the cost of enzymes for saccharification of biomass.

  9. Simultaneous consumption of pentose and hexose sugars: an optimal microbial phenotype for efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jae-Han; Block, David E.; Mills, David A.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bacteria for lignocellulosic biomass utilization CCR forfermentation of lignocellulosic biomass Jae-Han Kim & DavidAbstract Lignocellulosic biomass is an attractive carbon

  10. Catalytic fast pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Changjun; Wang, Huamin; Karim, Ayman M.; Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Increasing energy demand, especially in the transportation sector, and soaring CO2 emissions necessitate the exploitation of renewable sources of energy. Despite the large variety of new energy Q3 carriers, liquid hydrocarbon still appears to be the most attractive and feasible form of transportation fuel taking into account the energy density, stability and existing infrastructure. Biomass is an abundant, renewable source of energy; however, utilizing it in a cost-effective way is still a substantial challenge. Lignocellulose is composed of three major biopolymers, namely cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. Fast pyrolysis of biomass is recognized as an efficient and feasible process to selectively convert lignocellulose into a liquid fuel—bio-oil. However bio-oil from fast pyrolysis contains a large amount of oxygen, distributed in hundreds of oxygenates. These oxygenates are the cause of many negative properties, such as low heating values, high corrosiveness, high viscosity, and instability; they also greatly Q4 limit the application of bio-oil particularly as transportation fuel. Hydrocarbons derived from biomass are most attractive because of their high energy density and compatibility with the existing infrastructure. Thus, converting lignocellulose into transportation fuels via catalytic fast pyrolysis has attracted much attention. Many studies related to catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass have been published. The main challenge of this process is the development of active and stable catalysts that can deal with a large variety of decomposition intermediates from lignocellulose. This review starts with the current understanding of the chemistry in fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose and focuses on the development of catalysts in catalytic fast pyrolysis. Recent progress in the experimental studies on catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass is also summarized with the emphasis on bio-oil yields and quality.

  11. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (Lynd et al. , 1991;as well as superior biomass feedstocks be intelligentlyrecalcitrance for all biomass feedstocks. Consequently, more

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Process...

  13. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    * * * * June 2002 * NRELTP-510-32438 Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for...

  14. Hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Torget, Robert W. (Littleton, CO); Padukone, Nandan (Denver, CO); Hatzis, Christos (Denver, CO); Wyman, Charles E. (Lakewood, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-function process is described for the hydrolysis and fractionation of lignocellulosic biomass to separate hemicellulosic sugars from other biomass components such as extractives and proteins; a portion of the solubilized lignin; cellulose; glucose derived from cellulose; and insoluble lignin from said biomass comprising one or more of the following: optionally, as function 1, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing a lignocellulosic biomass material at a temperature of about 94 to about 160.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 120 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of extractives, lignin, and protein by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 2, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0, either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing either fresh biomass or the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 1 at a temperature of about 94-220.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of hemicellulosic sugars, semisoluble sugars and other compounds, and amorphous glucans by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; as function 3, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 2 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process; and as function 4, optionally, introducing a dilute acid of pH 1.0-5.0 either as virgin acid or an acidic stream from another function, into a continual shrinking bed reactor containing the partially fractionated lignocellulosic biomass material from function 3 at a temperature of about 180-280.degree. C. for a period of about 10 to about 60 minutes at a volumetric flow rate of about 1 to about 5 reactor volumes to effect solubilization of cellulosic sugars by keeping the solid to liquid ratio constant throughout the solubilization process.

  15. Fully Integrated Lignocellulosic Biorefinery with Onsite Production of Enzymes and Yeast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manoj Kumar, PhD

    2010-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulosic biomass is the most abundant, least expensive renewable natural biological resource for the production of biobased products and bioenergy is important for the sustainable development of human civilization in 21st century. For making the fermentable sugars from lignocellulosic biomass, a reduction in cellulase production cost, an improvement in cellulase performance, and an increase in sugar yields are all vital to reduce the processing costs of biorefineries. Improvements in specific cellulase activities for non-complexed cellulase mixtures can be implemented through cellulase engineering based on rational design or directed evolution for each cellulase component enzyme, as well as on the reconstitution of cellulase components. In this paper, we will provide DSM's efforts in cellulase research and developments and focus on limitations. Cellulase improvement strategies based on directed evolution using screening on relevant substrates, screening for higher thermal tolerance based on activity screening approaches such as continuous culture using insoluble cellulosic substrates as a powerful selection tool for enriching beneficial cellulase mutants from the large library. We will illustrate why and how thermostable cellulases are vital for economic delivery of bioproducts from cellulosic biomass using biochemical conversion approach.

  16. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1998-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is disclosed for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material. The apparatus consists of a tower bioreactor which has mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  17. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards of downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  18. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Quang A. (16458 W. 1st Ave., Golden, CO 80401)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets.

  19. Tower reactors for bioconversion of lignocellulosic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Q.A.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus is described for enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation of pretreated lignocellulosic material, in the form of a tower bioreactor, having mixers to achieve intermittent mixing of the material. Precise mixing of the material is important for effective heat and mass transfer requirements without damaging or denaturing the enzymes or fermenting microorganisms. The pretreated material, generally in the form of a slurry, is pumped through the bioreactor, either upwards or downwards, and is mixed periodically as it passes through the mixing zones where the mixers are located. For a thin slurry, alternate mixing can be achieved by a pumping loop which also serves as a heat transfer device. Additional heat transfer takes place through the reactor heat transfer jackets. 5 figs.

  20. Developing genome-enabled sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Developing genome-enabled sustainable lignocellulosic biofuels technologies Timothy Donohue a technically advanced biofuels industry that is economically & environmentally sustainable." [GLBRC Roadmap sugars, lignin content, etc.) Cellulosic Biofuels "Opportunities & Challenges" 5 #12;Variable Composition

  1. Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup

    Microfluidic Glycosyl Hydrolase Screening for Biomass-to-Biofuel Conversion Rajiv Bharadwaj such as cellulases and hemicellulases is a limiting and costly step in the conversion of biomass to biofuels. Lignocellulosic (LC) biomass is an abundant and potentially carbon-neutral resource for production of biofuels

  2. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    are less hydro- phobic (log Kow 3­5) and more water soluble than the high Mm PAHs; thus, they are fairly1461 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous, recalcitrant, and potentially carcinogenic pollutants. Plants and their associated rhizosphere microbes can promote PAH dissipation, offering

  3. Design and construction of modular genetic devices and the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barnard, Damian Kelly

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The enzymatic deconstruction of lignocellulosic plant biomass is performed by specialist microbial species. It is a ubiquitous process within nature and central to the global recycling of carbon and energy. Lignocellulose ...

  4. Fundamental study of structural features affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Li

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulose is a promising and valuable alternative energy source. Native lignocellulosic biomass has limited accessibility to cellulase enzyme due to structural features; therefore, pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to make biomass...

  5. Fundamental study of structural features affecting enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Li

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignocellulose is a promising and valuable alternative energy source. Native lignocellulosic biomass has limited accessibility to cellulase enzyme due to structural features; therefore, pretreatment is an essential prerequisite to make biomass...

  6. Sunflower as a biofuels crop: An analysis of lignocellulosic chemical properties

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, John M.

    Sunflower as a biofuels crop: An analysis of lignocellulosic chemical properties Angela L. Ziebell Lignocellulosic biofuel Lignin S/G-lignin Sugar content Pyrolysis Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry a b s t r a c sunflower with improved lignocellulosic biofuels traits, namely increased biomass, decreased lignin

  7. Production of Succinic Acid for Lignocellulosic Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davison, B.H.; Nghiem, J.

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) is to add and test new metabolic activities to existing microbial catalysts for the production of succinic acid from renewables. In particular, they seek to add to the existing organism the ability to utilize xylose efficiently and simultaneously with glucose in mixtures of sugars or to add succinic acid production to another strain and to test the value of this new capability for production of succinic acid from industrial lignocellulosic hydrolyasates. The Contractors and Participant are hereinafter jointly referred to as the 'Parties'. Research to date in succinic acid fermentation, separation and genetic engineering has resulted in a potentially economical process based on the use of an Escherichia coli strain AFP111 with suitable characteristics for the production of succinic acid from glucose. Economic analysis has shown that higher value commodity chemicals can be economically produced from succinic acid based on repliminary laboratory findings and predicted catalytic parameters. The initial target markets include succinic acid itself, succinate salts, esters and other derivatives for use as deicers, solvents and acidulants. The other commodity products from the succinic acid platform include 1,4-butanediol, {gamma}-butyrolactone, 2-pyrrolidinone and N-methyl pyrrolidinone. Current economic analyses indicate that this platform is competitive with existing petrochemical routes, especially for the succinic acid and derivatives. The report presents the planned CRADA objectives followed by the results. The results section has a combined biocatalysis and fermentation section and a commercialization section. This is a nonproprietary report; additional proprietary information may be made available subject to acceptance of the appropriate proprietary information agreements.

  8. Process Optimization of FT-Diesel Production from Lignocellulosic Switchgrass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    1 Process Optimization of FT-Diesel Production from Lignocellulosic Switchgrass Mariano Martín Abstract. In this paper we present the conceptual design for the optimization of FT-diesel production to increase the yield towards green diesel. The optimization of the system is formulated as an equation

  9. Investigating Commercial Cellulase Performances Toward Specific Biomass Recalcitrance Factors Using Reference Substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Bowden, Mark E.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three commercial cellulase preparations, Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, Dupont Accellerase® 1500, and DSM Cytolase CL, were evaluated for their hydrolytic activity using a set of reference biomass substrates with controlled substrate characteristics. It was found that lignin remains a significant recalcitrance factor to all the preparations, although different enzyme preparations respond to the inhibitory effect of lignin differently. Also, different types of biomass lignin can inhibit cellulose enzymes in different manners. Enhancing enzyme activity toward biomass fiber swelling is an area significantly contributing to potential improvement in cellulose performance. While the degree of polymerization of cellulose in the reference substrates did not present a major recalcitrance factor to Novozymes Cellic® Ctec2, cellulose crystallite has been shown to have a significant lower reactivity toward all enzyme mixtures. The presence of polysaccharide monooxygenases (PMOs) in Novozymes Ctec2 appears to enhance enzyme activity toward decrystallization of cellulose. This study demonstrated that reference substrates with controlled chemical and physical characteristics of structural features can be applied as an effective and practical strategy to identify cellulosic enzyme activities toward specific biomass recalcitrance factor(s) and provide specific targets for enzyme improvement.

  10. Lignin content in natural Populus variants affects sugar release

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    of sugars in high quantities at low costs from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks (4, 5

  11. FRACTIONATION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC BIOMASS FOR FUEL-GRADE ETHANOL PRODUCTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    F.D. Guffey; R.C. Wingerson

    2002-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PureVision Technology, Inc. (PureVision) of Fort Lupton, Colorado is developing a process for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuel-grade ethanol and specialty chemicals in order to enhance national energy security, rural economies, and environmental quality. Lignocellulosic-containing plants are those types of biomass that include wood, agricultural residues, and paper wastes. Lignocellulose is composed of the biopolymers cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. Cellulose, a polymer of glucose, is the component in lignocellulose that has potential for the production of fuel-grade ethanol by direct fermentation of the glucose. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose and raw cellulose into glucose is hindered by the presence of lignin. The cellulase enzyme, which hydrolyzes cellulose to glucose, becomes irreversibly bound to lignin. This requires using the enzyme in reagent quantities rather than in catalytic concentration. The extensive use of this enzyme is expensive and adversely affects the economics of ethanol production. PureVision has approached this problem by developing a biomass fractionator to pretreat the lignocellulose to yield a highly pure cellulose fraction. The biomass fractionator is based on sequentially treating the biomass with hot water, hot alkaline solutions, and polishing the cellulose fraction with a wet alkaline oxidation step. In September 2001 PureVision and Western Research Institute (WRI) initiated a jointly sponsored research project with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate their pretreatment technology, develop an understanding of the chemistry, and provide the data required to design and fabricate a one- to two-ton/day pilot-scale unit. The efforts during the first year of this program completed the design, fabrication, and shakedown of a bench-scale reactor system and evaluated the fractionation of corn stover. The results from the evaluation of corn stover have shown that water hydrolysis prior to alkaline hydrolysis may be beneficial in removing hemicellulose and lignin from the feedstock. In addition, alkaline hydrolysis has been shown to remove a significant portion of the hemicellulose and lignin. The resulting cellulose can be exposed to a finishing step with wet alkaline oxidation to remove the remaining lignin. The final product is a highly pure cellulose fraction containing less than 1% of the native lignin with an overall yield in excess of 85% of the native cellulose. This report summarizes the results from the first year's effort to move the technology to commercialization.

  12. Flow-through biological conversion of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Herring, Christopher D.; Liu, Chaogang; Bardsley, John

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a process for biologically converting carbohydrates from lignocellulosic biomass comprising the steps of: suspending lignocellulosic biomass in a flow-through reactor, passing a reaction solution into the reactor, wherein the solution is absorbed into the biomass substrate and at least a portion of the solution migrates through said biomass substrate to a liquid reservoir, recirculating the reaction solution in the liquid reservoir at least once to be absorbed into and migrate through the biomass substrate again. The biological converting of the may involve hydrolyzing cellulose, hemicellulose, or a combination thereof to form oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof; fermenting oligosaccharides, monomelic sugars, or a combination thereof to produce ethanol, or a combination thereof. The process can further comprise removing the reaction solution and processing the solution to separate the ethanol produced from non-fermented solids.

  13. Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    Forest Biomass and Lignocellulosic Materials Forest-derived biopolymers lignin and cellulose of sustainable products such as nanocellulose and biocomposites from forest biomass; biorefining to develop high

  14. Pentose fermentation of normally toxic lignocellulose prehydrolysate with strain of Pichia stipitis yeast using air

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Jr., Fred A. (Lakewood, CO); Nguyen, Quang A. (Golden, CO)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis NPw9 (ATCC PTA-3717) useful for the production of ethanol using oxygen for growth while fermenting normally toxic lignocellulosic prehydrolysates.

  15. Understanding Free and Complexed Enzyme Mechanisms and Factors Contributing to Cell Wall Recalcitrance (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Resch, M.; Donohoe, B.; Katahira, R.; Ashutosh, M.; Beckham, G.; Himmel, M.; Decker, S.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fungal free enzymes and bacterial complexed cellulosomes deconstruct biomass using different physical mechanisms. Free enzymes, which typically contain a large proportion of GH7 cellobiohydrolase, diffuse throughout the substrate and hydrolyze primarily from the cellulose reducing end, resulting in 'sharpened' macrofibrils. In contrast, complexed cellulosomes contain a diverse array of carbohydrate binding modules and multiple catalytic specificities leading to delamination and physical peeling of the cellulose macrofibril structures. To investigate how cellulose structure contributes to recalcitrance, we compared the deconstruction of cellulose I, II, and III; using free and complexed enzyme systems. We also evaluated both systems on Clean Fractionation and alkaline pretreated biomass, which remove much of the lignin, to determine the impact on enzyme loading reduction. Free fungal enzymes demonstrated a swelling of the outer surface of the plant cell walls while removing localized disruptions, resulting in a smooth surface appearance. Cellulosomes produced cell wall surfaces with localized areas of disruption and little surface layer swelling. These studies contribute to the overall understanding of biomass recalcitrance and how combining different enzymatic paradigms may lead to the formulation of new enzyme cocktails to reduce the cost of producing sugars from plant cell wall carbohydrates.

  16. Development of Oxidative Lime Pretreatment and Shock Treatment to Produce Highly Digestible Lignocellulose for Biofuel and Ruminant Feed Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falls, Matthew David

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    highly controversial food vs. fuel debate. Because of its high abundance and relatively low cost, lignocellulosic biomass is a promising alternative feedstock for biofuel production; however, structural features of lignocellulose limit accessibility...

  17. 17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol: The Path to Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    17th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition 2009, Hamburg, Germany Lignocellulosic Ethanol of transport fuels from biomass is essential if the EU aspiration to substitute 10% of transport fuels investment in R&D in the US, Europe and Asia. The production of ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass

  18. Countercurrent Enzymatic Saccharification of Lignocellulosic Biomass and Improvements Over Batch Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zentay, Agustin Nicholas

    2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    of starchy biomass (e.g., corn), which competes with food. Using lignocellulose avoids competition with food; however, it is difficult to digest using traditional batch saccharification. This work investigates countercurrent saccharification as an alternative...

  19. On using rational enzyme redesign to improve enzyme-mediated microbial dehalogenation of recalcitrant substances in deep-subsurface environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ornstein, R.L.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Heavily halogenated hydrocarbons are one of the most prevalent classes of man-made recalcitrant environmental contaminants and often make their way into subsurface environments. Biodegradation of heavily chlorinated compounds in the deep subsurface often occurs at extremely slow rates because native enzymes of indigenous microbes are unable to efficiently metabolize such synthetic substances. Cost-effective engineering solutions do not exist for dealing with disperse and recalcitrant pollutants in the deep subsurface (i.e., ground water, soils, and sediments). Timely biodegradation of heavily chlorinated compounds in the deep subsurface may be best accomplished by rational redesign of appropriate enzymes that enhance the ability of indigenous microbes to metabolize these substances. The isozyme family cytochromes P450 are catalytically very robust and are found in all aerobic life forms and may be active in may anaerobes as well. The author is attempting to demonstrate proof-of-principle rational enzyme redesign of cytochromes P450 to enhance biodehalogenation.

  20. Preliminary Screening

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The first step in assessing renewable energy options is to conduct a preliminary screening to decide which technologies are worth investigating and which can be eliminated immediately. Preliminary...

  1. Current Challenges in Commercially Producing Biofuels from Lignocellulosic Biomass

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balan, Venkatesh

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biofuels that are produced from biobased materials are a good alternative to petroleum based fuels. They offer several benefits to society and the environment. Producing second generation biofuels is even more challenging than producing first generation biofuels due the complexity of the biomass and issues related to producing, harvesting, and transporting less dense biomass to centralized biorefineries. In addition to this logistic challenge, other challenges with respect to processing steps in converting biomass to liquid transportation fuel like pretreatment, hydrolysis, microbial fermentation, and fuel separation still exist and are discussed in this review. The possible coproducts that could be producedmore »in the biorefinery and their importance to reduce the processing cost of biofuel are discussed. About $1 billion was spent in the year 2012 by the government agencies in US to meet the mandate to replace 30% existing liquid transportation fuels by 2022 which is 36?billion gallons/year. Other countries in the world have set their own targets to replace petroleum fuel by biofuels. Because of the challenges listed in this review and lack of government policies to create the demand for biofuels, it may take more time for the lignocellulosic biofuels to hit the market place than previously projected.« less

  2. Comparison of Biological and Thermal (Pyrolysis) Pathways for Conversion of Lignocellulose to Biofuels 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imam, Tahmina 1983-

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    production from lignocellulosic feedstocks were compared. For biological conversions of sorghum, ethanol yield was improved using M81-E variety (0.072 g/g juice) over Umbrella (0.065 g/g juice) for first-generation biomass (sorghum juice), and 0.042 g...

  3. Membrane contactor/separator for an advanced ozone membrane reactor for treatment of recalcitrant organic pollutants in water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chan, Wai Kit, E-mail: kekyeung@ust.hk [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Joueet, Justine; Heng, Samuel; Yeung, King Lun [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Schrotter, Jean-Christophe [Water Research Center of Veolia, Anjou Recherche, Chemin de la Digue, BP 76. 78603, Maisons Laffitte, Cedex (France)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An advanced ozone membrane reactor that synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone gas, membrane contactor for pollutant adsorption and reaction, and membrane separator for clean water production is described. The membrane reactor represents an order of magnitude improvement over traditional semibatch reactor design and is capable of complete conversion of recalcitrant endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) in water at less than three minutes residence time. Coating the membrane contactor with alumina and hydrotalcite (Mg/Al=3) adsorbs and traps the organics in the reaction zone resulting in 30% increase of total organic carbon (TOC) removal. Large surface area coating that diffuses surface charges from adsorbed polar organic molecules is preferred as it reduces membrane polarization that is detrimental to separation. - Graphical abstract: Advanced ozone membrane reactor synergistically combines membrane distributor for ozone, membrane contactor for sorption and reaction and membrane separator for clean water production to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement in treatment performance compared to traditional ozone reactor. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Novel reactor using membranes for ozone distributor, reaction contactor and water separator. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Designed to achieve an order of magnitude enhancement over traditional reactor. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and hydrotalcite coatings capture and trap pollutants giving additional 30% TOC removal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High surface area coating prevents polarization and improves membrane separation and life.

  4. Plasma Screen Floating Mount

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Eakle, Robert F. (New Ellenton, SC); Pak, Donald J. (Martine, GA)

    2004-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A mounting system for a flat display screen, particularly a plasma display screen, suspends the screen separately in each of the x-, y- and z-directions. A series of frames located by linear bearings and isolated by springs and dampers allows separate controlled movement in each axis. The system enables the use of relatively larger display screens in vehicles in which plasma screen are subject to damage from vibration.

  5. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  6. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  7. Process for whole cell saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using a dual bioreactor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Jue (Okemos, MI); Okeke, Benedict (Montgomery, AL)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention describes a process for saccharification of lignocelluloses to sugars using whole microbial cells, which are enriched from cultures inoculated with paper mill waste water, wood processing waste and soil. A three-member bacterial consortium is selected as a potent microbial inocula and immobilized on inedible plant fibers for biomass saccharification. The present invention further relates the design of a dual bioreactor system, with various biocarriers for enzyme immobilization and repeated use. Sugars are continuously removed eliminating end-product inhibition and consumption by cell.

  8. Thermochemical Ethanol via Indirect Gasification and Mixed Alcohol Synthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartmentTest for PumpingThe FactsSynthesis of Lignocellulosic Biomass

  9. Development of Oxidative Lime Pretreatment and Shock Treatment to Produce Highly Digestible Lignocellulose for Biofuel and Ruminant Feed Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falls, Matthew David

    2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    enhanced the 72-h glucan digestibility of several promising biomass feedstocks: bagasse (74.0), corn stover (92.0), poplar wood (94.0), sorghum (71.8), and switchgrass (89.0). Highly digestible lignocellulose can also be used as ruminant animal feed. Shock...

  10. Over production of lignocellulosic enzymes of Coriolus versicolor by genetic engineering methodology. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, A.L.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project seeks to understand the biological and chemical processes involved in the secretion of the enzyme polyphenol oxidase (PPO) by the hyphae, the basic unit of the filamentous fungus Coriolus versicolor. These studies are made to determine rational strategies for enhanced secretion of PPO, both with the use of recombinant DNA techniques and without. This effort focuses on recombinant DNA techniques to enhance enzyme production. The major thrust of this project was two-fold: to mass produce C. versicolor tyrosinase (polyphenol oxidase) by genetic engineering as well as cultural manipulations; and to utilize PPO as a biocatalyst in the processing of lignocellulose as a renewable energy resource. In this study, the assessment of genomic and cDNA recombinant clones with regards to the overproduction of PPO continued. Further, immunocytochemical techniques were employed to assess the mechanism(s) involved in the secretion of PPO by the hyphae. Also, factors influencing PPO secretion were examined.

  11. Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidionycetes (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hibbett, David [Clark University] [Clark University

    2012-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

    David Hibbett from Clark University on "Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidiomycetes" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  12. Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidionycetes (JGI Seventh Annual User Meeting 2012: Genomics of Energy and Environment)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hibbett, David [Clark University

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    David Hibbett from Clark University on "Evolutionary Perspectives on Diversity of Lignocellulose Decay Mechanisms in Basidiomycetes" at the 7th Annual Genomics of Energy & Environment Meeting on March 21, 2012 in Walnut Creek, California.

  13. Final Report on Development of Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum for the conversion of lignocellulose to ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herring, Christopher D.; Kenealy, William R.; Shaw, A. Joe; Raman, Babu; Tschaplinski, Timothy J.; Brown, Steven D.; Davison, Brian H.; Covalla, Sean F.; Sillers, W. Ryan; Xu, Haowen; Tsakraklides, Vasiliki; Hogsett, David A.

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This project addressed the need for economical technology for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels, specifically the conversion of pretreated hardwood to ethanol. The technology developed is a set of strains of the bacterium Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum and an associated fermentation process for pretreated hardwood. Tools for genetic engineering and analysis of the organism were developed, including a markerless mutation method, a complete genome sequence and a set of gene expression profiles that show the activity of its genes under a variety of conditions relevant to lignocellulose conversion. Improved strains were generated by selection and genetic engineering to be able to produce higher amounts of ethanol (up to 70 g/L) and to be able to better tolerate inhibitory compounds from pretreated hardwood. Analysis of these strains has generated useful insight into the genetic basis for desired properties of biofuel producing organisms. Fermentation conditions were tested and optimized to achieve ethanol production targets established in the original project proposal. The approach proposed was to add cellulase enzymes to the fermentation, a method called Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSF). We had reason to think SSF would be an efficient approach because the optimal temperature and pH for the enzymes and bacterium are very close. Unfortunately, we discovered that commercially available cellulases are inactivated in thermophilic SSF by a combination of low redox potential and ethanol. Despite this, progress was made against the fermentation targets using bacterial cellulases. Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum may still prove to be a commercially viable technology should cellulase enzyme issues be addressed. Moreover, the organism was demonstrated to produce ethanol at approximately theoretical yield from oligomeric hemicellulose extracts, an ability that may prove to be uniquely valuable in pretreatment configurations in which cellulose and hemicellulose are separated.

  14. The cost of ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass -- A comparison of selected alternative processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grethlein, H.E.; Dill, T.

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to compare the cost of selected alternative processes for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. In turn, this information will be used by the ARS/USDA to guide the management of research and development programs in biomass conversion. The report will identify where the cost leverages are for the selected alternatives and what performance parameters need to be achieved to improve the economics. The process alternatives considered here are not exhaustive, but are selected on the basis of having a reasonable potential in improving the economics of producing ethanol from biomass. When other alternatives come under consideration, they should be evaluated by the same methodology used in this report to give fair comparisons of opportunities. A generic plant design is developed for an annual production of 25 million gallons of anhydrous ethanol using corn stover as the model substrate at $30/dry ton. Standard chemical engineering techniques are used to give first order estimates of the capital and operating costs. Following the format of the corn to ethanol plant, there are nine sections to the plant; feed preparation, pretreatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and dehydration, stillage evaporation, storage and denaturation, utilities, and enzyme production. There are three pretreatment alternatives considered: the AFEX process, the modified AFEX process (which is abbreviated as MAFEX), and the STAKETECH process. These all use enzymatic hydrolysis and so an enzyme production section is included in the plant. The STAKETECH is the only commercially available process among the alternative processes.

  15. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, Luc (Lakewood, CO)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350.degree. and 375.degree. C. to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan.

  16. Isolation of levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oil derived from wood or waste newsprint

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moens, L.

    1995-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is provided for preparing high purity levoglucosan from lignocellulosic pyrolysis oils derived from wood or waste newsprint. The method includes reducing wood or newsprint to fine particle sizes, treating the particles with a hot mineral acid for a predetermined period of time, and filtering off and drying resulting solid wood or newsprint material; pyrolyzing the dried solid wood or newsprint material at temperatures between about 350 and 375 C to produce pyrolysis oils; treating the oils to liquid-liquid extraction with methyl isobutyl ketone to remove heavy tar materials from the oils, and to provide an aqueous fraction mixture of the oils containing primarily levoglucosan; treating the aqueous fraction mixtures with a basic metal salt in an amount sufficient to elevate pH values to a range of about 12 to about 12.5 and adding an amount of the salt in excess of the amount needed to obtain the pH range to remove colored materials of impurities from the oil and form a slurry, and freeze-drying the resulting slurry to produce a dry solid residue; and extracting the levoglucosan from the residue using ethyl acetate solvent to produce a purified crystalline levoglucosan. 2 figs.

  17. Addressing the Recalcitrance of Cellulose Degradation through Cellulase Discovery, Nano-scale Elucidation of Molecular Mechanisms, and Kinetic Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Larry P., Bergstrom, Gary; Corgie, Stephane; Craighead, Harold; Gibson, Donna; Wilson, David

    2011-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    This research project was designed to play a vital role in the development of low cost sugars from cellulosic biomass and contributing to the national effort to displace fossil fuel usage in the USA transportation sector. The goal was to expand the portfolio of cell wall degrading enzymes through innovative research at the nano-scale level, prospecting for novel cellulases and building a kinetic framework for the development of more effective enzymatic conversion processes. More precisely, the goal was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms for some cellulases that are very familiar to members of our research team and to investigate what we hope are novel cellulases or new enzyme combinations from the world of plant pathogenic fungi and bacteria. Hydrolytic activities of various cellulases and cellulase cocktails were monitored at the nanoscale of cellulose fibrils and the microscale of pretreated cellulose particles, and we integrated this insight into a heterogeneous reaction framework. The over-riding approach for this research program was the application of innovative and cutting edge optical and high-throughput screening and analysis techniques for observing how cellulases hydrolyze real substrates.

  18. Conventional Medical Screening Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Medical screening is a strategy used to identify diseases or conditions in a select population at an early stage, often before signs and symptoms develop, and to refer individuals with suspicious findings to their personal physician or a specialist for further testing, diagnosis, and treatment. The program is not intended to serve as a substitute for routine medical exams through an individual's personal physician.

  19. Hydropower Potential Screening Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hydropower Potential Screening Study Gillian Charles GRAC 5/28/14 #12;Latest Hydropower Potential Study Creating a Buzz 2014 DOE study on undeveloped stream reaches 84.7 GW undeveloped hydropower in undeveloped stream reaches hydropower in the PNW #12;Studies at both National

  20. Biological Production of a Hydrocarbon Fuel Intermediate Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) from a Process Relevant Lignocellulosic Derived Sugar (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, W.; Mittal, A.; Mohagheghi, A.; Johnson, D. K.

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PHAs are synthesized by many microorganisms to serve as intracellular carbon storage molecules. In some bacterial strains, PHB can account for up to 80% of cell mass. In addition to its application in the packaging sector, PHB also has great potential as an intermediate in the production of hydrocarbon fuels. PHB can be thermally depolymerized and decarboxylated to propene which can be upgraded to hydrocarbon fuels via commercial oligomerization technologies. Cupriavidus necator is the microorganism that has been most extensively studied and used for PHB production on an industrial scale; However the substrates used for producing PHB are mainly fructose, glucose, sucrose, fatty acids, glycerol, etc., which are expensive. In this study, we demonstrate production of PHB from a process relevant lignocellulosic derived sugar stream, i.e., saccharified slurry from pretreated corn stover. The strain was first investigated in shake flasks for its ability to utilize glucose, xylose and acetate. In addition, the strain was also grown on pretreated lignocellulose hydrolyzate slurry and evaluated in terms of cell growth, sugar utilization, PHB accumulation, etc. The mechanism of inhibition in the toxic hydrolysate generated by the pretreatment and saccharification process of biomass, was also studied.

  1. A new screen scanning system based on clustering screen objects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robinson, Peter

    A new screen scanning system based on clustering screen objects Pradipta Biswas Research Student with a computer through one or two switches with the help of a scanning mechanism. In this paper we present a new scanning technique based on clustering screen objects and then compare it with two other scanning systems

  2. DISPLAY SCREEN EQUIPMENT REGULATIONS 1992

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , charts or computer-generated graphics are included. Screens whose main use is to show television or film the standards required by the Regulations. 4 RISKS FROM USING DISPLAY SCREENS The principal risk associated when

  3. Can infrared gravitons screen $?$?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaume Garriga; Takahiro Tanaka

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been suggested that infrared gravitons in de Sitter space may lead to a secular screening of the effective cosmological constant. This seems to clash with the naive expectation that the curvature scalar should stay constant due to the Heisenberg equation of motion. Here, we show that the tadpole correction to the local expansion rate, which has been used in earlier analyses as an indicator of a decaying effective $\\Lambda$, is not gauge invariant. On the other hand, we construct a gauge invariant operator which measures the renormalized curvature scalar smeared over an arbitrary window function, and we find that there is no secular screening of this quantity (to any given order in perturbation theory).

  4. An advanced understanding of the specific effects of xylan and surface lignin contents on enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ju, Xiaohui; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhang, Xiao

    2013-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A deep understanding of biomass recalcitrance has been hampered by the intricate and heterogeneous nature of pretreated biomass substrates obtained from random deconstruction methods. In this study, we established a unique methodology based on chemical pulping principles to create "reference substrates" with intact cellulose fibers and controlled morphological and chemical properties that enable us to investigate the individual effect of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin content on enzymatic hydrolysis. We also developed and demonstrated an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique for quantifying surface lignin content on biomass substrates. The results from this study show that, apart from its hindrance effect, xylan can facilitate cellulose fibril swelling and thus create more accessible surface area, which improves enzyme and substrate interactions. Surface lignin has a significant impact on enzyme adsorption kinetics and hydrolysis rate. Advanced understanding of xylan, bulk, and surface lignin effects provides critical information for an effective biomass conversion process.

  5. Dynamic Screening and Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei V. Gruzinov

    1997-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that there are no dynamic screening corrections to the Salpeter's enhancement factor in the weak-screening limit.

  6. Combined Dilute Acid and Solvent Based Pretreatment of Agricultural Wastes for Efficient Lignocellulosic Fractionation and Biofuels Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodeur, G.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Wilson, C.; Telotte, J.; Collier, J.; Stickel, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A true biorefinery for processing lignocellulosic biomass should achieve maximum utilization of all major constituents (cellulose, hemicellulose, & lignin) within the feedstock. In this work a combined pretreatment process of dilute acid (DA) and N-methyl morpholine N-oxide (NMMO) is described that allows for both fractionation and subsequent complete hydrolysis of the feedstocks (corn stover and sugarcane bagasse). During this multi-step processing, the dilute acid pretreatment solubilizes the majority (>90%) of the hemicellulosic fraction, while the NMMO treatment yields a cellulosic fraction that is completely digestible within 48 hours at low enzyme loadings. With both the cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions being converted into separate, dissolved sugar fractions, the remaining portion is nearly pure lignin. When used independently, DA and NMMO pretreatments are only able to achieve ~80% and ~45% cellulosic conversion, respectively. Mass balance calculations along with experimental results are used to illustrate the feasibility of separation and recycling of NMMO.

  7. Fuel assembly debris screen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yates, J.; Ewing, R.H.; Patterson, J.F.

    1991-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a debris screen for a fuel assembly for a reactor to which coolant fluid is supplied. It comprises a substantially planar plate member of material impervious to fluid having an array of coolant openings extending through the plate member dimensioned to trap at least a portion of debris particles carried by the coolant; and a skirt member enclosing the periphery of the plate member; each the coolant flow opening having a coolant entry region at a lower surface of the plate member, a coolant exit region at an upper surface of the plate member and a coolant flow path extending between the entry and exit regions, the flow path including an intermediate segment laterally offset from the entry and exit regions to cause coolant to change direction of flow in the intermediate segment and thereby prevent at least a portion of the debris particles from passing through the plate member.

  8. Electron screening in nickel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gajevic, Jelena; Lipoglavsek, Matej; Petrovic, Toni; Pelicon, Primoz [Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia) and Cosylab d.d, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to further investigate electron screening phenomenon we studied proton induced nuclear reactions over an energy range from 1.35 to 3.08 MeV for different environments: Ni metal and NiO insulator. The measurements were based on observation of the {gamma}-ray yields of {sup 59,61,63,64,65}Cu and {sup 58,60,62}Ni. Also, we have studied the decay of {sup 61}Cu produced in the reaction {sup 60}Ni(p,{gamma}), in order to find a possible decay rate perturbation by atomic electrons and found a small difference in half-life for metallic compared to oxide environment, respectively. The present results clearly show that the metallic environment affects the fusion reactions at low energy and that it might also affect the decay rate.

  9. Medical Screening Protocol for the Former Worker Medical Screening...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with B-reading Spirometry Physical examination Up to every 3 years Lung cancer Low-dose chest CT scan, where offered 1 Re-screening offered at 3 or 6 months for...

  10. Protein Dynamics Hit the Big Screen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Protein Dynamics Hit the Big Screen Protein Dynamics Hit the Big Screen Now playing at a supercomputer near you: proteins in action June 29, 2005 Contact: Dan Krotz,...

  11. Rapid characterization of lignocellulosic feedstocks for fuels and chemicals: Molecular beam mass spectrometric approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agblevor, F.A.; Davis, M.F. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapid characterization of biomass feedstocks has a pivotal role in the development of biomass energy because of the large number of samples that must be analyzed due to the diversity of biomass feedstocks and the significant differences in the chemical and physical properties of these feedstocks. Several biomass feedstocks (herbaceous, woody, and agricultural residues) were screened for the effects of storage, season of harvest, geographic location, clonal, and species variation on the pyrolysis products of the feed stocks. For herbaceous species such as sericea lespedeza, the season of harvest had a significant effect on the pyrolysis products. Effects of clonal variation on the composition of hybrid poplar feedstocks was easily discerned with the molecular beam mass spectrometric analysis. The effect of geographic location on the poplar clones pyrolysis products was minimal. However in the case of switchgrass, varietal influence on the pyrolysis products was minimal, but where the plant was grown had a strong influence on the pyrolysis products of the feedstock. Significant differences because of species variation could also be shown from the pyrolysis products of various biomass feedstocks. The influence of storage time on biomass samples stored outside in the open could also be discerned from the pyrolysis products of the feedstocks. The differences noted in the pyrolysis products of the feedstocks were noted for samples which were significantly degraded during storage either through the action of microflora or weathering.

  12. Optimal Screening for Preclinical Diseases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Ang

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    for our model, and that it can be quickly found by any greedy-search algorithm. We further conduct numerical experimentations by which we identify sensitive model inputs. We lastly apply our model to breast cancer screening using practical information...

  13. Rare earth phosphors and phosphor screens

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Maple, T. Grant (Sunnyvale, CA); Sklensky, Alden F. (Sunnyvale, CA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to rare earth phosphor screens for converting image carrying incident radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation and to the rare earth phosphor materials utilized in such screens. The invention further relates to methods for converting image carrying charged particles to image carrying radiation principally in the blue and near-ultraviolet region of the spectrum and to stabilized rare earth phosphors characterized by having a continuous surface layer of the phosphors of the invention. More particularly, the phosphors of the invention are oxychlorides and oxybromides of yttrium, lanthanum and gadolinium activated with trivalent cerium and the conversion screens are of the type illustratively including x-ray conversion screens, image amplifier tube screens, neutron imaging screens, cathode ray tube screens, high energy gamma ray screens, scintillation detector screens and screens for real-time translation of image carrying high energy radiation to image carrying visible or near-visible radiation.

  14. Techno-economic Analysis for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Gasoline via the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Susanne B.; Zhu, Yunhua

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). With gasification technology, biomass can be converted to gasoline via methanol synthesis and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) technologies. Producing a gasoline product that is infrastructure ready has much potential. Although the MTG technology has been commercially demonstrated with natural gas conversion, combining MTG with biomass gasification has not been shown. Therefore, a techno-economic evaluation for a biomass MTG process based on currently available technology was developed to provide information about benefits and risks of this technology. The economic assumptions used in this report are consistent with previous U.S. Department of Energy Office of Biomass Programs techno-economic assessments. The feedstock is assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two kinds of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. The gasoline selling prices (2008 USD) excluding taxes were estimated to be $3.20/gallon and $3.68/gallon for indirectly-heated gasified and directly-heated. This suggests that a process based on existing technology is economic only when crude prices are above $100/bbl. However, improvements in syngas cleanup combined with consolidated gasoline synthesis can potentially reduce the capital cost. In addition, improved synthesis catalysts and reactor design may allow increased yield.

  15. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  16. Genome, transcriptome, and secretome analysis of wood decay fungus postia placenta supports unique mechanisms of lignocellulose conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martinez, Diego [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Misra, Monica [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Brettin, Thomas [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Morgenstern, Ingo [CLARK UNIV; Hibbett, David [CLARK UNIV.; Schmoll, Monika [UNIV WIEN; Kubicek, Christian P [UNIV WIEN; Ferreira, Patricia [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Ruiz - Duenase, Francisco J [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Martinez, Angel T [CIB, CSIC, MADRID; Kersten, Phil [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Hammel, Kenneth E [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Vanden Wymelenberg, Amber [U. WISCONSIN; Gaskell, Jill [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB; Lindquist, Erika [DOE JGI; Sabati, Grzegorz [U. WISCONSIN; Bondurant, Sandra S [U. WISCONSIN; Larrondo, Luis F [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Canessa, Paulo [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Vicunna, Rafael [U. CATHOLICA DE CHILE; Yadavk, Jagiit [U. CINCINATTI; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan [U. CINCINATTI; Subramaniank, Venkataramanan [U. CINCINATTI; Pisabarro, Antonio G [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Lavin, Jose L [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Oguiza, Jose A [PUBLIC U. NAVARRE; Master, Emma [U. TORONTO; Henrissat, Bernard [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Coutinho, Pedro M [CNRS, MARSEILLE; Harris, Paul [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Magnuson, Jon K [PNNL; Baker, Scott [PNNL; Bruno, Kenneth [PNNL; Kenealy, William [MASCOMA, INC.; Hoegger, Patrik J [GEORG-AUGUST-U.; Kues, Ursula [GEORG-AUGUST-U; Ramaiva, Preethi [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Lucas, Susan [DOE JGI; Salamov, Asaf [DOE JGI; Shapiro, Harris [DOE JGI; Tuh, Hank [DOE JGI; Chee, Christine L [UNM; Teter, Sarah [NOVOZYMES, INC.; Yaver, Debbie [NOVOZYMES, INC.; James, Tim [MCMASTER U.; Mokrejs, Martin [CHARLES U.; Pospisek, Martin [CHARLES U.; Grigoriev, Igor [DOE JGI; Rokhsar, Dan [DOE JGI; Berka, Randy [NOVOZYMES; Cullen, Dan [FOREST PRODUCTS LAB

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Brown-rot fungi such as Postia placenta are common inhabitants of forest ecosystems and are also largely responsible for the destructive decay of wooden structures. Rapid depolymerization of cellulose is a distinguishing feature of brown-rot, but the biochemical mechanisms and underlying genetics are poorly understood. Systematic examination of the P. placenta genome, transcriptome and secretome revealed unique extracellular enzyme systems, including an unusual repertoire of extracellular glycoside hydrolases. Genes encoding exocellobiohydrolases and cellulose-binding domains, typical of cellulolytic microbes, are absent in this efficient cellulose-degrading fungus. When P. placenta was grown in medium containing cellulose as sole carbon source, transcripts corresponding to many hemicellulases and to a single putative {beta}-1-4 endoglucanase were expressed at high levels relative to glucose grown cultures. These transcript profiles were confirmed by direct identification of peptides by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC{center_dot}MSIMS). Also upregulated during growth on cellulose medium were putative iron reductases, quinone reductase, and structurally divergent oxidases potentially involved in extracellular generation of Fe(II) and H202. These observations are consistent with a biodegradative role for Fenton chemistry in which Fe(II) and H202 react to form hydroxyl radicals, highly reactive oxidants capable of depolymerizing cellulose. The P. placenta genome resources provide unparalleled opportunities for investigating such unusual mechanisms of cellulose conversion. More broadly, the genome offers insight into the diversification of lignocellulose degrading mechanisms in fungi. Comparisons to the closely related white-rot fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium support an evolutionary shift from white-rot to brown-rot during which the capacity for efficient depolymerization of lignin was lost.

  17. Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass -- Executive Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Richard Hess; Christopher T. Wright; Kevin L. Kenney; Erin M. Searcy

    2009-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Uniform-Format Solid Feedstock Supply System: A Commodity-Scale Design to Produce an Infrastructure-Compatible Bulk Solid from Lignocellulosic Biomass, prepared by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), acknowledges the need and provides supportive designs for an evolutionary progression from present day conventional bale-based supply systems to a uniform-format, bulk solid supply system that transitions incrementally as the industry launches and matures. These designs couple to and build from current state of technology and address science and engineering constraints that have been identified by rigorous sensitivity analyses as having the greatest impact on feedstock supply system efficiencies and costs.

  18. Microelectroporation device for genomic screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Renzi, Ronald F.; Negrete, Oscar; Claudnic, Mark R.

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed an microelectroporation device that combines microarrays of oligonucleotides, microfluidic channels, and electroporation for cell transfection and high-throughput screening applications (e.g. RNA interference screens). Microarrays allow the deposition of thousands of different oligonucleotides in microscopic spots. Microfluidic channels and microwells enable efficient loading of cells into the device and prevent cross-contamination between different oligonucleotides spots. Electroporation allows optimal transfection of nucleic acids into cells (especially hard-to-transfect cells such as primary cells) by minimizing cell death while maximizing transfection efficiency. This invention has the advantage of a higher throughput and lower cost, while preventing cross-contamination compared to conventional screening technologies. Moreover, this device does not require bulky robotic liquid handling equipment and is inherently safer given that it is a closed system.

  19. Screening systems adapt to changing conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Prep plants are installing larger screening systems and synthetic media is meeting those challenges. The largest manufacturer of synthetic screen media is Polydeck located in Spartanburg, South Carolina. The company's primary product lines include modular polyurethane and rubber screen panels and the frame systems to support the media. The modular approach overcomes a wear problem in one area of the deck common on Banana screens and facilitates maintenance. A rubber formation used in 1- x 2-pt screen panels called the Flexi design is softer and allows more vibration than standard urethane panels. The Maxi screen panel design combined with the PipeTop II frame makes the system highly versatile. 1 photo.

  20. Chemical compatibility screening test results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nigrey, P.J.; Dickens, T.G.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A program for evaluating packaging components that may be used in transporting mixed-waste forms has been developed and the first phase has been completed. This effort involved the screening of ten plastic materials in four simulant mixed-waste types. These plastics were butadiene-acrylonitrile copolymer rubber, cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE), epichlorohydrin rubber, ethylene-propylene rubber (EPDM), fluorocarbon (Viton or Kel-F), polytetrafluoroethylene, high-density polyethylene (HDPE), isobutylene-isoprene copolymer rubber (butyl), polypropylene, and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The selected simulant mixed wastes were (1) an aqueous alkaline mixture of sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite; (2) a chlorinated hydrocarbon mixture; (3) a simulant liquid scintillation fluid; and (4) a mixture of ketones. The testing protocol involved exposing the respective materials to 286,000 rads of gamma radiation followed by 14-day exposures to the waste types at 60{degrees}C. The seal materials were tested using vapor transport rate (VTR) measurements while the liner materials were tested using specific gravity as a metric. For these tests, a screening criterion of 0.9 g/hr/m{sup 2} for VTR and a specific gravity change of 10% was used. Based on this work, it was concluded that while all seal materials passed exposure to the aqueous simulant mixed waste, EPDM and SBR had the lowest VTRs. In the chlorinated hydrocarbon simulant mixed waste, only Viton passed the screening tests. In both the simulant scintillation fluid mixed waste and the ketone mixture simulant mixed waste, none of the seal materials met the screening criteria. For specific gravity testing of liner materials, the data showed that while all materials with the exception of polypropylene passed the screening criteria, Kel-F, HDPE, and XLPE offered the greatest resistance to the combination of radiation and chemicals.

  1. HUD CHP GUIDE #2 - FEASIBILITY SCREENING FOR CHP IN MULTIFAMILY...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    screening exercise and shows the screens for the feasibility screening tool, computer software prepared for HUD by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). chpguide2.pdf...

  2. Portuguese Ships on Japanese Namban Screens 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamafune, Kotaro

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    scenes of the first European activities in Japan. Among the subjects depicted on Namban screens, some of the most intriguing are ships: the European ships of the Age of Discovery. Namban screens were created by skillful Japanese traditional painters who...

  3. DOE: Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FWP provides no-cost medical screenings to all former DOE Federal, contractor and subcontractor employees. The screening exams are offered by third party providers from universities, labor unions,...

  4. Portuguese Ships on Japanese Namban Screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yamafune, Kotaro

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    scenes of the first European activities in Japan. Among the subjects depicted on Namban screens, some of the most intriguing are ships: the European ships of the Age of Discovery. Namban screens were created by skillful Japanese traditional painters who...

  5. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  6. Clad Degradation - FEPs Screening Arguments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. Siegmann

    2004-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to document the screening of the cladding degradation features, events, and processes (FEPs) for commercial spent nuclear fuel (CSNF). This report also addresses the effect of some FEPs on both the cladding and the CSNF, DSNF, and HLW waste forms where it was considered appropriate to address the effects on both materials together. This report summarizes the work of others to screen clad degradation FEPs in a manner consistent with, and used in, the Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA). This document was prepared according to ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Modeling, Testing, and Analyses in Support of LA'' (BSC 2004a [DIRS 167796]).

  7. Lignocellulosic feedstock resource assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, T.

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides overall state and national information on the quantity, availability, and costs of current and potential feedstocks for ethanol production in the United States. It characterizes end uses and physical characteristics of feedstocks, and presents relevant information that affects the economic and technical feasibility of ethanol production from these feedstocks. The data can help researchers focus ethanol conversion research efforts on feedstocks that are compatible with the resource base.

  8. Sandia Energy - Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclear PressLaboratory Fellows Jerry Simmons Is One

  9. Reverberatory screen for a radiant burner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Paul E. (North East, MD)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to porous mat gas fired radiant burner panels utilizing improved reverberatory screens. The purpose of these screens is to boost the overall radiant output of the burner relative to a burner using no screen and the same fuel-air flow rates. In one embodiment, the reverberatory screen is fabricated from ceramic composite material, which can withstand higher operating temperatures than its metallic equivalent. In another embodiment the reverberatory screen is corrugated. The corrugations add stiffness which helps to resist creep and thermally induced distortions due to temperature or thermal expansion coefficient differences. As an added benefit, it has been unexpectedly discovered that the corrugations further increase the radiant efficiency of the burner. In a preferred embodiment, the reverberatory screen is both corrugated and made from ceramic composite material.

  10. Screening of Hydrocarbon Sources in JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J.D. Strachan; W. Fundamenski; M. Charlet; K. Erents; J. Gafert; C. Giroud; M. von Hellermann; G. Matthews; G. McCracken; V. Philipps; J. Spence; M.F. Stamp; K-D. Zastrow; and EFDA-JET Work Programme Collaborators

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon is the principal impurity in the Joint European Torus (JET). Methane screening experiments quantify the ability of the scrape-off layer (SOL)/divertor system to ionize carbon and transport it to the divertor, preventing core plasma contamination. Previous JET publications studied edge-localized-mode-averaged high-confinement mode screening, and separately, evaluated the methodology of low-confinement mode (L-mode) screening measurements. This paper extends the L-mode measurements to include relevant plasma parameter scans and DIVIMP modeling of the L-mode screening.

  11. Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode Screen Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining Optimization of Electrode 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies...

  12. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abraham Ellis, Roger Hill Sandia National Laboratories Tom Key, Kristen Nicole, Jeff Smith Electric Power Research Institute Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System...

  13. Page 1 of 100 Full Screen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Römisch, Werner

    ()d. #12;Home Page Title Page Contents Page 7 of 100 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit The behavior of bothHome Page Title Page Contents Page 1 of 100 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Scenario Generation Uncertainty Quantification in Industrial and Energy Applications: Experiences and Challenges, Minneapolis

  14. NARES CULTURE FOR MRSA SCREENING I. INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    NARES CULTURE FOR MRSA SCREENING I. INTRODUCTION Active Surveillance Testing (AST) to detect newly admitted patients who are nasally colonized with MRSA is required in 2009 to comply with California Health an anterior nares specimen for MRSA screening. III. SUPPLIES 1. For children, adolescents and adults: BD BBL

  15. BSCL Use Plan: Solving Biomass Recalcitrance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, M.; Vinzant, T.; Bower, S.; Jechura, J.

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technical report describing NREL's new Biomass Surface Characterization Laboratory (BSCL). The BSCL was constructed to provide the most modern commercial surface characterization equipment for studying biomass surfaces.

  16. Smart Screening System (S3) In Taconite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daryoush Allaei

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The conventional screening machines used in processing plants have had undesirable high noise and vibration levels. They also have had unsatisfactorily low screening efficiency, high energy consumption, high maintenance cost, low productivity, and poor worker safety. These conventional vibrating machines have been used in almost every processing plant. Most of the current material separation technology uses heavy and inefficient electric motors with an unbalanced rotating mass to generate the shaking. In addition to being excessively noisy, inefficient, and high-maintenance, these vibrating machines are often the bottleneck in the entire process. Furthermore, these motors, along with the vibrating machines and supporting structure, shake other machines and structures in the vicinity. The latter increases maintenance costs while reducing worker health and safety. The conventional vibrating fine screens at taconite processing plants have had the same problems as those listed above. This has resulted in lower screening efficiency, higher energy and maintenance cost, and lower productivity and workers safety concerns. The focus of this work is on the design of a high performance screening machine suitable for taconite processing plants. SmartScreens{trademark} technology uses miniaturized motors, based on smart materials, to generate the shaking. The underlying technologies are Energy Flow Control{trademark} and Vibration Control by Confinement{trademark}. These concepts are used to direct energy flow and confine energy efficiently and effectively to the screen function. The SmartScreens{trademark} technology addresses problems related to noise and vibration, screening efficiency, productivity, and maintenance cost and worker safety. Successful development of SmartScreens{trademark} technology will bring drastic changes to the screening and physical separation industry. The final designs for key components of the SmartScreens{trademark} have been developed. The key components include smart motor and associated electronics, resonators, and supporting structural elements. It is shown that the smart motors have an acceptable life and performance. Resonator (or motion amplifier) designs are selected based on the final system requirement and vibration characteristics. All the components for a fully functional prototype are fabricated and have been tested.

  17. Updating Interconnection Screens for PV System Integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Mather, B.; Kroposki, B.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Ellis, A.; Hill, R.; Key, T.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offer short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen. Short-term and longer-term alternatives approaches are offered as examples; however, specific modifications to screening procedures should be discussed with stakeholders and must ultimately be adopted by state and federal regulatory bodies.

  18. antenatal screening lessons: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Subsequent screening should be done in accordance with CDC guidelines. Specific testing for HIV-2 should be conducted for refugees who screen positive for HIV and are native...

  19. High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation)...

  20. HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage HT Combinatorial Screening of Novel Materials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage Presentation for...

  1. Renewable Energy Resource Maps and Screening Tools | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resource Maps and Screening Tools Renewable Energy Resource Maps and Screening Tools Renewable energy resources are available across the United States but vary greatly depending on...

  2. Disposable Carbon Nanotube Modified Screen-Printed Biosensor...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Nanotube Modified Screen-Printed Biosensor for Amperometric Detection of Organophosphorus Pesticides and Nerve Disposable Carbon Nanotube Modified Screen-Printed Biosensor...

  3. Voltammetric Analysis of Europium at Screen-Printed Electrodes...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Voltammetric Analysis of Europium at Screen-Printed Electrodes Modified with Salicylamide Self-Assembled on Mesoporous Silica. Voltammetric Analysis of Europium at Screen-Printed...

  4. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels Conversion Pathway: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway "The 2017 Design Case"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin L. Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J. Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; J. Richard Hess; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of liquid fuels from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass sustainable supply, logistics, conversion, and overall system sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL quantified and the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from the field or stand to the throat of the conversion process using conventional equipment and processes. All previous work to 2012 was designed to improve the efficiency and decrease costs under conventional supply systems. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a biomass logistics cost of $55/dry Ton for woody biomass delivered to fast pyrolysis conversion facility. The goal was achieved by applying field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model.

  5. Bose-Einstein Condensation on Holographic Screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirza, Behrouz; Raissi, Zahra

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider a boson gas on holographic screens of the Rindler and Schwartzschild spacetimes. It is shown that the gas on the stretched horizon is in a Bose-Einstein condensed state with the Hawking temperature $T_c=T_H$ if the particle number of the system be equal to the number of quantum bits of spacetime $ N \\simeq {A}/{{\\l_{p}}^{2}}$. A boson gas on a holographic screen $(r>2M)$ with the same number of particles and at Unruh temperature is also in a condensed state. Far from the horizon, the Unruh temperature is much lower than the condensation temperature $(T_c=T_{{Unruh}}+\\sqrt {f(r)} T_{Planck})$. This analysis implies a possible physical model for quantum bits of spacetime on a holographic screen. We propose a unique and physical interpretation for equipartition theorem on holographic screens. Also, we will argue that this gas is a fast scrambler.

  6. Screening citrus rootstocks for alkalinity tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sudahono

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ALM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1991 Major... Subject: Horticulture SCREENING CITRUS ROOTSTOCKS FOR ALKALINITY TOLERANCE A Thesis by SUDAHONO Approved as to style and content by: David H. yr (Chair of Com ttee) Robert E. Rouse (Member) ~. Err. tg~i ~PI. ~~ Frank M. Hone (Member) Calvin G...

  7. Scientific Analysis Cover Sheet for Radionuclide Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Ragan

    2002-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The waste forms under consideration for disposal in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain contain scores of radionuclides (Attachments V and VI). It would be impractical and highly inefficient to model all of these radionuclides in a total system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this radionuclide screening analysis is to remove from further consideration (screen out) radionuclides that are unlikely to significantly contribute to radiation dose to the public from the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain. The remaining nuclides (those screened in) are recommended for consideration in TSPA modeling for license application. This analysis also covers radionuclides that are not screened in based on dose, but need to be included in TSPA modeling for other reasons. For example, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations require consideration of the combined activity of Ra-226 and Ra-228 in groundwater (40 CFR 197.30, 10 CFR 63.331). Also, Cm-245, Pu-241, and U-235 decay indirectly to potentially important radionuclides, and are not identified by the screening analysis as important. The radionuclide screening analysis separately considers two different postclosure time periods: the 10,000-y regulatory period for the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain and the period after 10,000 y up to 1 million y after emplacement. The incremental effect of extending the screening for the regulatory period to 20,000 y is also addressed. Four release scenarios are considered: (1) the nominal scenario, which entails long-term degradation of disposal containers and waste forms, (2) a human-intrusion scenario, (3) an intrusive igneous event, and (4) an eruptive igneous event. Because the first three scenarios require groundwater transport, they are called groundwater scenarios below. The screening analysis considers the following waste forms: spent boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel, spent pressurized water reactor (PWR) fuel, U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF), and high-level waste (HLW). Average and outlying (high burnup, high initial enrichment, low age, or otherwise exceptional) forms of each waste-form type are considered. This analysis has been prepared in accordance with a technical work plan (BSC 2002c). In a review of Revision 00 of this radionuclide screening analysis, the NRC found that ''processes that affect transport in the biosphere, such as uptake by plants and bioaccumulation are not accounted for'' and that ''the direct exposure pathway is not accounted for'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). The NRC also found that the solubility and sorption classes were too broadly defined, noting, for example, that Se is in the same solubility and sorptivity groups as Np and U, yet is ''more soluble than Np and U by several orders of magnitude'' (Beckman 2001, Section 5.3.2.1). This revision seeks to build upon the strengths of the earlier screening method while responding to the specific concerns raised by the NRC and other reviewers. In place of simple inhalation and ingestion dose conversion factors, the revised radionuclide screening uses screening factors that also take into account soil accumulation, uptake by plants, exposure to contaminated ground, and other features of the biosphere that were neglected in the previous screening. Whereas the previous screening analysis allowed only two solubility classes (soluble and insoluble), the revised screening introduces an intermediate solubility class to better segregate the radionuclides into transport groups.

  8. Quantum corrections to screening at strong coupling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ajay Singh; Aninda Sinha

    2012-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute a certain class of corrections to (specific) screening lengths in strongly coupled nonabelian plasmas using the AdS/CFT correspondence. In this holographic framework, these corrections arise from various higher curvature interactions modifying the leading Einstein gravity action. The changes in the screening lengths are perturbative in inverse powers of the 't Hooft coupling or of the number of colours, as can be made precise in the context where the dual gauge theory is superconformal. We also compare the results of these holographic calculations to lattice results for the analogous screening lengths in QCD. In particular, we apply these results within the program of making quantitative comparisons between the strongly coupled quark-gluon plasma and holographic descriptions of conformal field theory.

  9. Screening the Hanford tanks for trapped gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whitney, P.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hanford Site is home to 177 large, underground nuclear waste storage tanks. Hydrogen gas is generated within the waste in these tanks. This document presents the results of a screening of Hanford`s nuclear waste storage tanks for the presence of gas trapped in the waste. The method used for the screening is to look for an inverse correlation between waste level measurements and ambient atmospheric pressure. If the waste level in a tank decreases with an increase in ambient atmospheric pressure, then the compressibility may be attributed to gas trapped within the waste. In this report, this methodology is not used to estimate the volume of gas trapped in the waste. The waste level measurements used in this study were made primarily to monitor the tanks for leaks and intrusions. Four measurement devices are widely used in these tanks. Three of these measure the level of the waste surface. The remaining device measures from within a well embedded in the waste, thereby monitoring the liquid level even if the liquid level is below a dry waste crust. In the past, a steady rise in waste level has been taken as an indicator of trapped gas. This indicator is not part of the screening calculation described in this report; however, a possible explanation for the rise is given by the mathematical relation between atmospheric pressure and waste level used to support the screening calculation. The screening was applied to data from each measurement device in each tank. If any of these data for a single tank indicated trapped gas, that tank was flagged by this screening process. A total of 58 of the 177 Hanford tanks were flagged as containing trapped gas, including 21 of the 25 tanks currently on the flammable gas watch list.

  10. Internship FBI Fingerprint Procedures and Additional Screenings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gering, Jon C.

    Internship FBI Fingerprint Procedures and Additional Screenings ALL INTERNS: Required by DESE/Full-Year Internship) or August 1st (Spring Internship) o Web application https to get your fingerprints taken for your internship: 4 digit Registration #2301 Cost - $44.80 Valid

  11. Quantum Key Distribution with Screening and Analyzing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Won-Ho Kye

    2006-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a quantum key distribution scheme by using screening angles and analyzing detectors which enable to notice the presence of Eve who eavesdrops the quantum channel, as the revised protocol of the recent quantum key distribution [Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 040501 (2005)]. We discuss the security of the proposed quantum key distribution against various attacks including impersonation attack and Trojan Horse attack.

  12. Electron Screening and Alpha-Decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agatino Musumarra

    2010-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The interplay between nuclear and electromagnetic forces in astrophysical relevant reactions at very low energies is nowadays one of the major subjects of investigation in nuclear astrophysics. Puzzling results concerning the role of Electron Screening (ES) on cross sections of reactions involving light nuclei at low energy open a Pandora pot and many new questions rise on the limits and reliability of the present interpretation of the screening enhancement factor. In the present paper we discuss the simplest physical case where the ES plays an important role in order to have unambiguous determination of ES energy in a clear theoretical scenario. This is the case of alpha-decay of heavy mass nuclei. We deduce the correct sudden and adiabatic limit for such a system including the important relativistic corrections. Then we demonstrate rigorously how in this case the calculation of the sudden and the adiabatic limits leads to the same result. In order to get this result we use the Hellmann-Feynman theorem. After computing the electron screening energy for some systems we discuss the strong modifications of alpha-decay systematic due to electron screening. We conclude proposing a measurement of alpha-decay lifetime of bare nuclei in order to directly deduce ES Energy for heavy nuclei laying in the mass region around 210-240 u.

  13. Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET) Users Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Layne Pincock

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the users guide to using the Screening and Evaluation Tool (SET). SET is a tool for comparing multiple fuel cycle options against a common set of criteria and metrics. It does this using standard multi-attribute utility decision analysis methods.

  14. Page 1 of 9 Full Screen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levene, Mark

    Evolution of Database Systems Graph-Based Relational Object-Relational 1960's-1970's 1980's-1990's 1990's-Oriented programming language with a DBMS 3 One approach is to implement on top of a relational DBMS. · Object #12;Home Page Title Page Page 5 of 9 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Object-Relational Evolution

  15. Screening Tool for Desiccant Dehumidification Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Czachorski, M.; Worek, W. M.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A state-of-the-art software tool that calculates the benefits of desiccant-based air-treatment equipment is described. The software, a Desiccant Systems Application Screening Tool, is written in the WindowsTM environment to promote user...

  16. D & D screening risk evaluation guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robers, S.K.; Golden, K.M.; Wollert, D.A.

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Screening Risk Evaluation (SRE) guidance document is a set of guidelines provided for the uniform implementation of SREs performed on decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) facilities. Although this method has been developed for D&D facilities, it can be used for transition (EM-60) facilities as well. The SRE guidance produces screening risk scores reflecting levels of risk through the use of risk ranking indices. Five types of possible risk are calculated from the SRE: current releases, worker exposures, future releases, physical hazards, and criticality. The Current Release Index (CRI) calculates the current risk to human health and the environment, exterior to the building, from ongoing or probable releases within a one-year time period. The Worker Exposure Index (WEI) calculates the current risk to workers, occupants and visitors inside contaminated D&D facilities due to contaminant exposure. The Future Release Index (FRI) calculates the hypothetical risk of future releases of contaminants, after one year, to human health and the environment. The Physical Hazards Index (PHI) calculates the risks to human health due to factors other than that of contaminants. Criticality is approached as a modifying factor to the entire SRE, due to the fact that criticality issues are strictly regulated under DOE. Screening risk results will be tabulated in matrix form, and Total Risk will be calculated (weighted equation) to produce a score on which to base early action recommendations. Other recommendations from the screening risk scores will be made based either on individual index scores or from reweighted Total Risk calculations. All recommendations based on the SRE will be made based on a combination of screening risk scores, decision drivers, and other considerations, as determined on a project-by-project basis.

  17. Feedstock Supply System Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Conversion Pathway: Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons The 2017 Design Case

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevin Kenney; Kara G. Cafferty; Jacob J. Jacobson; Ian J Bonner; Garold L. Gresham; William A. Smith; David N. Thompson; Vicki S. Thompson; Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; Neal Yancey

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy promotes the production of a range of liquid fuels and fuel blendstocks from lignocellulosic biomass feedstocks by funding fundamental and applied research that advances the state of technology in biomass collection, conversion, and sustainability. As part of its involvement in this program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) investigates the feedstock logistics economics and sustainability of these fuels. Between 2000 and 2012, INL conducted a campaign to quantify the economics and sustainability of moving biomass from standing in the field or stand to the throat of the biomass conversion process. The goal of this program was to establish the current costs based on conventional equipment and processes, design improvements to the current system, and to mark annual improvements based on higher efficiencies or better designs. The 2012 programmatic target was to demonstrate a delivered biomass logistics cost of $35/dry ton. This goal was successfully achieved in 2012 by implementing field and process demonstration unit-scale data from harvest, collection, storage, preprocessing, handling, and transportation operations into INL’s biomass logistics model. Looking forward to 2017, the programmatic target is to supply biomass to the conversion facilities at a total cost of $80/dry ton and on specification with in-feed requirements. The goal of the 2017 Design Case is to enable expansion of biofuels production beyond highly productive resource areas by breaking the reliance of cost-competitive biofuel production on a single, abundant, low-cost feedstock. If this goal is not achieved, biofuel plants are destined to be small and/or clustered in select regions of the country that have a lock on low-cost feedstock. To put the 2017 cost target into perspective of past accomplishments of the cellulosic ethanol pathway, the $80 target encompasses total delivered feedstock cost, including both grower payment and logistics costs, while meeting all conversion in-feed quality targets. The 2012 $35 programmatic target included only logistics costs with a limited focus on biomass quality

  18. High-throughput Microfluidic Screening Platforms for Microalgae Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    parallel studies are needed, however, current microalgae culture systems are lack of high-throughput screening capabilities, and thus not suitable for the parallel studies. Here, three different high-throughput microfluidic microalgae screening platforms...

  19. Laboratory to change vehicle traffic-screening regimen at vehicle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Changes to vehicle traffic-screening Laboratory to change vehicle traffic-screening regimen at vehicle inspection station Lanes two through five will be open 24 hours a day and...

  20. Development and optimization of high-throughput zebrafish screening platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koo, Bryan Kyo

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The high-throughput zebrafish screening platform is a revolutionary tool that enables subcellular precision in vivo whole animal screening of Danio Rerio. It can perform laser surgery and/or imaging in less than twenty ...

  1. High-throughput Microfluidic Screening Platforms for Microalgae Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Hyun Soo

    2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    parallel studies are needed, however, current microalgae culture systems are lack of high-throughput screening capabilities, and thus not suitable for the parallel studies. Here, three different high-throughput microfluidic microalgae screening platforms...

  2. Microfluidic in vivo screen identifies compounds enhancing neuronal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haggarty, Stephen

    Compound screening is a powerful tool to identify new therapeutic targets, drug leads, and elucidate the fundamental mechanisms of biological processes. We report here the results of the first in vivo small-molecule screens ...

  3. Weakly screened thermonuclear reactions in astrophysical plasmas: Improving Salpeter's model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a detailed study of the electron degeneracy and nonlinear screening effects which play a crucial role in the validity of Salpeter's weak-screening model. The limitations of that model are investigated and an improved one is proposed which can take into account nonlinear screening effects. Its application to the solar pp reaction derives an accurate screening enhancement factor and provides a very reliable estimation of the associated neutrino flux uncertanties.

  4. Electron Cloud with Inverted Beam Screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maury Cuna, H

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of computer simulations studying the effect of wrongly oriented LHC beam screens on the local electron-cloud heat load and density. At 3.5 or 7-TeV energy and for maximum secondary emission-yield values below 1.5, with the inverted sawtooth orientation about ten times higher heat load is expected than for the standard orientation, and the wrongly oriented sawtooth chambers could lead to a local heat-load bottleneck during the process of surface conditioning at 25-ns bunch spacing. The available cooling margin can be significantly increased by correcting the sawtooth orientations at least for two dipole magnets in LHC arc cells 26 and 32 R3, in order that there be no half-cell cooling loop containing more than one inverted screen.

  5. Updating Technical Screens for PV Interconnection: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Ellis, A.; Lynn, K.; Razon, A.; Key, T.; Kroposki, B.; Mather, B.; Hill, R.; Nicole, K.; Smith, J.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar photovoltaics (PV) is the dominant type of distributed generation (DG) technology interconnected to electric distribution systems in the United States, and deployment of PV systems continues to increase rapidly. Considering the rapid growth and widespread deployment of PV systems in United States electric distribution grids, it is important that interconnection procedures be as streamlined as possible to avoid unnecessary interconnection studies, costs, and delays. Because many PV interconnection applications involve high penetration scenarios, the process needs to allow for a sufficiently rigorous technical evaluation to identify and address possible system impacts. Existing interconnection procedures are designed to balance the need for efficiency and technical rigor for all DG. However, there is an implicit expectation that those procedures will be updated over time in order to remain relevant with respect to evolving standards, technology, and practical experience. Modifications to interconnection screens and procedures must focus on maintaining or improving safety and reliability, as well as accurately allocating costs and improving expediency of the interconnection process. This paper evaluates the origins and usefulness of the capacity penetration screen, offers potential short-term solutions which could effectively allow fast-track interconnection to many PV system applications, and considers longer-term solutions for increasing PV deployment levels in a safe and reliable manner while reducing or eliminating the emphasis on the penetration screen.

  6. Screening technology reduces ash in spiral circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brodzik, P. [Derrick Corp., Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2006, the James River Coal Co. selected the Stack Sizer to remove the minus 100 mesh high ash clay fraction from the clean coal spiral product circuits at the McCoy-Elkhorn Bevins Branch prep plant and at the Blue Diamond Leatherwood prep plant in Kentucky. The Stack Sizer is a multi-deck, high-frequency vibrating screen capable of separations as fine as 75 microns when fitted with Derrick Corp.'s patented high open area urethane screen panels. Full-scale lab tests and more than 10 months of continuous production have confirmed that the Stack Sizer fitted with Derrick 100 micron urethane screen panels consistently produces a clean coal fraction that ranges from 8 to 10% ash. Currently, each five-deck Stack Sizer operating at the Bevins Branch and Leatherwood prep plants is producing approximately 33 tons per hour of clean coal containing about 9% ash. This represents a clean coal yield of about 75% and an ash reduction of about 11% from the feed slurry. 3 figs. 2 tabs.

  7. Dynamic screening correction for solar p-p reaction rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mussack, Katie; 10.1088/0004-637X/729/2/96

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar abundance controversy inspires renewed investigations of the basic physics used to develop solar models. Here we examine the correction to the proton-proton reaction rate due to dynamic screening effects. Starting with the dynamic screening energy from the molecular-dynamics simulations of Mao et al., we compute a reaction-rate correction for dynamic screening. We find that, contrary to static screening theory, this dynamic screening does not significantly change the reaction rate from that of the bare Coulomb potential.

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    industrial process environments, (3) development of high-throughput assays using microfluidics, and (4) understanding how microbial communities degrade biomass and the...

  9. Cosmic Web and Environmental Dependence of Screening: Vainshtein vs. Chameleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bridget Falck; Kazuya Koyama; Gong-bo Zhao

    2015-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Theories which modify general relativity to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe often use screening mechanisms to satisfy constraints on Solar System scales. We investigate the effects of the cosmic web and the local environmental density of dark matter halos on the screening properties of the Vainshtein and chameleon screening mechanisms. We compare the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, mass functions of dark matter halos, mass and radial dependence of screening, velocity dispersions and peculiar velocities, and environmental dependence of screening mechanisms in $f(R)$ and nDGP models. Using the ORIGAMI cosmic web identification routine we find that the Vainshtein mechanism depends on the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, since these are defined according to the dimensionality of their collapse, while the chameleon mechanism shows no morphology dependence. The chameleon screening of halos and their velocity dispersions depend on halo mass, and small halos and subhalos can be environmentally screened in the chameleon mechanism. On the other hand, the screening of halos in the Vainshtein mechanism does not depend on mass nor environment, and their velocity dispersions are suppressed. The peculiar velocities of halos in the Vainshtein mechanism are enhanced because screened objects can still feel the fifth force generated by external fields, while peculiar velocities of chameleon halos are suppressed when the halo centers are screened.

  10. Screening analysis of solar thermochemical hydrogen concepts.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diver, Richard B., Jr.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening analysis was performed to identify concentrating solar power (CSP) concepts that produce hydrogen with the highest efficiency. Several CSP concepts were identified that have the potential to be much more efficient than today's low-temperature electrolysis technology. They combine a central receiver or dish with either a thermochemical cycle or high-temperature electrolyzer that operate at temperatures >600 C. The solar-to-hydrogen efficiencies of the best central receiver concepts exceed 20%, significantly better than the 14% value predicted for low-temperature electrolysis.

  11. Electron screening effect on stellar thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potekhin, A Y

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the impact of plasma correlation effects on nonresonant thermonuclear reactions for various stellar objects, namely in the liquid envelopes of neutron stars, and the interiors of white dwarfs, low-mass stars, and substellar objects. We examine in particular the effect of electron screening on the enhancement of thermonuclear reactions in dense plasmas within and beyond the linear mixing rule approximation as well as the corrections due to quantum effects at high density. In addition, we examine some recent unconventional (Yukawa-potential and "quantum-tail") theoretical results on stellar thermonuclear fusions and show that these scenarios do not apply to stellar conditions.

  12. Apparatus for combinatorial screening of electrochemical materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high throughput combinatorial screening method and apparatus for the evaluation of electrochemical materials using a single voltage source (2) is disclosed wherein temperature changes arising from the application of an electrical load to a cell array (1) are used to evaluate the relative electrochemical efficiency of the materials comprising the array. The apparatus may include an array of electrochemical cells (1) that are connected to each other in parallel or in series, an electronic load (2) for applying a voltage or current to the electrochemical cells (1), and a device (3), external to the cells, for monitoring the relative temperature of each cell when the load is applied.

  13. National Supplemental Screening Program | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO2:Introduction toManagement ofConverDyn NOPRNancyNational Supplemental Screening Program

  14. BCHP Screening Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof EnergyInnovation in Carbon CaptureAtria PowerAxeonBCHP Screening Tool Jump to:

  15. Cosmic Web and Environmental Dependence of Screening: Vainshtein vs. Chameleon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Falck, Bridget; Zhao, Gong-bo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Theories which modify general relativity to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe often use screening mechanisms to satisfy constraints on Solar System scales. We investigate the effects of the cosmic web and the local environmental density of dark matter halos on the screening properties of the Vainshtein and chameleon screening mechanisms. We compare the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, mass functions of dark matter halos, mass and radial dependence of screening, velocity dispersions and peculiar velocities, and environmental dependence of screening mechanisms in $f(R)$ and nDGP models. Using the ORIGAMI cosmic web identification routine we find that the Vainshtein mechanism depends on the cosmic web morphology of dark matter particles, since these are defined according to the dimensionality of their collapse, while the chameleon mechanism shows no morphology dependence. The chameleon screening of halos and their velocity dispersions depend on halo mass, and small halos and subhal...

  16. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kravchuk, P A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  17. Strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions: Electron drop model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. A. Kravchuk; D. G. Yakovlev

    2014-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a simple electron drop model. The model assumes fusion in a potential that is screened by an effective electron cloud around colliding nuclei (extended Salpeter ion-sphere model). We calculate the mean field screened Coulomb potentials for atomic nuclei with equal and nonequal charges, appropriate astrophysical S factors, and enhancement factors of reaction rates. As a byproduct, we study analytic behavior of the screening potential at small separations between the reactants. In this model, astrophysical S factors depend not only on nuclear physics but on plasma screening as well. The enhancement factors are in good agreement with calculations by other methods. This allows us to formulate the combined, pure analytic model of strong plasma screening in thermonuclear reactions. The results can be useful for simulating nuclear burning in white dwarfs and neutron stars.

  18. Non-equilibrium thermodynamics of gravitational screens

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laurent Freidel; Yuki Yokokura

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the Einstein gravity equations projected on a timelike surface, which represents the time evolution of what we call a gravitational screen. We show that such a screen possesses a surface tension and an internal energy, and that the Einstein equations reduce to the thermodynamic equations of a viscous bubble. We also provide a complete dictionary between gravitational and thermodynamical variables. In the non-viscous cases there are three thermodynamic equations which characterise a bubble dynamics: These are the first law, the Marangoni flow equation and the Young-Laplace equation. In all three equations the surface tension plays a central role: In the first law it appears as a work term per unit area, in the Marangoni flow its gradient drives a force, and in the Young-Laplace equation it contributes to a pressure proportional to the surface curvature. The gravity equations appear as a natural generalization of these bubble equations when the bubble itself is viscous and dynamical. In particular, it shows that the mechanism of entropy production for the viscous bubble is mapped onto the production of gravitational waves. We also review the relationship between surface tension and temperature, and discuss the usual black-hole thermodynamics from this point of view.

  19. Former worekrs' notification adn medical screening Hanford

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patricia Quinn

    2005-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    CPWR is carrying out a screening program for former Hanford construction workers. This program includes continuing screening and re-screening services for the former worker population. The Program contains the following general components: Start-up planning/needs assessment: A modified exposure assessment will be conducted to identify high-risk buildings or areas, primary exposures, and worker populations at risk. Outreach: CPWR, as the research arm of the Building and Construction Trades Department, AFL-CIO, has direct access to workers. CPWR will rely on direct mailings to lists of former workers, and work through and rely on existing organizations (unions, union pension funds, employers, DOE site administrators, etc.) to reach former workers and "get the word out." CPWR will establish/maintain an outreach office at each site listed above. This office will serve as the face of the Program to workers and their communities. Communications and intake center: CPWR has two established toll-free phone numbers (1-800-866-9663 and 1-888-464-0009). There is also a dedicated website for the program (btmed.org). Workers can register with the Program by mail, telephone, or on-line. Work history: A standardized, structured work history is administered with modules that accommodate unique exposure scenarios for different occupations and different DOE sites. A work history interview is administered by a trained program interviewer. The work histories are used to determine whether a participant is eligible for the medical examination and to interpret the findings from the medical examination. Medical evaluation: The Program contracts with local medical providers qualified to deliver occupational medical screening services. All providers are credentialed. The Program contracts with a certified national laboratory and with NIOSH certified B-readers to review x-rays. Based on the work history, the participant is referred to a credentialed medical provider who is located close to the participant's home. If it is not convenient to use a credentialed provider, the Program will make arrangements, if necessary, for the participant to receive a physical exam through the National Supplemental Screening Program. Eligible participants will receive the same core medical exam (including a Beryllium Lymphocyte Proliferation Test, BeLPT), and in addition, based on their work history, they may be assigned to exposure specific modules for asbestos, silica, lead, noise, cadmium, and chromium. Lab work will be sent to a national laboratory for processing, except the blood samples for the BeLPT, which will be sent to a DOE-approved laboratory for evaluation. Determination of work-relatedness and follow-up: A letter of findings will be sent to the participant within 60 days of the exam. The letter is written and/or reviewed by occupational medical health personnel with knowledge of the DOE site(s) where the participant has worked and will include specific follow-up recommendations. Urgent findings are followed up by the provider without delay. Evaluation and quality assurance: All data are entered into the Program Data Management System (DMS). The DMS is web-based and relies on electronic submission of results, whenever possible. A de-identified data set on all participants is provided to Duke University Medical Center for evaluation and analysis. Each participant is asked to complete a satisfaction survey. The DMS will be used for quality assurance purposes and to also report summary data to the DOE. The BTMED.ORG website is encrypted using the industry-standard Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) technology (128-bit encryption keys). Each individual that accesses the website is assigned a unique login ID, password, and token. Passwords are required to meet standards for "strength," including minimum length, multi-case, and use of numbers. The website is also protected by additional security layers including additional encryption, hardware and software firewalls, Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), and virus protection.

  20. High-Throughput and Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    groups at: U. Geneva (Switzerland), MPI (Germany), Stockholm University (Sweden), IFE (Norway), SRNL (USA), U. Tohoku, AIST (Japan) High-pressure Sintering Technique for Screening...

  1. active screen plasma: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    reactions: Electron drop model CERN Preprints Summary: We analyze enhancement of thermonuclear fusion reactions due to strong plasma screening in dense matter using a...

  2. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, J.A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, M.A.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the summer and fall of 2001 the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year study for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. Data were collected to determine if velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met current National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage and whether bypass outfall conditions allowed fish to safely return to the river. Based on our studies in 2001, we concluded that: in general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set forth by the NMFS; most facilities efficiently protected juvenile fish from entrainment, impingement, or migration delay; automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were well greased and operative; and removal of sediment build-up and accumulated leafy and woody debris are areas that continue to improve. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices. Continued periodic screen evaluations will increase the effectiveness of screen operation and maintenance practices by confirming the effectiveness (or ineffectiveness) of screen operating procedures at individual sites. Where procedures are being followed and problems still occur, evaluation results can be used to suggest means to better protect fish at screening facilities. There has been a progressive improvement in the maintenance and effectiveness of fish screen facilities in the Yakima River Basin during the last several years, in part, as a result of regular screen evaluations and the rapid feedback of information necessary to improve operations and design of these important fish protection devices.

  3. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials: UOP Approaches High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials: UOP Approaches Presentation by Adriaan Sachtler from the High Throughput...

  4. High Throughput/Combinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials (presentation) High ThroughputCombinatorial Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials (presentation) Presented at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen Storage Meeting...

  5. High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Throughput Combinatorial Screening of Biometic Metal-Organic Materials for Military Hydrogen-Storage Materials (New Joint Miami UNREL DoDDLA Project) (presentation) High...

  6. Roof screening for underground coal mines: recent developments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Compton, C.S.; Gallagher, S.; Molinda, G.M.; Mark, C.; Wilson, G.

    2008-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of screens to control falls of the immediate roof or roof skin (that is between the installed primary and secondary roof supports) is described. 5 figs.

  7. Combining in vivo and in silico screening for protein stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barakat, Nora Hisham

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Implications for the Protein Folding Code". Biochemistry 44(Proteolytic selection for protein folding using filamentousin vivo screening for protein folding and increased protein

  8. abuse screening tool: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (HPV Druzdzel, Marek J. 3 The Feasibility of Tablet Computer Screening for Opioid Abuse in the Emergency Department University of California eScholarship Repository...

  9. abuse screening tools: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (HPV Druzdzel, Marek J. 3 The Feasibility of Tablet Computer Screening for Opioid Abuse in the Emergency Department University of California eScholarship Repository...

  10. assessing screening practices: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Katherine B. Gibney; Karin Leder; Daniel P. Obrien; Caroline Marshall; Beverley-ann Biggs 16 The Pittsburgh Cervical Cancer Screening Model A Risk Assessment Tool Computer...

  11. Coal storage hopper with vibrating-screen agitator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daw, C.S.; Lackey, M.E.; Sy, R.L.

    1982-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a vibrating screen agitator in a coal storage hopper for assuring the uniform feed of coal having sufficient moisture content to effect agglomeration and bridging thereof in the coal hopper from the latter onto a conveyer mechanism. The vibrating scrren agitator is provided by a plurality of transversely oriented and vertically spaced apart screens in the storage hopper with a plurality of vertically oriented rods attached to the screens. The rods are vibrated to effect the vibration of the screens and the breaking up of agglomerates in the coal which might impede the uniform flow of the coal from the hopper onto a conveyer.

  12. FIELD SCREENING FOR HALOGENATED VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Theresa M. Bomstad

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute (WRI) is continuing work toward the development of new screening methodology and a test kit to measure halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Heated diode and corona discharge sensors are commonly used to detect leaks of refrigerants from air conditioners, freezers, and refrigerators. They are both selective to the presence of halogens. In prior work, the devices were tested for response to carbon tetrachloride, heptane, toluene, and water vapors. In the current work, sensor response was evaluated with sixteen halogenated VOCs relative to carbon tetrachloride. The results show that the response of the various chlorinated VOCs is within an order of magnitude of the response to carbon tetrachloride for each of the sensors. Thus, for field screening a single response factor can be used. Both types of leak detectors are being further modified to provide an on-board LCD signal readout, which is related to VOC concentration. The units will be fully portable and will operate with 115-V line or battery power. Signal background, noise level, and response data on the Bacharach heated diode detector and the TIF corona discharge detector show that when the response curves are plotted against the log of concentration, the plot is linear to the upper limit for the particular unit, with some curvature at lower levels. When response is plotted directly against concentration, the response is linear at the low end and is curved at the high end. The dynamic ranges for carbon tetrachloride of the two devices from the lower detection limit (S/N=2) to signal saturation are 4-850 vapor parts per million (vppm) for the corona discharge unit and 0.01-70 vppm for the heated diode unit. Additional circuit modifications are being made to lower the detection limit and increase the dynamic response range of the corona discharge unit. The results indicate that both devices show potential utility for future analytical method development work toward the goal of developing a portable test kit for screening halogenated VOCs in the field.

  13. Apparatus and method for radioactive waste screening

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akers, Douglas W.; Roybal, Lyle G.; Salomon, Hopi; Williams, Charles Leroy

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method relating to screening radioactive waste are disclosed for ensuring that at least one calculated parameter for the measurement data of a sample falls within a range between an upper limit and a lower limit prior to the sample being packaged for disposal. The apparatus includes a radiation detector configured for detecting radioactivity and radionuclide content of the of the sample of radioactive waste and generating measurement data in response thereto, and a collimator including at least one aperture to direct a field of view of the radiation detector. The method includes measuring a radioactive content of a sample, and calculating one or more parameters from the radioactive content of the sample.

  14. Screening method for wind energy conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McConnell, R.D.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening method is presented for evaluating wind energy conversion systems (WECS) logically and consistently. It is a set of procedures supported by a data base for large conventional WECS. The procedures are flexible enough to accommodate concepts lacking cost and engineering detail, as is the case with many innovative wind energy conversion systems (IWECS). The method uses both value indicators and simplified cost estimating procedures. Value indicators are selected ratios of engineering parameters involving energy, mass, area, and power. Cost mass ratios and cost estimating relationships were determined from the conventional WECS data base to estimate or verify installation cost estimates for IWECS. These value indicators and cost estimating procedures are shown for conventional WECS. An application of the method to a tracked-vehicle airfoil concept is presented.

  15. Screening system and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, David A; Gresham, Christopher A; Basiliere, Marc L; Spates, James J; Rodacy, Philip J

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated apparatus and method for screening an object for a target material is provided. The integrated apparatus comprises a housing and an integrated screener. The housing is positionable adjacent the object, and has a channel therethrough. The integrated screener is positionable in the housing, and comprises a fan, at least one filter, a heater and an analyzer. The fan is for drawing air carrying particles and vapor through the channel of the housing. The filter(s) is/are positionable in the channel of the housing for passage of the air therethrough. The filter(s) comprise(s) at least one metal foam having a plurality of pores therein for collecting and adsorbing a sample from the particles and vapor passing therethrough. The heater is for applying heat to the at least one metal foam whereby the collected sample is desorbed from the metal foam. The analyzer detects the target material from the desorbed sample.

  16. Maximum screening fields of superconducting multilayer structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurevich, Alex

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that a multilayer comprised of alternating thin superconducting and insulating layers on a thick substrate can fully screen the applied magnetic field exceeding the superheating fields $H_s$ of both the superconducting layers and the substrate, the maximum Meissner field is achieved at an optimum multilayer thickness. For instance, a dirty layer of thickness $\\sim 0.1\\; \\mu$m at the Nb surface could increase $H_s\\simeq 240$ mT of a clean Nb up to $H_s\\simeq 290$ mT. Optimized multilayers of Nb$_3$Sn, NbN, some of the iron pnictides, or alloyed Nb deposited onto the surface of the Nb resonator cavities could potentially double the rf breakdown field, pushing the peak accelerating electric fields above 100 MV/m while protecting the cavity from dendritic thermomagnetic avalanches caused by local penetration of vortices.

  17. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dafni, T; Bandac, I; Bettini, A; Borges, F I G M; Camargo, M; Carcel, S; Cebrian, S; Cervera, A; Conde, C A N; Diaz, J; Esteve, R; Fernandes, L M P; Fernandez, M; Ferrario, P; Ferreira, A L; Freitas, E D C; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Gomez, H; Gomez-Cadenas, J J; Gonzalez-Diaz, D; Gutierrez, R M; Hauptman, J; Morata, J A Hernando; Herrera, D C; Iguaz, F J; Irastorza, I G; Labarga, L; Laing, A; Liubarsky, I; Lorca, D; Losada, M; Luzon, G; Mari, A; Martin-Albo, J; Martinez, A; Martinez-Lema, G; Miller, T; Monrabal, F; Monserrate, M; Monteiro, C M B; Mora, F J; Moutinho, L M; Vidal, J Munoz; Nebot-Guinot, M; Nygren, D; Oliveira, C A B; Perez, J; Aparicio, J L Perez; Renner, J; Ripoll, L; Rodriguez, A; Rodriguez, J; Santos, F P; Santos, J M F dos; Segui, L; Serra, L; Shuman, D; Simon, A; Sofka, C; Sorel, M; Toledo, J F; Torrent, J; Tsamalaidze, Z; Veloso, J F C A; Villar, J A; Webb, R C; White, J T; Yahlali, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  18. Simplex-based screening designs for estimating metamodels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    by one factor. In this article, we introduce a non-OAT simplex-based design for the elementary effectsSimplex-based screening designs for estimating metamodels Gilles Pujol Ecole Nationale Superieure experiments, sensitivity analysis, factor screening, elementary effect, simplex design 1 Introduction

  19. allergy screen test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    allergy screen test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 LATEX ALLERGY SCREENING...

  20. Environmental Screening and Evaluation of Energy-using Products

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .2 ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING BASED ON THE ECOINVENT DATABASE 40 5.3 ECOLABEL REQUIREMENTS 48 5.4 TECHNOLOGY.2 ENVIRONMENTAL SCREENING BASED ON THE ECOINVENT DATABASE 58 6.3 ECOLABEL REQUIREMENTS 61 6.4 TECHNOLOGY ON THE ECOINVENT DATABASE 73 8.3 ECOLABEL REQUIREMENTS 73 8.4 TECHNOLOGY AND MARKET TRENDS 73 8.5 CONCLUSION 74 8

  1. Building up the screening below the femtosecond scale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muińo, Ricardo Díez

    Building up the screening below the femtosecond scale A. Borisov a;b D. S#19;anchez-Portal b;c R. D that the screening is built-up locally on a time scale well below the femtosecond for typical metallic densities. At this ultrashort time scale, the time evolution is not a#11;ected by the cluster boundary conditions, and our

  2. Pre-Employment Screening: How New EEOC Guidance Affects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weaver, Harold A. "Hal"

    Pre-Employment Screening: How New EEOC Guidance Affects Criminal Background Checks & Potentially Increases Employer Risks An HRWebAdvisor Webinar by Mark A. de Bernardo, Esq. Jackson Lewis LLP #12;HRWebAdvisor Webinar: Pre-Employment Screening 2 Our webinars are designed to be accurate

  3. Conservation Screening Curves to Compare Efficiency Investments to Power Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    methodology to compare supply and demand-side resources. The screening curve approach supplements with load curve approach supplements with load shape information the data contained in a supply curve of conservedLBL-27286 Conservation Screening Curves to Compare Efficiency Investments to Power Plants Jonathan

  4. Results of the material screening program of the NEXT experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Dafni; V. Alvarez; I. Bandac; A. Bettini; F. I. G. M. Borges; M. Camargo; S. Carcel; S. Cebrian; A. Cervera; C. A. N. Conde; J. Diaz; R. Esteve; L. M. P. Fernandes; M. Fernandez; P. Ferrario; A. L. Ferreira; E. D. C. Freitas; V. M. Gehman; A. Goldschmidt; H. Gomez; J. J. Gomez-Cadenas; D. Gonzalez-Diaz; R. M. Gutierrez; J. Hauptman; J. A. Hernando Morata; D. C. Herrera; F. J. Iguaz; I. G. Irastorza; L. Labarga; A. Laing; I. Liubarsky; D. Lorca; M. Losada; G. Luzon; A. Mari; J. Martin-Albo; A. Martinez; G. Martinez-Lema; T. Miller; F. Monrabal; M. Monserrate; C. M. B. Monteiro; F. J. Mora; L. M. Moutinho; J. Munoz Vidal; M. Nebot-Guinot; D. Nygren; C. A. B. Oliveira; J. Perez; J. L. Perez Aparicio; J. Renner; L. Ripoll; A. Rodriguez; J. Rodriguez; F. P. Santos; J. M. F. dos Santos; L. Segui; L. Serra; D. Shuman; A. Simon; C. Sofka; M. Sorel; J. F. Toledo; J. Torrent; Z. Tsamalaidze; J. F. C. A. Veloso; J. A. Villar; R. C. Webb; J. T. White; N. Yahlali

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'Neutrino Experiment with a Xenon TPC (NEXT)', intended to investigate neutrinoless double beta decay, requires extremely low background levels. An extensive material screening and selection process to assess the radioactivity of components is underway combining several techniques, including germanium gamma-ray spectrometry performed at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory; recent results of this material screening program are presented here.

  5. Microfluidic Technologies for High-Throughput Screening Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quake, Stephen R.

    Microfluidic Technologies for High-Throughput Screening Applications Thesis by Todd Thorsen, patiently giving me advice on a large variety of subjects, ranging from microfluidics to optics of microfluidic devices for high-throughput screening applications, such as mutant enzyme libraries expressed

  6. Lead Screening for NH Soils: Minimizing Health Risks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Hampshire, University of

    family. On your soil test report, if the lead screening levels are elevated, you will receive in populated areas include the use of lead paint around homes (pre- 1970s), the use of lead-arsenate for pest does a "lead screening" test that indicates whether or not lead could pose a health risk for your

  7. METHODS AND APPLICATIONS White and green screening with circular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Regan, Lynne

    METHODS AND APPLICATIONS White and green screening with circular polymerase extension cloning frustrating. Here, we present a stream- lined cloning strategy that incorporates a powerful white and green, or substitution libraries. Keywords: GFP; blue-white screening; circular polymerase extension cloning; Phusion

  8. A Personal Touch -Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of user interaction of personal smart phones and touch screen based devices are often shared among severalA Personal Touch - Recognizing Users Based on Touch Screen Behavior Sarah Martina Kolly Computer, there are still many open research questions concerning the basic input properties of these devices. We performed

  9. One piece microwave container screens for electrodeless lamps

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Brian (Myersville, MD); Ury, Michael (Bethesda, MD)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microwave powered electrodeless lamp includes an improved screen unit having mesh and solid sections with an internal reflector to reflect light into a light-transmitting chamber defined in the lamp microwave cavity by the reflector and the mesh section. A discharge envelope of a bulb is disposed in the light-transmitting chamber. Light emitted from the envelope is prevented by the reflector from entering the cavity portion bounded by the solid section of the screen. Replacing mesh material by solid metal material as part of the screen unit significantly reduces leakage of microwave energy from the lamp. The solid section has multiple compliant fingers defined therein for engaging the periphery of a flange on the waveguide unit so that a hose clamp can easily secure the screen to the assembly. Screen units of this type having different mesh section configurations can be interchanged in the lamp assembly to produce different respective illumination patterns.

  10. Screening in Thermonuclear Reaction Rates in the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrei V. Gruzinov; John N. Bahcall

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We evaluate the effect of electrostatic screening by ions and electrons on low-Z thermonuclear reactions in the sun. We use a mean field formalism and calculate the electron density of the screening cloud using the appropriate density matrix equation of quantum statistical mechanics. Because of well understood physical effects that are included for the first time in our treatment, the calculated enhancement of reaction rates does not agree with the frequently used interpolation formulae. Our result does agree, within small uncertainties, with Salpeter's weak screening formula. If weak screening is used instead of the commonly employed screening prescription of Graboske et al., the predicted $^8$B neutrino flux is increased by 7% and the predicted chlorine rate is increased by 0.4 SNU.

  11. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Danville, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Brice{hacek over (n)}o, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xiao-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  12. Electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Employing an electrostatically screened, voltage-controlled electrostatic chuck particularly suited for holding wafers and masks in sub-atmospheric operations will significantly reduce the likelihood of contaminant deposition on the substrates. The electrostatic chuck includes (1) an insulator block having a outer perimeter and a planar surface adapted to support the substrate and comprising at least one electrode (typically a pair of electrodes that are embedded in the insulator block), (2) a source of voltage that is connected to the at least one electrode, (3) a support base to which the insulator block is attached, and (4) a primary electrostatic shield ring member that is positioned around the outer perimeter of the insulator block. The electrostatic chuck permits control of the voltage of the lithographic substrate; in addition, it provides electrostatic shielding of the stray electric fields issuing from the sides of the electrostatic chuck. The shielding effectively prevents electric fields from wrapping around to the upper or front surface of the substrate, thereby eliminating electrostatic particle deposition.

  13. ANALYSIS OF DUST DELIQUESCENCE FOR FEP SCREENING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Bryan

    2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the potential for penetration of the Alloy 22 (UNS N06022) waste package outer barrier by localized corrosion due to the deliquescence of soluble constituents in dust present on waste package surfaces. The results support a recommendation to exclude deliquescence-induced localized corrosion (pitting or crevice corrosion) of the outer barrier from the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA). Preparation of this report, and supporting laboratory studies and calculations, were performed as part of the planned effort in Work Package AEBM21, as implemented in ''Technical Work Plan for: Screening Evaluation for Dust Deliquescence and Localized Corrosion'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 172804]), by Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC, and staff from three national laboratories: Sandia National Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis and conclusions presented in this report are quality affecting, as determined in the controlling technical work plan. A summary of background information, based on work that was not performed under a quality assurance program, is provided as Appendix E. In this instance, the use of unqualified information is provided for transparency and corroboration only, and is clearly separated from uses of qualified information. Thus, the qualification status of this information does not affect the conclusions of this report. The acceptance criteria addressed in Sections 4.2 and 7.2 were changed from the technical work plan in response to review comments received during preparation of this report.

  14. Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chakraborty, Baishali; Sen, Siddhartha

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb imp...

  15. Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  16. Synthesis and screening combinatorial arrays of zeolites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  17. Coulomb screening in graphene with topological defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baishali Chakraborty; Kumar S. Gupta; Siddhartha Sen

    2015-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the screening of an external Coulomb charge in gapless graphene cone, which is taken as a prototype of a topological defect. In the subcritical regime, the induced charge is calculated using both the Green's function and the Friedel sum rule. The dependence of the polarization charge on the Coulomb strength obtained from the Green's function clearly shows the effect of the conical defect and indicates that the critical charge itself depends on the sample topology. Similar analysis using the Friedel sum rule indicates that the two results agree for low values of the Coulomb charge but differ for the higher strengths, especially in the presence of the conical defect. For a given subcritical charge, the transport cross-section has a higher value in the presence of the conical defect. In the supercritical regime we show that the coefficient of the power law tail of polarization charge density can be expressed as a summation of functions which vary log periodically with the distance from the Coulomb impurity. The period of variation depends on the conical defect. In the presence of the conical defect, the Fano resonances begin to appear in the transport cross-section for a lower value of the Coulomb charge. For both sub and supercritical regime we derive the dependence of LDOS on the conical defect. The effects of generalized boundary condition on the physical observables are also discussed.

  18. Technical background document for soil screening guidance. Review draft

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document provides the technical background behind the development of the November 1994 Soil Screening Guidance for Superfund. These documents define the Soil Screening framework, a suite of methodologies for developing Soil Screening Levels (SSLs) for 107 chemicals commonly found at Superfund sites. The document is an updated version of the background document developed in support of the September 30, 1993, draft SSL guidance (PB93-963508). The document and the Guidance is available for public comment and is currently undergoing extensive peer review. Because the guidance is still under review, it and this document should not be used until they are finalized following this rigorous technical review and public comment.

  19. A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, Carl L.

    A Complete Microfluidic Screening Platform for Rational Protein Crystallization Billy T. C. Lau integration, and low reagent consumption, microfluidic devices have emerged as viable technologies for protein crystallization. Current microfluidic crystallization technologies have focused on two separate strategies: one

  20. Rapid screening of novel nanoporous materials for carbon capture separations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mangano, Enzo

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work the experimental results from the rapid screening and ranking of a wide range of novel adsorbents for carbon capture are presented. The samples were tested using the Zero Length Column (ZLC) method which has ...

  1. Brighter Screens for Nondestructive Digital X-ray Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Jr., A. C.; Bell, Z. W.; Carpenter, D. A.

    2003-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Fine resolution, bright X-ray screens are needed for digital radiography and material characterization at the Y-12 National Security Complex (Y-12). Current technology is simply not adequate for transferring high-energy X-ray images to visible light for demanding digital applications. Low energy radiography and especially emerging tomographic technologies are severely hampered for Y-12 nondestructive evaluation (NDE) applications by dim screens with poor resolution. Also, the development of more advanced materials characterization techniques, such as electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD), is driven by a design agency desire for tighter specifications and more uniform materials. Brighter screens would allow us to probe materials on a finer scale, leading to a better understanding of material behavior. A number of X-ray screen materials were studied that would be suitable for direct replacement in existing digital imaging systems. Spectroscopic evaluations were first made for a several candidates and indicated that lutetium orthosilicate (LSO) would be a promising candidate for MeV images. A relative comparison of brightness at various energies was then completed which showed that cesium iodide (CsI) could increase brightness by over an order of magnitude. Since image quality is also important for better screens, the resolving capabilities of candidate materials were measured. Resolution measurements were completed at X-ray peak energies up to 420KeV with magnified optical imaging systems, and indicated that LSO and Industrial Quality Incorporated glass (IQI) exhibited higher resolution than the CsI screen. The results give a choice of materials that can be tailored to the particular test under consideration. If high-speed images are necessary and some resolution can be sacrificed, the CsI screen will be a good choice. The screen can be replaced by an IQI or LSO unit if higher resolution is needed later, for instance to focus in on a region of interest. A number of significant findings were obtained from this study. Most important of the findings was that materials are commercially available that are much brighter than screens currently in use. This finding meets the original objective of the project. Two objectives of the study; however, were not met. We hoped to evaluate a 'quantum dot' (nanometer-sized particles of semiconductor material) wavelength conversion screen, but the manufacturer ceased production of the screen shortly before the project was started. The dot screen could be efficient in converting ultraviolet light to visible light which would have proved important for utilizing a Cherenkov screen. Since this was a very new, cutting-edge technology, an alternative supplier was not found during the study. Also, high-energy testing of a Cherenkov light screen was not performed due to difficulties in obtaining appropriate approvals for locating test equipment in the high-energy X-ray vault at Y-12. The test is still important, and is being pursued through follow-on funding sources. Although many film shots will be eliminated by the availability of high quality digital images, the largest potential gains result from the availability of clearer images that show fine detail in the parts under analysis. Digital radiographic data also offers the possibility of easily sharing data with other sites. This could prove invaluable when critical material, placement, assembly, or quality issues are pressing. Also, increased throughput in the NDE facility allows statistically significant numbers of units to be analyzed. Digital technologies may in fact be needed just to meet minimum requirements of future demands. Increased brightness screens allow for such innovations as 3-D tomographic images to be acquired in a reasonable time. Much of the skill required to interpret 'flattened' X-ray images is not needed to maneuver around the reconstructed tomogram. This study showed that several commercially available materials are much brighter than screens currently in use. The study also showed that materials othe

  2. http://jbx.sagepub.com Journal of Biomolecular Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Fu

    /1/29 SAGE Journals Online and HighWire Press platforms): (this article cites 25 articles hosted on the of high-throughput screening (HTS) procedures coupled with auto- mated microscopy to generate large

  3. Improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery using polymer injection technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchett, R.T.; McGough, K.M.; Luttrell, G.H.

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper reports the improved screen-bowl centrifuge recovery process using polymer injection technology. Field test and economic analysis are also included in the paper. 3 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Biocompatible polymer microarrays for cellular high-content screening 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pernagallo, Salvatore

    2010-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The global aim of this thesis was to study the use of microarray technology for the screening and identification of biocompatible polymers, to understand physiological phenomena, and the design of biomaterials, implant ...

  5. Stochastic dominance for project screening and selection under uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adeyemo, Adekunle M

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    At any given moment, engineering and chemical companies have a host of projects that they are either trying to screen to advance to the next stage of research or select from for implementation. These choices could range ...

  6. Former Worker Medical Screening Program 2013 Annual Report, February...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Studies have shown that individuals are more likely to stop smoking, for example, when a health care provider counsels them to do so. Similarly, the re-screening examination is an...

  7. Properties of plain weave metallic wire mesh screens Zenghui Zhao

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    , heat pipes, solar energy collector, thermal insu- lation, etc. Structures or laminates made of wire heat transfer by coating the heat transfer surface with a mesh screen is found in [2]. In recent years

  8. Screening of Electrode Materials & Cell Chemistries and Streamlining...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation es028lu2011p.pdf More Documents & Publications Screen Electrode...

  9. adolescent health screening: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Akagi, Cynthia G. 2005-11-30 2 Screening for adolescent alcohol and drug use in pediatric health-care settings: predictors and implications for practice and policy University of...

  10. WebThumb: Interaction Techniques for Small-Screen Browsers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wobbrock, Jacob O.

    205 WebThumb: Interaction Techniques for Small-Screen Browsers Jacob O. Wobbrock* , Jodi Forlizzi are not made or distributed for profit or commercial advantage and that copies bear this notice and the full

  11. TA-53 UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE SCREENING AND DETERMINATION PROCESS

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 UNREVIEWED SAFETY ISSUE SCREENING AND DETERMINATION PROCESS TRAINING WORKSHEET CT-TA53-FRM-505-R00 102011 Page 1 of 3 LA-UR-12-10162 TRAINEE NAME: Z NUMBER: GROUP: PURPOSE AND...

  12. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Screens Evaluations, 2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamness, Mickie; Abernethy, Scott; Tunnicliffe, Cherylyn [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated Gardena Farms, Little Walla Walla, and Garden City/Lowden II Phase II fish screen facilities and provided underwater videography beneath a leaking rubber dam in the Walla Walla River basin in 2006. Evaluations of the fish screen facilities took place in early May 2006, when juvenile salmonids are generally outmigrating. At the Gardena Farms site, extended high river levels caused accumulations of debris and sediment in the forebay. This debris covered parts of the bottom drum seals, which could lead to early deterioration of the seals and drum screen. Approach velocities were excessive at the upstream corners of most of the drums, leading to 14% of the total approach velocities exceeding 0.4 feet per second (ft/s). Consequently, the approach velocities did not meet National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) design criteria guidelines for juvenile fish screens. The Little Walla Walla site was found to be in good condition, with all approach, sweep, and bypass velocities within NMFS criteria. Sediment buildup was minor and did not affect the effectiveness of the screens. At Garden City/Lowden II, 94% of approach velocities met NMFS criteria of 0.4 ft/s at any time. Sweep velocities increased toward the fish ladder. The air-burst mechanism appears to keep large debris off the screens, although it does not prevent algae and periphyton from growing on the screen face, especially near the bottom of the screens. In August 2006, the Gardena Farm Irrigation District personnel requested that we look for a leak beneath the inflatable rubber dam at the Garden City/Lowden II site that was preventing water movement through the fish ladder. Using our underwater video equipment, we were able to find a gap in the sheet piling beneath the dam. Erosion of the riverbed was occurring around this gap, allowing water and cobbles to move beneath the dam. The construction engineers and irrigation district staff were able to use the video footage to resolve the problem within a couple weeks. We had hoped to also evaluate the effectiveness of modifications to louvers behind the Nursery Bridge screens when flows were higher than 350 cubic feet per second, (cfs) but were unable to do so. Based on the one measurement made in early 2006 after the modified louvers were set, it appears the modified louvers may help reduce approach velocities. The auxiliary supply water system gates also control water through the screens. Evaluating the effect of different combinations of gate and louver positions on approach velocities through the screens may help identify optimum settings for both at different river discharges.

  13. Systematic quantum corrections to screening in thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirish M. Chitanvis

    2006-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a series expansion of the plasma screening length away from the classical limit in powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. It is shown that the leading order quantum correction increases the screening length in solar conditions by approximately 2% while it decreases the fusion rate by approximately $ 0.34%$. We also calculate the next higher order quantum correction which turns out to be approximately 0.05%.

  14. Systematic quantum corrections to screening in thermonuclear fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chitanvis, S M

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a series expansion of the plasma screening length away from the classical limit in powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. It is shown that the leading order quantum correction increases the screening length in solar conditions by approximately 2% while it decreases the fusion rate by approximately $ 0.34%$. We also calculate the next higher order quantum correction which turns out to be approximately 0.05%.

  15. A screening technique for salt tolerance in onion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wannamaker, Mary Jordon

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by MARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major... Subject: Horticulture A SCREENING TECHNIQUE FOR SALT TOLERANCE IN ONION A Thesis by NARY JORDAN WANNAMAKER Approved as to style and content by: Leonard M. Pike (Chairma f Cp 'ttee) 'eg C. Cobb (Member) Ron Newton (Member) . Grant Vest (Head...

  16. Plasma-sheath effects on the Debye screening problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarmah, D.; Tessarotto, M.; Salimullah, M. [Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); International Center for Theoretical Physics, ICPT/TRIL, Program, Trieste (Italy); and Consortium for Magnetofluid Dynamics, Trieste (Italy); Department of Mathematics and Informatics, University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Consortium for Magnetofluid Dynamics, Trieste (Italy); Department of Physics, Jahangirnagar University, Savar, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The classical Debye-Hueckel screening effect of the electrostatic field generated by isolated charged particles immersed in a plasma is reviewed. The validity of the underlying mathematical model, and particularly of the weak-field approximation, is analyzed. It is shown that the presence of the plasma sheath around test particles and the resulting effect of charge screening are essential for the description of plasmas that are strongly coupled.

  17. First law energy balance as a data screening tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Xiaojie

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    .............................................................................................135 7.1 Introduction....................................................................................135 7.2 Pre-Screening Case 1: Harrington Tower ......................................136 7.3 Pre-Screening Case 2: The Eller O&M Building.... outside air temperature.......................68 Figure 4.18 Key characteristics of simulated results of Energy Balance Load............. 69 Figure 5.1 Main Effect plot for the Eller Oceanography & Meteorology Building....85 Figure 5...

  18. Generalized charge-screening in relativistic Thomas–Fermi model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Sciences, Azarbaijan Shahid Madani University, 51745-406 Tabriz, Iran and International Centre for Advanced Studies in Physical Sciences and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ruhr University Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we study the charge shielding within the relativistic Thomas-Fermi model for a wide range of electron number-densities and the atomic-number of screened ions. A generalized energy-density relation is obtained using the force-balance equation and taking into account the Chandrasekhar's relativistic electron degeneracy pressure. By numerically solving a second-order nonlinear differential equation, the Thomas-Fermi screening length is investigated, and the results are compared for three distinct regimes of the solid-density, warm-dense-matter, and white-dwarfs (WDs). It is revealed that our nonlinear screening theory is compatible with the exponentially decaying Thomas-Fermi-type shielding predicted by the linear response theory. Moreover, the variation of relative Thomas-Fermi screening length shows that extremely dense quantum electron fluids are relatively poor charge shielders. Calculation of the total number of screening electrons around a nucleus shows that there is a position of maximum number of screening localized electrons around the screened nucleus, which moves closer to the point-like nucleus by increase in the plasma number density but is unaffected due to increase in the atomic-number value. It is discovered that the total number of screening electrons, (N{sub s}?r{sub TF}{sup 3}/r{sub d}{sup 3} where r{sub TF} and r{sub d} are the Thomas-Fermi and interparticle distance, respectively) has a distinct limit for extremely dense plasmas such as WD-cores and neutron star crusts, which is unique for all given values of the atomic-number. This is equal to saying that in an ultrarelativistic degeneracy limit of electron-ion plasma, the screening length couples with the system dimensionality and the plasma becomes spherically self-similar. Current analysis can provide useful information on the effects of relativistic correction to the charge screening for a wide range of plasma density, such as the inertial-confined plasmas and compact stellar objects.

  19. TouchLogger: Inferring Keystrokes On Touch Screen From Smartphone Motion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hao

    ]. Electromaganetic emanations of key- boards are also studied for keylogging [8]. Touch screen smartphones have

  20. SMOKE AND CFD VISUALIZATION OF THE FLOW AFTER AN EMC SCREEN IN A SUBRACK MODEL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    SMOKE AND CFD VISUALIZATION OF THE FLOW AFTER AN EMC SCREEN IN A SUBRACK MODEL Raúl Antón1, 2, 3 analysed are the velocity, the EMC screen porosity and the subrack geometry. The technique used pattern after the screen. KEYWORDS: RNG k-, perforated plate, porosity, EMC screen, subrack, flow pattern

  1. Yakima River Basin Phase II Fish Screen Evaluations, 2003

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vucelick, Jessica A.; McMichael, Geoffrey A.; Chamness, Mickie A.

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the Nation Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS)) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  2. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  3. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2009-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  4. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman; Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  5. Surfactant biocatalyst for remediation of recalcitrant organics and heavy metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brigmon, Robin L. (North Augusta, SC); Story, Sandra (Greenville, SC); Altman, Denis J. (Evans, GA); Berry, Christopher J. (Aiken, SC)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel strains of isolated and purified bacteria have been identified which have the ability to degrade petroleum hydrocarbons including a variety of PAHs. Several isolates also exhibit the ability to produce a biosurfactant. The combination of the biosurfactant-producing ability along with the ability to degrade PAHs enhances the efficiency with which PAHs may be degraded. Additionally, the biosurfactant also provides an additional ability to bind heavy metal ions for removal from a soil or aquatic environment.

  6. Decision trees and integrated features for computer aided mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kegelmeyer, W.P. Jr.; Groshong, B.; Allmen, M.; Woods, K.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Breast cancer is a serious problem, which in the United States causes 43,000 deaths a year, eventually striking 1 in 9 women. Early detection is the only effective countermeasure, and mass mammography screening is the only reliable means for early detection. Mass screening has many shortcomings which could be addressed by a computer-aided mammographic screening system. Accordingly, we have applied the pattern recognition methods developed in earlier investigations of speculated lesions in mammograms to the detection of microcalcifications and circumscribed masses, generating new, more rigorous and uniform methods for the detection of both those signs. We have also improved the pattern recognition methods themselves, through the development of a new approach to combinations of multiple classifiers.

  7. Screen bowl centrifuge: a high-efficiency particle size separator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohanty, M.K.; Zhang, B.; Khanna, N.; Palit, A.; Dube, B. [South Illinois University, Carbondale, IL (United States). Dept. for Mining & Mineral Resources Engineering

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the years, screen bowl centrifuges have been widely used for dewatering fine coal in coal preparation plants in the United States and elsewhere. It is generally recognized in the engineering and scientific communities that screen bowl centrifuges provide some degree of particle size separation while dewatering fine coal in a common application. However, the extent of differential partitioning of coarse and fine particles achievable by a screen bowl centrifuge has not been systematically studied in the past. The present investigation was aimed at conducting a parametric study using a statistically designed experimental program to better understand and optimize the size classification performance of a screen bowl centrifuge. A continuously operating screen bowl centrifuge having a bowl diameter of 0.5 m was used for this study at the Illinois Coal Development Park. Three key operating parameters, i.e., feed flow rate, feed solid content and pool depth, were varied to conduct a total of 17 experiments using a three-level factorial test matrix. Some of the best size separation performances achieved in this study may be described as having an imperfection value of 0.13 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 38 mu m and an imperfection value of 0.27 at an effective separation size (d(50c)) of 2.8 mu m. Due to an effective separation of ultrafine high ash materials, the ash content of the screen bowl feed was reduced from 22.3% to a minimum of 8.84% with a combustible recovery of 84.1% and an ash rejection of 71.6%. A higher combustible recovery of 92.1% was achieved at a product ash content of 12.5% with a d(50c) of 2.8 mu m and imperfection of 0.27.

  8. Solar Site Screening Decision Tree | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMayDepartment of EnergySite Screening Decision Tree Solar Site Screening

  9. Infrared-Based Screening System Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Infrared-Based Screening System (IBSS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by UT-Battelle, LLC underperforming or overworking components are identified. These thermal-based systems integrate infrared (IR) sensors or cameras, video images, and vehicle position sensors, and are generically known as infrared

  10. ORIGINAL PAPER Propylene Epoxidation: High-Throughput Screening of Supported

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Senkan, Selim M.

    ORIGINAL PAPER Propylene Epoxidation: High-Throughput Screening of Supported Metal Catalysts of propylene using molecular oxygen was studied on a variety of supported metal catalysts. The most promising Propylene Á Epoxidation Á Sol­gel Á High-throughput 1 Introduction Propylene oxide (PO) is an important raw

  11. Screening of quark-monopole in N=4 plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wei-shui Xu; Ding-fang Zeng

    2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a quark-monopole bound system moving in N=4 SYM plasma with a constant velocity by the AdS/CFT correspondence. The screening length of this system is calculated, and is smaller than that of the quark-antiquark bound state.

  12. anxiety screening test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anxiety screening test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Test Anxiety Tips to Ease Your...

  13. agglutination screening test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    agglutination screening test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Veterinary World Vol.3(2):...

  14. antibody screening test: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    antibody screening test First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 1.9.1 BLOOD GROUPING AND...

  15. 111Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter 5: Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for providers. For use by health departments in preparing materials for health-care providers, this template- tional Health and Nutrition Examination Survey #12;113Screening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Chapter levels in the U.S. population: phase 1 of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

  16. Clinical Cancer Care Full screening services and diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    Clinical Cancer Care · Full screening services and diagnostics · Advanced treatments for all forms of cancer · Most frequent cancers at the Cancer Center: Breast 15% Gastrointestinal 13% Skin 17% Lung 13 treatment protocols that link the latest Cancer Center research to clinical care · Familial Cancer Program

  17. Review Profile & Update Email Preferences No. Screen Narration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Review Profile & Update Email Preferences No. Screen Narration 1 Bookend Slide This lesson will show how to review your profile and update your email preferences. 2 home/shop > shop To access your profile at any time, simply click on the profile link at the top of the page just to the right of your

  18. Large-scale screening of hypothetical metalorganic frameworks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    chemical library of building blocks (based on the structures of known MOFs) and rapidly screen them to find,953 hypothetical MOFs and for each one calculated the pore-size distribution, surface area and methane-storage capacity. We identified over 300 MOFs with a predicted methane-storage capacity better than that of any

  19. ScreenPass: Secure Password Entry on Touchscreen Dongtao Liu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cox, Landon

    ScreenPass: Secure Password Entry on Touchscreen Devices Dongtao Liu Duke University Durham, NC, USA Eduardo Cuervo Duke University Durham, NC, USA Valentin Pistol Duke University Durham, NC, USA Ryan Scudellari Duke University Durham, NC, USA Landon P. Cox Duke University Durham, NC, USA ABSTRACT

  20. Screened Coulomb potentials for astrophysical nuclear fusion reactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore E. Liolios

    2000-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The electron-screening acceleration of laboratory fusion reactions at astrophysical energies is an unsolved problem of great importance to astrophysics. That effect is modeled here by considering the fusion of hydrogen-like atoms whose electron probability density is used in Poisson's equation in order to derive the corresponding screened Coulomb potential energy. That way atomic excitations and deformations of the fusing atoms can be taken into account. Those potentials are then treated semiclassically in order to obtain the screening (accelerating) factor of the reaction. By means of the proposed model the effect of a superstrong magnetic field on laboratory Hydrogen fusion reactions is investigated here for the first time showing that, despite the considerable increase in the cross section of the $% dd$ reaction, the $pp$ reaction is still too slow to justify experimentation. The proposed model is finally applied on the $H^{2}(d,p) H^{3}$ fusion reaction describing satisfactorily the experimental data although some ambiguity remains regarding the molecular nature of the deuteron target. Notably, the present method gives a sufficiently high screening energy for Hydrogen fusion reactions so that the take-away energy of the spectator nucleus can also be taken into account.

  1. Healthline.com New Sensor Screens Your Blood

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    Healthline.com New Sensor Screens Your Blood for Drugs in Real-Time Written and illegal drugs in human blood. It's every doctor's dream--a small, wearable sensor that can monitor levels of, say, the heart drug digoxin in a patient's blood, and make sure that he or she gets

  2. MR SCREENING FORM FOR RESEARCH STAFF Page 1 of 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MR SCREENING FORM FOR RESEARCH STAFF Page 1 of 2 (PLEASE PRINT) NAME DATE: Before entering the MR environment or MR system room, you must remove all metallic objects including hearing aids, dentures, partial may be advised or required to wear earplugs or other hearing protection during the MR procedure

  3. Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line Rubel,1,2 and David W. Raible1,4 Abstract In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells, the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear. Two goals of current hearing research are to protect hair cells from

  4. Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives Bench-Top Engine System for Fast Screening of Alternative Fuels and Fuel Additives A bench-top...

  5. Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology and Beneficial Use 2013 1 (to sustain instream #12;Coalbed Methane Produced Water Screening Tool for Treatment Technology Supporting Information 1.0 Produced Water Regulatory Framework for WY and NM

  6. Response to Intervention Screening and Progress Monitoring Practices in 41 Local Schools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mellard, Daryl; McKnight, M.; Woods, Kari

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study describes response to intervention (RTI) screening and progress monitoring instruments and procedures in 41 local school settings. For screening the schools most often used published reading assessments or ...

  7. Engineering of a High-Throughput Screening System to Identify Cellulosic Biomass,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    - grated high-throughput (HTP) screening pipeline. Herein, we report on the engineering of a novel HTP

  8. Application of a new screening model to thermonuclear reactions of the rp process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore Liolios

    2003-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A new screening model for astrophysical thermonuclear reactions was derived recently which improved Salpeter's weak-screening one. In the present work we prove that the new model can also give very reliable screening enhancement factors (SEFs) when applied to the rp process. According to the results of the new model, which agree well with Mitler's SEFs, the screened rp reaction rates can be, at most, twice as fast as the unscreened ones.

  9. Screening for Real Options “In” an Engineering System: A Step Towards Flexible System Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartolomei, Jason E.

    2006-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research is to develop an analytical framework for screening for real options “in” an

  10. Argonne National Laboratory-West Former Workers, Construction Worker Screening Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory-West Former Construction Workers (now known as Idaho National Laboratory), Construction Worker Screening Projects

  11. Neonatal Hearing Screening Test Consistent with loss in one or both ears within frequency range

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levin, Judith G.

    Neonatal Hearing Screening Test Consistent with loss in one or both ears within frequency range: Gene specific mutation screening If familial and nonsyndromal is suspected, consider: GJB2 testing GJB6 testing CMV testing Environmental etiologies Gene specific screening may be warranted If nonsyndromal

  12. A new protein folding screen: Application to the ligand binding domains of a glutamate and kainate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    A new protein folding screen: Application to the ligand binding domains of a glutamate and kainate of determining and evaluating protein folding conditions, we have designed a new fractional factorial protein folding screen. The screen includes 12 factors shown by previous experiments to enhance protein folding

  13. From screen to structure with a harvestable microfluidic device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stojanoff V.; Jakonic, J.; Oren, D.A.; Nagarajan, V.; Navarro Poulsen, J.C.; Adams-Cioaba, M.A.; Bergfors, T. and Sommer, M.O.A.

    2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in automation have facilitated the widespread adoption of high-throughput vapor-diffusion methods for initial crystallization screening. However, for many proteins, screening thousands of crystallization conditions fails to yield crystals of sufficient quality for structural characterization. Here, the rates of crystal identification for thaumatin, catalase and myoglobin using microfluidic Crystal Former devices and sitting-drop vapour-diffusion plates are compared. It is shown that the Crystal Former results in a greater number of identified initial crystallization conditions compared with vapor diffusion. Furthermore, crystals of thaumatin and lysozyme obtained in the Crystal Former were used directly for structure determination both in situ and upon harvesting and cryocooling. On the basis of these results, a crystallization strategy is proposed that uses multiple methods with distinct kinetic trajectories through the protein phase diagram to increase the output of crystallization pipelines.

  14. Development of a trace explosives detection portal for personnel screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parmeter, J.E.; Linker, K.L.; Rhykerd, C.L. Jr.; Bouchier, F.A.; Hannum, D.W.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors discuss the development, design, and operation of a walk-through trace detection portal designed to screen personnel for explosives. Developed at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) with primary funding from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and additional support from the Department of Energy office of Safeguards and Security, this portal is intended primarily for use in airport terminals and in other localities where a very high throughput of pedestrian traffic is combined with stringent security requirements. The portal is capable of detecting both vapor and particulate contamination, with the collection of explosive material being based upon the entrainment of that material in air flows over the body of the person being screened. This portal is capable of detecting most types of common high explosives of interest to the FAA. The authors discuss the results of field testing of the portal in the Albuquerque International Airport in September, 1997 and more recent steps towards commercialization of the portal.

  15. Scheduling screening inspections for replaceable and non-replaceable systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aral, Bahadir

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    . For instance, the American Cancer Society recommends three tests to detect signs of breast cancer: mammography, clinical breast exam and breast self-examination. Additionally, the American Medical Womens Association recommends annual mammography and clin- ical... cancer. For instance, mammography?s ability to detect a breast cancer when it is already started is estimated to 77.6% in (Houssami, Ciatto, Irwig, Simpson and Macaskill, 2002). Therefore, when designing screening inspection schedules, the fallibility...

  16. Bound states of a more general exponential screened Coulomb potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sameer M. Ikhdair; Ramazan Sever

    2006-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative approximation scheme has been used in solving the Schrodinger equation to the more general case of exponential screened Coulomb potential, V(r)=-(a/r)\\[1+(1+br)e^{-2br}]. The bound state energies of the 1s, $2s, and 3s-states, together with the ground state wave function are obtained analytically upto the second perturbation term.

  17. Screening Level Risk Assessment for the New Waste Calcining Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. L. Abbott; K. N. Keck; R. E. Schindler; R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; M. B. Heiser

    1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This screening level risk assessment evaluates potential adverse human health and ecological impacts resulting from continued operations of the calciner at the New Waste Calcining Facility (NWCF) at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The assessment was conducted in accordance with the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report, Guidance for Performing Screening Level Risk Analyses at Combustion Facilities Burning Hazardous Waste. This screening guidance is intended to give a conservative estimate of the potential risks to determine whether a more refined assessment is warranted. The NWCF uses a fluidized-bed combustor to solidify (calcine) liquid radioactive mixed waste from the INTEC Tank Farm facility. Calciner off volatilized metal species, trace organic compounds, and low-levels of radionuclides. Conservative stack emission rates were calculated based on maximum waste solution feed samples, conservative assumptions for off gas partitioning of metals and organics, stack gas sampling for mercury, and conservative measurements of contaminant removal (decontamination factors) in the off gas treatment system. Stack emissions were modeled using the ISC3 air dispersion model to predict maximum particulate and vapor air concentrations and ground deposition rates. Results demonstrate that NWCF emissions calculated from best-available process knowledge would result in maximum onsite and offsite health and ecological impacts that are less then EPA-established criteria for operation of a combustion facility.

  18. Species for the screening assessment. Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, J.M.; Brandt, C.A.; Dauble, D.D.; Maughan, A.D.; O`Neil, T.K.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because of past nuclear production operations along the Columbia River, there is intense public and tribal interest in assessing any residual Hanford Site related contamination along the river from the Hanford Reach to the Pacific Ocean. The Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment was proposed to address these concerns. The assessment of the Columbia River is being conducted in phases. The initial phase is a screening assessment of the risk, which addresses current environmental conditions for a range of potential uses. One component of the screening assessment estimates the risk from contaminants in the Columbia River to the environment. The objective of the ecological risk assessment is to determine whether contaminants from the Columbia River pose a significant threat to selected receptor species that exist in the river and riparian communities of the study area. This report (1) identifies the receptor species selected for the screening assessment of ecological risk and (2) describes the selection process. The species selection process consisted of two tiers. In Tier 1, a master species list was developed that included many plant and animal species known to occur in the aquatic and riparian systems of the Columbia River between Priest Rapids Dam and the Columbia River estuary. This master list was reduced to 368 species that occur in the study area (Priest Rapids Dam to McNary Dam). In Tier 2, the 181 Tier 1 species were qualitatively ranked based on a scoring of their potential exposure and sensitivity to contaminants using a conceptual exposure model for the study area.

  19. Crystallizing Membrane Proteins in Lipidic Mesophases. A Host Lipid Screen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Dianfan; Lee, Jean; Caffrey, Martin (Trinity); (Limerick)

    2011-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The default lipid for the bulk of the crystallogenesis studies performed to date using the cubic mesophase method is monoolein. There is no good reason, however, why this 18-carbon, cis-monounsaturated monoacylglycerol should be the preferred lipid for all target membrane proteins. The latter come from an array of biomembrane types with varying properties that include hydrophobic thickness, intrinsic curvature, lateral pressure profile, lipid and protein makeup, and compositional asymmetry. Thus, it seems reasonable that screening for crystallizability based on the identity of the lipid creating the hosting mesophase would be worthwhile. For this, monoacylglycerols with differing acyl chain characteristics, such as length and olefinic bond position, must be available. A lipid synthesis and purification program is in place in the author's laboratory to serve this need. In the current study with the outer membrane sugar transporter, OprB, we demonstrate the utility of host lipid screening as a means for generating diffraction-quality crystals. Host lipid screening is likely to prove a generally useful strategy for mesophase-based crystallization of membrane proteins.

  20. Three Dimensional Molecular Imaging for Lignocellulosic Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bohn, Paul W.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.

    2011-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The development of high efficiency, inexpensive processing protocols to render biomass components into fermentable substrates for the sequential processing of cell wall components into fuels and important feedstocks for the biorefinery of the future is a key goal of the national roadmap for renewable energy. Furthermore, the development of such protocols depends critically on detailed knowledge of the spatial and temporal infiltration of reagents designed to remove and separate the phenylpropenoid heteropolymer (lignin) from the processable sugar components sequestered in the rigid cell walls of plants. A detailed chemical and structural understanding of this pre-enzymatic processing in space and time was the focus of this program. We worked to develop new imaging strategies that produce real-time molecular speciation information in situ; extract sub-surface information about the effects of processing; and follow the spatial and temporal characteristics of the molecular species in the matrix and correlate this complex profile with saccharification. Spatially correlated SIMS and Raman imaging were used to provide high quality, high resolution subcellular images of Miscanthus cross sections. Furthermore, the combination of information from the mass spectrometry and Raman scattering allows specific chemical assignments of observed structures, difficult to assign from either imaging approach alone and lays the foundation for subsequent heterocorrelated imaging experiments targeted at more challenging biological systems, such as the interacting plant-microbe systems relevant to the rhizosphere.

  1. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Hydrocarbons High Level Computational Chemistry Approaches to the Prediction of Energetic Properties of Chemical Hydrogen Storage Systems Process Design and Economics for...

  2. SSF Experimental Protocols -- Lignocellulosic Biomass Hydrolysis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrolysis and Fermentation Laboratory Analytical Procedure 1. Introduction 1.1 Ethanol is a promising alternative fuel which can be produced biologically from a variety of...

  3. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.

    2014-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  4. Sandia National Laboratories: future lignocellulosic biorefineries

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and NREL Announce Two New H2FIRST Reports New Report Describes Joint Opportunities for Natural Gas and Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicle Markets Sandians Participate in 46th Annual...

  5. Process for the treatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dale, Bruce E.; Lynd, Lee R.; Laser, Mark

    2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the treatment of biomass to render structural carbohydrates more accessible and/or digestible using concentrated ammonium hydroxide with or without anhydrous ammonia addition, is described. The process preferably uses steam to strip ammonia from the biomass for recycling. The process yields of monosaccharides from the structural carbohydrates are good, particularly as measured by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the structural carbohydrates. The monosaccharides are used as animal feeds and energy sources for ethanol production.

  6. und Lignocellulose heimischer Pflanzen anwenden und somit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vollmer, Heribert

    Produktion von Biogas einsetzen. Derzeit installierte Biogasanlagen nutzen zumeist den Fruchtanteil, also die

  7. Diethylamine and ammonia pretreatment of lignocellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holthus, Robert Earl

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to the diethylamine did not increase reactivity, but it allows the diethylamine to be recovered. In addition to the diethylamine experiments, ammonia was used to pretreat Coastal bermudagrass. This process involves soaking the cellulose fibers in liquid ammonia...

  8. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 1112011AT&T, Inc.'s ReplyApplication ofTribal Renewable EnergyFuell u e R i

  9. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource1-01 Audit LetterYearAvi ShultzMonthlyPartnerGnana S.

  10. BETO Webinar: Computational Studies of Lignocellulose Deconstruction |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platform is alwaysISOSource1-01 Audit LetterYearAvi ShultzMonthlyPartnerGnana

  11. Disposing of Waste in ICCBL/NSRB Screening Facility The rules outlined below are applicable for most projects, but the screening facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mitchison, Tim

    or at iccb_screen@hms.harvard.edu Solid Biological Waste Small sharps container (located on benchtop of here after proper treatment (see below). When box is 2/3 full, please notify staff. BSL2 waste binsDisposing of Waste in ICCBL/NSRB Screening Facility The rules outlined below are applicable

  12. National Security Science and Technology Initiative: Air Cargo Screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bingham, Philip R [ORNL; White, Tim [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Cespedes, Ernesto [Idaho National Laboratory (INL); Bowerman, Biays [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL); Bush, John [Battelle

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The non-intrusive inspection (NII) of consolidated air cargo carried on commercial passenger aircraft continues to be a technically challenging, high-priority requirement of the Department of Homeland Security's Science and Technology Directorate (DHS S&T), the Transportation Security Agency and the Federal Aviation Administration. The goal of deploying a screening system that can reliably and cost-effectively detect explosive threats in consolidated cargo without adversely affecting the flow of commerce will require significant technical advances that will take years to develop. To address this critical National Security need, the Battelle Memorial Institute (Battelle), under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with four of its associated US Department of Energy (DOE) National Laboratories (Oak Ridge, Pacific Northwest, Idaho, and Brookhaven), conducted a research and development initiative focused on identifying, evaluating, and integrating technologies for screening consolidated air cargo for the presence of explosive threats. Battelle invested $8.5M of internal research and development funds during fiscal years 2007 through 2009. The primary results of this effort are described in this document and can be summarized as follows: (1) Completed a gap analysis that identified threat signatures and observables, candidate technologies for detection, their current state of development, and provided recommendations for improvements to meet air cargo screening requirements. (2) Defined a Commodity/Threat/Detection matrix that focuses modeling and experimental efforts, identifies technology gaps and game-changing opportunities, and provides a means of summarizing current and emerging capabilities. (3) Defined key properties (e.g., elemental composition, average density, effective atomic weight) for basic commodity and explosive benchmarks, developed virtual models of the physical distributions (pallets) of three commodity types and three explosive benchmarks combinations, and conducted modeling and simulation studies to begin populating the matrix of commodities, threats, and detection technologies. (4) Designed and fabricated basic (homogeneous) commodity test pallets and fabricated inert stimulants to support experiments and to validate modeling/simulation results. (5) Developed/expanded the team's capabilities to conduct full-scale imaging (neutron and x-ray) experiments of air cargo commodities and explosive benchmarks. (6) Conducted experiments to improve the collection of trace particles of explosives from a variety of surfaces representative of air cargo materials by means of mechanical (air/vibration/pressure), thermal, and electrostatic methods. Air cargo screening is a difficult challenge that will require significant investment in both research and development to find a suitable solution to ensure the safety of passengers without significantly hindering the flow of commodities. The initiative funded by Battelle has positioned this group to make major contributions in meeting the air cargo challenge by developing collaborations, developing laboratory test systems, improving knowledge of the challenges (both technical and business) for air cargo screening, and increasing the understanding of the capabilities for current inspection methods (x-ray radiography, x-ray backscatter, etc.) and potential future inspection methods (neutron radiography, fusion of detector modalities, advanced trace detection, etc.). Lastly, air cargo screening is still an issue that will benefit from collaboration between Department of Energy Laboratories and Battelle. On January 7, 2010, DHS Secretary Napolitano joined White House Press Secretary Robert Gibbs and Assistant to the President for Counterterrorism and Homeland Security John Brennan to announce several recommendations DHS has made to the President for improving the technology and procedures used to protect air travel from acts of terrorism. (This announcement followed the 25 Dec'09 Delta/Northwest Airlines Flight 253 terror attack.) Secretary Napolitano out

  13. Electron screening effect in (p,n) and (p,?) reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cvetinovi?, Aleksandra; Gajevi?, Jelena; Lipoglavšek, Matej; Pelicon, Primož; Ortiz, Alberto Sánchez [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Likar, Andrej [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia and Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Jadranska ulica 19, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Petrovi?, Toni [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, Ljubljana, Slovenia and Cosylab d.d, Teslova ulica 30, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2014-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    To investigate the electron screening effect we compared ?-ray and neutron yields in different metals and insulators (Mn, V and Cd – metals and MnO, VO{sub 2} and CdO – insulators) for the proton induced nuclear reactions {sup 55}Mn(p,n){sup 55}Fe, {sup 55}Mn(p,?){sup 56}Fe, {sup 113}Cd(p,n){sup 113}In and {sup 51}V(p,?){sup 52}Cr. We also looked for shifts in resonance energy for metallic compared to insulator targets.

  14. Technical background document for draft soil screening level guidance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The document provides technical details of the derivation of the September 30, 1993, draft Soil Screening Levels (SSLs) Guidance for Superfund (PB93-963508). The document is presented in two sections. Section I defines SSL and provides background information on the development of SSLs and their application and implementation at Superfund sites, including sampling schemes for measuring SSL attainment. It also provides draft SSLs developed for 30 chemicals. Section II provides the technical basis for the development of SSLs addressing direct ingestion of soil, inhalation of volatiles and fugitive dust, and the soil-to-ground-water exposure pathway, including the assumptions and theories used the their development.

  15. Screening-Limited Response of NanoBiosensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pradeep R. Nair; Muhammad A. Alam

    2007-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite tremendous potential of highly sensitive electronic detection of bio-molecules by nanoscale biosensors for genomics and proteomic applications, many aspects of experimentally observed sensor response (S) are unexplained within consistent theoretical frameworks of kinetic response or electrical screening. In this paper, we combine analytic solutions of Poisson-Boltzmann and reaction-diffusion equations to show that the electrical response of nanobiosensor varies logarithmically with the concentration of target molecules, time, the salt concentration, and inversely with the fractal dimension of sensor surface. Our analysis provides a coherent theoretical interpretation of wide variety of puzzling experimental data that have so far defied intuitive explanation.

  16. 2-level environmental-stress-screening (ESS) model: A mixed-distribution approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, R.K.; Dietrich, D.L.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Environmental stress screening (ESS) is used to reduce, if not eliminate, the occurrence of some types of failures from the field by fixing them before the product is deployed. This paper models a 2-level ESS program where screening is performed at the part & unit levels. The parts are screened for a specified duration before being assembled into a unit. Defects induced during the assembly process are screened at the unit level. These parts & connections are assumed to come from either a good or a substandard population, and their times-to-failure distributions are modeled by mixed distributions. The optimal screening durations are obtained by minimizing the life-cycle cost. The model is simple to use and its viability is illustrated using mixed exponential distributions. The implementation of screens at various levels depends on costs and failure distribution characteristics. 13 refs.

  17. Fire suppression efficiency screening using a counterflow cylindrical burner

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, J.C.; Donnelly, M.K.; Prive, N.; Grosshandler, W.L.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and validation of a counterflow cylindrical burner for fire suppression efficiency screening are described. The stability limits of the burner were mapped using various fuel (propane) and oxidizer (air) flows. The stability envelopes compared favorably with those reported in the literature. The apparatus was characterized using inert gases (argon, helium, and nitrogen), and the relative fire suppression efficiency ranking of these three gases was found to be commensurate with that from cup-burner tests. For liquid suppression experiments, a piezoelectric droplet generator was used to form droplets (<100 {micro}m). Water was used as a representative liquid suppressant to study the feasibility of using such a burner for screening liquid agents. Extinction was facilitated with the addition of water droplets, and the effect of water became more pronounced when its application rate was increased. Suppression experiments using water with and without nitrogen dilution in the oxidizer stream were also performed. Flame extinction due to the combined effect of water and nitrogen dilution was demonstrated.

  18. Characterization Report for the David Witherspoon Screen Art Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phyllis C. Weaver

    2011-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office (ORO) of Environmental Management (EM) requested the technical assistance of Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to characterize a tract of land associated with the David Witherspoon, Incorporated (DWI) Volunteer Equipment and Supply Company (VESC). This tract of land (hereinafter referred to as Screen Arts) is located in the Vestal Community in the 2000-block of Maryville Pike in south Knoxville, Tennessee, as shown in Figure A-1. This tract of land has been used primarily to store salvaged equipment and materials for resale, recycle, or for disposal in the former landfill once operated by DWI. The DWI Site industrial landfill and metal recycling business had been permitted by the Tennessee Division of Radiological Health to accept low-level radiologically contaminated metals. DWI received materials and equipment associated with operations from DOE sites, including those in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; Paducah, Kentucky; and Portsmouth, Ohio. It is likely that items stored at Screen Arts may have contained some residual radiological materials.

  19. Technology recommendations for pre-screening of IAEA swipe samples

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steeb, Jennifer L.; Smith, Nicholas A.; Lee, Denise L.; Huckabay, Heath A.; Ticknor, Brian W.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Argonne and Oak Ridge National Laboratories have prepared an analysis of recommended, possible, and not recommended technologies for pre-screening and prioritizing IAEA swipes. The analytical techniques listed under the recommended technology list are the most promising techniques available to date. The recommended list is divided into two sections: Argonne’s recommended techniques and Oak Ridge’s recommended techniques. This list was divided based upon the expertise of staff in each subject area and/or the instrumentation available at each laboratory. The following section, titled Possible Techniques, is a list of analytical techniques that could be used for pre-screening and prioritizing swipes if additional instrumentation and effort were provided. These techniques are not necessarily top priority, but should not be discounted for future or expanded efforts. Lastly, a list of not recommended techniques is provided to outline the analytical methods and instrumentation that were investigated by each lab but deemed not suitable for this task. In addition to the recommendation list, a short procedure is provided outlining the steps followed for destructive analysis by the Network of Analytical Laboratories (NWAL) for determination of uranium concentrations, isotopic content of sample and swipe. Swipes generated for this project will be given to ORNL’s NWAL laboratory for analysis after analysis by other techniques at both laboratories.

  20. Non-linear BFKL dynamics: color screening vs. gluon fusion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Fiore; P. V. Sasorov; V. R. Zoller

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A feasible mechanism of unitarization of amplitudes of deep inelastic scattering at small values of Bjorken $x$ is the gluon fusion. However, its efficiency depends crucially on the vacuum color screening effect which accompanies the multiplication and the diffusion of BFKL gluons from small to large distances. From the fits to lattice data on field strength correlators the propagation length of perturbative gluons is $R_c\\simeq 0.2-0.3$ fermi. The probability to find a perturbative gluon with short propagation length at large distances is suppressed exponentially. It changes the pattern of (dif)fusion dramatically. The magnitude of the fusion effect appears to be controlled by the new dimensionless parameter $\\sim R_c^2/8B$, with the diffraction cone slope $B$ standing for the characteristic size of the interaction region. It should slowly $\\propto 1/\\ln Q^2$ decrease at large $Q^2$. Smallness of the ratio $R_c^2/8B$ makes the non-linear effects rather weak even at lowest Bjorken $x$ available at HERA. We report the results of our studies of the non-linear BFKL equation which has been generalized to incorporate the running coupling and the screening radius $R_c$ as the infrared regulator.

  1. SLCA/IP power alternative screening method (SPASM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Palmer, S.C. [USDOE Western Area Power Administration, Salt Lake City, UT (United States). Salt Lake City Area Office]|[Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Ancrile, J.D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the SLCA/IP Power Alternative Screening Method (SPASM), which was used to screen 784 possible combinations of electric power marketing alternatives and dam operational scenarios to provide a representative range for analysis in the Western Area Power Administration Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects (SLCA/IP) Electric Power Marketing Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). Each combination consists of one energy and capacity commitment level and one operational scenario for each of the hydroelectric facilities at Glen Canyon Dam, Flaming Gorge Dam, and the Aspinall Unit. The total annual cost to the SLCA/IP firm power customers of each of the 784 combinations is estimated and included in a relative frequency distribution. A relative frequency distribution is also generated for each marketing alternative. The number of combinations is reduced to 12 by taking the mean value and endpoint value for each of four marketing alternatives. Some minor deviations from this procedure, which are made for political purposes, are explained. 9 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Effect of Screening on Thermonuclear Fusion in Stellar and Laboratory Plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. Wilets; B. G. Giraud; M. J. Watrous; J. J. Rehr

    1999-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion enhancement factor due to screening in the solar plasma is calculated. We use the finite temperature Green's function method and a self consistent mean field approximation. We reduce this to one center problems, because in the collision of two fusing ions, the turning point where tunneling may occur lies far inside the screening radius. The numerical results given by this method indicate that screening may be slightly weaker than that obtained in the most recent previous calculations.

  3. U.S. airport entry screening in response to pandemic influenza: Modeling and analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malone, John D. [Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences (USUHS); Brigantic, Robert [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Muller, G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Gadgil, Ashok [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Delp, Woody [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); McMahon, Benjamin H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lee, Russell [ORNL; Kulesz, Jim [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Mihelic, F. Matthew [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A stochastic discrete event simulation model was developed to assess the effectiveness of passenger screening for Pandemic Influenza (PI) at U.S. airport foreign entry. Methods: International passengers arriving at 18 U.S. airports from Asia, Europe, South America, and Canada were assigned to one of three states: not infected, infected with PI, infected with other respiratory illness. Passengers passed through layered screening then exited the model. 80% screening effectiveness was assumed for symptomatic passengers; 6% asymptomatic passengers. Results: In the first 100 days of a global pandemic, U.S. airport screening would evaluate over 17 M passengers with 800 K secondary screenings. 11,570 PI infected passengers (majority asymptomatic) would enter the U.S. undetected from all 18 airports. Foreign airport departure screening significantly decreased the false negative (infected/undetected) passengers. U.S. attack rates: no screening (26.9%-30.9%); screening (26.4%-30.6%); however airport screening results in 800 K-1.8 M less U.S. PI cases; 16 K-35 K less deaths (2% fatality rate). Antiviral medications for travel contact prophylaxis (10 contacts/PI passenger) were high - 8.8 M. False positives from all 18 airports: 100-200/day. Conclusions: Foreign shore exit screening greatly reduces numbers of PI infected passengers. U.S. airport screening identifies 50% infected individuals; efficacy is limited by the asymptomatic PI infected. Screening will not significantly delay arrival of PI via international air transport, but will reduce the rate of new US cases and subsequent deaths. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. iScreening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Foreword..........................................................................................v

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    iScreening Young Children for Lead Poisoning Contents Foreword Advisory Committee on Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention 1. Childhood Lead Poisoning in the United States

  5. Region-to-area screening methodology for the Crystalline Repository Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to describe the Crystalline Repository Project's (CRP) process for region-to-area screening of exposed and near-surface crystalline rock bodies in the three regions of the conterminous United States where crystalline rock is being evaluated as a potential host for the second nuclear waste repository (i.e., in the North Central, Northeastern, and Southeastern Regions). This document indicates how the US Department of Energy's (DOE) General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for Nuclear Waste Repositories (10 CFR 960) were used to select and apply factors and variables for the region-to-area screening, explains how these factors and variable are to be applied in the region-to-area screening, and indicates how this methodology relates to the decision process leading to the selection of candidate areas. A brief general discussion of the screening process from the national survey through area screening and site recommendation is presented. This discussion sets the scene for detailed discussions which follow concerning the region-to-area screening process, the guidance provided by the DOE Siting Guidelines for establishing disqualifying factors and variables for screening, and application of the disqualifying factors and variables in the screening process. This document is complementary to the regional geologic and environmental characterization reports to be issued in the summer of 1985 as final documents. These reports will contain the geologic and environmental data base that will be used in conjunction with the methodology to conduct region-to-area screening.

  6. Screening of Potential Remediation Methods for the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Truex, Michael J.; Nimmons, Michael J.; Johnson, Christian D.; Dresel, P EVAN.; Murray, Christopher J.

    2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening-level evaluation of potential remediation methods for application to the contaminants of concern (COC) in the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit at the Hanford Site was conducted based on the methods outlined in the Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies under CERCLA Interim Final. The scope of this screening was to identify the most promising remediation methods for use in the more detailed analysis of remediation alternatives that will be conducted as part of the full feasibility study. The screening evaluation was conducted for the primary COC (potential major risk drivers). COC with similar properties were grouped for the screening evaluation. The screening evaluation was conducted in two primary steps. The initial screening step evaluated potential remediation methods based on whether they can be effectively applied within the environmental setting of the 200-ZP-1 Operable Unit for the specified contaminants. In the second step, potential remediation methods were screened using scoping calculations to estimate the scale of infrastructure, overall quantities of reagents, and conceptual approach for applying the method for each defined grouping of COC. Based on these estimates, each method was screened with respect to effectiveness, implementability, and relative cost categories of the CERCLA feasibility study screening process defined in EPA guidance.

  7. Construction and phenotypic screening of mid-size insert marine microbial environmental genomic libraries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braff, Jennifer C

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Functional screening of environmental genomic libraries permits the identification of clones expressing activities of interest without requiring prior knowledge of the genes responsible. In this study, protocols were ...

  8. aarhus f2-6the screening: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rights link. The Dean Tsien, Roger Y. 151 Optimal Screening for Preclinical Diseases Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: and Its Robustness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ....

  9. automated high-throughput screening: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    requires rapid screening methods.3 One powerful is a powerful tool for functional genomics research and is also discussed as a potential therapeutic strategy.6 Quake, Stephen...

  10. Method for screening inhibitors of the toxicity of Bacillus anthracis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cirino, Nick M. (Los Alamos, NM); Jackson, Paul J. (Los Alamos, NM); Lehnert, Bruce E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The protective antigen (PA) of Bacillus anthracis is integral to the mechanism of anthrax poisoning. The cloning, expression and purification of a 32 kDa B. anthracis PA fragment (PA32) is described. This fragment has also been expressed as a fusion construct to stabilized green fluorescent protein (EGFP-PA32). Both proteins were capable of binding to specific cell surface receptors as determined by fluorescent microscopy and a flow cytometric assay. To confirm binding specificity in the flow cytometric assay, non-fluorescent PA83 or PA32 was used to competitively inhibit fluorescent EGFP-PA32 binding to cell receptors. This assay can be employed as a rapid screen for compounds which disrupts binding of PA to cells. Additionally, the high intracellular expression levels and ease of purification make this recombinant protein an attractive vaccine candidate or therapeutic treatment for anthrax poisoning.

  11. Screening portal, system and method of using same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Linker, Kevin L.; Hunter, John A.; Brusseau, Charles A.

    2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A portal, system and method for screening an object for a target substance is provided. The portal includes an inflatable bladder expandable to form a test space for receiving the object and a plurality of nozzles positioned about the inflatable bladder. The nozzles are in fluid communication with a fluid source for directing air over the object whereby samples are removed from the object for examination. A collector is operatively connected to the inflatable bladder for collecting the samples removed from the object. A detector is operatively connected to the collector for examining the removed samples for the presence of the target substance. At least one preconcentrator may be operatively connected to the collector for concentrating the samples collected thereby.

  12. CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 6. End User Screening Against U.S. Government Watch Lists

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosen, Jay

    CUNY EXPORT CONTROL PROCEDURES 6. End User Screening Against U.S. Government Watch Lists This Section addresses required screening of export recipients and certain collaborative research partners of State, Treasury, and Commerce separately maintain published lists of known export violators. These lists

  13. Equivalence Principle Violation in Weakly Vainshtein-Screened Systems Alexander V. Belikov1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Wayne

    Equivalence Principle Violation in Weakly Vainshtein-Screened Systems Alexander V. Belikov1-dependent interactions cause apparent equivalence principle vi- olations. In the weakly-screened regime violations can [17­23]. In these models, all bodies accelerate equivalently in the total field of the fifth force

  14. Definition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power Systems By Bryan K. Smith Submitted to the System Design, expansion and screening of Nuclear Electric Propulsion and Power concepts capable of achieving planetaryDefinition, Expansion and Screening of Architectures for Planetary Exploration Class Nuclear

  15. Spectroscopic Measurement of Interlayer Screening in Multilayer Epitaxial Graphene Charles Divin,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Spectroscopic Measurement of Interlayer Screening in Multilayer Epitaxial Graphene Dong Sun,1 2010) The substrate-induced charge-density profile in carbon face epitaxial graphene is determined screening length is determined to be one graphene layer, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. DOI

  16. First Prev Next Last Go Back Full Screen Close Quit DYNAMICS OF ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit DYNAMICS OF ELECTRIC POWER SUPPLY CHAIN ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Motivation · The transformation of the electric power electric utility generat- ing capacity had been sold or transferred to unregulated companies - In the US

  17. Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles Xiao-Gang Wen Department discussed. The existence of artificial light (as well as artificial electron) in condensed matter systems a new kind of order - quantum order. To test this idea in experiments, we study systems of screened

  18. Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tipple, Brett

    Salt Screening and Selection: New Challenges and Considerations in the Modern Pharmaceutical R · Introduction · Theoretical Considerations · pH-solubility profiles, pKa and salt formation · Prediction of salt solubility · Solubility product and in situ salt screening · Solubility/dissolution rate of salts

  19. A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    In White assembly systems in the automotive industry by applying the developed screening model. It shows3 A Screening Model to Explore Planning Decisions in Automotive Manufacturing Systems under Demand engineering systems, as for automotive manufacturing, often require significant capital investment

  20. Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening of an antioomycete chemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Madan Kumar

    Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening for re-usable 3D polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic networks Biomicrofluidics 5, 036502 (2011://bmf.aip.org/about/rights_and_permissions #12;Microfluidic droplet encapsulation of highly motile single zoospores for phenotypic screening

  1. Assessment of diabetes screening by general practitioners in France: the EPIDIA Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1/17 Assessment of diabetes screening by general practitioners in France: the EPIDIA Study J word count: 1956 3 tables 1 figure Running title: Diabetes screening in France Corresponding author Dr.blackwell-synergy.com HALauthormanuscriptinserm-00128528,version1 HAL author manuscript Diabet Med 07/2006; 23 803-7 #12;2/17 Abstract Aims

  2. A microfluidic platform for pharmaceutical salt screening Michael R. Thorson,a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kenis, Paul J. A.

    A microfluidic platform for pharmaceutical salt screening Michael R. Thorson,a Sachit Goyal platform comprised of 48 wells to screen for pharmaceutical salts. Solutions of pharmaceutical parent spectra. Two drugs, naproxen (acid) and ephedrine (base), were used for validation of the platform

  3. Biomolecular Science (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A brief fact sheet about NREL Photobiology and Biomolecular Science. The research goal of NREL's Biomolecular Science is to enable cost-competitive advanced lignocellulosic biofuels production by understanding the science critical for overcoming biomass recalcitrance and developing new product and product intermediate pathways. NREL's Photobiology focuses on understanding the capture of solar energy in photosynthetic systems and its use in converting carbon dioxide and water directly into hydrogen and advanced biofuels.

  4. Renormalization screening and collision-induced quantum interference in dense plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Young-Dae, E-mail: ydjung@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Applied Physics and Department of Bionanotechnology, Hanyang University, Ansan, Kyunggi-Do 426-791 (Korea, Republic of); Rasheed, A. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Faisalabad-38000 (Pakistan); Jamil, M. [Department of Physics, COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The influence of renormalization screening and collision-induced quantum interference in electron-electron collisions is investigated in partially ionized dense hydrogen plasmas. The effective interaction potential with the total spin-states of the collision system is considered to obtain the differential electron-electron scattering cross section. The results show that the renormalization plasma screening effect suppresses the electron-electron scattering cross section, including the quantum interference effect, especially, except for the forward and backward scattering directions. It is also shown that the renormalization plasma screening effect on the scattering cross section decreases with increasing collision energy. However, the renormalization screening effect is found to be important for the forward directions in the scattering cross section neglecting the quantum interference effect. The variations of the renormalization screening and collision-induced quantum interference effects are also discussed.

  5. Pi sampling: a methodical and flexible approach to initial macromolecular crystallization screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gorrec, Fabrice, E-mail: fgorrec@mrc-lmb.cam.ac.uk; Palmer, Colin M.; Lebon, Guillaume; Warne, Tony [MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology, Hills Road, Cambridge CB2 0QH (United Kingdom)

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pi sampling, derived from the incomplete factorial approach, is an effort to maximize the diversity of macromolecular crystallization conditions and to facilitate the preparation of 96-condition initial screens. The Pi sampling method is derived from the incomplete factorial approach to macromolecular crystallization screen design. The resulting ‘Pi screens’ have a modular distribution of a given set of up to 36 stock solutions. Maximally diverse conditions can be produced by taking into account the properties of the chemicals used in the formulation and the concentrations of the corresponding solutions. The Pi sampling method has been implemented in a web-based application that generates screen formulations and recipes. It is particularly adapted to screens consisting of 96 different conditions. The flexibility and efficiency of Pi sampling is demonstrated by the crystallization of soluble proteins and of an integral membrane-protein sample.

  6. Geographic variations in access and utilization of cancer screening services: examining disparities among American Indian and Alaska Native Elders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Towne, Samuel D; Smith, Matthew Lee; Ory, Marcia G

    2014-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Despite recommendations for cancer screening for breast and colorectal cancer among the Medicare population, preventive screenings rates are often lower among vulnerable populations such as the small but rapidly growing older American Indian...

  7. Argonne National Laboratory-West, Former Production Workers Screening Projects (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Argonne National Laboratory-West, Former Production Workers Screening Projects (now known as the Idaho National Laboratory)

  8. A Fisheries Evaluation of the Dryden Fish Screening Facility : Annual Report 1994.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, Robert P.; Abernethy, C.Scott; Neitzel, Duane A.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Effectivness was evaluated of the Dryden Fish Screening Facility in the Wenatchee Reclamation District Canal near Dryden in north central Washington State. In situ tests were conducted by releasing groups of hatchery reared salmonids of different ages and sizes. Spring chinook salmon smolts (110-165 mm) were not injured or descaled in passing through the canal forebay. Smolts were not delayed as they migrated in the canal. Most fish released at the canal headworks exited the screening facility in <4 h, with >99% of the test fish captured in the fish bypass in <24 h. Steelhead subyearlings 65-125 mm were not injured or descaled in traveling through the bypass flume and fish return pipe. Average time for steelhead subyearlings to travel through thebypass structure was 70 seconds. Small rainbow trout fry 23-27mm could pass through the 0.125-in. profile bar screen openings and were entrained in the irrigation canal; about 38% was lost to the canal within 48 h of release. Some fry stayed in the forebay and did not migrate during the tests. Wild chinook fry 36-42mm were also entrained. Estimated 34% of emergent wild chinook salmon fry passed through the profile bar screens and were entrained in the canal. Approach velocity at the Dryden screens was {ge}0.4 ft/s; low velocities through the first two screen panels indicated that vertical louvers installed behind each screen panel to balance flow were not totally effective.

  9. Graphene based tunable fractal Hilbert curve array broadband radar absorbing screen for radar cross section reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Xianjun, E-mail: xianjun.huang@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Hu, Zhirun [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, Peiguo [College of Electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper proposes a new type of graphene based tunable radar absorbing screen. The absorbing screen consists of Hilbert curve metal strip array and chemical vapour deposition (CVD) graphene sheet. The graphene based screen is not only tunable when the chemical potential of the graphene changes, but also has broadband effective absorption. The absorption bandwidth is from 8.9GHz to 18.1GHz, ie., relative bandwidth of more than 68%, at chemical potential of 0eV, which is significantly wider than that if the graphene sheet had not been employed. As the chemical potential varies from 0 to 0.4eV, the central frequency of the screen can be tuned from 13.5GHz to 19.0GHz. In the proposed structure, Hilbert curve metal strip array was designed to provide multiple narrow band resonances, whereas the graphene sheet directly underneath the metal strip array provides tunability and averagely required surface resistance so to significantly extend the screen operation bandwidth by providing broadband impedance matching and absorption. In addition, the thickness of the screen has been optimized to achieve nearly the minimum thickness limitation for a nonmagnetic absorber. The working principle of this absorbing screen is studied in details, and performance under various incident angles is presented. This work extends applications of graphene into tunable microwave radar cross section (RCS) reduction applications.

  10. Combinatorial synthesis and screening of non-biological polymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiao-Dong; Goldwasser, Isy; Briceno, Gabriel; Sun, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Kai-An

    2006-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  11. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, M.S.; Zawodzinski, C.

    1998-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field there between for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells. 11 figs.

  12. Artificial light and quantum order in systems of screened dipoles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiao-Gang Wen

    2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of light is a unsolved mystery in nature. Recently, it was suggested that light may originate from a new kind of order - quantum order. To test this idea in experiments, we study systems of screened magnetic/electric dipoles in 2D and 3D lattices. We show that our models contain an artificial light -- a photon-like collective excitation. We discuss how to design realistic devices that realize our models. We show that the ``speed of light'' and the ``fine structure constant'' of the artificial light can be tuned in our models. The properties of artificial atoms (bound states of pairs of artificial charges) are also discussed. The existence of artificial light (as well as artificial electron) in condensed matter systems suggests that elementary particles, such as light and electron, may not be elementary. They may be collective excitations of quantum order in our vacuum. Our models further suggest that a gauge theory is a string-net theory in disguise. Light is a fluctuation of nets of large closed strings and charge is the end of open strings.

  13. Fuel cell with metal screen flow-field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Mahlon S. (Los Alamos, NM); Zawodzinski, Christine (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell is provided with electrodes supplied with a reactant on each side of a catalyzed membrane assembly (CMA). The fuel cell includes a metal mesh defining a rectangular flow-field pattern having an inlet at a first corner and an outlet at a second corner located on a diagonal from the first corner, wherein all flow paths from the inlet to the outlet through the square flow field pattern are equivalent to uniformly distribute the reactant over the CMA. In a preferred form of metal mesh, a square weave screen forms the flow-field pattern. In a particular characterization of the present invention, a bipolar plate electrically connects adjacent fuel cells, where the bipolar plate includes a thin metal foil having an anode side and a cathode side; a first metal mesh on the anode side of the thin metal foil; and a second metal mesh on the cathode side of the thin metal foil. In another characterization of the present invention, a cooling plate assembly cools adjacent fuel cells, where the cooling plate assembly includes an anode electrode and a cathode electrode formed of thin conducting foils; and a metal mesh flow field therebetween for distributing cooling water flow over the electrodes to remove heat generated by the fuel cells.

  14. Screening combinatorial arrays of inorganic materials with spectroscopy or microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  15. Screening-level approach for estimating contaminant export from tributaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velleux, M. [Wisconsin Dept. of Natural Resources, Madison, WI (United States); Gailani, J. [Army Corps of Engineers, Vicksburg, MS (United States); Endicott, D. [EPA Large Lakes Research Station, Grosse Ile, MI (United States)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The in-place pollutant export model (IPX) is a screening-level model for estimating contaminant export from tributaries with contaminated sediments to receiving waterbodies. IPX is a modified version of the USEPA`s WASP4 modeling framework. IPX synthesizes sediment transport processes for sediment aging, decreased sediment resuspendability with increasing age, and resuspension of freshly deposited sediments as a function of water velocity, into an expanded WASP4 contaminant transport and fate chassis while retaining the computational flexibility of the original framework. These process descriptions are needed to accurately simulate contaminant transport and substantially improve the framework for application to tributary systems subject to significant deposition and resuspension events. The potential for applying IPX is broad; water quality impairments attributable to contaminated sediments are widespread due to discharges from industry, agriculture, and mining and ore processing. IPX has been successfully applied to the upper and lower Fox River in Wisconsin, and the Buffalo and Oswego Rivers in New York, all impaired by contaminated sediments.

  16. Tank safety screening data quality objective. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, J.W.

    1995-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tank Safety Screening Data Quality Objective (DQO) will be used to classify 149 single shell tanks and 28 double shell tanks containing high-level radioactive waste into safety categories for safety issues dealing with the presence of ferrocyanide, organics, flammable gases, and criticality. Decision rules used to classify a tank as ``safe`` or ``not safe`` are presented. Primary and secondary decision variables used for safety status classification are discussed. The number and type of samples required are presented. A tabular identification of each analyte to be measured to support the safety classification, the analytical method to be used, the type of sample, the decision threshold for each analyte that would, if violated, place the tank on the safety issue watch list, and the assumed (desired) analytical uncertainty are provided. This is a living document that should be evaluated for updates on a semiannual basis. Evaluation areas consist of: identification of tanks that have been added or deleted from the specific safety issue watch lists, changes in primary and secondary decision variables, changes in decision rules used for the safety status classification, and changes in analytical requirements. This document directly supports all safety issue specific DQOs and additional characterization DQO efforts associated with pretreatment and retrieval. Additionally, information obtained during implementation can assist in resolving assumptions for revised safety strategies, and in addition, obtaining information which will support the determination of error tolerances, confidence levels, and optimization schemes for later revised safety strategy documentation.

  17. Systematic quantum effects on screening of fusion rates in white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirish M. Chitanvis

    2006-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron degeneracy effects are dominant in ultra-dense plasmas (UDP), such as those found in white dwarfs. These effects can be treated systematically by obtaining an expansion of the screening length in inverse powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. The theory exhibits Thomas-Fermi-like screening in an appropriate regime. In general, our theory leads to an ${\\cal O}(1)$ effect on the enhancement of fusion rates in white dwarfs. Further, it is shown analytically for these stellar conditions that Bose statistics of nuclei have a negligible effect on the screening length, in consonance with Monte Carlo simulations found in literature.

  18. First Prev Next Last Go Back Full Screen Close Quit Model Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spang, Rainer

    ·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Model Assessment and Selection Axel ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Model Assessment and Selection 2 Topics Predictive · Restriction · Selection · Regularization #12;·First ·Prev ·Next ·Last ·Go Back ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Model

  19. High-throughput method for optimum solubility screening for homogeneity and crystallization of proteins

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Sung-Hou (Moraga, CA); Kim, Rosalind (Moraga, CA); Jancarik, Jamila (Walnut Creek, CA)

    2012-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An optimum solubility screen in which a panel of buffers and many additives are provided in order to obtain the most homogeneous and monodisperse protein condition for protein crystallization. The present methods are useful for proteins that aggregate and cannot be concentrated prior to setting up crystallization screens. A high-throughput method using the hanging-drop method and vapor diffusion equilibrium and a panel of twenty-four buffers is further provided. Using the present methods, 14 poorly behaving proteins have been screened, resulting in 11 of the proteins having highly improved dynamic light scattering results allowing concentration of the proteins, and 9 were crystallized.

  20. Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO{sub 2} Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Y [NETL; Sorescu, D C [NETL; Luebke, D [NETL; Morreale, B [NETL; Li, B Y; Zhang, B; Johnson, J K; Zhang, K; Li, X S; King, D

    2013-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    By combining thermodynamic database searches with density functional theory and lattice phonon dynamics, a screening methodology was developed to identify promising solid sorbent candidates for CO{sub 2} capture. This methodology has been used to screen hundreds of solid compounds and some of the promising candidates to date have been reported in literature. This screening methodology is particularly relevant for the case of materials for which experimental thermodynamic data is not available. Such areas of interest are represented by the case of solid mixtures and doped materials, where thermodynamic data are generally not available but for which the crystallographic structure is known or can be easily determined.

  1. Letter Report: LAW Simulant Development for Cast Stone Screening Test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Renee L.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Swanberg, David J.; Eibling, Russell E.; Cozzi, Alex; Lindberg, Michael J.; Josephson, Gary B.; Rinehart, Donald E.

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 56 million gallons of radioactive and hazardous waste are stored in 177 underground storage tanks at the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Hanford Site in southeastern Washington State. The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the wastes and immobilize them in a glass waste form. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into a small volume of high-level waste (HLW) containing most of the radioactivity and a larger volume of low-activity waste (LAW) containing most of the nonradioactive chemicals. The HLW will be converted to glass in the HLW vitrification facility for ultimate disposal at an offsite federal repository. At least a portion (~35%) of the LAW will be converted to glass in the LAW vitrification facility and will be disposed of onsite at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). The pretreatment and HLW vitrification facilities will have the capacity to treat and immobilize the wastes destined for each facility. However, a second facility will be needed for the expected volume of additional LAW requiring immobilization. A cementitious waste form known as Cast Stone is being considered to provide the required additional LAW immobilization capacity. The Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. The Cast Stone waste form and immobilization process must be tested to demonstrate that the final Cast Stone waste form can comply with waste acceptance criteria for the IDF disposal facility and that the immobilization processes can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. Further, the waste form must be tested to provide the technical basis for understanding the long term performance of the waste form in the IDF disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support risk assessment and performance assessment (PA) analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the waste disposal in the IDF. A testing program was developed in fiscal year (FY) 2012 describing in some detail the work needed to develop and qualify Cast Stone as a waste form for the solidification of Hanford LAW (Westsik et al. 2012). Included within Westsik et al. (2012) is a section on the near-term needs to address Tri-Party Agreement Milestone M-062-40ZZ. The objectives of the testing program to be conducted in FY 2013 and FY 2014 are to: • Determine an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form. • Evaluate sources of dry materials for preparing the LAW Cast Stone. • Demonstrate the robustness of the Cast Stone waste form for a range of LAW compositions. • Demonstrate the robustness of the formulation for variability in the Cast Stone process. • Provide Cast Stone contaminant release data for PA and risk assessment evaluations. The first step in determining an acceptable formulation for the LAW Cast Stone waste form is to conduct screening tests to examine expected ranges in pretreated LAW composition, waste stream concentrations, dry-materials sources, and mix ratios of waste feed to dry blend. A statistically designed test matrix will be used to evaluate the effects of these key parameters on the properties of the Cast Stone as it is initially prepared and after curing. The second phase of testing will focus on selection of a baseline Cast Stone formulation for LAW and demonstrating that Cast Stone can meet expected waste form requirements for disposal in the IDF. It is expected that this testing will use the results of the screening tests to define a smaller suite of tests to refine the composition of the baseline Cast Stone formulation (e.g. waste concentration, water to dry mix ratio, waste loading).

  2. Managing System of Systems Requirements with a Requirements Screening Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald R. Barden

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figuring out an effective and efficient way to manage not only your Requirement’s Baseline, but also the development of all your individual requirements during a Program’s/Project’s Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages can be both daunting and difficult. This is especially so when you are dealing with a complex and large System of Systems (SoS) Program with potentially thousands and thousands of Top Level Requirements as well as an equal number of lower level System, Subsystem and Configuration Item requirements that need to be managed. This task is made even more overwhelming when you have to add in integration with multiple requirements’ development teams (e.g., Integrated Product Development Teams (IPTs)) and/or numerous System/Subsystem Design Teams. One solution for tackling this difficult activity on a recent large System of Systems Program was to develop and make use of a Requirements Screening Group (RSG). This group is essentially a Team made up of co-chairs from the various Stakeholders with an interest in the Program of record that are enabled and accountable for Requirements Development on the Program/Project. The RSG co-chairs, often with the help of individual support team, work together as a Program Board to monitor, make decisions on, and provide guidance on all Requirements Development activities during the Conceptual and Development Life Cycle Stages of a Program/Project. In addition, the RSG can establish and maintain the Requirements Baseline, monitor and enforce requirements traceability across the entire Program, and work with other elements of the Program/Project to ensure integration and coordination.

  3. Ab initio screening of lithium diffusion rates in transition metal oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Charles J. (Charles Jacob)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A screening metric for diffusion limitations in lithium ion battery cathodes is derived using transition state theory and common materials properties. The metric relies on net activation barrier for lithium diffusion. ...

  4. Bayesian Screening Procedure for Identification of Learning Disabled Adolescents: Administration, Scoring, and Interpretation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alley, Gordon R.; Deshler, Donald D.; Warner, Michael M.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Secondary Learning Disabilities Form of the Screening Procedure is described, and procedures for administration and scoring are detailed. In addition, interpretation guidelines are presented. Both the Revised Checklist ...

  5. Application of the Recovery Potential Screening Tool in the Matagorda Bay Watershed 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gregory, L.; Brown, M.; Skow, K.; Engling, A.; Wagner, K.; Berthold, A.

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    intensive, thus prioritizing future water quality restoration efforts is a means to efficiently allocate available resources and achieve timely restoration results. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) developed the Recovery Potential Screening...

  6. Feasibility of Tablet Computer Screening for Opioid Abuse in the Emergency Department

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiner, Scott G.; Horton, Laura C.; Green, Traci C.; Butler, Stephen F.

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    analysis of diagnostic computer kiosks in four 24. Ewing T,conclusion that tablet computers may be used to screen EDD, Dunbar PJ. Review of computer-generated outpatient health

  7. High-throughput screening of shape memory alloy thin-film spreads using nanoindentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubloff, Gary W.

    -film libraries. Nanoindentation was performed on Ni­Mn­Al ternary composition spreads. The indentation hardness and Wyrobek3 recently set forth a series of guidelines for the use of a nanoindenter to screen combina- torial

  8. Infrastructure to support ultra high throughput biodosimetry screening after a radiological event

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    GUY GARTY1 , ANDREW KARAM2 , & DAVID J. BRENNER3 1 Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, Radiological Research Accelerator Facility, Nevis Laboratories, Columbia UniverInfrastructure to support ultra high throughput biodosimetry screening after a radiological event

  9. Development of a semi-automated ZLC system for rapid screening of adsorbents for carbon capture 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xiayi

    2012-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In this dissertation a novel ZLC setup has been developed as part of a DOE-funded grant in collaboration with UOP, to provide rapid screening of novel adsorbent materials for carbon capture (CC). The key features of the ...

  10. ResponseNet: revealing signaling and regulatory networks linking genetic and transcriptomic screening data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lan, Alex

    Cellular response to stimuli is typically complex and involves both regulatory and metabolic processes. Large-scale experimental efforts to identify components of these processes often comprise of genetic screening and ...

  11. ResponseNet: revealing signaling and regulatory networks linking genetic transcriptomic screening data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lan, Alex

    Cellular response to stimuli is typically complex and involves both regulatory and metabolic processes. Large-scale experimental efforts to identify components of these processes often comprise of genetic screening and ...

  12. A cancer screen in zebrafish identifies many ribosomal proteins as haploinsufficient tumor suppressors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Kevin

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A collection of over 500 lines of zebrafish (Danio rerio), each heterozygous for a recessive embryonic lethal mutation caused by a retroviral insertion, was screened for lines that displayed early mortality and externally ...

  13. Development of Data Quality Control Limits for Data Screening through the "Energy Balance" Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masuda, H.; Baltazar, J. C.; Ji, J.; Claridge, D.

    screening using “Energy Balance” methodology (Shao and Claridge, 2005). Energy Balance (EBL) parameter represents quasi-steady state thermal energy storage in a building and indicates a predominant linear behavior when it is plotted versus the outside air...

  14. Methods and technologies for high-throughput and high-content small animal screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohde, Christopher, 1979-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High-throughput and high-content screening (HTS and HCS) of whole animals requires their immobilization for high-resolution imaging and manipulation. Here we present methods to enable HTS and HCS of the nematode Caenorhabditis ...

  15. Effects of screening on the optical absorption in graphene and in metallic monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jablan, Marinko

    Screening is one of the fundamental concepts in solid-state physics. It has a great impact on the electronic properties of graphene, where huge mobilities were observed in spite of the large concentration of charged ...

  16. Agenda from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput Screening...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput Screening of Hydrogen Storage Materials Workshop on June 26, 2007 Agenda from the U.S. Department of Energy's High Throughput...

  17. MicroSCALE Screening Reveals Genetic Modifiers of Therapeutic Response in Melanoma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabatini, David M.

    Cell microarrays are a promising tool for performing large-scale functional genomic screening in mammalian cells at reasonable cost, but owing to technical limitations they have been restricted for use with a narrow range ...

  18. Melanoma screening with serial whole body photographic change detection using Melanoscan® technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    al. , Screening for malignant melanoma: a cost-effectivenessetiology, and control of melanoma. Med Health RI 2001;84:12. MacKie RM, Malignant melanoma - the end of an epidemic.

  19. Screening for malingering in a forensic population using a SIRS short form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Mary C

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS), for use as a screening measure for malingering within a forensic population. Fifty-nine (59) imnates complaining of psychological impairment were tested for malingering. A subset was given both the original...

  20. Observation of finite-wavelength screening in high-energy-density matter

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, D. A.; Vorberger, J.; Fletcher, L. B.; Baggott, R. A.; Divol, L.; Döppner, T.; Falcone, R. W.; Glenzer, S. H.; Gregori, G.; Guymer, T. M.; et al

    2015-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A key component for the description of charged particle systems is the screening of the Coulomb interaction between charge carriers. First investigated in the 1920s by Debye and Hückel for electrolytes, charge screening is important for determining the structural and transport properties of matter as diverse as astrophysical and laboratory plasmas, nuclear matter such as quark-gluon plasmas, electrons in solids, planetary cores and charged macromolecules. For systems with negligible dynamics, screening is still mostly described using a Debye–Hückel-type approach. Here, we report the novel observation of a significant departure from the Debye–Hückel-type model in high-energy-density matter by probing laser-driven, shock-compressedmore »plastic with high-energy X-rays. We use spectrally resolved X-ray scattering in a geometry that enables direct investigation of the screening cloud, and demonstrate that the observed elastic scattering amplitude is only well described within a more general approach.« less

  1. Black Bear Prep plant replaces high-frequency screens with fine wire sieves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barbee, C.J.; Nottingham, J.

    2007-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    At the Black Bear prep plant (near Wharncliffe, WV, USA) the clean coal from the spirals traditionally reported to high-frequency screens, which removed high-ash clay fines. Screens have inherent inefficiencies that allow clean coal to report to the screen underflow. The goal of this project was to capture the maximum amount of spiral clean coal while still removing the high-ash clay material found in the spiral product. The reduction of the circulating load and plant downtime for unscheduled maintenance were projected as additional benefits. After the plant upgrade, the maintenance related to the high frequency screens was eliminated and an additional 2.27 tons per hour (tph) of fine coal was recovered, which resulted in a payback period of less than one year. The article was adapted from a paper presented at Coal Prep 2007 in April 2007, Lexington, KY, USA. 1 ref., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  2. Development of a screening method for drought tolerance in cotton seedlings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Longenberger, Polly Suzanne

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    to be established. The research reported herein was designed to evaluate a screening method for drought tolerance in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) seedlings. Twenty-one converted race stocks (CRS) and two cultivars were evaluated for seedling drought tolerance...

  3. Chemical Genetic Screen for AMPK?2 Substrates Uncovers a Network of Proteins Involved in Mitosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banko, Max R.

    The energy-sensing AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is activated by low nutrient levels. Functions of AMPK, other than its role in cellular metabolism, are just beginning to emerge. Here we use a chemical genetics screen ...

  4. Local and remote controls on observed Arctic warming J. A. Screen,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deser, Clara

    radiative forcing (DRF) due to observed changes in greenhouse gases, ozone, aerosols, and solar output reanalysis data sets analysed by Serreze et al. [2009] and Screen and Simmonds [2010a] showed strongest AA

  5. Ultra-rapid laser protein micropatterning: screening for directed polarization of single neurons{{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yanik, Mehmet Fatih

    Ultra-rapid laser protein micropatterning: screening for directed polarization of single neurons the effects of extracellular signals on cell development and regeneration. Laser micropatterning of proteins gradients. Despite these advantages, laser micropatterning remains prohibitively slow for most applications

  6. Microfabricated phenol biosensors based on screen printing of tyrosinase containing carbon ink

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.; Chen, Q. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Phenol biosensor strips were microfabricated by screen-printing of tyrosinase containing carbon inks. The ability of the enzyme to tolerate the 2-hour firing process (at 110{degrees}C) is attributed to its organic phase activity. The resulting strips offer unmediated detection of phenolic compounds down to the 1 x 10{sup {minus}7} M level. Direct assays of untreated drinking - and groundwater samples indicate great promise for field screening of phenolic compounds.

  7. Screening peach rootstocks for tolerance to iron deficiency stress: mechanisms of Fe?p3+ ?sreduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egilla, Jonathan Nda

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SCREENING PEACH ROOTSTOCKS FOR TOLERANCE TO IRON DEFICIENCY STRESS: MECHANISMS OF FE REDUCTION A Thesis by JONATHAN NDA A. EGILLA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1989 Major Subject: Horticulture SCREENING PEACH ROOTSTOCKS FOR TOLERANCE TO IRON DEFICIENCY STRESS: MECHANISMS OF FE REDUCTION A Thesis by JONATHAN NDA A. EGILLA Approved as to style and content by: . H...

  8. Development of an Fe efficiency screening procedure for sorghum based on realistic soil parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Francisco

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DEVELOPMENT OF AN FE EFFICIENCY SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR SORGHUH BASED ON REAl ISTIC SOIL PARAHETERS A Thesis by FRANCISCO HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of HASTER OF SCIENCE August 1987 Hajor Subject: Agronomy DEVELOPMENT OF AN FE EFFICIENCY SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR SORGHUM BASED ON REALISTIC SOIL PARAMETERS A Thesis by Francisco Hernandez Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

  9. Evaluation of the Industrial Source Complex Screen2 for regulatory purposes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, Linda Mendez

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EVALUATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL SOURCE COMPLEX SCREEN2 FOR REGULATORY PURPOSES A Thesis by LINDA MENDEZ WILLIAMS Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1996 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering EVALUATION OF THE INDUSTRIAL SOURCE COMPLEX SCREEN2 FOR REGULATORY PURPOSES A Thesis by LINDA MENDEZ WILLIAMS Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment...

  10. Vector screening masses in the quark-gluon plasma and their physical significance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. B. Brandt; A. Francis; M. Laine; H. B. Meyer

    2014-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Static and non-static thermal screening states that couple to the conserved vector current are investigated in the high-temperature phase of QCD. Their masses and couplings to the current are determined at weak coupling, as well as using two-flavor lattice QCD simulations. A consistent picture emerges from the comparison, providing evidence that non-static Matsubara modes can indeed be treated perturbatively. We elaborate on the physical significance of the screening masses.

  11. Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Koperna Jr.; Vello A. Kuuskraa; David E. Riestenberg; Aiysha Sultana; Tyler Van Leeuwen

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report serves as the final technical report and users manual for the 'Rigorous Screening Technology for Identifying Suitable CO2 Storage Sites II SBIR project. Advanced Resources International has developed a screening tool by which users can technically screen, assess the storage capacity and quantify the costs of CO2 storage in four types of CO2 storage reservoirs. These include CO2-enhanced oil recovery reservoirs, depleted oil and gas fields (non-enhanced oil recovery candidates), deep coal seems that are amenable to CO2-enhanced methane recovery, and saline reservoirs. The screening function assessed whether the reservoir could likely serve as a safe, long-term CO2 storage reservoir. The storage capacity assessment uses rigorous reservoir simulation models to determine the timing, ultimate storage capacity, and potential for enhanced hydrocarbon recovery. Finally, the economic assessment function determines both the field-level and pipeline (transportation) costs for CO2 sequestration in a given reservoir. The screening tool has been peer reviewed at an Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) technical meeting in March 2009. A number of useful observations and recommendations emerged from the Workshop on the costs of CO2 transport and storage that could be readily incorporated into a commercial version of the Screening Tool in a Phase III SBIR.

  12. A phase screen model for simulating numerically the propagation of a laser beam in rain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lukin, I P; Rychkov, D S; Falits, A V [Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Lai, Kin S; Liu, Min R [DSO National Laboratories 20 (Singapore)

    2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The method based on the generalisation of the phase screen method for a continuous random medium is proposed for simulating numerically the propagation of laser radiation in a turbulent atmosphere with precipitation. In the phase screen model for a discrete component of a heterogeneous 'air-rain droplet' medium, the amplitude screen describing the scattering of an optical field by discrete particles of the medium is replaced by an equivalent phase screen with a spectrum of the correlation function of the effective dielectric constant fluctuations that is similar to the spectrum of a discrete scattering component - water droplets in air. The 'turbulent' phase screen is constructed on the basis of the Kolmogorov model, while the 'rain' screen model utiises the exponential distribution of the number of rain drops with respect to their radii as a function of the rain intensity. Theresults of the numerical simulation are compared with the known theoretical estimates for a large-scale discrete scattering medium. (propagation of laser radiation in matter)

  13. Colloid-based multiplexed method for screening plant biomass-degrading glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reindl, W.; Deng, K.; Gladden, J.M.; Cheng, G.; Wong, A.; Singer, S.W.; Singh, S.; Lee, J.-C.; Yao, J.-S.; Hazen, T.C.; Singh, A.K; Simmons, B.A.; Adams, P.D.; Northen, T.R.

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The enzymatic hydrolysis of long-chain polysaccharides is a crucial step in the conversion of biomass to lignocellulosic biofuels. The identification and characterization of optimal glycoside hydrolases is dependent on enzyme activity assays, however existing methods are limited in terms of compatibility with a broad range of reaction conditions, sample complexity, and especially multiplexity. The method we present is a multiplexed approach based on Nanostructure-Initiator Mass Spectrometry (NIMS) that allowed studying several glycolytic activities in parallel under diverse assay conditions. Although the substrate analogs carried a highly hydrophobic perfluorinated tag, assays could be performed in aqueous solutions due colloid formation of the substrate molecules. We first validated our method by analyzing known {beta}-glucosidase and {beta}-xylosidase activities in single and parallel assay setups, followed by the identification and characterization of yet unknown glycoside hydrolase activities in microbial communities.

  14. Creating a Trade-In Document in Kuali On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box in the middle of the screen look

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Creating a Trade-In Document in Kuali On the Main Menu screen under the Lookup and Maintenance box 2, trade-in. When you select return value for the trade-in retirement reason you will see in the Document Overview tab. Example: Trading-in Copier You will use the explanation field (also located

  15. SEA screening of voluntary climate change plans: A story of non-compliant discretion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Křrnřv, Lone, E-mail: lonek@plan.aau.dk; Wejs, Anja

    2013-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Screening within Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) is the first critical stage involving considerations on whether an assessment is carried out or not. Although legislation and guidance offer practitioners a legal and logical approach to the screening process, it is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. This article examines the results of discretion involved in screening of climate change plans (CCPs) in a Danish context. These years voluntary CCPs are developed as a response to the global and local emergence of both mitigation and adaptation, and the voluntary commitment by the local authorities is an indication of an emerging norm of climate change as an important issue. This article takes its point of departure in the observation that SEA is not undertaken for these voluntary CCPs. The critical analysis of this phenomenon rests upon a documentary study of Danish CCPs, interviews with a lawyer and ministerial key person and informal discussions between researchers, practitioners and lawyers on whether climate change plans are covered by SEA legislation and underlying reasons for the present practice. Based on a critical analysis of mandatory SEA and/or obligation to screen CCPs according to significance criteria, the authors find that 18 out of the 48 CCPs are mandatory to SEA and 9 would require a screening of significance and thereby potentially be followed by a SEA. In practice only one plan was screened and one was environmentally assessed. The legal, democratic and environmental consequences of this SEA practice are critically discussed. Hereunder is the missed opportunity to use the broad environmental scope of SEA to avoid a narrow focus on energy and CO{sub 2} in CCPs, and the question whether this practice in Denmark complies with the EU Directive. -- Highlights: ? It is inevitable that discretionary judgement takes place and will impact on the screening decision. ? The article hereby calls for greater awareness of the discretion and judgement involved in SEA screening. ? Practice seemingly reveals a lack of application of SEA within climate change planning and a lack of explicit screening. ? Absence of SEAs of voluntary plans such as CCPs, have legal consequences, as well as democratic and environmental consequences. ? The vague definition of ‘administrative provision’ seems to impose the lacking SEA.

  16. Ecological Screening Values for Surface Water, Sediment, and Soil: 2005 Update

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friday, G. P.

    2005-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the principal components of the environmental remediation program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) is the assessment of ecological risk. Used to support CERCLA, RCRA, and DOE orders, the ecological risk assessment (ERA) can identify environmental hazards and evaluate remedial action alternatives. Ecological risk assessment is also an essential means for achieving DOE's risk based end state vision for the disposition of nuclear material and waste hazards, the decommissioning of facilities, and the remediation of inactive waste units at SRS. The complexity of an ERA ranges from a screening level ERA (SLERA) to a full baseline ERA. A screening level ecological risk assessments, although abbreviated from a baseline risk assessment, is nonetheless considered a complete risk assessment (EPA, 2001a). One of the initial tasks of any ERA is to identify constituents that potentially or adversely affect the environment. Typically, this is accomplished by comparing a constituent's maximum concentration in surface water, sediment, or soil with an ecological screening value (ESV). The screening process can eliminate many constituents from further consideration in the risk assessment, but it also identifies those that require additional evaluation. This document is an update of a previous compilation (Friday, 1998) and provides a comprehensive listing of ecological screening values for surface water, sediment, and soil. It describes how the screening values were derived and recommends benchmarks that can be used for ecological risk assessment. The sources of these updated benchmarks include the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the State of Florida, the Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME), the Dutch Ministry of the Environment (RIVM), and the scientific literature. It should be noted that ESV's are continuously revised by the various issuing agencies. The references in this report provide the citations of each source and, where applicable, the internet address where they can be accessed. Although radiological screening values are not included herein due to space limitations, these have been recently derived by a technical working committee sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE 2002, 2004). The recommended ecological screening values represent the most conservative concentrations of the cited sources, and are to be used for screening purposes only. They do not represent remedial action cleanup levels. Their use at locations other than SRS should take into account environmental variables such as water quality, soil chemistry, flora and fauna, and other ecological attributes specific to the ecosystem potentially at risk.

  17. Washington Phase II Fish Diversion Screen Evaluations in the Yakima River Basin, 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vucelick, J.; McMichael, G.; Chamness, M. (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)

    2004-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2003, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) evaluated 23 Phase II fish screen sites in the Yakima River Basin as part of a multi-year project for the Bonneville Power Administration on the effectiveness of fish screening devices. PNNL collected data to determine whether velocities in front of the screens and in the bypasses met the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Fisheries (NOAA Fisheries, formerly the National Marine Fisheries Service [NMFS]) criteria to promote safe and timely fish passage. In addition, PNNL conducted underwater video surveys to evaluate the environmental and operational conditions of the screen sites with respect to fish passage. Based on evaluations in 2003, PNNL concluded that: (1) In general, water velocity conditions at the screen sites met fish passage criteria set by the NOAA Fisheries. (2) Conditions at most facilities would be expected to provide for safe juvenile fish passage. (3) Conditions at some facilities indicate that operation and/or maintenance should be modified to improve juvenile fish passage conditions. (4) Automated cleaning brushes generally functioned properly; chains and other moving parts were typically well greased and operative. (5) Removal of sediment buildup and accumulated leafy and woody debris could be improved at some sites.

  18. Contrasting real-time dynamics with screening phenomena at finite temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, S.; Lissia, M. [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 0219] [Center for Theoretical Physics, Laboratory for Nuclear Science and Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 0219; [Department of Physics, FM-15, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, via Ada Negri 18, I-09127 Cagliari (Italy); [Dipartimento di Fisica dell`Universita di Cagliari, I-09124 Cagliari (Italy)

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the interpretation of Euclidean correlation functions at finite temperature ({ital T}) and their relationship with the corresponding real-time Green{close_quote}s functions. The soluble (2+1)-dimensional Gross-Neveu model in the large-{ital N} limit is used throughout as a working example. First, the real-time bound state, identified as an elementary excitation at finite {ital T}, is solved. The bound state mass, the dispersion relation at low momenta, the coupling constant, and decay constant are calculated. To characterize the structure of the bound state the on-shell form factor is carefully introduced and calculated. Then we examine the corresponding screening state and contrast the screening mass, coupling constant, decay constant, and the screening Bethe-Salpeter amplitude with the real-time quantities. We find that, although they can be used as qualitative indicators in the low-{ital T} regime, the screening states at finite {ital T} in general do not reflect the properties of the corresponding real-time bound states. In addition, other relevant issues, such as the subtlety of the real-time manifestation of conservation laws due to some internal symmetries at {ital T}{ne}0, the temperature dependence of the pseudoscalar spectral function and its sum rule, and the high-{ital T} limit of the screening state and its implications to the dimensional reduction, are also discussed in detail. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  19. The role of screening of the electron-phonon interaction in relaxation of photoexcited electron-hole plasma in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumekov, S. E. [Kazakh National Technical University (Kazakhstan)], E-mail: skumekov@mail.ru

    2008-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The role of screening of the interaction of the electron-hole plasma with optical phonons is analytically evaluated by the example of gallium arsenide.

  20. Electric and Magnetic Screening Masses at Finite Temperature from Generalized Polyakov-Line Correlations in Two-flavor Lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Maezawa; S. Aoki; S. Ejiri; T. Hatsuda; N. Ishii; K. Kanaya; N. Ukita; T. Umeda

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Screenings of the quark-gluon plasma in electric and magnetic sectors are studied on the basis of generalized Polyakov-line correlation functions in lattice QCD simulations with two flavors of improved Wilson quarks. Using the Euclidean-time reflection ($\\R$) and the charge conjugation ($\\Ca$), electric and magnetic screening masses are extracted in a gauge invariant manner. Long distance behavior of the standard Polyakov-line correlation in the quark-gluon plasma is found to be dictated by the magnetic screening. Also, ratio of the two screening masses agrees with that obtained from the dimensionally-reduced effective field theory and the ${\\cal N}=4$ supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory.

  1. Qualitative vs. quantitative data: Controls on the accuracy of PID field screening in petroleum contamination assessment applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Luessen, M.J.; Allex, M.K.; Holzel, F.R. [ATEC Associates Inc., Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of photoionization detectors (PIDs) for field screening of soils for volatile organic contaminants has become a standard industry practice. PID screening data is generally utilized as a qualitative basis for selection of samples for laboratory analysis to quantify concentrations of specific contaminants of concern. Both qualitative field screening data and quantitative laboratory analytical data were reviewed for more than 100 hydrogeologic assessment sites in Ohio to evaluate controls on the effectiveness of field screening data. Assessment data evaluated was limited to sites at which the suspected contaminant source was a gasoline underground storage tanks system. In each case, a 10.0 eV (or greater) PID calibrated for benzene was used to screen soils which were analyzed for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) by SW 846 method 8020. Controls on field screening which were evaluated for each site included (1) soil classification, (2) soil moisture, (3) weather conditions, (4) background levels, (5) equipment quality, (6) screening methodology, and (7) laboratory QA/QC. Statistical data analysis predictably indicated a general overestimate of total BTEX levels based on field screening (gasoline is approximately 25 weight percent BTEX). However, data locally indicated cases of both significant (i.e., more than an order of magnitude difference) over- and under-estimation of actual BTEX concentrations (i.e., quantitative laboratory data) by field screening data.

  2. Reevaluation of 1999 Health-Based Environmental Screening Levels (HBESLs) for Chemical Warfare Agents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watson, Annetta Paule [ORNL; Dolislager, Fredrick G [ORNL

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates whether new information and updated scientific models require that changes be made to previously published health-based environmental soil screening levels (HBESLs) and associated environmental fate/breakdown information for chemical warfare agents (USACHPPM 1999). Specifically, the present evaluation describes and compares changes that have been made since 1999 to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) risk assessment models, EPA exposure assumptions, as well as to specific chemical warfare agent parameters (e.g., toxicity values). Comparison was made between screening value estimates recalculated with current assumptions and earlier health-based environmental screening levels presented in 1999. The chemical warfare agents evaluated include the G-series and VX nerve agents and the vesicants sulfur mustard (agent HD) and Lewisite (agent L). In addition, key degradation products of these agents were also evaluated. Study findings indicate that the combined effect of updates and/or changes to EPA risk models, EPA default exposure parameters, and certain chemical warfare agent toxicity criteria does not result in significant alteration to the USACHPPM (1999) health-based environmental screening level estimates for the G-series and VX nerve agents or the vesicant agents HD and L. Given that EPA's final position on separate Tier 1 screening levels for indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments has not yet been released as of May 2007, the study authors find that the 1999 screening level estimates (see Table ES.1) are still appropriate and protective for screening residential as well as nonresidential sites. As such, risk management decisions made on the basis of USACHPPM (1999) recommendations do not require reconsideration. While the 1999 HBESL values are appropriate for continued use as general screening criteria, the updated '2007' estimates (presented below) that follow the new EPA protocols currently under development are also protective. When EPA finalizes and documents a position on the matter of indoor and outdoor worker screening assessments, site-specific risk assessments should make use of modified models and criteria. Screening values such as those presented in this report may be used to assess soil or other porous media to determine whether chemical warfare agent contamination is present as part of initial site investigations (whether due to intentional or accidental releases) and to determine whether weather/decontamination has adequately mitigated the presence of agent residual to below levels of concern. However, despite the availability of scientifically supported health-based criteria, there are significant resources needs that should be considered during sample planning. In particular, few analytical laboratories are likely to be able to meet these screening levels. Analyses will take time and usually have limited confidence at these concentrations. Therefore, and particularly for the more volatile agents, soil/destructive samples of porous media should be limited and instead enhanced with headspace monitoring and presence-absence wipe sampling.

  3. Colorectal Cancer Screening and Young African-American Men: Male Role Norms, Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rogers, Charles Ray

    2013-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    of these leaders fought numerous battles in the background to get me to this point. For this, I am forever grateful and hope that my success will not only serve as a small token of my appreciation for each of you, but will also attract other bright students... in the United States, CRC screening (CRCS) uptake is relatively low, especially among groups that lack health insurance or a usual source of care (Breen et al., 2001). In addition to the lack of access to screening and limited or no health insurance, other...

  4. Systematic relativistic quantum effects on screening of fusion rates in white dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirish M. Chitanvis

    2006-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Relativistic electron degeneracy effects are dominant in ultra-dense plasmas (UDP), such as those found in white dwarfs. These effects can be treated systematically by obtaining an expansion of the screening length in inverse powers of $\\hbar^{2}$. In general, our theory leads to an ${\\cal O}(10)$ effect on the enhancement of fusion rates in white dwarfs. Further, it is shown analytically for these stellar conditions that Bose statistics of nuclei have a negligible effect on the screening length, in consonance with Monte Carlo simulations found in literature.

  5. Screening properties of four mesoscale smoothed charge models, with application to dissipative particle dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patrick B. Warren; Andrey Vlasov

    2014-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We extend our previous study [J. Chem. Phys. 138, 204907 (2013)] to quantify the screening properties of four mesoscale smoothed charge models used in dissipative particle dynamics. Using a combination of the hypernetted chain integral equation closure and the random phase approximation, we identify regions where the models exhibit a real-valued screening length, and the extent to which this agrees with the Debye length in the physical system. We find that the second moment of the smoothed charge distribution is a good predictor of this behaviour. We are thus able to recommend a consistent set of parameters for the models.

  6. Laboratory evaluation of filtercake cleanup techniques and metallic-screens plugging mechanisms in horizontal wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Orrego, Gloria Stella

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Unconsolidated Sand Core Set up 4. 3. 2. Metallic Screen Loading . 4. 3. 3. Cell Assembly 4. 3. 4. Base Permeability Determination. . 4. 3. 5. Filtercake Buildup . . 26 . . . . 26 27 29 29 29 29 4. 3. 6. Regained Permeability Study after Filtercake... Cleanup Phase . . . . , . . . . . , . . . 31 4. 3. 7. Screen Permeabilities . 4. 4. DIF Characterization 4. 4. 1. Density. 4. 4. 2. Viscosity . . 4. 4. 3. Plastic Viscosity. 4. 4. 4. Yield point. 4. 4. 5. Gel Strength. . 4. 4. 6. Fluid-Loss Control...

  7. Toward Joint Hypothesis-Tests Seismic Event Screening Analysis: Ms|mb and Event Depth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, Dale [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Selby, Neil [AWE Blacknest

    2012-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Well established theory can be used to combine single-phenomenology hypothesis tests into a multi-phenomenology event screening hypothesis test (Fisher's and Tippett's tests). Commonly used standard error in Ms:mb event screening hypothesis test is not fully consistent with physical basis. Improved standard error - Better agreement with physical basis, and correctly partitions error to include Model Error as a component of variance, correctly reduces station noise variance through network averaging. For 2009 DPRK test - Commonly used standard error 'rejects' H0 even with better scaling slope ({beta} = 1, Selby et al.), improved standard error 'fails to rejects' H0.

  8. 19.4% -EFFICIENT LARGE AREA REAR-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED SILICON SOLAR CELLS T. Dullweber*1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    be reduced by applying the PERC (passivated emitter and rear cell) solar cell design [8]. The following19.4% -EFFICIENT LARGE AREA REAR-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED SILICON SOLAR CELLS T. Dullweber*1 , S% in the near future. Keywords: Silicon Solar Cell, Screen Printing, Rear Passivation 1 Introduction About 80

  9. New screening software shows most recent large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries1 contain chimeras.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Antonia J.

    1 New screening software shows most recent large 16S rRNA gene clone libraries1 contain chimeras.2 3 Running title4 Detecting chimeras within 16S rRNA gene libraries.5 6 Authors7 Kevin E. Ashelford for screening entire 16S rRNA gene2 libraries, of up to 1,000 sequences, for chimeras and other artifacts

  10. MagnoFly: Game Based Screening for Dyslexia computer game to test magnocellular motion sensitivity in children

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferwerda, James A.

    MagnoFly: Game Based Screening for Dyslexia MagnoFly: · computer game to test magnocellular motion the player's motion coherence threshold impact: · new tool to screen children for risk of dyslexia: Dyslexia is a reading disorder that affects approximately five percent of the population. Recent research

  11. Performance assessment of CsI(Tl) screens on various substrates for X-ray imaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Zhaodong; Zhang, Hongkai; Zhao, Bozhen; Qin, Xiubo; Wei, Cunfeng; Liu, Yu; Wei, Long

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thallium-doped cesium iodide (CsI(Tl)) screens are widely used in X-ray imaging devices because of the columnar structure of CsI(Tl) layer, but few reports focus on the optical role of the substrate in the screen system. In this paper, four substrates including fused silica (SiO2), silver-film coated SiO2, graphite (C) and fiber optic plate (FOP) are used to fabricate CsI(Tl) screens by thermal evaporation. Their imaging performance is evaluated by relative light output (RLO), modulation transfer function (MTF), normalized noise power spectrum (NNPS) and noise equivalent quanta (NEQ). The results reveal that although CsI(Tl) film on graphite plate yields images with the lowest light output, it presents relatively higher spatial resolution and better signal-to-noise characteristics. However, films on SiO2 plate obtain low MTF but high NNPS curves, whether or not coated with silver film. Furthermore, scintillation screens on FOP have bright images with low NNPS and high NEQ, but have the lowest MTF. By controll...

  12. Screen-Off Traffic Characterization and Optimization in 3G/4G Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Zhuoqing Morley

    Screen-Off Traffic Characterization and Optimization in 3G/4G Networks Junxian Huang University resource constraints: limited frequency spectrum, network processing capability, and hand- set battery life. Copyright 2012 ACM 978-1-4503-1705-4/12/11 ...$15.00. kinds. Cellular networks are typically characterized

  13. Size-dependent infrared properties of MgO nanoparticles with evidence of screening effect

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Size-dependent infrared properties of MgO nanoparticles with evidence of screening effect Yann June 2012) We have investigated the infrared (IR) absorption properties of MgO nanoparticles (NPs by local heating,5,6 heat assisted magnetic recording,7 enhancement of the extraction of light from LEDs

  14. High-Throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaffer, David V.

    High-Throughput Screening of Gene Function in Stem Cells Using Clonal Microarrays RANDOLPH S. ASHTON,a JOSEPH PELTIER,b CHRISTOPHER A. FASANO,c ANALEAH O'NEILL,b JOSHUA LEONARD,b SALLY TEMPLE,c DAVID. Sox2 transcription factor · Akt1 · Neural progenitor cells · Soft lithography ABSTRACT We describe

  15. CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF BIOMASS FROM WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: SCREENING OF CHEMICALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CHEMICAL REMOVAL OF BIOMASS FROM WASTE AIR BIOTRICKLING FILTERS: SCREENING OF CHEMICALS for the removal of excess biomass from biotrickling ®lters for waste air treatment. Although the experiment/v) NaOH, 0.26 and 1.31% (w/v) NaClO and 11.3% (w/v) H2O2 resulted in a biomass removal signi

  16. In Vivo RNAi Screening Identifies a Leukemia-Specific Dependence on Integrin Beta 3 Signaling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Peter G.

    We used an in vivo small hairpin RNA (shRNA) screening approach to identify genes that are essential for MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia (AML). We found that Integrin Beta 3 (Itgb3) is essential for murine leukemia cells ...

  17. SPECIAL REPORTS AND REVIEWS Mass Screening With CT Colonography: Should the Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brenner, David Jonathan

    SPECIAL REPORTS AND REVIEWS Mass Screening With CT Colonography: Should the Radiation Exposure is highly advantageous, it can be performed with lower radiation doses than almost any other CT examination market in the United States would soon be over 100 million people. Therefore, it is pertinent to consider

  18. Nutrient-sensitized screening for drugs that shift energy metabolism from mitochondrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beimel, Amos

    Nutrient-sensitized screening for drugs that shift energy metabolism from mitochondrial respiration energy metabolism. (a) Fibroblasts grown on glucose- or galactose-containing media are exposed and concomitant increase in ECAR in all cell types tested, including immortalized mouse striatal cells, human

  19. Exploring Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Weck, Olivier L.

    , such as offshore petroleum exploration and production systems, generally require a significant amount of capital to Offshore Petroleum Projects by Jijun Lin B.E., Mechanical Engineering, Beijing University of Aeronautics Flexible Strategies in Engineering Systems Using Screening Models Applications to Offshore Petroleum

  20. Anomalous Microfluidic Phonons Induced by the Interplay of Hydrodynamic Screening and Incompressibility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tlusty, Tsvi

    Anomalous Microfluidic Phonons Induced by the Interplay of Hydrodynamic Screening the acoustic normal modes (``phonons'') of a 1D microfluidic droplet crystal at the crossover between 2D flow.55.D˙, 47.60.+i, 47.63.mf, 63.22.+m Microfluidic two-phase flow offers experimental tools to investigate

  1. Design and Operation of Membrane Microcalorimeters for Thermal Screening of Highly Energetic Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carreto Vazquez, Victor 1976-

    2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December 2010 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DESIGN AND OPERATION OF MEMBRANE MICROCALORIMETERS FOR THERMAL SCREENING OF HIGHLY ENERGETIC MATERIALS A.... Mannan Dragomir B. Bukur Committee Members, Victor M. Ugaz Cesar O. Malav? Head of Department, Michael Pishko December 2010 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Design and Operation of Membrane Microcalorimeters...

  2. A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrimon, Norbert

    LETTERS A functional RNAi screen for regulators of receptor tyrosine kinase and ERK signalling Adam-regulated kinases (ERKs) has pivotal roles during metazoan development, underlying processes as diverse as fate deter- mination, differentiation, proliferation, survival, migration and growth. Abnormal RTK/ERK

  3. Dying Green A Film Screening and Panel Discussion about Green Burial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech

    Dying Green A Film Screening and Panel Discussion about Green Burial March 20, 2014 6:00pm ­ 8:00pm to rest. The "Green Burial" movement is catching on in the U.S., and green cemetery options are now and panel discussion of the award-winning documentary, Dying Green (2011). Panel participants include Joshua

  4. Ionospheric Threat Mitigation by Geometry Screening in Ground-Based Augmentation Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Ionospheric Threat Mitigation by Geometry Screening in Ground-Based Augmentation Systems Jiyun Lee observed during severe ionospheric storms pose potential threats to the integrity of the Ground threats, because ionospheric gradients are not observable to the ground monitor if they impact

  5. A perturbative treatment for the exponential-cosine-screened Coulomb potential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sameer M. Ikhdair

    2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alternative approximation scheme has been used in solving the Schroedinger equation for the exponential-cosine-screened Coulomb potential. The bound state energies for various eigenstates and the corresponding wave functions are obtained analytically up to the second perturbation term.

  6. CO on Pt(335): Electric field screening on a stepped surface Hong Wanga)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tobin, Roger G.

    CO on Pt(335): Electric field screening on a stepped surface Hong Wanga) and R. G. Tobin Department, Michigan 48090-9055 Received 8 March 1995; accepted 11 May 1995 We compare CO's response to electric fields and at the frequency of the C­O stretch vibration. Atop-bonded CO is observed with reflection­absorption ir

  7. Original article 3D QSAR pharmacophore based virtual screening and molecular

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Keun Woo

    Original article 3D QSAR pharmacophore based virtual screening and molecular docking a , Yong Jung Kwon b , Keun Woo Lee a,* a Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), Environmental Biotechnology National Core Research Center (EB-NCRC), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center

  8. Screening assessment and requirements for a comprehensive assessment: Volume 1, Draft. Columbia River comprehensive impact assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To evaluate the impact to the Columbia River from the Hanford Site-derived contaminants, the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, tribal, stockholder, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. The Team agreed to conduct CRCIA using a phased approach. The initial phase, includes two components: 1) a screening assessment to evaluate the potential impact to the river, resulting from current levels of Hanford-derived contaminants in order to support decisions on Interim Remedial Measures, and 2) a definition of the essential work remaining to provide an acceptable comprehensive river impact assessment. The screening assessment is described in Part I of this report. The essential work remaining is Part II of this report. The objective of the screening assessment is to identify areas where the greatest potential exists for adverse effects on humans or the environment. Part I of this report discusses the scope, technical approach, and results of the screening assessment. Part II defines a new paradigm for predecisional participation by those affected by Hanford cleanup decisions.

  9. Isolation of C. elegans gene knockouts by PCR screening of chemically mutagenized libraries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesa, Giovanni

    presented here uses chemical mutagenesis. Treatment with ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and trimethyl psoralen (TMP) followed by UV irradiation are the two chemical mutagen-based methods normally used1 Isolation of C. elegans gene knockouts by PCR screening of chemically mutagenized libraries

  10. Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid-producing algae{,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Basu, Amar S.

    Optical microplates for high-throughput screening of photosynthesis in lipid- producing algae-producing algae of interest in 2nd generation biofuels. By conducting 96 experiments in parallel, photoirradiance the study of photosynthesis in algae. Societal challenges in energy sustainability have renewed interest

  11. Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perrimon, Norbert

    Droplet microfluidic technology for single-cell high-throughput screening Eric Brouzesa,b,1 (received for review March 31, 2009) We present a droplet-based microfluidic technology that enables high our droplet microfluidic platform is modular, robust, uses no moving parts, and has a wide range

  12. Sequential Screening Approach for the Identification of Potential Critical Supply Chain Conditions on Product Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    model 2. 2D CFD Heat transfer model 3. 3D CFD Heat transfer model I. Motivation and Scope Outline: II screening approach is to analyze the weather scenarios using three different heat transfer models of increased complexity. Lumped Heat transfer model 2D CFD Heat transfer model 3D CFD Heat transfer model #12

  13. Computational generation and screening of RNA motifs in large nucleotide sequence pools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlick, Tamar

    Computational generation and screening of RNA motifs in large nucleotide sequence pools Namhee Kim1 random sequence pools is central to RNA in vitro selection, no systematic computational equivalent -sequence pools; large pool sizes are made possible using program redesign and supercomputing resources. We

  14. General screening criteria for shale gas reservoirs and production data analysis of Barnett shale

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshpande, Vaibhav Prakashrao

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Shale gas reservoirs are gaining importance in United States as conventional oil and gas resources are dwindling at a very fast pace. The purpose of this study is twofold. First aim is to help operators with simple screening criteria which can help...

  15. Ab initio screening of metal sorbents for elemental mercury capture in syngas streams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Ab initio screening of metal sorbents for elemental mercury capture in syngas streams Anubhav Jain to produce a combustible syngas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen gas. Power plants incorporating prior to combustion, i.e. in the pre-combustion syngas mixture rather than the flue gas; as such

  16. High-Throughput Assay of 9 Lysosomal Enzymes for Newborn Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gelb, Michael

    : There is interest in newborn screening of lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs) because of the avail- ability with a cassette of substrates and internal standards and 1 or 2 punches of a dried blood spot (DBS) from a newborn used for MS/MS quantification in the selected reaction monitoring mode. RESULTS: Analysis of blood

  17. A Screening Protocol for Identification of Functional Mutants of RNA Editing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beal, Peter A.

    -suited for screening ADAR and ADAR substrate mutant libraries for editing activity. Curr. Protoc. Chem. Biol. 4 colonies secreting -galactosidase will turn green in its presence (Rupp, 2002). Thus, green coloration-369, December 2012 Published online December 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). DOI: 10

  18. Screening Libraries To Identify Proteins with Desired Binding Activities Using a Split-GFP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shorter, James

    Screening Libraries To Identify Proteins with Desired Binding Activities Using a Split 06520 cbi9990825210008 W e have previously described a split-green fluorescent protein (GFP) reassembly assay by which to detect protein protein interac- tions (1-3). In this assay, green fluorescent protein

  19. Screened thermonuclear reactions and predictive stellar evolution of detached double-lined eclipsing binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theodore Liolios; Theocharis Kosmas

    2005-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The low energy fusion cross sections of charged-particle nuclear reactions (and the respective reaction rates) in stellar plasmas are enhanced due to plasma screening effects. We study the impact of those effects on predictive stellar evolution simulations for detached double-lined eclipsing binaries. We follow the evolution of binary systems (pre-main sequence or main sequence stars) with precisely determined radii and masses from 1.1Mo to 23Mo (from their birth until their present state). The results indicate that all the discrepancies between the screened and unscreened models (in terms of luminosity, stellar radius, and effective temperature) are within the observational uncertainties. Moreover, no nucleosynthetic or compositional variation was found due to screening corrections. Therefore all thermonuclear screening effects on the charged-particle nuclear reactions that occur in the binary stars considered in this work (from their birth until their present state) can be totally disregarded. In other words, all relevant charged-particle nuclear reactions can be safely assumed to take place in a vacuum, thus simplifying and accelerating the simulation processes.

  20. Using Ligand-Based Virtual Screening to Allosterically Stabilize the Activated State of a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marshall, Garland R.

    virtually screening the Maybridge library, whereas no hits resulted with the National Cancer Institute-protein coupled receptors play an essential role in many biological processes. Despite an increase in the number the possible discovery of novel scaffolds. Maybridge Hitfinder and National Cancer Institute diversity

  1. Screening of contaminants in Waste Area Grouping 2 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blaylock, B.G.; Frank, M.L.; Hoffman, F.O.; Hook, L.A.; Suter, G.W.; Watts, J.A.

    1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste Area Grouping 2 (WAG 2) of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is located in the White Oak Creek Watershed and is composed of White Oak Creek Embayment, White Oak Lake and associated floodplain, and portions of White Oak Creek (WOC) and Melton Branch downstream of ORNL facilities. Contaminants leaving other ORNL WAGs in the WOC watershed pass through WAG 2 before entering the Clinch River. Health and ecological risk screening analyses were conducted on contaminants in WAG 2 to determine which contaminants were of concern and would require immediate consideration for remedial action and which contaminants could be assigned a low priority or further study. For screening purposes, WAG 2 was divided into four geographic reaches: Reach 1, a portion of WOC; Reach 2, Melton Branch; Reach 3, White Oak Lake and the floodplain area to the weirs on WOC and Melton Branch; and Reach 4, the White Oak Creek Embayment, for which an independent screening analysis has been completed. Screening analyses were conducted using data bases compiled from existing data on carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic contaminants, which included organics, inorganics, and radionuclides. Contaminants for which at least one ample had a concentration above the level of detection were placed in a detectable contaminants data base. Those contaminants for which all samples were below the level of detection were placed in a nondetectable contaminants data base.

  2. Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rakesh

    Seismic Screening, Evaluation, Rehabilitation, and Design Provisions for Wood-Framed Structures Preston Baxter, M.ASCE1 ; Thomas H. Miller, M.ASCE2 ; and Rakesh Gupta, M.ASCE3 Abstract: Seismic Database subject headings: Seismic analysis; Seismic design; Wood structures; Shear walls; Diaphragms

  3. Research paper Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Research paper Screen of FDA-approved drug library reveals compounds that protect hair cells from Accepted 9 August 2012 Available online xxx a b s t r a c t Loss of mechanosensory hair cells in the inner cause hair cell death as a side effect. These include amino- glycoside antibiotics, such as neomycin

  4. SCREENING METHODS FOR SELECTION OF SURFACTANT FORMULATIONS FOR IOR FROM FRACTURED CARBONATE RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    William A. Goddard III; Yongchun Tang; Patrick Shuler; Mario Blanco; Yongfu Wu; Seung Soon Jang

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This topical report presents details of the laboratory work performed to complete Task 1 of this project; developing rapid screening methods to assess surfactant performance for IOR (Improved Oil Recovery) from fractured carbonate reservoirs. The desired outcome is to identify surfactant formulations that increase the rate and amount of aqueous phase imbibition into oil-rich, oil-wet carbonate reservoir rock. Changing the wettability from oil-wet to water-wet is one key to enhancing this water-phase imbibition process that in turn recovers additional oil from the matrix portion of a carbonate reservoir. The common laboratory test to evaluate candidate surfactant formulations is to measure directly the aqueous imbibition rate and oil recovery from small outcrop or reservoir cores, but this procedure typically requires several weeks. Two methods are presented here for the rapid screening of candidate surfactant formulations for their potential IOR performance in carbonate reservoirs. One promising surfactant screening protocol is based on the ability of a surfactant solution to remove aged crude oil that coats a clear calcite crystal (Iceland Spar). Good surfactant candidate solutions remove the most oil the quickest from the chips, plus change the apparent contact angle of the remaining oil droplets on the surface that thereby indicate increased water-wetting. The other fast surfactant screening method is based on the flotation behavior of powdered calcite in water. In this test protocol, first the calcite power is pre-treated to make the surface oil-wet. The next step is to add the pre-treated powder to a test tube and add a candidate aqueous surfactant formulation; the greater the percentage of the calcite that now sinks to the bottom rather than floats, the more effective the surfactant is in changing the solids to become now preferentially water-wet. Results from the screening test generally are consistent with surfactant performance reported in the literature.

  5. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conventional crude from the continental United States, and 49% crude from offshore countries (Greenhouse

  6. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of cellulase (Celluclast, Novozymes, Bagsvaerd, Denmark)glucosidase (Novozyme 188, Novozymes, Bagsvaerd, Denmark) atmL) and ?-glucosidase (Novozymes 188, lot no: 037K0968,

  7. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fuels derived from the solar energy stored in plant biomass.energy consumption in the processes needed to convert biomass into simple molecules that can be used for fuel

  8. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. BiotechnolWheat Straw Pretreated for Bioethanol Production. Biotechnol1996) Handbook on Bioethanol: Production and Utilization (

  9. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wood: Properties for Ethanol Fuel and Fiber Productions.Wyman CE, 2004. Ethanol Fuel, in Cleveland, C.J. (Ed. ),scenario for cellulosic ethanol fuel production, and speaks

  10. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PV, Klinka K. Trembling Aspen Site Index in Relation toMoisture Content Determination of Aspen Wood Below the FiberFibre Length of Trembling Aspen in Alberta, Canada. Silvae

  11. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mg reaction mass were (a) press fit into an aluminum platereaction mass of 250 mg were press fit (Fig 3.3a 3.3a). Moreplate, as opposed to press fit. This modification enabled a

  12. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pretreated Sugar Cane Bagasse and Beech Bark. Bioresourceand xylan contents of bagasse, P. deltoides and switchgrass,110 Figure 4.2. For bagasse, P. deltoides and switchgrass,

  13. The Joint BioEnergy Institute (JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scheller, Henrik Vibe; Singh, Seema; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    JD (2009) Producing biofuels using polyketide synthases.JBEI): Developing New Biofuels by Overcoming Biomassthe next-generation of biofuels— liquid fuels derived from

  14. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  15. Chemical and Structural Features of Plants That Contribute to Biomass Recalcitrance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMartini, Jaclyn Diana

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    conventional petroleum, a combination of “geologic, economic, environmental, [and] political difficulties” will likely result in increased gasoline production from hydrocarbons

  16. High-Speed Biomass Recalcitrance Pipeline Speeds Up Bio-Mass Analysis -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High School footballHigh-Pressure MOF ResearchEnergy

  17. Nonlinear screening effect in an ultrarelativistic degenerate electron-positron gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsintsadze, N. L. [Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Rasheed, A.; Shah, H. A. [Department of Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan); Murtaza, G. [Salam Chair in Physics, Government College University, Lahore 54000 (Pakistan)

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nonlinear screening process in an ultrarelativistic degenerate electron-positron gas has been investigated by deriving a generalized nonlinear Poisson equation for the electrostatic potential. In the simple one-dimensional case, the nonlinear Poisson equation leads to Debye-like (Coulomb-like) solutions at distances larger (less) than the characteristic length. When the electrostatic energy is larger than the thermal energy, this nonlinear Poisson equation converts into the relativistic Thomas-Fermi equation whose asymptotic solution in three dimensions shows that the potential field goes to zero at infinity much more slowly than the Debye potential. The possibility of the formation of a bound state in electron-positron plasma is also indicated. Further, it is investigated that the strong spatial fluctuations of the potential field may reduce the screening length and that the root mean square of this spatial fluctuating potential goes to zero for large r rather slowly as compared to the case of the Debye potential.

  18. Computed Coupling Efficiencies of Kolmogorov Phase Screens into Single-Mode Optical Fibers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richard J. Mathar

    2007-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Coupling efficiencies of an electromagnetic field with a Kolmogorov phase statistics into a step-index fiber in its monomode regime of wavelengths are computed from the overlap integral between the phase screens and the far-field of the monomode at infrared wavelengths. The phase screens are composed from Karhunen-Loeve basis functions, optionally cutting off some of the eigenmodes of largest eigenvalue as if Adaptive Optics had corrected for some of the perturbations. The examples are given for telescope diameters of 1 and 1.8 m, and Fried parameters of 10 and 20 cm. The wavelength of the stellar light is in the J, H, or K band of atmospheric transmission, where the fiber core diameter is tailored to move the cutoff wavelength of the monomode regime to the edges of these bands.

  19. Radiation correction to astrophysical fusion reactions and the electron screening problem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Hagino; A. B. Balantekin

    2002-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss the effect of electromagnetic environment on laboratory measurements of the nuclear fusion reactions of astrophysical interest. The radiation field is eliminated using the path integral formalism in order to obtain the influence functional, which we evaluate in the semi-classical approximation. We show that enhancement of the tunneling probability due to the radiation correction is extremely small and does not resolve the longstanding problem that the observed electron screening effect is significantly larger than theoretical predictions.

  20. Screening of the Reissner-Nordström charge by a thin-shell of dust matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Habib Mazharimousavi; M. Halilsoy

    2015-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric thin-shell encircling a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om (RN) black hole screens the internal charge completely to match with an external Schwarzschild (S) black hole. The negative mass thin-shell is shown to be stable against radial perturbations. It is shown further that by reversing the roles of inside (RN) and outside (S) geometries the mass of the appropriate shell becomes positive.

  1. Screening of the Reissner-Nordstr\\"om charge by a thin-shell of dust matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazharimousavi, S Habib

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A concentric thin-shell encircling a Reissner-Nordstr\\"om (RN) black hole screens the internal charge completely to match with an external Schwarzschild (S) black hole. The negative mass thin-shell is shown to be stable against radial perturbations. It is shown further that by reversing the roles of inside (RN) and outside (S) geometries the mass of the appropriate shell becomes positive.

  2. Development of an Fe efficiency screening procedure for sorghum based on realistic soil parameters 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hernandez, Francisco

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , are considered to be good indicators of Fe use efficiency in plants, and thus were the basis determining Fe-efficiency of the sorghum cultivars. Rodriguez de Cianzio et al. (1979) reported that visual chlorosis ratings weze highly correlated (r=0. 90...DEVELOPMENT OF AN FE EFFICIENCY SCREENING PROCEDURE FOR SORGHUH BASED ON REAl ISTIC SOIL PARAHETERS A Thesis by FRANCISCO HERNANDEZ Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASH University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  3. Heavy Quark Free Energies and Screening in SU(2) Gauge Theory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Digal; S. Fortunato; P. Petreczky

    2002-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the singlet, triplet and colour average heavy quark free energies in SU(2) pure gauge theory at various temperatures T. We focus on the long distance behaviour of the free energies, studying in particular the temperature dependence of the string tension and the screening masses. The results are qualitatively similar to the SU(3) scenario, except near the critical temperature Tc of the deconfining transition. Finally we test a recently proposed method to renormalize the Polyakov loop.

  4. Guidance Manual for Conducting Screening Level Ecological Risk Assessments at the INEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. L. VanHorn; N. L. Hampton; R. C. Morris

    1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document presents reference material for conducting screening level ecological risk assessments (SLERAs)for the waste area groups (WAGs) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Included in this document are discussions of the objectives of and processes for conducting SLERAs. The Environmental Protection Agency ecological risk assessment framework is closely followed. Guidance for site characterization, stressor characterization, ecological effects, pathways of contaminant migration, the conceptual site model, assessment endpoints, measurement endpoints, analysis guidance, and risk characterization are included.

  5. Screening of electromagnetic field fluctuations by s--wave and d--wave superconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rachele Fermani; Stefan Scheel

    2010-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate theoretically the shielding of the electromagnetic field fluctuations by s-wave and d-wave superconductors within the framework of macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. The spin flip lifetime is evaluated above a niobium and a bismuth strontium calcium copper oxide (BSCCO) surface, and the screening effect is studied as a function of the thickness of the superconducting layer. Further, we study the different temperature dependence of the atomic spin relaxation above the two superconductors.

  6. Heavy quark free energies and screening at finite temperature and density

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Doring; S. Ejiri; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann

    2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the free energies of heavy quarks calculated from Polyakov loop correlation functions in full 2-flavour QCD using the p4-improved staggered fermion action. A small but finite Baryon number density is included via Taylor expansion of the fermion determinant in the Baryo-chemical potential mu. For temperatures above Tc we extract Debye screening masses from the large distance behaviour of the free energies and compare their mu-dependence to perturbative results.

  7. Data for the screening assessment. Volume 1: Text, Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miley, T.B.; O`Neil, T.K.; Gilbert, R.O.; Klevgard, L.A.; Walters, T.B.

    1996-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Columbia River is a critical resource for residents of the Pacific Northwest. This resource drew the Manhattan Project`s planners to the site now called Hanford to produce nuclear weapon materials. Production of those materials has left behind a legacy of chemical and radioactive contamination and materials that have, are, and will continue to pose a threat to the Columbia river for the foreseeable future. To evaluate the impact to the river from this Hanford-derived contamination, the US Department of Energy, US Environmental Protection Agency, and State of Washington Department of Ecology (the Tri-Party agencies) initiated a study referred to as the Columbia River Comprehensive Impact Assessment (CRCIA). To address concerns about the scope and direction of CRCIA as well as enhance regulator, stakeholder, tribal, and public involvement, the CRCIA Management Team was formed in August 1995. A major CRCIA Team decision was to organize CRCIA into phases, with additional phases to be identified as warranted after completion of the initial phase. The initial phase is comprised of two parts: (1) a screening assessment to evaluate the current impact to the river resulting from Hanford-derived contamination and (2) identification of requirements considered necessary by the CRCIA Management Team for a comprehensive assessment of impact to the river. The purpose of the screening assessment is to support cleanup decisions. The scope of the screening assessment is to evaluate the current risk to humans and the environment resulting from Hanford-derived contaminants. The screening assessment has the primary components of: identifying contaminants to be assessed; identifying a variety of exposure scenarios to evaluate human contaminant exposure; identifying a variety of other species to evaluate ecological contaminant exposure; and assessing risks posed by exposure of humans and other species to the contaminants.

  8. Rationale and design of the ADDITION-Leicester study, a systematic screening programme and Randomised Controlled Trial of multi-factorial cardiovascular risk intervention in people with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus detected by screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Webb, D R; Khunti, K; Srinivasan, B; Gray, L J; Taub, N; Campbell, S; Barnett, J; Henson, J; Hiles, S; Farooqi, A; Griffin, Simon J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Davies, M J

    2010-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Background Earlier diagnosis followed by multi-factorial cardiovascular risk intervention may improve outcomes in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM). Latent phase identification through screening requires structured, appropriately targeted...

  9. Using the Choquet integral for screening geological CO2 storage sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Y.

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For geological CO{sub 2} storage site selection, it is desirable to reduce the number of candidate sites through a screening process before detailed site characterization is performed. Screening generally involves defining a number of criteria which then need to be evaluated for each site. The importance of each criterion to the final evaluation will generally be different. Weights reflecting the relative importance of these criteria can be provided by experts. To evaluate a site, each criterion must be evaluated and scored, and then aggregated, taking into account the importance of the criteria. We propose the use of the Choquet integral for aggregating the scores. The Choquet integral considers the interactions among criteria, i.e. whether they are independent, complementary to each other, or partially repetitive. We also evaluate the Shapley index, which demonstrates how the importance of a given piece of information may change if it is considered by itself or together with other available information. An illustrative example demonstrates how the Choquet integral properly accounts for the presence of redundancy in two site-evaluation criteria, making the screening process more defensible than the standard weighted-average approach.

  10. Automated assessment of bilateral breast volume asymmetry as a breast cancer biomarker during mammographic screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alex C [ORNL; Hitt, Austin N [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Tourassi, Georgia [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The biological concept of bilateral symmetry as a marker of developmental stability and good health is well established. Although most individuals deviate slightly from perfect symmetry, humans are essentially considered bilaterally symmetrical. Consequently, increased fluctuating asymmetry of paired structures could be an indicator of disease. There are several published studies linking bilateral breast size asymmetry with increased breast cancer risk. These studies were based on radiologists manual measurements of breast size from mammographic images. We aim to develop a computerized technique to assess fluctuating breast volume asymmetry in screening mammograms and investigate whether it correlates with the presence of breast cancer. Using a large database of screening mammograms with known ground truth we applied automated breast region segmentation and automated breast size measurements in CC and MLO views using three well established methods. All three methods confirmed that indeed patients with breast cancer have statistically significantly higher fluctuating asymmetry of their breast volumes. However, statistically significant difference between patients with cancer and benign lesions was observed only for the MLO views. The study suggests that automated assessment of global bilateral asymmetry could serve as a breast cancer risk biomarker for women undergoing mammographic screening. Such biomarker could be used to alert radiologists or computer-assisted detection (CAD) systems to exercise increased vigilance if higher than normal cancer risk is suspected.

  11. Method used to estimate screening-level Total Failure Probability for human error events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burns, R.S.; Turner, J.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Engineering Technology Div.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This document briefly describes the method used to estimate a screening value for the Total Failure Probability (F{sub T}) of human error events that are identified in the fault trees which describe potential liquid UF{sub 6} release accidents at two US Gaseous Diffusion Plants. A discussion is provided of the assumptions, limitations, and overall logic of the F{sub T} assignment method, and a description is presented of how the method is employed. The description herein presents the screening technique used to quantify human errors in the accident analysis portion of the Gaseous Diffusion Plant Safety Analysis Report Upgrade Program. Specifically, the basic events analyzed here are given in the fault trees for one facility at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and one at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS). These plants are primarily chemical processing facilities that deal with a slightly radioactive process gas, low-enriched uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}). A Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) was not accomplished while drawing the fault trees; the accomplishment of an HRA would be determined by the overall study results. The method described herein provides a framework within which a conservative estimate of human error probability can be made at the screening level for use in the event trees and fault trees.

  12. Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borns, D.J.; Brady, P.V.; Brady, W.D.; Krupka, K.M.; Spalding, B.P.; Waters, R.D.; Zhang, P.

    1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Site Screening and Technical Guidance for Monitored Natural Attenuation at DOE Sites briefly outlines the biological and geochemical origins of natural attenuation, the tendency for natural processes in soils to mitigate contaminant transport and availability, and the means for relying on monitored natural attenuation (MNA) for remediation of contaminated soils and groundwaters. This report contains a step-by-step guide for (1) screening contaminated soils and groundwaters on the basis of their potential for remediation by natural attenuation and (2) implementing MNA consistent with EPA OSWER Directive 9200.4-17. The screening and implementation procedures are set up as a web-based tool (http://www.sandia.gov/eesector/gs/gc/na/mnahome.html) to assist US Department of Energy (DOE) site environmental managers and their staff and contractors to adhere to EPA guidelines for implementing MNA. This document is intended to support the Decision Maker's Framework Guide and Monitoring Guide both to be issued from DOE EM-40. Further technical advances may cause some of the approach outlined in this document to change over time.

  13. Prediction of risk-based screening levels for infiltration of volatile subsurface contaminants into buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hers, I.; Zapf-Gilje, R.; Petrovic, S. [Golder Associates Ltd., Burnaby, British Columbia (Canada); Macfarlane, M.; McLenehan, R. [British Columbia Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Victoria, British Columbia (Canada)

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Risk-Based Corrective Action (RBCA) approach is increasingly being used for the management of contaminated sites. Fundamental to this approach is the prediction of risk-based screening levels (RBSL) for operable exposure pathways. Screening level models currently used indicate that RBSLs for the indoor inhalation pathway can be significantly lower than other pathways typically considered. This paper presents the results of a screening level spreadsheet model used to predict human health risks resulting from infiltration of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into buildings. The model was developed to derive RBSLs for soil and groundwater for possible future incorporation into the regulation of contaminated sites in British Columbia. Key features of the semi-analytical VOC infiltration model are steady-state diffusive mass transfer through soil coupled with advective and diffusive mass transfer through a cracked building floor slab or wall, source mass depletion of soil contaminants present using a mass balance approach, and the capability to incorporate multi-component chemical partitioning for soils containing non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL). The critical factors affecting VOC infiltration and resulting health risks are presented.

  14. DEVELOPMENT OF A SCREENING TOOL FOR IDENTIFYING YOUNG PEOPLE AT RISK FOR NOISE-INDUCED HEARING LOSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Megerson, Susan C.

    2010-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This study surveyed common noise activities of young adults, quantified their annual equivalent noise exposures, and examined the efficacy of a self-assessment screening tool for identifying risk of noise-induced hearing ...

  15. On-chip sub-cellular resolution whole-animal manipulation for high-throughput in vivo screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohde, Christopher Benjamin

    We present a suite of technologies that can be combined to perform complex high-throughput whole-animal genetic and drug screens. When used in various combinations, these devices facilitate a variety of high-throughput ...

  16. Development of High-throughput and Robust Microfluidic Live Cell Assay Platforms for Combination Drug and Toxin Screening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Han

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    the labor-intensive and time-consuming limitations, they are too costly for general users. Microfluidic live cell screening platforms can allow precise control of cell culture microenvironments by applying accurate doses of biomolecular mixtures...

  17. Development of an Automated Microfluidic Reaction Platform for Multidimensional Screening: Reaction Discovery Employing Bicyclo[3.2.1]octanoid Scaffolds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodell, John R.

    An automated, silicon-based microreactor system has been developed for rapid, low-volume, multidimensional reaction screening. Use of the microfluidic platform to identify transformations of densely functionalized bicyclo ...

  18. Process of Integrating Screening and Detailed Risk-based Modeling Analyses to Ensure Consistent and Scientifically Defensible Results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buck, John W.; McDonald, John P.; Taira, Randal Y.

    2002-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    To support cleanup and closure of these tanks, modeling is performed to understand and predict potential impacts to human health and the environment. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a screening tool for the United States Department of Energy, Office of River Protection that estimates the long-term human health risk, from a strategic planning perspective, posed by potential tank releases to the environment. This tool is being conditioned to more detailed model analyses to ensure consistency between studies and to provide scientific defensibility. Once the conditioning is complete, the system will be used to screen alternative cleanup and closure strategies. The integration of screening and detailed models provides consistent analyses, efficiencies in resources, and positive feedback between the various modeling groups. This approach of conditioning a screening methodology to more detailed analyses provides decision-makers with timely and defensible information and increases confidence in the results on the part of clients, regulators, and stakeholders.

  19. Environmental screening tools for assessment of infrastructure plans based on biodiversity preservation and global warming (PEIT, Spain)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia-Montero, Luis G., E-mail: luisgonzaga.garcia@upm.e [Dept. Forest Engineering, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Montes, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Ciudad Universitaria s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Lopez, Elena, E-mail: elopez@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Monzon, Andres, E-mail: amonzon@caminos.upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Otero Pastor, Isabel, E-mail: isabel.otero@upm.e [TRANSyT, E.T.S. Ingenieros de Caminos, Technical University of Madrid (UPM), Avda. Profesor Aranguren s/n, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Most Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) research has been concerned with SEA as a procedure, and there have been relatively few developments and tests of analytical methodologies. The first stage of the SEA is the 'screening', which is the process whereby a decision is taken on whether or not SEA is required for a particular programme or plan. The effectiveness of screening and SEA procedures will depend on how well the assessment fits into the planning from the early stages of the decision-making process. However, it is difficult to prepare the environmental screening for an infrastructure plan involving a whole country. To be useful, such methodologies must be fast and simple. We have developed two screening tools which would make it possible to estimate promptly the overall impact an infrastructure plan might have on biodiversity and global warming for a whole country, in order to generate planning alternatives, and to determine whether or not SEA is required for a particular infrastructure plan.

  20. Seeing (and Hearing) is Believing! How Screen Capture Software Makes Website Usability Data a More Effective Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stark, Jeffrey; Goodwin, Susan

    2004-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Seeing (and Hearing) is Believing! How Screen Capture Software Makes Website Usability Data a More Effective Tool Susan Goodwin and Jeff Stark Texas A&M University Libraries ALA Poster Session, Summer 2004 Abstract Texas A&M University... Libraries has adopted screen capture software as a tool to assist with website usability studies. This poster session provides an introduction to the software package used to record the usability sessions in which volunteers were asked to complete specific...

  1. CONCEPT: N-TYPE SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH SURFACE-PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED ALUMINUM-ALLOYED REAR EMITTER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    THE ALU+ CONCEPT: N-TYPE SILICON SOLAR CELLS WITH SURFACE- PASSIVATED SCREEN-PRINTED ALUMINUM-ALLOYED ABSTRACT Aluminum-doped p-type (Al-p + ) silicon emitters fabricated by means of screen-printing and firing-Si) and atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as well as Al2O3/SiNx stacks, where the silicon

  2. A rapid, nondestructive method for screening rootstocks of stone fruits and almonds (Prunus spp.) for salt tolerance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ottman, Yvonne

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A RAPID, NONDESTRUCTIVE METFIOD FOR SCREENING ROOTSTOCKS OF STONE FRUITS AND ALMONDS lPRIJNUS SPP. ) FOR SALT TOLERANCE A Thesis YVONNE OTTMAN Submttted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1986 Major Subject: Horticulture A RAPID, NONDESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR SCREENING ROOTSTOCKS OF STONE FRUITS AND ALMONDS (PRUNUS SPP. ) FOR SALT TOLERANCE A Thesis by YVONNE OTTMAN Approved...

  3. Maintenance Screen

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    navigation to main content. U.S. Department of Energy Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Application Error Oops This Application has experienced an error. Please try your...

  4. Impact of Screening on Behavior During Storage and Cost of Ground Small-Diameter Pine Trees: A Case Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Erin Searcy; Brad D Blackwelder; Mark E Delwiche; Allison E Ray; Kevin L Kenney

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Whole comminuted trees are known to self-heat and undergo quality changes during storage. Trommel screening after grinding is a process that removes fines from the screened material and removes a large proportion of high-ash, high-nutrient material. In this study, the trade-off between an increase in preprocessing cost from trommel screening and an increase in quality of the screened material was examined. Fresh lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) was comminuted using a drum grinder with a 10-cm screen, and the resulting material was distributed into separate fines and overs piles. A third pile of unscreened material, the unsorted pile, was also examined. The three piles exhibited different characteristics during a 6-week storage period. The overs pile was much slower to heat. The overs pile reached a maximum temperature of 56.88 degrees C, which was lower than the maximum reached by the other two piles (65.98 degrees C and 63.48 degrees C for the unsorted and fines, respectively). The overs also cooled faster and dried to a more uniform moisture content and had a lower ash content than the other two piles. Both piles of sorted material exhibited improved airflow and more drying than the unsorted material. Looking at supply system costs from preprocessing through in-feed into thermochemical conversion, this study found that trommel screening reduced system costs by over $3.50 per dry matter ton and stabilized material during storage.

  5. Process Design and Economics for Conversion of Lignocellulosic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    advantage of using heat as the major driver instead of electricity used in conventional refrigeration systems. Once the 12 H 2 S and CO 2 are removed, the syngas is recompressed...

  6. Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production from lignocellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartley, Laura E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sugar yields for biofuel production. Nat Biotechnol 25(7):Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production fromA key strategy for biofuel produc- tion is making use of the

  7. Integrating and Piloting Lignocellulose Biomass Conversion Technology (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schell, D. J.

    2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation on NREL's integrated biomass conversion capabilities. Presented at the 2009 Advanced Biofuels Workshop in Denver, CO, Cellulosic Ethanol session.

  8. Plant and microbial research seeks biofuel production from lignocellulose

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartley, Laura E; Ronald, Pamela C

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the drawbacks of ethanol fuel, researchers are alsoproduction of ethanol and biodiesel fuels from food cropslignin. Furthermore, ethanol as a fuel is not optimal; it

  9. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dee, Sean Joseph

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E. Amonette, Z. C. Zhang, Applied Catalysis a-General 2009,Y. Ma, Y. D. Li, Applied Catalysis a-General 2010, 385, 1-

  10. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons Advanced Bio-based Jet Fuel...

  11. Exploring Potential U.S. Switchgrass Production for Lignocellulosic Ethanol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunderson, Carla A [ORNL; Davis, Ethan [ORNL; Jager, Yetta [ORNL; West, Tristram O. [ORNL; Perlack, Robert D [ORNL; Brandt, Craig C [ORNL; Wullschleger, Stan D [ORNL; Baskaran, Latha Malar [ORNL; Webb, Erin [ORNL; Downing, Mark [ORNL

    2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to concerns about oil dependency and the contributions of fossil fuel use to climatic change, the U.S. Department of Energy has begun a research initiative to make 20% of motor fuels biofuel based in 10 years, and make 30% of fuels bio-based by 2030. Fundamental to this objective is developing an understanding of feedstock dynamics of crops suitable for cellulosic ethanol production. This report focuses on switchgrass, reviewing the existing literature from field trials across the United States, and compiling it for the first time into a single database. Data available from the literature included cultivar and crop management information, and location of the field trial. For each location we determined latitude and longitude, and used this information to add temperature and precipitation records from the nearest weather station. Within this broad database we were able to identify the major sources of variation in biomass yield, and to characterize yield as a function of some of the more influential factors, e.g., stand age, ecotype, precipitation and temperature in the year of harvest, site latitude, and fertilization regime. We then used a modeling approach, based chiefly on climatic factors and ecotype, to predict potential yields for a given temperature and weather pattern (based on 95th percentile response curves), assuming the choice of optimal cultivars and harvest schedules. For upland ecotype varieties, potential yields were as high as 18 to 20 Mg/ha, given ideal growing conditions, whereas yields in lowland ecotype varieties could reach 23 to 27 Mg/ha. The predictive equations were used to produce maps of potential yield across the continental United States, based on precipitation and temperature in the long term climate record, using the Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) in a Geographic Information System (GIS). Potential yields calculated via this characterization were subsequently compared to the Oak Ridge Energy Crop County Level data base (ORECCL), which was created at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Graham et al. 1996) to predict biofuel crop yields at the county level within a limited geographic area. Mapped output using the model was relatively consistent with known switchgrass distribution. It correctly showed higher yields for lowland switchgrass when compared with upland varieties at most locations. Projections for the most northern parts of the range suggest comparable yields for the two ecotypes, but inadequate data for lowland ecotypes grown at high latitudes make it difficult to fully assess this projection. The final model is a predictor of optimal yields for a given climate scenario, but does not attempt to identify or account for other limiting or interacting factors. The statistical model is nevertheless an improvement over historical efforts, in that it is based on quantifiable climatic differences, and it can be used to extrapolate beyond the historic range of switchgrass. Additional refinement of the current statistical model, or the use of different empirical or process-based models, might improve the prediction of switchgrass yields with respect to climate and interactions with cultivar and management practices, assisting growers in choosing high-yielding cultivars within the context of local environmental growing conditions.

  12. Ionic Liquids as Solvents for Catalytic Conversion of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dee, Sean Joseph

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Emim][Cl], 22.0 mg [Emim][Tos] pretreated miscanthus 27.4samples of miscanthus. [Emim][Tos] substrate pretreated ina 10 wt% mixture of [Emim][Tos] in ethylene diamine for 6-10

  13. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Center aims at

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruaryMetalControlInverse Design

  14. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Upcoming Events

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccess StoriesFebruaryMetalControlInverse DesignUpcoming Events

  15. Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Butyl Acrylate

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't Your Destiny: Theof"Wave theJuly 30, 2013 Sanyo:MarchPractices in Indian

  16. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next > SunChallenge to DriveElectric

  17. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prev next > SunChallenge to DriveElectricto Hydrocarbons:

  18. Caloramator sp. Tolerance of Pretreatment Inhibitors from Lignocellulosics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office511041clothAdvanced Materials Advanced. C o w l i t z C o . C l a r8.05 Calendar YearAwardCalling All

  19. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742Energy ChinaofSchaeferApril 1, 1999InspectionsAnnual Financial

  20. CLSF (Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation) - About the Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteries BatteriesCAES Home Home AboutCBFOCERNWorking

  1. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Contact Us

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteriesmetal-organic frameworks EFRCContact Us Daniel

  2. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - In the News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteriesmetal-organic frameworks EFRCContact Us DanielIn

  3. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Open Positions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteriesmetal-organic frameworks EFRCContact Us

  4. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Our People

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteriesmetal-organic frameworks EFRCContact UsPeople

  5. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Our Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteriesmetal-organic frameworks EFRCContact

  6. Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Function - Symposium: Cellulose

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy,ARMForms About Batteriesmetal-organic frameworks EFRCContactsynthesis,

  7. Nanoporous Membranes for Pretreatment of Lignocellulose and Other

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible for Renewable Energy: GridTruckNanostructued Glass-Ceramic Waste Forms -

  8. Method to Produce Highly Digestible, Pretreated Lignocellulosic Biomass

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighand Retrievals from aRodMIT-HarvardEnergyMethod-----EnergyUsing

  9. Wiki-based Techno Economic Analysis of a Lignocellulosic Biorefinery -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over OurThe Iron SpinPrincetonUsingWhat is a “Shut-down”Whole AlgaeRateWhyWidesuccess

  10. CLSF (Center for Lignocellulose Structure and Formation) Homepage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItem NotEnergy, science,SpeedingWu,IntelligenceYou are here Western PagesPagesWhy

  11. Determination of saccharides and ethanol from biomass conversion using Raman spectroscopy: Effects of pretreatment and enzyme composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shih, Chien-Ju

    2010-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation focuses on the development of facile and rapid quantitative Raman spectroscopy measurements for the determination of conversion products in producing bioethanol from corn stover. Raman spectroscopy was chosen to determine glucose, xylose and ethanol in complex hydrolysis and fermentation matrices. Chapter 1 describes the motives and main goals of this work, and includes an introduction to biomass, commonly used pretreatment methods, hydrolysis and fermentation reactions. The principles of Raman spectroscopy, its advantages and applications related to biomass analysis are also illustrated. Chapter 2 and 3 comprise two published or submitted manuscripts, and the thesis concludes with an appendix. In Chapter 2, a Raman spectroscopic protocol is described to study the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose by measuring the main product in hydrolysate, glucose. Two commonly utilized pretreatment methods were investigated in order to understand their effect on glucose measurements by Raman spectroscopy. Second, a similar method was set up to determine the concentration of ethanol in fermentation broth. Both of these measurements are challenged by the presence of complex matrices. In Chapter 3, a quantitative comparison of pretreatment protocols and the effect of enzyme composition are studied using systematic methods. A multipeak fitting algorithm was developed to analyze spectra of hydrolysate containing two analytes: glucose and xylose. Chapter 4 concludes with a future perspective of this research area. An appendix describes a convenient, rapid spectrophotometric method developed to measure cadmium in water. This method requires relatively low cost instrumentation and can be used in microgravity, such as space shuttles or the International Space Station. This work was performed under the supervision of Professor Marc Porter while at Iowa State University. Research related to producing biofuel from bio-renewable resources, especially bioethanol from biomass, has grown significantly in the past decade due to the high demand and rising costs of fossil fuels. More than 3 percent of the energy consumption in the U.S. is derived from renewable biomass, mostly through industrial heat and steam production by the pulp and paper industry, and electricity generation from municipal solid waste (MSW) and forest industry residues. The utilization of food-based biomass to make fuels has been widely criticized because it may increase food shortages throughout the world and raise the cost of food. Thus, nonfood-based and plentiful lignocellulosic feedstocks, such as corn stover, perennial grass, bagasse, sorghum, wheat/rice straw, herbaceous and woody crops, have great potential to be new bio-renewable sources for energy production. Given that many varieties of biomass are available, there is need for a rapid, simple, high-throughput method to screen the conversion of many plant varieties. The most suitable species for each geographic region must be determined, as well as the optimal stage of harvest, impacts of environmental conditions (temperature, soil, pH, etc.). Various genetically modified plants should be studied in order to establish the desired biomass in bioethanol production. The main screening challenge, however, is the complexity of plant cell wall structures that make reliable and sensitive analysis difficult. To date, one of the most popular methods to produce lignocellulosic ethanol is to perform enzymatic hydrolysis followed by fermentation of the hydrolysate with yeast. There are several vital needs related to the field of chemistry that have been suggested as primary research foci needed to effectively improve lignocellulosic ethanol production. These topics include overcoming the recalcitrance of cellulosic biomass, the pervasiveness of pretreatment, advanced biological processing and better feedstocks. In this thesis, a novel approach using Raman spectroscopy has been developed to address important issues related to bioethanol generation, which will aid the research aimed to solve the topics m

  12. The effect of a paraffin screen on the neutron dose at the maze door of a 15 MV linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krmar, M.; Kuzmanovi?, A. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia)] [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad 21000 (Serbia); Nikoli?, D. [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada)] [National Institute for Nanotechnology, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2M9 (Canada); Kuzmanovi?, Z. [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina)] [International Medical Centers, Banja Luka 78000, Republika Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia and Herzegowina); Ganezer, K. [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)] [Physics Department, California State University Dominguez Hills, Carson, California 90747 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the effects of a paraffin screen located at various positions in the maze on the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door.Methods: The neutron dose equivalent was measured at the maze door of a room containing a 15 MV linear accelerator for x-ray therapy. Measurements were performed for several positions of the paraffin screen covering only 27.5% of the cross-sectional area of the maze. The neutron dose equivalent was also measured at all screen positions. Two simple models of the neutron source were considered in which the first assumed that the source was the cross-sectional area at the inner entrance of the maze, radiating neutrons in an isotropic manner. In the second model the reduction in the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door due to the paraffin screen was considered to be a function of the mean values of the neutron fluence and energy at the screen.Results: The results of this study indicate that the equivalent dose at the maze door was reduced by a factor of 3 through the use of a paraffin screen that was placed inside the maze. It was also determined that the contributions to the dosage from areas that were not covered by the paraffin screen as viewed from the dosimeter, were 2.5 times higher than the contributions from the covered areas. This study also concluded that the contributions of the maze walls, ceiling, and floor to the total neutron dose equivalent were an order of magnitude lower than those from the surface at the far end of the maze.Conclusions: This study demonstrated that a paraffin screen could be used to reduce the neutron dose equivalent at the maze door by a factor of 3. This paper also found that the reduction of the neutron dose equivalent was a linear function of the area covered by the maze screen and that the decrease in the dose at the maze door could be modeled as an exponential function of the product ?·E at the screen.

  13. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO{sub 2} Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

  14. A human chromosome 7 yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) resource: Construction, characterization, and screening

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, E.D.; Braden, V.V.; Fulton, R.S. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, ST. Louis, MO (United States)] [and others] [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, ST. Louis, MO (United States); and others

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The paradigm of sequence-tagged site (STS)-content mapping involves the systematic assignment of STSs to individual cloned DNA segments. To date, yeast artificial chromosomes (YACs) represent the most commonly employed cloning system for constructing STS maps of large genomic intervals, such as whole human chromosomes. For developing a complete YAC-based STS-content map of human chromosome 7, we wished to utilize a limited set of YAC clones that were highly enriched for chromosome 7 DNA. Toward that end, we have assembled a human chromosome 7 YAC resource that consists of three major components: (1) a newly constructed library derived from a human-hamster hybrid cell line containing chromosome 7 as its only human DNA; (2) a chromosome 7-enriched sublibrary derived from the CEPH mega-YAC collection by Alu-polymerase chain reaction (Alu-PCR)-based hybridization; and (3) a set of YACs isolated from several total genomic libraries by screening for >125 chromosome 7 STSs. In particular, the hybrid cell line-derived YACs, which comprise the majority of the clones in the resource, have a relatively low chimera frequency (10-20%) based on mapping isolated insert ends to panels of human-hamster hybrid cell lines and analyzing individual clones by fluorescence in situ hybridization. An efficient strategy for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based screening of this YAC resource, which totals 4190 clones, has been developed and utilized to identify corresponding YACs for >600 STSs. The results of this initial screening effort indicate that the human chromosome 7 YAC resource provides an average of 6.9 positive clones per STS, a level of redundancy that should support the assembly of large YAC contigs and the construction of a high-resolution STS-content map of the chromosome. 72 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Comparative performance of modern digital mammography systems in a large breast screening program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yaffe, Martin J., E-mail: martin.yaffe@sri.utoronto.ca; Bloomquist, Aili K.; Hunter, David M.; Mawdsley, Gordon E. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Departments of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Departments of Medical Biophysics and Medical Imaging, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada); Chiarelli, Anna M. [Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada)] [Prevention and Cancer Control, Cancer Care Ontario, Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5, Canada and Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Muradali, Derek [Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada)] [Ontario Breast Screening Program, Cancer Care Ontario, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1X3 (Canada); Mainprize, James G. [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)] [Physical Sciences Division, Sunnybrook Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario M4N 3M5 (Canada)

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare physical measures pertaining to image quality among digital mammography systems utilized in a large breast screening program. To examine qualitatively differences in these measures and differences in clinical cancer detection rates between CR and DR among sites within that program. Methods: As part of the routine quality assurance program for screening, field measurements are made of several variables considered to correlate with the diagnostic quality of medical images including: modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, d? (an index of lesion detectability) and air kerma to allow estimation of mean glandular dose. In addition, images of the mammography accreditation phantom are evaluated. Results: It was found that overall there were marked differences between the performance measures of DR and CR mammography systems. In particular, the modulation transfer functions obtained with the DR systems were found to be higher, even for larger detector element sizes. Similarly, the noise equivalent quanta, d?, and the phantom scores were higher, while the failure rates associated with low signal-to-noise ratio and high dose were lower with DR. These results were consistent with previous findings in the authors’ program that the breast cancer detection rates at sites employing CR technology were, on average, 30.6% lower than those that used DR mammography. Conclusions: While the clinical study was not large enough to allow a statistically powered system-by-system assessment of cancer detection accuracy, the physical measures expressing spatial resolution, and signal-to-noise ratio are consistent with the published finding that sites employing CR systems had lower cancer detection rates than those using DR systems for screening mammography.

  16. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to CO{sub 2} Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duan, Yuhua

    2014-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Since current technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} to fight global climate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for development of new materials that can capture CO{sub 2} reversibly with acceptable energy costs. Accordingly, solid sorbents have been proposed to be used for CO{sub 2} capture applications through a reversible chemical transformation. By combining thermodynamic database mining with first principles density functional theory and phonon lattice dynamics calculations, a theoretical screening methodology to identify the most promising CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates from the vast array of possible solid materials has been proposed and validated. The calculated thermodynamic properties of different classes of solid materials versus temperature and pressure changes were further used to evaluate the equilibrium properties for the CO{sub 2} adsorption/desorption cycles. According to the requirements imposed by the pre- and post- combustion technologies and based on our calculated thermodynamic properties for the CO{sub 2} capture reactions by the solids of interest, we were able to screen only those solid materials for which lower capture energy costs are expected at the desired pressure and temperature conditions. Only those selected CO{sub 2} sorbent candidates were further considered for experimental validations. The ab initio thermodynamic technique has the advantage of identifying thermodynamic properties of CO{sub 2} capture reactions without any experimental input beyond crystallographic structural information of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some guidelines for synthesis new materials. In this presentation, we apply our screening methodology to mixing solid systems to adjust the turnover temperature to help on developing CO{sub 2} capture Technologies.

  17. THE INTERPRETATION OF ROTATION MEASURES IN THE PRESENCE OF INHOMOGENEOUS FOREGROUND SCREENS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernet, M. L.; Miniati, F.; Lilly, S. J., E-mail: fm@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: simon.lilly@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: mbernet@swin.edu.au [Physics Department, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2012-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the redshift evolution of the rotation measure (RM) in the Taylor et al. data set, based on NVSS radio data at 21 cm, and compare with results from our previous work based on RMs determined at lower wavelengths, e.g., 6 cm. We find that, in spite of the same analysis, Taylor et al.'s data set produces neither an increase of the RM dispersion with redshift nor the correlation of RM strength with Mg II absorption lines that we found previously. We develop a simple model to understand this discrepancy. The model assumes that the Faraday rotators, namely the QSO's host galaxy and the intervening Mg II host galaxies along the line of sight, contain partially inhomogeneous RM screens. We find that this leads to an increasing depolarization toward longer wavelengths and to wavelength-dependent RM values. In particular, due to cosmological redshift, observations at fixed wavelength of sources at different redshift are affected differently by depolarization and are sensitive to different Faraday active components. For example, at 21 cm the polarized signal is averaged out by inhomogeneous Faraday screens and the measured RM mostly reflects the Milky Way contributions for low-redshift QSOs whereas polarization is relatively unaffected for high-redshift QSOs. Similar effects are produced by intervening galaxies acting as inhomogeneous screens. Finally, we assess the performance of RM synthesis on our synthetic models and conclude that the study of magnetic fields in galaxies as a function of cosmic time will benefit considerably from the application of such a technique, provided there is sufficient instrumental bandwidth. For this purpose, high-frequency channels appear preferable but not strictly necessary.

  18. A cost-effective statistical screening method to detect oilfield brine contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alyanak, N.; Grace, J.T.; Campbell, M.D. [United Resources International, Houston, TX (United States)

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A statistical screening method has been developed using Tolerance Limits for barium (Ba{sup +2}) to identify contamination of a fresh-water aquifer by oilfield brines. The method requires an understanding of the local hydrochemistry of oilfield brines, inexpensive, Publicly available hydrochemical data, a single sample analysis from the suspect well and the application of a simple statistical procedure. While this method may not provide absolute evidence of oilfield brine contamination of a fresh-water aquifer, it does identify conditions where brine contamination is a strong probability over other possible sources of chlorides.

  19. A microfluidic device based on droplet storage for screening solubility diagrams

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Laval; N. Lisai; J. -B. Salmon; M. Joanicot

    2007-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    This work describes a new microfluidic device developed for rapid screening of solubility diagrams. In several parallel channels, hundreds of nanoliter-volume droplets of a given solution are first stored with a gradual variation in the solute concentration. Then, the application of a temperature gradient along these channels enables us to read directly and quantitatively phase diagrams, concentration vs. temperature. We show, using a solution of adipic acid, that we can measure ten points of the solubility curve in less than 1 hr and with only 250 $\\mu$L of solution.

  20. Screening Risk Assessment for Possible Radionuclides in the Amchitka Marine Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NNSA /NV

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of its environmental stewardship program the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is reevaluating three sites where underground nuclear tests were conducted in the deep subsurface of Amchitka Island, Alaska. The tests (i.e., Long Shot, Milrow, and Cannikin) were conducted in 1965, 1969, and 1971, respectively. Extensive investigations were conducted on these tests and their effect on the environment. Evaluations at the time of testing indicated limited release of radionuclides and absence of risk related to the testing; however, these are being reevaluated under the current DOE environmental stewardship program. A screening risk assessment of potential radionuclide release into the marine environment is an important part of this reevaluation. The risk assessment is one of three interrelated activities: a groundwater model and this screening risk assessment, both of which guide the decisions in the third activity, the site closure plan. Thus, the overall objective of the work is to understand, and subsequently manage, any risk to humans and the environment through a closure and long-term stewardship plan. The objective of this screening risk assessment is to predict whether possible releases of radionuclides at the ocean floor would represent potential risks to Native Alaskans by consumption of marine subsistence species. In addition, risks were predicted for consumers of commercial catches of marine organisms. These risks were calculated beginning with estimates of possible radionuclide release at the seafloor (from a groundwater modeling study), into the seawater, through possible uptake by marine organisms, and finally possible consumption by humans. The risk assessment model has 11 elements, progressing from potential release at the seafloor through water and food chains to human intake. Data for each of these elements were systematically found and synthesized from many sources, and represent the best available knowledge. Whenever precise data were lacking, the most conservative data were selected. Conservative assumptions and values were used for radionuclide uptake factors and for marine food ingestion rates by human receptors. The dispersion of material in the marine environment utilized a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-approved model (CORMIX). In addition, the screening level of 1 x 10{sup -6} or 1 excess cancer in 1 million is considered by the EPA to be below the level of concern. The end result, as presented in this report, is a highly conservative estimate of potential risks that are well below the EPA's most conservative risk threshold for both subsistence users and commercial-catch consumers.

  1. On the interplay between screening and confinement from interacting electromagnetic and torsion fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patricio Gaete; José A. Hela˙el-Neto

    2009-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Features of screening and confinement are studied for the coupling of axial torsion fields with photons in the presence of an external electromagnetic field. To this end we compute the static quantum potential. Our discussion is carried out using the gauge-invariant but path-dependent variables formalism which is alternative to the Wilson loop approach. Our results show that, in the case of a constant electric field strength expectation value, the static potential remains Coulombic, while in the case of a constant magnetic field strength expectation value the potential energy is the sum of a Yukawa and a linear potential, leading to the confinement of static probe charges.

  2. Electroanalytical applications of screen-printable surfactant-induced sol-gel graphite composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guadalupe, Ana R. (San Juan, PR); Guo, Yizhu (San Juan, PR)

    2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for preparing sol-gel graphite composite electrodes is presented. This process preferably uses the surfactant bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) and eliminates the need for a cosolvent, an acidic catalyst, a cellulose binder and a thermal curing step from prior art processes. Fabrication of screen-printed electrodes by this process provides a simple approach for electroanalytical applications in aqueous and nonaqueous solvents. Examples of applications for such composite electrodes produced from this process include biochemical sensors such as disposable, single-use glucose sensors and ligand modified composite sensors for metal ion sensitive sensors.

  3. Solvent-Driven Preferential Association of Lignin with Regions of Crystalline Cellulose in Molecular Dynamics Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lindner, Benjamin [ORNL] [ORNL; Petridis, Loukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Schulz, Roland [ORNL] [ORNL; Smith, Jeremy C [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The precipitation of lignin onto cellulose after pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is an obstacle to economically viable cellulosic ethanol production. Here, 750 ns nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations are reported of a system of lignin and cellulose in aqueous solution. Lignin is found to strongly associate with itself and the cellulose. However, noncrystalline regions of cellulose are observed to have a lower tendency to associate with lignin than crystalline regions, and this is found to arise from stronger hydration of the noncrystalline chains. The results suggest that the recalcitrance of crystalline cellulose to hydrolysis arises not only from the inaccessibility of inner fibers but also due to the promotion of lignin adhesion.

  4. Health, Safety, and Environmental Screening and Ranking Frameworkfor Geologic CO2 Storage Site Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a screening and ranking framework(SRF) developed to evaluate potential geologic carbon dioxide (CO2)storage sites on the basis of health, safety, and environmental (HSE)risk arising from possible CO2 leakage. The approach is based on theassumption that HSE risk due to CO2 leakage is dependent on three basiccharacteristics of a geologic CO2 storage site: (1) the potential forprimary containment by the target formation, (2) the potential forsecondary containment if the primary formation leaks, and (3) thepotential for attenuation and dispersion of leaking CO2 if the primaryformation leaks and secondary containment fails. The framework isimplemented in a spreadsheet in which users enter numerical scoresrepresenting expert opinions or general information available frompublished materials along with estimates of uncertainty to evaluate thethree basic characteristics in order to screen and rank candidate sites.Application of the framework to the Rio Vista Gas Field, Ventura OilField, and Mammoth Mountain demonstrates the approach. Refinements andextensions are possible through the use of more detailed data or modelresults in place of property proxies. Revisions and extensions to improvethe approach are anticipated in the near future as it is used and testedby colleagues and collaborators.

  5. Screening method for selecting semiconductor substrates having defects below a predetermined level in an oxide layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, W.L.; Vanheusden, K.J.R.; Schwank, J.R.; Fleetwood, D.M.; Shaneyfelt, M.R.; Winokur, P.S.; Devine, R.A.B.

    1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for screening or qualifying semiconductor substrates for integrated circuit fabrication. The method comprises the steps of annealing at least one semiconductor substrate at a first temperature in a defect-activating ambient (e.g. hydrogen, forming gas, or ammonia) for sufficient time for activating any defects within on oxide layer of the substrate; measuring a defect-revealing electrical characteristic of at least a portion of the oxide layer for determining a quantity of activated defects therein; and selecting substrates for which the quantity of activated defects is below a predetermined level. The defect-revealing electrical characteristic may be a capacitance-versus voltage (C-V) characteristic or a current-versus-voltage (I-V) characteristic that is dependent on an electrical charge in the oxide layer generated by the activated defects. Embodiments of the present invention may be applied for screening any type of semiconductor substrate or wafer having an oxide layer formed thereon or therein. This includes silicon-on-insulator substrates formed by a separation by the implantation of oxygen (SIMOX) process or the bond and etch back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) process, as well as silicon substrates having a thermal oxide layer or a deposited oxide layer. 5 figs.

  6. Health, Safety, and Environmental Screening and Ranking Frameworkfor Geologic CO2 Storage Site Selection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oldenburg, Curtis M.

    2005-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes a screening and ranking framework(SRF) developed to evaluate potential geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage sites on the basis of health, safety, and environmental (HSE) risk arising from possible CO2 leakage. The approach is based on the assumption that HSE risk due to CO2 leakage is dependent on three basic characteristics of a geologic CO2 storage site: (1) the potential for primary containment by the target formation; (2) the potential for secondary containment if the primary formation leaks; and (3) the potential for attenuation and dispersion of leaking CO2 if the primary formation leaks and secondary containment fails. The framework is implemented in a spreadsheet in which users enter numerical scores representing expert opinions or general information available from published materials along with estimates of uncertainty to evaluate the three basic characteristics in order to screen and rank candidate sites. Application of the framework to the Rio Visa Gas Field, Ventura Oil Field, and Mammoth Mountain demonstrates the approach. Refinements and extensions are possible through the use of more detailed data or model results in place of property proxies. Revisions and extensions to improve the approach are anticipated in the near future as it is used and tested by colleagues and collaborators.

  7. Comparison of three marine screening tests and four Oslo and Paris Commission procedures to evaluate toxicity of offshore chemicals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weideborg, M.; Vik, E.A.; Oefjord, G.D.; Kjoennoe, O. [Aquateam-Norwegian Water Technology Centre A/S, Oslo (Norway)

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results from the screening toxicity tests Artemia salina, Microtox{reg_sign}, and Mitochondria RET test were compared with those obtained from OSPAR (Oslo and Paris Commissions)-authorized procedures for testing of offshore chemicals (Skeletonema costatum, Acartia tonsa, Abra alba, and Corophium volutator). In this study 82 test substances (26 non-water soluble) were included. The Microtox test was found to be the most sensitive of the three screening tests. Microtox and Mitochondria RET test results showed good correlation with results from Acartia and Skeletonema testing, and it was concluded that the Microtox test was a suitable screening test as a base for assessment of further testing, especially regarding water-soluble chemicals. Sensitivity of Artemia salina to the tested chemicals was too low for it to be an appropriate bioassay organism for screening testing. A very good correlation was found between the results obtained with the Skeletonema and Acartia tests. The results indicated no need for more than one of the Skeletonema or Acartia tests if the Skeletonema median effective concentration or Acartia median lethal concentration was greater than 200 mg/L. The sediment-reworker tests (A. Alba or C. volutator) for chemicals that are likely to end up in the sediments (non-water soluble or surfactants) should be performed, independent of results from screening tests and other OSPAR species.

  8. Plasma screening effects on the energies of hydrogen atom under the influence of velocity-dependent potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bahar, M. K. [Department of Physics, Karamanoglu Mehmetbey University, 70100 Karaman (Turkey)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to examine the plasma screening and velocity-dependent potential effects on the hydrogen atom, the Schrödinger equation including a more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb and velocity-dependent potential is solved numerically in the framework asymptotic iteration method. The more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential is used to model Debye and quantum plasma for the specific values of the parameters in its structure. However, in order to examine effects of velocity-dependent potential on energy values of hydrogen atom in Debye and quantum plasma, the isotropic form factor of velocity-dependent potential is given as harmonic oscillator type, ?(r)=?{sub o}r{sup 2}. Then, the energies of s and p states are calculated numerically without any approximation. In order to investigate thoroughly plasma screening effects and contribution of velocity-dependent potential on energy values of hydrogen atom, the corresponding calculations are carried out by using different values of parameters of more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential and isotropic dependence, results of which are discussed.

  9. A Cell-Based Approach for the Biosynthesis/Screening of Cyclic Peptide Libraries against Bacterial Toxins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Camarero, J A; Kimura, R; Woo, Y; Cantor, J; Steenblock, E

    2007-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Available methods for developing and screening small drug-like molecules able to knockout toxins or pathogenic microorganisms have some limitations. In order to be useful, these new methods must provide high-throughput analysis and identify specific binders in a short period of time. To meet this need, we are developing an approach that uses living cells to generate libraries of small biomolecules, which are then screened inside the cell for activity. Our group is using this new, combined approach to find highly specific ligands capable of disabling anthrax Lethal Factor (LF) as proof of principle. Key to our approach is the development of a method for the biosynthesis of libraries of cyclic peptides, and an efficient screening process that can be carried out inside the cell.

  10. Screening values for Non-Carcinogenic Hanford Waste Tank Vapor Chemicals that Lack Established Occupational Exposure Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poet, Torka S.; Mast, Terryl J.; Huckaby, James L.

    2006-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Over 1,500 different volatile chemicals have been reported in the headspaces of tanks used to store high-level radioactive waste at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site. Concern about potential exposure of tank farm workers to these chemicals has prompted efforts to evaluate their toxicity, identify chemicals that pose the greatest risk, and incorporate that information into the tank farms industrial hygiene worker protection program. Established occupation exposure limits for individual chemicals and petroleum hydrocarbon mixtures have been used elsewhere to evaluate about 900 of the chemicals. In this report headspace concentration screening values were established for the remaining 600 chemicals using available industrial hygiene and toxicological data. Screening values were intended to be more than an order of magnitude below concentrations that may cause adverse health effects in workers, assuming a 40-hour/week occupational exposure. Screening values were compared to the maximum reported headspace concentrations.

  11. Screening for lipid yielding microalgae: activities for 1983. Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, W. H.; Tornabene, T. G.; Weissman, J.

    1984-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SERI/DOE Aquatic Species Program is conducting a screening project, to select microalgae species and strains that are acceptable for liquid fuel production in outdoor culture. The emphases are on finding species that grow rapidly at high biomass density, in outdoor culture and produce large quantities of lipids. During 1983 over 100 species were isolated from saline waters at the California and Nevada deserts. Some of these species were characterized for growth response to various nutrients, temperatures, and salinities. Selected species were analyzed for lipid composition. Lipids were characterized into fractions, hydrocarbons, isoprenoids, triglyceride, glycolipids, and phospholipids. The most promising species were tested for growth and monoculture sustainability in outdoor culture. Each section (microalgae selection, chemical profiles of microalgae, mass culture of macroalgae) was abstracted separately. 51 references, 8 figures, 14 tables.

  12. Thermonuclear fusion in dense stars: Electron screening, conductive cooling, and magnetic field effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Potekhin, A Y

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the plasma correlation effects on nonresonant thermonuclear reactions of carbon and oxygen in the interiors of white dwarfs and liquid envelopes of neutron stars. We examine the effects of electron screening on thermodynamic enhancement of thermonuclear reactions in dense plasmas beyond the linear mixing rule. Using these improved enhancement factors, we calculate carbon and oxygen ignition curves in white dwarfs and neutron stars. The energy balance and ignition conditions in neutron star envelopes are evaluated, taking their detailed thermal structure into account. The result is compared to the simplified "one-zone model," which is routinely used in the literature. We also consider the effect of strong magnetic fields on the ignition curves in the ocean of magnetars.

  13. Screening materials with the XIA UltraLo alpha particle counter at Southern Methodist University

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakib, M. Z.; Cooley, J.; Kara, B.; Qiu, H.; Scorza, S. [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States)] [Department of Physics, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX (United States); Guiseppe, V. E. [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of South Dakota, Vermillion, SD (United States); Rielage, K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States)] [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schnee, R. W. [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States)] [Department of Physics, Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY (United States)

    2013-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Southern Methodist University houses one of five existing commercially available UltraLo 1800 production model alpha counters made by XIA LLC. The instrument has an electron drift chamber with a 707 cm{sup 2} or 1800 cm{sup 2} counting region which is determined by selecting the inner electrode size. The SMU team operating this device is part of the SuperCDMS screening working group, and uses the alpha counter to study the background rates from the decay of radon in materials used to construct the SuperCDMS experiment. We have studied four acrylic samples obtained from the MiniCLEAN direct dark matter search with the XIA instrument demonstrating its utility in low background experiments by investigating the plate-out of {sup 210}Pb and comparing the effectiveness of cleaning procedures in removing {sup 222}Rn progenies from the samples.

  14. Predicting Fate and Transport of Contaminants in the Vadose Zone using a Soil Screening Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rucker, G.

    2002-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Soil Screening Levels (SSLs) are threshold concentrations below which there is no concern for the migration of residual soil contaminants to the aquifer above maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). At sites where contaminant concentrations exceed SSLs, further study maybe warranted under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). SSLs are based upon simplified fate and transport assumptions, but the guidance allows the flexibility to develop a detailed modeling approach that accounts for complex site variables such as degradation and thickness of the vadose zone. The distinct advantage of the detailed modeling is that individual sites may calculate a less restrictive, but still protective SSL. A Multi-Layer Vadose Zone Contaminant Migration Model [VZCOMML(C)] was developed at the Savannah River Site to allay the higher costs of detailed modeling and achieve a higher clean-up level. The software model is faster, simpler, and less expensive to us e than other commercially available codes.

  15. Quantum mechanical ab-initio simulation of the electron screening effect in metal deuteride crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huke, A; Chun, S M; Biller, A; Heide, P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In antecedent experiments the electron screening energies of the d+d reactions in metallic environments have been determined to be enhanced by an order of magnitude in comparison to the case of gaseous deuterium targets. The analytical models describing averaged material properties have not been able to explain the experimental results so far. Therefore, a first effort has been undertaken to simulate the dynamics of reacting deuterons in a metallic lattice by means of an ab-initio Hartree-Fock calculation of the total electrostatic force between the lattice and the successively approaching deuterons via path integration. The calculations have been performed for Li and Ta, clearly showing a migration of electrons from host metallic to the deuterium atoms. However, in order to avoid more of the necessary simplifications in the model the utilization of a massive parallel supercomputer would be required.

  16. Quantum mechanical ab-initio simulation of the electron screening effect in metal deuteride crystals

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Huke; K. Czerski; S. M. Chun; A. Biller; P. Heide

    2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In antecedent experiments the electron screening energies of the d+d reactions in metallic environments have been determined to be enhanced by an order of magnitude in comparison to the case of gaseous deuterium targets. The analytical models describing averaged material properties have not been able to explain the experimental results so far. Therefore, a first effort has been undertaken to simulate the dynamics of reacting deuterons in a metallic lattice by means of an ab-initio Hartree-Fock calculation of the total electrostatic force between the lattice and the successively approaching deuterons via path integration. The calculations have been performed for Li and Ta, clearly showing a migration of electrons from host metallic to the deuterium atoms. However, in order to avoid more of the necessary simplifications in the model the utilization of a massive parallel supercomputer would be required.

  17. Screening masses in quenched (2+1)d Yang-Mills theory: universality from dynamics?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafael B. Frigori

    2010-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We compute the spectrum of gluonic screening-masses in the $0^{++}$ channel of quenched 3d Yang-Mills theory near the phase-transition. Our finite-temperature lattice simulations are performed at scaling region, using state-of-art techniques for thermalization and spectroscopy, which allows for thorough data extrapolations to thermodynamic limit. Ratios among mass-excitations with the same quantum numbers on the gauge theory, 2d Ising and $\\lambda\\phi^{4}$ models are compared, resulting in a nice agreement with predictions from universality. In addition, a gauge-to-scalar mapping, previously employed to fit QCD Green's functions at deep IR, is verified to dynamically describe these universal spectroscopic patterns

  18. Method for formation of high quality back contact with screen-printed local back surface field

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rohatgi, Ajeet (Marietta, GA); Meemongkolkiat, Vichai (Atlanta, GA)

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin silicon solar cell having a back dielectric passivation and rear contact with local back surface field is described. Specifically, the solar cell may be fabricated from a crystalline silicon wafer having a thickness from 50 to 500 micrometers. A barrier layer and a dielectric layer are applied at least to the back surface of the silicon wafer to protect the silicon wafer from deformation when the rear contact is formed. At least one opening is made to the dielectric layer. An aluminum contact that provides a back surface field is formed in the opening and on the dielectric layer. The aluminum contact may be applied by screen printing an aluminum paste having from one to 12 atomic percent silicon and then applying a heat treatment at 750 degrees Celsius.

  19. Visualizations, Screen Shots, and Data Input Files from VisIT

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    VisIt is a free interactive parallel visualization and graphical analysis tool for viewing scientific data on Unix and PC platforms. Users can quickly generate visualizations from their data, animate them through time, manipulate them, and save the resulting images for presentations. VisIt contains a rich set of visualization features so that you can view your data in a variety of ways. It can be used to visualize scalar and vector fields defined on two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) structured and unstructured meshes. VisIt was designed to handle very large data set sizes in the terascale range and yet can also handle small data sets in the kilobyte range. The VisIT website provides a gallery of vizualizations, another set of screen shots, and allows downloads of data files for input and source codes and executables for the VisIT software suite.

  20. Splitting of 3d quaternion dimensions into 2d-sells and a "world screen technology"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander P. Yefremov

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A set of basic vectors locally describing metric properties of an arbitrary 2-dimensional (2D) surface is used for construction of fundamental algebraic objects having nilpotent and idempotent properties. It is shown that all possible linear combinations of the objects when multiplied behave as a set of hypercomples (in particular, quaternion) units; thus interior structure of the 3D space dimensions pointed by the vector units is exposed. Geometric representations of elementary surfaces (2D-sells) structuring the dimensions are studied in detail. Established mathematical link between a vector quaternion triad treated as a frame in 3D space and elementary 2D-sells prompts to raise an idea of "world screen" having 1/2 of a space dimension but adequately reflecting kinematical properties of an ensemble of 3D frames.