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1

COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL  

SciTech Connect

The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

Darren D. Schmidt

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Improving the technology of creating water-coal fuel from lignites  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the preparation of coal-water fuel slurries from lignite. The heat of combustion as related to the preparation of the lignite was investigated. The hydrobarothermal processing of suspensions of lignites was studied in autoclaves.

Gorlov, E.G.; Golovin, G.S.; Zotova, O.V. [Rossiiskaya Akadeiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

3

Mercury Control Technologies for Electric Utilities Burning Lignite Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control technologies for Mercury control technologies for electric utilities Burning lignite coal Background In partnership with a number of key stakeholders, the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE), through its National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), has been carrying out a comprehensive research program since the mid-1990s focused on the development of advanced, cost-effective mercury (Hg) control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Mercury is a poisonous metal found in coal, which can be harmful and even toxic when absorbed from the environment and concentrated in animal tissues. Mercury is present as an unwanted by-product of combustion in power plant flue gases, and is found in varying percentages in three basic chemical forms(known as speciation): particulate-bound mercury, oxidized

4

DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam March 10, 2009 - 1:00pm Addthis Washington, DC -- A U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) team of regional partners has begun injecting CO2 into a deep lignite coal seam in Burke County, North Dakota, to demonstrate the economic and environmental viability of geologic CO2 storage in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ultimately, geologic carbon sequestration is expected to play an important role in mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and combating climate change. The Lignite Field Validation Test is being conducted by the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, one of seven regional partnerships under DOE's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership Program. The seven

5

Characterizing a lignite formation before and after an underground coal gasification experiment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHARACTERIZING A LIGNITE FORMATION BEFORE AND AFTER AN UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION EXPERIMENT A Thesis by USMAN AHMED Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay, 1981 Major Subject: Petrol eum Engineering CHARACTERIZING A LIGNITE FORMATION BEFORE AND AFTER AN UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION EXPERIMENT A Thesis by USMAN AHMED approved as to sty1e and content by: airma o i ee Head f...

Ahmed, Usman

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

6

Calculation and modelling to the brown coal drying fluidized bed specialized for Greek lignite of west Macedonia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Brown coal is considered to be a competitive primary energy source for power generation in parts of Central and Eastern Europe due to the economically recoverable reserves of this fuel in these regions. Specifically for Greece lignites is the main fuel ... Keywords: brown coal, electric energy, energy source, fluidized bed, lignites

John Karmalis; Nikolaos Asimopoulos; Dimitrios Zissopoulos; Natsos Kouvatsis

2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Simulation study on lignite-fired power system integrated with flue gas drying and waste heat recovery – Performances under variable power loads coupled with off-design parameters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Lignite is a kind of low rank coal with high moisture content and low net heating value, which is mainly used for electric power generation. However, the thermal efficiency of power plants firing lignite directly is very low. Pre-drying is a proactive option, dehydrating raw lignite to raise its heating value, to improve the power plant thermal efficiency. A pre-dried lignite-fired power system integrated with boiler flue gas drying and waste heat recovery was proposed in this paper. The plant thermal efficiency could be improved by 1.51% at benchmark condition due to pre-drying and waste heat recovery. The main system performances under variable power loads were simulated and analyzed. Simulation results show that the improvement of plant thermal efficiency reduced to 1.36% at 50% full load. Moreover, the influences of drying system off-design parameters were simulated coupled with power loads. The variation tendencies of main system parameters were obtained. The influence of pre-drying degree (including moisture content of pre-dried lignite and raw lignite) on the plant thermal efficiency diminishes gradually with the decreasing power load. The dryer thermal efficiency and dryer exhaust temperature are also main factors and the influences on system parameters have been quantitatively analyzed.

Xiaoqu Han; Ming Liu; Jinshi Wang; Junjie Yan; Jiping Liu; Feng Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......mineral matter contents than other Tertiary coals. Therefore, they have been consumed...total capacity of 1680 MW. The Soma coal basin is one of the largest economic lignite basins of western Turkey. Coal mining has been practised in this region......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Coal petrography, mineralogy and geochemistry of lignite samples from the Ogwashi–Asaba Formation, Nigeria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Organic sediments picked up randomly from seven small outcrops within the Ogwashi–Asaba Formation, southern Nigeria, are examined and evaluated by means of coal petrology and chemical and mineralogical analyses in order to determine the palaeoenvironmental conditions and the factors controlling their formation. Six samples proved to be low-rank coals C to B (lignite), one carbonaceous shale. The lignite samples display low ash yield, low telohuminite and high detrohuminite and liptinite contents; they contain small amounts of clastic minerals, mainly quartz and clays, which point to the topogenous character of the depositional palaeoenvironment. The palaeomires formed in a continental basin crossed by the mid-Tertiary palaeo-Niger River; the latter, as well as the tropical rainfall supplied the mires with water. The dense vegetation cover on the mire surface and the surroundings and/or the low relief energy of the broad area restricted the inorganic influx resulting in high-grade coal formation. As the outcrops are distributed over a distance of 60 km, the expected reserves of good quality lignite constitute a very promising exploration target.

Jude Ogala; George Siavalas; Kimon Christanis

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

A novel lignite pre-drying system with low-grade heat integration for modern lignite power plants  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite accounts for 40 % of the global coal reserves, and its long term future is predicated...1]. In China, where lignite resources exceed 130 billion tons, it is...2]. As the low-rank coal, lignite generally f...

Cheng Xu; Gang Xu; Yu Han; Feifei Liang; Yaxiong Fang…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants in Greece in Relation to Mined Lignite Quality  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Carbon dioxide emissions were shown to vary with the calorific value and carbonate content of lignite burned at three large power plants. ... The annual carbon dioxide emissions, Q, in a lignite-fired power plant can be calculated on the basis of the total carbon mass balance, using the following formula:(18)Specific emission factor, Qs, expressed in tons of CO2 generated per MW h is given bywhere Q is the annual CO2 emissions (in tons), Qs is the specific CO2 emissions (in tons MW?1 h?1), L is the annual lignite consumption (in tons/year), CL is the total carbon content of lignite on an as-received basis (%), W is the annual production of bottom ash ( in tons/year), CW is the total carbon content of bottom ash on an as-received basis (%), F is the annual production of fly ash (in tons/year), CF is the total carbon content of fly ash on an as-received basis (%), and E is the annual production of electricity ( in MW h). ... The carbon dioxide emitted as a product of combustion of coal (fossil fuels) is currently responsible for over 60% of the enhanced greenhouse effect. ...

Despina Vamvuka; Michael Galetakis

2009-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

12

ccpi-lignite | netl.doe.gov  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 Industrial Carbon Capture and Storage Clean Coal Power Initiative Power Plant Improvement Initiative Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program FutureGen Lignite Fuel...

13

NETL: News Release - More Electricity, Lower Emissions from Lignite Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

25, 2004 25, 2004 More Electricity, Lower Emissions from Lignite Plants Are Goals of New Clean Coal Project Fuel Enhancement System Expected to Boost Generating Capacities WASHINGTON, DC - Secretary of Energy Spencer Abraham today announced the testing of the Lignite Fuel Enhancement System, a new process that could dramatically reduce air emissions from certain coal-based power plants while boosting overall generating capacity. The project, conducted by Great River Energy, is expected to boost the generating capacity and efficiency of power plants that burn high-moisture lignite coal, thereby reducing air pollutants and greenhouse gases. The new technology uses waste heat to dry nearly a quarter of the moisture in the coal before it is fed into the power plant boiler.

14

Lignite oxidative desulphurization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal is a feedstock for the production of 30.3 % of primary energy (hard coal – 28.5 % and lignite – 1.8 %) and 42 % ... Such tendency is caused by the considerable coal reserves exceeding other reserves of n...

Volodymyr Gunka; Serhiy Pyshyev

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

An initial study on feasible treatment of Serbian lignite through utilization of low-rank coal upgrading technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Despite benefiting from vast fuel reserves, combustion of low-rank coals is commonly characterized by low thermal efficiency and high pollutant emissions, partly due to high moisture content of the coals in question. Thus, removal of moisture from low-rank coals is deemed an important quality upgrading method. The paper provides an overview of the current status of low-rank coal upgrading technologies, particularly with respect to utilization of drying and dewatering procedures. In order to examine the influence of relevant parameters on the moisture removal process, a model of convective coal drying in a packed, as well as in a fluid bed combustion arrangement, is developed and presented. Product-specific data (intraparticle mass transfer, gas–solid moisture equilibrium) related to the coal variety addressed herein (lignite) are obtained through preliminary investigations. Effective thermal conductivity of the packed bed as defined by Zehner/Bauer/Schlünder is used to define heat transfer mechanisms occurring in the packed bed. Similar two-phase fluidization model has been validated for different types of biomaterials.

Milan Staki?; Dejan Cvetinovi?; Predrag Škobalj; Vuk Spasojevi?

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Small boiler uses waste coal  

SciTech Connect

Burning coal waste in small boilers at low emissions poses considerable problem. While larger boiler suppliers have successfully installed designs in the 40 to 80 MW range for some years, the author has been developing small automated fluid bed boiler plants for 25 years that can be applied in the range of 10,000 to 140,000 lbs/hr of steam. Development has centered on the use of an internally circulating fluid bed (CFB) boiler, which will burn waste fuels of most types. The boiler is based on the traditional D-shaped watertable boiler, with a new type of combustion chamber that enables a three-to-one turndown to be achieved. The boilers have all the advantages of low emissions of the large fluid boilers while offering a much lower height incorporated into the package boiler concept. Recent tests with a waste coal that had a high nitrogen content of 1.45% demonstrated a NOx emission below the federal limit of 0.6 lbs/mm Btu. Thus a NOx reduction on the order of 85% can be demonstrate by combustion modification alone. Further reductions can be made by using a selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system and sulfur absorption of up to 90% retention is possible. The article describes the operation of a 30,000 lbs/hr boiler at the Fayette Thermal LLC plant. Spinheat has installed three ICFB boilers at a nursing home and a prison, which has been tested on poor-grade anthracite and bituminous coal. 2 figs.

Virr, M.J. [Spinheat Ltd. (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

17

Drying Kinetics Characteristic of Indonesia Lignite Coal (IBC) Using Lab Scale Fixed Bed Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recent instability of energy market arouse a lot of interest about coal which has a tremendous amount of proven coal reserves worldwide. South Korea hold the second rank by importing 80 million tons of coal in...

TaeJin Kang; DoMan Jeon; Hueon Namkung…

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Coal facies in a Cenozoic paralic lignite bed, Krabi Basin, southern Thailand: Changing peat-forming conditions related to relative sea-level controlled watertable variations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Cenozoic Krabi Basin in the southern part of peninsular Thailand contains about 112 million tons proven coal reserves. At present, coal is only produced from the Bang Mark mine located in the southern part of the basin, where the main lignite bed is 7–20 m thick. The lignite bed occurs in an overall paralic succession. The present paper investigates the depositional conditions of an approximately 8 m thick lignite bed (main seam) in the Bang Mark mine using organic petrography, including maceral ratios, and geochemistry. The results are further interpreted in a sequence stratigraphic context. The lignite is of low rank and is completely dominated by huminite indicating generally oxygen-deficient conditions in the precursor mire. Very low inertinite contents suggest rare occurrences of wildfires. The lower part of the lignite bed represents a topogenous fresh water peat mire with open water areas that in few cases may have experienced influx of saline water. The peat mire was subjected to periodic inundations and deposition of siliciclastics. Tissue preservation was relatively poor. The upper part of the lignite bed represents a slightly domed fresh water ombrogenous peat mire with a stable watertable and a balance between peat accumulation and accommodation space creation that favoured preservation of plant tissues. In general, the mire vegetation changed from less woody in the topogenous mire to more arborescent in the ombrogenous mire, where plants with suberinised wood cell walls also were more frequent. Decompacted, the lignite bed corresponds to a minimum ~ 11 m thick peat deposit that records from ~ 22,000 to 55,000 years of peat accumulation. Watertable rise in the peat mire was controlled overall by relative sea-level rise. In a sequence stratigraphic context, the lignite bed overlies a terrestrialisation surface (TeS; sensu Diessel, 2007) and the lowermost part records peat formation during a falling watertable and a decreasing accommodation/peat accumulation ratio (terrestrialisation). An accommodation reversal surface (ARS; sensu Diessel, 2007) indicates a change to paludification style of peat formation characterised by rising watertable and a high accommodation/peat accumulation ratio. Another ARS marks a gradual change to a situation with a balanced accommodation/peat accumulation ratio. The overall watertable rise throughout peat formation, but at a gradually slower rate from base to top, suggests that the lignite bed could be located in the late transgressive systems tract (TST).

H.I. Petersen; B. Ratanasthien

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Extraction of Lignite Coal Fly Ash for Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons: Modified and Unmodified Supercritical Fluid Extraction, Enhanced-Fluidity Solvents, and Accelerated Solvent Extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......7440-44-0 Carbon | Carbon analysis chemistry Coal analysis Coal Ash Gas Chromatography-Mass...Hydrocarbons, Aromatic analysis chemistry Industrial Waste analysis Particulate...particles on the interaction of coal combustion stack ash with organic matter......

Donald V. Kenny; Susan V. Olesik

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......production cost. Present Turkey reserves of lignite are estimated to be 8.4 billion...constitute the most important known lignite reserves. The Mugla basin is one of...The Seyitomer basin has a lignite reserve of about 200 Mt and supplies......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Properties of Upgraded Shengli Lignite and Its Behavior for Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low-rank coals (LRCs, i.e., brown coal and lignite) have an estimated proportion of 45% of the world’s coal reserves and constitute a significant resource for both energy and chemical feedstocks. ... (10)Figure 15 shows the calculating results of reactivity parameters (Rmax, Rave, and R) for SL lignite and different upgraded lignites obtained by isothermal upgrading. ...

Xianjun Yang; Cheng Zhang; Peng Tan; Tao Yang; Qingyan Fang; Gang Chen

2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

22

China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although lignite composes 16% of China’s coal reserves bys coal reserves are estimated to be 16% lignite by volume.reserves are classified as bituminous coal by volume, versus 29% sub-bituminous and 16% lignite.

Aden, Nathaniel

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Environmental control technology for coal cleaning wastes  

SciTech Connect

Chemical and mineralogical examination of coal wastes and their drainages has led us to consider three approaches to solution of the coal waste drainage problem. The first is alteration of the waste to render it non-polluting. Calcining of the waste has been shown to be an effective way of accomplishing this, but the cost of this technique is too high for it to be of any use. The second approach is codisposal of the coal waste with neutralizing and/or absorbing agents. The best way to implementing this approach is sequential slurry coating of the coal waste with lime and limestone, which is both effective and inexpensive. This is probably the best of the one-time treatments which we have evaluated when both effectiveness and cost are considered. Unfortunately this approach suffers from a lack of permanence and must be augmented with some other method of permanent diposal. The third approach to controlling coal waste effluent is to collect and treat the drainages. Perhaps the most effective way of doing this is by alkaline neutralization of the drainages. This is currently the most widely used technique for this purpose, because of its simplicity and availability. We have shown that it is effective provided that the iron is oxidized to the plus three oxidation state, and that the cost of this treatment is low. However, the need for continued treatment into the indefinite future must be considered a severe limitation.

Wagner, P.; Heaton, R.C.; Wangen, L.E.; Nyitray, A.M.; Jones, M.M.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Energy from waste via coal/waste co-firing  

SciTech Connect

The paper reviews the feasibility of waste-to-energy plants using the cocombustion of coal with refuse-derived fuels. The paper discusses the types of wastes available: municipal solid wastes, plastics, tires, biomass, and specialized industrial wastes, such as waste oils, post-consumer carpet, auto shredder residues, and petroleum coke. The five most common combustion systems used in co-firing are briefly described. They are the stoker boiler, suspension-fired boilers, cyclone furnaces, fluidized bed boilers, and cement kilns. The paper also discusses the economic incentives for generating electricity from waste.

Winslow, J.; Ekmann, J.; Smouse, S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Ramezan, M. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Harding, S.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

25

Radon concentrations in three underground lignite mines in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......being operated by the Aegean Lignite Enterprise (Ege Linyitleri...determined in three underground lignite mines, namely Tuncbilek...which is the main state body of lignite coal production, processing...of TKi. GLi Tuncbilek coal reserve, which is located on the mid-west......

S. Çile; N. Altinsoy; N. Çelebi

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Trash or treasure? Putting coal combustion waste to work  

SciTech Connect

The use of coal combustion wastes from power plants in construction materials, leaching and the impact of regulations are discussed.

Tenenbaum, D.J.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

27

Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

28

Study on Combustion Characteristics of Lignite in a CFB Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The shortage of coal promotes the lignite utility in power plant because of the rapid economy development recently. However, lignite is high in moisture content as well as volatile content and low in calorific va...

J. Leng; T. S. Zou; J. X. Wu; C. Jiang…

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

The spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and variant estimates of coal reserves: the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...The aim of this article is to inform about the spatial distribution of the lignite qualitative parameters and total lignite reserves in the Czech Part of the Vienna Basin—The South Moravian Lignite Coalfield (...

Jan Jelínek; František Stan?k; Lukáš Vebr…

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Pelletizing lignite  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

Goksel, Mehmet A. (Houghton, MI)

1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Potential for selenium migration at a lignite power plant solid waste disposal facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

may also adsorb selenite, although in relatively minor amounts. In general, clays serve as an inert substrate for media of higher sorbic potential. Selenium leached from lignite ash initially occurs as selenite or selenate. Redox and p...H measurements suggest selenite and elemental selenium are the only forms of inorganic selenium stable at the study site, Selenate is reduced to selenite or converted to selenide by biosynthesis. Selenite is either adsorbed by the soil or converted...

Hall, Steven Douglas

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

32

Size Dependence of the Drying Characteristics of Single Lignite Particles in Superheated Steam  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite, or brown coal, is the lowest ... accounts for 23 pct of the proven recoverable reserves of all coal.[1...] Because of its high moisture content, which makes the cost of transporting the raw lignite high,...

Tsuyoshi Kiriyama; Hideaki Sasaki…

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Coal/waste cofiring: International survey of combustion practices  

SciTech Connect

Coal is an abundant fuel resource worldwide with an historically stable price. The use of coal is expected to increase, particularly in developing countries; and, as industrialization increases, so will the amount of various waste materials and the environmental problems associated with their disposal. Therefore, coal/waste cofiring can offer an environmentally sound, economic approach to both waste remediation and energy production. This paper highlights the results of an international survey of coal/waste cofiring by describing the principal wastes used and the combustion technologies employed. Also provided are examples of cofiring and areas where cofired fuel parameters will have an effect on boiler performance.

Harding, N.S.; Smouse, S.M.; Ekmann, J.M.; Winslow, J.S. [Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center; Ramezan, M. [Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

34

Investigation of Bonding Mechanism of Coking on Semi-coke from Lignite with Pitch and Tar  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of Bonding Mechanism of Coking on Semi-coke from Lignite with Pitch and Tar ... Study on the coking mechanism of coal and coal tar pitches. ...

Vedat Arslan

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

35

Techno-Economic Analysis of Lignite Fuelled IGCC with CO2 Capture: Comparing Fluidized Bed and Entrained Flow Gasifiers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For shell gasifier case, North Dakota lignite coal is milled ... wt.%, and fed into the Shell gasifier via lock-hopper pressurization using N2...as transport gas. The lignite coal is gasified in the presence of medium

Guangjian Liu; Zhen Wu; Haiying Zhang

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

37

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

SciTech Connect

This 11th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2007. It summarizes the completion of the Prototype testing activity and initial full-scale dryer design, Budget Period 2 activity during that time period. The Design Team completed process design and layouts of air, water, and coal systems. Heyl-Patterson completed dryer drawings and has sent RFPs to several fabricators for build and assembly. Several meetings were held with Barr engineers to finalize arrangement of the drying, air jig, and coal handling systems. Honeywell held meetings do discuss the control system logic and hardware location. By the end of March we had processed nearly 300,000 tons of lignite through the dryer. Outage preparation maintenance activities on a coal transfer hopper restricted operation of the dryer in February and March. The Outage began March 17th. We will not dry coal again until early May when the Outage on Unit No.2 completes. The Budget Period 1 (Phase 1) final report was submitted this quarter. Comments were received from NETL and are being reviewed. The Phase 2 Project Management Plan was submitted to NETL in January 2007. This deliverable also included the Financing Plan. An application for R&D 100 award was submitted in February. The project received an award from the Minnesota Professional Engineering Society's Seven Wonders of Engineering Award and Minnesota ACEC Grand Award in January. To further summarize, the focus this quarter has been on finalizing commercial design and the layout of four dryers behind each Unit. The modification to the coal handling facilities at Coal Creek and incorporation of air jigs to further beneficiate the segregated material the dryers will reject 20 to 30 % of the mercury and sulfur is segregated however this modification will recover the carbon in that stream.

Charles Bullinger

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

38

Impact of coal quality and gasifier technology on IGCC performance  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

it is estimated that 47 % of global coal reserves consist of lignite and sub-bituminous coals [2]. Several

39

Fusibility Characteristics of Residual Ash from Lignite Fluidized-Bed Gasification To Understand Its Formation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant resource, which accounts for approximately 40% of global coal reserves. ... The effects of leaching and floatation on the ash fusion temperatures of three selected lignites ...

Feng-hai Li; Jie-jie Huang; Yi-tian Fang; Quan-run Liu

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

40

Preliminary Experimental Studies of Waste Coal Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal mining is one of Australia’s most important industries. It was estimated that coal washery rejects ... . To ensure sustainability of the Australian coal industry, we have explored a new potential pathway to ...

S. Su; Y. G. Jin; X. X. Yu; R. Worrall

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research was to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. The specific objectives were: Design and develop a scaleable electrophoresis apparatus to clarify suspensions of colloidal coal and clay particles; Demonstrate the separation process using polluted waste water from the coal-washing facilities at the coal-fired power plants in Centralia, WA; Develop a mathematical model of the process to predict the rate of clarification and the suspension electrical properties needed for scale up.

E. James Davis

1999-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

42

NETL: News Release - Converting Coal Wastes to Clean Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

November 28, 2000 November 28, 2000 Converting Coal Wastes to Clean Energy DOE to Scale Up 3 Projects That Upgrade Coal Fines, Wastes PITTSBURGH, PA - Three new technologies that can help the nation's coal industry turn waste into energy are now ready for scale up, the U.S. Department of Energy said today. MORE INFO Solid Fuels & Feedstocks Program Each of the three recover carbon-rich materials that in the past have been discarded during coal mining and cleaning operations. Using innovative approaches, the technologies remove unwanted water and other impurities and upgrade the waste materials into clean-burning fuels for power plants. The three were first selected for smaller-scale research in August 1998 as part of the Energy Department's Fossil Energy "solid fuels and feedstocks"

43

Co-processing of agricultural and biomass waste with coal  

SciTech Connect

A major thrust of our research program is the use of waste materials as co-liquefaction agents for the first-stage conversion of coal to liquid fuels. By fulfilling one or more of the roles of an expensive solvent in the direct coal liquefaction (DCL) process, the waste material is disposed off ex-landfill, and may improve the overall economics of DCL. Work in our group has concentrated on co-liquefaction with waste rubber tires, some results from which are presented elsewhere in these Preprints. In this paper, we report on preliminary results with agricultural and biomass-type waste as co-liquefaction agents.

Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, Ji-Perng [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)] [and others

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

44

GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS  

SciTech Connect

Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require ultimate disposal when it is put to use. Each task three waste was evaluated for utilization potential based on its physical properties, bulk chemical composition, and mineral composition. Only one of the thirteen materials studied might be suitable for use as a pozzolanic concrete additive. However, many wastes appeared to be suitable for other high-volume uses such as blasting grit, fine aggregate for asphalt concrete, road deicer, structural fill material, soil stabilization additives, waste stabilization additives, landfill cover material, and pavement base course construction.

Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Combustion of high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes in a rotary kiln combustor with an advanced internal air distributor  

SciTech Connect

Fluid bed combustors have received extensive testing with both high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes. Rotary kilns are effective and popular devices for waste combustion. The Angelo Rotary Furnace{trademark} has been developed to improve the operation of rotary pyrolyzer/combustor systems through enhanced air distribution, which in this process is defined as staged, swirled combustion air injection. Fourteen of these new furnaces have been installed worldwide. Two units in Thailand, designed for rice hull feed with occasional lignite feed, have been recently started up. An older unit in Pennsylvania is being upgraded with a new, more advanced air distribution system for a series of tests this fall in which inexpensive high-sulfur coal and anthracite wastes will be fired with limestone. The purposes of these tests are to determine the burning characteristics of these two fuels in this system, to discover the Ca/S ratios necessary for operation of a rotary kiln combusting these fuels, and to observe the gas-borne emissions from the furnace. An extensive preliminary design study will be performed on a commercial installation for combustion of anthracite wastes. 14 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

Cobb, J.T. Jr. (Pittsburgh Univ., PA (USA)); Ahn, Y.K. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Reading, PA (USA)); Angelo, J.F. (Universal Energy International, Inc., Little Rock, AR (USA))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Coal preparation: The essential clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

This chapter is a brief introduction to a broad topic which has many highly specialized areas. The aim is to summarize the essential elements of coal preparation and illustrate its important role in facilitating the clean use of coal. Conventional coal preparation is the essential first step in ensuring the economic and environmentally acceptable use of coal. The aim of coal preparation is to produce saleable products of consistent, specified quality which satisfy customer requirements while optimizing the utilization of the coal resource. Coal preparation covers all aspects of preparing coal for the market. It includes size reduction, blending and homogenization and, most importantly, the process of physical beneficiation or washing, which involves separation of undesirable mineral matter from the coal substance itself. Coal preparation can be performed at different levels of sophistication and cost. The degree of coal preparation required is decided by considering the quality of the raw coal, transport costs and, in particular, the coal quality specified by the consumer. However, the cost of coal beneficiation rises rapidly with the complexity of the process and some coal is lost with the waste matter because of process inefficiencies, therefore each situation requires individual study to determine the optimum coal preparation strategy. The necessary expertise is available within APEC countries such as Australia. Coals destined for iron making are almost always highly beneficiated. Physical beneficiation is mostly confined to the higher rank, hard coals, but all other aspects of coal preparation can be applied to subbituminous and lignitic coals to improve their utilization. Also, there are some interesting developments aimed specifically at reducing the water content of lower rank coals.

Cain, D.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

47

Investigation of benefit of using coal wastes in cement production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Waste disposal in coal preparation plants leads to serious environmental problems. These wastes usually contain about 20% carbon, and the composition of the remaining ash is similar to clay. Addition of these wastes to cement clinker raw material utilises carbon as a source of energy. In this investigation, the effect of addition of these waste materials to the raw materials used in cement manufacture is studied. Ordinary type II cement and sulphoaluminate cement may be produced from the wastes. Mechanical strength, chemical and phase analysis, setting time and particle size distribution of the cement were studied. The results of the experiments show that an addition of about 3% of the coal wastes to the raw materials used in cement manufacture produces cements with good quality. Further, energy consumption may be reduced by up to 15%.

A. Sarrafi; M.R. Izadpanah; A. Ebrahimi; A.I. Mansouri

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Effect of Upgraded Lignite Product Water Content on the Propensity for Spontaneous Ignition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At the end of 2005, worldwide lignite reserves were 207.4 billion tons and accounted for 17.7% of total coal. ... Therefore, there is still considerable interest in the propensity for spontaneous ignition of upgraded lignites products with different moisture contents and also the recommended water content for upgraded lignite products. ...

Kai Zhang; Changfu You

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

49

Behavior study of trace elements in pulverized lignite, bottom ash, and fly ash of Amyntaio power station, Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greece is second among EU countries for lignite coal production. The indicated reserves are 6.7 billion tonnes with a ... of Greece are generated through the utilization of lignite, while the remaining percentage...

Pavlos Megalovasilis; Georgios Papastergios…

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Lignite-based nitrogenous fertilizers  

SciTech Connect

A sample of lignite from Elbistan was oxidized by nitric acid in two stages, using relatively dilute acid in the first stage and concentrated acid in the second stage, and then the oxidized product was ammoniated so that a coal-based fertilizer could be produced. The experiments of all the stages were designed by a 1/2 X full factorial design. It was observed that base exchange capacity and nitrogen content of coal-based fertilizers produced in this work were as good as or better than those obtained by other investigators.

Baris, H.; Dincer, S.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Plastic wastes as modifiers of the thermoplasticity of coal  

SciTech Connect

Plastic waste recycling represents a major challenge in environmental protection with different routes now available for dealing with mechanical, chemical, and energy recycling. New concepts in plastic waste recycling have emerged so that now such wastes can be used to replace fossil fuels, either as an energy source or as a secondary raw material. Our objective is to explore the modification of the thermoplastic properties of coal in order to assess the possibility of adding plastic waste to coal for the production of metallurgical coke. Two bituminous coals of different rank and thermoplastic properties were used as a base component of blends with plastic wastes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrilonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). In all cases, the addition of plastic waste led to a reduction in Gieseler maximum fluidity, the extent of the reduction depending on the fluidity of the base coal, and the amount, the molecular structure, and the thermal behavior of the polymer. As a consequence, the amount of volatile matter released by the plastic waste before, during, and after the maximum fluidity of the coal and the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor capacities of the polymer were concluded to be key factors in influencing the extent of the reduction in fluidity and the development of anisotropic carbons. The incorporation of the plastic to the carbon matrix was clearly established in semicokes produced from blends of a high-fluid coal and the plastic tested by SEM examination. 42 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Co-processing of agriculture and biomass waste with coal  

SciTech Connect

Biomass and bio-processed waste are potential candidates for co-liquefaction with coal. Specific materials used here include sawdust and poultry manure. Liquefaction experiments were run on each of these materials, separately and with coal, using tetralin as solvent at 350{degrees}C and 1000 psi(cold) hydrogen pressure for 1h. Total conversion was monitored, as well as conversion to asphaltenes, oils and gases. All the biomass samples are converted to oils and gases under the reaction conditions. Poultry manure seems to convert coal more completely, and to produce more oils and gases, than conventional liquefaction.

Stiller, A.H.; Dadyburjor, D.B.; Wann, J.P. [West Virginia Univ., Morgantown, WV (United States)

1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste  

SciTech Connect

The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

Manuel, J.

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

54

Potential health impacts of burning coal beds and waste banks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Uncontrolled release of pollutants from burning coal beds and waste banks presents potential environmental and human health hazards. On a global scale, the emissions of large volumes of greenhouse gases from burning coal beds may contribute to climate change that alters ecosystems and patterns of disease occurrence. On regional and local scales, the emissions from burning coal beds and waste banks of acidic gases, particulates, organic compounds, and trace elements can contribute to a range of respiratory and other human health problems. Although there are few published reports of health problems caused by these emissions, the potential for problems can be significant. In India, large numbers of people have been displaced from their homes because of health problems caused by emissions from burning coal beds. Volatile elements such as arsenic, fluorine, mercury, and selenium are commonly enriched in coal deposits. Burning coal beds can volatilize these elements, which then can be inhaled, or adsorbed on crops and foods, taken up by livestock or bioaccumulated in birds and fish. Some of these elements can condense on dust particles that can be inhaled or ingested. In addition, selenium, arsenic, lead, tin, bismuth, fluorine, and other elements condense where the hot gaseous emissions come in contact with ambient air, forming mats of concentrated efflorescent minerals on the surface of the ground. These mats can be leached by rainwater and washed into local water bodies providing other potential routes of exposure. Although there are little data linking burning coal beds and waste banks to known health problems, a possibly analogous situation exists in rural China where mineralized coal burned in a residential environment has caused widespread and severe health problems such as fluorosis and arseniasis.

Robert B Finkelman

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Microbial solubilization of lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Biological solubilization and subsequent gasification of lignite samples from three of the largest reserves in this country, which are also characterized by high sulphur contents and low calorific values, were investigated in this project. Several white-rot fungi were screened for their ability to solubilize lignites and Phanerochaete chrysosporium was found to depolymerize Elbistan lignites with 60% efficiency. Acetate served perfectly as the primary carbon source. Whereas, Çan lignites could be depolymerized only after lengthy pre-treatment with 8N HNO3 while Beypazari lignites were completely inert to biological attack. Gasification tests with the solubilize material revealed 21% energy recovery through gaseous methane product.

Celal F Gokcay; Nazif Kolankaya; Filiz B Dilek

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

Gerald Huffman

2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

57

Cofiring waste biofuels and coal for emissions reduction  

SciTech Connect

Combustion tests have been performed in two pilot-scale combustion facilities to evaluate the emissions reduction possible while firing coal blended with several different biofuels. Two different boiler simulations, pulverized coal fired boilers and stoker coal fired boilers, were simulated. The pc-fired studies investigated the use of waste hardwood and softwood with pulverized coal, or using the biofuels as potential reburning fuels. The use of these wood waste is attractive because: wood contains little nitrogen and virtually no sulfur; wood is a regenerable biofuel; and wood utilization results in a net reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions. The wood reburning results indicate a reduction of 50-60% NO with approximately 10% wood heat input. Reburn stoichiometry was the most important variable. The NO reduction was strongly dependent upon initial NO and only slightly dependent upon temperature and wood moisture content. Cofiring of wood with pulverized coal; however, did not lead to significant NO reductions with the current NO{sub x} burner configuration. The stoker program investigated barriers for the successful blending of coal with waste railroad ties. Parameters evaluated included blending firing rate, chip size, optimum feed location, overfire/underfire air ratio, and natural gas addition. The results of this study demonstrate that NO emissions can be reduced by more than 50% without any significant increase in CO or THC emissions by the proper use of zoned reburning. Both programs demonstrated several benefits of biofuel cofiring, including: (1) lower operating costs due to reduced fuel prices; (2) reduced waste disposal; (3) reduced maintenance costs; (4) reduced environmental costs; and (5) extension of the useful life of existing equipment.

Brouwer, J.; Owens, W.D.; Harding, N.S. [Reaction Engineering International, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)] [and others

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Mitsubishi FGD plants for lignite fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

In order to respond to the increasing electric energy demand for sustaining economic growth, construction of coal-fired thermal power plants worldwide is indispensable. As a countermeasure for environmental pollution which otherwise may reach a serious proportion from the operation of these plants, construction of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) plants is being promoted. Among these power stations where lignite fuel is burnt, the FGD plants concerned have to be designed to cope with high gas volume and SO{sub x} concentration as well as violent fluctuations in their values caused by such features of lignite as high sulfur content, low calorific volume, and unstable properties. Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) has received construction awards for a total of seven (7) FGD plants for lignite-fired boilers in succession starting from that for CEZ as, Czech Republic followed by those for EGAT, Thailand in 1993. All these plants are presently operating satisfactorily since successful completion of their performance tests in 1996. Further, a construction award of three (3) more FGD plants for lignite-fired boilers was received from ENDESA (Spain) in 1995 which are now being outfitted and scheduled to start commercial operation in 1998. In this paper, the authors discuss the outline design of FGD plants for lignite-fired boilers based on experience of FGD plants constructed since 1970 for heavy oil--as well as black coal-fired boilers, together with items confirmed from the operation and design guideline hereafter.

Kotake, Shinichiro; Okazoe, Kiyoshi; Iwashita, Koichiro; Yajima, Satoru

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Understanding pulverised coal, biomass and waste combustion – A brief overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Pulverised coal (PC) firing has been the dominant technology for generating power in utility boilers for almost a century. During this period, boiler designs have evolved through an accumulating collection of knowledge that has led to many empirical relationships that still guide current and future design directions to some degree. In the late 1940s the developed nations began to undertake coal research based on scientific principles to ensure the most efficient use of the primary energy resource represented by coal. As the body of scientific knowledge on the physics and chemistry of coal combustion grew, it was used to direct the improvements to efficiency required and, later, the control of pollutants produced during the combustion of coal. This involves not only the control of emissions of particulates, \\{SOx\\} and oxides of nitrogen but also of trace elements, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and, importantly, CO2. There have been a number of significant developments in the coal-fired power generation sector including cofiring with secondary fuels, particularly biomass and waste, and the development of radically different combustion systems (for example, oxyfuel) to meet carbon capture and storage requirements. Each of these developments has impacted upon the way in which PC-fired boilers are configured and operated and further complicated an already complex combustion environment. This paper outlines the developments in PC combustion and the new techniques that have been developed to enhance our understanding of the processes involved. The paper is based on a comprehensive IEA Clean Coal Centre study “Understanding pulverised coal, biomass and waste combustion”. Ian Barnes, CCC/205 ISBN 978-92-9029-525-9, September 2012.

D. Ian Barnes

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

CO2-gasification of a lignite coal in the presence of an iron-based oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) has the inherent property of separating the product CO2 from flue gases. Instead of air, it uses an oxygen carrier, usually in the form of a metal oxide, to provide oxygen for combustion. All techniques so far proposed for chemical looping with solid fuels involve initially the gasification of the solid fuel in order for the gaseous products to react with the oxygen carrier. Here, the rates of gasification of coal were compared when gasification was undertaken in a fluidised bed of either (i) an active Fe-based oxygen carrier used for chemical looping or (ii) inert sand. This enabled an examination of the ability of chemical looping materials to enhance the rate of gasification of solid fuels. Batch gasification and chemical-looping combustion experiments with a German lignite and its char are reported, using an electrically-heated fluidised bed reactor at temperatures from 1073 to 1223 K. The fluidising gas was CO2 in nitrogen. The kinetics of the gasification were found to be significantly faster in the presence of the oxygen carrier, especially at temperatures above 1123 K. A numerical model was developed to account for external and internal mass transfer and for the effect of the looping agent. The model also included the effects of the evolution of the pore structure at different conversions. The presence of Fe2O3 led to an increase in the rate of gasification because of the rapid oxidation of CO by the oxygen carrier to CO2. This resulted in the removal of CO and maintained a higher mole fraction of CO2 in the mixture of gas around the particle of char, i.e. within the mass transfer boundary layer surrounding the particle. This effect was most prominent at about 20% conversion when (i) the surface area for reaction was at its maximum and (ii) because of the accompanying increase in porosity and pore size, intraparticle resistance to gas mass transfer within the particle of char had fallen, compared with that in the initial particle. Excellent agreement was observed between the rates predicted by the numerical model and those observed experimentally.

Marco A. Saucedo; Jin Yang. Lim; John S. Dennis; Stuart A. Scott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Transformation of Alkali Metals during Pyrolysis and Gasification of a Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

North China has large reserves of low rank coal deposits such as lignite that are suitable to be used in fluidized-bed gasification. ... Influence of Temperature on the Release of Inorganic Species from Victorian Brown Coals and German Lignites under CO2 Gasification Conditions ...

Xiaofang Wei; Jiejie Huang; Tiefeng Liu; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang

2008-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

62

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Study of Chemical Structure Changes of Chinese Lignite upon Drying in Superheated Steam, Microwave, and Hot Air ... An estimated 45% of the world’s coal reserves consist of low-rank coals. ... A range of samples varying from lignites to bituminous coals were used at 30-180°. ...

Arash Tahmasebi; Jianglong Yu; Yanna Han; Fengkui Yin; Sankar Bhattacharya; David Stokie

2012-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

63

A study of pyrolysis of Texas lignites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heating Values. 15 8 Tar Composition g Coal Properties, . 10 Theoretical Gasification Results 11 Chromatograph Program. Pa&ac 17 26 27 28 44 46 47 48 50 51 56 INTRODUCTION As national interest develops 1n fuels other than oil and natural... gasification of the lignite in-situ. The Soviet Union has studied this method and has built several facilities to burn lignite underground. The gases produced from this process are used to prov1de power for a steel m111 in the Urals. At various times 2...

Clark, Robert A

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

64

Adsorption properties of coal from the Ishideiskoe deposit, semicokes, and ash and slag wastes from the combustion of coals from Siberia and Sakhalin  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The results of studying the adsorption properties of black coal, semicoke, and waste coals from a number of coal deposits in Irkutsk oblast and Sakhalin and the Irsha-Borodino deposit are reported. The results...

N. G. Vyazova; V. N. Kryukova; L. P. Shaulina; E. A. Pisar’kova…

2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare high levels of selenium and may be useful bioindicators in agricultural and coal ash-impacted habitats

Hopkins, William A.

66

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid waste produced by advanced coal processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites have been selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's site using waste from Midwest Grain's FBC unit in central Illinois. A fourth site is under consideration at the Dakota Gasification Company in North Dakota. The first two tasks of this project involved the development of test plans and obtaining site access.

Not Available

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Lignite Fuel Enhancement  

SciTech Connect

The Design Team continues to conference this quarter albeit not as often. Primary focus this quarter is the continued procurement of material, receiving, and construction/installation. Phase 1 extension recommendation, and subsequent new project estimate. Forms 424 and 4600 were submitted to Ms. Zysk. The NETL technology team subsequently agreed that the increase is justified and made their recommendation to DOE HQ. All major mechanical equipment was delivered this quarter. Three hot water in-bed coils are all that remains for delivery. Two of the five are installed above the dryer air distribution bed. The dryer, baghouse, bucket elevator, control room, exhaust fan, process ductwork, and piping have all been installed. The mezzanine level over the inlet ductwork for access to the dryer was installed. Instrumentation was delivered and locations were identified. Cable is being pulled and connections made from the Control Room to the Motor Control Center. ''Emergency Stop'' equipment logic conditions were discussed and finalized. The functional description was competed and reviewed with Honeywell Controls. Piping & Instrument diagrams are completed. Some electrical schematics have been delivered for equipment south of Q-line. Dry & Wet coal conveyors are not completed. The exhaust chimney was installed. An Open House and ribbon cutting took place on August 9th. GRE project manager gave a presentation of the technology. Joe Strakey, NETL, also spoke. The Open House was attended by Governor Hoevon and Senator Conrad who also spoke about Clean Coal and helped kick-off Blue Flint ethanol and a potential Liquefaction plant. The deign team met the following day to discuss test plan and progress update. Headwaters Energy Incorporated also attended the Open House. A meeting was conducted with them to begin planning for the marketing and finalize our memorandum of understanding. Headwaters still plans to contact all US lignite plants and all bituminous plants who have switched to PRB. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter included the Dryer, Exhaust Fan, additional duct work, and control cabinets.

Charles Bullinger

2005-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

68

Effect of experimental conditions on the yields during the copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Paa (MKP) Lignite (Turkey) with low-density polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

Copyrolysis of a Turkish lignite with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is conducted in a tubular reactor. The effect of experimental conditions (temperature of 400-700{sup o}C, catalyst, LDPE contents of the mixture are 33, 50, and 67 wt %) on the formation of tar, gas, and char and their effects on the formation of phenol are investigated. The catalysts used are red mud (which is a waste product of an aluminum factory in Turkey), zeolite (Linde type A (LTA)), and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Tar evolution is determined to be increased significantly by increasing the LDPE content of the coal-LDPE mixture during the pyrolysis. The effect of adding LDPE to the coal on the gas generation is not remarkable. An increase in temperature leads to increased gas yields. Phenol and phenol derivatives are the obstacles for the complete conversion of lignite to tar and gas. To investigate this negative effect of phenols on the yields, the phenols found in tar from coal pyrolysis are detected by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and it is observed that phenolic structures detected in the tar obtained by individual pyrolysis of coal are dramatically decreased by adding polymer to the coal. The use of catalysts during the copyrolysis procedure leads to improved gas generation. The possible reasons of these variations are discussed. A remarkable synergetic effect between lignite and LDPE on the tar yields is also observed. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

Ali Sinag; Melike Sungur; Muammer Canel [Ankara University, Beevler-Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty

2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2  

SciTech Connect

Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Influence of External Clay and Inherent Minerals on Lignite Optical Ignition and Volatile Flame Propagation in Air-Firing and Oxy-Firing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal sample selected is a lignite sample collected from Xinjiang Autonomous Area, the data for which are practically nonexistent because of the low exploration degree, even though such coal contributes approximately 40% of the overall Chinese coal reserves. ... For the devolatilization rate in Table 3 and Figure 2a, the raw lignite has a devolatilisation rate that was lower than those of air-dried and ammonium acetate-washed Victorian brown coal but certainly higher than those of raw Montana lignites, other Chinese lignites, and bituminous coals examined in the literature. ...

Wirhan Prationo; Jian Zhang; Hawra Ali Abdul Abbas; Xiaojiang Wu; Xiaodong Chen; Lian Zhang

2014-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

71

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Evolution of Organic Sulfur in the Thermal Upgrading Process of Shengli Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the low price and rich reserves, lignite has not been widely used because of the problems in spontaneous combustion and difficulties in transportation and storage. ... Lignite in China, mainly distributed in the Inner Mongolia and Yunnan province, occupies about 13% of the total coal resource reserve. ... Koca, H.; Koca, H.; Kockar, O. M.Upgrading of Kutahya region lignites by mild pyrolysis and high intensity dry magnetic separation Miner. ...

Dong Li; Cheng Zhang; Ji Xia; Peng Tan; Li Yang; Gang Chen

2013-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Influence of Coal Ash/Organic Waste Application on Distribution of Trace Metals in Soil, Plant, and Water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study was conducted to evaluate effects of coal ash mixture (coal ash, biosolids and yard waste compost ratio of ... fruits, and its leaching potential into groundwater. Coal ash mixture was applied at rates...

Yuncong Li; Min Zhang; Peter Stoffella; Zhenli He…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Lignite industry in Greece within a world context: Mining, energy supply and environment  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Today coal covers 38% of global production and roughly 30% of the EU-25 power output. In 2005 domestic lignite with a share of 60.5% in power generation and accounting about 30% of primary energy consumption is currently the most important indigenous fuel of Greece. Greece, mining 70 Mt annually, is the second lignite producer in the EU and fourth in the world. Approximately 97% of the lignite used to supply the existing lignite-fired power plants of Greece is mined by Public Power Corporation S.A. (PPC). Lignite as the base load fuel gives a competitive strength in PPC's and Greece's fuel mix. Due to lignite consumer prices in Greece are significantly below those in other comparable markets in EU-15. Extraction of lignite has a very long tradition. Significant achievements and large experience which has been gained during many years of mining operations place Greek lignite-mining industry in the leading position in Europe. The paper presents current state of Greek lignite industry, including operating mines, volume of production and other important production indicators as well as improvements in labor productivity and good results in industrial safety. The future of coal and specifically of Greek lignite will be crucially determined by environmentally compatible, i.e. low-CO2 generation of electricity. Investment in modernization and renewal of the power plant fleet are the key to securing electricity supply and progress in preventing climate change.

Konstantinos Kavouridis

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

Belogay, Eugene A.

76

Preliminary Study on Design of Longwall Mining from Final Highwall at Mae Moh Lignite Mine in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The EGAT Mae Moh lignite mine is the largest open-pit coal ... in Thailand. The total geological and economical reserves of Mae Moh coal field are approximately...FLAC 3D producted by...

Shitoku Shibata; Nay Zarlin; Hideki Shimada…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

Not Available

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Feasibility Studies of the Sequential Dewatering/Dry Separation of Chinese Lignite in a Vibration Fluidized-Bed Dryer: Effect of Physical Parameters and Operation Conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant raw energy material that is considered as a major component of global coal reserves. ... The process is being investigated as a means of lowering greenhouse gas emissions from existing lignite fired power stations by reducing the moisture content of lignites. ...

Pengfei Zhao; Yuemin Zhao; Zhenfu Luo; Zengqiang Chen; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song; Liang Dong

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

79

Formation Mechanism of Slag during Fluid-bed Gasification of Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is abundant and makes up approximately 40% of coal reserves in the world. ... Alkalies in lignites (principally Na) were volatilized and reacted with either SO2, to form sulfates, or with clay minerals (principally kaolinite) to form aluminosilicate slag droplets. ...

Fenghai Li; Jiejie Huang; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang

2010-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

80

Analysis of options for coal combustion waste management in the Pacific Basin  

SciTech Connect

Many Pacific Basin countries rely on oil for electricity production. Alternative fuel sources such as coal, which is available in the Pacific Basin, can help mitigate adverse impacts of sudden price increases or supply disruptions. Coal combustion produces solid and potentially hazardous wastes of concern to environmental regulators and utility managers. This paper identifies issues associated with managing coal combustion wastes in the Pacific Basin, using the state of Hawaii as a case study. Hawaii is typical of many Pacific Basin locations in that it depends on oil, has limited sites, for waste management operations, and is subject to domestic and international waste management regulations. The paper discusses coal-fired utility wastes, environmental impacts of coal combustion waste disposal, and regulatory requirements that impact coal waste management. From this baseline, potential on- and off-island options for coal waste management are identified. Waste management costs are estimated and non-quantifiable issues are addressed for each option. Many options are applicable across the Pacific Rim and may serve as a basis for future fuel-use decisions.

Elcock, D.; Gasper, J.

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Production of Oil from Coal in Germany  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... British Commonwealth there are cheaper supplies of coal than in Great Britain, as well as reserves of brown coal and ... of brown coal and lignite. Dr. Parker stated that bombing attacks between May and September 1944 caused a reduction ...

1947-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Roles of inherent mineral matters for lignite water slurry electrolysis in H2SO4 system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To understand roles of inherent mineral matters in lignite water slurry (LWS) electrolysis, lignite and demineralized lignite electrolyses were carried out in H2SO4 system. The results showed that cell voltage for LWS electrolysis was lower than that for demineralized lignite water slurry (DLWS) under constant current condition. Some inherent mineral matters changed into the corresponding metal ions which entered into electrolyte, and thus improved the electrolysis oxidation reactions for coal organic structure. Meanwhile, the relative amount of O-containing functional groups in demineralized lignite increased with electrolysis time, improving its pyrolysis reactivity. However, the pyrolysis reactivity of raw lignite decreased due to the removal of the inherent mineral matters from electrolysis.

Xuzhong Gong; Mingyong Wang; Zhi Wang; ZhanCheng Guo

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Investigation on the sintering behaviors of low-temperature lignite ashes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The amount of lignite resource is over 1,290 million tons ... for 12.7 % of the total coal reserves in China. Traditionally, it is mainly...1]. Gasification, a promising technology for dealing with the commercial...

Shaohua Ji; Fenghai Li; Tao Wang; Zhenzhu Li…

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

The Acid Lakes of Lignite Mining District of the former German Democratic Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Large areas of central and eastern Europe have reserves of hard and brown coal. The map ... Germany, Poland and the Czech Republic. The reserves of lignite in Germany with 56 x 109 tons ... output correspond to 1...

M. Schultze; W. Geller

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE  

SciTech Connect

Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

Hamid Farzan

2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

86

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......CFPPs installed in Turkey uses lignite, the catalagz CFPP uses the...basin, Turkey. The total reserve of the basin is estimated as...contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants in Western...equilibrium in the ashes produced in lignite-fired power plants. J......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Use of the GranuFlow Process in Coal Preparation Plants to Improve Energy Recovery and Reduce Coal Processing Wastes  

SciTech Connect

With the increasing use of screen-bowl centrifuges in today's fine coal cleaning circuits, a significant amount of low-ash, high-Btu coal can be lost during the dewatering step due to the difficulty in capturing coal of this size consist (< 100 mesh or 0.15mm). The GranuFlow{trademark} technology, developed and patented by an in-house research group at DOE-NETL, involves the addition of an emulsified mixture of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbons to a slurry of finesized coal before cleaning and/or mechanical dewatering. The binder selectively agglomerates the coal, but not the clays or other mineral matter. In practice, the binder is applied so as to contact the finest possible size fraction first (for example, froth flotation product) as agglomeration of this fraction produces the best result for a given concentration of binder. Increasing the size consist of the fine-sized coal stream reduces the loss of coal solids to the waste effluent streams from the screen bowl centrifuge circuit. In addition, the agglomerated coal dewaters better and is less dusty. The binder can also serve as a flotation conditioner and may provide freeze protection. The overall objective of the project is to generate all necessary information and data required to commercialize the GranuFlow{trademark} Technology. The technology was evaluated under full-scale operating conditions at three commercial coal preparation plants to determine operating performance and economics. The handling, storage, and combustion properties of the coal produced by this process were compared to untreated coal during a power plant combustion test.

Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

88

Study of the properties of mine waste in the midwestern coal fields. Phase I report  

SciTech Connect

In an effort to assist the coal industry in complying with the applicable regulations, to design safe and environmentally acceptable disposal systems, and to encourage secondary use of coal mine waste, the US Department of Energy has initiated research programs to develop coal mine waste disposal and use technology. This study of the properties of mine wastes in the Midwestern coal fields has been limited to the waste materials obtained from underground coal mines and preparation plants attached to both underground and surface mines. The program has been divided into two phases. In Phase I, the 20 most important properties relevant to safe disposal, reclamation, underground disposal, and secondary uses have been identified. An inventory of the significant waste disposal sites in the Midwestern coal fields has been prepared. The site locations have been plotted on USGS maps. Estimates of coal production and coal mine waste production during the next 2 decades have been prepared and are presented in this report. Also, all available information obtained from a search of existing literature on physical and chemical properties, including analysis results of the general runoff from the refuse disposal areas, has been collected and is presented. In order to fill the gaps in information, 20 sites have been identified for drilling and sampling to determine the various physical and chemical properties. They have been selected on the basis of the distribution and quantity of waste at the existing locations (both abandoned and active), the future trends in production and likely locations of waste disposal areas, their geographical and geological distribution, and ease of accessibility for drilling and sampling.

None

1980-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

89

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

Low rank fuels such as subbituminous coals and lignites contain significant amounts of moisture compared to higher rank coals. Typically, the moisture content of subbituminous coals ranges from 15 to 30 percent, while that for lignites is between 25 and 40 percent, where both are expressed on a wet coal basis. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit. High fuel moisture results in fuel handling problems, and it affects heat rate, mass rate (tonnage) of emissions, and the consumption of water needed for evaporative cooling. This project deals with lignite and subbituminous coal-fired pulverized coal power plants, which are cooled by evaporative cooling towers. In particular, the project involves use of power plant waste heat to partially dry the coal before it is fed to the pulverizers. Done in a proper way, coal drying will reduce cooling tower makeup water requirements and also provide heat rate and emissions benefits. The technology addressed in this project makes use of the hot circulating cooling water leaving the condenser to heat the air used for drying the coal (Figure 1). The temperature of the circulating water leaving the condenser is usually about 49 C (120 F), and this can be used to produce an air stream at approximately 43 C (110 F). Figure 2 shows a variation of this approach, in which coal drying would be accomplished by both warm air, passing through the dryer, and a flow of hot circulating cooling water, passing through a heat exchanger located in the dryer. Higher temperature drying can be accomplished if hot flue gas from the boiler or extracted steam from the turbine cycle is used to supplement the thermal energy obtained from the circulating cooling water. Various options such as these are being examined in this investigation. This is the eleventh Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report.

Edward Levy

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION  

SciTech Connect

An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching  

SciTech Connect

Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

92

Production of low ash coal by thermal extraction with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Present study was conducted for the purpose of producing low ash coal from LRC (low rank coals) such as lignite and sub-bituminous coal through thermal extraction using polar solvent. Extraction from bituminous coal

Sang Do Kim; Kwang Jae Woo; Soon Kwan Jeong…

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

U.S. low rank coals contain relatively large amounts of moisture, with the moisture content of subbituminous coals typically ranging from 15 to 30 percent and that for lignites from 25 and 40 percent. High fuel moisture has several adverse impacts on the operation of a pulverized coal generating unit, for it can result in fuel handling problems and it affects heat rate, stack emissions and maintenance costs. Theoretical analyses and coal test burns performed at a lignite fired power plant show that by reducing the fuel moisture, it is possible to improve boiler performance and unit heat rate, reduce emissions and reduce water consumption by the evaporative cooling tower. The economic viability of the approach and the actual impact of the drying system on water consumption, unit heat rate and stack emissions will depend critically on the design and operating conditions of the drying system. The present project evaluated the low temperature drying of high moisture coals using power plant waste heat to provide the energy required for drying. Coal drying studies were performed in a laboratory scale fluidized bed dryer to gather data and develop models on drying kinetics. In addition, analyses were carried out to determine the relative costs and performance impacts (in terms of heat rate, cooling tower water consumption and emissions) of drying along with the development of optimized drying system designs and recommended operating conditions.

Edward K. Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Hugo Caram

2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field, Kangal basin, Sivas, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses a case study on global estimation of lignite reserve in the Kalburcayiri field from the Sivas–Kangal basin, which is one of the most productive lignite basins in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The two lignite seams, which were developed in a fresh-water lacustrine depositional environment during the Pliocene time, are currently being exploited in the Kalburcayiri open-cast mine for feed coal to a power plant with 300-MW capacity. Tonnage, thickness and quality parameters (ash yield, total sulphur content, and calorific value) of the lignite are variables considered in this study. The global estimates of these variables together with 95% confidence limits are obtained using the approximation principle of global estimation. A random stratified grid is fitted to available boreholes; the variograms for thickness and lignite quality parameters are estimated and modeled. The models are used in calculating estimation error variances that will later be used in constructing 95% confidence intervals for the true values.

A.Erhan Tercan; Ali Ihsan Karayigit

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

The washability of lignites for clay removal  

SciTech Connect

In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Biogeochemistry of Microbial Coal-Bed Methane  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.1146/annurev-earth-040610-133343 Copyright c 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 0084 known as coalification; progresses from peat through lignite, subbituminous coal, bituminous coal

Macalady, Jenn

97

Lignite resources of Turkey: Geology, reserves, and exploration history  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This article aims to emphasize the importance of lignite, which is the mostly used domestic energy source in the Turkish energy mix, by briefly overviewing its geology, reserves, and exploration. Lignites are distributed in mostly continental sedimentary basins of Tertiary age all over the country. The lignite-bearing basins display the characteristics of different geological settings, of which grabens and half-grabens are the most common ones especially in western Anatolia. The geological and chemical characteristics of Turkish lignites do not only create some important problems during mining and coal preparation but also make them unfavorable for consumption. However, since they are the most valuable energy resource of the country they should benefit the economy in the most efficient and environmentally friendly way. Moreover, two most important conclusions of this study are as follows: firstly, reserve estimation practices in the country should definitely be revised to provide a more realistic evaluation of the country's lignite potential for developing medium- and long-term energy strategies and policies for decision- and policy-makers. Secondly, exploration and development activities should be coordinated by a single institution, most likely a government institution, as has been the case for some 50 years.

Volkan ?. Ediger; Istemi Berk; Ayhan Kösebalaban

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Desulfurization of coke oven gas from the coking of coking coal blended with a sorbent and waste plastic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new way to implement the simultaneous reutilization of solid waste, the desulfurization of coke oven gas (COG), and even the desulfurization of coke by the co-coking of coking coal (CC) and waste plastic (WP).....

Zhao Rongfang; Ye Shufeng; Xie Yusheng…

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

A Forecast of Composition of Coal Wastes and of their Directions of Utilization During Explorations in Coal Deposits in the Ussr  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SUMMARY The production methods used In the USSR as well as the investigations of the composition, technological properties and wastes reserves from mining operations, coal preparation and coal utilization at the process of deposits surveying have been considered in the report. The principles and specifications, used for the evaluation of associated with coal materials, mineral components and rare elements, contained in solid fuels including the methods for investigation of the elements, hazardous for the environment, have been presented. The directions and specifications (norms) for the utilization of overburden sands and gravel, clays, carbonates and other rocks, coaly rocks of internal ripping material, coal preparation wastes, ashes and slags have been considered.

V.R. Kler; M. Ya. Shpirt

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in burning and non-burning coal waste piles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The coal waste material that results from Douro Coalfield exploitation was analyzed by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry (GC–MS) for the identification and quantification of the 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), defined as priority pollutants. It is expected that the organic fraction of the coal waste material contains \\{PAHs\\} from petrogenic origin, and also from pyrolytic origin in burning coal waste piles. The results demonstrate some similarity in the studied samples, being phenanthrene the most abundant PAH followed by fluoranthene and pyrene. A petrogenic contribution of \\{PAHs\\} in unburned samples and a mixture of \\{PAHs\\} from petrogenic and pyrolytic sources in the burning/burnt samples were identified. The lowest values of the sum of the 16 priority \\{PAHs\\} found in burning/burnt samples and the depletion LMW \\{PAHs\\} and greater abundance of HMW \\{PAHs\\} from the unburned coal waste material relatively to the burning/burnt material demonstrate the thermal transformation attributed to the burning process. The potential environmental impact associated with the coal waste piles are related with the release of petrogenic and pyrolytic \\{PAHs\\} in particulate and gaseous forms to soils, sediments, groundwater, surface water, and biodiversity.

Joana Ribeiro; Tais Silva; Joao Graciano Mendonca Filho; Deolinda Flores

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

The stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the Wilcox lignite deposit south of Hallsville, Harrison County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to the resistivity log signatures. 102 Pocket Geologic Map INTRODUCTION As the United States oil and gas reserves decline, lignite will assume an increasingly greater role in meeting our rising energy de- mands. Although coal has contributed significantly... to the resistivity log signatures. 102 Pocket Geologic Map INTRODUCTION As the United States oil and gas reserves decline, lignite will assume an increasingly greater role in meeting our rising energy de- mands. Although coal has contributed significantly...

Watson, Joseph Quealy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

102

Flue Gas Emissions from the Burning of Asphaltite and Lignite in a Rotating Head Combustor with Secondary Air Delivery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

(1, 2) In this context, Turkey is rich in coal reserves, and it is among the biggest coal producers in the world with a production of about 76 million tons (Mt) in 2011, and a large portion of this production is lignite. ... (5) Turkey has also a high asphaltite reserve, which is mostly found in the southeastern part of Anatolia and used around the region for domestic heating. ... Modeling of NOx emissions from fluidized Bed combustion of high volatile lignites ...

Cengiz Öner; ?ehmus Altun

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Photochemical Dissolution of Turkish Lignites in Tetralin at Different Irradiation Power and Reaction Times  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of the power of ultraviolet (UV) irradiation on the tetrahydrofuran (THF) solubles yield (the total soluble product) and the soluble product distribution of the dissolution of Turkish lignites (Beypazar? and Tunçbilek lignite) in tetralin at ambient temperatures has been investigated. ... Among them, coal has received special attention because of its large proven reserves as well as the similarity between the products obtained by its processing and crude oil. ...

F. Karacan; T. To?rul

2007-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

104

Ash Quality of a Beneficiated Lignite from Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash Quality of a Beneficiated Lignite from Ptolemais Basin, Northern Greece ... Knowing that oil and gas reserves are diminishing very fast, the beneficiation of coals is of most importance, since this energy source is widely distributed around the world. ... The present research was carried in collaboration with Public Power Corporation of Greece, which simultaneously conducted pilot plant tests for beneficiating Greek lignites, using the TRI-FLO technique. ...

D. Vamvuka; E. Mistakidou; S. Drakonaki; A. Foscolos; K. Kavouridis

2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

105

Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank The Argonne Premium Coal (APC) Sample Bank can supply  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The sample bank consists of eight coals, including lignite, subbituminous coal, high volatile, medium by a variety of techniques. Five-gallon carboys hold about 80% of the batch in reserve for filling more

Maranas, Costas

106

Development of catalyst free carbon nanotubes from coal and waste plastics  

SciTech Connect

DC-Arc technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal, chemically cleaned coal, original coal and waste plastics instead of using high purity graphite in the presence of metal catalysts. The results obtained are compared in terms of yield, purity and type of carbon nanotubes produced from different types of raw material used. In the present study different types of raw materials have been prepared i.e. chemically cleaned coal and super clean coal, and the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by DC Arc discharge method. Taking in account the present need of utilizing coal as a cheaper raw material for bulk production of carbon nanotubes and utilization of waste plastics (which itself is a potential environmental threat) for production of such an advance material the present work was undertaken. Since the process does not involve presence of any kind of metal catalyst, it avoids the cost intensive process of removal of these metal particles. The residual coal obtained after refining has major fuel potential and can be utilized for various purposes.

Dosodia, A.; Lal, C.; Singh, B.P.; Mathur, R.B.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Investigation of the Gasification Performance of Lignite Feedstock and the Injection Design of a Cross-Type Two-Stage Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Investigation of the Gasification Performance of Lignite Feedstock and the Injection Design of a Cross-Type Two-Stage Gasifier ... Compared to the other fossil-fuel resources such as crude oil and natural gas, coal has the largest reserves and least expensive price for producing electricity. ... Since the feedstock price per unit syngas energy is cheaper for lignites, gasifying lignites is attractive for electricity production. ...

Yau-Pin Chyou; Ming-Hong Chen; Yan-Tsan Luan; Ting Wang

2013-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

108

Solvent–Coal–Mineral Interaction during Solvent Extraction of Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The solvent extraction of Poplar lignite coal was studied with three model solvents (tetralin, quinoline, and 1-naphtol) and one industrial coal liquid derived solvent. ... Thanks to its wide distribution and large reserves, coal is a feasible local substitute feed material for conventional crude oil in many countries. ... Physical dissolution dominates at lower temperature, around 200 °C and lower temperatures for lignites; the role of the solvent is to relax the coal matrix and drag soluble molecules from the coal into the bulk solvent phase. ...

Mariangel Rivolta Hernández; Carolina Figueroa Murcia; Rajender Gupta; Arno de Klerk

2012-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

109

Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

Botero, Cristina

110

Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential...Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain...waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential...

Francisco A. Tomei; Dwight Rouse; James S. Maki; Ralph Mitchell

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A kinetic model for the liquefaction of Texas lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-basin lig- nite is in situ comminution or liquefaction in which a solvent is pumped into the coal seam producing a high Btu liquid product. The shallow basin lignite can be strip-mined and converted to transportation fuels and chemicals by additional... taking product samples at the reaction temperature and pressure and extracting the sample with benzene and n-hexane to form three portions. Vacuum distillation was used to separate the hexane-soluble portion into two parts: the light oils and the coal...

Haley, Sandra Kay

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Reclamation planning and operation at the Mae Moh Lignite Mine, Thailand  

SciTech Connect

The Mae Moh Mine is a large open cut lignite mine situated in Northern Thailand. The mine produces lignite for coal fired power stations located adjacent to the mine. Current mine production is approximately 9 Mtpa providing lignite to eight power stations with a total output of 1,125 MW. The power development plan for Mae Moh provides for 19 power stations by the year 1999 which will require lignite production to be increased to 30.5 Mtpa and overburden will be mined at a rate approaching 300 Mtpa. Environmental management and reclamation planning at Mae Moh are major issues due to water quality impact and land use conflicts. This paper presents the key elements of the reclamation master plan and works strategy for progressive reclamation and water pollution control.

Miller, S.D. [Stuart D. Miller & Associates, Balmain (Australia); Teparat, C. [Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand, Mae Moh (Thailand)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

114

Impacts of Inherent O-Containing Functional Groups on the Surface Properties of Shengli Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

MHC was successfully correlated with the presence of O-containing functional groups and the quantity of surface area without oxygen groups, as follows: MHC = 2.655[?COOH] + 2.912[?OH] + 0.209[?OCH3] – 3.321Snon-O + 1.341, where Snon-O for the lignite is defined as Snon-O = Si(1 – Ci/C0), where Si is the surface area of the lignite and Ci and C0 are the total contents of O-containing functional groups in the heat-treatment or as-received lignites. ... The use of abundant lignite deposits has become increasingly important as the minable reserves of high-rank coal in China are rapidly becoming depleted with the development of more advanced emission control technologies. ...

Yonggang Wang; Jianlin Zhou; Lei Bai; Yanju Chen; Shu Zhang; Xiongchao Lin

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Low-Grade Coals: A Review of Some Prospective Upgrading Technologies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These are commonly lignites or sub-bituminous coals. ... The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. ... It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. ...

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta

2009-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

116

Hydrogen from Coal in a Single Step  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The CO2 generated, a greenhouse gas with a potential to contribute to global warming, is generally released to the atmosphere. ... The H2/CH4 ratio in the product gases from three different rank coals Datong coal (bituminous), Taiheiyo coal (sub-bituminous), Wyoming coal (lignite) followed the order Datong>Taiheiyo>Wyoming. ...

Kanchan Mondal; Krzystof Piotrowski; Debalina Dasgupta; Edwin Hippo; Tomasz Wiltowski

2005-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

117

ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. The authors are also addressing the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

E. James Davis

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Evaluation of Bioremediation in a Coal-Coking Waste Lagoon  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Bioremediation is a new and relatively unproven alternative for the destruction of complex organic wastes. While bioremediation of relatively simple hydrocarbons, such as the constituents of gasoline and diese...

Maureen E. Leavitt; Duane A. Graves…

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

lb for anthracite. The reserves of lignite on a weight basisand reserves. Typical energy contents of coal range from about 7,000 for ligniteReserves of the United States, 1974 (Billion Tons). Underground Surface Total Energy Value (Quads) Subbituminous Lignite

Ferrell, G.C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Comanagement of coal combustion by-products and low-volume wastes: A midwestern site  

SciTech Connect

This report presents results from a field evaluation of the environmental effects of co-management of high-volume coal combustion residues with low-volume non-combustion wastes at a utility power plant. At the C-site, located in the midwestern United States, fly ash and bottom ash from the combustion of bituminous Indiana coal are co-managed with non-combustion wastes including pyrite rejects from coal cleaning, demineralizer regenerant, runoff water from the plant grounds, and boiler cleaning wastes. These wastes are disposed of in an unlined ash pond on site. The pond discharges primarily to the surrounding shallow groundwater with a limited surface discharge to a nearby river. Hydrological monitoring took place over a nine-month period in 1989 and 1990. Groundwater and soil samples were collected on three occasions during this time. Samples were analyzed to determine the groundwater chemistry, and soil and waste chemistry and geochemistry. Downgradient wells showed an increased concentration of several ash-derived species including boron, calcium, fluoride, potassium, sodium, strontium, and sulfate. The median sulfate concentration in downgradient wells was 350 mg/L, which exceeds the secondary drinking water limit. Statistical comparison of the composition of background groundwater with water from wells downgradient of the ash ponds was limited by a single set of background water samples. Soils beneath the pond appear to have limited attenuative capacity for ash-derived trace metals, and groundwater velocities are high; however, trace metal concentrations in downgradient wells are similar to background levels. No impact uniquely attributable to the co-management of low-volume wastes was detectable at this site.

Holcombe, L.J.; Thompson, C.M.; Weinberg, A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Erickson, J.R. (GeoTrans, Inc., Sterling, VA (United States)); Fruchter, J.S. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Co-firing coal and biomass waste in an FB boiler  

SciTech Connect

The CSIR has been involved in the field of FBC since 1976, when a small 0.25m{sup 2} test facility was erected. Work really began in earnest in 1984, when the National Fluidised Bed Combustion (NFBC) boiler was commissioned. This facility, situated at the CSIR`s pilot plant terrain in Pretoria West, was designed to produce 12 tph steam while utilising {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} coal reserves are large, accounting for some 11% of the worlds reserves. Unfortunately the quality of the coal is comparatively poor, and beneficiation is required in order to produce an acceptable fuel for the local and international markets. This leads to a large production of {open_quotes}waste{close_quotes} coal. More detail is given. It was concern about this waste that prompted the Department of Mineral and Energy Affairs (DMEA) to fund the construction of the NFBC boiler, the purpose of which was to prove the ability of FBC technology to utilize the low quality discard coal. The running costs of the unit were at first provided by the DMEA, and later by the National Energy Council (NEC). The NEC also played an active role in the formulation of test campaigns on the boiler. Management of the NFBC was undertaken by the division of Energy Technology (Enertek) at the CSIR in Pretoria, and it was sited at the CSIR`s pilot plant facility in Pretoria West. The boiler has been running since 1984 and many thousands of tonnes of low-grade coal have been burnt in it. During the course of the test campaign on the NFBC the CSIR developed a great deal of experience in the field of FBC, and in particular use of low grade fuels in FBC equipment. The following paper describes the highlights of this test work and details the commercial plant which have since been built using CSIR technology.

North, B.C.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

122

Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.  

SciTech Connect

The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

d = standard deviation INTRODUCTION The United States' vast lignite reserves' energy po- tential, while not commanding the public interest as much as the more "exotic" forms of energy conversion (solar, geothermal, wave energy, etc. ), has been... viewed with in- creasing interest by the technical community. Although a tremendous amount of energy is totalled in this country' s lignite coal reserves (Texas deposits alone are estimated at 100 billion tons [1] ), the energy is low-grade; i. e...

Blacksmith, James Richard

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Çatalazi coal-fired power plant in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......research-article Notes Radioactivity of coals and ashes from catalagzi coal-fired...radioactivity contents in feed coals from lignite-fired power plants...Geological Survey of Canada, Economic Geology Report. 14 Aytekin...influence of an underground coal mine in Zonguldak basin, Turkey......

Hüseyin Aytekin; Ridvan Baldik

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Burning of coal waste piles from Douro Coalfield (Portugal): Petrological, geochemical and mineralogical characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the Douro Coalfield anthracites were exploited for decades (1795–1994). Besides many small mines Douro Coalfield had two principal mining areas (S. Pedro da Cova and Pejão). Coal mining activities cause several impacts on the environment, one of which is the amount of discard or waste which was disposed of all over Douro Coalfield resulting in one of the most significant and severe impacts on the environment. Over 20 waste piles exist in the old mining areas, geographically dispersed, and three of them are presently burning. Their ignition was caused by forest fires during the summer of 2005. Samples from the burning and unburned zones of the waste piles were studied as were the gas from vents and the minerals resulting after combustion. Geochemical processes and mineralogical transformations in the burning coal waste pile were investigated. Microscopic analyses of the samples identified some particular aspects related with combustion: oxidation of pyrite, the presence of iron oxides, organic particles with cracks and rims with lowered (suppressed) Rr, devolatilization vacuoles and some char structures. The occurrence of vitreous (glassy) material as well as Fe–Al spinels in the burning coal waste provide evidences that the combustion temperature could have reached values above 1000 °C. Due to combustion, and as expected, the samples studied reported high ash yields. Samples taken from the burning zones reported an increase of As, Cr, Li, Nb, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sr and LREE concentrations and a decrease in Zr and HREE concentrations. Enrichment in Cs, Li and Rb was noted when comparing with the geochemical composition of black shales and world coals composition that is related with the contribution of granitic rocks in the sediments that originated the main lithologies of the Douro Coalfield (carbonaceous shale and lithic arenites). Cluster analyses (R-type and Q-type) were performed to understand the trend between the unburned and burning samples and it seems that some chemical variations are responsible for this separation. Elemental sulphur and salammoniac (ammonium salt) are the coal fire gas minerals neoformed on the surface of piles, near the burning zones. They were identified by different techniques, mainly SEM-EDX, XRD and FTIR. Relatively high concentrations of several aromatic compounds were detected in the gas collected at the studied areas, as well as aliphatic hydrocarbons. The highest concentrations of aromatic hydrocarbons were measured in gas samples from S. Pedro da Cova waste pile. The exposure to hazardous compounds present in the gas is a serious risk to human health and the environment.

J. Ribeiro; E. Ferreira da Silva; D. Flores

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Production of Benzene Polycarboxylic Acids from Lignite by Alkali-Oxygen Oxidation ... The oxidation of coal to produce high-valued benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), which are obtained currently from diminishing petroleum reserves, is a promising industrial process of the future. ...

Wenhua Wang; Yucui Hou; Weize Wu; Muge Niu; Weina Liu

2012-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

127

Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

Garrard, C. W.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Development of Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Kinetics and Mathematical Kinetics and Mathematical Models for High Pressure Gasification of Lignite-Switchgrass Blends Background Significant progress has been made in recent years in controlling emissions resulting from coal-fired electricity generation in the United States through the research, development, and deployment of innovative technologies such as gasification. Gasification is a process that converts solid feedstocks such as coal, biomass, or blends

129

Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine  

SciTech Connect

The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Chapter 5 - Mineralogy of Burning-Coal Waste Piles in Collieries of the Czech Republic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to long-lasting tradition of coal mining and industrial history on the territory of Czech Republic, significant amount of waste piles of various ages and scales occur. Many of them, along with scarce occurrences of naturally burned coal measures, spontaneously ignited and subsequently, served as a source of diverse assemblage of newly formed minerals – products of pyrometamorphism, alteration, and sublimation. Several new minerals associated with combustion metamorphism were first described from the Czech Republic: tschermigite (1853), rosickýite (1931), letovicite (1932), kratochvílite (1937), kladnoite (1942), koktaite (1948), and rostite (1979). This chapter mainly focuses on two most famous localities, both situated to the Carboniferous sedimentary basins: Kladno Coal District in Central Bohemia near the capital Prague and Radvanice at Trutnov in Eastern Bohemia, close to border with Poland. These two localities, which were studied in detail, provided nearly 100 recently formed minerals and unnamed compounds. Sulfur and As–S efflorescence nucleated around a high-temperature coal-fire gas vent in Radvanice, Czech Republic. Photo by Vladimír Žá?ek, 1994.

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Pyrolysis of Hailar lignite in an autogenerated steam agent  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Lignite is an abundant and relatively inexpensive resource...1...]. China has about 211.8 billion tons-lignite reserve, in which ~200 billion tons are...2, 3]. The characteristics of lignite include low carbon co...

Haojie Gao; Yuezhao Zhu; Feng Fu; Hao Wu…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Disposal of soluble salt waste from coal gasification  

SciTech Connect

This paper addresses pollutants in the form of soluble salts and resource recovery in the form of water and land. A design for disposal of soluble salts has been produced. The interactions of its parameters have been shown by a process design study. The design will enable harmonious compliance with United States Public Laws 92-500 and 94-580, relating to water pollution and resource recovery. In the disposal of waste salt solutions, natural water resources need not be contaminated, because an encapsulation technique is available which will immobilize the salts. At the same time it will make useful landforms available, and water as a resource can be recovered. There is a cost minimum when electrodialysis and evaporation are combined, which is not realizable with evaporation alone, unless very low-cost thermal energy is available or unless very high-cost pretreatment for electrodialysis is required. All the processes making up the proposed disposal process are commercially available, although they are nowhere operating commercially as one process. Because of the commercial availability of the processes, the proposed process may be a candidate 'best commercially available treatment' for soluble salt disposal.

McKnight, C.E.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Experimental Study on Microwave Pyrolysis of an Indonesian Low-Rank Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of an Indonesian lignite is investigated in this study. ... About half of the world’s coal reserves are low-rank coals. ... Considerable amts. of 3,4-dihydro-1(2H)-naphthalenone (alpha-tetralone) were found in the oil fractions of lignites treated by microwave energy. ...

Nan Wang; Jianglong Yu; Arash Tahmasebi; Yanna Han; John Lucas; Terry Wall; Yu Jiang

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

134

TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS  

SciTech Connect

Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

James T. Cobb, Jr.

2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

135

Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization  

SciTech Connect

Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

136

LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT  

SciTech Connect

The Design Team continued to conference this quarter. Their primary task during this timeframe was to finalize the dryer design based on information learned from the NDIC Pilot work and detailed design discussions at Barr offices in August. Heyl-Patterson was tasked with incorporating all comments and drafting drawings. They submitted a preliminary proposal which spawned detailed discussions about tube bundle, air locks, and fire suppression systems. The type of fire protection specified dictated the final structural arrangement. Three meetings were spent discussing the pro's and con's of suppression vs. ventilation systems. In the end, the dryer and bucket elevator will have suppression systems and the remaining equipment will be explosion vented. This is in agreement with GRE's current insurer, FM Global. Three inlet airlocks were reduced to two and four outlets were reduced to three. The inlet plenum was subdivided for greater flexibility and sparging air added in the outlet plenum. It was also decided to use bundles with varied material, diameter, and tube & fin spacing. This will be completed in an effort to identify for us which configuration has the best heat transfer characteristics using coal as the fluidizing medium. The dryer will also be delivered in four pieces. This will allow for installation through the current access door on the Air Heater deck. The Input/Output list and functional description was completed and forwarded to Honeywell to finalize controls. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter were the Bucket Elevator, Liewell Screen, conveyors, and Motor Control Center. ICI completed removal of the wall separating Silo 28 from the dryer area; handrail and grating between the two areas has also been removed. They relocated a blowdown line. They moved an Air Heater basket access hatch.

Charles Bullinger

2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

137

The First Coal Plants  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Plants Coal Plants Nature Bulletin No. 329-A January 25, 1969 Forest Preserve District of Cook County George W. Dunne, President Roland F. Eisenbeis, Supt. of Conservation THE FIRST COAL PLANTS Coal has been called "the mainspring" of our civilization. You are probably familiar, in a general way, with the story of how it originated ages ago from beds of peat which were very slowly changed to coal; and how it became lignite or brown coal, sub-bituminous, bituminous, or anthracite coal, depending on bacterial and chemical changes in the peat, how much it was compressed under terrific pressure, and the amount of heat involved in the process. You also know that peat is formed by decaying vegetation in shallow clear fresh-water swamps or bogs, but it is difficult to find a simple description of the kinds of plants that, living and dying during different periods of the earth's history, created beds of peat which eventually became coal.

138

Correlation of Paleocene Harmon and Hansen lignite beds, Adams, Billings, Bowman, Golden Valley, Hettinger, and Slope Counties, Williston Basin, North Dakota  

SciTech Connect

In southwestern North Dakota, minable lignite beds in the Paleocene Fort Union Formation include the Harmon and Hansen beds in the Bowman-Gascoyne area. Data from more than 700 drill holes penetrating these beds was used to construct stratigraphic cross sections. The Harmon and Hansen beds are the thickest and most laterally persistent lignites found under < 150 ft of overburden. The Harmon coal bed is as much as 34 ft thick, and is often split by claystone interbeds of variable thickness. The Hansen coal bed typically occurs 10--100 ft below the Harmon coal bed; it rarely attains a thickness of 15 ft, and averages 4 ft in thickness.

Keighin, C.W.; Flores, R.M.; Ochs, A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

139

Copyrolysis of Seyitömer?Lignite and Safflower Seed:? Influence of the Blending Ratio and Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Oil Characterization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of a variety of low-grade coal, as a primary energy source is becoming a subject of importance in some countries, such as Turkey, where there is a substantial reserve of such materials. ... Total lignite reserves are estimated with 8075 million tons, of which 7339 million tons are economically feasible. ... Upgrading of Kutahya region lignites by mild pyrolysis and high intensity dry magnetic separation ...

Özlem Onay; Evren Bayram; Ö. Mete Koçkar

2007-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

140

Definition: Bituminous coal | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Bituminous coal Bituminous coal Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Bituminous coal A dense coal, usually black, sometimes dark brown, often with well-defined bands of bright and dull material, used primarily as fuel in steam-electric power generation, with substantial quantities also used for heat and power applications in manufacturing and to make coke; contains 45-86% carbon.[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Bituminous coal or black coal is a relatively soft coal containing a tarlike substance called bitumen. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of high pressure being exerted on lignite. Its composition can be black and sometimes dark brown; often there are well-defined bands of bright and dull

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Assessing determinants of industrial waste reuse: The case of coal ash in the United States  

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Abstract Devising effective strategies to facilitate waste reuse depends on the solid understanding of reuse behaviors. However, previous studies of reuse behavior have been limited in scope, focusing mostly on household recycling behaviors or very limited types of industrial wastes. To gain a better understanding of the business reuse behaviors, this study examined the impact of various factors in technical, economic, regulatory, and behavioral categories in the case of coal ash generated in the United States. The results of fixed effect models for fly ash and bottom ash particularly showed the significance role of the behavioral factor. In both models, a proxy variable, which represents knowledge sharing among the power plants or the utility's decision-making, turned out to be statistically significant and had the largest coefficient estimates among a group of variables. This finding may imply that the characteristics of waste reuse behavior are determined more by business decision-making behaviors than by market or institutional factors. However, the role of the behavioral variable was stronger in the bottom ash models than in the fly ash models. While the reuse of bottom ash was determined primarily by the behavioral variable, fly ash reuse was determined by more diverse factors including economic and regulatory variables. This could be explained by material characteristics in relation to competing resources and the nature of reuse applications.

Joo Young Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Soil attenuation of leachates from low-rank coal combustion wastes: a literature survey. [116 references  

SciTech Connect

In parallel with pursuing the goal of increased utilization of low-rank solid fuels, the US Department of Energy is investigating various aspects associated with the disposal of coal-combustion solid wastes. Concern has been expressed relative to the potential hazards presented by leachates from fly ash, bottom ash and scrubber wastes. This is of particular interest in some regions where disposal areas overlap aquifer recharge regions. The western regions of the United States are characterized by relatively dry alkaline soils which may effect substantial attenuation of contaminants in the leachates thereby reducing the pollution potential. A project has been initiated to study the contaminant uptake of western soils. This effort consists of two phases: (1) preparation of a state-of-the-art document on soil attenuation; and (2) laboratory experimental studies to characterize attenuation of a western soil. The state-of-the-art document, represented herein, presents the results of studies on the characteristics of selected wastes, reviews the suggested models which account for the uptake, discusses the specialized columnar laboratory studies on the interaction of leachates and soils, and gives an overview of characteristics of Texas and Wyoming soils. 116 references, 10 figures, 29 tables.

Gauntt, R. O.; DeOtte, R. E.; Slowey, J. F.; McFarland, A. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Curriculum Support Maps for the Study of Indiana Coal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

": lignite, subbituminous, bituminous, and anthracite. Indiana coals are bituminous and composed of 55 to 79 nearly 17 billion tons is recoverable. These reserves could last another 585 years at the current rate

Polly, David

144

Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, May--July 1989  

SciTech Connect

The Department of Energy/Morgantown Energy Technology Center (DOE/METC) has initiated research on the disposal of solid wastes from advanced coal processes. The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Mineral Research Center (EMRC) to design, construct and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. The specific objectives for the reporting period were as follows: review fourth site candidates; obtain site access for the Freeman United site; select an ash supplier for the Illinois site and initiate subcontracts for on-site work; commence construction of the Freeman United test cell; and obtain waste for the Colorado Ute test site. Accomplishments under each task are discussed.

NONE

1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

145

Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes. Technical report, January 1989--August 1990  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

Not Available

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-Wet FGD  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mercury control for Plants firing Mercury control for Plants firing texas lignite and equiPPed with esP-wet fgd Background The 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule will require significant reductions in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. One promising mercury control technology involves the use of sorbents such as powdered activated carbon. Full-scale sorbent injection tests conducted for various combinations of fuel and plant air pollution control devices have provided a good understanding of variables that affect sorbent performance. However, many uncertainties exist regarding long-term performance, and data gaps remain for specific plant configurations. Sorbent injection has not been demonstrated at full-scale for plants firing Texas lignite coal, which are responsible for about 10 percent of annual U.S. power plant

147

Fluidised bed co-gasification of coal and olive oil industry wastes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Co-gasification of bagasse wastes mixed with coal is technically feasible, without major installation changes. The effect of experimental conditions on co-gasification process was analysed, to enhance gas production and improve its composition and energetic content. The rise of bagasse content increased tars and gaseous hydrocarbons contents, which can be reduced by increasing gasification temperature and/or air flow rate. The rise of temperature till 890 °C favoured hydrocarbons further reactions and allowed an increase of 45% in hydrogen release and a decrease in gaseous hydrocarbons of 55%. A reduction of around 30% in gaseous hydrocarbons was also achieved by rising O2/fuel ratio till 0.6 g/g daf, which decreased gas heating value, due to nitrogen diluting effect. Though no significant changes in gaseous hydrocarbons composition were obtained, the presence of dolomite in the fluidised bed had the benefit of decreasing tars content and rising gas yield, being the gas richer in hydrogen content.

Rui Neto André; Filomena Pinto; Carlos Franco; M. Dias; I. Gulyurtlu; M.A.A. Matos; I. Cabrita

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Two and three dimensional analysis of a slope failure in a lignite mine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With about 9.3 billion tons of reserve, lignite is a major source for energy production in Turkey. The Af?in–Elbistan lignite basin, containing 47% of the overall lignite reserve in Turkey, lies in the Af?in and Elbistan districts as a part of Kahramanmara?. The new Çöllolar opencast mine is in the Afsin–Elbistan lignite basin, and this mine will be the second mining activity in the basin after the active K??laköy opencast mine. The new mine will meet the coal consumption of the Elbistan B power plant. Input parameters for slope stability analysis are essential, and so they must be determined accurately and precisely. Field investigations, laboratory testing and back analyses are vital instruments for the input parameters. This study presents the results of slope stability analysis via finite difference code and a limit equilibrium software for the soil slopes of the Elbistan–Çöllolar lignite mine. The basic input parameters, cohesion and friction angle, were determined in the soil mechanics laboratory. By back analyses of a large scale slope failure, mobilized friction angles for a critical weak clay layer under the lignite seam were determined accurately by using the 2D limit equilibrium method and 3D finite difference models. Results of the friction angles were compared in order to check the effectiveness of commonly used 2D approaches in handling the slope problems. Differences in the results of the mobilized friction angles for the weak clay layer were more than 30%. The 3D models indicated that the mobilized friction angle during the major slope failure was substantially lower than the friction angle generated by the 2D limit equilibrium method.

Levent Tutluoglu; Ibrahim Ferid Öge; Celal Karpuz

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Waste biomass from production process co-firing with coal in a steam boiler to reduce fossil fuel consumption: A case study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Waste biomass is always generated during the production process in industries. The ordinary way to get rid of the waste biomass is to send them to landfill or burn it in the open field. The waste may potentially be used for co-firing with coal to save fossil fuel consumption and also reduce net carbon emissions. In this case study, the bio-waste from a Nicotiana Tabacum (NT) pre-treatment plant is used as the biomass to co-fire with coal. The samples of NT wastes were analysed. It was found that the wastes were of the relatively high energy content which were suitable for co-firing with coal. To investigate the potential and benefits for adding NT wastes to a Fluidised Bed Combustion (FBC) boiler in the plant, detailed modelling and simulation are carried out using the European Coal Liquefaction Process Simulation and Evaluation (ECLIPSE) process simulation package. The feedstock blending ratios of NT waste to coal studied in this work are varied from 0% to 30%. The results show that the addition of NT wastes may decrease the emissions of CO2 and \\{SOx\\} without reducing the boiler performance.

Hongyan Gu; Kai Zhang; Yaodong Wang; Ye Huang; Neil Hewitt; Anthony P Roskilly

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, November 1995--January 1996  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed. The stack sampler has been selected. This vendor is currently developing the testing protocol. Severe weather in December and January caused work delays to the project, especially to outside work The fabrication and installation of the stack are complete. Only the insulation of the stack remains to be done. Budget problems began to occur in late January. Correction of this situation should occur shortly in February or March. A current schedule for the project is included with this report.

Stuart, J.M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, August--October 1995  

SciTech Connect

The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation. This would permit full capacity operation of the FBC year round in spite of the VA laundry that was shut down as well as efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste and steam generation. The State permitting process required for construction will be completed in early November to allow installation and construction to be completed. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed. A request for proposal for stack sampling and biospore tests was released to four (4) vendors in mid-October. The proposals shall be reviewed during November and the stack sampler will be selected. Funding was approved as of August 1, 1995. Construction and installation resumed on August 21, 1995 at the LVAMC. Construction and installation continues and will be completed by late December 1995.

Stuart, J.M.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

1980-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

154

Alaska Coal Geology: GIS Data | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Coal Geology: GIS Data Coal Geology: GIS Data Dataset Summary Description Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces. Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Available here: GIS shapefiles of relevant faults and geology, associated with the following report: http://pubs.usgs.gov/dds/dds-077/pdf/DDS-77.pdf

155

JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite  

SciTech Connect

The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were achieved, a heating value very close to that needed to fire a gas turbine would be achieved; however, some operational issues associated with utilizing recycled syngas or carbon dioxide as the transport gas would also have to be resolved. Use of a coal with a quality similar to the core samples provided earlier in the test program would also improve the gasifier performance. Low cold-gas efficiencies on the order of 20% calculated for oxygen-blown tests resulted in part from specific difficulties experienced in trying to operate the pilot-scale TRDU on this very high-ash lignite. These low levels of efficiency are not believed to be representative of what could be achieved in a commercial KRB transport gasifier. Combustion tests were also performed in the EERC's circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) to evaluate this alternative technology for use of this fuel. It was demonstrated that this fuel does have sufficient heating value to sustain combustion, even without coal drying; however, it will be challenging to economically extract sufficient energy for the generation of steam for electrical generation. The boiler efficiency for the dried coal was 73.5% at 85% sulfur capture (21.4% moisture) compared to 55.3% at 85% sulfur capture (40% moisture). Improved boiler efficiencies for this coal will be possible operating a system more specifically designed to maximize heat extraction from the ash streams for this high-ash fuel. Drying of the coal to approximately 25% moisture probably would be recommended for either power system. Fuel moisture also has a large impact on fuel feedability. Pressurized gasifiers generally like drier fuels than systems operating at ambient pressures. The commercially recommended feedstock moisture for a pressurized transport reactor gasifier is 25% moisture. Maximum moisture content for a CFB system could be approximately 40% moisture as has been demonstrated on the Alstom CFB operating on Mississippi lignite. A preliminary economic evaluation for CO{sub 2} was performed on the alternatives of (1) precombustion separation of CO{sub 2} in

Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

156

Development and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Demonstration of and Demonstration of Waste Heat Integration with Solvent Process for More Efficient CO 2 Removal from Coal-Fired Flue Gas Background The mission of the U.S. Department of Energy/National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) Existing Plants, Emissions, & Capture (EPEC) Research & Development (R&D) Program is to develop innovative environmental control technologies to enable full use of the nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-

157

Characterization of Solid Emissions from Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion of Two Czech Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In fluidized-bed combustion, particles of coal burn within the bed of vigorously moving smaller inert particles with bed temperatures between 1000 and 1300 K. Due to intense heat transfer from the burning particle to bed particles and percolating gas, the temperature of a particle is on average 200 K above that of the bed (29, 30). ... Two lignites from the Centrum mine and the Vršany open pit mine (North Bohemian Coal Basin) were used in this study. ... The reactor is equipped with a supplementary natural gas burner, a feeding system, and measuring and control peripherals. ...

Ji?í Smolík; Jaroslav Schwarz; Václav Veselý; Ivana Sýkorová; Jan Kuc?era; Vladimír Havránek

1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the three landfill test cases constructed in 1989 were completed. Monitoring continued at Test Case Four. Two cells for Test Case Five were constructed in Illinois.

Not Available

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1987--August 1988  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Mining and Mineral Resources Research Institute (MMRRI) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid waste produced by advanced coal processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. The first two tasks of this project involve the development of test plans. Through July of 1988 we have developed a generic test design manual, detailed test procedures manual, and test plans for three sites. Task three, field studies, will be initiated as soon as final site access is obtained and the facilities producing the waste are fully operational.

NONE

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

Gasification of New Zealand Coals: A Comparative Simulation Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. ... Coal is a nonrenewable resource; however, the world’s coal reserves amount to twice the combined oil and gas reserves. ... The reasons for the entrained flow gasifier selection include its high suitability to low rank coals (lignites) and the use of entrained flow gasifiers for an IGCC as the industrially preferred choice dictated through experience. ...

Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young

2008-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Soil Amendments Promote Vegetation Establishment and Control Acidity in Coal Combustion Waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effects of adding various soil amendments and a pyrite oxidation inhibitor to aid in the establishment of vegetation and to reduce acid drainage (AD) from coal fly ash and coal reject (FA + CR*) were assessed...

R. M. Danker; D. C. Adriano; Bon-Jun Koo…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

GIS BASED ANALYSIS OF LANDCOVER CHANGES ARISING FROM COAL PRODUCTION WASTES IN ZONGULDAK  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mining has been made since 1848 and, based on the records kept since 1865, 328 million tons pit run coal

H. Akç?n A; S. Karak? A; G. Büyüksalih A; M. Oruç A

163

Blending high sulfer coal with refuse derived fuel to make SO{sub 2} compliant slurry fuels  

SciTech Connect

The need for a better method of disposing of the international community`s garbage hardly needs emphasizing. In 1993, the United States alone generated approximately 207 million ton per year of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), with 62% landfilled, 220/6 recycled, and 16% combusted for energy recovery. Despite strenuous efforts to make these disposal methods meet present needs, the cost of disposal is rising dramatically. Concurrently, the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have severely restricted the SO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired boilers. Medium and high sulfur coals will not comply with the Phase II CAAA regulation limit of 1.2 lb SO{sub 2}/MM Btu, without advanced coal cleaning technologies or flue gas desulfurization, including the majority of the North Dakota lignite reserves. Utility power plants have attempted to burn refuse derived fuel (RDF), a heterogeneous solid fuel produced from MSW, with coal in utility scale boilers (generally referred to as co-firing). Co-firing of RDF with coal has been attempted in sixteen different boilers, five commercially. While lower SO{sub 2} emissions provided the impetus, co-firing RDF with coal suffered from several disadvantages including increased solids handling, increased excess air requirements, higher HCI, CO, NO{sub x} and chlorinated organic emissions, increased slag formation in the boiler, and higher fly ash resistivity. Currently, only two of the sixteen boilers are still regularly used to co-fire RDF. The overall objective of this research program was to assess the feasibility of blending RDF with lignite coal to form SO{sub 2} Compliant slurry fuels using EnerTech`s SlurryCarb{trademark} process. In particular, the objective was to overcome the difficulties of conventional co-firing. Blended slurry fuels were produced with the Energy & Environmental Research Center`s (EERC) bench-scale autoclave and were combusted in a pressurized fluidized-bed reactor (PFBR).

Klosky, M. [EnerTech Environmental, Inc., Atlanta, GA (United States); Anderson, C. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

164

Detailed mining study executive summary: Saba Yoi lignite deposit. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The study, conducted by John T. Boyd Company, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency on behalf of the Electricity Generating Authority of Thailand. The report shows the results of a feasibility study conducted for the development of the Saba Yoi Coal Mine. The study gives an economic assessment of the project, as well as capital costs for mining and materials. This volume contains the Executive Summary and is divided into the following sections: (1) Project Setting; (2) Land Issues; (3) Geological Setting; (4) Lignite Resource Estimate; (5) Mine Design Parameters; (6) Lignite Reserve Estimate; (7) Annual Mine Output; (8) Phase 2: Conceptual Mining Systems Comparison; (9) Phase 3: Mining Plan Economic Assessment; (10) Recommendations; (11) Conclusion.

NONE

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Trace element analysis of Texas lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

or in the planning stages, Near surface lignite re- sources are estimated to be 21 billion metric tons in Texas, while deep basin reserves are estimated at 31 billion metric tons. Near (3] surface reserves alone could fulfill Texas' electrical needs for 100 years... or in the planning stages, Near surface lignite re- sources are estimated to be 21 billion metric tons in Texas, while deep basin reserves are estimated at 31 billion metric tons. Near (3] surface reserves alone could fulfill Texas' electrical needs for 100 years...

Mahar, Sean

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

166

Selective mining of multiple-layer lignite deposits. A fuzzy approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the development and the application of a fuzzy expert system for the evaluation of the exploitable reserves of multiple-layer lignite deposits, mined by continuous surface methods, is presented. The exploitable reserves are determined decisively by the structure of these deposits, as well as by the limitations of the used mining systems. In practice, thin layers of lignite and interbedded waste layers are grouped under specified assumptions regarding thickness and ash content, to form the exploitable blocks. Moreover, the decision for excavating such a block is made under subjective constraints of different importance, or by using uncertain data. Advances in fuzzy inference systems (FIS) have provided a new approach to the evaluation of multiple-layer lignite deposits. FIS have the ability to handle imprecise, incomplete or linguistically ambiguous information and incorporate them into decision-making processes. In the developed FIS (Mamdani type) new linguistic variables, related to working conditions, operators’ experience and production were involved. The FIS was used for the estimation of the exploitable reserves of the Southern Field lignite deposit, located in the area of Ptolemais (Greece).

Michael Galetakis; Anthoula Vasiliou

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

168

Coal-to-Liquids in the U S Status and Activities  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Choctaw Co., MS, Lignite 13. RentechAdams Co., Natchez, MS, 160020,000 Bpd, Coal PetcokeBiomass, 2011 Ph 1 3. Synfuel, Inc.GEHaldoe-Topsoe NACCExxonMobil, Ascension...

169

Organic compounds in water extracts of coal: links to Balkan endemic nephropathy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most of the world’s energy is provided by fossil fuels, and coal is the world’s most abundant fossil fuel with reserves substantially greater than those of oil and...2008). “Lignite” ranks in between peat and sub...

S. V. M. Maharaj; W. H. Orem; C. A. Tatu…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Co-management of coal combustion by-products and low-volume wastes: A Southeastern Site  

SciTech Connect

The Electric Power Research Institute initiated this study to provide environmental data on the co-management of utility high volume and low volume residues. This report presents results from a field investigation at an ash pond located at a 400 MW, coal-fired power plant in the southeastern US. The pond receives wet-sluiced fly ash and bottom ash from the generating station as well as low volume wastes from coal preparation, demineralizer regeneration, and boiler cleaning. A detailed hydrogeochemical characterization of the primary ash disposal pond and surrounding groundwater system was performed. A total of 25 monitoring wells were installed to characterize groundwater flow directions, rates and chemistry. Ash and soil cores were also collected for hydrogeochemical characterization.

Holcombe, L.J.; Thompson, C.M.; Rehage, J.A. (Radian Corp., Austin, TX (United States)); Erickson, J.R. (GeoTrans, Inc., Sterling, VA (United States)); Fruchter, J.S. (Battelle Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Field study of disposed wastes from advanced coal processes. Quarterly technical progress report, November 1991--January 1992  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for planning waste disposal practices associated with advanced coal processes. To accomplish this objective, DOE has contracted Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to design, construct, and monitor a limited number of field disposal tests with advanced coal process wastes. These field tests will be monitored over a three year period with the emphasis on collecting data on the field disposal of these wastes. Accomplishments for this past quarter are as follows: The 9th quarterly measurements at the Colorado site took place in December, 1991. Permeability and neutron absorption moisture content measurements were made and on site data was collected from the data logger; The 9th quarterly sampling at the Ohio site took place in November 1991. Permeability and moisture content measurements were made, and water samples were collected from the wells and lysimeters; The second quarterly core and water samples from the first Illinois test case were collected in mid November, and field data were collected from the data logger; Chemical analysis of all core and water samples continued; all chemical analyses except for some tests on Illinois second quarter cores are now complete.

Not Available

1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems  

SciTech Connect

This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

173

Increase of unit efficiency by improved waste heat recovery  

SciTech Connect

For coal-fired power plants with flue gas desulfurization by wet scrubbing and desulfurized exhaust gas discharge via cooling tower, a further improvement of new power plant efficiency is possible by exhaust gas heat recovery. The waste heat of exhaust gas is extracted in a flue gas cooler before the wet scrubber and recovered for combustion air and/or feedwater heating by either direct or indirect coupling of heat transfer. Different process configurations for heat recovery system are described and evaluated with regard to net unit improvement. For unite firing bituminous coal an increase of net unit efficiency of 0.25 to 0.7 percentage points and for lignite 0.7 to 1.6 percentage points can be realized depending on the process configurations of the heat recovery systems.

Bauer, G.; Lankes, F.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture  

SciTech Connect

Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

Edward Levy

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

175

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium*  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Short Communication Catalytic coal gasification: use of calcium versus potassium* Ljubisa R on the gasification in air and 3.1 kPa steam of North Dakota lignitic chars prepared under slow and rapid pyrolysis of calcium is related to its sintering via crystallite growth. (Keywords: coal; gasification; catalysis

176

Coal in the United States: A Status Report  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...coal and lignite production, selected years...1981.(33). Production Year (thousands...192 1972 595,386 1973 591,000 1974 603...percent of total coal production (3). During the...years-from 15.6 tons per man-day in 1969 to a low...

Harry Perry

1983-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

177

The Key Coal Producers ONLINE SUPPORTING MATERIALS to  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Shaanxi and Shanxi together accounted for 83 percent of China's proven coal reserves in 2000, and Shanxi is not considered reserves [8]. Of China's forecasted coal reserves, a broader category than proven reserves, only January 13, 2011 #12;shown in Figures 1 and 2. The production data for anthracite, bituminous and lignite

Patzek, Tadeusz W.

178

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal or coal refuse, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and Cofiring Alternatives. The major emphasis of work during this reporting period was to assess the types and quantities of potential feedstocks and collect samples of them for analysis. Approximately twenty different biomass, animal waste, and other wastes were collected and analyzed.

Bruce G. Miller; Curtis Jawdy

2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

179

Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1991--September 1992  

SciTech Connect

Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

Not Available

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

180

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 7 December 2008 2007 Changes in Coal Distribution Table Format and Data Sources The changes in the coal distribution data sources made in 2006 are carried over to the 2007 tables. As in 2006, EIA used data from the EIA-3 survey to distribute synfuel to the electric generation sector on a state level, aggregated with all of the other coal (such as bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coal) sent to electric generating plants. EIA supplemented the EIA-3 data with previously collected information to determine the mode of transportation from the synfuel plant to the electric generating consumer, which was not reported on the EIA-3A survey form. Although not contained in the EIA-6A master file, this information has been documented in an ancillary spreadsheet in the EIA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

ITP Mining: Energy and Environmental Profile of the U.S. Mining Industry: Chapter 2: Coal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

2 2 Coal Coal is a mixture of organic mineral material produced by a natural process of growth and decay, or an accumulation of debris both vegetal and mineral with some sorting and stratification. The process is accomplished by chemical, biological, bacteriological and metamorphic action. 1 Forms of Coal Coal is a hydrocarbon that is classified according to the amount of heat it produces. Heat content depends upon the amount of fixed carbon it contains. Rank is the degree of progressive alteration in the transformation from lignite to anthracite. There are four primary ranks of coal: * Anthracite (semi-anthracite, anthracite, and meta-anthracite) * Bituminous (high-volatile, medium-volatile, and low-volatile) * Subbituminous * Lignite (brown coal and lignite)

182

Co-Gasification of Wood and Lignite in a Dual Fluidized Bed Gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mixts. of coal and biomass were co-gasified in a jetting, ash-agglomerating, fluidized-bed, pilot scale-sized gasifier to provide steady-state operating data for numerical simulation verification. ... Downstream cleaning of gas by catalytic cracking and/or scrubbing is complex and/or expensive for small to medium gasification plants, so conversion of tar within the gasifier is preferred. ... Kern, S.; Pfeifer, C.; Hofbauer, H. Gasification of lignite in a dual fluidized bed gasifier - Influence of bed material particle size and the amount of steam. ...

Stefan Kern; Christoph Pfeifer; Hermann Hofbauer

2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

183

An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants  

SciTech Connect

Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Microsoft Word - LB-Lignite.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Name Organization E-Mail Darin Damiani, U.S. Department of Energy, Darin.Damiani@netl.doe.gov Principal Investigator Edward Steadman Field Test Information: Field Test Name Lignite in North Dakota Field Validation Test Test Location Section 36-T159N-R90W in Burke County, North Dakota Amount and Source of CO 2 Tons Less than 500 tons for the project Source Commercial source - Praxair Flatland Exploration Company, subsidiary of Fischer Oil and Gas ND State Land Department Eagle Operating, Inc. Schlumberger Field Test Partners (Primary Sponsors) Praxair Summary of Field Test Site and Operations: CO 2 in an Unminable Lignite Seam - The site for the pilot-scale CO 2 sequestration-enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) project operated by the Energy & Environmental Research Center is

185

A study of uranium in South Texas lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. First, a large proven reserve of lignites is known to exist, Secondly, lignites contain a high percentage of water, so that transportation over any distance is not cost efficient. Thus, it must be burned near the mine, and this is easily done.... First, a large proven reserve of lignites is known to exist, Secondly, lignites contain a high percentage of water, so that transportation over any distance is not cost efficient. Thus, it must be burned near the mine, and this is easily done...

Ilger, Wayne Arthur

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

186

APP, a new binder for briquetting lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turkey has considerable lignite reserves that are mainly used as domestic fuel without processing. The lignite weathers and degrades easily and much is lost as dust before it reaches the consumer; furthermore, in combustion fine particles can cause air pollution. Since briquetting can eliminate many of these existing problems, it is of special importance. Binderless briquetting is always preferred when possible, since it is less complicated and less expensive, but Turkish lignites usually require a binder to obtain reasonable briquettes and various binders can be used for this purpose. In this work, atactic polypropylene (APP), a by-product of the polypropylene (PP) plant of Petkim Petrochemicals A.S. and emulsions of partially oxidized APP prepared by the research centre of the company, were used as binders, with different types of briquetting techniques. Studies on a laboratory scale were carried out to determine optimum parameters of briquetting; binder content, water content, pressure and temperature of heat treatment. Shatter and water resistance tests were carried out on briquettes obtained under different conditions. APP appears to have many advantages, and none of the disadvantages of other commercial binders such as tar, bitumen, molasses, sulphide liquor and clay. Furthermore, unlike other plastics that cause difficulties in briquetting and have high manufacturing costs, APP, particularly in emulsion, can easily be used as a binder and is relatively cheap. However, a production unit would be required to prepare the relevant modified APP emulsion for its extended usage.

O. Orhan Kural; Tunc Savasci; Sinasi Eskikaya

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia  

SciTech Connect

The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes, Bulgaria M. Stefanova, O. Maman, B, Orleans Cedex 2, France Abstract Contents of preserved lignin structures in Miocene-aged lignite lithotypes were determined. Phenol aldehydes, ketones and acids released from lignin by CuO oxidative

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

189

Split and collectorless flotation to medium coking coal fines for multi-product zero waste concept  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The medium coking coal fines of ? 0.5 mm from Jharia coal field were taken for this investigation. The release analysis of the composite coal reveals that yield is very low at 10.0% ash, about 25% at 14% ash and 50% at 17% ash level. The low yield is caused by the presence of high ash finer fraction. The size-wise ash analysis of ? 0.5 mm coal indicated that ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm fraction contains less ash than ? 0.15 mm fraction. Thus, the composite feed was split into ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm and ? 0.15 mm fractions and subjected to flotation separately. The low ash bearing fraction (? 0.5 + 0.15 mm) was subjected to two stages collectorless flotation to achieve the concentrate with 10% ash. The cleaner concentrate (18.9%) with 10% ash was recovered which has an application in metallurgical industries. The concentrate of 30.2% yield with 12.5% ash could be achieved in one stage collectorless flotation which is suitable for use in coke making as sweetener. As the ? 0.15 mm fraction contains relatively high ash, collector aided flotation using sodium silicate was performed to get a concentrate of 23.6% yield with about 17% ash. The blending of this product with cleaner tail obtained from ? 0.5 + 0.15 mm produces about 35.0% yield with 17% ash and that can be utilized for coke making. The reject from the two fractions can be used for conventional thermal power plant or cement industries using a 23.5% ash after one stage collector aided flotation and the final tailings produced content ash of 61.6% can be used for fluidization combustion bed (FBC). This eventually leads to complete utilization of coal.

Shobhana Dey; K.K. Bhattacharyya

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Thermodynamic analysis of a low-pressure economizer based waste heat recovery system for a coal-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An LPE (low-pressure economizer) based waste heat recovery system for a CFPP (coal-fired power plant) is investigated thermodynamically. With the installation of LPE in the flue before the FGD (flue gas desulfurizer), the heat contained in the exhaust flue gas can be recovered effectively and the water consumption can be reduced in the FGD resulted from the temperature dropped flue gas. The impacts on the related apparatuses after installing LPE in a CFPP are analyzed and the internal relationships among correlated parameters are presented. The efficiencies of LPE installed in a CFPP evaluated by the first law, the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are also compared and analyzed. A detailed case study based on a 350 MW CFPP unit is presented and the variations of the thermal performance after the installation of LPE are investigated. The results show that the second law and the thermal equilibrium efficiencies are increased which can be indicators to evaluate the performance of the LPE system while the first law efficiency is decreased after installing LPE. Results also show that the saving of SCE (standard coal equivalent) is 3.85 g/(kW·h) for this CFPP unit under full load after installing LPE.

Chaojun Wang; Boshu He; Linbo Yan; Xiaohui Pei; Shinan Chen

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Formation and retention of methane in coal  

SciTech Connect

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

The distribution of ten trace elements and minerals in three lignite seams from the Mae Moh Mine, Thailand  

SciTech Connect

Understanding the association of major, minor and trace elements in lignites and their accompanying strata is important from a number of perspectives which include: potential health problems from environmental pollutants, rehabilitation after mining, combustion for power etc. The material which follows represents some preliminary observations on the mineralogy and distribution of 10 trace elements in lignites and accompanying sediments from the Mae Moh mine, Thailand. Samples collected from freshly exposed mine faces were air dried and analyzed for moisture and ash. Trace element concentrations were determined on {open_quotes}whole{close_quotes} coals and sediments by NAA and XRF. All chemical analyses are expressed as a fraction of the total dry sediment. Mineralogy of both LTA and sediments was determined by XRD. The chemistry and morphology of individual particles were examined by the Electron microprobe. The analyses are used to make some conclusions about the spatial occurrence of these elements within the seam and their partitioning between organic and inorganic phases.

Hart, B.; Powell, M.P.; Fyfe, W.S. [Univ. of Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

193

Steam–Coal Gasification Using CaO and KOH for in Situ Carbon and Sulfur Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

These two coals represent the two main types of non-lignite coals currently used in the U.S.: a medium-sulfur eastern bituminous coal and a low-sulfur western sub-bituminous coal. ... At a commercial scale, this would likely mean that there could be a roughly 3-fold decrease in the size of the gasifier compared to the case of dry mixing coal and the regenerated calcium oxide. ...

Nicholas S. Siefert; Dushyant Shekhawat; Shawn Litster; David A. Berry

2013-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

194

Two and three dimensional analysis of a slope failure in a lignite mine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With about 9.3 billion tons of reserve, lignite is a major source for energy production in Turkey. The Afsin-Elbistan lignite basin, containing 47% of the overall lignite reserve in Turkey, lies in the Afsin and Elbistan districts as a part of Kahramanmaras. ... Keywords: Lignite mine, Numerical modeling, Slope failures, Slope stability analysis

Levent Tutluoglu; Ibrahim Ferid ÖGe; Celal Karpuz

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Effect of Demineralization on Product Yield and Composition at Isothermal Pyrolysis of Eynez Lignites  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turkey has approximately 0.85% of the world’s lignite reserves. ... Turkey, especially in the Tuncbilek and Soma regions, has an estimated reserve of 8.4 billion tones. ... The effects of the treatment on certain structural components of the lignites varied from lignite to lignite. ...

Murat Sert; Levent Ballice; Mithat Yu?ksel; Mehmet Sag?lam

2011-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

196

Alaska coal geology, resources, and coalbed methane potential  

SciTech Connect

Estimated Alaska coal resources are largely in Cretaceous and Tertiary rocks distributed in three major provinces, Northern Alaska-Slope, Central Alaska-Nenana, and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet. Cretaceous resources, predominantly bituminous coal and lignite, are in the Northern Alaska-Slope coal province. Most of the Tertiary resources, mainly lignite to subbituminous coal with minor amounts of bituminous and semianthracite coals, are in the other two provinces. The combined measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical coal resources in the three areas are estimated to be 5,526 billion short tons (5,012 billion metric tons), which constitutes about 87 percent of Alaska's coal and surpasses the total coal resources of the conterminous United States by 40 percent. Coal mining has been intermittent in the Central Alaskan-Nenana and Southern Alaska-Cook Inlet coal provinces, with only a small fraction of the identified coal resource having been produced from some dozen underground and strip mines. Alaskan coals have a lower sulfur content (averaging 0.3 percent) than most coals in the conterminous United States and are within or below the minimum sulfur value mandated by the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments. Another untapped potential resource is coalbed methane estimated to total 1,000 trillion cubic feet (28 trillion cubic meters).

Romeo M. Flores; Gary D. Stricker; Scott A. Kinney

2005-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Advanced coal technologies in Czech heat and power systems  

SciTech Connect

Coal is the only domestic source of fossil fuel in the Czech Republic. The coal reserves are substantial and their share in total energy use is about 60%. Presently necessary steps in making coal utilisation more friendly towards the environment have been taken and fairly well established, and an interest to develop and build advanced coal units has been observed. One IGCC system has been put into operation, and circa 10 AFBC units are in operation or under construction. Preparatory steps have been taken in building an advanced combustion unit fuelled by pulverised coal and retrofit action is taking place in many heating plants. An actual experience has shown two basic problems: (1) Different characteristic of domestic lignite, especially high content of ash, cause problems applying well-tried foreign technologies and apparently a more focused attention shall have to be paid to the quality of coal combusted. (2) Low prices of lignite (regarding energy, lignite is four times cheaper then coal) do not oblige to increase efficiency of the standing equipment applying advanced technologies. It will be of high interest to observe the effect of the effort of the European Union to establish a kind of carbon tax. It could dramatically change the existing scene in clean coal power generation by the logical pressure to increase the efficiency of energy transformation. In like manner the gradual liberalisation of energy prices might have similar consequences and it is a warranted expectation that, up to now not the best, energy balance will improve in near future.

Noskievic, P.; Ochodek, T. [VSB-Technical Univ., Ostrava (Czechoslovakia)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Cooperative Research Program in coal liquefaction. Technical report, May 1, 1994--October 31, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts.

NONE

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

200

Hydrogeology of a reclaimed Central Texas lignite mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Geographically, these occur in relatively long thin strips referred to as the lignite belt (fig, 1). Exploration has extended through this entire area, and most of the 1, 000, 000 acres, where known shallow lignite reserves are present, have already been... in Texas (after Kaiser, 1974). suggests that large areas of Texas will be affected by surface mining. Eighty percent of the surface mineable lignite reserves occur in the Wilcox Group, part of a major aquifer system in I'exas (fig. 2). In order...

Pepper, Gail Louise

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Characterization of the liquid phase obtained by copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Pasa (M.K.P.) Lignite (Turkey) with low density polyethylene  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the detailed hydrocarbon type characterization of the tar (liquid phase) obtained by copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Paa (M.K.P.) lignite (Turkey) and low density polyethylene (LDPE) and by pyrolysis of coal and LDPE individually. Various spectroscopic techniques (gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ({sup 1}H NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and gel permeation chromatography (GPC)) are used for characterization, and the effect of the experimental conditions (temperature, lignite:low density polyethylene (LDPE) ratio, and catalyst) on the hydrocarbon distributions is discussed. The results show that the tars obtained by copyrolysis have similar properties with commercial gasoline (especially in the presence of Red mud). Red mud and bentonite used as catalysts make a positive effect on the production of olefins instead aromatics. Polyethylene acts as a hydrogenation medium for the coal product as revealed by FTIR results. 18 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

Ali Sinag; Melike Sungur; Mustafa Gullu; Muammer Canel [Ankara University, Beevler-Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

202

The fate of char-N at pulverized coal conditions Jennifer P. Spinti*, David W. Pershing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-free oxidant was 50­60% for lignites and 40­50% for bituminous coals. In char flames doped with NOx The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved. Keywords: Pulverized coal combustion; Char nitrogen; NOx formation The Combustion Institute. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0010-2180(03)00168-8 #12;the temperature

Utah, University of

203

Evaluation of ground-water quality impacts of lignite waste disposal at a Texas lignite mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to be responsible for the high degree of selen1um attenuation 1s adsorption of the element by amorphous iron and alum1num ox1des and organic matter abundant in the clay soils of the study area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my thes1s.... LABORATORY DISTRIBUTION COEFFICIENT INVESTIGATION . . Methods. Preliminary Evaluation Mechanism of Selenium Attenuation. Freundlich Isotherm. . Control Batch Tests Distribution Coefficient Dependence on Soil Type. . . . . Distribution Coefficient...

Green, Deborah Joan

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Geotechnical characterization of lignite-bearing horizons in the Afsin–Elbistan lignite basin, SE Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Afsin–Elbistan lignite deposit, with its 3.4 billion metric tons of reserves, is the biggest lignite basin and one of the most important resources for electrical energy production in Turkey. Kislakoy mining field was selected as the first opencast mine to feed four power station blocks of 300 MW each. Slope instability has been a continuing problem in the Kislakoy opencast mine. Particularly complex failures along a noncircular failure surface appearing at the final slope stage and covering large areas in the mine increase the importance of slope stability. This study outlines the geotechnical characteristics of the lignite-bearing horizons and describes the causes and mechanisms of slope instabilities, which threaten the safety of the mine. Quantitative X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses were carried out using an interactive data processing system (SIROQUANT™) based on Rietveld interpretation methods. Parametric slope stability analysis and backanalysis were carried out for the failure that occurred at the northwestern final slope stage of the mine. The Spencer–Wright limiting state equilibrium method was used in order to determine with confidence the most representative values of regional shear strength parameters, to explain the failure mechanism, and to assess the conditions at the time of failure. In the analysis, phreatic and piezometric surfaces were considered. Site observations and numerous backanalyses of the slope failure reveal that a compound slide occurred where gyttja (contact zone) layers rest directly on the lignite. Gyttja (contact zone) contains the weakest material within the system. The analysis showed that the main cause of the northwestern slope instability was the presence of the groundwater flow within a Quaternary aquifer (through buried valleys), reducing the effective shear strength of the slope materials. It is also noted from backanalysis that the gyttja (contact zone) layer presents a shear strength at, or approaching, the residual value at the time of failure.

Suphi Ural; Ferat Yuksel

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, March 2, 1994--June 1, 1994  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. A specific goal of the study is to remove and recover cationic and anionic heavy metals from aqueous solutions and coal conversion waste waters using modified-clay adsorbents developed in this study. To this end, a multi-step adsorption/desorption process has been carried out with hectorite-CBDA-DT (HCDT) as the adsorbent and Cr(VI) as the adsorbate. Adsorption was carried out at pH 4.0 in 0.02 M buffer, while desorption was effected at the same pH and in the same buffer with either 0.5 M NaCl or 0.02 M Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} as the desorbates. Multi-step involves cycling the same adsorbent through these two sets of operating conditions with a washing step after each adsorption/desorption sequence. The authors results indicate that, during the first two cycles, the potency of the adsorbent remains unchanged, but it diminishes after the third and the fourth cycles. The total decrease in potency is, however, only 15% even after 4 cycles of adsorption/desorption. Addition of 20% isopropyl alcohol (IPA) to the reaction medium, however, diminishes the potency even more after 4 cycles of adsorption and desorption. Both the desorbates yielded identical results, and the overall mass balance on Cr(VI) was between 95 and 102%. Continuous leaching experiments on HCDT revealed that DT bound to HCDT is mobilized to the extent of only 10% after 44 hrs in aqueous medium while in 20% IPA-water mixtures the extent of dissolution of DT from the surface is close to 16%. Thus, the loss of potency of HCDT is attributed partly to the loss of DT from the surface and partly to the incomplete washing of the adsorbent between each adsorption/desorption step.

Wang, H.Y. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

208

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

209

Ground Water Basin Management at the Neyveli Lignite Mines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Neyveli lignite mines of India contain large reserves and represent a unique mining venture in...2...hydrogeological basin in which these mines lie contain multiple aquifers under hydrostatic pressure. There ...

V. Ravi Kumar; S. N. Sahay; N. Periasamy; S. Shiv Prasad…

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

SciTech Connect: Systems and economic analysis of microalgae...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 09 BIOMASS FUELS; BIOMASS; PRODUCTION; CARBON DIOXIDE; AIR POLLUTION CONTROL; METABOLISM; WASTE PRODUCT UTILIZATION; ALGAE; CULTIVATION; COAL;...

211

The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... ? Flammability limit data for three actual samples of low-BTU gas obtained from an in-situ coal gasification experiment (Heffington, 1981). The HHC are higher LIST OF TABLES (Cont'd) PAGE hydrocarbons orimarily C H and C H . ----- 34 I 2 6 3 8' TABLE 5...

Gaines, William Russell

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

212

Two plants to put ‘clean coal' to test  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... — to oil company Cenovus Energy of Calgary, Canada, which will pipe the compressed gas deep underground to flush out stubborn oil reserves. The project — meant to launch ... Atlanta, Georgia. That plant, which will turn the low-grade coal lignite into burnable gases, is designed to capture 3.5 million tonnes of CO2 each year, or about ...

Richard Van Noorden

2014-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

213

Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD  

SciTech Connect

Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

2007-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

214

Conventional coal preparation in the United States  

SciTech Connect

Processing of bituminous and anthracite coal is widely practiced in the United States and, as mentioned earlier, about 80 percent of the production of these coals is processed as clean coal in preparation plants. Subbituminous coal is not widely processed, primarily because these low rank raw coals are low in sulfur (0.5 to 1.0 percent) and relatively low in ash (8 to 15 percent). They are also relatively low in heat content due to their high inherent moisture. Lignite coals, to the best of the authors{close_quote} knowledge, are not presently being processed in Conventional Coal Preparation plants. This is due to their unstable nature and putting them in water in a coal preparation plant is likely to cause severe degradation in particle size and add to their already high inherent moisture content. The following are the benefits of clean coal processing: produces a uniform product which can be utilized more efficiently; produces a higher quality product which results in higher efficiency at the power station or the steel mill; reduces sulfur dioxide and other adverse stack emissions during coal firing which is a very important environmental consideration; reduces ash or slag handling costs by the user; reduces shipping costs; and reduces handling and storage costs. Processing any stable raw coal in a coal preparation plant will always produce a higher grade product which is a more efficient and a more environmentally acceptable fuel for use at power stations, steel mills, home heating or industrial boilers.

Beck, M.K.; Taylor, B.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

215

Effect of environment atmosphere on the sintering of Thai lignite fly ashes  

SciTech Connect

Sintering of ash particles, related to deposit formation in a pulverized coal-fired boiler, was investigated for two lignite fly ashes obtained from Mae Moh and Bangpudum coal seams. The tests involved measuring the compressive strength of cold sintered pellets at varying sintering temperature, both under oxidizing (air) and non-oxidizing atmospheres (CO{sub 2}). Under ambient air condition, Mae Moh fly ash which contained higher amount of glassy phase gave significantly higher sinter strength than Bangpudum fly ash. The role of glassy phase was confirmed by the lowering of sinter strength when HF-extracted fly ash was tested. Sintering under CO{sub 2} environment resulted in larger strength development than sintering in air. Under this non-oxidizing condition, the pellet color turned black, indicating that most of the iron was in the reduced state and could form additional low melting-point glassy phase, hence facilitated sintering rate. In addition, blending of the two ashes yielded intermediate maximum strength, under both air and CO{sub 2} environments. This observation substantiates the important role of glassy phase in the sintering process and indicates the possibility of lowering deposit strength by judicious mixing of different raw coal feeds.

Tangsathitkulchai, C.; Tangsathitkulchai, M. [Suranaree Univ. of Technology, Nakhon Ratchasima (Thailand)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

216

Large Field Erected and Packaged High Temperature Water (HTW) Generators for Coal Firing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and closer temperature control. The heat storage capacity of water per cubic foot is considerably greater than steam at equivalent saturation pressures, as shown in Table No. II (below). This inherent reserve or "fly wheel" effect permits closer... furnace and convection section. Coal ash fouling characteristics will have a bearing on the convection section tube spacing. Low grade coals should be reviewed for their slagging and fouling characteristics. For example, lignite and low grade coals...

Boushell, C. C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, June 2, 1993--September 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. In this report, the following findings have been reported and discussed. Acid-base titration of Duomeen-T (DT), a diamine surfactant, that has been used in this study to modify smectite surfaces to form smectite-DT complexes has been undertaken. In aqueous medium containing 5% by volume iso propyl alcohol (IPA), DT shows a broad distribution of pKa with a mean value of 7.55. This finding suggests that DT is a much weaker base than a typical diamine and helps explain the fact that Cu(II) adsorbs specifically onto DT with maximal affinity in the pH range 7.2--7.5. Electrokinetic sonic amplitude (ESA) measurements on DT-smectite complexes also reveal that the mean pKa of the adsorbed DT is around 7.0. This finding supports our earlier observations that Cu(II) and Cd(II) cations bind strongly through specific interaction to DT-smectite surface in the pH range 7.0--8.0. Our results also show that DT is fully protonated at pH 4.5, and it is at this pH that Cr(VI) is maximally adsorbed as counterions to the DT-smectite surface. These and our earlier results provide a firm basis to conclude that a heterogeneous mixture of diamine surfactants can be used to adsorb and desorb cationic and anionic heavy metals from their respective aqueous solutions as a function of the solution pH.

Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

218

A novel, integrated treatment system for coal waste waters. Quarterly report, September 2, 1993--December 1, 1993  

SciTech Connect

The aims of this study are to develop, characterize and optimize a novel treatment scheme that would be effective simultaneously against the toxic organics and the heavy metals present in coal conversion waste waters. In this report, the following findings have been reported and discussed. Adsorption of {beta}-naphthoic acid (NA) onto hectorite-CBDA containing different amounts of adsorbed CBDA is pH dependent, stronger at pH 4.5 and much weaker at pH 8.6. Partitioning into the hydrophobic patches of hectorite-CBDA and binding as counter ion to CBDA bilayers appear to be the dominant mechanisms of adsorption of NA to hectorite-CBDA. Anionic CR(VI) adsorbs very weakly to MONT-DT at pH 8.5 and this result verifies our earlier finding that the positive surface charge on MONT-DT decreases with increasing pH above pH 7.0. Potentiometric titrations of DT in water-isopropyl alcohol (EPA) binary solutions containing different volume fractions of IPA reveal that the pKa of DT is 7.6 {+-} 0.1 independent of EPA volume fraction. It is also shown that DT forms emulsions at pH lower than 4.0 and these emulsions tend to break up as pH is raised above 6.5. The formation of DT emulsions is reversible with respect to pH, but the process appears to be slow with a time constant of about 30 minutes.

Wang, H.Y.; Srinivasan, K.R.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

219

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on performing the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system and determining the system economics.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits

2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

220

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, the final technical design and cost estimate were submitted to Penn State by Foster Wheeler. In addition, Penn State initiated the internal site selection process to finalize the site for the boiler plant.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Hydrogeology of a proposed surface lignite mine, southwestern Harrison County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and supply mine-mouth electric generating stations (Kaiser, 1974). In addition, other large energy-consuming industries and industries that utilize lignite as a chemical raw material can also be expected to place opera- tions near lignite reserves (Hirsch... and supply mine-mouth electric generating stations (Kaiser, 1974). In addition, other large energy-consuming industries and industries that utilize lignite as a chemical raw material can also be expected to place opera- tions near lignite reserves (Hirsch...

Charles, Robert John

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

223

Ground-water hydrogeology and geochemistry of a reclaimed lignite surface mine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that generally parallels the Gulf Coast (Figure 1). Recent estimates place the total near-surface reserves at 11 billion short tons (Kaiser et al. , 1980). Energy companies are now developing lignite mines throughout the Texas lignite belt at a rapid... and accelerating rate. Surface mining of lignite could adversely affect another valuable Texas resource--ground water. Eighty percent of the near-surface lignite reserves are located within the Wilcox Group (Kaiser et al. , 1980), which is part of the Carrizo...

Pollock, Clifford Ralph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

224

Clean coal technologies market potential  

SciTech Connect

Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

Drazga, B. (ed.)

2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

225

Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

226

Effect of Operational Variables on the Hydrogasification of Inner Mongolian Lignite Semicoke  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inner Mongolia has lignite reserves of more than 150 billion tons, which account for more than 70% of total lignite reserves in China. ... Two Turkish lignites are carbonized at 700 and 900°, and the methane formation rates of these chars and of the char prepd. ...

Xiaokuo Ding; Yongfa Zhang; Tiankai Zhang; Jian Tang; Ying Xu; Jing Zhang

2013-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

227

Palynological evidence for the astronomical origin of lignite^detritus sequence in the Middle Pleistocene  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Palynological evidence for the astronomical origin of lignite^detritus sequence in the Middle-order alternation of lignites and detrital muds and second-order alternation expressed by frequent intercalation's orbital forcing. All the lignite seams yield temperate oak forest whereas the detrital beds provide semi

Utrecht, Universiteit

228

Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Sulfur Removal Using a Fixed Bed Reactor Sulfur Removal Using a Batch Fluidized Bed Reactor . . 9 Continuous Fluidized Bed Reactor Systems for Desulfurization of Coal Clean Coke Process IGT Process... . This study was aimed primarily at producing better metallurgical coke. The ef+ects of various gases on +he sulfur remova1 wo re measured 0 for coal samples at varying t mperatures up to 1273 K The sample was h ated. at a constant ra+ e until the t. st...

Carter, Glenn Allen

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

229

Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-3, 184-B Coal Pit Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-028  

SciTech Connect

The 126-B-3 waste site is the former coal storage pit for the 184-B Powerhouse. During demolition operations in the 1970s, the site was used for disposal of demolition debris from 100-B/C Area facilities. The site has been remediated by removing debris and contaminated soils. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

L. M. Dittmer

2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

231

Coal to methanol to gasoline by the hydrocarb process  

SciTech Connect

The HYDROCARB Process converts coal or any other carbonaceous material to a clean carbon fuel and co-product gas or liquid fuel. By directing the co-product to liquid methanol, it becomes possible to produce methanol at costs as low as $0.13 to $0.14/gal as shown in Table 1 for a Western Lignite and Table 2 for an Eastern Bituminous coal. In the case of Western lignite, it is assumed that the carbon black fuel product can be sold at $3.00/MMBtu ($18/Bbl FOE) and for the Eastern coal at $2.50/MMBtu ($15/Bbl FOE). A methanol market is expected to develop due to the need for an automotive fuel with reduced pollutant emissions. However, should the methanol market not materialize as expected, then methanol can be readily converted to conventional gasoline by the addition of an MTG, methanol to gasoline process step. 1 fig., 3 tabs.

Steinberg, M.

1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System  

SciTech Connect

Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

233

Upgrading low-rank coals using the liquids from coal (LFC) process  

SciTech Connect

Three unmistakable trends characterize national and international coal markets today that help to explain coal`s continuing and, in some cases, increasing share of the world`s energy mix: the downward trend in coal prices is primarily influenced by an excess of increasing supply relative to increasing demand. Associated with this trend are the availability of capital to expand coal supplies when prices become firm and the role of coal exports in international trade, especially for developing nations; the global trend toward reducing the transportation cost component relative to the market, preserves or enhances the producer`s profit margins in the face of lower prices. The strong influence of transportation costs is due to the geographic relationships between coal producers and coal users. The trend toward upgrading low grade coals, including subbituminous and lignite coals, that have favorable environmental characteristics, such as low sulfur, compensates in some measure for decreasing coal prices and helps to reduce transportation costs. The upgrading of low grade coal includes a variety of precombustion clean coal technologies, such as deep coal cleaning. Also included in this grouping are the coal drying and mild pyrolysis (or mild gasification) technologies that remove most of the moisture and a substantial portion of the volatile matter, including organic sulfur, while producing two or more saleable coproducts with considerable added value. SGI International`s Liquids From Coal (LFC) process falls into this category. In the following sections, the LFC process is described and the coproducts of the mild pyrolysis are characterized. Since the process can be applied widely to low rank coals all around the world, the characteristics of coproducts from three different regions around the Pacific Rim-the Powder River Basin of Wyoming, the Beluga Field in Alaska near the Cook Inlet, and the Bukit Asam region in south Sumatra, Indonesia - are compared.

Nickell, R.E.; Hoften, S.A. van

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

234

Hydroliquefaction of Big Brown lignite in supercritical fluids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Big Brown lignite was liquefied in a fixed bed tube reactor. Three solvents were used in the liquefaction studies, toluene, cyclohexane and methanol. Two co-solvents, tetralin and water were used with toluene. The effects of the solvents and co...

Chen, Hui

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

235

Bio-coal briquette  

SciTech Connect

Some of the developing nations aim to earn foreign currency by exporting oil and/or gas and to increase the domestic consumption of coal to ensure a secure energy supply. Therefore, it is very important to promote effective coal utilization in these nations. Currently, these countries experience problems associated with coal use for household cooking and household industries. For household cooking, coal creates too much smoke and smells unpleasant. In addition, illegally obtained firewood is almost free in local agricultural regions. Coal is also used in household industries; however, simple stoker boilers are inefficient, since unburned coal particles tend to drop through screens during the combustion process. The bio-coal briquette, on the other hand, is an effective and efficient fuel, since it utilizes coal, which is to be used extensively in households and in small and medium-scale industry sectors in some coal-producing countries, as a primary fuel and bamboos (agricultural waste) as a secondary fuel. In addition, the use of bio-coal briquettes will greatly help reduce unburned coal content.

Honda, Hiroshi

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

236

Process May Reduce Pollution From Burning Coal Refuse Piles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Process May Reduce Pollution From Burning Coal Refuse Piles ... The process uses a heavy liquid to separate marketable high-ash coal from nonburnable waste rock. ... Nearly 500 mountains of coal refuse, waste material from coal cleaning operations, are burning uncontrollably in 15 states in the U.S., according to a Bureau of Mines survey. ...

1965-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

237

Argonne Coal Structure Rearrangement Caused by Sorption of CO2  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Argonne Coal Structure Rearrangement Caused by Sorption of CO2 ... The sorption of CO2 on seven Argonne premium coals was measured by using attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy as a function of time at constant CO2 pressure (0.62 MPa) and temperature (55 °C). ... The following seven Argonne premium coals were investigated:? Upper Freeport (medium volatile bituminous), Pittsburgh No. 8 (high volatile bituminous), Lewiston?Stockton (high volatile bituminous), Blind Canyon (high volatile bituminous), Illinois No. 6 (high volatile bituminous), Wyodak (sub-bituminous), and Beulah Zap (lignite). ...

A. L. Goodman; R. N. Favors; John W. Larsen

2006-10-05T23:59:59.000Z

238

Synthesis Gas Production with an Adjustable H2/CO Ratio through the Coal Gasification Process: Effects of Coal Ranks And Methane Addition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With the decline of oil reserves and production, the gas-to-liquids (GTL) part of Fischer–Tropsch (F-T) synthesis technology has become increasing important. ... The Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA) estimates that over 50% of the coal reserve base in the United States (U.S.) is bituminous coal, about 30% is sub-bituminous, and 9% is lignite. ...

Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

2008-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

239

Sedimentary regimes of upper Midway and lower Wilcox lignite in Alabama  

SciTech Connect

Paleoenvironments favorable for lignite deposition existed in sedimentary regimes of the Naheola Formation (upper Midway Group) and in Midway-Wilcox transition sediments apparently assignable to the Nanafalia Formation (Wilcox Group). In addition, lignite horizons are recognized in the Tuscahoma Sand (Wilcox Group). Lignite of potential economic significance occurs within the Naheola Formation west of Butler County and within the Nanafalia Formation east of Butler County. Lignite horizons in the Naheola Formation west of Butler County probably are not stratigraphically or time equivalent to lignite horizons east of Butler County. Depositional environments of the Naheola west of Butler County were favorable for development of lignite deposits with extensive lateral continuity, whereas lignite depositional environments east of Butler County apparently favored variability in thickness and lateral continuity. Estuarine and back-barrier coastal marsh environments are suggested for the lignite. Carbonaceous silt and clay in varying proportions are commonly associated with lignite in the Naheola Formation. Lithologic associations of lignite related to the Nanafalia Formation include quartzarenite, carbonaceous silt and clay, oyster beds, and limestone of the Clayton Formation (Midway Group).

Smith, W.E.

1983-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Coal Gasification  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE's Office of Fossil Energy supports activities to advance coal-to-hydrogen technologies, specifically via the process of coal gasification with sequestration. DOE anticipates that coal...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Gasification of New Zealand coals: a comparative simulation study  

SciTech Connect

The aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary feasibility assessment of gasification of New Zealand (NZ) lignite and sub-bituminous coals, using a commercial simulation tool. Gasification of these coals was simulated in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) application and associated preliminary economics compared. A simple method of coal characterization was developed for simulation purposes. The carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen content of the coal was represented by a three component vapor solid system of carbon, methane, and water, the composition of which was derived from proximate analysis data on fixed carbon and volatile matter, and the gross calorific value, both on a dry, ash free basis. The gasification process was modeled using Gibb's free energy minimization. Data from the U.S. Department of Energy's Shell Gasifier base cases using Illinios No. 6 coal was used to verify both the gasifier and the IGCC flowsheet models. The H:C and O:C ratios of the NZ coals were adjusted until the simulated gasifier output composition and temperature matched the values with the base case. The IGCC power output and other key operating variables such as gas turbine inlet and exhaust temperatures were kept constant for study of comparative economics. The results indicated that 16% more lignite than sub-bituminous coal was required. This translated into the requirement of a larger gasifier and air separation unit, but smaller gas and steam turbines were required. The gasifier was the largest sole contributor (30%) to the estimated capital cost of the IGCC plant. The overall cost differential associated with the processing of lignite versus processing sub-bituminous coal was estimated to be of the order of NZ $0.8/tonne. 13 refs., 9 tabs.

Smitha V. Nathen; Robert D. Kirkpatrick; Brent R. Young [University of Auckland, Auckland (New Zealand). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

242

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

243

Coal is a combustible sedimentary rock and a valuable economic resource. During the Pennsylvanian Period  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

tons in reserve. These reserves could last another 585 years at the current rate of production://IGS.indiana.edu Analyzing the Past to Provide for the Future Ro (%) Coal Rank 0.25 0.38 peat lignite subbituminous high

Polly, David

244

Productivity change of coal-fired thermal power plants in India: a Malmquist index approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......coal are taken into consideration and power plants which use lignite as primary fuel are excluded from the study. Power plants...REDDY, Y. V. (2006) Importance of productivity in India. Reserve Bank India Bulletin, 6572. REVIEW OF PERFORMANCE OF THERMAL......

S. K. Behera; J. A. Farooquie; A. P. Dash

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Transformation of alkali metals during pyrolysis and gasification of a lignite  

SciTech Connect

Transformation of Na and K in a lignite was investigated during pyrolysis and gasification in a fixed-bed by using a serial dissolution method with H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solutions. The evolution of the fractions of four forms in solid and alkali volatilization during pyrolysis and gasification was determined. The results show that a different mode of occurrence between Na and of K in coal existed. Na in coal can be nearly completely dissolved by H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solution. However, K in coal exists almost in the stable forms. Both H{sub 2}O soluble and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4} soluble Na and K fractions decline during pyrolysis and early gasification stage and increase a little with the process of char gasification. The stable form Na in the char produced during pyrolysis is transferred to other forms during char gasification via the pore opening and a series of chemical reactions. Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) may play an important role in producing stable forms such as Na{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}2SiO{sub 2} and K{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2} during pyrolysis. The fraction of HCl soluble K increases during pyrolysis but decreases markedly during the early gasification stage. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs.

Xiaofang Wei; Jiejie Huang; Tiefeng Liu; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

246

Concentrations and source apportionment of PM10 and associated elemental and ionic species in a lignite-burning power generation area of southern Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Megalopolis Lignite Centre (MLC), located in the center ... mining fields of the country with total mineable lignite reserves of about 434 Mt. The lignite deposits cover a total area of 40,...2 and are exploi...

G. Argyropoulos; Th. Grigoratos…

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Co-Gasification of Biomass Wastes and Coal?Coke Blends in an Entrained Flow Gasifier: An Experimental Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An experimental study of entrained flow, air-blown cogasification of biomass and a coal?coke mixture has been performed in order to evaluate the effect of the relative fuel/air ratio (ranging between 2.5 and 7.5), the reaction temperature (ranging between ...

Juan J. Hernández; Guadalupe Aranda-Almansa; Clara Serrano

2010-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

248

Investigation of feasibility of injecting power plant waste gases for enhanced coalbed methane recovery from low rank coals in Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

such as power plants. CO2 emissions can be offset by sequestration of produced CO2 in natural reservoirs such as coal seams, which may initially contain methane. Production of coalbed methane can be enhanced through CO2 injection, providing an opportunity...

Saugier, Luke Duncan

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

249

coking coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

coking coal [A caking coal suitable for the production of coke for metallurgical use] ? Kokskohle f, verkokbare Kohle

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995  

SciTech Connect

The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

251

FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY  

SciTech Connect

The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

252

Low-rank coal research  

SciTech Connect

This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

Not Available

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

CORROSION OF IRON-BASE ALLOYS BY COAL CHAR AT 871 AND 982 C  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Composition of Illinois #6 ash and coal char (6). ASH SiO Zcombustion waste gases and ash Coal can be processed,

Gordon, Bruce Abbott

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Utilization of Lignite Reserves and Simultaneous Improvement of Dust Emissions and Operation Efficiency of a Power Plant by Controlling the Calcium (Total and Free) Content of the Fed Lignite. Application on the Agios Dimitrios Power Plant, Ptolemais, Greece  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Utilization of Lignite Reserves and Simultaneous Improvement of Dust Emissions and Operation Efficiency of a Power Plant by Controlling the Calcium (Total and Free) Content of the Fed Lignite. ... Using the technique mentioned above, by determining the lignite recoverable blocks and progressively improving the mixing of the lignites with different qualities, the solid particle emissions were generally stabilized and reduced (lower than 150 mg m-3), with the best improvement observed around April 1999 and afterward (Figures 2?5). ...

Nestoras Kolovos; Andreas Georgakopoulos; Anestis Filippidis; Constantinos Kavouridis

2002-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

255

FEM and LEM stability analyses of the fatal landslides at Çöllolar open-cast lignite mine in Elbistan, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Afsin-Elbistan lignite basin, located in the Kahramanmaras province (...1), has nearly half of the lignite reserves in Turkey (Ural and Yuksel 2004...). It is a closed basin formed by the rising Taurus Mountains ...

A. Ozbay; A. F. Cabalar

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Computer-aided examination and forecast of strength properties of heterogeneous coal-beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the present paper movable cellular automata (MCA) method was applied for investigation of features of damages generation and fracture process of the lignite. The computer-aided simulation of standard experimental tests – uniaxial loading – was carried out. Cylindrical specimens with standard size were tested. Results of calculations show that mechanism of fracture of different coal categories turns from purely brittle to quasi-plastic. On the base of obtained data an analysis of the influence of lignite composition on fracture and strength of cylindrical specimens was carried out.

S.G Psakhie; S Zavshek; J Jezershek; E.V Shilko; A.I Dmitriev; A.Yu Smolin; S Blatnik

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Adsorption and Diffusion of Alcohol Vapors by Argonne Premium Coals ... Adsorption of methanol, ethanol, n-propanol, and n-butanol by Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6, and Beulah-Zap Argonne premium coals was investigated to clarify the effect of alkyl group bulk on adsorption and to evaluate the micropore and cross-linked structure of coals. ... Coals are thought to have a large surface area with an interconnected network of slitlike pores.1 However, Larsen et al.2 measured the adsorption of various gases on five Argonne Premium coals and, except for Beulah-Zap lignite, found that the very steep dependence of BET surface area was related to the molecular volume of the gas. ...

Toshimasa Takanohashi; Yuki Terao; Takahiro Yoshida; Masashi Iino

2000-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

258

Effects of low-temperature catalytic pretreatments on coal structure and reactivity in liquefaction. Final technical report, Volume 1 - effects of solvents, catalysts and temperature conditions on conversion and structural changes of low-rank coals  

SciTech Connect

The main objectives of this project were to study the effects of low-temperature pretreatments on coal structure and their impacts on subsequent liquefaction. The effects of pretreatment temperatures, catalyst type, coal rank, and influence of solvent were examined. Specific objectives were to identify the basic changes in coal structure induced by catalytic and thermal pretreatments, and to determine the reactivity of the catalytically and thermally treated coals for liquefaction. In the original project management plan it was indicated that six coals would be used for the study. These were to include two each of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite rank. For convenience in executing the experimental work, two parallel efforts were conducted. The first involved the two lignites and one subbituminous coal; and the second, the two bituminous coals and the remaining subbituminous coal. This Volume presents the results of the first portion of the work, studies on two lignites and one subbituminous coal. The remaining work accomplished under this project will be described and discussed in Volume 2 of this report. The objective of this portion of the project was to determine and compare the effects of solvents, catalysts and reaction conditions on coal liquefaction. Specifically, the improvements of reaction conversion, product distribution, as well as the structural changes in the coals and coal-derived products were examined. This study targeted at promoting hydrogenation of the coal-derived radicals, generated during thermal cleavage of chemical bonds, by using a good hydrogen donor-solvent and an effective catalyst. Attempts were also made in efforts to match the formation and hydrogenation of the free radicals and thus to prevent retrogressive reaction.

Lili Huang; Schobert, H.H.; Chunshan Song

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Comparative risk analysis of development of the lignite basins in Serbian part of the Danube region  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper gives an overview of the global business risks and risks in the mining development in the Kolubara and Kostolac lignite basins in the area of the Danube river in Serbia. An identification of main risks is undertaken by application of a comprehensive ... Keywords: danube region, lignite basin, mining and energetics, strategic business risks, sustainable development

Slavka Zekovi?; Tamara Mari?i?

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Selective mining of multiple-layer lignite deposits. A fuzzy approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this paper the development and the application of a fuzzy expert system for the evaluation of the exploitable reserves of multiple-layer lignite deposits, mined by continuous surface methods, is presented. The exploitable reserves are determined decisively ... Keywords: Expert, Exploitable, Fuzzy, Lignite, Mining, Reserves, System

Michael Galetakis; Anthoula Vasiliou

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995  

SciTech Connect

Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.

Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Present situation and prospects for lignite in the Polish power-generation industry  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In Poland, lignite is mined in open pits and four deep mines, producing totally about 60–65 million tons a year. Extracted lignite constitutes a fuel for power plants with a total installed capacity of 8833 MW, which generate some 35% of electric energy nationally. This energy is cheaper compared with that from other sources. Poland, with its huge deposits of lignite, is placed in a privileged position, for apart from at present mined deposits, which constitute only about 15% of workable reserves, some abundant areas exist, where mining working can be started. At present, the mined deposits allow us to maintain a current yearly output for the forthcoming 15 years, whereas through the subsequent 30 years, it will decline. In order to maintain supplies of lignite, which is a significant fuel in Poland, it is necessary to fully utilize deposits in the existing areas, and develop new zones where lignite occurs.

Zbigniew Koz?owski

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Fluidized bed combustion of low-rank coals: (Task 4. 1)  

SciTech Connect

Results obtained in the second year of a second three-year program are described. Two 1000-hour tests were completed to evaluate corrosion/erosion effects on boiler materials. The coals tested were Kentucky {number sign}9 from the Pyro mine and Gibbons Creek, Texas, lignite. Of the variety of stainless and carbon steels tested, several meet commercial requirements despite a wide range in ash compositions of the test coals. In Fluidized Bed Combustion characterization, the River King Illinois {number sign}6 and Jacobs Ranch, Wyoming, subbituminous coals were extensively tested under a wide range of operating conditions and with and without limestone addition. The Jacobs Ranch coal was also successfully and satisfactorily fired as a coal/water fuel slurry. The low-rank coal slurry provided excellent ignition and combustion efficiency, and without ash agglomeration or accumulation. Continued progress was made in expanding the data base on FBC of low- rank coals. 11 refs., 59 figs., 22 tabs.

Mann, M.D.; Hajicek, D.R.; Zobeck, B.J.; Kalmanovitch, D.P.; Potas, T.A.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

The fractionation and characterization of two North American lignites  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assignments for the TMSI Reaction Page TI Product of the Gascoyne Bitumen LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE I, Extraction and Fractionation Scheme for the Page Gascoyne Lignite 24 2. X-Ray Diffractogram of the Low-Temperature Ash of the Demineralized Wilcox... the required data by inductively coupled argon plasma-atomic emissions spectrometry, which was essential in the completion of the thesis. Many thanks goes out to Ahmad Moini for performing the X-ray diffraction on the samples submitted. Finally, I wish...

Garcia Juan Manuel

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Impact of Coal-Coking Effluent on Sediment Microbial Communities: a Multivariate Approach  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...General Microbial Ecology Impact of Coal-Coking Effluent on Sediment Microbial...response to and recovery from coal-coking waste effluent was evaluated for...community response. Impact of coal-coking effluent on sediment microbial...

Gary S. Sayler; Timothy W. Sherrill; Richard E. Perkins; Lawrence M. Mallory; Michael P. Shiaris; Deana Pedersen

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

NETL: Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

use of our domestic energy resources and infrastructure. Gasification Systems | Advanced Combustion | Coal & Coal-Biomass to Liquids | Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Turbines CO2...

267

Performance and energy calculation on a green cementitious material composed of coal refuse  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal refuse as industrial solid waste has become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for ordinary Portla...

Yuan Yao; Yu Li; Xiaoming Liu; Henghu Sun…

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A new conceptual cold-end design of boilers for coal-fired power plants with waste heat recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract After conducting an in-depth analysis of the conventional boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery, this work proposed a new conceptual boiler cold-end design integrated with the steam cycle in a 1000 MW CFPP, in which the preheating of air was divided into high-temperature air preheater (HTAP), main air preheater (MAP) and low-temperature air preheater (LTAP). The HTAP and an economizer were installed in separate flue ducts, and the low temperature economizer (LTE) was situated between the MAP and the LTAP in the main flue duct to heat the condensed water. In the proposed boiler cold-end design, the flue gas waste heat was not only used to heat condensed water, but also to further preheat the combustion air. The air temperature at the air-preheater outlet increases and part of the steam bleeds with high exergy can be saved, resulting in greater energy-savings and better economics. Results showed that, for a typical 1000 MW CFPP in China, using the proposed boiler cold-end design for waste heat recovery could produce 13.3 MWe additional net power output with a heat rate reduction of approximately 112.0 kJ/kW h and could yield a net benefit of up to $85.8 M per year, which is much greater than those of the conventional cases. Exergy destruction is also reduced from 49.9 MWth in the conventional boiler cold-end design to 39.6 MWth in the proposed design.

Yongping Yang; Cheng Xu; Gang Xu; Yu Han; Yaxiong Fang; Dongke Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

E-Print Network 3.0 - acute coal dust Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Collection: Engineering 27 Proceedings of NAWTEC18 18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference Summary: -to-particle conversions. In coal and waste combustion systems,...

270

Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG  

SciTech Connect

Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

271

Coal/biomass gasifier lab tests are a success  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal/biomass gasifier lab tests are a success ... The process produces a medium-Btu gas from a mixture of coal, municipal solid waste, and dewatered sewage sludge. ...

1980-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

272

Fuel strategies, coal supply, dust control, and byproduct utilization  

SciTech Connect

This book contains articles presented at the 1990 International Joint Power Generation Conference. Included are the following papers: Waste management on hard coal fired power plants; Acid rain legislation FGD by-product concerns; Innovative transport modes; coal slurry pipelines.

Aananson, M.L. (Philadelphia Electric Co. (US)); Krishna, K. (Burns and McDonnell (US)); Mahr, D. (Burns and Roe Enterprises (US)); Nechvatal, T.M. (Wisconsin Electric Power Co. (US))

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

FE Clean Coal News | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

5, 2011 5, 2011 Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems. January 4, 2011 DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration A novel technology that could help release some of the currently unusable energy in an estimated 2 billion tons of U.S. coal waste has been successfully demonstrated by a Department of Energy supported project. December 16, 2010 Prestigious Coal-Fired Project of the Year Award Goes to Plant Demonstrating Innovative DOE-Funded Technology

274

APEC experts` group on clean coal technology  

SciTech Connect

These proceedings are the result of a Technical Seminar of the APEC Experts Group on Clean Coal Technology, held in Thailand, September 6-10, 1993. The National Energy Policy Council of Thailand requested the seminar in response to growing public, government and private sector environmental concerns related to increased use of lignite for electricity generation in Thailand. The core of the seminar was a two-day series of 25 technical papers contained in these proceedings. The goals were: (1) to inform government officials and electric utility managers on the range of CCTs, their commercial status, environmental performance, and suitability for various types of coal, including lignite; and (2) to hold a public seminar to inform the public about the same issues set in the context of energy policy concerns that were articulated by the National Energy Policy Council. Sixty people participated in the technical seminar held in Chiang Mai, and approximately 170 people attended the public seminar in Bangkok, Thailand. All papers have been abstracted and indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

NONE

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

275

U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Table 31. Average Sales Price of Coal by State and Coal Rank, 2012 (dollars per short ton) U.S. Energy Information Administration | Annual Coal Report 2012 Coal-Producing State Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite Anthracite Total Alabama 106.57 - - - 106.57 Alaska - w - - w Arizona w - - - w Arkansas w - - - w Colorado w w - - 37.54 Illinois 53.08 - - - 53.08 Indiana 52.01 - - - 52.01 Kentucky Total 63.12 - - - 63.12 Kentucky (East) 75.62 - - - 75.62 Kentucky (West) 48.67 - - - 48.67 Louisiana - - w - w Maryland 55.67 - - - 55.67 Mississippi - - w - w Missouri w - - - w Montana w 17.60 w - 18.11 New Mexico w w - - 36.74 North Dakota - - 17.40 - 17.40 Ohio 47.80 - - - 47.80 Oklahoma 59.63 - - - 59.63 Pennsylvania Total 72.57

276

The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather...

Edgar, T. F.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

The Importance of Geological Features in Designing Open-Pit Lignite Exploitations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Greece covers today 50 per cent of its electric power generation by burning low grade lignite extracted from open pits. Greece or more correctly the Greek Public ... year 1990. To achieve it, new open pits will b...

J. Tanakakis

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Water table recovery in a reclaimed surface lignite mine, Grimes County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Water table recovery in four reclaimed mine blocks containing replaced overburden has been monitored at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas since 1986. Recovery analysis was conducted based on data recorded at 27 wells installed...

Peace, Kelley H.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Evaluation of the Impact of Texas Lignite Development on Texas Water Resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fuel shortages and resultant rising fuel costs as well as federal policies prompting energy independence have served to encourage power companies to exploit available lignite deposits of the western states as a viable fuel source. Large reserves...

Mathewson, C. C.; Cason, C. L.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

NOx Formation of Co-combustion of Sweet Sorghum – Lignite (Orhaneli) Mixtures in Fluidised Beds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Turkey currently imports over 70% of its energy needs from other countries [4...]. Turkey has to turn towards its own natural sources. The most important reserve is the lignites, unfortunately low quality exertin...

M. Handan Çubuk; Derya B. Özkan; Özlem Emanet

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

A method to calculate the cumulative energy demand (CED) of lignite extraction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For the utilisation of an energy carrier such as lignite, the whole life cycle including necessary energy supply processes have to be considered. Therefore using the ‘Cumulative Energy Demand’ (CED) is especially...

Michael Röhrlich; Mark Mistry…

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Upgrading of low-rank coals for conventional and advanced combustion systems  

SciTech Connect

Low-rank coals, subbituminous, lignitic, and brown coals, have a ubiquitous presence in the world, being found in all continents. Close to half of the world`s estimated coal resources are low- rank coals. Many countries have no alternative economic source of energy. In the lower 48 states of the United States, there are 220 billion tons of economically recoverable reserves of lignite and subbituminous coal. Add to this quantity 5 trillion tons of predominantly subbituminous coal in Alaska, and the combined amount represents the largest supply of the lowest-cost fuels available for generating electric power in the United States. However, to use these coals cost-effectively and in an environmentally acceptable way, it is imperative that their properties and combustion/gasification behavior be well understood. The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) takes a cradle-to-grave approach (i.e., mining, precleaning, combustion/gasification, postcleaning, and reuse and disposal of residues) for all aspects of coal processing and utilization. The environmental impact of these activities must be matched with the appropriate technologies. Experience over many years has shown that variations in coal and ash properties have a critical impact on design, reliability and efficiency of operation, and environmental compliance when low-rank coals are burned in conventional systems. This chapter reviews the significant technical issues of beneficiation, which includes reduction in moisture as well as ash (including sulfur), in relation to low-rank coal properties and their impact on conventional and advanced power systems. Finally, the development and utilization of low-rank coal resources are briefly discussed in view of policy, economic, and strategic issues.

Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.; Jones, M.L.

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

284

Correlation of stratigraphy with revegetation conditions at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Grimes County, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Correlation of Geochemistry with Environments of Deposition . Cross-Sections and Maps . GIBBONS CREEK LIGNITE MINE . 1 5 7', 7 8: 8 8 9'' 10 Location and Geologic Setting . Previous Studies 11, ' 13 High-wall Stability Hydrogeology... of each of these environments. As a result of her geologic study, she named the four lignite seams as 1, 2, 3 and 4 from oldest to youngest (Figure 5). This knowledge of the environment of deposition gave her a better understanding of the units...

Parisot, Laurence D.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Engineering geologic feasibility of lignite mining in alluvial valleys by hydraulic dredging methods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC FEASIBILITY OF LIGNITE MINING IN ALLUVIAL VALLEYS BY HYDRAULIC DREDGING METHODS A Thesis by CYNTHIA LYNN CASON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1982 Niajor Subject: Geology ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC FEASIBILITY OF LIGNITE MINING IN ALLUVIAL VALLEYS BY HYDRAULIC DREDGING METHODS A Thesis by CYNTHIA LYNN CASON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman...

Cason, Cynthia Lynn

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Cofiring Lignite with Hazelnut Shell and Cotton Residue in a Pilot-Scale Fluidized Bed Combustor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The absence of studies on cofiring of indigenous lignite with hazelnut shell/cotton residue blends in fluid bed combustors on one hand and the recent trend in utilization of biomass with local reserves in industry and utility boilers on the other necessitate investigation of combustion and emission characteristics of these fuel blends. ... However, the effect of recycle on gaseous emissions from combustion of Turkish lignites with high ash, volatile matter, and sulfur contents has not been investigated to date. ...

Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selçuk

2008-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

287

Artificial weathering of siderite (FeCO3) taken from lignite overburden  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the experimental design used in the artificial weathering study. 101 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Texas has large reserves of near surface lignite. Many hectares of land have already been surface mined and nearly half a million hectares are possible future sites... of the experimental design used in the artificial weathering study. 101 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Texas has large reserves of near surface lignite. Many hectares of land have already been surface mined and nearly half a million hectares are possible future sites...

Frisbee, Nellie Mae

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

288

An environment friendly and efficient lignite-fired power generation process based on a boiler with an open pulverizing system and the recovery of water from mill-exhaust  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper advances a novel lignite-fired power generation process based on a OPSB (boiler with an open pulverizing system) and the recovery of water from mill-exhaust after the comprehensive analysis of the open pulverizing system used for high-moisture coals and heat/water recovery from boiler exhaust. Then, the thermal calculation method that applies to OPSB is presented based on heat and mass balance analyses of the boiler. Finally, an efficient unit applying the OPSB process is compared with a conventional 600 MW lignite-fired power unit, and the performance of the efficient unit is calculated and discussed in detail. The results show that the efficient unit not only yields a notable increase in the boiler's (2.6%) and the power plant's (1.3%) thermal efficiency but also provides a remarkable advantage in water recovery due to the mass of water vapor concentrated in mill-exhaust. In the efficient unit, the volume fraction of water vapor in mill-exhaust reaches 34%, the water reclaimed from mill-exhaust is so much that a lignite-fired power plant with zero water consumption can be expected, while the pollutant emissions can be reduced in proportion to the increase in boiler thermal efficiency.

Youfu Ma; Yichao Yuan; Jing Jin; Hua Zhang; Xiaohong Hu; Dengyu Shi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report  

SciTech Connect

Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Commercialization of waste gob gas and methane produced in conjunction with coal mining operations. Final report, August 1992--December 1993  

SciTech Connect

The primary objectives of the project were to identify and evaluate existing processes for (1) using gas as a feedstock for production of marketable, value-added commodities, and (2) enriching contaminated gas to pipeline quality. The following gas conversion technologies were evaluated: (1) transformation to liquid fuels, (2) manufacture of methanol, (3) synthesis of mixed alcohols, and (4) conversion to ammonia and urea. All of these involved synthesis gas production prior to conversion to the desired end products. Most of the conversion technologies evaluated were found to be mature processes operating at a large scale. A drawback in all of the processes was the need to have a relatively pure feedstock, thereby requiring gas clean-up prior to conversion. Despite this requirement, the conversion technologies were preliminarily found to be marginally economic. However, the prohibitively high investment for a combined gas clean-up/conversion facility required that REI refocus the project to investigation of gas enrichment alternatives. Enrichment of a gas stream with only one contaminant is a relatively straightforward process (depending on the contaminant) using available technology. However, gob gas has a unique nature, being typically composed of from constituents. These components are: methane, nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and water vapor. Each of the four contaminants may be separated from the methane using existing technologies that have varying degrees of complexity and compatibility. However, the operating and cost effectiveness of the combined system is dependent on careful integration of the clean-up processes. REI is pursuing Phase 2 of this project for demonstration of a waste gas enrichment facility using the approach described above. This is expected to result in the validation of the commercial and technical viability of the facility, and the refinement of design parameters.

Not Available

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Lignite-fired thermal power plants and SO2 pollution in Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

About 80% of the electric energy production in Turkey is provided by thermal power plants which use fossil fuels. Lignite, the most abundant domestic energy source, is consumed in most of these plants. Turkey has approximately 0.85% of the world's lignite reserves; however, the Turkish lignites have low calorific value and contain relatively higher amounts of ash, moisture, and sulfur. Nearly 80% of the lignite mined in Turkey is consumed in the thermal power plants since it is not appropriate for use in other types of industry and heating. In Turkey, 13 large-scale lignite-fired thermal power plants are responsible for a considerable amount of air pollution. Therefore, it is crucial to decide on the optimal place and technology for the future thermal power plants, and to equip the currently operating plants with newer technologies that will reduce amount of contaminants released into the air. In this study, the effects of the lignite-fired thermal power plants which have an important place in the energy politics in Turkey on the air pollution are investigated. We focused on SO2 pollution and the regions in which the SO2 emissions were concentrated and diffused. The pollutant diffusion areas were projected and mapped based on parameters such as wind data, isotherm curves, population density, and topographic features by using Geographical Information System (GIS) software, ArcView. The contribution of the thermal power plants to SO2 pollution was also examined.

Nuriye Peker Say

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Coal pump  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Naturally Occurring Radionuclides of Ash Produced by Coal Combustion. The Case of the Kardia Mine in Northern Greece  

SciTech Connect

West Macedonia Lignite Center (WMLC), located in Northwest Greece, releases into the atmosphere about 21,400 tons/year of fly ash through the stacks of four coal fired plants. The lignite ash contains naturally occurring radionuclides, which are deposited on the WMLC basin. This work investigates the natural radioactivity of twenty six ash samples, laboratory produced from combustion of lignite, which was sampled perpendicularly to the benches of the Kardia mine. The concentrations of radionuclides {sup 40}K, {sup 235}U, {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 232}Th, were measured spectroscopically and found round one order of magnitude as high as those of lignite. Subsequently the Radionuclide Partitioning Coefficients of radionuclides were calculated and it was found that they are higher for {sup 232}Th, {sup 228}Ra and {sup 40}K, because the latter have closer affinity with the inorganic matrix of lignite. During combustion up to one third of the naturally occurring radioisotopes escape from the solid phase into the flue gases. With comparison to relative global data, the investigated ash has been found to have relatively high radioactivity, but the emissions of the WMLC radionuclides contribute only 0.03% to the mean annual absorbed dose.

Fotakis, M.; Tsikritzis, L.; Tzimkas, N.; Kolovos, N.; Tsikritzi, R. [Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of West Macedonia, Department of Pollution Control Technologies, Koila, Kozani, 50100 (Greece)

2008-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

294

Muffle furnace evaluation of FGD sludge-coal-clay mixtures as potential synthetic aggregates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reserve locations as they are utilized for housing and industrial requirements of land (8) . Space that was once available for aggregate mining, handling and storage is becoming more and more limited. Lastly and perhaps more important, synthetic...), High-lime fl, y ashes (those resulting from the combustion of lignite or other subbi tuminous coals) may contain up to 30 percent calcium oxide. Total alkalies (sodium and potassium oxides) approach 5 percent. Particles may range in size from 2 x 10...

Pettit, Jesse William

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

295

The structural alignment of coal and the analogous case of Argonne Upper Freeport coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has long been recognized that coal is somewhat aligned. Multiple techniques imply a structural alignment but its quantification has been challenging. Moreover, discrepancies exist among techniques as to whether low-rank coals are aligned. The extent of structural alignment for the rank range was quantified directly via image analysis of high-resolution transmission electron micrograph lattice fringes. Alignment was quantified, for each coal, by the contribution to the total fringe length within the prominent 45° of orientation over random orientation (1/4 of the possible orientations). It was evident that there is structural alignment across the rank range. Thus it is time for the community to desist from making the erroneous statement that: low-rank coals are randomly oriented. The slight orientation was similar for low-rank Beulah-Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coals (24% and 22%) with Pocahontas (lvb) coal showing slightly greater (39%) alignment with extensive alignment (65%) in the case of an anthracite coal. The degree of ordering is illustrated with the aid of false-color lattice fringe images and Rose diagrams. The fringe contribution 90° opposed to the maximum length contribution had the minimum or near minimum percentage length contribution for all coals except Upper Freeport and to a lesser degree Illinois No. 6. For the Upper Freeport coal the alignment is lower than expected given its mvb rank (14% over random) and is attributed to a variant of T-stacking for the small aromatic moieties sited perpendicular and between horizontal displaced fringes.

Jonathan P. Mathews; Atul Sharma

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Catalytic Coal Gasification Process Catalytic Coal Gasification Process for the Production of Methane-Rich Syngas Opportunity Research is active on the patent pending technology, titled "Production of Methane-Rich Syngas from Fuels Using Multi-functional Catalyst/Capture Agent." This technology is available for licensing and/or further collaborative research from the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory. Overview Reducing pollution emitted by coal and waste power plants in an economically viable manner and building power plants that co-generate fuels and chemicals during times of low electricity demand are pressing goals for the energy industry. One way to achieve these goals in an economically viable manner is through the use of a catalytic gasifier that

297

Solar aided power generation of a 300 MW lignite fired power plant combined with line-focus parabolic trough collectors field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Nowadays, conventional coal or gas fired power plants are the dominant way to generate electricity in the world. In recent years there is a growth in the field of renewable energy sources in order to avoid the threat of climate change from fossil fuel combustion. Solar energy, as an environmental friendly energy source, may be the answer to the reduction of global CO2 emissions. This paper presents the concept of Solar Aided Power Generation (SAPG), a combination of renewable and conventional energy sources technologies. The operation of the 300 MW lignite fired power plant of Ptolemais integrated with a solar field of parabolic trough collectors was simulated using TRNSYS software in both power boosting and fuel saving modes. The power plant performance, power output variation, fuel consumption and CO2 emissions were calculated. Furthermore, an economic analysis was carried out for both power boosting and fuel saving modes of operation and optimum solar contribution was estimated.

G.C. Bakos; Ch. Tsechelidou

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Coal Sulfur Removal From Coal By Pyrolysis EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experimental Apparatus Experimental Procedure Analyses of the Products RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Temperature Effect Upon Desulfurization Pressure Effect Upon Desulfurization... . Treatment Composition Effect Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of' Air V1 V111 ix 10 15 20 24 31 31 35 39 43 45 49 52 53 V11 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) PAGE Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of Steam and Air . . 53 Sulfur Removal...

Stone, Robert Reginald

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Methods for Characterization of Composition of Fly Ashes from Coal-Fired Power Stations:? A Critical Overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

HTA and LTA are laboratory-produced coal ashes that are originated at (i) regulated temperatures, commonly at 500?815 °C in air (after the spontaneous coal combustion), and (ii) oxygen plasma ashing (normally at 150?200 °C), respectively. ... The wet disposal of ash, from the coal-fired thermal power plants, involves its mixing with water and its impoundment in the ash ponds or lagoons. ... The fabric, mineralogy, and chem. of high-calcium ash deposits from the Agios Dimitrios pulverized-lignite power plant in northern Greece were investigated as a key to the ability to improve the performance of the power plant. ...

Stanislav V. Vassilev; Christina G. Vassileva

2005-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

300

Western fuels symposium. 19th international conference on lignite, brown, and subbituminous coals. Proceedings  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered at the conference include: advanced power systems; environmental issues and control technologies - multipollutants and mercury; power plant systems performance; fuel by-products utilization; fuel properties and upgrading; coalbed methane and water minimization; and carbon sequestration. A few of the papars only consist of a printout of the overheads/viewgraphs. The proceedings are also available on CD-ROM.

NONE

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Developing Engineered Fuel (Briquettes) Using Fly Ash from the Aquila Coal-Fired Power Plant in Canon City and Locally Available Biomass Waste  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this research is to explore the feasibility of producing engineered fuels from a combination of renewable and non renewable energy sources. The components are flyash (containing coal fines) and locally available biomass waste. The constraints were such that no other binder additives were to be added. Listed below are the main accomplishments of the project: (1) Determination of the carbon content of the flyash sample from the Aquila plant. It was found to be around 43%. (2) Experiments were carried out using a model which simulates the press process of a wood pellet machine, i.e. a bench press machine with a close chamber, to find out the ideal ratio of wood and fly ash to be mixed to get the desired briquette. The ideal ratio was found to have 60% wood and 40% flyash. (3) The moisture content required to produce the briquettes was found to be anything below 5.8%. (4) The most suitable pressure required to extract the lignin form the wood and cause the binding of the mixture was determined to be 3000psi. At this pressure, the briquettes withstood an average of 150psi on its lateral side. (5) An energy content analysis was performed and the BTU content was determined to be approximately 8912 BTU/lb. (6) The environmental analysis was carried out and no abnormalities were noted. (7) Industrial visits were made to pellet manufacturing plants to investigate the most suitable manufacturing process for the briquettes. (8) A simulation model of extrusion process was developed to explore the possibility of using a cattle feed plant operating on extrusion process to produce briquettes. (9) Attempt to produce 2 tons of briquettes was not successful. The research team conducted a trial production run at a Feed Mill in La Junta, CO to produce two (2) tons of briquettes using the extrusion process in place. The goal was to, immediately after producing the briquettes; send them through Aquila's current system to test the ability of the briquettes to flow through the system without requiring any equipment or process changes. (10) Although the above attempt failed, the plant is still interested in producing briquettes. (11) An economic analysis of investing in a production facility manufacturing such briquettes was conducted to determine the economic viability of the project. Such a project is estimated to have an internal rate of return of 14% and net present value of about $400,000. (12) An engineering independent study class (4 students) is now working on selecting a site near the power plant and determining the layout of the future plant that will produce briquettes.

H. Carrasco; H. Sarper

2006-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Coal geology of the U.S. Gulf Coastal region  

SciTech Connect

The US Geological Survey (USGS) is conducting a comprehensive assessment of the major coal regions of the country. In this program, known as the National Coal Resource Assessment, the quantity and quality of coals that are expected to be mined during the next 30 years will be characterized. For the Gulf Coast region, the evaluation will include reviews of the stratigraphic setting, resource potential, and the quality of the lignites in four coal-producing areas. These areas are: the Sabine Uplift (including parts of Texas and Louisiana), Northeast Texas, Central Texas, and South Texas. The results of these efforts will be a series of digital Geographic Information System (GIS) maps, text, and tables that will be published in a CD-ROM format. These products, along with a national summary CD-ROM, are expected to be completed in 1999. This paper is to present a review of Gulf Coast coal geology and to outline the USGS assessment efforts for the Gulf Coast region. Most coal in the Gulf Coast area is produced from the Paleocene Wilcox Group, and minor amounts of coal are produced from the Ecocene Jackson and Claiborne Groups. Initial results indicate that for coals being mined in the Sabine Uplift, Northeast, and Central Texas areas mean moisture values are about 34%, mean ash yields range from 12 to 15%, and mean calorific values range from about 5,800 to 6,900 Btu/lb (all data are on an as-received basis). Detailed bed and zone analysis in all areas indicate that resource figures will be greater than previous estimates that have usually combined multiple coal horizons to estimate cumulative coal thicknesses for a formation. Ongoing research in the Sabine Uplift and Northeast study areas suggests that coal zones in both the upper and lower Wilcox may be more laterally extensive than previous studies indicate.

Warwick, P.D.; Aubourg, C.E.; Crowley, S.S. [and others

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

Short, Daniel

304

Major ion chemistry and identification of hydrogeochemical processes controlling groundwater in and around Neyveli Lignite Mines, Tamil Nadu, South India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lignite resources in Tamil Nadu State accounts for ... more than 80 % of India’s known lignite reserves of 39 billion tonnes (as of 1...2010a). The Neyveli hydrogeological basin covers an area of 3,500 km2......

S. Chidambaram; P. Anandhan; M. V. Prasanna…

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Evaluation of an On-Line Ash Analysis System for Low-Grade and Inhomogeneous Greek Lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. ... The remaining lignite reserves that are suitable for electricity generation are 3.2 billion tonnes (as of 12/31/2005). ...

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis

2007-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

306

Influence of Lignite Mining and Utilization on Organic Matter Budget in the Alfeios River Plain, Peloponnese (South Greece)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The remaining reserves are estimated approximately at 237 Mt.37 The Megalopolis lignite belongs to the mineral-rich and matrix lithotypes. ... cycles comprising first-order alternation of lignites and detrital muds and second-order alternation expressed by frequent intercalation of org. ...

G. Siavalas; S. Kalaitzidis; G. Cornelissen; A. Chatziapostolou; K. Christanis

2007-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

307

Coal, geophysics, U.S. power generation, and mine safety  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...before and combustion waste is being recycled...permission). The industry has done a good...ones, but coal gasification plants can squeeze...sector, the coal industry has done little...before and combustion waste is being recycled...under way. The industry has done a good...

Lawrence M. Gochioco

308

Exploratory Research on Novel Coal Liquefaction Concept.  

SciTech Connect

Microautoclave tests confirmed that first-stage subbituminous coal conversions were greater in a more aromatic first-stage solvent. First-stage liquefaction tests with hydride ion `E` showed that high coal conversions can be obtained with a number of different first-stage water-gas-shift catalysts. Eight one-liter autoclave tests were completed. All tests used Black Thunder Mine subbituminous coal and Reilly Industries anthracene oil. Differences among the tests were the hydride ion reagent used, the post-run flash of water, and the shift catalyst. Filtration tests were conducted with five one-liter autoclave products of subbituminous coal. The filtration rates were slower than those that had been obtained with North Dakota lignite products, but were still within a commercially acceptable range. The influence of the first-stage shift catalyst on filtration rates is being investigated. Second-stage hydrotreating of products of tests made to simulate the British coal LSE process and the Wilsonville pilot plant preheaters had lower resid conversion and higher hydrogen uptake than the products of the hydride ion liquefaction reaction. The 300 mL second-stage reactor system went on line this quarter. Refinements in the experimental procedures are under way. A conceptual commercial plant design for the hydride ion reagent `A` case was completed. Evaluations of hydride ion reagent `D` and `E` cases were initiated, and an integrated liquefaction system balance for the hydride ion reagent `E` case was begun. A preliminary review of the final technical and economic reports from the Alberta Research Council study of low-rank coal conversion using the CO-steam process generated a number of questions on the published reports; further analysis of the reports is planned.

Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

1997-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

309

Characterization of Texas lignite and numerical modeling of its in-situ gasification  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ITS IN-SITU GASIFICATION A Thesis by YIH-JY WANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1983 Major Subject: Geophysics CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ITS IN-SITU GASIFICATION A Thesis by YIH-JY WANG Approved as to style and content by: James E. Russell (Chairman of Committee) M. Caputo...

Wang, Yih-Jy

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

310

Comparative radiocarbon dating of lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples from Babeldaob Island, Republic of Palau  

SciTech Connect

It is difficult to construct archaeological chronologies for Babeldaob, the main island of Palau (western Micronesia), because the saprolitic clays of the dominant terraced-hill sites and associated ceramic sherds often contain old carbon that originated in lignites. This has implications, as well, for chronologies of sedimentary sequences. Comparative analysis of the dating problem using lignite, pottery, and charcoal samples indicates that, in fact, there are both old and young sources of potential contamination. It is concluded that radiocarbon samples from Babeldaob need to be tested for appropriate carbon content rather than relying solely upon material identification.

Anderson, A.; Chappell, J.; Clark, G.; Phear, S. [Australian National University, Canberra, ACT (Australia)

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Coal extraction  

SciTech Connect

Coal is extracted using a mixed solvent which includes a substantially aromatic component and a substantially naphthenic component, at a temperature of 400/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/C. Although neither component is an especially good solvent for coal by itself, the use of mixed solvent gives greater flexibility to the process and offers efficiency gains.

Clarke, J.W.; Kimber, G.M.; Rantell, T.D.; Snape, C.E.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

312

Zero emission coal  

SciTech Connect

We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Preparation and combustion of coal-water fuel from the Sin Pun coal deposit, southern Thailand  

SciTech Connect

In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources in Thailand, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a program to assess the responsiveness of Sin Pun lignite to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying. The results indicate that drying made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 27 wt% for the raw coal to about 15 wt% for the hot-water-dried (HWD) coals. The energy density for a pumpable coal-water fuel (CWF) indicates an increase from 4500 to 6100 Btu/lb by hot-water drying. Approximately 650 lb of HWD Sin Pun CWF were fired in the EERC`s combustion test facility. The fuel burned extremely well, with no feed problems noted during the course of the test. Fouling and slagging deposits each indicated a very low rate of ash deposition, with only a dusty layer formed on the cooled metal surfaces. The combustor was operated at between 20% and 25% excess air, resulting in a flue gas SO{sub 2} concentration averaging approximately 6500 parts per million.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

Huffman, G.P. [ed.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Recovery of solid fuel from municipal solid waste by hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal treatment using subcritical water was studied to recover solid fuel from MSW. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer More than 75% of carbon in MSW was recovered as char. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Heating value of char was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyvinyl chloride was decomposed at 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa and was removed by washing. - Abstract: Hydrothermal treatments using subcritical water (HTSW) such as that at 234 Degree-Sign C and 3 MPa (LT condition) and 295 Degree-Sign C and 8 MPa (HT condition) were investigated to recover solid fuel from municipal solid waste (MSW). Printing paper, dog food (DF), wooden chopsticks, and mixed plastic film and sheets of polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene were prepared as model MSW components, in which polyvinylchloride (PVC) powder and sodium chloride were used to simulate Cl sources. While more than 75% of carbon in paper, DF, and wood was recovered as char under both LT and HT conditions, plastics did not degrade under either LT or HT conditions. The heating value (HV) of obtained char was 13,886-27,544 kJ/kg and was comparable to that of brown coal and lignite. Higher formation of fixed carbon and greater oxygen dissociation during HTSW were thought to improve the HV of char. Cl atoms added as PVC powder and sodium chloride to raw material remained in char after HTSW. However, most Cl originating from PVC was found to converse into soluble Cl compounds during HTSW under the HT condition and could be removed by washing. From these results, the merit of HTSW as a method of recovering solid fuel from MSW is considered to produce char with minimal carbon loss without a drying process prior to HTSW. In addition, Cl originating from PVC decomposes into soluble Cl compound under the HT condition. The combination of HTSW under the HT condition and char washing might improve the quality of char as alternative fuel.

Hwang, In-Hee, E-mail: hwang@eng.hokudai.ac.jp [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan); Aoyama, Hiroya; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Nakagishi, Tatsuhiro; Matsuo, Takayuki [Laboratory of Solid Waste Disposal Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, Kita 13 Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060 8628 (Japan)

2012-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

316

E-Print Network 3.0 - annual clean coal Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

emissions Summary: provides a clean base load electricity that produces waste just a size of a coke can as compared to a coal... ,000 tons of coal to produce same amount of...

317

Cofiring lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue in a pilot-scale fluidized bed combustor  

SciTech Connect

In this study, cofiring of high ash and sulfur content lignite with hazelnut shell and cotton residue was investigated in 0.3 MWt METU Atmospheric Bubbling Fluidized Bed Combustion (ABFBC) Test Rig in terms of combustion and emission performance of different fuel blends. The results reveal that cofiring of hazelnut shell and cotton residue with lignite increases the combustion efficiency and freeboard temperatures compared to those of lignite firing with limestone addition only. CO{sub 2} emission is not found sensitive to increase in hazelnut shell and cotton residue share in fuel blend. Cofiring lowers SO{sub 2} emissions considerably. Cofiring of hazelnut shell reduces NO and N{sub 2}O emissions; on the contrary, cofiring cotton residue results in higher NO and N{sub 2}O emissions. Higher share of biomass in the fuel blend results in coarser cyclone ash particles. Hazelnut shell and cotton residue can be cofired with high ash and sulfur-containing lignite without operational problems. 32 refs., 12 figs., 11 tabs.

Zuhal Gogebakan; Nevin Selcuk [Middle East Technical University, Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemical Engineering

2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

Swanson, Eric Scott

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

NETL: Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) - Round 2  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

NOx Control Technologies NOx Control Technologies Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control - Project Brief [PDF-320KB] The Babcock & Wilcox Company, Cassville, WI Program Publications Final Reports Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler NOx Control, Final Project Report [PDF-14.4MB] (Feb 1994) Appendices 1 - 5 [PDF-2.6MB] (Feb 1994) Appendix 1: Small Boiler Simulator Description Appendix 2: Statement of Work by Task and Subtask Appendix 3: Evaluation of Reburning for NOx Control from Lignite-Fired Cyclone Boilers Appendix 4: Nelson Dewey In-Furnace gas Species and Temperature Measurements Appendix 5: Balance of Plant Details Appendix 6: Test Report - Nelson Dewey Cyclone Reburn Optimization and Performance Environmental Tests [PDF-6.2MB] (Feb 1994)

320

Development of biological coal gasification (MicGas process): 12th Quarterly report  

SciTech Connect

Several experiments were conducted to study the efficiency of granulated sludge consortium (GSC) on the biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL). With an aim of obtaining a better culture than Mic-1, GSC was used as inoculum at different concentrations. The first experiment was conducted under anaerobic conditions in 60-mL vials containing 40 mL 0.01% SNTM + 1% TxL + 10% GSC. Methane production was measured periodically in the vial headspace and after 20 days of incubation, methane was found to be up to 67 mole%. The second experiment was conducted to determine whether methane production was from biogasification of coal or from substrates used for growing the GSC. The effect of two different anaerobic conditions on biomethanation of Texas lignite was also studied.

Not Available

1993-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit northern McMullen and southeastern Atascosa counties, Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

deposits. Coastal swamp deposits occur within the lignite interval, a zone of lignite and clay of 3. 7 m (12 ft) ave age thickness. The 1'g. . ite interval has an overall strike-trend with local dip-trending segments. The lignite represents accumulation...). . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ 26 12 ~2 f ' ' 2~2'6' 2 ~l f* MK-26, 14. 2 m (46. 75 ft) . 26 13 Regional stratigraphic correlation of the upper and middle Eocene of the Gulf Coast. 28 Electric log correlations in Atascosa and Live Oak counties of Texas. 29 15 Interpretation...

Snedden, John William

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Evaluation of the long-term environmental performance of Greek lignite-fired power stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract At national, regional and global level, there is no doubt that the electric generation from fossil fuel-fired power plants is one of the greatest causes of air pollution and climate change. However, fossil fuels contribute more than 70% in the planet electricity generation during the last 30 years. In Greece, lignite is the only proved significant indigenous fossil fuel source, currently representing about 50% of the national electricity generation (a situation which is not expected to change dramatically in the near future). As a result, owed to the use of local lignite reserves (poor quality lignite), the Greek Lignite Thermal Power Stations (LTPSs) are responsible for the production of significant airborne emissions and particle releases (e.g. CO2, SO2, NOX, PM). At the same time, Greece, on top of the Kyoto Protocol, has accepted specific obligations and incorporated into its national legislation several air quality Directives concerning the reduction of various harmful gases and particle releases attributed to fossil fuel combustion. Thus, wide scrutiny of concentration time series of all these airborne emissions constitutes an important indicator of the current technology used, considering at the same time that any violation noted should be the object of serious national concern. Under this argument, the current work presents and evaluates the long-term environmental performance of the Greek lignite-based electricity generation system as far as CO2, NOX, SO2 and PM are concerned up to the year 2011. According to the results obtained, one may rank the operating \\{LTPSs\\} according to their environmental performance giving to the Greek society the necessary tools to determine their utilisation factor on top of the techno-economic criteria used up to now.

J.K. Kaldellis; M. Kapsali

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

International Best Practices for Pre-Processing and Co-Processing Municipal Solid Waste and Sewage Sludge in the Cement Industry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition is 6-percent coal/petcoke/animal meal mix, 16-sawdust Coal, plastic, and tires Tires Petcoke, plastic, andwaste oil Petcoke, sunflower shells, and waste oil Tire

Hasanbeigi, Ali

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

An evaluation of Substitute natural gas production from different coal gasification processes based on modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal and lignite will play a significant role in the future energy production. However, the technical options for the reduction of CO2 emissions will define the extent of their share in the future energy mix. The production of synthetic or substitute natural gas (SNG) from solid fossil fuels seems to be a very attractive process: coal and lignite can be upgraded into a methane rich gas which can be transported and further used in high efficient power systems coupled with CO2 sequestration technologies. The aim of this paper is to present a modeling analysis comparison between substitute natural gas production from coal by means of allothermal steam gasification and autothermal oxygen gasification. In order to produce SNG from syngas several unit operations are required such as syngas cooling, cleaning, potential compression and, of course, methanation reactors. Finally the gas which is produced has to be conditioned i.e. removal of unwanted species, such as CO2 etc. The heat recovered from the overall process is utilized by a steam cycle, producing power. These processes were modeled with the computer software IPSEpro™. An energetic and exergetic analysis of the coal to SNG processes have been realized and compared.

S. Karellas; K.D. Panopoulos; G. Panousis; A. Rigas; J. Karl; E. Kakaras

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal  

SciTech Connect

Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory?s (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

Gregory J. Olson

1997-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Applying clean coal technologies in the Asian Pacific Basin  

SciTech Connect

The United States is well positioned to play an expanding role in meeting the energy-technology demands of the Asian Pacific Basin (APB). The US Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program, spearheaded, stewarded, and managed by the US Department of Energy in full partnership with US industry, provides a proving ground for innovative coal-related technologies. Its precombustion, combustion, postcombustion, and conversion technologies, once tested and proven at the demonstration level, are expected to be applicable to coal-burning facilities in the APB (and elsewhere), in both the utility and industrial sectors. These technologies and concepts are expected to allow for increased utilization of the vast coal and lignite resources in the APB in an efficient, economic, and environmentally acceptable manner. They also could provide the opportunity for increased sales of US coals. Specific, potential applications in the APB will be presented, highlighting possibilities in Indonesia, Japan, the Peoples' Republic of China, South Korea, Taiwan, and Thailand. 4 refs., 1 tab.

Gillette, J.L.; Szpunar, C.B.; Surles, T.G.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

System Analysis of Nuclear-Assisted Syngas Production from Coal  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via hightemperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Liquefaction of coal in a petroleum fraction under mild conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental studies on a mild coal liquefaction process for extending the petroleum fuel supply are presented. In this process, coal is dissolved in bottoms from fluid catalytic cracking (FCC), a thermally stable, highly aromatic refinery stream, without added hydrogen and under mild conditions. After ash removal, the product mixture of coal liquid and FCC bottoms is a pumpable fluid and can be used as a boiler fuel. Further upgrading to turbine fuel may be possible. At 600–800°F, 0.1 to 5 h, and 0–1000 psig, conversion of a bituminous coal to pyridine soluble, gas and water was about 90%, while that of lignite was about 60%. Improved product quality was favored by increased reaction pressure. The operable solvent to coal ratio can be as low as 1.3. This ratio can be further reduced if provisions are made to recycle part of the solvent. However, the efficiency of the recovered solvent decreases with each recycle due to a gradual replacement of labile ? hydrogen by ? hydrogen.

T.Y. Yan; W.F. Espenscheid

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Electricity from coal and utilization of coal combustion by-products  

SciTech Connect

Most electricity in the world is conventionally generated using coal, oil, natural gas, nuclear energy, or hydropower. Due to environmental concerns, there is a growing interest in alternative energy sources for heat and electricity production. The major by-products obtained from coal combustion are fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) materials. The solid wastes produced in coal-fired power plants create problems for both power-generating industries and environmentalists. The coal fly ash and bottom ash samples may be used as cementitious materials.

Demirbas, A. [Sila Science, Trabzon (Turkey)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Quarterly progress report, July--September 1993  

SciTech Connect

The overall objective of this project is to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrates coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and carrying out a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. The primary coal of this program, Black Thunder subbituminous coal, can be effectively beneficiated to about 3.5 wt % ash using aqueous sulfurous acid pretreatment. This treated coal can be further beneficiated to about 2 wt % ash using commercially available procedures. All three coals used in this study (Black Thunder, Burning Star bituminous, and Martin Lake lignite) are effectively swelled by a number of solvents. The most effective solvents are those having hetero-functionality. laboratory- and bench-scale liquefaction experimentation is underway using swelled and catalyst impregnated coal samples. Higher coal conversions were observed for the SO{sub 2}-treated subbituminous coal than the raw coal, regardless of catalyst type. Conversions of swelled coal were highest when Molyvan L, molybdenum naphthenate, and nickel octoate, respectively, were added to the liquefaction solvent. The study of bottoms processing consists of combining the ASCOT process which consists of coupling solvent deasphalting with delayed coking to maximize the production of coal-derived liquids while rejecting solids within the coke drum. The asphalt production phase has been completed; representative product has been evaluated. The solvent system for the deasphalting process has been established. Two ASCOT tests produced overall liquid yields (63.3 wt % and 61.5 wt %) that exceeded the combined liquid yields from the vacuum tower and ROSE process.

Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., (United States); Gutterman, C. [FWDC (United States); Chander, S. [Pennsylvania State Univ. (United States)

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

333

Life cycle considerations of the flue gas desulphurization system at a lignite-fired power plant in Thailand  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Flue Gas Desulphurization (FGD) system has been installed at the biggest lignite-fired power generation plant in Thailand to reduce the large...2...emission. In order to understand the costs and benefits, bot...

Sate Sampattagul; Seizo Kato…

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Experimental forward and reverse in situ combustion gasification of lignite with production of hydrogen-rich syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This research focused on the feasibility of applying the forward and reverse combustion approach to the in situ gasification of lignite with the production of hydrogen-rich syngas (H2 and CO). The so-called forwa...

Yong Cui; Jie Liang; Zhangqing Wang…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Ground Water Control Techniques for Safe Exploitation of the Neyveli Lignite Deposit, Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Neyveli, a remote hamlet in Cuddalore District, Tamilnadu, India, occupies a prominent place in the industrial and power map of India. The Neyveli lignite field extends over an area of 470...2 with a geological reserve

K. S. Anandan; S. N. Sahay; T. K. Ramabadran…

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions  

SciTech Connect

Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

An investigation of changes in groundwater quality caused by in-situ gasification of East Texas lignite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AGM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Approved as to style and content by...

Leach, Kimberly Sue

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

338

Coal and Coal-Biomass to Liquids  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Coal-Biomass to Liquids News Gasifipedia Coal-Biomass Feed Advanced Fuels Synthesis Systems Analyses International Activity Project Information Project Portfolio Publications...

339

Geochemistry of coal from Cretaceous Corwin and Chandler formations, National Petroleum Reserve in Alaska (NPRA)  

SciTech Connect

Ninety coal samples from these formations within NPRA were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate coal quality and elemental distribution. Their apparent rank ranges from lignite A in the northern part of NPRA to high-volatile AS bituminous coal in the southern part. Mean vitrinite reflectance values range from 0.65 to 0.74%. Some Corwin Formation coal samples west of NPRA have coking potential with free-swelling indexes between 3.0 and 5.0. Compared to other western United States Cretaceous coal, NPRA coal is significantly lower in ash, volatile matter, O, Si, Al, Ca, Fe, Ti, Cu, F, Li, Mn, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, Th, and Zn. Statistical comparisons of element concentrations indicate that the mean content of Si, Al, K, Li, Sc, Y, and Yb increases as the mean ash content increases (correlation coefficient at least 0.7). Sulfur values are extremely low (0.1%), and elements that normally show positive correlation with sulfur, such as Fe, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn, are also low. Therefore, coal from NPRA can be characterized by low ash and sulfur contents and low contents of elements of environmental concern, such as As, Be, Hg, Mo, Sb, and Se. The elements found to have positive correlations with ash content are probably present as aluminosilicate or stable oxide minerals. Variations in element content and quality of NPRA coal were probably influenced by the geochemical conditions that existed in the Corwin and Umiat delta systems.

Affolter, R.H.; Stricker, G.D.

1985-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder  

SciTech Connect

Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

NONE

2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

NETL: News Release - DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

4, 2011 4, 2011 DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration Novel Centrifuge Paves Way to Recover Tons of Waste Coal for Energy Use Washington, DC -- A novel technology that could help release some of the currently unusable energy in an estimated 2 billion tons of U.S. coal waste has been successfully demonstrated by a Department of Energy (DOE) supported project. The full-scale test of the advanced hyperbaric centrifuge technology at a Jim Walter Resources Inc. coal-cleaning plant in Alabama resulted in the successful reduction of moisture from ultrafine coal waste. The test builds on an eight-year cooperative effort between the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech) to use the patented process to effectively remove water from very fine coal "slurries," or mixture of waste coal "fines" and water.

342

TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION--A COMPREHENSIVE ASSESSMENT, PHASE II: ELEMENT MODES OF OCCURRENCE FOR THE OHIO 5/6/7, WYODAK AND NORTH DAKOTA COAL SAMPLES  

SciTech Connect

This study reports on the second phase (Phase II) of USGS research activities in support of DOE contract DE-AC22-95PC95101 ''Toxic Substances From Coal Combustion--A Comprehensive Assessment'', funded under DOE Interagency Agreement DE-AI22-95PC95145. The purpose of the study was to provide a quantitative and semi-quantitative characterization of the modes of occurrence of trace elements in coal samples investigated under Phase II, including (1) Ohio 5/6/7, an Ohio bituminous coal sample blended from the No.5, No.6, and No.7 beds; (2) North Dakota, a lignite sample from the Falkirk Mine, Underwood, ND, and (3) Wyodak, a sub-bituminous coal sample from the Cordero Mine, Gillette, WY. Samples from these coal beds were selected for their range in rank and commercial applicability. Results of this research provide basic information on the distribution of elements in Phase II coal samples, information needed for development of a commercial predictive model for trace-element behavior during coal combustion.

Allan Kolker; Stanley J. Mroczkowski; Curtis A. Palmer; Kristen O. Dennen; Robert B. Finkelman; John H. Bullock Jr.

2002-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

343

Evaluation of an on-line ash analysis system for low-grade and inhomogeneous Greek lignite  

SciTech Connect

The possibility of using commercial on-line analysis systems for monitoring the ash content of low-grade lignites was investigated by carrying out numerous bench- and pilot-scale trials in the mines of Public Power Corporation SA, Greece. Pilot-scale trials were based on a dual-energy {gamma}-ray transmission analyzer, which was installed on the conveyor belt that transports lignite from the pit to the bunker of Kardia mine, Ptolemais. According to the obtained results, the accuracy of the on-line measurements was not adequate and did not allow lignite quality monitoring in real time. The deterioration of the on-line measurements' accuracy, compared to previous applications in other mining sites, was related to the intense variation of the lignite ash content and ash composition, which distorted the calibration of the analyzer. The latter is based on certain assumptions regarding the average atomic number of the organic and mineral matter contained in the lignite. Further experimental work is needed to investigate solutions for successful implementation of this method to low-grade lignites that exhibit large variation in ash content and composition. 17 refs., 15 figs., 7 tabs.

Konstantinos V. Kavouridis; Francis F. Pavloudakis [Public Power Corporation SA, Athens (Greece). General Division of Mines

2007-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Use of solid waste for chemical stabilization: Adsorption isotherms and {sup 13}C solid-state NMR study of hazardous organic compounds sorbed on coal fly ash  

SciTech Connect

Adsorption of hazardous organic compounds on the Dave Johnston plant fly ash is described. Fly ash from Dave Johnston and Laramie River power plants were characterized using elemental, x-ray, and {sup 29}Si NMR; the Dave Johnston (DJ) fly ash had higher quartz contents, while the Laramie River fly ash had more monomeric silicate anions. Adsorption data for hydroaromatics and chlorobenzenes indicate that the adsorption capacity of DJ coal fly ash is much less than that of activated carbon by a factor of >3000; but it is needed to confirm that solid-gas and solid-liquid equilibrium isotherms can indeed be compared. However, for pyridine, pentachlorophenol, naphthalene, and 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane, the DJ fly ash appears to adsorb these compounds nearly as well as activated carbon. {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the adsorption of hazardous org. cpds on coal fly ash; the nuclear spin relaxation times often were very long, resulting in long experimental times to obtain a spectrum. Using a jumbo probe, low concentrations of some hazardous org. cpds could be detected; for pentachlorophenol adsorbed onto fly ash, the chemical shift of the phenolic carbon was changed. Use of NMR to study the adsorption needs further study.

Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Rovani, J.F.; Cox, J.D.; Clark, J.A.; Miknis, F.P.

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies  

SciTech Connect

There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

347

Investigation of chemical looping combustion by solid fuels. 2. redox reaction kinetics and product characterization with coal, biomass, and solid waste as solid fuels and CuO as an oxygen carrier  

SciTech Connect

This paper is the second in a series of two on the investigation of the chemical looping combustion (CLC) of solid fuels. The first paper put forward the concept of the CLC of solid fuels using a circulating fluidized bed as a reactor and Cu-CuO as the oxygen carrier, which was based on an analysis of oxygen transfer capability, reaction enthalpy, and chemical equilibrium. In this second paper, we report the results of the evaluation of the reduction of CuO reduced by solid fuels such as coal and some other 'opportunity' solid fuels. Tests on the reduction of CuO by the selected solid fuels were conducted using simultaneous differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetric analysis, which simulates a microreactor. An attached mass spectrometer (MS) was used for the characterization of evolved gaseous products. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used for the characterization of the solid residues. Results strongly supported the feasibility of CuO reduction by selected solid fuels. CuO can be fully converted into Cu in a reduction process, either in a direct path by solid fuels, which was verified by MS analysis under a N{sub 2} atmosphere, or in an indirect path by pyrolysis and gasification products of solid fuels in the reducer. No Cu{sub 2}O exists in reducing atmospheres, which was characterized by an XRD analysis and mass balance calculations. No carbon deposit was found on the surface of the reduced Cu, which was characterized by SEM analysis. CuO reduction by solid fuels can start at temperatures as low as approximately 500 C. Tests indicated that the solid fuels with higher reactivity (higher volatile matter) would be desirable for the development of the chemical looping combustion process of solid fuels, such as sub-bituminous Powder River Basin coal and solid waste and biomass. 4 refs., 12 figs., 3 tabs.

Yan Cao; Bianca Casenas; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

348

Production of a nitrogeneous humic fertilizer by the oxidation-ammoniation of lignite  

SciTech Connect

Two lignite samples were oxidised with HNO/sub 3/ (20% wt) at 75 C and treated afterwards with NH/sub 3/ in a fluidised-bed reactor in a temperature range 100-375 C. The effects of temperature, NH/sub 3/ flow rate, and reaction time on the total N/sub 2/ content of the product are reported. The product contained 7-13% wt of total N/sub 2/ which increased as the ammoniation temperature increased. Soil nitrification measurements of the N/sub 2/-enriched lignites showed that the maximum conversion to nitrates and rate of nitrification are exhibited by the product obtained at the lowest ammoniation temperature, i.e. 100 C. Maximum conversion to nitrates at that temperature was 45%, which compares well with similar products such as ammoniated peat (35%) and ammonium nitrohumates (45%).

Coca, J.

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing coal combustion Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Sciences and Ecology 44 Proceedings of NAWTEC18 18th Annual North American Waste-to-Energy Conference Summary: -to-particle conversions. In coal and waste combustion systems,...

350

Horizontal Hydraulic Conductivity Estimates for Intact Coal Barriers Between Closed Underground Mines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...discharges were obtained from industry reports stored at the Consol...mining beneath surface water and waste impoundments: In Proceedings...associated with underground coal gasification: Canadian Geotechnical Journal...underground mining United States waste disposal water quality West...

KURT J. McCOY; JOSEPH J. DONOVAN; BRUCE R. LEAVITT

351

DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration DOE-Supported Coal Cleaning Technology Succeeds in Commercial Demonstration January 4, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Washington, DC - A novel technology that could help release some of the currently unusable energy in an estimated 2 billion tons of U.S. coal waste has been successfully demonstrated by a Department of Energy (DOE) supported project. The full-scale test of the advanced hyperbaric centrifuge technology at a Jim Walter Resources Inc. coal-cleaning plant in Alabama resulted in the successful reduction of moisture from ultrafine coal waste. The test builds on an eight-year cooperative effort between the Office of Fossil Energy's (FE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the Virginia

352

Accumulation and Selective Maternal Transfer of Contaminants in the Turtle Trachemys scripta Associated with Coal Ash Deposition  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Coal combustion wastes are enriched in a number...Trachemys scripta) are common inhabitants of coal ash settling basins in South Carolina, USA,...T. scripta...may influence the survivorship and quality of their o...

R. D. Nagle; C. L. Rowe; J. D. Congdon

2001-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) No revision has been approved for this page. It is currently under review by our subject matter experts. Jump to: navigation, search Last modified on February 13, 2013. EZFeed Policy Place Pennsylvania Name Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies Biomass/Biogas, Coal with CCS, Concentrating Solar Power, Energy Storage, Fuel Cells, Geothermal Electric, Hydroelectric, Hydroelectric (Small), Natural Gas, Nuclear, Solar Photovoltaics, Wind energy Active Policy Yes Implementing Sector State/Province Program Administrator Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection

354

Investigation of lignite and firewood co-combustion in a furnace for tobacco curing application  

SciTech Connect

Co-combustion of lignite and firewood was investigated for an application in tobacco curing industry in Northern Thailand. Extensive experiments have been carried out in a newly developed furnace suitable for small curing unit, in place of locally made furnace. The aim of this investigation is to evaluate the performance of the combustion chamber in the required thermal output range for tobacco curing and to examine the influence of fuel feed rate, fuel mixture ratio and air staging on the combustion and emission characteristics of the furnace during steady state operation. Their effects are characterized in terms of the observed variations of temperature distributions, emissions of CO, SO{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2} and combustion efficiency. Co-firing of firewood and lignite has been found to exhibit acceptable temperature distribution, high combustion efficiency and low emissions over a wide thermal output span. Stable operation at low (50 kW) and high (150 kW) thermal output was achieved with average CO and SO{sub 2} content in flue gas typically below 1400 and 100 ppm, respectively. Under the conditions considered, it was showed that the fuel feed rate had greater influence on combustion and emissions than firewood and lignite mixture ratio and air staging.

Nakorn Tippayawong; Chutchawan Tantakitti; Satis Thavornun

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Polygeneration-IGCC concepts for the production of hydrogen rich fuels based on lignite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents three IGCC-power plant concepts for central production of a hydrogen-rich fuel (methanol, hydrogen, synthetic natural gas â?? SNG) from lignite. Each concept contains a CO2-separation, which produces a sequestration-ready CO2-rich stream. Thus, CO2-emissions caused by use of lignite are considerably reduced. Furthermore, the produced low-carbon fuels are converted in decentralised Combined Heat and Power Plants (CHPP). CHPP leads to high efficiencies of fuel utilisation between 54 and 62%, which exceed the efficiencies of single power generation. Regarding to the CO2-emissions of a natural gas fired CHPP, heat and power can be generated by lignite as clean as by natural gas. The specific CO2-emissions are even much lower in the case of hydrogen production. Costs for the centrally produced methanol and hydrogen are with 29 and 19 EUR/MWh(LHV) already within an economic range. Synthetic natural gas can be produced for 23 EUR/MWh(LHV).

Bernd Meyer; Katrin Ogriseck

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece.

Michael Galetakis; Christos Roumpos; George Alevizos; Despina Vamvuka

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Reprint of: Production scheduling of a lignite mine under quality and reserves uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of uncertainty sources to the stochastic optimization of the combined project of a new surface lignite mine exploitation and power plant operation for electricity generation is investigated. Major sources of uncertainty that were considered are the reserves and the quality of the lignite. Since probability distribution functions for these uncertainties were estimated during the detailed exploration phase of the deposit, the overall goal is then to determine the optimal capacity of the power plant and consequently the optimal production rate of the mine over the time. The optimization objective that was selected is the maximization of the net present value of the project. Emphasis is placed on the sensitivity analysis for the investigation of the effect of quality and reserves uncertainty on project optimization, on the mathematical formulation of risk attitude strategy and on increasing the efficiency of the optimization process by creating a limited set of feasible solutions applying empirical rules. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of the optimal annual production rate of a new surface lignite mine in the area of Ptolemais–Amynteon in Northern Greece.

Michael Galetakis; Christos Roumpos; George Alevizos; Despina Vamvuka

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Chapter 12 - Coal use in iron and steel metallurgy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract: This chapter discusses the role of coal in iron and steel metallurgy. The chapter first gives information about routes for steel manufacture, current levels of steel production and forecasts for the future. It then discusses the use of coal in different metallurgical processes with emphasis on various ironmaking technologies as the most energy consuming step of the process chain. Alternatives to coal like biomass, hydrogen or waste plastics are discussed from the point of view of CO2 reduction.

A. Babich; D. Senk

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Coal distribution, January-June 1985. [USA; January-June; 1981 to 1985; producing district; destination; transport means  

SciTech Connect

This Energy Information Administration (EIA) report continues the quarterly series on coal distribution started in 1957 by the Bureau of Mines, Department of the Interior, as a Mineral Industry Survey, Distribution of Bituminous Coal and Lignite Shipments. The publication provides volume data on coal distribution by coal-producing district of origin, consumer use, method of transportation, and State of destination necessary for EIA to fulfill its data colletion functions as authorized by the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974. All data for 1985 in this report are preliminary. Data for 1981-1984 are final. Coal shipments from mines in Appalachia were 10.2% lower, while shipments from western mines were up by 13.7%, reaching a record 6-month high. Export shipments moved ahead of their 1984 pace by 9.2% despite a 27.0% decline in shipments to Canada. Texas expanded its lead as the Nation's top State to receive coal, and North Dakota experienced an upsurge in coal receipts due to the startup of the Great Plains coal gasification project. Coal production and purchases totaled 438.4 million short tons, 2.2% below last year's level. 6 figs., 33 tabs.

McNair, M.B.

1985-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

360

The mild hydrothermal synthesis of hydrogrossular from coal ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study, an attempt was made to synthesize hydrogrossular, a group of garnet minerals, under hydrothermal conditions at temperatures below 180°C, using coal ash, which is the solid waste from thermal...

Satoru Fujita; Kenzi Suzuki; Yasuo Shibasaki

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I  

SciTech Connect

All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

None

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

SciTech Connect

The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e., Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous US, they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Elements of environmental concern in the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments: A perspective of Fort Union coals in northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region  

SciTech Connect

The elements of environmental concern (EECs) named in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments include 12 trace elements consisting of antimony, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, nickel, selenium, and uranium. Although all these trace elements are potentially hazardous, arsenic, mercury, lead, and selenium may be targeted in forthcoming Environmental Protection Agency regulations. Fort Union coals contain all the trace elements named in the Clean Air Act Amendments; however, the presence and amounts of individual trace elements vary from basin to basin. In the Powder River Basin, the major producing Fort Union coals (Wyodak-Anderson and equivalent coal beds, and Rosebud coal bed) contain the lowest (or statistically as low) amounts of EECs of any of the coal producing basins (i.e. Williston, Hanna, and Green River) in the region. In addition, when the arithmetic means of these trace elements in Powder River Basin coals are compared to other regions in the conterminous U.S., they are lower than those of Cretaceous coals in Colorado Plateau, Tertiary lignites in the Gulf Coast, and Pennsylvanian coals in the Illinois and Appalachian Basins. Thus, elements of environmental concern are generally low in Fort Union coals in the Northern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains region, and particularly low in the Powder River Basin. Projected increase in production of Powder River Basin coals will, therefore, be of greater benefit to the nation than an increase in development and production of coals in other basins.

Stricker, G.D.; Ellis, M.E.; Flores, R.M.; Bader, L.R. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)

1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Coal Ash and Clean Coal  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IT is the normal view that the incombustible part of coal is not only a useless but even objectionable diluent. At times in the past, ... , familiar with the theory of contact catalysis of gas reactions, have speculated that the ash constituents might well play an active role in the processes of carbonisation and combustion. ...

H. J. HODSMAN

1926-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

365

1 INTRODUCTION Appalachian coal recovered during mining fre-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Appalachian underground coal mining (Newman 2003). Storage of coal processing waste is limited to above ground, the impact of past and present mining on the long-term stability of the structure must be evalu- ated overlies a section of the mine workings and, therefore, long term stability of the mine work- ings

366

Coal Industry Annual 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

368

Coal for the future. Proceedings of the 33rd international technical conference on coal utilization and fuel systems  

SciTech Connect

Topics covered include oxy-fuel technology, modelling and simulations, low NOx technology, gasification technology, pre-utilization beneficiation of coal, advanced energy conversion systems, mercury emissions control, improving power plant efficiency and reducing emissions, biomass and wastes, coal to liquids, post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, multi emission controls, advanced materials, advanced controls, and international highlights.

Sakkestad, B.A. (ed.)

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi) < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Developer Industrial Utility Program Info State Mississippi Program Type Environmental Regulations Siting and Permitting Provider Mississippi Department of Environmental Quality The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under special regulation due to their nature, and applies only to state lands. When applied to Coal with Carbon Capture and Storage projects the rules that would apply to a normal coal-mining project still apply. In addition to these measures, a CCS plant would need to adhere to all waste disposal requirements, water usage

370

Clean coal  

SciTech Connect

The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

371

Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994  

SciTech Connect

Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

Huffman, G.P. [ed.

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Coal industry annual 1993  

SciTech Connect

Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

Not Available

1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

374

Appalachian coal awareness conference: promoting Eastern coal  

SciTech Connect

Promoting the development and use of coal, especially coal from the Appalachian region, was the focus of introductory and keynote speeches and a discussion by representatives of the Virginia Coal Council, mining engineers, industry, and the Edison Electric Institute. Governor Dalton's keynote address noted that both producers and consumers attending the conference should work together to promote coal as a solution to the US energy future, and reported the impact that a commitment to coal has had on Virginia's economic growth. Participants in the coal consumers panel discussion raised various economic and regulatory issues.

Not Available

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Examination of Kinetics of Non-catalytic Steam Gasification of Biomass/Lignite Chars and Its Relationship with the Variation of the Pore Structure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Examination of Kinetics of Non-catalytic Steam Gasification of Biomass/Lignite Chars and Its Relationship with the Variation of the Pore Structure ... Biomass and lignite are attractive as feedstocks in light of the renewable nature and large reserves, respectively. ...

Shinji Kudo; Yasuyo Hachiyama; Hyun-Seok Kim; Koyo Norinaga; Jun-ichiro Hayashi

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

376

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Effect of High-Pressure Impregnation on Structure Variation and Desulfurization Property of a Zn-Based Sorbent Prepared Using Lignite as a Support ... Lignite reserves are relatively abundant in China; however, its utilization is significantly limited because of its high water content and low calorific value. ...

Xiurong Ren; Qiang He; Yurong Dong; Meijun Wang; Liping Chang; Weiren Bao

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

377

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

378

Clean Coal Power Initiative  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

"Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other pollutants from coal-burning power plants.

379

Coal Mining (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

380

Forward and reverse combustion gasification of coal with production of high-quality syngas in a simulated pilot system for in situ gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This research focused on the feasibility and stability of applying the forward and reverse combustion approach to the in situ gasification of lignite and bituminous coal with oxygen or oxygen–steam mixtures as gasification agents, especially reverse combustion gasification. A high-quality syngas (H2 and CO) could be obtained using the reverse combustion gasification technique combined with forward combustion gasification in a pilot system for in situ gasification. The gasification time was extended more than 25% using the reverse combustion approach. The controlling conditions for reverse combustion gasification were obtained by comparing and analyzing experimental data. The results show the relationship between the inject gas flow within certain limits and velocity of the gasification flame was linear during reverse combustion. The underground conditions of the coal seam and strata were simulated in a pilot-scale underground gasifier during experiments. The combustion gasification of coal was carried out experimentally for over 5 days. The average effective content (H2 and CO) of syngas was in the range of 60–70%, meeting the requirement of synthesis gas. The optimal ranges of gasifying lignite and bituminous coal were found to be 1.5–2.0 and 1.3–1.75, respectively. The product gas flow was proportional to oxygen blast. These are expected to provide useful guidance on practical underground coal gasification operations and to give experimental evidence in support of theory.

Yong Cui; Jie Liang; Zhangqing Wang; Xiaochun Zhang; Chenzi Fan; Dongyu Liang; Xuan Wang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Municipal Solid Waste:  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste Methodology for Allocating Municipal Solid Waste to Biogenic and Non-Biogenic Energy May 2007 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 This report was prepared by the Energy Information Administration, the independent statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. The information contained herein should be attributed to the Energy Information Administration and should not be construed as advocating or reflecting any policy of the Department of Energy or any other organization. Contact This report was prepared by staff of the Renewable Information Team, Coal, Nuclear, and Renewables Division, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels.

382

Microsoft Word - Subject Categories Booklet  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Descriptions 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT Information on coal and coal products, including lignite and peat, as energy sources. Reserves, geology and exploration; surface and...

383

American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

American Coal Council American Coal Council 2004 Spring Coal Forum Dallas, Texas May 17-19, 2004 Thomas J. Feeley, III Technology Manager National Energy Technology Laboratory ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Presentation Outline * Background * Power plant-water issues * DOE/NETL R&D program * Conclusion/future plans ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Global Water Availability Ocean 97% Fresh Water 2.5% 0 20 40 60 80 100 Ice Groundwater Lakes and Rivers ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Three Things Power Plants Require 1) Access to transmission lines 2) Available fuel, e.g., coal or natural gas 3) Water ACC Spring Coal Forum, 2004 Freshwater Withdrawals and Consumption Mgal / Day Irrigation 81,300 Irrigation 81,300 Thermoelectric 3,310 Consumption Sources: "Estimated Use of Water in the United States in 1995," USGS Circular 1200, 1998

384

Coal Characterization in Relation to Coal Combustion  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most coals are used worldwide for combustion today. Generally all kinds of coals are applicable for combustion. The major methods of burning are fixed bed firing, fluidized bed firing and suspension firing. Th...

Harald Jüntgen

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal Technology Program Clean Coal 101 Lesson 2: The Clean Coal Technology Program The Clean Coal Technology Program began in 1985 when the United States and Canada decided that something had to be done about the "acid rain" that was believed to be damaging rivers, lakes, forests, and buildings in both countries. Since many of the pollutants that formed "acid rain" were coming from big coal-burning power plants in the United States, the U.S. Government took the lead in finding a solution. One of the steps taken by the U.S. Department of Energy was to create a partnership program between the Government, several States, and private companies to test new methods developed by scientists to make coal burning much cleaner. This became the "Clean Coal Technology Program."

386

NETL: IEP - Coal Utilization By-Products : Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers Since 1993, Federal Regulations have treated the four major large-volume CUB's -- fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) byproducts -- as solid wastes that do not warrant regulation as hazardous wastes under Subtitle C of RCRA, as long as these CUBÂ’s were not co-managed with other waste materials. On May 22, 2000, EPA published a final Regulatory Determination [PDF-320KB] that retained the hazardous waste exemption for coal utilization by-products. EPA has concluded that fossil fuel combustion wastes do not warrant regulation as hazardous under Subtitle C of RCRA and is retaining the hazardous waste exemption for these wastes. However, the Agency has determined that national non-hazardous waste regulations under RCRA Subtitle D are needed for coal combustion wastes disposed in surface impoundments and landfills and used as minefilling. EPA also concluded beneficial uses of these wastes, other than for minefilling, pose no significant risk and no additional national regulations are needed. This determination affects more than 110 million tons of fossil fuel combustion wastes that are generated each year, virtually all from burning coal.

387

Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

388

Coal liquefaction  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In a two-stage liquefaction wherein coal, hydrogen and liquefaction solvent are contacted in a first thermal liquefaction zone, followed by recovery of an essentially ash free liquid and a pumpable stream of insoluble material, which includes 850.degree. F.+ liquid, with the essentially ash free liquid then being further upgraded in a second liquefaction zone, the liquefaction solvent for the first stage includes the pumpable stream of insoluble material from the first liquefaction stage, and 850.degree. F.+ liquid from the second liquefaction stage.

Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, natural

Fridley, Ed., David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

China Energy Databook - Rev. 4  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. Crude oil and natural

Sinton Editor, J.E.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Impacts of stripmining lignite on net returns for agricultural enterprises in East Texas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Southern Methodist University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr, Lonnie L. Jones The study aims to determine whether or not returns to typical pare-time and full-time farms in Preestone County change after lignite mining. Net returns used are to land... pieces of mined and unmined land. The general opinion of experts is that forage yields on reclaimed land are not less than before mining. Although the carrying capacity for unmined and reclaimed pasture is the same in the study, the mined farm cases...

Morris, Christina

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Effect of potassium permanganate as an oxidizing agent in the production of lignite-based fertilizers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this work was to observe the effect of potassium permanganate oxidation of lignites from Elbistan for end use as fertilizers, after being ammoniated. The experiments at each stage were designed by a 1/2 x full factorial design. The oxidation was carried out by three different methods. In the first two methods potassium permanganate in neutral or basic medium was used. In the other method two stages of oxidation were used: nitric acid followed by potassium permanganate in acidic medium. The latter proved to be more successful.

Baris, S.; Dincer, S.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

393

Capturing carbon and saving coal  

SciTech Connect

Electric utilities face a tangle of choices when figuring how to pull CO{sub 2} from coal-fired plants. The article explains the three basic approaches to capturing CO{sub 2} - post-combustion, oxyfuel combustion and pre-combustion. Researchers at US DOE labs and utilities are investigating new solvents that capture CO{sub 2} more efficiently than amines and take less energy. Ammonium carbonate has been identified by EPRI as one suitable solvent. Field research projects on this are underway in the USA. Oxyfuel combustion trials are also being planned. Pre-combustion, or gasification is a completely different way of pulling energy from coal and, for electricity generation, this means IGCC systems. AEP, Southern Cinergy and Xcel are considering IGCC plants but none will capture CO{sub 2}. Rio Tinto and BP are planning a 500 MW facility to gasify coke waste from petroleum refining and collect and sequester CO{sub 2}. However, TECO recently dropped a project to build a 789 MW IGCC coal fired plant even though it was to receive a tax credit to encourage advanced coal technologies. The plant would not have captured CO{sub 2}. The company said that 'with uncertainty of carbon capture and sequestration regulations being discussed at the federal and state levels, the timing was not right'. 4 figs.

Johnson, J.

2007-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

394

Coal-fired diesel generator  

SciTech Connect

The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

396

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

397

Coal combustion by-products: State regulatory overview  

SciTech Connect

Coal combustion by-products (CCBs) are generated from the combustion of coal for energy production. Approximately 82 million tons of CCBs are produced each year by electric utilities. (1991 Coal Combustion By-Product Production and Use, American Coal Ash Association, 1992.) There are several common types of CCBs produced by coal combustion--fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, flue gas desulfurization material (FGD) and fluidized bed combustion byproducts (FBC). Some CCBs, such as fly ash, have pozzolanic properties and may have cementitious properties, both of which are advantageous for engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. The American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) in ASTM C-618 has created two classifications of useful and quality coal ash, Class F ash and Class C ash. Each class of coal ash has different pozzolanic and cementitious characteristics. Coal ash can be utilized in many manufacturing, mining, agricultural, engineering, construction and waste remediation applications. This is a review by state of regulations concerning coal combustion by-products.

Jagiella, D. [Howard and Howard Attorneys, Peoria, IL (United States)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Study of ash deposition during coal combustion under oxyfuel conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a comparative study on ash deposition of two selected coals, Russian coal and lignite, under oxyfuel (O2/CO2) and air combustion conditions. The comparison is based on experimental results and subsequent evaluation of the data and observed trends. Deposited as well as remaining filter ash (fine ash) samples were subjected to XRD and ICP analyses in order to study the chemical composition and mineral transformations undergone in the ash under the combustion conditions. The experimental results show higher deposition propensities under oxyfuel conditions; the possible reasons for this are investigated by analyzing the parameters affecting the ash deposition phenomena. Particle size seems to be larger for the Russian coal oxy-fired ash, leading to increased impaction on the deposition surfaces. The chemical and mineralogical compositions do not seem to differ significantly between air and oxyfuel conditions. The differences in the physical properties of the flue gas between air combustion and oxyfuel combustion, e.g. density, viscosity, molar heat capacity, lead to changes in the flow field (velocities, particle trajectory and temperature) that together with the ash particle size shift seem to play a role in the observed ash deposition phenomena.

L. Fryda; C. Sobrino; M. Glazer; C. Bertrand; M. Cieplik

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990  

SciTech Connect

This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

Not Available

1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

transportation component of coal price should also increase;investment. Coal costs and prices are functions of a numberto forecast coal demand, supply, and prices from now to

McCollum, David L

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lignite waste coal" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Coal Market Module This  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

51 51 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2012 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2012, DOE/EIA-M060(2012) (Washington, DC, 2012). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

402

Coal Market Module  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

page intentionally left blank page intentionally left blank 153 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Assumptions to the Annual Energy Outlook 2011 Coal Market Module The NEMS Coal Market Module (CMM) provides projections of U.S. coal production, consumption, exports, imports, distribution, and prices. The CMM comprises three functional areas: coal production, coal distribution, and coal exports. A detailed description of the CMM is provided in the EIA publication, Coal Market Module of the National Energy Modeling System 2011, DOE/EIA-M060(2011) (Washington, DC, 2011). Key assumptions Coal production The coal production submodule of the CMM generates a different set of supply curves for the CMM for each year of the projection. Forty-one separate supply curves are developed for each of 14 supply regions, nine coal types (unique combinations

403

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

404

NETL: Clean Coal Demonstrations - Coal 101  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A "Bed" for Burning Coal A "Bed" for Burning Coal Clean Coal 101 Lesson 4: A "Bed" for Burning Coal? It was a wet, chilly day in Washington DC in 1979 when a few scientists and engineers joined with government and college officials on the campus of Georgetown University to celebrate the completion of one of the world's most advanced coal combustors. It was a small coal burner by today's standards, but large enough to provide heat and steam for much of the university campus. But the new boiler built beside the campus tennis courts was unlike most other boilers in the world. A Fluidized Bed Boiler A Fluidized Bed Boiler In a fluidized bed boiler, upward blowing jets of air suspend burning coal, allowing it to mix with limestone that absorbs sulfur pollutants.

405

The natural radioactivity contents in feed coals from the lignite-fired power plants in Western Anatolia, Turkey  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......consumption of electric energy. In the last 30 y, energy consumption per person, which...of the electric energy production is provided...their products. The average activity concentrations...consumed domestically for home use, but, today......

N. Füsun Çam; Günseli Yaprak; Elif Eren

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993  

SciTech Connect

Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

Srivastava, K.C.

1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Identification of organonitrogen compounds from thermally dissolved Huolinguole lignite in ethanol  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thermal dissolution of Huolinguole lignite (HL) in ethanol was conducted at 330°C for 2 h. The soluble fraction was sequentially eluted with petroleum ether (PE), ethyl acetate (EA)/PE mixed solvents with increased EA to PE ratio, and EA to afford five eluted fractions (EF1-EF5) through a silica gel-packed column. In total, 49 organonitrogen compounds (ONCs), including N-heterohexacyclic compounds (NHHCCs), N-heteropentacyclic compounds, nitrogen-containing group-substituted benzenes (NCGSBs), condensed N-heterocyclic compounds, and amides were detected in EF2 and EF3 with a gas chromatography/mass spectrometer. Among the ONCs, NHHCCs are dominant and most of them are alkyl pyridines (APs), suggesting that APs are the main existing modes of ONCs in HL. As the main NCGSBs, anilines may originally exist in HL or were released by HL ethanolysis. This investigation provides an effective approach for understanding the modes of ONC occurrences in lignites. [Received: April 11, 2013; Accepted: February 20, 2014

Yu-Gao Wang; Xian-Yong Wei; Hong-Lei Yan; Zhi-Min Zong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Correlation of lignites in the midway and Wilcox groups of southern Alabama and eastern Mississippi  

SciTech Connect

The Gulf Coast Paleogene section represents one of the world's most continuous records of cyclic nonmarine through marine sedimentation. Microfossil research has demonstrated the completeness of downdip marine sections; however, the continuity of updip, nonmarine, and marginal marine sections remains relatively uncertain. Lignites occur throughout the Gulf Coast low Paleogene, but to date have not been adequately characterized with the detail necessary for high-resolution correlation. Lignite characteristics, stratigraphic position within Paleogene depositional cycles, and their mode of origin can be used in correlating nonmarine deposits (highstand system tract) to downdip marine deposits (transgressive system tract). Samples were collected for east-central Mississippi and west-central Alabama and analyzed. Principle constituents, comprising over 50%, are inaperturate forms in Midway Group samples and tricolporate forms in Wilcox Group samples. Secondary components, 10-20%, of triporate and monolete/trilete forms occur in both groups. Triporate forms are approximately 25% more abundant in the Wilcox Group samples, whereas monolete/trilete forms remain relatively constant in both groups. Minor components ([le]5%) of bivesticulate, tricolpate, polycolpate, polyporate, and polycolporate forms are present, but show distinct percentage variations between each group. Inaperature forms are present only in the Midway Group and monoporate forms exist only in the Wilcox Group. These group-specific forms, combined with the differences in primary and secondary forms and abundances, allow samples to be formationally assigned base on palynomorpbic signature.

Harrison, D.W. (Univ. of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Overview of the potential for clean coal technology in the Asia-Pacific region  

SciTech Connect

The Asia-Pacific economies consume substantial amounts of coal for electricity generation and are potential important markets for clean coal technologies (CCTs). CCTs are defined as those technologies that can substantially reduce emissions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} resulting from the combustion of coal and lignite in electricity generating power plants. The rate of introduction of CCTs into Asia-Pacific economies varies widely and is broadly related to the level of economic development and environmental problems resulting from coal burning in individual economies. An overview is presented of the trends in electricity generation in the Asia-Pacific region and estimates of the market for CCTs in electricity generation plants to 2010. There are other important markets for CCTs, such as in the iron and steel industry, that are not covered. Governments in all coal-consuming Asia-Pacific economies are examining options for maintaining high levels of economic growth and reducing environmental impacts associated with increased energy consumption. There is a correlation between the expansion in economic activity, commonly measured as the gross domestic product (GDP), and the growth in electricity consumption. In low-income economies the growth rate of electricity consumption usually exceeds the growth rate of GDP. However, in higher income, mature economies (such as Japan) the increase in electricity consumption is often substantially lower than the GDP growth rate. The expansion in coal consumption for electricity generation is the dominant factor in the large increase in coal consumption. Without effective control measures, the projected increase in coal consumption will have a serious impact on environmental quality in many countries in the region. Therefore, there is a need to develop sound policies and strategies at both national and regional levels to reduce the negative environmental effects of increased coal use in Asia.

Johnson, C.J.; Binsheng Li

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

410

Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants  

SciTech Connect

The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

411

Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to;Radioactive Waste · Program requires · Generator support · Proper segregation · Packaging · labeling #12;Radioactive Waste · What is radioactive waste? · Anything that · Contains · or is contaminated

Slatton, Clint

412

Efficiency and power upgrade by an additional high pressure economizer installation at an aged 620 MWe lignite-fired power plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract An additional high pressure economizer was installed at Unit B1 of the 620 MWe lignite-fired Power Plant “Nikola Tesla B” after 30 years of its operation. An innovative connection of the new additional economizer was applied. It is in parallel connection to the first section of the originally built economizer and it is directly fed with the feedwater from the outlet of the feedwater pump. The analysis of Unit B1 operation with such an economizer arrangement is performed and it is supported by measured data. It is shown that more than 30 MWth of the flue gas waste heat is recovered. The Unit gross efficiency is increased by 0.53 percentage points, which leads to 9.4 MWe of the electric power production. The parallel connection of the additional economizer also leads to the partial feedwater bypass of the high pressure heaters, which enables an increase of the plant electric power by up to 24.5 MWe. The accompanying effects are the reduction of the pressure drop in the feedwater line and the economizers, which leads to the decrease of the energy consumption for the main feedwater pump operation. The applied solution is presented together with measured and calculated energy and economic benefits.

Vladimir D. Stevanovic; Tadeusz Wala; Slawomir Muszynski; Milos Milic; Milorad Jovanovic

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Investigations into coal coprocessing and coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The conversion of coal to liquid suitable as feedstock to a petroleum refinery is dependent upon several process variables. These variables include temperature, pressure, coal rank, catalyst type, nature of the feed to the reactor, type of process, etc. Western Research Institute (WRI) has initiated a research program in the area of coal liquefaction to address the impact of some of these variables upon the yield and quality of the coal-derived liquid. The principal goal of this research is to improve the efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. Two different approaches are currently being investigated. These include the coprocessing of a heavy liquid, such as crude oil, and coal using a dispersed catalyst and the direct liquefaction of coal using a supported catalyst. Another important consideration in coal liquefaction is the utilization of hydrogen, including both externally- and internally-supplied hydrogen. Because the incorporation of externally-supplied hydrogen during conversion of this very aromatic fossil fuel to, for example, transportation fuels is very expensive, improved utilization of internally-supplied hydrogen can lead to reducing processing costs. The objectives of this investigation, which is Task 3.3.4, Coal Coprocessing, of the 1991--1992 Annual Research Plan, are: (1) to evaluate coal/oil pretreatment conditions that are expected to improve the liquid yield through more efficient dispersion of an oil-soluble, iron-based catalyst, (2) to characterize the coke deposits on novel, supported catalysts after coal liquefaction experiments and to correlate the carbon skeletal structure parameters of the coke deposit with catalyst performance as measured by coal liquefaction product yield, and (3) to determine the modes of hydrogen utilization during coal liquefaction and coprocessing. Experimental results are discussed in this report.

Guffey, F.D.; Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Thomas, K.P. [Western Research Inst., Laramie, WY (United States); Zhang, Tiejun; Haynes, H.W. Jr. [Wyoming Univ., Laramie, WY (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Maternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal Fly Ash Basins  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

common grackles (Quiscalus quis- cala) nesting in association with coal fly ash settling basins be warranted. The disposal of slurried coal combustion waste (hereafter, ash) into open settling impoundments grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) nesting at coal ash settling basins for trace elements to determine

Hopkins, William A.

415

Lead contents of coal, coal ash and fly ash  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Flameless atomic absorption spectrometry is applied for the determination of Pb in coal, coal ash and fly ash. Lead concentrations in coal and coal ash ranging from respectively 7 to 110 µg...?1 and 120 to 450 µg...

C. Block; R. Dams

1975-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

Wrathall, James Anthony

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture  

SciTech Connect

A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

418

International Energy Outlook - Coal  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Coal Coal International Energy Outlook 2004 Coal Although coal use is expected to be displaced by natural gas in some parts of the world, only a slight drop in its share of total energy consumption is projected by 2025. Coal continues to dominate fuel markets in developing Asia. Figure 52. World Coal Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 53. Coal Share of World Energy Consumption by Sector, 2001 and 2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data Figure 54. Coal Share of Regional Energy Consumption, 1970-2025. Need help, call the National Energy Information Center at 202-586-8800. Figure Data World coal consumption has been in a period of generally slow growth since

419

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

420

Hydrogen from Coal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Coal Coal Edward Schmetz Office of Sequestration, Hydrogen and Clean Coal Fuels U.S. Department of Energy DOE Workshop on Hydrogen Separations and Purification Technologies September 8, 2004 Presentation Outline ƒ Hydrogen Initiatives ƒ Hydrogen from Coal Central Production Goal ƒ Why Coal ƒ Why Hydrogen Separation Membranes ƒ Coal-based Synthesis Gas Characteristics ƒ Technical Barriers ƒ Targets ƒ Future Plans 2 3 Hydrogen from Coal Program Hydrogen from Coal Program FutureGen FutureGen Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Hydrogen Fuel Initiative Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Gasification Fuel Cells Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Supports the Hydrogen Fuel Initiative and FutureGen * The Hydrogen Fuel Initiative is a $1.2 billion RD&D program to develop hydrogen

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421

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams  

SciTech Connect

CONSOL characterized 38 process strea m samples from HTI Run PB- 04, in which Black Thunder Mine Coal, Hondo vacuum resid, autom obile shredder residue (ASR), and virgin plastics were used as liquefaction feedstocks with dispersed catalyst. A paper on kinetic modeling of resid reactivity was presented at the DOE Coal Lique -faction and Solid Fuels Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, i n Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "The Reactivity of Direct Coal Liquefaction Resids", i s appended (Appendix 1). Three papers on characterization of samples from coal/ resid/ waste p lastics co- liquefaction were presented or submitted for presen tation at conferences. Because of their similarity, only one of the papers is appended to this report. The paper, "Characterization o f Process Samples From Co- Liquefaction of Coal and Waste Polymers", (Appendix 2) was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuels C ontractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper, "Characterization of Process Stream Samples From Bench- Scale Co -Liquefaction Runs That Utilized Waste Polymers as Feedstocks" was presented at the 214th National Meeting of the Ameri can Chemical Society, September 7- 11, 1997, in Las Vegas, NV. The paper, "Characterization of Process Oils from Coal/ Waste Co- Liquefaction" wa s submitted for presentation at the 14th Japan/ U. S. Joint Technical Meeting on Coa l Liquefaction and Materials for Coal Liquefaction on October 28, 1997, in Tokyo, Japan. A joint Burns and Roe Services Corp. and CONSOL pap er on crude oil assays of product oils from HTI Run PB- 03 was presented at the DOE Coal Liquefaction and Solid Fuel s Contractors Review Conference, September 3- 4, 1997, in Pittsburgh, PA. The paper , "Characterization of Liquid Products from All- Slurry Mode Liquefaction", is appende d (Appendix 3).

G. A. Robbins; R. A. Winschel; S. D. Brandes

1998-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

422

Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers  

SciTech Connect

This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this technology could be used to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of IGCC plants. The study goes beyond the systems-level analyses and initial lab work that formed the bases of previous studies and includes the following tasks: performing laboratory tests to quantify slurry properties; developing an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry preparation and feed system; conducting a full IGCC plant techno-economic analysis for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and North Dakota lignite in both water and liquid CO{sub 2} slurries; and identifying a technology development plan to continue the due diligence to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this technology. The initial task included rheology tests and slurry data analyses that would increase the knowledge and understanding of maximum solids loading capability for both PRB and lignite. Higher coal concentrations have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} over water slurries, and a coal concentration of 75% by weight in liquid CO{sub 2} has been estimated to be achievable in a commercial application. In addition, lower slurry viscosities have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} at the same solids loading, where the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry viscosity has been measured to be about a factor of 10 lower than the comparable water slurry and estimated to be less than 100 centipoise in a commercial application. In the following task, an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and mixing system has been developed for both a batch and continuous system. The capital cost of the design has also been estimated so that it could be used in the economic analysis. An industry search and survey has been conducted to determine if essential components required to construct the feed system are available from commercial sources or if targeted R&D efforts are required. The search and survey concluded that commercial sources are available for selected components that comprise both the batch and continuous type systems. During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill fo

Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

423

Characteristics of carbonized sludge for co-combustion in pulverized coal power plants  

SciTech Connect

Co-combustion of sewage sludge can destabilize its combustion profile due to high volatility, which results in unstable flame. We carried out fuel reforming for sewage sludge by way of carbonization at pyrolysis temperature of 300-500 deg. C. Fuel characteristics of carbonized sludge at each temperature were analyzed. As carbonization temperature increased, fuel ratio increased, volatile content reduced, and atomic ratio relation of H/C and O/C was similar to that of lignite. The analysis result of FT-IR showed the decrease of aliphatic C-H bond and O-C bond in carbonization. In the analysis result of TG-DTG, the thermogravimetry reduction temperature of carbonized sludge (CS400) was proven to be higher than that of dried sludge, but lower than that of sub-bituminous coal. Hardgrove grindability index increased in proportion to fuel ratio increase, where the carbonized sludge value of 43-110 was similar or higher than the coal value of 49-63. As for ash deposits, slagging and fouling index were higher than that of coal. When carbonized sludge (CS400) and coal were co-combusted in 1-10% according to calorific value, slagging tendency was low in all conditions, and fouling tendency was medium or high according to the compositions of coal.

Park, Sang-Woo [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Cheol-Hyeon, E-mail: jangch@hanbat.ac.kr [Department of Environmental Engineering, Hanbat National University, Daejeon 305-719 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

424

System analysis of nuclear-assisted syngas production from coal - article no. 042901  

SciTech Connect

A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. The results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 64.4% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

Harvego, E.A.; McKellar, M.G.; O'Brien, J.E. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

425

Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

426

Upgraded Coal Interest Group  

SciTech Connect

The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

Evan Hughes

2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

427

Opportunities for coal to methanol conversion  

SciTech Connect

The accumulations of mining residues in the anthracite coal regions of Pennsylvania offer a unique opportunity to convert the coal content into methanol that could be utilized in that area as an alternative to gasoline or to extend the supplies through blending. Additional demand may develop through the requirements of public utility gas turbines located in that region. The cost to run this refuse through coal preparation plants may result in a clean coal at about $17.00 per ton. After gasification and synthesis in a 5000 ton per day facility, a cost of methanol of approximately $3.84 per million Btu is obtained using utility financing. If the coal is to be brought in by truck or rail from a distance of approximately 60 miles, the cost of methanol would range between $4.64 and $5.50 per million Btu depending upon the mode of transportation. The distribution costs to move the methanol from the synthesis plant to the pump could add, at a minimum, $2.36 per million Btu to the cost. In total, the delivered cost at the pump for methanol produced from coal mining wastes could range between $6.20 and $7.86 per million Btu.

Not Available

1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Air and oxy-fuel combustion behaviour of petcoke/lignite blends  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The pyrolysis and combustion behaviour of a petroleum coke (petcoke), an indigenous lignite and their 70/30 wt.% blend in air and oxy-fuel conditions were investigated by using non-isothermal thermo-gravimetric method (TGA) coupled with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer. Blend samples were prepared by mixing lignite, which has low calorific value, high ash and moisture contents with petcoke that has high calorific value, low ash and moisture content, in the proportion of 70:30. Pyrolysis tests were carried out in nitrogen and carbon dioxide environments which are the main diluting gases of air and oxy-fuel environments, respectively. Pyrolysis curves of parent fuels and their blend reveal close resemblance up to 700 °C in both N2 and CO2 environments. At higher temperatures, further weight loss taking place in N2 and CO2 atmospheres is attributed to calcite decomposition and CO2-char gasification reaction, respectively. Gasification reaction leads to significant increase in CO and COS formation as observed in FTIR evolution profiles. Almost identical experimental and theoretical pyrolysis profiles of the blend samples show that there is no synergy between the parent fuels of the blend in both pyrolysis environments. Combustion experiments were carried out in four different atmospheres; air, oxygen-enriched air environment (30% O2–70% N2), oxy-fuel environment (21% O2–79% CO2) and oxygen-enriched oxy-fuel environment (30% O2–70% CO2). Combustion experiments show that replacing nitrogen in the gas mixture by the same concentration of CO2 leads to delay in combustion (lower maximum rate of weight loss and higher burnout temperatures). Overall comparison of derivative thermogravimetry (DTG) profiles shows that effect of oxygen content on combustion characteristics is more significant than that of diluting gas in the combustion environment. At elevated oxygen levels, profiles shift through lower temperature zone, peak and burnout temperatures decrease, weight loss rate increases significantly and complete combustion is achieved at lower temperatures and shorter times. Theoretical and experimental combustion profiles of the blend mainly display different trends, which indicate synergistic interactions between lignite and petcoke during their combustion in different environments.

Nur Sena Yuzbasi; Nevin Selçuk

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

The utilization of flue gas desulfurization waste by-products in construction brick.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Millions of tons of waste by-products from Texas coal burning plants are produced each year. Two common byproducts are the fuel ashes and calcium sulfate… (more)

Berryman, Charles Wayne

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

E-Print Network 3.0 - art municipal waste Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Combustion of Municipal Solid Waste," Second Conference... on Municipal, Hazardous and Coal ... Source: Columbia University, Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering,...

431

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

432

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), and up to 5500 psi with emphasis upon 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally-acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national perspective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan

2002-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

434

BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS  

SciTech Connect

The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

2002-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

435

Investigation of mechanisms of ash deposit formation from low-rank coal combustion: Final report  

SciTech Connect

This project was undertaken to determine the chemical behavior of alkali metal and other species implicated in the ash fouling which can occur during the combustion of low rank coals. The coal combustion was studied in unaugmented premixed pulverized coal flames. Vapor species were measured by molecular beam mass spectrometry. Temperatures were also measured, and time-resolved coal/ash particulate samples were collected and analyzed. A major part of the research on this project was devoted to: (1) the development and refinement of techniques for the MBMS analysis of trace quantities of unstable and reactive high temperature vapor species from the pulverized coal flames; and (2) the time-resolved sampling and collection of particulates. The equipment is now operating very satisfactorily. Inorganic species, some of which were present at parts-per-million levels, were quantitatively sampled and measured in the pulverized coal flames. Time-resolved particulate samples which were free of vapor deposited contaminants were collected without the use of an interfering substrate. Profiles of the alkali metal species in Beulah lignite and Decker subbituminous coal flames were obtained. It was found in both flames that sodium is volatilized as the atomic species early (milliseconds) in the combustion process. The gaseous Na reacts, also in milliseconds, to form an unknown species which is probably an oxide fume, but which is not NaOH or Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. This is probably the mechanism for the formation of the alkali ''fumes'' observed in other systems. Measurements were also made of a number of other gaseous species, and time-resolved coal/ash samples were obtained and analyzed. 27 refs., 23 figs., 8 tabs.

Greene, F.T.; O'Donnell, J.E.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Coal Combustion Science  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks for this activity include: (1) coal devolatilization - the objective of this risk is to characterize the physical and chemical processes that constitute the early devolatilization phase of coal combustion as a function of coal type, heating rate, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxidizer concentration; (2) coal char combustion -the objective of this task is to characterize the physical and chemical processes involved during coal char combustion as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, and gas phase temperature and oxygen concentration; (3) fate of mineral matter during coal combustion - the objective of this task is to establish a quantitative understanding of the mechanisms and rates of transformation, fragmentation, and deposition of mineral matter in coal combustion environments as a function of coal type, particle size and temperature, the initial forms and distribution of mineral species in the unreacted coal, and the local gas temperature and composition.

Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Fletcher, T.H.; Hurt, R.H.; Baxter, L.L. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States))

1991-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Energy Evaluation for Lignite Pyrolysis by Solid Heat Carrier Coupled with Gasification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Between the two reactors, solid heat carriers are circulated to carry the heat from the gasifier to the pyrolyzer. ... With the purpose of revealing the features of energy use and chemical element conversion, and the feasibility and the rationality of the coupled system, some related experiments were performed, and the simulation flow sheet for lignite pyrolysis by a solid heat carrier coupled with gasification was established by Aspen Plus 11.1 on the basis of the experimental data. ... The amount of the solid heat carrier was determined by two factors: (1) the temperature of the solid heat carrier should be heated to 750 °C in the combustion furnace; (2) the energy carried by the solid heat carrier must be sufficient to satisfy the energy demands of the drying and pyrolysis units. ...

Qun Yi; Jie Feng; Bingchuan Lu; Jing Deng; Changlian Yu; Wenying Li

2013-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

438

Coal gasification: Belgian first  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... hope for Europe's coal production came with the announcement this month that the first gasification of coal at depths of nearly 1,000 metres would take place this May in ... of energy.

Jasper Becker

1982-03-04T23:59:59.000Z

439

Microbial solubilization of coal  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

“From Coal to Coke”  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... IN the Sixth Coal Science Lecture, organized by the British ... Science Lecture, organized by the British Coal Utilization Research Association, and given at the Institution of Civil Engineers on October 16, ...

1957-11-02T23:59:59.000Z