Sample records for lignite waste coal

  1. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  2. Lignites and Low Rank Coals Conference: Proceedings 2001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2002-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EPRI and the Technische Vereinigung des Grosskraftswerkbetreiber (Technical Association of Large Power Plant Operators) (VGB) jointly held a Conference on Lignites and Low Rank Coals in Wiesbaden, Germany, May 16-18, 2001. These Proceedings include the plenary papers, technical session papers, and rapporteurs' summaries from the conference.

  3. Characterizing a lignite formation before and after an underground coal gasification experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Usman

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    water. To answer questions relating to the amount of lignite gasified, subsidence, ground water pollution problems and to obtain a better understanding of the process itself, work is needed to define the size, shape and orientation of the cavity...CHARACTERIZING A LIGNITE FORMATION BEFORE AND AFTER AN UNDERGROUND COAL GASIFICATION EXPERIMENT A Thesis by USMAN AHMED Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  4. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

  5. Thirteenth biennial lignite symposium: technology and utilization of low-rank coals proceedings. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.L. (ed.)

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings are the collected manuscripts from the 1985 Lignite Symposium held at Bismarck, North Dakota on May 21-23, 1985. Sponsorship of the thirteenth biennial meeting was by the United States Department of Energy, the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, and the Texas University Coal Research Consortium. Seven technical sessions plus two luncheons and a banquet were held during the two and a half day meeting. The final half day included tours of the Great Plains Gasification Plant; Basin Electric's Antelope Valley Power Station; and the Freedom Mine. Sessions covered diverse topics related to the technology and use of low-rank coals including coal development and public policy, combustion, gasification, environmental systems for low-rank coal utilization, liquefaction, beneficiation and coal mining and coal inorganics. All the papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  6. Thirteenth biennial lignite symposium: technology and utilization of low-rank coals proceedings. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, M.L. (ed.)

    1986-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    These proceedings are the collected manuscripts from the 1985 Lignite Symposium held at Bismarck, North Dakota on May 21-23. Sponsorship of the thirteenth biennial meeting was by the United States Department of Energy, the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center, and the Texas University Coal Research Consortium. Seven technical sessions were held during the two and a half day meeting. The final half day included tours of the Great Plains Gasification Plant; Basin Electric's Antelope Valley Power Station; and the Freedom Mine. Sessions covered diverse topics related to the technology and use of low-rank coals including coal development and public policy, combustion, gasification, environmental systems for low-rank coal utilization, liquefaction, beneficiation and coal mining and coal inorganics. Twenty-four papers have been entered individually into EDB and ERA.

  7. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anthracite, lignite and brown coal. While bituminous coal isproduction of lignite and brown coal, which also increasedtonnes. Whereas lignite and brown coal accounted for 4% of

  8. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  9. Potential for selenium migration at a lignite power plant solid waste disposal facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Steven Douglas

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . All groundwater that recharges on the disposal site is slightly saline and flows east, probably discharging into the Gibbons Creek Reservoir. Selenium, arsenic, boron, iron, manganese, and sulfate in the lignite waste effluent exceed either EPA... ( 1975) drinking water standards or EPA (1973) recommended livestock water standards. Since the natural groundwater contains higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and sulfate than the waste effluent, only arsenic and boron should...

  10. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  11. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger

    2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This 6th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from October 1st through December 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and dryer/process construction. Hypothesis remains the same. We will be able to dry lignite an increment to benefit the performance of and reduce emissions from a coal burning electric power generating station.

  12. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, George (Ames, IA); Gokhale, Ashok J. (College Station, TX)

    1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste, and method for producing the same, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces.

  13. Hardened, environmentally disposable composite granules of coal cleaning refuse, coal combustion waste, and other wastes, and method preparing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.J.

    1990-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granule of coal cleaning refuse and coal combustion waste and method for producing the same are disclosed, wherein the coal combustion waste is first granulated. The coal cleaning refuse is pulverized into fine particles and is then bound, as an outer layer, to the granulated coal combustion waste granules. This combination is then combusted and sintered. After cooling, the combination results in hardened, environmentally inert and disposable composite granules having cores of coal combustion waste, and outer shells of coal cleaning refuse. The composite particles are durable and extremely resistant to environmental and chemical forces. 3 figs.

  14. Co-combustion of pellets from Soma lignite and waste dusts of furniture works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deveci, N.D.; Yilgin, M.; Pehlivan, D. [Firat University, Elazig (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this work, volatiles and char combustion behaviors of the fuel pellets prepared from a low quality lignite and the dusts of furniture works and their various blends were investigated in an experimental fixed bed combustion system through which air flowed by natural convection. Combustion data obtained for varied bed temperatures, mass of pellets, and blend compositions has showed that ignition times of the pellets decreased and volatiles combustion rates tended to increase with the burning temperature. It was concluded that some synergy had existed between lignite and lower ratios of furniture work dusts, which was indicated by a prompt effect on the volatiles combustion rates. Char combustion rates of blend pellets have depended predominantly on the amount of lignite in the blend. The amounts of combustion residues of the pellets were considerably higher than those calculated from individual ash contents of the raw materials and related to lignite ratio in the blends.

  15. Pelletizing lignite

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goksel, Mehmet A. (Houghton, MI)

    1983-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignite is formed into high strength pellets having a calorific value of at least 9,500 Btu/lb by blending a sufficient amount of an aqueous base bituminous emulsion with finely-divided raw lignite containing its inherent moisture to form a moistened green mixture containing at least 3 weight % of the bituminous material, based on the total dry weight of the solids, pelletizing the green mixture into discrete green pellets of a predetermined average diameter and drying the green pellets to a predetermined moisture content, preferrably no less than about 5 weight %. Lignite char and mixture of raw lignite and lignite char can be formed into high strength pellets in the same general manner.

  16. Project {open_quotes}Kovin{close_quotes} - economics of upgraded low-rank coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ljubicic, B.; Anderson, C. [Energy & Environmental Research Center, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Bukurov, Z.; Cvijanovic, P. [Faculty of Technical Sciences, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia); Stajner, K. [Electric Power of Serbia, Novi Sad (Yugoslavia)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Yugoslavia has large reserves of lignitic coal, some of which are in geological settings that are located below the water table, along and under the Danube River, and are difficult to mine. Since conventional strip mining in the area next to the Danube would be difficult, the Kovin lignite will be mined as course lignite-water slurry. This will be the first time that lignite coal has been mined using dredging equipment. The use of dredging technology for the recovery of multiple lignite seams is an expansion of current dredging practices used to recovery precious and other metals such as tin, as well as diamonds, sand, and gravel from alluvial deposits. The proposed lignite dredging is based on selective mining of several discrete layers. The layers consist of either waste material or lignite and can be directed to a disposal area or to further processing. It is expected that dredging will reduce the environmental impact of the mine, be highly productive since it is fully mechanized, and reduce the cost per ton of lignite. The successful operation at the Kovin mine would also enable lignite to be dredged in other reserve areas where a high water table or significant surface water is present, allowing considerable tonnages of lignite, not currently in reserves, to be moved into the minable reserve category.

  17. Simultaneous combustion of waste plastics with coal for pulverized coal injection application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sushil Gupta; Veena Sahajwalla; Jacob Wood [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Cooperative Research Centre for Coal in Sustainable Development, School of Materials Science and Engineering

    2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A bench-scale study was conducted to investigate the effect of simultaneous cofiring of waste plastic with coal on the combustion behavior of coals for PCI (pulverized coal injection) application in a blast furnace. Two Australian coals, premixed with low- and high-density polyethylene, were combusted in a drop tube furnace at 1473 K under a range of combustion conditions. In all the tested conditions, most of the coal blends including up to 30% plastic indicated similar or marginally higher combustion efficiency compared to those of the constituent coals even though plastics were not completely combusted. In a size range up to 600 {mu}m, the combustion efficiency of coal and polyethylene blends was found be independent of the particle size of plastic used. Both linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) and high-density polyethylene (HDPE) are shown to display similar influence on the combustion efficiency of coal blends. The effect of plastic appeared to display greater improvement on the combustion efficiency of low volatile coal compared to that of a high volatile coal blend. The study further suggested that the effect of oxygen levels of the injected air in improving the combustion efficiency of a coal-plastic blend could be more effective under fuel rich conditions. The study demonstrates that waste plastic can be successfully coinjected with PCI without having any adverse effect on the combustion efficiency particularly under the tested conditions. 22 refs., 12 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require ultimate disposal when it is put to use. Each task three waste was evaluated for utilization potential based on its physical properties, bulk chemical composition, and mineral composition. Only one of the thirteen materials studied might be suitable for use as a pozzolanic concrete additive. However, many wastes appeared to be suitable for other high-volume uses such as blasting grit, fine aggregate for asphalt concrete, road deicer, structural fill material, soil stabilization additives, waste stabilization additives, landfill cover material, and pavement base course construction.

  19. Integration of waste pyrolysis with coal/oil coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, J.; Zhou, P.; Lee, T.L.K.; Comolli, A. [Hydrocarbon Technologies, Inc., Lawrenceville, NJ (United States)

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HTI has developed a novel process, HTI CoPro Plus{trademark}, to produce alternative fuels and chemicals from the combined liquefaction of waste materials, coal, and heavy petroleum residues. Promising results have been obtained from a series of bench tests (PB-01 through PB-06) under the DOE Proof of Concept Program. Recently, HTI acquired a proven technology for the mild co-pyrolysis of used rubber tires and waste refinery or lube oils, developed by the University of Wyoming and Amoco. The feasibility of integration of pyrolysis with coal-oil coprocessing was studied in the eighth bench run (PB-08) of the program. The objective of Run PB-08 was to study the coprocessing of coal with oils derived from mild pyrolysis of scrap tires, waste plastics, and waste lube oils to obtain data required for economic comparisons with the DOE data base. A specific objective was also to study the performance of HTI`s newly improved GelCat{trademark} catalyst in coal-waste coprocessing under low-high (Reactor 1-Reactor 2 temperatures) operating mode. This paper presents the results obtained from Run PB-08, a 17-day continuous operation conducted in August 1997. A total of 5 conditions were tested, including a baseline coal-only condition. During the coprocessing conditions, 343{degrees}C+ pyrolysis oils derived from co-pyrolysis of rubber tires or a mixture of rubber tires and plastics with waste lube oil, were coprocessed with Black Thunder coal using HTI GelCat{trademark} catalyst. In the last condition, rubber tires were pyrolyzed with 524{degrees}C- coal liquid to study the possible elimination of lube oil used as pyrolysis processing oil. Overall coal conversion above 90 W% was achieved.

  20. Briquette comprising caking coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, H.W.

    1980-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Briquettes of specified geometry and composition are produced to serve as feed material or ''burden'' in a moving-burden gasifier for the production of a synthesis or fuel gas from organic solid waste materials and coal, including especially, the so-called ''caking'' coals, as in the process of copending application number 675,918. The briquettes are formed from a well-blended mixture of shredded organic solid wastes, including especially, municipal solid waste (Msw) or biomass, and crushed caking coal, including coal fines. A binder material may or may not be required, depending on the coal/msw ratio and the compaction pressure employed. The briquettes may be extruded, stamped, or pressed, employing compaction pressures in excess of 1000 psi, and preferably in the range of 2000 to 10,000 psi. The briquettes may be circular, polygonal, or irregular in cross-section; they may be solid, or concentrically perforated to form a hollow cylinder or polygon; they may be formed into saddles, pillows or doughnuts. The ratio of caking coal to shredded municipal solid waste is controlled so that each part of the predominantly cellulosic organic solid waste will be blended with 0.5 to 3.0 parts of crushed coal. Suitable binder materials include dewatered sewage slude (Dss), ''black liquor'' rich in lignin derivatives, black strap molasses, waste oil, and starch. The binder concentration is preferably in the range of 2 to 6 percent. If coals high in sulfur content are to be processed, at least a stoichiometric equivalent of dolomite may be included in the briquette formulation to eliminate a major fraction of the sulfur with the slag.

  1. Plastic wastes as modifiers of the thermoplasticity of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.A. Diez; C. Barriocanal; R. Alvarez [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (INCAR), Oviedo (Spain)

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic waste recycling represents a major challenge in environmental protection with different routes now available for dealing with mechanical, chemical, and energy recycling. New concepts in plastic waste recycling have emerged so that now such wastes can be used to replace fossil fuels, either as an energy source or as a secondary raw material. Our objective is to explore the modification of the thermoplastic properties of coal in order to assess the possibility of adding plastic waste to coal for the production of metallurgical coke. Two bituminous coals of different rank and thermoplastic properties were used as a base component of blends with plastic wastes such as high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET), and acrilonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymer (ABS). In all cases, the addition of plastic waste led to a reduction in Gieseler maximum fluidity, the extent of the reduction depending on the fluidity of the base coal, and the amount, the molecular structure, and the thermal behavior of the polymer. As a consequence, the amount of volatile matter released by the plastic waste before, during, and after the maximum fluidity of the coal and the hydrogen-donor and hydrogen-acceptor capacities of the polymer were concluded to be key factors in influencing the extent of the reduction in fluidity and the development of anisotropic carbons. The incorporation of the plastic to the carbon matrix was clearly established in semicokes produced from blends of a high-fluid coal and the plastic tested by SEM examination. 42 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  2. Integration of waste pyrolysis with coal/oil coprocessing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, J.; Zhou, P.; Lee, T.L.K.; Comolli, A.

    1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HTI has developed a novel process, HTI CoPro Plus{trademark}, to produce alternative fuels and chemicals from the combined liquefaction of waste materials, coal, and heavy petroleum residues. Promising results have been obtained from a series of bench tests (PB-01 through PB-06) under the DOE Proof of Concept Program. Recently, HTI acquired a proven technology for the mild co-pyrolysis of used rubber tires and waste refinery or lube oils, developed by the University of Wyoming and Amoco. The feasibility of integration of pyrolysis with coal-oil coprocessing was studied in the eighth bench run (PB-08) of the program. The objective of Run PM-08 was to study the coprocessing of coal with oils derived from mild pyrolysis of scrap tires, waste plastics, and waste lube oils to obtain data required for economic comparisons with the DOE data base. A specific objective was also to study the performance of HTI's newly improved GelCat{trademark} catalyst in coal-waste coprocessing under low-high (Reactor 1-Reactor 2 temperatures) operating mode. This paper presents the results obtained from Run PB-08, a 17-day continuous operation conducted in August 1997. A total of 5 conditions, 343 C + pyrolysis oils derived from co-pyrolysis of rubber tires or a mixture of rubber tires and plastics with waste lube oil, were coprocessed with Black Thunder coal using HTI GelCat{trademark} catalyst. In the last condition, rubber tires were pyrolyzed with 524 C coal liquid to study the possible elimination of lube oil used as pyrolysis processing oil. Overall coal conversion above 90 W% was achieved. Distillate yield as high as 69.2 W% was obtained while hydrogen consumption was only 4.4 W%. The distinct advantage of this process is the increase in hydrogen efficiency as both hydrogen consumption and C{sub 1}{minus}C{sub 3} gas yield decrease. Economic evaluation shows that co-processing of plastics with oil, coal, or mixed oil and coal reduces the equivalent crude oil price to a competitive level. This demonstrates that a combined process of coal liquefaction and waste pyrolysis is economically viable.

  3. Balancing act creating the right regulation for coal combustion waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manuel, J.

    2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The December 2008 collapse of a coal ash pond in Tennessee threw safe management of coal combustion waste (CCW) into the spotlight. Millions of tons of CCW are produced in the United States each year, and a large percentage of that is recycled. The US Environmental Protection Agency is pursuing a host of initiatives that could directly or indirectly affect the disposition of CCW. States, too, are taking a look at how they regulate CCW. Among the options is the possibility of regulating CCW under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, a move that could have far-reaching implications for both the recycling and the disposal of this waste.

  4. Cooperative Research Program in Coal-Waste Liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerald Huffman

    2000-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of a feasibility study for a demonstration plant for the liquefaction of waste plastic and tires and the coprocessing of these waste polymers with coal are presented. The study was conducted by a committee that included nine representatives from the CFFS, six from the U.S. Department of Energy - Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), and four from Burns and Roe, Inc. The study included: (1) An assessment of current recycling practices, particularly feedstock recycling in Germany; (2) A review of pertinent research, and a survey of feedstock availability for various types of waste polymers; and (3) A conceptual design for a demonstration plant was developed and an economic analysis for various feedstock mixes. The base case for feedstock scenarios was chosen to be 200 tons per day of waste plastic and 100 tons per day of waste tires. For this base case with oil priced at $20 per barrel, the return on investment (ROI) was found to range from 9% to 20%, using tipping fees for waste plastic and tires typical of those existing in the U.S. The most profitable feedstock appeared to waste plastic alone, with a plant processing 300 t/d of plastic yielding ROI's from 13 to 27 %, depending on the tipping fees for waste plastic. Feedstock recycling of tires was highly dependent on the price that could be obtained for recovered carbon. Addition of even relatively small amounts (20 t/d) of coal to waste plastic and/or coal feeds lowered the ROI's substantially. It should also be noted that increasing the size of the plant significantly improved all ROI's. For example, increasing plant size from 300 t/d to1200 t/d approximately doubles the estimated ROI's for a waste plastic feedstock.

  5. The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Coal-Waste Artificial Reef Program (C-WARP): A New Resource Potential for Fishing Reef ABSTRACT-Thefeasibility ofusing solid blocks of waste materialfrom coal:firedpower plantslor underwater (scrubber) sludge from coal-burning power stations. was constructed in the Atlantic Ocean offLong Island. N

  6. Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal Combustion Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    Elevated Trace Element Concentrations in Southern Toads, Bufo terrestris, Exposed to Coal, and behavioral abnormalities in amphibians to coal combustion wastes (coal ash). Few studies, however, have determined trace element concentrations in amphibians exposed to coal ash. In the current study we compare

  7. A study of pyrolysis of Texas lignites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Robert A

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    France, Great Britain, and Italy have tested projects for underaround gasification of both coal and lignite. However, their experiments were 2 not very successful. The U. S. Bureau of Mines conducted a field test at Gorgas, Alabama, in the 1950's... Gasification Project 1978 Status, " presented at the 4th Annual Underground Coal Con- version Symposium, Steamboat Springs, Co. , July 17-20, 1978. 4. Burwell, Edward L. , Sikri, Atam P. , and Zukor, Stephen H. : "The Department of Energy's 1978 Underground...

  8. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    with nitrogen to remove oxygen and then the drums were sealed until needed for a run. This procedure was used to prevent weathering and loss of moisture from the coal. Prior to charging, t' he lignite was sized to minus 18 mesh. The larg- er particles...DESULFURIZATION OF LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by GLENN ALLEN CARTER, JR. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Chemical...

  9. An investigation of changes in groundwater quality caused by in-situ gasification of East Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach, Kimberly Sue

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to lignite gasification at the Hoe Creek site were determined not to be a serious groundwater quality problem, similar work needs to be done at the Rockdale site due to varying geological controls. LIGNITE Lignite is a low grade coal intermediate between...AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AGM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  10. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Nenad Sarunac; Harun Bilirgen; Wei Zhang

    2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the ninth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, comparative analyses were performed for lignite and PRB coals to determine how unit performance varies with coal product moisture. Results are given showing how the coal product moisture level and coal rank affect parameters such as boiler efficiency, station service power needed for fans and pulverizers and net unit heat rate. Results are also given for the effects of coal drying on cooling tower makeup water and comparisons are made between makeup water savings for various times of the year.

  11. Effect of experimental conditions on the yields during the copyrolysis of Mustafa Kemal Paa (MKP) Lignite (Turkey) with low-density polyethylene

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali Sinag; Melike Sungur; Muammer Canel [Ankara University, Beevler-Ankara (Turkey). Department of Chemistry, Science Faculty

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Copyrolysis of a Turkish lignite with low-density polyethylene (LDPE) is conducted in a tubular reactor. The effect of experimental conditions (temperature of 400-700{sup o}C, catalyst, LDPE contents of the mixture are 33, 50, and 67 wt %) on the formation of tar, gas, and char and their effects on the formation of phenol are investigated. The catalysts used are red mud (which is a waste product of an aluminum factory in Turkey), zeolite (Linde type A (LTA)), and K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Tar evolution is determined to be increased significantly by increasing the LDPE content of the coal-LDPE mixture during the pyrolysis. The effect of adding LDPE to the coal on the gas generation is not remarkable. An increase in temperature leads to increased gas yields. Phenol and phenol derivatives are the obstacles for the complete conversion of lignite to tar and gas. To investigate this negative effect of phenols on the yields, the phenols found in tar from coal pyrolysis are detected by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and it is observed that phenolic structures detected in the tar obtained by individual pyrolysis of coal are dramatically decreased by adding polymer to the coal. The use of catalysts during the copyrolysis procedure leads to improved gas generation. The possible reasons of these variations are discussed. A remarkable synergetic effect between lignite and LDPE on the tar yields is also observed. 21 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  12. Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    Coal waste seen as valuable resource Published: March. 29, 2011 at 8:09 PM ANAHEIM, Calif., March 29 (UPI) -- Fly ash, a byproduct of coal-burning electric power plants, could save billions. More than 450 coal-burning electric power plants in the United States produce about 130 million tons

  13. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, December 1, 1991--February 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.

    1992-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids (CSS) from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids.

  14. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute's fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison's limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United's mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  15. Leaching and toxicity behavior of coal-biomass waste cocombustion ashes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skodras, G.; Prokopidou, M.; Sakellaropoulos, G.P. [Aristotle University in Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Land disposal of ash residues, obtained from the cocombustion of Greek lignite with biomass wastes, is known to create problems due to the harmful constituents present. In this regard, the leachability of trace elements from lignite, biomass, and blends cocombustion ashes was investigated by using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) of the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). In this work, the toxicity of the aqueous leachates and the concentrations of the metals obtained from the leaching procedure were measured using the Microtox test (Vibrio fischen) and inductive coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), respectively. The toxic effects of most leachates on Vibrio fischeri were found to be significantly low in both 45% and 82% screening test protocols. However, the liquid sample originating from olive kernels fly ash (FA4) caused the highest toxic effect in both protocols, which can be attributed to its relatively high concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Zn.

  16. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

  17. Cofiring of coal and waste - an international perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, G.F. [IEA Coal Research, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, cofiring of waste and coal was thought to offer an environmentally sound, economic approach to both waste remediation and energy production. As the quantity of waste being produced around the world increases so does the severity of the regulations controlling its disposal particularly in landfill sites. Space for landfilling is diminishing especially in the densely populated smaller countries. This together with landfill CO{sub 2} and methane emissions and potential groundwater pollution is leading to policy statements and legislation to increase the reuse and recycling of wastes. In many countries landfilling will soon not be considered as an option. In the USA the number of active landfills decreased from more than 6000 in 1986 to just below 4500 in 1993. The number of operating landfills will soon drop to below 4000. In Europe the pressure on landfill space is even greater. Tyre disposal in landfill is widely recognised as an environmental problem; the tyres are a fire hazard and serve as a breeding ground for insects. In the USA, most states have legislation governing tyre handling and disposal and 15 have banned them from landfills. By 1998 all scrap tyres must be recycled or otherwise disposed of by non-landfill methods.

  18. Present coal potential of Turkey and coal usage in electricity generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yilmaz, A.O. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey). Mining Engineering Department

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total coal reserve (hard coal + lignite) in the world is 984 billion tons. While hard coal constitutes 52% of the total reserve, lignite constitutes 48% of it. Turkey has only 0.1% of world hard coal reserve and 1.5% of world lignite reserves. Turkey has 9th order in lignite reserve, 8th order in lignite production, and 12th order in total coal (hard coal and lignite) consumption. While hard coal production meets only 13% of its consumption, lignite production meets lignite consumption in Turkey. Sixty-five percent of produced hard coal and 78% of produced lignite are used for electricity generation. Lignites are generally used for electricity generation due to their low quality. As of 2003, total installed capacity of Turkey was 35,587 MW, 19% (6,774 MW) of which is produced from coal-based thermal power plants. Recently, use of natural gas in electricity generation has increased. While the share of coal in electricity generation was about 50% for 1986, it is replaced by natural gas today.

  19. DWPF COAL CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A paper study was completed to assess the impact on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF)'s Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) acid addition and melter off-gas flammability control strategy in processing Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) to SB13 with an added Fluidized Bed Steam Reformer (FBSR) stream and two Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF) products (Strip Effluent and Actinide Removal Stream). In all of the cases that were modeled, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted Reducing/Oxidizing (REDOX) Ratio of 0.20 Fe{sup +2}/{Sigma}Fe. There was sufficient formic acid in these combinations to reduce both the manganese and mercury present. Reduction of manganese and mercury are both necessary during Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing, however, other reducing agents such as coal and oxalate are not effective in this reduction. The next phase in this study will be experimental testing with SB10, FBSR, and both SWPF simulants to validate the assumptions in this paper study and determine whether there are any issues in processing these streams simultaneously. The paper study also evaluated a series of abnormal processing conditions to determine whether potential abnormal conditions in FBSR, SWPF or DWPF would produce melter feed that was too oxidizing or too reducing. In most of the cases that were modeled with one parameter at its extreme, an acid mix using formic acid and nitric acid could be achieved that would produce a predicted REDOX of 0.09-0.30 (target 0.20). However, when a run was completed with both high coal and oxalate, with minimum formic acid to reduce mercury and manganese, the final REDOX was predicted to be 0.49 with sludge and FBSR product and 0.47 with sludge, FBSR product and both SWPF products which exceeds the upper REDOX limit.

  20. Long term contracts, expansion, innovation and stability: North Dakota's lignite mines thrive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    North Dakota's lignite coal industry is mainly located in three countries in the central part of the state. Its large surface lignite mines are tied through long-term (20-40 years) contracts to power plants. The article talks about operations at three of the most productive mines - the Freedom mine, Falkirk mine and Center Mine. 4 figs.

  1. Stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the San Miguel lignite deposit northern McMullen and southeastern Atascosa counties, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snedden, John William

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in alternate energy sources such as coal and lignite, The state of Texas has the capability to supoly a large portion of its energy needs with its near-surface lignite resources. These resources are estimated at ten billion tons (Fisher, 1978). The lignite...S RATIGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION OF THE SAN MIGUEL LIGNITE DEPOSI NORTHERN M. MULLER 'VD SOUTHEASTERN ATASCOSA COUNTIES, TEXAS A Tnesis by UOH1'1 91IILIAM SNEDDZN Submitted n he Gra 'uate College of Tera. ASM University in partial...

  2. NEW SOLID FUELS FROM COAL AND BIOMASS WASTE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamid Farzan

    2001-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Under DOE sponsorship, McDermott Technology, Inc. (MTI), Babcock and Wilcox Company (B and W), and Minergy Corporation developed and evaluated a sludge derived fuel (SDF) made from sewage sludge. Our approach is to dry and agglomerate the sludge, combine it with a fluxing agent, if necessary, and co-fire the resulting fuel with coal in a cyclone boiler to recover the energy and to vitrify mineral matter into a non-leachable product. This product can then be used in the construction industry. A literature search showed that there is significant variability of the sludge fuel properties from a given wastewater plant (seasonal and/or day-to-day changes) or from different wastewater plants. A large sewage sludge sample (30 tons) from a municipal wastewater treatment facility was collected, dried, pelletized and successfully co-fired with coal in a cyclone-equipped pilot. Several sludge particle size distributions were tested. Finer sludge particle size distributions, similar to the standard B and W size distribution for sub-bituminous coal, showed the best combustion and slagging performance. Up to 74.6% and 78.9% sludge was successfully co-fired with pulverized coal and with natural gas, respectively. An economic evaluation on a 25-MW power plant showed the viability of co-firing the optimum SDF in a power generation application. The return on equity was 22 to 31%, adequate to attract investors and allow a full-scale project to proceed. Additional market research and engineering will be required to verify the economic assumptions. Areas to focus on are: plant detail design and detail capital cost estimates, market research into possible project locations, sludge availability at the proposed project locations, market research into electric energy sales and renewable energy sales opportunities at the proposed project location. As a result of this program, wastes that are currently not being used and considered an environmental problem will be processed into a renewable fuel. These fuels will be converted to energy while reducing CO{sub 2} emissions from power generating boilers and mitigating global warming concerns. This report describes the sludge analysis, solid fuel preparation and production, combustion performance, environmental emissions and required equipment.

  3. Utilization of solid wastes from the gasification of coal-water slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.Y. Shpirt; N.P. Goryunova [Institute for Fossil Fuels, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It was found that only fly and bottom ashes are the solid wastes of water-coal slurry gasification in a direct-flow gasifier. The yields and chemical compositions of fly and bottom ashes obtained after the gasification of water-coal slurries prepared using brown (B) and long-flame (D) coals from the Berezovskii and Mokhovskii strip mines (Kansk-Achinsk and Kuznetsk Basins, respectively) were characterized. Based on an analysis of currently available information, the areas of utilization of fly and bottom ashes after water-coal slurry gasification with dry ash removal were summarized. The use of these wastes in the construction of high-ways and earthwork structures (for the parent coals of B and D grades) and in the manufacture of ash concrete (for the parent coal of D grade) is most promising.

  4. Study of the properties of mine waste in the midwestern coal fields. Phase I report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-07-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In an effort to assist the coal industry in complying with the applicable regulations, to design safe and environmentally acceptable disposal systems, and to encourage secondary use of coal mine waste, the US Department of Energy has initiated research programs to develop coal mine waste disposal and use technology. This study of the properties of mine wastes in the Midwestern coal fields has been limited to the waste materials obtained from underground coal mines and preparation plants attached to both underground and surface mines. The program has been divided into two phases. In Phase I, the 20 most important properties relevant to safe disposal, reclamation, underground disposal, and secondary uses have been identified. An inventory of the significant waste disposal sites in the Midwestern coal fields has been prepared. The site locations have been plotted on USGS maps. Estimates of coal production and coal mine waste production during the next 2 decades have been prepared and are presented in this report. Also, all available information obtained from a search of existing literature on physical and chemical properties, including analysis results of the general runoff from the refuse disposal areas, has been collected and is presented. In order to fill the gaps in information, 20 sites have been identified for drilling and sampling to determine the various physical and chemical properties. They have been selected on the basis of the distribution and quantity of waste at the existing locations (both abandoned and active), the future trends in production and likely locations of waste disposal areas, their geographical and geological distribution, and ease of accessibility for drilling and sampling.

  5. INTEGRATED POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS FOR COAL MINE WASTE METHANE UTILIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peet M. Soot; Dale R. Jesse; Michael E. Smith

    2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An integrated system to utilize the waste coal mine methane (CMM) at the Federal No. 2 Coal Mine in West Virginia was designed and built. The system includes power generation, using internal combustion engines, along with gas processing equipment to upgrade sub-quality waste methane to pipeline quality standards. The power generation has a nominal capacity of 1,200 kw and the gas processing system can treat about 1 million cubic feet per day (1 MMCFD) of gas. The gas processing is based on the Northwest Fuel Development, Inc. (NW Fuel) proprietary continuous pressure swing adsorption (CPSA) process that can remove nitrogen from CMM streams. The two major components of the integrated system are synergistic. The byproduct gas stream from the gas processing equipment can be used as fuel for the power generating equipment. In return, the power generating equipment provides the nominal power requirements of the gas processing equipment. This Phase III effort followed Phase I, which was comprised of a feasibility study for the project, and Phase II, where the final design for the commercial-scale demonstration was completed. The fact that NW Fuel is desirous of continuing to operate the equipment on a commercial basis provides the validation for having advanced the project through all of these phases. The limitation experienced by the project during Phase III was that the CMM available to operate the CPSA system on a commercial basis was not of sufficiently high quality. NW Fuel's CPSA process is limited in its applicability, requiring a relatively high quality of gas as the feed to the process. The CPSA process was demonstrated during Phase III for a limited time, during which the processing capabilities met the expected results, but the process was never capable of providing pipeline quality gas from the available low quality CMM. The NW Fuel CPSA process is a low-cost ''polishing unit'' capable of removing a few percent nitrogen. It was never intended to process CMM streams containing high levels of nitrogen, as is now the case at the Federal No.2 Mine. Even lacking the CPSA pipeline delivery demonstration, the project was successful in laying the groundwork for future commercial applications of the integrated system. This operation can still provide a guide for other coal mines which need options for utilization of their methane resources. The designed system can be used as a complete template, or individual components of the system can be segregated and utilized separately at other mines. The use of the CMM not only provides an energy fuel from an otherwise wasted resource, but it also yields an environmental benefit by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The methane has twenty times the greenhouse effect as compared to carbon dioxide, which the combustion of the methane generates. The net greenhouse gas emission mitigation is substantial.

  6. (Basic properties of coals and other solids)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number sign}8, Illinois {number sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  7. Recovery and utilization of waste liquids in ultra-clean coal preparation by chemical leaching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu Zesheng; Shi Zhimin; Yang Qiaowen; Wang Xinguo [China Univ. of Mining and Technology, Beijing (China). Beijing Graduate School

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal with ash lower than 1%, being called an ultra-clean coal, has many potential applications, such as a substitute for diesel fuel, production of carbon electrodes, superior activated carbon and other chemical materials. It is difficult to reduce coal ash to such a level by conventional coal preparation technology. By means of chemical leaching with the proper concentration of alkali and acid solutions, any coal can be deeply deashed to 1% ash level. However, the cost of chemical methods is higher than that of physical ones, additionally, the waste liquids would give rise to environmental pollution if used on a large scale. If the waste liquids from chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal can be recovered and utilized, so as to produce salable by-products, the cost of chemical leaching will be reduced. This processing will also solve the pollution problem of these waste liquids. This paper describes recovery and utilization methods for these liquids used in chemical leaching, including the recoveries of alkali, silica, sodium-salt and aluminium-salt. A preliminary estimate was made regarding its economic benefits. It shows that this research solves the two problems in the chemical preparation of ultra-clean coal. One is the high-cost and the other is environmental pollution. This research demonstrates good potential for the production of ultra-clean coal on an industrial scale.

  8. acid toxic coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  9. australian coal industry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  10. argonne premium coals: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  11. abandoned underground coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  12. australian bituminous coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  13. airways obstruction coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  14. argonne premium coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  15. alberta mountain coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    composted manure LAPC, high ash raw manure HARM, and high ash partially composted manure HAPC) as well as blends of each biomass with Texas lignite coal (TXL). Activation...

  16. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to S0{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids (CSS) from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The final goal of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be used as a satisfactory growing medium in slurry pond reclamation. The chemical analyses of the 8 starting solids (5 FBC wastes, 2 Css samples, and 1 agricultural limestone sample) were completed.

  17. Development of catalyst free carbon nanotubes from coal and waste plastics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dosodia, A.; Lal, C.; Singh, B.P.; Mathur, R.B.; Sharma, D.K. [Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre of Energy Studies

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DC-Arc technique has been used to synthesize carbon nanotubes from super clean coal, chemically cleaned coal, original coal and waste plastics instead of using high purity graphite in the presence of metal catalysts. The results obtained are compared in terms of yield, purity and type of carbon nanotubes produced from different types of raw material used. In the present study different types of raw materials have been prepared i.e. chemically cleaned coal and super clean coal, and the carbon nanotubes have been synthesized by DC Arc discharge method. Taking in account the present need of utilizing coal as a cheaper raw material for bulk production of carbon nanotubes and utilization of waste plastics (which itself is a potential environmental threat) for production of such an advance material the present work was undertaken. Since the process does not involve presence of any kind of metal catalyst, it avoids the cost intensive process of removal of these metal particles. The residual coal obtained after refining has major fuel potential and can be utilized for various purposes.

  18. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluidized bed combustion (FBC) is a relatively new technology that is used commercially for the combustion of coal. In Illinois, this technology is valuable because it allows the combustion of Illinois high sulfur coal without pollution of the atmosphere with vast quantities of sulfur oxides. In FBC, coal is mixed with limestone or dolomite either before injection into the combustion chamber or in the combustion chamber. As the coal burns, sulfur in the coal is oxidized to SO{sub 2} and this is trapped by reaction with the limestone or dolomite to form gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O). Solid by-products from FBC are generally a mixture of calcium oxide, gypsum, coal ash, and unburned coal. The present research project is designed to provide initial data on one possible use of FBC waste. FBC wastes from five different locations in the Illinois are mixed with coal slurry solids from two different coal preparation plants at Illinois coal mines. In mixtures of FBC waste and coal slurry solids, the alkaline components of the FBC waste are expected to react with acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in the coal slurry solid. An objective of this research is to determine the chemical composition of aqueous leachates from mixtures of FBC wastes, generated under various operating conditions, and the coal slurry solids. These data will be used in future research into the ability of such mixtures to support seed germination and plant growth. The ultimate of this and future research is to determine whether mixed FBC waste and coal slurry solids can be slurry pond reclamation.

  19. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  20. Development of a thermobalance and analysis of lignites by thermogravimetric and statistical methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, James Allen

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal or lignite is its calorific values, Q, the heat it produces when combusted. A simple, inexpensive, and rapid method for accurately predicting Q is needed because the pres- ently available methods are complicated, expensive, and take a great...DEVELOPMENT OF A THERMOBALANCE AND ANALYSIS OF LIGNITES BY THERMOGRAVIMETRIC AND STATISTICAL METHODS A Thesis by JAMES ALLEN PERGUSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  1. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  2. Coal-CO[subscript 2] Slurry Feed for Pressurized Gasifiers: Slurry Preparation System Characterization and Economics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Botero, Cristina

    Gasification-based plants with coal-CO[subscript 2] slurry feed are predicted to be more efficient than those with coal-water slurry feed. This is particularly true for high moisture, low rank coal such as lignite. ...

  3. ELECTROKINETIC DENSIFICATION OF COAL FINES IN WASTE PONDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. James Davis

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to demonstrate that electrokinetics can be used to remove colloidal coal and mineral particles from coal-washing ponds and lakes without the addition of chemical additives such as salts and polymeric flocculants. In this experimental and analytical study the authors elucidate the transport processes that control the rate of concentrated colloidal particle removal, demonstrate the process on a laboratory scale, and develop the scale-up laws needed to design commercial-scale processes. The authors are also addressing the fundamental problems associated with particle-particle interactions (electrical and hydrodynamic), the effects of particle concentration on the applied electric field, the electrochemical reactions that occur at the electrodes, and the prediction of power requirements.

  4. Atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion (AFBC) co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The proposed project involves co-firing of coal and medical waste (including infectious medical waste) in an atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) to safely dispose of medical waste and produce steam for hospital needs. Combustion at the design temperature and residence time (duration) in the AFBC has been proven to render infectious medical waste free of disease producing organisms. The project would be located at the Veterans Affairs (VA) Medical Center in Lebanon, Pennsylvania. The estimated cost of the proposed AFBC facility is nearly $4 million. It would be jointly funded by DOE, Veterans Affairs, and Donlee Technologies, Inc., of York, Pennsylvania, under a cooperative agreement between DOE and Donlee. Under the terms of this agreement, $3.708 million in cost-shared financial assistance would be jointly provided by DOE and the Veterans Affairs (50/50), with $278,000 provided by Donlee. The purposes of the proposed project are to: (1) provide the VA Medical Center and the Good Samaritan Hospital (GSH), also of Lebanon, Pennsylvania, with a solution for disposal of their medical waste; and (2) demonstrate that a new coal-burning technology can safely incinerate infectious medical waste, produce steam to meet hospital needs, and comply with environmental regulations.

  5. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a coal, wood, and waste fired boiler system to serve two plants. This case history will document payback periods of less than three years; return on investments of 20% plus; benefits of North Carolina and federal investment tax credits; EPA...

  6. Digital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Columbia University

    Energy's patented technology produces a clean-burning by-product from the widest variety of processed-efficient technology represented by the coal-substitute technology. The same technology will be deployed by DIGGDigital Gas Joins Asian Waste-to-Energy Consortium: To Eliminate Coal as a Power Plant Fuel Digital

  7. Water recovery using waste heat from coal fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Webb, Stephen W.; Morrow, Charles W.; Altman, Susan Jeanne; Dwyer, Brian P.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential to treat non-traditional water sources using power plant waste heat in conjunction with membrane distillation is assessed. Researchers and power plant designers continue to search for ways to use that waste heat from Rankine cycle power plants to recover water thereby reducing water net water consumption. Unfortunately, waste heat from a power plant is of poor quality. Membrane distillation (MD) systems may be a technology that can use the low temperature waste heat (<100 F) to treat water. By their nature, they operate at low temperature and usually low pressure. This study investigates the use of MD to recover water from typical power plants. It looks at recovery from three heat producing locations (boiler blow down, steam diverted from bleed streams, and the cooling water system) within a power plant, providing process sketches, heat and material balances and equipment sizing for recovery schemes using MD for each of these locations. It also provides insight into life cycle cost tradeoffs between power production and incremental capital costs.

  8. Potential effects of clean coal technologies on acid precipitation, greenhouse gases, and solid waste disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blasing, T.J.; Miller, R.L.; McCold, L.N.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) was initially funded by Congress to demonstrate more efficient, economically feasible, and environmentally acceptable coal technologies. Although the environmental focus at first was on sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) because their relationship to acid precipitation, the CCTDP may also lead to reductions in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions and in the volume of solid waste produced, compared with conventional technologies. The environmental effects of clean coal technologies (CCTs) depend upon which (if any) specific technologies eventually achieve high acceptance in the marketplace. In general, the repowering technologies and a small group of retrofit technologies show the most promise for reducing C0{sub 2} emissions and solid waste. These technologies also compare favorably with other CCTs in terms of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} reductions. The upper bound for CO{sup 2} reductions in the year 2010 is only enough to reduce global ``greenhouse`` warming potential by about 1%. However, CO{sub 2} emissions come from such variety of sources around the globe that no single technological innovation or national policy change could realistically be expected to reduce these emissions by more than a few percent. Particular CCTs can lead to either increases or decreases in the amount of solid waste produced. However, even if decreases are not achieved, much of the solid waste from clean coal technologies would be dry and therefore easier to dispose of than scrubber sludge.

  9. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  10. A techno-economic assessment of integrating a waste/coal coprocessing facility with an existing refinery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, D.; Tomlinson, G. [MITRE Corp., McLean, VA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    About 97 million tons of waste plastics, paper, oils, and tires are generated annually in the United States. The vast majority of this waste is paper, accounting for more than 73 million tons, and the second most abundant waste is plastic, accounting for more than 16 million tons. The number of waste passenger tire equivalents generated in the United States is about 300 million; considerably more than the population. On a rubber basis, this is approximately equal to 1.6 million tons. For waste oils, the average rate of annual generation is about 4.8 million tons, equivalent to about 32 million barrels. This rate of waste generation constitutes a major waste management problem with respect to land availability for landfills and public health and pollution concerns. Mandatory recycling of waste paper and plastics is in effect in several states, but the rate of generation of these wastes exceeds existing demand. This paper describes the coprocessing of coal with wastes.

  11. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  12. Underground Coal Gasification at Tennessee Colony

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garrard, C. W.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Tennessee Colony In Situ Coal Gasification Project conducted by Basic Resources Inc. is the most recent step in Texas Utilities Company's ongoing research into the utilization of Texas lignite. The project, an application of the Soviet...

  13. Detoxification and generation of useful products from coal combustion wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric utilities are on the brink of a new era in waste disposal problems. This research project addresses the issue of how to effectively dispose of flyash, bottom ash, desulfurization sludge through the generation of chemically-hardened material that could potentially be used as a cement or as a synthetic aggregate. The specific goals of this study were: (1) to study the hardness of mixtures of flyash, bottom ash, and DSG treated with lime and other hardening agents; (2) to determine the optimum solids content, setting time, moisture content, and post setting treatments that will yield the greatest strength and hardness out of these mixtures; and (3) to determine the leachability of the synthetic material as a measure of its ability to retain absorbed and/or entrained toxic metals. 50 refs., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  14. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  15. [Basic properties of coals and other solids]. Eighth quarterly report, [September--November 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses basic properties of bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite coals. Properties of coal liquids are also investigated. Heats of immersion in strong acids are found for Pittsburgh {number_sign}8, Illinois {number_sign}6, and Wyodak coals. Production of coal liquids by distillation is discussed. Heats of titration of coal liquids and coal slurries are reported. (VC)

  16. A study of pyrolysis of Texas lignites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Robert A

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    better correlation for Dulong's formula. Yegua and Dakota lignites are readily obtainable and would provide a good check on the results derived from the Calvert Bluff lignites. The present equ1pment would also be used to study gasification of lignite...A STUDY OF PYROLYSIS OF TEXAS LIGNITES A Thesis by Robert A. Clark, Jr. Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Nay 1979 Major Subject...

  17. Trace element partitioning in Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acevedo, Lillian Esther

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lignites and largest individual deposits in Texas occur in the Wilcox group north of the Colorado River; the lowest quality lignite occurs in the Jackson group (2). A comparison between the elemental composition of lignite from the wilcox formation..., Rb, Sc, Th, U, V, Y, Yb, Zn and Zr are positively correlated and B decreases 10 in concentration with increasing levels of ash (15) Combustion. Texas can supply a large portion of its energy needs with its near surface lignite sources (21...

  18. Coal combustion waste management at landfills and surface impoundments 1994-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elcock, D.; Ranek, N. L.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    On May 22, 2000, as required by Congress in its 1980 Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a Regulatory Determination on Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels. On the basis of information contained in its 1999 Report to Congress: Wastes from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels, the EPA concluded that coal combustion wastes (CCWs), also known as coal combustion by-products (CCBs), did not warrant regulation under Subtitle C of RCRA, and it retained the existing hazardous waste exemption for these materials under RCRA Section 3001(b)(3)(C). However, the EPA also determined that national regulations under Subtitle D of RCRA were warranted for CCWs that are disposed of in landfills or surface impoundments. The EPA made this determination in part on the basis of its findings that 'present disposal practices are such that, in 1995, these wastes were being managed in 40 percent to 70 percent of landfills and surface impoundments without reasonable controls in place, particularly in the area of groundwater monitoring; and while there have been substantive improvements in state regulatory programs, we have also identified gaps in State oversight' (EPA 2000). The 1999 Report to Congress (RTC), however, may not have reflected the changes in CCW disposal practices that occurred since the cutoff date (1995) of its database and subsequent developments. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the EPA discussed this issue and decided to conduct a joint DOE/EPA study to collect new information on the recent CCW management practices by the power industry. It was agreed that such information would provide a perspective on the chronological adoption of control measures in CCW units based on State regulations. A team of experts from the EPA, industry, and DOE (with support from Argonne National Laboratory) was established to develop a mutually acceptable approach for collecting and analyzing data on CCW disposal practices and State regulatory requirements at landfills and surface impoundments that were permitted, built, or laterally expanded between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 2004. The scope of the study excluded waste units that manage CCWs in active or abandoned coal mines. The EPA identified the following three areas of interest: (1) Recent and current CCW industry surface disposal management practices, (2) State regulatory requirements for CCW management, and (3) Implementation of State requirements (i.e., the extent to which States grant or deny operator requests to waive or vary regulatory requirements and the rationales for doing so). DOE and the EPA obtained data on recent and current disposal practices from a questionnaire that the Utility Solid Waste Activities Group (USWAG) distributed to its members that own or operate coal-fired power plants. USWAG, formed in 1978, is responsible for addressing solid and hazardous waste issues on behalf of the utility industry. It is an informal consortium of approximately 80 utility operating companies, the Edison Electric Institute (EEI), the National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA), the American Public Power Association (APPA), and the American Gas Association (AGA). EEI is the principal national association of investor-owned electric power and light companies. NRECA is the national association of rural electric cooperatives. APPA is the national association of publicly owned electric utilities. AGA is the national association of natural gas utilities. Together, USWAG member companies and trade associations represent more than 85% of the total electric generating capacity of the United States and service more than 95% of the nation's consumers of electricity. To verify the survey findings, the EPA also asked State regulators from nine selected States that are leading consumers of coal for electricity generation for information on disposal units that may not have been covered in the USWAG survey. The selected States were Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Missouri, North Carolina, North Da

  19. UNDERGROUNG PLACEMENT OF COAL PROCESSING WASTE AND COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS BASED PASTE BACKFILL FOR ENHANCED MINING ECONOMICS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y.P. Chugh; D. Biswas; D. Deb

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project has successfully demonstrated that the extraction ratio in a room-and-pillar panel at an Illinois mine can be increased from the current value of approximately 56% to about 64%, with backfilling done from the surface upon completion of all mining activities. This was achieved without significant ground control problems due to the increased extraction ratio. The mined-out areas were backfilled from the surface with gob, coal combustion by-products (CCBs), and fine coal processing waste (FCPW)-based paste backfill containing 65%-70% solids to minimize short-term and long-term surface deformations risk. This concept has the potential to increase mine productivity, reduce mining costs, manage large volumes of CCBs beneficially, and improve the miner's health, safety, and environment. Two injection holes were drilled over the demonstration panel to inject the paste backfill. Backfilling was started on August 11, 1999 through the first borehole. About 9,293 tons of paste backfill were injected through this borehole with a maximum flow distance of 300-ft underground. On September 27, 2000, backfilling operation was resumed through the second borehole with a mixture of F ash and FBC ash. A high-speed auger mixer (new technology) was used to mix solids with water. About 6,000 tons of paste backfill were injected underground through this hole. Underground backfilling using the ''Groutnet'' flow model was simulated. Studies indicate that grout flow over 300-foot distance is possible. Approximately 13,000 tons of grout may be pumped through a single hole. The effect of backfilling on the stability of the mine workings was analyzed using SIUPANEL.3D computer program and further verified using finite element analysis techniques. Stiffness of the backfill mix is most critical for enhancing the stability of mine workings. Mine openings do not have to be completely backfilled to enhance their stability. Backfill height of about 50% of the seam height is adequate to minimize surface deformations. Freeman United Coal Company performed engineering economic evaluation studies for commercialization. They found that the costs for underground management at the Crown III mine would be slightly higher than surface management at this time. The developed technologies have commercial potential but each site must be analyzed on its merit. The Company maintains significant interest in commercializing the technology.

  20. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.

    2003-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Metal-laden wastes can be stabilized and solidified using advanced clean coal technology by-products (CCTBs)--fluid bed combustor ash and spray drier solids. These utility-generated treatment chemicals are available for purchase through brokers, and commercial applications of this process are being practiced by treaters of metal-laden hazardous waste. A complex of regulations governs this industry, and sensitivities to this complex has discouraged public documentation of treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with CCTBs. This report provides a comprehensive public documentation of laboratory studies that show the efficacy of the stabilization and solidification of metal-laden hazardous wastes--such as lead-contaminated soils and sandblast residues--through treatment with CCTBs. It then describes the extensive efforts that were made to obtain the permits allowing a commercial hazardous waste treater to utilize CCTBs as treatment chemicals and to install the equipment required to do so. It concludes with the effect of this lengthy process on the ability of the treatment company to realize the practical, physical outcome of this effort, leading to premature termination of the project.

  1. Research and Development of a New Silica-Alumina Based Cementitious Material Largely Using Coal Refuse for Mine Backfill, Mine Sealing and Waste Disposal Stabilization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henghu Sun; Yuan Yao

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal refuse and coal combustion byproducts as industrial solid waste stockpiles have become great threats to the environment. To activate coal refuse is one practical solution to recycle this huge amount of solid waste as substitute for Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC). The central goal of this project is to investigate and develop a new silica-alumina based cementitious material largely using coal refuse as a constituent that will be ideal for durable construction, mine backfill, mine sealing and waste disposal stabilization applications. This new material is an environment-friendly alternative to Ordinary Portland Cement. The main constituents of the new material are coal refuse and other coal wastes including coal sludge and coal combustion products (CCPs). Compared with conventional cement production, successful development of this new technology could potentially save energy and reduce greenhouse gas emissions, recycle vast amount of coal wastes, and significantly reduce production cost. A systematic research has been conducted to seek for an optimal solution for enhancing pozzolanic reactivity of the relatively inert solid waste-coal refuse in order to improve the utilization efficiency and economic benefit as a construction and building material.

  2. TREATMENT OF METAL-LADEN HAZARDOUS WASTES WITH ADVANCED CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGY BY-PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Ronald D. Neufeld; Jana Agostini

    1999-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This fourteenth quarterly report describes work done during the fourteenth three-month period of the University of Pittsburgh's project on the ''Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.'' This report describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. The principal work has focused upon new laboratory evaluation of samples from Phase 1, discussions with MAX Environmental Technologies, Inc., on the field work of Phase 2, preparing presentations, and making and responding to two outside contacts.

  3. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, February - April, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated is as follows: steam = 20,000 lb/hr; temperature = 353 F (saturated); pressure = 125 psig; and steam quality = {approximately}98.5%. During this reporting period: structural corrections have been made to make the facility meet the required building costs; and refractory bakeout was successfully completed during April 23-25, 1996 over a 54 -hour period. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed.

  4. Bed agglomerates formed by atmospheric fluidized bed combustion of a North Dakota lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benson, S.A.; (Dept. of Energy, Grand Forks, ND); Karner, F.R.; Goblirsch, G.M.; Brekke, D.W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the performance of quartz or limestone as a bed material during the combustion of high sodium North Dakota lignite. The lignite is from the Beulah mine of Mercer County, North Dakota. The composite coal and coal ash analysis is summarized in Table 1. The lignite was partially dried before this series of tests; its as-mined moisture content was 36%, and its heating valve 15,000 J/g. Other important considerations are the operation of the combustor and how operational parameters affect the performance of the bed material, sulfur retention on coal ash and bed material, and heat transfer. The most important operational parameters of the AFBC for the tests are listed. The tendency for the bed to agglomerate has been shown through extensive testing to depend on the following parameters: (1) bed temperature (higher temperature increases tendency); (2) coal sodium content (increased coal sodium content shows increased severity of agglomeration); (3) bed material composition (high calcium content tends to delay, and decrease the severity of agglomerates formed; (4) ash recycle (increased recycle of ash tends to increase agglomeration tendency); (5) there appears to be a bed design parameter such as position of coal feed points, and distributor plate performance which affect bed material agglomeration. X-ray fluorescence analysis was performed on bed material sampled continually throughout the run to determine the changes in composition of major ash constituents.

  5. A solvent study of the direct liquefaction of Big Brown lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Helton, Terry Eugene

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of an experiment. A commercially obtained anthracene oil spiked with tetralin was used in conjunction with a lignite obtained from a mine located near Beulah, North Dakota. Knudson found that the primary role of the gas phase in low-rank coal liquefaction appears... by the University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) and were stored in polyethylene bags inside 5 gallon containers. The particle size distribution of the lignite was such that all of it was below 246 microns and 90% was below 74 microns. Proximate...

  6. Coal systems analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, P.D. (ed.)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This collection of papers provides an introduction to the concept of coal systems analysis and contains examples of how coal systems analysis can be used to understand, characterize, and evaluate coal and coal gas resources. Chapter are: Coal systems analysis: A new approach to the understanding of coal formation, coal quality and environmental considerations, and coal as a source rock for hydrocarbons by Peter D. Warwick. Appalachian coal assessment: Defining the coal systems of the Appalachian Basin by Robert C. Milici. Subtle structural influences on coal thickness and distribution: Examples from the Lower Broas-Stockton coal (Middle Pennsylvanian), Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA by Stephen F. Greb, Cortland F. Eble, and J.C. Hower. Palynology in coal systems analysis The key to floras, climate, and stratigraphy of coal-forming environments by Douglas J. Nichols. A comparison of late Paleocene and late Eocene lignite depositional systems using palynology, upper Wilcox and upper Jackson Groups, east-central Texas by Jennifer M.K. O'Keefe, Recep H. Sancay, Anne L. Raymond, and Thomas E. Yancey. New insights on the hydrocarbon system of the Fruitland Formation coal beds, northern San Juan Basin, Colorado and New Mexico, USA by W.C. Riese, William L. Pelzmann, and Glen T. Snyder.

  7. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

  8. Dover Textiles - A Case History on Retrofitting Factories with a Boiler System Fueled on Coal, Wood and Waste 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The shortage of affordable gas and oil boiler fuels and the recent Iran/Iraq war underscores the urgent need for the American industrial system to convert to domestically controlled fuels and particularly coal, wood, and waste. More talk than action...

  9. Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, March 1--May 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three tasks are being conducted in this research project, all related to understanding the chemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite, other heavy minerals, and rock materials are rejected from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to a slurry pond. After dewatering and abandonment of the pond, the pyrite may oxidize and produce acid that may migrate into the underlying groundwater system. If an alkaline product, such as FBC waste, is mixed with the CSS, then the acid will be effectively neutralized as it is produced. In Task 1, soluble components and acid-base reaction products from mixtures of FBC waste and CSS are being extracted for up to 180 days in a series of aqueous batch experiments. The final two sets of extractions, 90- and 180-days, were completed. The extracts and solids from these experiments were submitted for analysis of cations, anions, and mineralogy. In Task 2, 10 L of extracts from three mixtures of FBC waste and CSS were prepared for use in experiments to determine the adsorption/desorption reactions that occur between components of the extracts and three commonly occurring Illinois soils.

  10. Trace element analysis of Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahar, Sean

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or in the planning stages, Near surface lignite re- sources are estimated to be 21 billion metric tons in Texas, while deep basin reserves are estimated at 31 billion metric tons. Near (3] surface reserves alone could fulfill Texas' electrical needs for 100 years... for environmental and health concerns trace element characterization of lignites is important. A needed avenue of research is charact- erization of trace element pathways in lignite fired power plants. :hat is to say what percentage of a certain element...

  11. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes. Technical report, January 1989--August 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  12. Preparation and combustion of Yugoslavian lignite-water fuel, Task 7.35. Topical report, July 1991--December 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anderson, C.M.; DeWall, R.A.; Ljubicic, B.R.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Yugoslavia`s interest in lignite-water fuel (LWF) stems from its involvement in an unusual power project at Kovin in northern Serbia. In the early 1980s, Electric Power of Serbia (EPS) proposed constructing a 600-MW power plant that would be fueled by lignite found in deposits along and under the Danube River. Trial underwater mining at Kovin proved that the dredging operation is feasible. The dredging method produces a coal slurry containing 85% to 90% water. Plans included draining the water from the coal, drying it, and then burning it in the pulverized coal plant. In looking for alternative ways to utilize the ``wet coal`` in a more efficient and economical way, a consortium of Yugoslavian companies agreed to assess the conversion of dredged lignite into a LWF using hot-water-drying (HWD) technology. HWD is a high-temperature, nonevaporative drying technique carried out under high pressure in water that permanently alters the structure of low-rank coals. Changes effected by the drying process include irreversible removal of moisture, micropore sealing by tar, and enhancement of heating value by removal of oxygen, thus, enhancement of the slurry ability of the coal with water. Physical cleaning results indicated a 51 wt % reduction in ash content with a 76 wt % yield for the lignite. In addition, physical cleaning produced a cleaned slurry that had a higher attainable solids loading than a raw uncleaned coal slurry. Combustion studies were then performed on the raw and physically cleaned samples with the resulting indicating that both samples were very reactive, making them excellent candidates for HWD. Bench-scale results showed that HWD increased energy densities of the two raw lignite samples by approximately 63% and 81%. An order-of-magnitude cost estimate was conducted to evaluate the HWD and pipeline transport of Kovin LWF to domestic and export European markets. Results are described.

  13. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Urbana, IL (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the first quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected and dried the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample appears to have a higher pyrite content than the other.

  14. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, August--October 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation. This would permit full capacity operation of the FBC year round in spite of the VA laundry that was shut down as well as efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste and steam generation. The State permitting process required for construction will be completed in early November to allow installation and construction to be completed. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed. A request for proposal for stack sampling and biospore tests was released to four (4) vendors in mid-October. The proposals shall be reviewed during November and the stack sampler will be selected. Funding was approved as of August 1, 1995. Construction and installation resumed on August 21, 1995 at the LVAMC. Construction and installation continues and will be completed by late December 1995.

  15. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly report, November 1995--January 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. Operating permits will be obtained after construction has been completed. The stack sampler has been selected. This vendor is currently developing the testing protocol. Severe weather in December and January caused work delays to the project, especially to outside work The fabrication and installation of the stack are complete. Only the insulation of the stack remains to be done. Budget problems began to occur in late January. Correction of this situation should occur shortly in February or March. A current schedule for the project is included with this report.

  16. Solid waste management of coal conversion residuals from a commercial-size facility: environmental engineering aspects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bern, J.; Neufeld, R. D.; Shapiro, M. A.

    1980-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Major residuals generated by the conversion process and its auxiliary operations include: (a) coal preparation wastes; (b) gasifier ash; (c) liquefaction solids-char; (d) tail gas or flue gas desulfurization sludge; (e) boiler flyash and bottom ash; (f) raw water treatment sludge, and; (g) biosludges from process wastewater treatment. Recovered sulfur may also require disposal management. Potential environmental and health impacts from each of the residues are described on the basis of characterization of the waste in the perspective of water quality degradation. Coal gasification and liquefaction systems are described in great detail with respect to their associated residuals. Management options are listed with the conclusion that land disposal of the major residual streams is the only viable choice. On-site versus off-site disposal is analyzed with the selection of on-site operations to reduce political, social and institutional pressures, and to optimize the costs of the system. Mechanisms for prevention of leachate generation are described, and various disposal site designs are outlined. It is concluded that co-disposal feasibility of some waste streams must be established in order to make the most preferred solid waste management system feasible. Capacity requirements for the disposal operation were calculated for a 50,000 bbl/day coal liquefaction plant or 250 million SCF/day gasification operation.

  17. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Design Team continued to conference this quarter. Their primary task during this timeframe was to finalize the dryer design based on information learned from the NDIC Pilot work and detailed design discussions at Barr offices in August. Heyl-Patterson was tasked with incorporating all comments and drafting drawings. They submitted a preliminary proposal which spawned detailed discussions about tube bundle, air locks, and fire suppression systems. The type of fire protection specified dictated the final structural arrangement. Three meetings were spent discussing the pro's and con's of suppression vs. ventilation systems. In the end, the dryer and bucket elevator will have suppression systems and the remaining equipment will be explosion vented. This is in agreement with GRE's current insurer, FM Global. Three inlet airlocks were reduced to two and four outlets were reduced to three. The inlet plenum was subdivided for greater flexibility and sparging air added in the outlet plenum. It was also decided to use bundles with varied material, diameter, and tube & fin spacing. This will be completed in an effort to identify for us which configuration has the best heat transfer characteristics using coal as the fluidizing medium. The dryer will also be delivered in four pieces. This will allow for installation through the current access door on the Air Heater deck. The Input/Output list and functional description was completed and forwarded to Honeywell to finalize controls. Major pieces of equipment received this quarter were the Bucket Elevator, Liewell Screen, conveyors, and Motor Control Center. ICI completed removal of the wall separating Silo 28 from the dryer area; handrail and grating between the two areas has also been removed. They relocated a blowdown line. They moved an Air Heater basket access hatch.

  18. Abdel-Aziz, A. and H.C. Frey, "Quantification of Hourly Variability in Hourly Activity and NOx Emissions for Baseload Coal-Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management Association, Pittsburgh, PA, June 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frey, H. Christopher

    Emissions for Baseload Coal- Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste Management for Baseload Coal Fired Power Plants Paper No. 69572 Amr Abdel-Aziz and H. Christopher Frey Department of Civil emission factors from coal-fired power plants vary over time due to variation in coal composition fed

  19. Lignite pellets and methods of agglomerating or pelletizing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Albert F. (Pittsburgh, PA); Blaustein, Eric W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Deurbrouck, Albert W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Garvin, John P. (Pittsburgh, PA); McKeever, Robert E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The specification discloses lignite pellets which are relatively hard, dust resistant, of generally uniform size and free from spontaneous ignition and general degradation. Also disclosed are methods for making such pellets which involve crushing as mined lignite, mixing said lignite with a binder such as asphalt, forming the lignite binder mixture into pellets, and drying the pellets.

  20. Use of fluidized bed coal combustion techniques to study efficiency, emission reduction, boiler effects, and waste utilization. Annual report, January 1-June 30, 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesketh, H.E.; Rajan, S.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The acquisition of thermodynamic and operating data on a wide variety of waste coals in a laboratory-scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) unit is reported. The coals tested include: (1) low and medium heating value gob pile wastes, with ash content as high as 60%; (2) pelletized gob waste fines; (3) various cuts taken from beneficiation plant rejects with low heating values and high ash content; and (4) a partially devolatilized char produced from a caking Illinois coal. These waste coals could be successfully burned in the bench-scale unit with the exception of the high ash content beneficiation plant reject with a low heating value of 1700 Btu/lb. Some of the waste coals exhibited better combustion characteristics than others. The results obtained and the recommendations for improving the combustion and emission characteristics of the waste coals are discussed. Shakedown tests have been completed with the 1-ft diameter, 1 MBtu/h pilot-scale AFBC unit, and the results are reported. 1 ref., 15 figs., 8 tabs.

  1. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste: Quarterly report, 1 May 1996-31 July, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. This quarterly report describes activities completed in the design, procure, install and start-up phase.

  2. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly progress report, August 1--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation while providing efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste. The steam generated as follows: (1) Steam = 20,000 lb/hr, (2) Temperature = 353 F (saturated), (3) Pressure = 125 psig, and (4) Steam quality = {approximately}98.5%.

  3. Performance and economics of co-firing a coal/waste slurry in advanced fluidized-bed combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLallo, M.R.; Zaharchuk, R. [Parsons Power Group, Inc., Reading, PA (United States); Reuther, R.B.; Bonk, D.L. [USDOE Morgantown Energy Technology Center, WV (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study`s objective was to investigate co-firing a pressurized fluidized-bed combustor with coal and refuse-derived fuel for the production of electricity and the efficient disposal of waste. Performance evaluation of the pressurized fluidized-bed combustor (PFBC) power plant co-fired with refuse-derived fuel showed only slightly lower overall thermal efficiency than similar sized plants without waste co-firing. Capital costs and costs of electricity are within 4.2 percent and 3.2 percent, respectively, of waste-free operation. The results also indicate that there are no technology barriers to the co-firing of waste materials with coal in a PFBC power plant. The potential to produce cost-competitive electrical power and support environmentally acceptable waste disposal exists with this approach. However, as part of technology development, there remain several design and operational areas requiring data and verification before this concept can realize commercial acceptance. 3 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  4. Toxicity mitigation and solidification of municipal solid waste incinerator fly ash using alkaline activated coal ash

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivan Diaz-Loya, E. [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Allouche, Erez N., E-mail: allouche@latech.edu [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Eklund, Sven; Joshi, Anupam R. [Department of Chemistry, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States); Kupwade-Patil, Kunal [Alternative Cementitious Binders Laboratory (ACBL), Department of Civil Engineering, Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA 71272 (United States)

    2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Incinerator fly ash (IFA) is added to an alkali activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Means of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in construction applications. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was chemically characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Environmentally friendly solution to IFA disposal by reducing its toxicity levels. - Abstract: Municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration is a common and effective practice to reduce the volume of solid waste in urban areas. However, the byproduct of this process is a fly ash (IFA), which contains large quantities of toxic contaminants. The purpose of this research study was to analyze the chemical, physical and mechanical behaviors resulting from the gradual introduction of IFA to an alkaline activated coal fly ash (CFA) matrix, as a mean of stabilizing the incinerator ash for use in industrial construction applications, where human exposure potential is limited. IFA and CFA were analyzed via X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Inductive coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain a full chemical analysis of the samples, its crystallographic characteristics and a detailed count of the eight heavy metals contemplated in US Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (40 CFR). The particle size distribution of IFA and CFA was also recorded. EPA's Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) was followed to monitor the leachability of the contaminants before and after the activation. Also images obtained via Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), before and after the activation, are presented. Concrete made from IFA, CFA and IFA-CFA mixes was subjected to a full mechanical characterization; tests include compressive strength, flexural strength, elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio and setting time. The leachable heavy metal contents (except for Se) were below the maximum allowable limits and in many cases even below the reporting limit. The leachable Chromium was reduced from 0.153 down to 0.0045 mg/L, Arsenic from 0.256 down to 0.132 mg/L, Selenium from 1.05 down to 0.29 mg/L, Silver from 0.011 down to .001 mg/L, Barium from 2.06 down to 0.314 mg/L and Mercury from 0.007 down to 0.001 mg/L. Although the leachable Cd exhibited an increase from 0.49 up to 0.805 mg/L and Pd from 0.002 up to 0.029 mg/L, these were well below the maximum limits of 1.00 and 5.00 mg/L, respectively.

  5. Stabilization of coal cleaning wastes. Fossil Energy Program. Technical progress report, 1 April 1985-30 June 1985

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnet, G.; Gokhale, A.

    1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes research work in progress on the stabilization of waste from the mining and cleaning of coal. A survey of the literature in the area of coal refuse processing has been conducted using computerized searches of the Energy Data Base and Chemical Abstracts as well as manual scanning of the Chemical Abstracts, NTIS and Energy Research Abstracts. Relevant data from these sources are being assimilated to augment the present research efforts. The coal refuse material to be studied has been analyzed for major elements, Si, Al, Fe and Ca, using atomic absorption. Qualitative information on the mineralogy of the refuse has been obtained using x-ray diffraction. Small scale pelletization and sintering tests have been conducted on the coal refuse which had been ground to different levels of fineness. Water was used as a binding agent and, in the case of coarse refuse, fly ash was added in order to form pellets. The coal refuse had to be ground to about minus 30 mesh particle size to obtain intact pellets after sintering. A laboratory fixed bed reactor system has been designed and built for processing green pellets to simulate the treatment occurring in a traveling grate furnace. The reactor is heated electrically and sequentially exposes samples to drying, ignition, combustion, tempering and cooling. 12 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  6. Laboratory investigation of the extrusion of North Dakota lignite fines for fixed-bed gasification. Report for September 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, A.H.; Smith, D.P.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignite coal will be used as the gasifier feedstock in the first commercial substitute high-Btu fuels plant to be built in the U.S. The Great Plains plant, which is due to go on line in 1984, will use O2 blown, fixed-bed gasifiers to convert lignite coal into a medium Btu gas which is then upgraded to pipeline quality gas for final distribution. Since the fixed-bed gasifier requires a sized feedstock, up to 35% of the incoming run-of-mine lignite could be rejected as fines unless an alternative use can be found for the-1/4-inch fraction. Evaluation tests were run in the General Electric 6-inch single screw coal extruder to test the suitability of this process for utilization of lignite fines. Both organic and inorganic binders were evaluated. Tests were performed on the extrudate to evaluate their mechanical strength as well as their ability to withstand exposure to a high temperature gasification environment. Successful compacts were produced using bentonite clay, processed lignite coal tar, and a commercial coke oven pitch as the binding agent.

  7. Coal combustion products: trash or treasure?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hansen, T.

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal combustion by-products can be a valuable resource to various industries. The American Coal Ash Association (ACAA) collects data on production and uses of coal combustion products (CCPs). 122.5 million tons of CCPs were produced in 2004. The article discusses the results of the ACCA's 2004 survey. Fly ash is predominantly used as a substitute for Portland cement; bottom ash for structural fill, embankments and paved road cases. Synthetic gypsum from the FGD process is commonly used in wallboard. Plant owners are only likely to have a buyer for a portion of their CCPs. Although sale of hot water (from Antelope Valley Station) from condensers for use in a fish farm to raise tilapia proved unviable, the Great Plains Synfuels Plant which manufactures natural gas from lignite produces a wide range of products including anhydrous ammonia, phenol, krypton, carbon dioxide (for enhanced oil recovery), tar oils and liquid nitrogen. ACCA's goal is to educate people about CCPs and how to make them into useful products, and market them, in order to reduce waste disposal and enhance revenue. The article lists members of the ACCA. 2 photos., 1 tab.

  8. Use of fluidized bed coal combustion techniques to study efficiency, emission reduction, boiler effects, and waste utilization: Final report, July 1, 1985-February 28, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hesketh, H.E.; Rajan, S.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study program, funded by the US Department of Energy through the Southern Illinois University Coal Research Center's Coal Technology Laboratory, was conducted during the period from July 1984 through February 1986. Two lines of testing were carried out simultaneously. One consisted of using a laboratory-scale atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) to acquire thermodynamic data and operating characteristics for Illinois coal combustion. The other included acquisition, installation, shakedown, and operation of a large one million Btu/h pilot-scale AFBC (plus boiler and associated instrumentation). Both programs were to study Illinois reference and gob (waste) type coals.

  9. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were achieved, a heating value very close to that needed to fire a gas turbine would be achieved; however, some operational issues associated with utilizing recycled syngas or carbon dioxide as the transport gas would also have to be resolved. Use of a coal with a quality similar to the core samples provided earlier in the test program would also improve the gasifier performance. Low cold-gas efficiencies on the order of 20% calculated for oxygen-blown tests resulted in part from specific difficulties experienced in trying to operate the pilot-scale TRDU on this very high-ash lignite. These low levels of efficiency are not believed to be representative of what could be achieved in a commercial KRB transport gasifier. Combustion tests were also performed in the EERC's circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) to evaluate this alternative technology for use of this fuel. It was demonstrated that this fuel does have sufficient heating value to sustain combustion, even without coal drying; however, it will be challenging to economically extract sufficient energy for the generation of steam for electrical generation. The boiler efficiency for the dried coal was 73.5% at 85% sulfur capture (21.4% moisture) compared to 55.3% at 85% sulfur capture (40% moisture). Improved boiler efficiencies for this coal will be possible operating a system more specifically designed to maximize heat extraction from the ash streams for this high-ash fuel. Drying of the coal to approximately 25% moisture probably would be recommended for either power system. Fuel moisture also has a large impact on fuel feedability. Pressurized gasifiers generally like drier fuels than systems operating at ambient pressures. The commercially recommended feedstock moisture for a pressurized transport reactor gasifier is 25% moisture. Maximum moisture content for a CFB system could be approximately 40% moisture as has been demonstrated on the Alstom CFB operating on Mississippi lignite. A preliminary economic evaluation for CO{sub 2} was performed on the alternatives of (1) precombustion separation of CO{sub 2} in

  10. DWPF COAL-CARBON WASTE ACCEPTANCE CRITERIA LIMIT EVALUATION BASED ON EXPERIMENTAL WORK (TANK 48 IMPACT STUDY)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, D.; Choi, A.

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the results of both experimental and modeling studies performed using Sludge Batch 10 (SB10) simulants and FBSR product from Tank 48 simulant testing in order to develop higher levels of coal-carbon that can be managed by DWPF. Once the Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) process starts up for treatment of Tank 48 legacy waste, the FBSR product stream will contribute higher levels of coal-carbon in the sludge batch for processing at DWPF. Coal-carbon is added into the FBSR process as a reductant and some of it will be present in the FBSR product as unreacted coal. The FBSR product will be slurried in water, transferred to Tank Farm and will be combined with sludge and washed to produce the sludge batch that DWPF will process. The FBSR product is high in both water soluble sodium carbonate and unreacted coal-carbon. Most of the sodium carbonate is removed during washing but all of the coal-carbon will remain and become part of the DWPF sludge batch. A paper study was performed earlier to assess the impact of FBSR coal-carbon on the DWPF Chemical Processing Cell (CPC) operation and melter off-gas flammability by combining it with SB10-SB13. The results of the paper study are documented in Ref. 7 and the key findings included that SB10 would be the most difficult batch to process with the FBSR coal present and up to 5,000 mg/kg of coal-carbon could be fed to the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. In the present study, a bench-scale demonstration of the DWPF CPC processing was performed using SB10 simulants spiked with varying amounts of coal, and the resulting seven CPC products were fed to the DWPF melter cold cap and off-gas dynamics models to determine the maximum coal that can be processed through the melter without exceeding the off-gas flammability safety basis limits. Based on the results of these experimental and modeling studies, the presence of coal-carbon in the sludge feed to DWPF is found to have both positive (+) and negative (-) impact as summarized below: (-) Coal-carbon is a melter reductant. If excess coal-carbon is present, the resulting melter feed may be too reducing, potentially shortening the melter life. During this study, the Reduction/Oxidation Potential (REDOX) of the melter could be controlled by varying the ratio of nitric and formic acid. (-) The addition of coal-carbon increases the amount of nitric acid added and decreases the amount of formic acid added to control melter REDOX. This means that the CPC with the FBSR product is much more oxidizing than current CPC processing. In this study, adequate formic acid was present in all experiments to reduce mercury and manganese, two of the main goals of CPC processing. (-) Coal-carbon will be oxidized to carbon dioxide or carbon monoxide in the melter. The addition of coal-carbon to the FBSR product will lead to approximately 55% higher offgas production from formate, nitrate and carbon due to the decomposition of the carbon at the maximum levels in this testing. Higher offgas production could lead to higher cold cap coverage or melter foaming which could decrease melt rate. No testing was performed to evaluate the impact of the higher melter offgas flow. (+) The hydrogen production is greatly reduced in testing with coal as less formic acid is added in CPC processing. In the high acid run without coal, the peak hydrogen generation was 15 times higher than in the high acid run with added coal-carbon. (+) Coal-carbon is a less problematic reducing agent than formic acid, since the content of both carbon and hydrogen are important in evaluating the flammability of the melter offgas. Processing with coal-carbon decreases the amount of formic acid added in the CPC, leading to a lower flammability risk in processing with coal-carbon compared to the current DWPF flowsheet. (+) The seven SB10 formulations which were tested during the bench-scale CPC demonstration were all determined to be within the off-gas flammability safety basis limits during the 9X/5X off-gas surge for normal bubbled melter

  11. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. [Quarterly] technical report, December 1--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmody, R.G. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States); Dunker, R.E. [Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL (United States). Dept. of Agronomy; Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. Our approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. This is the second quarter of the project. We have designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, and are analyzing the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. We retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and will require no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample will require from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity.

  12. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Curtis Jawdy

    2000-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the US Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal or coal refuse, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, and Cofiring Alternatives. The major emphasis of work during this reporting period was to assess the types and quantities of potential feedstocks and collect samples of them for analysis. Approximately twenty different biomass, animal waste, and other wastes were collected and analyzed.

  13. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination with feedwater heating, would result in heat rate reductions of 7.43 percent for PRB coal and 10.45 percent for lignite.

  14. ADVANCED HETEROGENEOUS REBURN FUEL FROM COAL AND HOG MANURE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melanie D. Jensen; Ronald C. Timpe; Jason D. Laumb

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was performed to investigate whether the nitrogen content inherent in hog manure and alkali used as a catalyst during processing could be combined with coal to produce a reburn fuel that would result in advanced reburning NO{sub x} control without the addition of either alkali or ammonia/urea. Fresh hog manure was processed in a cold-charge, 1-gal, batch autoclave system at 275 C under a reducing atmosphere in the presence of an alkali catalyst. Instead of the expected organic liquid, the resulting product was a waxy solid material. The waxy nature of the material made size reduction and feeding difficult as the material agglomerated and tended to melt, plugging the feeder. The material was eventually broken up and sized manually and a water-cooled feeder was designed and fabricated. Two reburn tests were performed in a pilot-scale combustor. The first test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture comprising lignite and air-dried, raw hog manure. The second test evaluated a reburn fuel mixture made of lignite and the processed hog manure. Neither reburn fuel reduced NO{sub x} levels in the combustor flue gas. Increased slagging and ash deposition were observed during both reburn tests. The material-handling and ash-fouling issues encountered during this study indicate that the use of waste-based reburn fuels could pose practical difficulties in implementation on a larger scale.

  15. Field study of disposed solid wastes from advanced coal processes. Annual technical progress report, October 1991--September 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Radian Corporation and the North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) are funded to develop information to be used by private industry and government agencies for managing solid wastes produced by advanced coal combustion processes. This information will be developed by conducting several field studies on disposed wastes from these processes. Data will be collected to characterize these wastes and their interactions with the environments in which they are disposed. Three sites were selected for the field studies: Colorado Ute`s fluidized bed combustion (FBC) unit in Nucla, Colorado; Ohio Edison`s limestone injection multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit in Lorain, Ohio; and Freeman United`s mine site in central Illinois with wastes supplied by the nearby Midwest Grain FBC unit. During the past year, field monitoring and sampling of the four landfill test cases constructed in 1989 and 1991 has continued. Option 1 of the contract was approved last year to add financing for the fifth test case at the Freeman United site. The construction of the Test Case 5 cells is scheduled to begin in November, 1992. Work during this past year has focused on obtaining data on the physical and chemical properties of the landfilled wastes, and on developing a conceptual framework for interpreting this information. Results to date indicate that hydration reactions within the landfilled wastes have had a major impact on the physical and chemical properties of the materials but these reactions largely ceased after the first year, and physical properties have changed little since then. Conditions in Colorado remained dry and no porewater samples were collected. In Ohio, hydration reactions and increases in the moisture content of the waste tied up much of the water initially infiltrating the test cells.

  16. Coal deposit characterization by gamma-gamma density/percent dry ash relationships

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, David Scott

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Density/Ash Relationship . APPLICATION OF THE GAMMA-GAMMA DENSITY/PERCENT DRY ASH RELATIONSHIPS The Density/Ash Relationship of a South Texas Lignite Deposit Characterization of a South Texas Lignite Deposit CONCLUSIONS REFERENCES. 52 53 53 53... 58 64 67 6g 80 87 LIST OF TABLES TABLE I Coal Classification by Rank. 2 Common Minerals in Coal. 3 Results of Linear Regression Analyses for a South Texas Lignite Deposit. 4 Variability of Geophysica11y-Derived Percent Dry Ash Values...

  17. Influence of coal ash and slag dumping on dump waste waters of the Kostolac power plants (Serbia)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Popovic, A.; Djinovic, J. [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia)

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The content of selected trace and major elements in the river water used for transport, as well as in the subcategories of the waste waters (overflow and drainage) were analyzed in order to establish the influence of transport and dumping of coal ash and slag from the 'Kostolac A' and 'Kostolac B' power plants located 100 km from Belgrade (Serbia). It was found that during transport of coal ash and slag to the dump, the water used for transport becomes enriched with manganese, nickel, zinc, chromium, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, arsenic, aluminum, and silicon, while more calcium, iron, cadmium, and lead are adsorbed by the ash and slag than is released from them. There is also an equilibrium between the release and adsorption processes of copper and magnesium during transport. The vertical penetration of the water used for transport results in a release of calcium, magnesium, manganese, and cadmium to the environment, while iron, nickel, zinc, chromium, copper, lead, vanadium, titanium, cobalt, and arsenic are adsorbed by the fractions of coal ash and slag in the dump.

  18. An efficient process for recovery of fine coal from tailings of coal washing plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cicek, T.; Cocen, I.; Engin, V.T.; Cengizler, H. [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. for Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gravity concentration of hard lignites using conventional jigs and heavy media separation equipment is prone to produce coal-rich fine tailings. This study aims to establish a fine coal recovery process of very high efficiency at reasonable capital investment and operational costs. The technical feasibility to upgrade the properties of the predeslimed fine refuse of a lignite washing plant with 35.9% ash content was investigated by employing gravity separation methods. The laboratory tests carried out with the combination of shaking table and Mozley multi-gravity separator (MGS) revealed that the clean coal with 18% ash content on dry basis could be obtained with 58.9% clean coal recovery by the shaking table stage and 4.1% clean coal recovery by MGS stage, totaling to the sum of 63.0% clean coal recovery from a predeslimed feed. The combustible recovery and the organic efficiency of the shaking table + MGS combination were 79.5% and 95.5%, respectively. Based on the results of the study, a flow sheet of a high-efficiency fine coal recovery process was proposed, which is also applicable to the coal refuse pond slurry of a lignite washing plant.

  19. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

  20. Development of a Sorption Enhanced Steam Hydrogasification Process for In-situ Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Removal and Enhanced Synthetic Fuel Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Zhongzhe

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    such as lignite, biomass waste, biosolids and microalgae.Green waste and biosolids are common municipal waste whichcost. Low rank coal, biosolids and municipal solid waste

  1. Chemical composition and some trace element contents in coals and coal ash from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje Coal Field, Serbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vukasinovic-Pesic, V.; Rajakovic, L.J. [University of Montenegro, Podgorica (Montenegro)

    2009-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The chemical compositions and trace element contents (Zn, Cu, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, Cd, As, B, Hg, Sr, Se, Be, Ba, Mn, Th, V, U) in coal and coal ash samples from Tamnava-Zapadno Polje coal field in Serbia were studied. The coal from this field belongs to lignite. This high volatility coal has high moisture and low S contents, moderate ash yield, and high calorific value. The coal ash is abundant in alumosilicates. Many trace elements such as Ni > Cd > Cr > B > As > Cu > Co > Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal and Ni > Cr > As > B > Cu > Co = Pb > V > Zn > Mn in the coal ash are enriched in comparison with Clarke concentrations.

  2. Plant response to FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darmody, R.G.; Dunker, R.E. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steel, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this project is to test the feasibility of stabilizing coal slurry solids (CSS) wastes by directly seeding plants into the waste. This is not done conventionally because the waste can generate toxic amounts of sulfuric acid. The approach is to neutralize the potential acidity by mixing fluidized bed combustion (FBC) waste into the slurry. If successful, this approach would both help dispose of FBC wastes while providing a more economical slurry stabilization technique. The project involves growing forage plants in CSS-FBC mixtures in the greenhouse. In the first two quarters the authors designed the experiment, secured greenhouse space, purchased the seeds, collected, dried, analyzed the FBC and CSS samples. The samples represent a typical range of properties. They retrieved two FBC and two CSS samples. One CSS sample had a relatively high CaCO{sub 3} content relative to the pyrite content and required no FBC to neutralize the potential acidity. The other CSS sample required from 4.2 to 2.7% FBC material to neutralize its potential acidity. This report covers the third quarter of the project. The authors produced the CSS-FBC mixtures, analyzed the soil fertility parameters of the mixtures,, planted the crops, and monitored their growth. All mixtures support at least some plant growth, although some plants did better than others. It is too early to analyze the results statistically. Next quarter the plants will be harvested, yields calculated, mineral uptake evaluated, and a final report will be written on plant response to CSS-FBC mixtures.

  3. Geochemistry of FBC waste-coal slurry solid mixtures. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The three tasks conducted in this research project were related to understanding the geochemistry and mineralogy of the co-disposal of fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes with coal slurry solid (CSS) from a coal preparation plant. During coal cleaning, pyrite, other heavy minerals and rock fragments are separated from the coal and discharged in an aqueous slurry to an impoundment. After dewatering and closure of the impoundment, the pyrite can oxidize and produce acid that can migrate into the underlying groundwater system. The addition of FBC residue to the CSS will buffer the pore water pH to approximately 7.8. In Task 1, soluble components and acid-base react ion products from mixtures of FBC waste and CSS were extracted for 3 to 180 days in aqueous batch experiments. The results of these extractions showed that, eventually, the extracts would attain a pH between 7 and 8. That pH range is characteristic of an aqueous system in equilibrium with calcite, gypsum, and atmospheric carbon dioxide. After 180 days, the mean calcium concentration in all of the extracts was 566{+-}18 mg/L and sulfate concentrations averaged 2420{+-}70 mg/L. In Task 2, three extracts from CSS/FBC residue mixtures were prepared for use in experiments to determine the adsorption/desorption reactions that occur between solutes in the extracts and two common Illinois soils. Time constraints allowed the use of only two of the extracts for adsorption studies. The concentrations of most solutes were not significantly lowered by adsorption at the pH of the extract-soil suspension, nor over a wide range of pH. The results suggest that the type of solutes that were released by the CSS/FBC residue mixture would not be attenuated by adsorption. In a modified Task 3, the literature on the kinetics of pyrite oxidation in near-neutral to alkaline pH was reviewed in preparation for future development of a computer model of pyrite oxidation in CSS/FBC residue codisposal.

  4. JV Task 75 - Lignite Fuel Enhancement via Air-Jigging Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jason Lamb; Steven Benson; Joshua Stanislowski

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Several North Dakota lignite coals from the Falkirk Mine were processed in a 5-ton-per-hour dry coal-cleaning plant. The plant uses air-jigging technology to separate undesirable ash constituents as well as sulfur and mercury. The results of this study indicate average ash, sulfur, and mercury reductions on a weight basis of 15%, 22%, and 28%, respectively. The average heating value was increased by 2% on a Btu/lb basis. Two computer models were used to understand the impact of a cleaned fuel on boiler performance: PCQUEST{reg_sign} and Vista. The PCQUEST model indicated improvements in slagging and fouling potential when cleaned coals are used over feed coals. The Vista model was set up to simulate coal performance and economics at Great River Energy's Coal Creek Station. In all cases, the cleaned fuel performed better than the original feed coal, with economic benefits being realized for all fuels tested. The model also indicated that one fuel considered to be unusable before cleaning was transformed into a potentially salable product. While these data indicate full-scale implementation of air-jigging technology may be beneficial to the mine and the plant, complete economic analysis, including payback period, is needed to make the final decision to implement.

  5. Formation and retention of methane in coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  6. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly progress report, February 1, 1995--April 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing inexpensive and efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste and steam generation. The steam generated is as follows: (1) Steam = 20,000 lb/hr, (2) Temperature = 353 F (saturated), (3) Pressure = 125 psig, and (4) Steam quality ={approximately}98.5%. On February 3, 1995 DONLEE notified Lebanon VA and DOE-METC that additional funding would be required to complete the project. This funding, in the amount of $1,140,127, is needed to complete the facility, start-up and shakedown the facility, perform the test program and write the final report. On March 7, 1995 the vendors were notified that the Lebanon VA Steam Plant Project was shut down and that all work outside DONLEE was stopped pending obtaining additional funding.

  7. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste. Quarterly progress report, May 1--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stuart, J.M.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The project objective is to design, construct, install, provide operator training and start-up a circulating fluidized bed combustion system at the Lebanon, Pennsylvania Veteran`s Affairs Medical Center. This unit will co-fire coal and hospital waste providing lower cost steam for heating and possibly cooling (absorption chiller) and operation of a steam turbine-generator for limited power generation. This would permit full capacity operation of the FBC year round in spite of the VA laundry that was shut down as well as efficient destruction of both general and infectious hospital waste and steam generation. On February 3, 1995 Donlee notified Lebanon VA and DOE-METC that additional funding would be required to complete the project. This funding, in the amount of $1,140,127, is needed to complete the facility, start-up and shakedown the facility, perform the test program and write the final report. After review DOE-METC approved funding in the amount of $1,246,019 to be available August 1, 1995. This report describes each task of the project and its status.

  8. waste | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AlternativesSupplements to Coal - Feedstock Flexibility Waste Streams Gasification can be applied to a variety of waste streams, of which municipal solid waste (MSW) and...

  9. High-pressure gasification of Montana subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goyal, A.; Bryan, B.; Rehmat, A.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A data base for the fluidized-bed gasification of different coals at elevated pressures has been developed at the Institute of Gas Technology (IGT) with different ranks of coal at pressures up to 450 psig and at temperatures dictated by the individual coals. Adequate data have been obtained to characterize the effect of pressure on the gasification of Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal and North Dakota lignite. The results obtained with Montana Rosebud subbituminous coal are presented here. This program was funded by the Gas Research Institute. 9 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Muffle furnace evaluation of FGD sludge-coal-clay mixtures as potential synthetic aggregates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pettit, Jesse William

    1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or returned to the adjacent surface coal mines for disposal. Alternatives to these two methods of disposal are being studied (3, 6, 11). The feasibility of using this material as a raw material in the manufacture of synthetic aggregates has recently been... suitability of synthetic aggregates made from lignite fly ash using a rotary kiln. Lignite or subbituminous coals such as those used are typical of the high-lime or "western" coals that are mined in the western half of the United States. Because of the high...

  11. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sheldon, Ray W. (Huntley, MT)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  12. Fine coal flotation plant waste comparison--column vs. sub-a cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to compare results from a small commercially sized Deister Flotaire column flotation cell with the subaeration cells at Kerr-McGee's Galatia plant during side by side testing of feed splits from the same sources. Typical cell criteria for both cells are included in the appendix. The project involved the activities of three organizations: the Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, the Deister Concentrator Company, and the Illinois State Geological Survey. Their roles were as follows: Kerr-McGee installed the Deister column with sample splitter and tailings volume measuring cell in the Galatia Coal Preparation Plant to treat a representative split of their flotation feed; Deister provided a 30 inch diameter {times} 35{prime} high Deister Flotaire Column Flotation Cell capable of treating nominally one ton per hour or slightly over 1% of the plant feed. Deister additionally provided the sample splitter and the tailings volume measuring cell. ISGS personnel worked with both companies on the installation, conducted laboratory tests to direct the early plant test reagent practice, attended all of the plant runs cutting representative samples of feed, measuring slurry and reagent flows, preparing samples and writing reports.

  13. Solidification/stabilization of toxic metal wastes using coke and coal combustion by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vempati, R.K.; Mollah, M.Y.A.; Chinthala, A.K.; Cocke, D.L. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States)] [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States); Beeghly, J.H. [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)] [Dravo Lime, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study has been conducted to evaluate the potential of a special rubber waste, NISCO Cyclone Ash (NCA), which contains substantial calcium oxide and calcium sulfites/sulfates for solidification/stabilization (S/S) of toxic metal wastes. The mineralogical compositions of the NCA and a class ``C`` fly ash have been characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD). Hydrated mixtures of these wastes have been examined by XRD and found to form ettringite. Low concentrations of As (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Ba (500 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), Pb (15 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}), and Zn (1,000 {micro}g ml{sup {minus}1}) were added to these hydrated mixtures and found to be successfully immobilized and solidified, as determined by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP). In addition, the mineralogy, chemistry and leaching characteristics of these combined waste products and their interactions with toxic metals are discussed.

  14. Heat Recovery from Coal Gasifiers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wen, H.; Lou, S. C.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper deals with heat recovery from pressurized entrained and fixed bed coal gasifiers for steam generation. High temperature waste heat, from slagging entrained flow coal gasifier, can be recovered effectively in a series of radiant...

  15. Fine coal flotation of plant waste: An in-plant comparison - columns vs. sub-A cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.M.; Kohlenberger, L.; Rapp, D.M. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Stephenson, J.; Zipperian, D. (Deister Machine Co., Inc., Fort Wayne, IN (United States)); Sterner, R.M.; Norris, D. (Kerr-McGee Corp., Oklahoma City, OK (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project is to compare the flotation effectiveness of the column flotation and the sub-aeration technology to clean very fine ({minus}100 mesh) coal in the waste streams of coal washing plants. Good concentrate grades along with a high recovery of energy content have been achieved while rejecting a large percentage of the ash forming minerals and pyrite. However, comparative data of columns vs. sub-aeration cells is not available from a single plant. This project was developed to install a small commercial size Deister Column beside the existing sub-aeration flotation cells at Kerr-McGee's Galatia Plant so that a comparison of the flotation results can be made. A representative split of the fines which normally goes to sub-aeration cells can be diverted without reagent, to the column for continuous side by side flotation testing over an extended period. The Deister Column was installed during the quarter along with the sampling system and tailings volume measuring apparatus. Parts of several weeks were spent in assuring that realistic goals could be obtained. During the de-bugging period it was found that water pressure and air pressure within the plant was not constant due to cleanup hoses which were on the same fresh water line to assure constant water and air pressure to the column during testing periods. Most of the shakedown testing was completed in April and May. Preliminary tests have been run in which high grade concentrates have been made but with low Btu recoveries. Additional tests with increased reagent rates are planned to increase Btu recoveries and will be reported at the Contractors Conference and in the final report. 24 figs., 1 tab.

  16. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Because the hydrogen peroxide oxidation technique underestimated the amount of pyrite in the CSS-2 samples, the amount of FBC waste or sized Ag LS used in each mixture with CSS-2 were less than necessary to satisfy the stoichiometric amount of acid that could be generated by complete oxidation of the pyrite in the CSS samples. However, the leaching experiments demonstrated that FBC waste is as effective as Ag LS in neutralizing the generated acid, and that the leachate pH would be approximately the same as that from Ag LS/CSS mixtures. In fact, the calcium hydroxide from the original hydrated FBC waste was converted to calcium carbonate in a short period of time, as indicated by chemical and mineralogical data. If the laboratory leaching experiments had continued for a long enough term, the alkaline materials present either in the unleached CSS-2, or added to the FBC wastes would have been consumed before all the pyrite had been oxidized, because of the deficiency of FBC waste in the mixtures. There is some concern, because of the concentrations of sodium and chloride in the initial leachates, over the toxicity of the leachates to plants. Although both these solutes were flushed quickly from the laboratory and outdoor weathering solids, this might not be the case in a coal slurry pond. Therefore, salt-tolerant plants might have to be selected for revegetation of the amended coal slurry solids.

  17. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives.

  18. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

    2001-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels.

  19. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke; Joseph J. Battista

    2001-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. Penn State currently operates an aging stoker-fired steam plant at its University Park campus and has spent considerable resources over the last ten to fifteen years investigating boiler replacements and performing life extension studies. This effort, in combination with a variety of agricultural and other wastes generated at the agricultural-based university and the surrounding rural community, has led Penn State to assemble a team of fluidized bed and cofiring experts to assess the feasibility of installing a CFB boiler for cofiring biomass and other wastes along with coal-based fuels. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute and the Office of Physical Plant, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives.

  20. Coal briquetting in Haiti: A market and business assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevenson, G.G.; Willson, T.D.; Jean-Poix, C.; Medina, N.

    1987-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The investigation evaluated potential market size, financial viability, consumer acceptance, and the government policy role in promoting the manufacture and sale of briquettes in Haiti. Our results show a large and growing charcoal market in Port-au-Prince of 100,000 to 120,000 tonnes per year in 1985, much larger than previous estimates. This would support a 50,000 tonne per year coal briquetting plant. Wood users buying in lots of 100 pieces or less would provide a smaller, secondary market of about 6000 tonnes of charcoal equivalent per year. The size and competitive nature of the current charcoal transportation, wholesale, and retail distribution chain make it easily capable of distributing the coal briquettes. We investigated three coal briquetting options, each based on a different coal source: (1) Maissade lignite, (2) L'Azile lignite, and (3) imported coal. Financial analyses compare capital and operating costs with potential returns. Results indicate that the Maissade lignite is not economically viable in competition with charcoal at current charcoal prices. Both the L'Azile and imported coal options hold more promise. The investment incentives provided by Haitian government are very favorable to a coal briquetting venture. An increased tax on charcoal, currently priced below its social cost, is recommended.

  1. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward K. Levy; Hugo Caram; Zheng Yao; Gu Feng

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the fourth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture, prior to firing in a pulverized coal boiler. A description is given of the equipment, instrumentation and procedures being used for the fluidized bed drying experiments. Experimental data were obtained during this last quarter on the effects of particle size on drying rate for a North Dakota lignite. Other experiments looked at drying a PRB coal. The tests comparing drying rates with lignite particles of different diameters were carried out with particle top sizes from 2 to 9.5 mm and covered a range of air velocities. The results show that drying rate increased with air velocity, but that, within the accuracy of the data, the data for all four particle size distributions follow the same curve. This suggests the higher drying rates associated with the larger particles are due to higher air velocities and not to any inherently different drying rates due to particle size. The drying data with the PRB coal show qualitatively similar behavior to that observed with lignite. However, quantitative comparisons of the drying rate data obtained so far for the two coals show the PRB dried at rates which were 14 to 20 percent lower than the lignite, for comparable process conditions. The equilibrium relationship between relative humidity and coal moisture was refined using a correction for temperature. This reduced the scatter in the coal moisture versus relative humidity data and improved the predictions made with the first principle drying model.

  2. Combustion of char-coal waste pellets for high efficiency and low NO{sub x}. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rajan, S. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Illinois coals are prime candidates for use in Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants because of their high volatility and good char reactivity. In these plants, partial gasification of the coal in the presence of limestone eliminates the major portion of the sulfur species in the product gases, which are used as fuel for the topping cycle. The char produced is high in ash content, the major portion of which is calcium sulfide. It is also low in volatiles and of low density, compared to the parent coal. The economic success of the gasification route depends on the subsequent utilization of the residual char for raising steam for use in a Rankine cycle bottoming plant and/or preheating the air to the gasifier. Fluidized bed combustion of the char appears an attractive way of utilizing the char. Areas of concern in the fluidized bed combustion of the high ash, low volatility char are: attainment of high carbon conversion efficiencies; reduction of oxides of nitrogen emissions; reduction/elimination of corrosive chlorine species; reduction/elimination of sodium and other alkali species; and efficient usage of the calcium present in the ash to reduce sulfur compounds. The aim of the present project is to investigate ways of improving the carbon conversion efficiency, sulfur capture efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction during the fluidized bed combustion by pelletizing the low density char with coal and coal wastes using cornstarch or wood lignin as binder. During this first quarter, the parent coals and the chars to be tested have been analyzed. Particle size distributions have been measured. Sample pellets have been made evaluation of their properties.

  3. Clean coal technologies market potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drazga, B. (ed.)

    2007-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Looking at the growing popularity of these technologies and of this industry, the report presents an in-depth analysis of all the various technologies involved in cleaning coal and protecting the environment. It analyzes upcoming and present day technologies such as gasification, combustion, and others. It looks at the various technological aspects, economic aspects, and the various programs involved in promoting these emerging green technologies. Contents: Industry background; What is coal?; Historical background of coal; Composition of coal; Types of coal; Environmental effects of coal; Managing wastes from coal; Introduction to clean coal; What is clean coal?; Byproducts of clean coal; Uses of clean coal; Support and opposition; Price of clean coal; Examining clean coal technologies; Coal washing; Advanced pollution control systems; Advanced power generating systems; Pulverized coal combustion (PCC); Carbon capture and storage; Capture and separation of carbon dioxide; Storage and sequestration of carbon dioxide; Economics and research and development; Industry initiatives; Clean Coal Power Initiative; Clean Coal Technology Program; Coal21; Outlook; Case Studies.

  4. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Dale Lamke

    2001-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences, Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc., Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc., and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on completing the biofuel characterization and the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system.

  5. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits

    2001-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, work focused on performing the design of the conceptual fluidized bed system and determining the system economics.

  6. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; Douglas Donovan; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz

    2002-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory is performing a feasibility analysis on installing a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler and ceramic filter emission control device at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring multiple biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The objective of the project is being accomplished using a team that includes personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. During this reporting period, the final technical design and cost estimate were submitted to Penn State by Foster Wheeler. In addition, Penn State initiated the internal site selection process to finalize the site for the boiler plant.

  7. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  8. Evaluation of ground-water quality impacts of lignite waste disposal at a Texas lignite mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Deborah Joan

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to be responsible for the high degree of selen1um attenuation 1s adsorption of the element by amorphous iron and alum1num ox1des and organic matter abundant in the clay soils of the study area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my thes1s... at the study site for a 1984, and c. comparison lines cations in the sludge ls anions in the sludge ls. concentration (mg/I) January 1983, b. June of contour map center 47 . 48 51 Figure 14 Log-log adsorption relat1on for preliminary evaluation...

  9. Low-rank-coal study national needs for resource development. Volume 1. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot, Dr., Martin A.; Hill, George R.; Jonakin, James; Crutchfield, Paul W.; Severson, Donald E.; White, David M.; Yeager, Kurt

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Low-rank coals - lignite and subbituminous - are those which have been subjected to the least amount of metamorphic change during the coal-forming process. As such, they retain greater fractions of moisture and volatile matter from the original peat material, and contain less fixed carbon, than the high-rank coals - bituminous and anthracite. The primary measure used to classify the lower ranks of coal is heating value. Other important characteristics which distinguish the low-rank coals from high-rank coals are discussed in this report. Low-rank coals represent a major, and largely untapped, energy resource for this country. Very extensive deposits of lignite and subbituminous coal exist in the western states, the Gulf coast, and Alaska. Major deposits of low-rank coal are also found in many other countries, most notably the USSR, Australia, Canada, and the central and eastern European nations. Worldwide coal statistics indicate that low-rank coals account for roughly one-third of the total resource and current production tonnages. This report recommends a comprehensive national research, development, and demonstration (RD and D) program to enhance the development of low-rank coals. The major conclusion of this study is that the unique properties of these coals affect the technologies for their extraction, preparation, direct use, and conversion and justify a separate focus on low-rank coals in the national RD and D efforts.

  10. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (USA). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  11. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 126-B-3, 184-B Coal Pit Dumping Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-028

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The 126-B-3 waste site is the former coal storage pit for the 184-B Powerhouse. During demolition operations in the 1970s, the site was used for disposal of demolition debris from 100-B/C Area facilities. The site has been remediated by removing debris and contaminated soils. The results of verification sampling demonstrated that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also showed that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  12. Some effects of pressure and temperature on combustion of lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marable, Max

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOME EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON COMBUSTION OF LIGNITE A Thesis by MAX MARABLE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1975... Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering SOME EFFECTS OF PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE ON COMBUSTION OF LIGNITE A Thesis by MAX MARABLE Approved as to style an ontent by: / Chairm of Committee Member Member August 1975 ABSTRACT Some Effects...

  13. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE USI, IG STEA 1 ANO AIR A Thesis by ROSERT REGINALD STONE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AIIN University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of , 'RASTER OF SCIENCE August 1981... Major Subject: Chemical Engineering DESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE USING STEAM AND AIR A Thesis by ROBERT REGINALD STONE Approved as to style and content by: Dr. . A . Bulli n ( Chai rman of Committee) R. G. Anthony (Member) J. W. J ni ngs ( ber...

  14. The fractionation and characterization of two North American lignites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garcia Juan Manuel

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN LIGNITES A Thesis by 3UAN MANUEL GARCIA, III Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1985 Major Subject: Chemistry THE FRACTIONATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF TWO NORTH AMERICAN LIGNITES A Thesis by 3UAN MANUEL GARCIA, III Approved as to style and content by: alph A. Zin ro (Chair of Committee) ~o/A Daniel H. O...

  15. Hydrogeology of a reclaimed Central Texas lignite mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pepper, Gail Louise

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major Subject: Geology HYDROGEOLOGY Ol A RECLAIMED CENTRAL TEXAS LIGNITE MINE A Thesis by GAIL LOUISE PEPPER Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ad of partment) December 1980 ABSTRACT Hydrogeology... of a Reclaimed Central Texas Lignite bovine (December, 1980) Gail Louise Pepper, B. S. , i&onmouth College, Illinois Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. C. C. Nathewson The r coverv of the groundwater system and the factors affecting recharge have...

  16. Exploratory research on novel coal liquefaction concept. Progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, F.P.; Brandes, S.D.; Winschel, R.A.

    1996-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Activities this quarter were conducted under Tasks 2, 3, and 5. Task 2 work concentrated on evaluating the effects of low-severity, first-stage reaction conditions on coal conversions of lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coals. The impact of artificially weathering bituminous coal was investigated. Large quantities of first-stage product were made using the one-liter reactor for subsequent filtration and catalytic upgrading tests. Test conditions and coal conversions for all microautoclave and one-liter tests made this quarter are presented. Filtration tests examined lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coal products. The effects on resid conversion of second-stage reaction conditions and catalyst recycle were studied. Task 3 work included the successful transfer of first-stage reactor products to a receiver and the design of an interstage filter. Task 5 work included an ongoing review of the technical and patent literature and expansion of the annotated bibliography. Mass and elemental balances were obtained for selected tests.

  17. Trace element analysis of Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahar, Sean

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Gluskoter, and N. F. Shimp: Occurence and Distribution of Potentiall Volatile Trace Elements in Coal. Illinois State Geological Survey. Urbana, IL. (July, 1974). 39 [26] Andren, A. W. , D. H. Klein, and Y. Talmi: Selenium in Coal- Fired Plant Emissions.... Envir. Sci. and Tech. , 9:856, (Sept. , 1975). [27] Gluskoter, H. J. , R. R. Ruch, W. G. Miller, R. A. Cahill, G. B. Breher and J, K. Kuhn: Trace Elements in Coal: Occur- rence and Distribution. Illinois State Geological Sur- vey. Urbane, Illinois...

  18. The use of FBC wastes in the reclamation of coal slurry solids. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Five fluidized bed combustion (FBC) wastes, one agricultural limestone (Ag LS), and two coal slurry solids (CSS) samples were characterized chemically and mineralogically. Mixtures of the materials (FBC waste or Ag LS and CSS) were prepared and subjected to leaching with deionized water in laboratory experiments and with meteoric water in outdoor weathering experiments. The major cations in the leachates were calcium and sodium, with minor concentrations of magnesium and potassium. The major anions were chloride and sulfate, with minor amounts of fluoride and bicarbonate. The major minerals in the unleached FBC wastes were calcium oxide and calcium sulfate (anhydrite). The calcium oxide was hydrated upon wetting to calcium hydroxide, which was converted to calcium carbonate (calcite) upon exposure to atmospheric carbon dioxide, or carbon dioxide from the neutralization reaction of acid with calcite. The calcium hydroxide controlled the pH of leachates in the early leaching period, whereas calcite controlled the pH in the later leaching period. The alkaline calcium species in the FBC wastes effectively neutralized the acid generated by pyrite oxidation. In extracts generated by the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), selenium was found to be above the US EPA primary drinking water maximum contaminant level (MCL) in extracts from each of the FBC wastes and CSS samples. Mercury was above its MCL in the extract of FBC-2. The other six constituents (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Pb, and Ag) were below their corresponding MCLS. Hence, these FBC wastes would not be classified as hazardous under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act.

  19. 1 INTRODUCTION Appalachian coal recovered during mining fre-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Appalachian underground coal mining (Newman 2003). Storage of coal processing waste is limited to above ground- ground room-and-pillar or longwall coal production do not allow for the separation of waste during coal. Such an analysis requires the ability to predict potential surface ground movements, both vertical (i

  20. PROSPECTS FOR CO-FIRING OF CLEAN COAL AND CREOSOTE-TREATED WASTE WOOD AT SMALL-SCALE POWER STATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janis Zandersons; Aivars Zhurinsh; Edward Someus

    If a small-scale clean coal fu eled power plant is co-fu eled with 5 % of cre o-sote-treated used-up sleeper wood, the de con tam i na tion by carbonisation at 500 °C in an in di rectly heated ro tary kiln with the di am e ter 1.7 m and ef fec-tive length 10 m can be real ised. It should be in cluded in the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant ” sys tem, which pro cesses coal. It will im prove the heat bal ance of the sys tem, since the carbonisation of wood will de liver a lot of high caloricity pyroligneous vapour to the joint fur nace of the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant”. Pine wood sleeper sap wood con tains 0.25 % of sul phur, but the av er age pine sleeper wood (sap wood and heart wood) 0.05% of sul phur. Most of the sul phur is lost with the pyroligneous vapour and burned in the fur nace. Since the “3R Clean Coal Carbonisation Plant ” is equipped with a flue gases clean ing sys tem, the SO2 emis sion level will not ex-ceed 5 mg/m 3. The char coal of the sap wood por tion of sleep ers and that of the av er age sleeper wood will con tain 0.22 % and 0.035 % of sul phur, re spec-tively. The in crease of the carbonisation tem per a ture does not sub stan tially de crease the sul phur con tent in char coal, al though it is suf fi ciently low, and the char coal can be co-fired with clean coal. The con sid ered pro cess is suit-able for small power plants, if the bio mass in put in the com mon en ergy bal-ance is 5 to 10%. If the mean dis tance of sleep ers trans por ta tion for Cen tral and East ern Eu-rope is es ti mated not to ex ceed 200 km, the co-com bus tion of clean coal and carbonised sleep ers would be an ac cept able op tion from the en vi ron men tal and eco nomic points of view.

  1. Potential Impact of the Development of Lignite Reserves on Water Resources of East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, W. P.; Slowey, J. F.; Garret, R. L.; Ortiz, C.; Bright, J.; King, T.

    adverse effects of lignite strip mining and lignite utilization on the hydrology and water quality of the area. Both field and desk studies were conducted to evaluate the potential impact of lignite development on water resources of the area. Field studies...

  2. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 December 1994--28 February 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first two quarters of the project, the thrust of the work directed towards characterizing the various coal combustion residues and FGD residue, i.e., scrubber sludge. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADK unit l-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM, unit l-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}.0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disk,- from coal combustion residues. This has been achieved. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites. Also, these results along with mechanical behavior of the fabricated disks lead us to believe that the combination of surface altered PCC fly ash and scrubber sludge particles, together ed ash particles are ideal for our composite materials.

  3. Structure, constitution and utilization of low rank Indian coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iyengar, M.S.; Iyengar, V.A. [M.S. Iyengar and Associates, New Delhi (India)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper briefly reviews the work done on lignite and sub-bituminous coals. Surface area and moisture adsorption dependency on functional group is described. The role of hydrogen bonding in the briquetting of lignite and of alkyl groups in inducing caking properties are discussed. The dualistic behavior of abnormal coals as both a low and high rank coal is also discussed in relation to the nature of their sulphur groups. On the utilization side, processes are described for: (1) Utilization of non-caking coal in the reduction of iron ore. Coal is first briquetted using a lime-tar binder. It is then carbonized for reducing iron ore. The bar is recovered and recycled. (2) Production of carbon black from low rank coals. In this process, coal is carbonized at high temperature in a fluidized bed. Carbon black, for tire industry, is obtained with char as by-product. (3) Utilization of flue gases of industry is also discussed. In this new approach, the flue gas is reduced to synthesis gas by additional fuel and the inevitable surplus heat. The viability of the process is illustrated by details of a recent study in a cement plant. In addition to the above, the implication of recycling flue gas in automobile engines to make them more environment friendly and cost effective, is also discussed.

  4. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

  5. Investigation of feasibility of injecting power plant waste gases for enhanced coalbed methane recovery from low rank coals in Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saugier, Luke Duncan

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    such as power plants. CO2 emissions can be offset by sequestration of produced CO2 in natural reservoirs such as coal seams, which may initially contain methane. Production of coalbed methane can be enhanced through CO2 injection, providing an opportunity...

  6. Low-rank coal research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, G. F.; Laudal, D. L.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  7. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. Quarterly report, 1 March 1995--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), differential thermal analysis (DTA), and transmission-Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), FBC fly ash (ADM unit1-6), FBC fly ash (S.I. coal), FBC spent bed ash (ADM unit1-6), bottom ash, and scrubber sludge (CWLP) residues to characterize their geometrical shapes, mineral phases, and thermal stability. Our spectroscopic results indicate that the scrubber sludge is mainly composed of a gypsum-like phase whose lattice structure is different from the lattice structure of conventional gypsum, and sludge does not contain hannebachite (CaSO{sub 3}0.5H{sub 2}O) phase. In the second and third quarters the focus of research has been on developing protocols for the formation of advanced brake composites and structural composites. Our attempts to fabricate brake frictional shoes, in the form of 1.25 inch disks, from PCC fly ash, FBC spent bed ash, scrubber sludge, coal char, iron particles, and coal tar were successful. Based on the experience gained and microscopic analyses, we have now upscaled our procedures to fabricate 2.5 inch diameter disks from coal combustion residues. The SEM and Young`s modulus analyses of brake composites fabricated at 400 psi < Pressure < 2200 psi suggest pressure has a strong influence on the particle packing and the filling of interstices in our composites.

  8. A kinetic model for the liquefaction of Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haley, Sandra Kay

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    shortages in the United States has led to investigations in alternative energy sources. Of particular interest is the lignite resource in Texas which is mainly situated in the east and central regions north of the Colorado River. There is an estimated...A KINETIC MODEL FOR THE LIQUEFACTION OF TEXAS LIGNITE 4 Thesis by SANDRA KAY BALKY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE y 1980 Major Subject...

  9. Field study for disposal of solid wastes from Advanced Coal Processes: Ohio LIMB Site Assessment. Final report, April 1986--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinberg, A.; Coel, B.J.; Butler, R.D.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    New air pollution regulations will require cleaner, more efficient processes for converting coal to electricity, producing solid byproducts or wastes that differ from conventional pulverized-coal combustion ash. Large scale landfill test cells containing byproducts were built at 3 sites and are to be monitored over at least 3 years. This report presents results of a 3-y field test at an ash disposal site in northern Ohio; the field test used ash from a combined lime injection-multistage burner (LIMB) retrofit at the Ohio Edison Edgewater plant. The landfill test cells used LIMB ash wetted only to control dusting in one cell, and LIMB ash wetted to optimize compaction density in the other cell. Both test cells had adequate load-bearing strength for landfill stability but had continuing dimensional instability. Heaving and expansion did not affect the landfill stability but probably contributed to greater permeability to infiltrating water. Leachate migration occurred from the base, but effects on downgradient groundwater were limited to increased chloride concentration in one well. Compressive strength of landfilled ash was adequate to support equipment, although permeability was higher and strength was lower than anticipated. Average moisture content has increased to about 90% (dry weight basis). Significant water infiltration has occurred; the model suggests that as much as 20% of the incident rainfall will pass through and exit as leachate. However, impacts on shallow ground water is minimal. Results of this field study suggest that LIMB ash from combustion of moderate to high sulfur coals will perform acceptably if engineering controls are used to condition and compact the materials, reduce water influx to the landfill, and minimize leachate production. Handling of the ash did not pose serious problems during cell construction; steaming and heat buildup were moderate.

  10. Treatment of metal-laden hazardous wastes with advanced clean coal technology by-products. Quartery report, August 1994--November 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This first quarterly report describes work during the first three months of the University of Pittsburgh`s (Pitt`s) project on the {open_quotes}Treatment of Metal-Laden Hazardous Wastes with Advanced Clean Coal Technology By-Products.{close_quotes} Participating with Pitt on this project are Dravo Lime Company (DLC), Mill Service, Inc. (MSO and the Center for Hazardous Materials Research (CHMR)). The report states the goals of the project - both general and specific - and then describes the activities of the project team during the reporting period. All of this work has been organizational and developmental in nature. No data has yet been collected. Technical details and data will appear for the first time in the second quarterly report and be the major topic of subsequent reports.

  11. Low-rank coal study : national needs for resource development. Volume 2. Resource characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Comprehensive data are presented on the quantity, quality, and distribution of low-rank coal (subbituminous and lignite) deposits in the United States. The major lignite-bearing areas are the Fort Union Region and the Gulf Lignite Region, with the predominant strippable reserves being in the states of North Dakota, Montana, and Texas. The largest subbituminous coal deposits are in the Powder River Region of Montana and Wyoming, The San Juan Basin of New Mexico, and in Northern Alaska. For each of the low-rank coal-bearing regions, descriptions are provided of the geology; strippable reserves; active and planned mines; classification of identified resources by depth, seam thickness, sulfur content, and ash content; overburden characteristics; aquifers; and coal properties and characteristics. Low-rank coals are distinguished from bituminous coals by unique chemical and physical properties that affect their behavior in extraction, utilization, or conversion processes. The most characteristic properties of the organic fraction of low-rank coals are the high inherent moisture and oxygen contents, and the correspondingly low heating value. Mineral matter (ash) contents and compositions of all coals are highly variable; however, low-rank coals tend to have a higher proportion of the alkali components CaO, MgO, and Na/sub 2/O. About 90% of the reserve base of US low-rank coal has less than one percent sulfur. Water resources in the major low-rank coal-bearing regions tend to have highly seasonal availabilities. Some areas appear to have ample water resources to support major new coal projects; in other areas such as Texas, water supplies may be constraining factor on development.

  12. FEASIBILITY ANALYSIS FOR INSTALLING A CIRCULATING FLUIDIZED BED BOILER FOR COFIRING MULTIPLE BIOFUELS AND OTHER WASTES WITH COAL AT PENN STATE UNIVERSITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce G. Miller; Sharon Falcone Miller; Robert Cooper; John Gaudlip; Matthew Lapinsky; Rhett McLaren; William Serencsits; Neil Raskin; Tom Steitz; Joseph J. Battista

    2003-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pennsylvania State University, utilizing funds furnished by the U.S. Department of Energy's Biomass Power Program, investigated the installation of a state-of-the-art circulating fluidized bed boiler at Penn State's University Park campus for cofiring multiple biofuels and other wastes with coal, and developing a test program to evaluate cofiring biofuels and coal-based feedstocks. The study was performed using a team that included personnel from Penn State's Energy Institute, Office of Physical Plant, and College of Agricultural Sciences; Foster Wheeler Energy Services, Inc.; Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation; Parsons Energy and Chemicals Group, Inc.; and Cofiring Alternatives. The activities included assessing potential feedstocks at the University Park campus and surrounding region with an emphasis on biomass materials, collecting and analyzing potential feedstocks, assessing agglomeration, deposition, and corrosion tendencies, identifying the optimum location for the boiler system through an internal site selection process, performing a three circulating fluidized bed (CFB) boiler design and a 15-year boiler plant transition plan, determining the costs associated with installing the boiler system, developing a preliminary test program, determining the associated costs for the test program, and exploring potential emissions credits when using the biomass CFB boiler.

  13. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    waste water to create coal water slurry as an input to theis equipped with two coal water slurry gasifiers capable of

  14. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  15. Hydroliquefaction of Big Brown lignite in supercritical fluids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Big Brown lignite was liquefied in a fixed bed tube reactor. Three solvents were used in the liquefaction studies, toluene, cyclohexane and methanol. Two co-solvents, tetralin and water were used with toluene. The effects of the solvents and co...

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  17. abandoned lignite mines: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal Combustion By-Products Engineering Websites Summary: subject headings: Remedial action; Acid mine water; Mines; Coals; Recycling; Maryland; Fly ashRemediation of...

  18. Transformation of alkali metals during pyrolysis and gasification of a lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaofang Wei; Jiejie Huang; Tiefeng Liu; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Transformation of Na and K in a lignite was investigated during pyrolysis and gasification in a fixed-bed by using a serial dissolution method with H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solutions. The evolution of the fractions of four forms in solid and alkali volatilization during pyrolysis and gasification was determined. The results show that a different mode of occurrence between Na and of K in coal existed. Na in coal can be nearly completely dissolved by H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solution. However, K in coal exists almost in the stable forms. Both H{sub 2}O soluble and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4} soluble Na and K fractions decline during pyrolysis and early gasification stage and increase a little with the process of char gasification. The stable form Na in the char produced during pyrolysis is transferred to other forms during char gasification via the pore opening and a series of chemical reactions. Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) may play an important role in producing stable forms such as Na{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}2SiO{sub 2} and K{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2} during pyrolysis. The fraction of HCl soluble K increases during pyrolysis but decreases markedly during the early gasification stage. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs.

  19. Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

  20. Design and fabrication of advanced materials from Illinois coal wastes. [Quarterly] technical report, September 1--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malhotra, V.M.; Wright, M.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project is to develop a bench-scale procedure to design and fabricate advanced brake and structural composite materials from Illinois coal combustion residues. During the first quarter of the project, the thrust of the work was directed towards setting up the experimental facilities and undertaking preliminary tests to gauge the ability of coal tar derived binder in fabricating the brake skeletons. In addition systematic scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were conducted on PCC fly ash (Baldwin), fly ash (ADM), FBC fly ash, FBC spent bed bottom ash, bottom ash (ADM), and scrubber sludge residues to characterize their geometrical shape and thermal stability. The PCC fly ash particles being highly spherical in shape and thermally inert up to 1100{degrees}C will make an excellent raw material for our composites. This is born out by fabricating brake skeletons from PCC fly ash colloids. Unlike the PCC fly ash and FBC fly ash, the scrubber sludge particles are not suitable hosts for our brake lining materials because of a whisker-like particle structure. Six different compositions of various combustion residues were tested in the fabrication of brake skeletons, and our tar derived binder shows great promise in the fabrication of composite materials.

  1. TOXIC SUBSTANCES FROM COAL COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A KOLKER; AF SAROFIM; CL SENIOR; FE HUGGINS; GP HUFFMAN; I OLMEZ; J LIGHTY; JOL WENDT; JOSEPH J HELBLE; MR AMES; N YAP; R FINKELMAN; T PANAGIOTOU; W SEAMES

    1998-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 identify a number of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) as candidates for regulation. Should regulations be imposed on HAP emissions from coal-fired power plants, a sound understanding of the fundamental principles controlling the formation and partitioning of toxic species during coal combustion will be needed. With support from the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the Electric Power Research Institute, the Lignite Research Council, and VTT (Finland), Physical Sciences Inc. (PSI) has teamed with researchers from USGS, MIT, the University of Arizona (UA), the University of Kentucky (UK), the University of Connecticut (UC), the University of Utah (UU) and the University of North Dakota Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) to develop a broadly applicable emissions model useful to regulators and utility planners. The new Toxics Partitioning Engineering Model (ToPEM) will be applicable to all combustion conditions including new fuels and coal blends, low-NO combustion systems, and new power generation x plants. Development of ToPEM will be based on PSI's existing Engineering Model for Ash Formation (EMAF). This report covers the reporting period from 1 July 1998 through 30 September 1998. During this period distribution of all three Phase II coals was completed. Standard analyses for the whole coal samples were also completed. Mössbauer analysis of all project coals and fractions received to date has been completed in order to obtain details of the iron mineralogy. The analyses of arsenic XAFS data for two of the project coals and for some high arsenic coals have been completed. Duplicate splits of the Ohio 5,6,7 and North Dakota lignite samples were taken through all four steps of the selective leaching procedure. Leaching analysis of the Wyodak coal has recently commenced. Preparation of polished coal/epoxy pellets for probe/SEM studies is underway. Some exploratory mercury LIII XAFS work was carried out during August at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), the new synchrotron facility at Argonne National Laboratory, Chicago, IL. Further analysis of small-scale combustion experiments conducted at PSI in Phase I was completed this quarter. The results of these experiments for the first time suggest almost complete vaporization of certain trace elements (Se, Zn) from coal combustion in the flame zone, in accordance with theoretical equilibrium predictions. Other elements (As, Sb, Cr) appeared considerably less volatile and may react with constituents in the bulk ash at combustion temperatures. The combustion section of the University of Arizona's Downflow Combustor was completely rebuilt. The University of Utah worked on setting up EPA Method 26A to give the capability to measure chlorine in flue gas. The chlorine kinetic calculations performed as part of the Phase I program were found to have an error in the initial conditions. Therefore, the calculations were re-done this quarter with the correct starting conditions. Development of a quasi-empirical emissions model based on reported emissions of particulate matter from field measurements was continued this quarter. As a first step in developing the ToPEM, we developed a sub-model that calculates the evaporation of major elements (Na, K, Fe, Si, Al, Ca and Mg) from both inherent and extraneous minerals of coal. During this quarter, this sub-model was included into EMAF, which formed the ToPEM. Experimental data from the Phase I program were used to test and modify the sub-model and the ToPEM.

  2. Coal upgrading program for Usti nad Labem, Czech Republic: Task 8.3. Topical report, October 1994--August 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, B.C.; Musich, M.A.

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal has been a major energy source in the Czech Republic given its large coal reserves, especially brown coal and lignite (almost 4000 million metric tons) and smaller reserves of hard, mainly bituminous, coal (over 800 million tons). Political changes since 1989 have led to the reassessment of the role of coal in the future economy as increasing environmental regulations affect the use of the high-sulfur and high-ash brown coal and lignite as well as the high-ash hard coal. Already, the production of brown coal has declined from 87 million metric tons per year in 1989 to 67 million metric tons in 1993 and is projected to decrease further to 50 million metric tons per year of brown coal by the year 2000. As a means of effectively utilizing its indigenous coal resources, the Czech Republic is upgrading various technologies, and these are available at different stages of development, demonstration, and commercialization. The purpose of this review is to provide a database of information on applicable technologies that reduce the impact of gaseous (SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, volatile organic compounds) and particulate emissions from the combustion of coal in district and residential heating systems.

  3. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  4. The role of coal in industrialization: A case study of Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akarakiri, J.B. (Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is a mineral matter found in layers or beds in sedimentary rocks. It is a very highly variable substance. In addition to the variations from lignite to bituminous and anthracite, there are vast differences in its heating value, amount of volatiles, sulfur, moisture and so on. The chemical and physical properties of coal make it an important industrial raw material. There is proven 639 million tonnes of coal reserves in Nigeria. This paper examines the potential and current role of coal in the industrialization of Nigeria. Industries are now dependent on fuel oil as a source of fuel because of its economic and technological advantages over coal. Coal is a source of industrial energy for the future after the known oil reserves might have been exhausted. In the short term, coal can be used as a material for chemicals, iron and steel production as well as a substitute for wood energy in the process of industrialization.

  5. Characterization of Texas lignite and numerical modeling of its in-situ gasification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yih-Jy

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    proximate analysis variable and eventually a systematic method of varying these parameters needs to be investigated before a parameter study of the influence of lignite composit1on on gas quality can be done (Russell and Wang, 1983). A characterization... compensate for part of the energy needed to vaporize the moisture in lignite, the sum of these two forms of energy accounts for only about a half of the total energy required for vaporization by a simple calculation using typical Texas lignite...

  6. An engineering geologic impact analysis of hydraulic dredging for lignite in Texas alluvial valleys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Erich Donald Luis

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and is the same site used by Cason ( 1982). These two studies exhibit that dredge mining of lignite at the Grimes County site is feasible economically and environmentally. A pilot dredge program is now needed to determine if the studies represent reality... lignite in alluvial valleys is feasible Table 1. Stratigraphic occurrence of Texas lignites (IUodified fram Cason, 1982) . North of the Colorado River OLIGOCENE CATAMOULA FORMATION South of the Colorado River Whitsett Formation Manning Formations...

  7. A kinetic model for the liquefaction of lignite in a continuous stirred tank reactor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culpon, Douglas Holmes

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    can be transported by pipelines or other means at greatly reduced cost. Lignite liquefaction appears especially attractive in North Dakota, where combustion of vast deposits of lignite has made the state a net exporter of electricity. This has..., and equimolar CO/H2. The lignite for this work was mined from the Beulah mine in Mercer County, North Dakota (Beulah 3). The sample was selected for its unusually high ash content, which was INPUT ALTERNATE PREHEATERS ALTERNATE REACTORS GAS ? LIOUIO...

  8. Utilization of coal associated minerals. Quarterly report No. 11, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research program is to examine the effects of coal mineral materials on coal waste by-product utilization and to investigate new and improved methods for the utilization of waste by-products from cleaning, combustion and conversion processing of coal. The intermediate objectives include: (1) the examination of the effects of cleaning, gasification and combustion on coal mineral materials; and (2) the changes which occur in the coal wastes as a result of both form and distribution of mineral materials in feed coals in conjunction with the coal treatment effects resulting from coal cleaning or either gasification or combustion.

  9. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

  10. Municipal Waste Planning, Recycling and Waste Reduction Act ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Recycling and Waste Reduction Act (Pennsylvania) Policy Category Other Policy Policy Type Environmental Regulations Affected Technologies BiomassBiogas, Coal with CCS,...

  11. The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

  12. Coal slurries: An environmental bonus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Basta, N.; Moore, S.; Ondrey, G.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Developers and promoters of coal-water slurries and similar CWF (coal-water fuel) technologies have had a hard time winning converts since they unveiled their first commercial processes in the 1970s. The economic appeal of such processes, marginal at best, varies with the price of oil. Nevertheless, the technology is percolating, as geopolitics and environmental pressures drive new processes. Such fuels are becoming increasingly important to coal-rich, oil-poor nations such as China, as they attempt to build an onshore fuel supply. Meanwhile, improvements are changing the way coal-fired processes are viewed. Where air pollution regulations once discouraged the use of coal fuels, new coal processes have been developed that cut nitrous oxides (NOx) emissions and provide a use for coal fines, previously viewed as waste. The latest developments in the field were all on display at the 19th International Technical Conference on Coal Utilization and Fuel Systems, held in Clearwater, Fla., on March 21--24. At this annual meeting, sponsored by the Coal and Slurry Technology Association, (Washington, D.C.) and the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Dept. of Energy (PETC), some 200 visitors from around the work gathered to discuss the latest developments in coal slurry utilization--new and improved processes, and onstream plants. This paper presents highlights from the conference.

  13. Effect of coal type, residence time, and combustion configuration on the submicron aerosol composition and size distribution from pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Linak, W.P.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulverized samples of Utah bituminous, Beulah (North Dakota) low Na lignite, Deulah high Na lignite and Texas (San Miguel) lignite coals were burned at a rate of 2.5 kg/hr in a laboratory furnace under various (overall fuel lean) combustion conditions. Particle size distributions (PSD) and size segregated particle filter samples were taken at various positions within the convection section. Temperature and gas concentrations were measured throughout. The evolution of the submicron PSD within the convection section for the four coals was similar, although the location of the initial particle mode at the convection section inlet varied with coal type. While stage combustion of the Utah bituminous coal had a variable effect on the volume of submicron aerosol produced, staged combustion of two of the three lignites (Beulah low Na and Texas) caused a definite increase in the submicron aerosol volume. Chemical analysis of the size segregated particle samples show the trace elements, As, Pb, Zn, and the major elements, Na and K to be enriched in the submicron aerosol. Auger depth profiles show these small particles to be comprised of a core enriched in Fe, Si, Ca and Mg and surface layers enriched in Na and K. These results point to a mechanism of homogeneous nucleation of low vapor pressure species followed by successive layering of progressively more volatile species. Volatile species are enriched in the submicron aerosol due to the large surface areas provided. Modeling efforts show that while coagulation may be the dominant mechanism to describe the aerosol evolving within the convection section, it cannot be used solely to predict the PSD. Another mechanism, presumably surface area dependent growth (condensation) must be included.

  14. Coal conversion siting on coal mined lands: water quality issues

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Triegel, E.K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The siting of new technology coal conversion facilities on land disturbed by coal mining results in both environmental benefits and unique water quality issues. Proximity to mining reduces transportation requirements and restores disrupted land to productive use. Uncertainties may exist, however, in both understanding the existing site environment and assessing the impact of the new technology. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is currently assessing the water-related impacts of proposed coal conversion facilities located in areas disturbed by surface and underground coal mining. Past mining practices, leaving highly permeable and unstable fill, may affect the design and quality of data from monitoring programs. Current mining and dewatering, or past underground mining may alter groundwater or surface water flow patterns or affect solid waste disposal stability. Potential acid-forming material influences the siting of waste disposal areas and the design of grading operations. These and other problems are considered in relation to the uncertainties and potentially unique problems inherent in developing new technologies.

  15. Coal pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bonin, John H. (Sunnyvale, CA); Meyer, John W. (Palo Alto, CA); Daniel, Jr., Arnold D. (Alameda County, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  16. air coal franklin: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    H.C. Frey, "Quantification of Hourly Variability in Hourly Activity and NOx Emissions for Baseload Coal-Fired Power Plants," Proceedings, Annual Meeting of the Air & Waste...

  17. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  18. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance-of-plant impacts of the mercury control process, including those associated with ESP performance and fly ash reuse properties. Upon analysis of the project results, the project team identified several areas of interest for further study. Follow-on testing was conducted on Unit 2 in 2009 with the entire unit treated with injected sorbent so that mercury removal across the FGD could be measured and so that other low-ash impact technologies could be evaluated. Three approaches to minimizing ash impacts were tested: (1) injection of 'low ash impact' sorbents, (2) alterations to the injection configuration, and (3) injection of calcium bromide in conjunction with sorbent. These conditions were tested with the goal of identifying the conditions that result in the highest mercury removal while maintaining the sorbent injection at a rate that preserves the beneficial use of ash.

  19. Petrology of Jurassic (Kimmeridgian) coals, Atlantic Continental Shelf, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Wild, G.D. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ten coals of Kimmeridgian age were recovered from the COST B-3 borehole, offshore New Jersey. Separation of the coal from other cuttings was done at 1.8 specific gravity, meaning that partings and mineral-rich lithotypes were lost in processing. The coals are distributed over an interval of 3.49 to 3.93 km depth. Coal rank, by vitrinite maximum reflectance, spans the lower portion of the high volatile A bituminous range. A single Cretaceous coal with 0.32%R[sub max] occurs at 2.08 km depth. Vitrinite content ranges from 51 to over 90% with vitrinite content generally increasing upward in the section. Telinite with resinite cell fillings is an important vitrinite form. Resinite occurs in concentrations of up to 9% in the Jurassic coals and is nearly 12% in the Cretaceous lignite. Fusinite plus semifusinite ranges from 2 to 31%. Inertinite occurs in a wide variety of forms from low-reflectance semifusinite to massive, structureless fusinite. Inertodetrinite also is a component of the abundant detrital bands of some of the Jurassic coals. The gravity separation did not eliminate all mineral matter. Massive pyrite and marcasite occur in several coals and clay occurs with the detrital minerals.

  20. A study of uranium in South Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilger, Wayne Arthur

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) to a highly mobile uranium(VI) carbonate anion, such as (U02)(C03)2 . The carbonate anion stabilizes the uranium(VI) species. In 1955 Breger (10) proposed the formation of two uranium- carbonate complexes, sodium uranyl di- and tricarbonates... with the humic acid fract1on of 11gn1te. Others, includ1ng Breger and Moore (5, lB) propose that when a uranyl-carbonate complex encounters the slightly acid1c environment of lignite, the uranium(VI) carbonate complex is chemically altered. These investigators...

  1. Transforming trash: reuse as a waste management and climate change mitigation strategy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vergara, Sintana Eugenia

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal and natural gas power in its life-cycle emissions, andemissions for each scenario if the waste-derived energy were instead displacing coal or wind power,

  2. Microgravity exploration for a sediment-filled channel intersecting a near-surface lignite seam

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    May, Clifford John

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    lignite seam. A 1900 foot line running north and south was located such that 1) the south end was at the location of a core which found 8 feet of lignite at a depth of 60 feet and 2) the north end was at the location of a core which found no nea... of anomalies to the full extent possible with the meter. Selection of the Station Locations A 1900 foot line running north and south was located such that 1) the south end was at the location of a core which found 8 feet of lignite at a depth of 60 feet. 2...

  3. Coal seam natural gas producing areas (Louisiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In order to prevent waste and to avoid the drilling of unnecessary wells and to encourage the development of coal seam natural gas producing areas in Louisiana, the commissioner of conservation is...

  4. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 17. Gasification and liquids recovery of four US coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the seventeenth in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This report describes the gasification and pyrolysis liquids recovery test for four different coals: Illinois No. 6, SUFCO, Indianhead lignite, and Hiawatha. This test series spanned from July 15, 1985, through July 28, 1985. 4 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  5. Research on chemical factors in underground coal gasification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edgar, T.F.

    1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this research has been to acquire experimental data and develop mathematical models in order to analyze results from laboratory-scale and field-scale experiments on underground coal gasification (UCG), especially for low-rank coals such as Texas lignite. Experimental data for water injection in a combustion tube, coal core combustion, and coal block gasification are reported; in parallel, a mathematical model for the combustion tube temperature profile and gas composition was developed which compared favorably with experimental data. A mathematical model for predicting gas composition and coal recovery in the Hoe Creek field experiment has been completed and verified with field data. Two experiments have been constructed to obtain data on reactions of interest to UCG; these include an apparatus for determining the kinetics of tar cracking and a microreactor for analyzing the process dynamics of the water gas shift reaction carried out in a fixed bed catalytic system. 44 refs., 60 figs., 22 tabs.

  6. A kinetic model for the liquefaction of Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haley, Sandra Kay

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the Wilcox formation was uti- lized. Previous dissolution studies were conducted with bituminous ard subbituminous coals mined in other states. Secondly, the methods This thesis follows the style of the AIChE Journal. of analysis employed on the reaction... conditions, coal characteristics, catalyst effects), others delved into the kinetics and attempted to model their systems. Wiser (1968) utilized a Utah high-volatile bituminous coal and conducted thermal dissolution studies at temperatures ranging from...

  7. Coal: Energy for the future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report was prepared in response to a request by the US Department of energy (DOE). The principal objectives of the study were to assess the current DOE coal program vis-a-vis the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPACT), and to recommend the emphasis and priorities that DOE should consider in updating its strategic plan for coal. A strategic plan for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization (RDD and C) activities for coal should be based on assumptions regarding the future supply and price of competing energy sources, the demand for products manufactured from these sources, technological opportunities, and the need to control the environmental impact of waste streams. These factors change with time. Accordingly, the committee generated strategic planning scenarios for three time periods: near-term, 1995--2005; mid-term, 2006--2020; and, long-term, 2021--2040. The report is divided into the following chapters: executive summary; introduction and scope of the study; overview of US DOE programs and planning; trends and issues for future coal use; the strategic planning framework; coal preparation, coal liquid mixtures, and coal bed methane recovery; clean fuels and specialty products from coal; electric power generation; technology demonstration and commercialization; advanced research programs; conclusions and recommendations; appendices; and glossary. 174 refs.

  8. IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    IN HARM'S WAY: Lack Of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers Americans And Their Environment 2010 Thirty-nine New Damage Cases of Contamination from Improperly Disposed Coal Combustion Waste, Editor and Contributing Author #12;IN HARM'S WAY: Lack of Federal Coal Ash Regulations Endangers

  9. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Major Demonstrations Major Demonstrations Since 1985, we have helped fund commercial-scale clean coal technology demonstration projects. ICCS | CCPI | PPII | CCTDP | FutureGen...

  10. Subtask 7.4 - Power River Basin Subbituminous Coal-Biomass Cogasification Testing in a Transport Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the Kellogg Brown and Root transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 3600 hours of operation on 17 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air- and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 90% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and oxygen/fuel ratios. During this series of tests, a previously tested baseline Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming was mixed with 20 wt% biomass. Two types of biomass were used - wood waste and switchgrass. Gas and particulate sampling at several locations in the riser provided information on coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry as a function of residence time, transport gas, and mode of operation. The goal of these tests was to compare the operating data and sample chemistry of the coal-biomass mixture to the PRB coal, with a focus on Fischer-Tropsch coal-to-liquid production in oxygen-blown mode. Data are to be provided to DOE to determine kinetic rates of devolatilization and tar cracking.

  11. Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, T. F.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather...

  12. Evaluation of the Impact of Texas Lignite Development on Texas Water Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathewson, C. C.; Cason, C. L.

    Fuel shortages and resultant rising fuel costs as well as federal policies prompting energy independence have served to encourage power companies to exploit available lignite deposits of the western states as a viable fuel source. Large reserves...

  13. DOE-Sponsored Field Test Finds Potential for Permanent Storage of CO2 in Lignite Seams

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy has demonstrated that opportunities to permanently store carbon in unmineable seams of lignite may be more widespread than previously documented.

  14. Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, T. F.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The necessity of providing clean, combustible fuels for use in Gulf Coast industries is well established; one possible source of such a fuel is to perform in situ gasification of Texas lignite which lies below stripping depths. If oxygen (rather...

  15. Water table recovery in a reclaimed surface lignite mine, Grimes County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peace, Kelley H.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water table recovery in four reclaimed mine blocks containing replaced overburden has been monitored at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas since 1986. Recovery analysis was conducted based on data recorded at 27 wells installed...

  16. Functional and taxonomic diversity of microbial communities in reclaimed East Texas lignite mine soils

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peach, Allen Edward

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-year study was conducted at Big Brown lignite mine in Freestone County, Texas, to determine the influence of surface mining and reclamation on the functional and taxonomic diversity in soil microbial communities. Quarterly soil samples were...

  17. The effect of sewage sludge on the physical properties of lignite overburden

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocke, Catherine Lynn

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE EFFECT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGNITE OVERBURDEN A Thesis by CATHERINE LYNN COCKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Soil Science THE EFFECT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGNITE OVERBURDEN A Thesis by CATHERINE LYNN COCK E Appr as o style and content by: . W. Brown (Chairman of Committee) . Hons (Member...

  18. Ground-water hydrogeology and geochemistry of a reclaimed lignite surface mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Clifford Ralph

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GROUND-WATER HYDROGEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF A RECLAIMED LIGNITE SURFACE MINE A Thesis by CLIFFORD RALPH POLLOCK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1982 Major Subject: Geology GROUND-WATER HYDROGEOLOGY AND GEOCHEMISTRY OF A RECLAIMED LIGNITE SURFACE MINE A Thesis by CLIFFORD RALPH POLLOCK Approved as to sty1e and content by: (Chairman of Committee) ember) (Member (Member) F...

  19. Impacts of stripmining lignite on net returns for agricultural enterprises in East Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Christina

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    competitive. The western states of Montana and North Dakota are just beginning to mine their extensive deposits, and technological improvements may be expected. Hence, continued development of lignite fired electrical generating plants may be expected... (based on numeric prevalence) at a site in North Dakota that had been mined 53 yeazs previously. One. way to measure the impact of stripmining lignite on land is to verify whether or not there is a difference between land prices for mined and unmined...

  20. Development and evaluation of two reactor designs for desulfurization of Texas lignites

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merritt, Stanley Duane

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exhibited can be given at this time, but this behavior may be indicative of transformations of inorganic matter, changes in the forms of sulfur present in the lignite, and the overall composition. The results of this test series show a need for further...DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF TWO REACTOR DESIGNS FOR DESULFURIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITES A Thesis by STANLEY DUANE MERRITT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  1. Geology and engineering geology of a Wilcox lignite deposit in northeastern Rusk County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cole, William F.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GEOLOGY AND ENGINEERING GEOLOGY OF A WILCOX LIGNITE DEPOSIT IN NORTHEASTERN RUSK COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by William F. Cole Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...) (Member) (Member) (Member) (Member) ad of Department) August 1980 ABSTRACT Geology and Engineering Geology of a Wilcox Lignite Deposit in Northeastern Rusk County, Texas (August, 1980) William 7. Cole, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman...

  2. Correlation of stratigraphy with revegetation conditions at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Grimes County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parisot, Laurence D.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CORRELATION OF STRATIGRAPHY WITH REVEGETATION CONDITIONS AT THE GIBBONS CREEK LIGNITE MINE, GRIMES COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by LAURENCE D. PARISOT Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment... of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1991 Major Subject: Geology CORRELATION OF STRATIGRAPHY WITH REVEGETATION CONDITIONS AT THE GIBBONS CREEK LIGNITE MINE, GRIMES COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by LAURENCE D. PARISOT ; Approved...

  3. Hydrogeology of a proposed surface lignite mine, southwestern Harrison County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles, Robert John

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    HYDROGEOLOGY OF A PROPOSED SURFACE LIGNITE MINE, SOUTHWESTERN HARRISON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by ROBERT JOHN CHARLES Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May l979 Major Subject: Geology HYDROGEOLOGY OF A PROPOSED SURFACE LIGNITE N1NE, SOUTHNESTERN HARRISON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by ROBERT JOHN CHARLES Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Cossdttee) (H d of Department) (Nesber...

  4. Engineering geologic feasibility of lignite mining in alluvial valleys by hydraulic dredging methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cason, Cynthia Lynn

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 64 Lignite volume calculation blocks, test mine site, Grimes County, Texas 166 INTRODUCTION Federal policies emphasizing the need for energy independence in conjunction with continuously escalating costs in all phases of U. S. oil and gas... lignites. North of the Colorado South of the Colorado River River OLIGOCENE CATAHQULA FORMATION Whitsett Formation EQCENE JACXSQN GROUp Manning Formation* Wellborn Formation lower Jackson* Caddell Formation EOCENE CLAIBORNE GROUP Yegua Formation...

  5. Nitrogen mineralization potentials of revegetated mixed lignite overburden in the Texas Gulf Coast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hornby, William Joseph

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NITROGEN MINERALIZATION POTENTIALS OF REVEGETATED MIXED LIGNITE OVERBURDEN IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST A Thesis by WILLIAM JOSEPH HORNBY Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Soil Science NITROGEN MINERALIZATION POTENTIALS OF REVEGETATED MIXED LIGNITE OVERBURDEN IN THE TEXAS GULF COAST A Thesis by WILLIAM JOSEPH HORNBY Approved as. to style and content by: Or...

  6. Engineering geologic analysis of reclaimed spoil at a southeast Texas Gulf Coast surface lignite mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Scott Charles

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF RECLAIMED SPOIL AT A SOUTHEAST TEXAS GULF COAST SURFACE LIGNITE MINE A Thesis by SCOTT CHARLES ARMSTRONG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1987 Major Subject: Geology ENGINEERING GEOLOGIC ANALYSIS OF RECLAIMED SPOIL AT A SOUTHEAST TEXAS GULF COAST SURFACE LIGNITE MINE A Thesis by SCOTT CHARLES ARMSTRONG Approved as to style and content: Christ...

  7. Development and evaluation of a lignite-stillage carrier system for application and study of biological control agents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard Worth

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    broth (38, 47, 60). New carrier component combina- tions need to be devised to provide an effective, low cost method of applying biocontro 1 agents to the soil. The purpose of this resear ch includes: ). ) determining the potential of lignite for use... means for reducing the carrier volumes needed by concentrating the nutrient substrate onto granules. Sporu 1ation was significantly greater on doubly amended lignite compared to singly amended lignite. Determinants of a successful two com onent...

  8. Zero emission coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziock, H.; Lackner, K.

    2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss a novel, emission-free process for producing hydrogen or electricity from coal. Even though we focus on coal, the basic design is compatible with any carbonaceous fuel. The process uses cyclical carbonation of calcium oxide to promote the production of hydrogen from carbon and water. The carbonation of the calcium oxide removes carbon dioxide from the reaction products and provides the additional energy necessary to complete hydrogen production without additional combustion of carbon. The calcination of the resulting calcium carbonate is accomplished using the high temperature waste heat from solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC), which generate electricity from hydrogen fuel. Converting waste heat back to useful chemical energy allows the process to achieve very high conversion efficiency from fuel energy to electrical energy. As the process is essentially closed-loop, the process is able to achieve zero emissions if the concentrated exhaust stream of CO{sub 2} is sequestered. Carbon dioxide disposal is accomplished by the production of magnesium carbonate from ultramafic rock. The end products of the sequestration process are stable naturally occurring minerals. Sufficient rich ultramafic deposits exist to easily handle all the world's coal.

  9. Science Highlight June 2011 Chromium forms in coal and wood and their converted forms in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wechsler, Risa H.

    as a component in fly-ash, the major waste product from coal combustion. Disposal practices for coal-derived fly-ash Science Highlight ­ June 2011 Chromium forms in coal and wood and their converted forms in fly-ash(VI) in Coal-Derived Fly-Ash The two common chromium oxidation states, Cr(III) and Cr(VI), differ greatly

  10. Characterizing a lignite formation before and after an underground coal gasification experiment 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Usman

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) . Grid Break Up System for the Areal Model Pressure Drawdown (Semi-log Plot) on Well 9 (Post-Gasification). 24 25 27 31 16 Ei-Function Plot. Drawdown on Well 9 and Inter- ference on Wells 10, 13 and 18 (Post-Gasification) . . 32 17 Pressure... Drawdown (Semi-log Plot) on Well 10 (Post-Gasification). 34 18 Ei-Function Plot. Drawdown on Well 10 and Inter- ference on Wells 9, 13 and 18 (Post-Gasification). . . 35 ~Fi ure 19 LIST OF FIGURES (Continued) Pressure Drawdown (Semi-log Plot) on Well...

  11. Study of factors affecting syngas quality and their interactions in fluidized bed gasification of lignite coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spiteri, Raymond J.

    by optimization of the response surface of each index. Ó 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction in specialized downstream units such as clean fuel combustion, pro- duction of Fischer­Tropsch liquids, and fuel cells, plus a

  12. DOE Regional Partnership Initiates CO2 Injection in Lignite Coal Seam |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed offOCHCO OverviewAttachments4 ChairsEnergy DOEHeat Pump Models |Publishes NewDOEDOEofDepartment

  13. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan [Western Kentucky University (WKU), Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology (ICSET)

    2008-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  14. Evaluation of coal minerals and metal residues as coal-liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garg, D.; Givens, E. N.; Schweighardt, F. K.; Tarrer, A. R.; Guin, J. A.; Curtis, C. W.; Huang, W. J.; Shridharani, K.; Clinton, J. H.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The catalytic activity of various minerals, metallic wastes, and transition metals was investigated in the liquefaction of various coals. The effects of coal type, process variables, coal cleaning, catalyst addition mode, solvent quality, and solvent modification on coal conversion and oil production were also studied. Coal conversion and oil production improved significantly by the addition of pyrite, reduced pyrite, speculite, red mud, flue dust, zinc sulfide, and various transition metal compounds. Impregnation and molecular dispersion of iron gave higher oil production than particulate incorporation of iron. However, the mode of molybdenum addition was inconsequential. Oil production increased considerably both by adding a stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and pyrite and by simultaneous impregnation of coal with iron and molybdenum. Hydrogenation activity of disposable catalysts decreased sharply in the presence of nitrogen compounds. The removal of heteroatoms from process solvent improved thermal as well as catalytic coal liquefaction. The improvement in oil production was very dramatic with a catalyst.

  15. Some effects of pressure and temperature on combustion of lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marable, Max

    1975-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    principles of these methods and experimental data derived from these methods give good insight into what can be expected from underground gasification projects operating under optimum conditions, Actual field tests have been conducted and reported three t1... gasification of coal for almost 3 decades, In the pri- vate sector, some energy-orientated companies and some universities have undertaken recent projects 1n underground gasification of coal ~ ? , All of the Bureau of Mines field tests have been made...

  16. Low-rank coal study: national needs for resource development. Volume 3. Technology evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Technologies applicable to the development and use of low-rank coals are analyzed in order to identify specific needs for research, development, and demonstration (RD and D). Major sections of the report address the following technologies: extraction; transportation; preparation, handling and storage; conventional combustion and environmental control technology; gasification; liquefaction; and pyrolysis. Each of these sections contains an introduction and summary of the key issues with regard to subbituminous coal and lignite; description of all relevant technology, both existing and under development; a description of related environmental control technology; an evaluation of the effects of low-rank coal properties on the technology; and summaries of current commercial status of the technology and/or current RD and D projects relevant to low-rank coals.

  17. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  18. Coal industry annual 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, distribution, coal stocks, quality, prices, coal production information, and emissions for a wide audience.

  19. Management of lignite fly ash for improving soil fertility and crop productivity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ram, L.C.; Srivastava, N.K.; Jha, S.K.; Sinha, A.K.; Masto, R.E.; Selvi, V.A. [Central Fuel Research Institute, Dhanbad (India)

    2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Lignite fly ash (LFA), being alkaline and endowed with excellent pozzolanic properties, a silt loam texture, and plant nutrients, has the potential to improve soil quality and productivity. Long-term field trials with groundnut, maize, and sun hemp were carried out to study the effect of LFA on growth and yield. Before crop I was sown, LFA was applied at various doses with and without press mud (an organic waste from the sugar industry, used as an amendment and source of nutrients). LFA with and without press mud was also applied before crops III and V were cultivated. Chemical fertilizer, along with gypsum, humic acid, and bioferfertilizer, was applied in all treatments, including the control. With one-time and repeat applications of LFA (with and without press mud), yield increased significantly (7.0-89.0%) in relation to the control crop. The press mud enhanced the yield (3.0-15.0%) with different LFA applications. One-time and repeat application of LFA (alone and in combination with press mud) improved soil quality and the nutrient content of the produce. The highest dose of LFA (200 t/ha) with and without press mud showed the best residual effects (eco-friendly increases in the yield of succeeding crops). Some increase in trace- and heavy metal contents and in the level of gamma-emitters in soil and crop produce, but well within permissible limits, was observed. Thus, LFA can be used on a large scale to boost soil fertility and productivity with no adverse effects on the soil or crops, which may solve the problem of bulk disposal of fly ash in an eco-friendly manner.

  20. Environmental assessment of no remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Belfield and Bowman sites were not included on the original congressional list of processing sites to be designated by the Secretary of Energy. Instead, the sites were nominated for designation by the Dakota Resource Council in a letter to the DOE (September 7, 1979). In a letter to the DOE (September 12, 1979), the state of North Dakota said that it did not believe the sites would qualify as processing sites under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) because the activities at the sites involved only the ashing of uraniferous lignite coal and the ash was shipped out of state for actual processing. Nevertheless, on October 11, 1979, the state of North Dakota agreed to the designation of the sites because they met the spirit of the law (reduce public exposure to radiation resulting from past uranium operations). Therefore, these sites were designated by the Secretary of Energy for remedial action. Because of the relatively low health impacts determined for these sites, they were ranked as low priority and scheduled to be included in the final group of sites to be remediated.

  1. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uriniferous lignite ashing site near Belfield, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Baseline Risk Assessment of Ground Water Contamination at the Inactive Uraniferous Lignite Ashing Site Near Belfield, North Dakota, evaluates potential impacts to public health or the environment resulting from ground water contamination at the site where coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. The US Department of Energy`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is evaluating plans to remedy soil and ground water contamination at the site. Phase I of the UMTRA Project consists of determining the extent of soil contamination. Phase II of the UMTRA Project consists of evaluating ground water contamination. Under Phase II, results of this risk assessment will help determine what remedial actions may be necessary for contaminated ground water at the site. This risk assessment evaluates the potential risks to human health and the environment resulting from exposure to contaminated ground water as it relates to historic processing activities at the site. Potential risk is quantified for constituents introduced from the processing activities, and not for those constituents naturally occurring in water quality in the site vicinity. Background ground water quality has the potential to cause adverse health effects from exposure through drinking. Any risks associated with contaminants attributable to site activities are incremental to these risks from background ground water quality. This incremental risk from site-related contaminants is quantified in this risk assessment. The baseline risk from background water quality is incorporated only into the assessment of potential chemical interactions and the definition of the overall site condition.

  2. Environmental data energy technology characterizations: coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes the activities leading to the conversion of coal to electricity. Specifically, the activities consist of coal mining and beneficiation, coal transport, electric power generation, and power transmission. To enhance the usefulness of the material presented, resource requirements, energy products, and residuals for each activity area are normalized in terms of 10/sup 12/ Btus of energy produced. Thus, the total effect of producing electricity from coal can be determined by combining the residuals associated with the appropriate activity areas. Emissions from the coal cycle are highly dependent upon the type of coal consumed as well as the control technology assigned to the activity area. Each area is assumed to be equipped with currently available control technologies that meet environmental regulations. The conventional boiler, for example, has an electrostatic precipitator and a flue gas desulfurization scrubber. While this results in the removal of most of the particulate matter and sulfur dioxide in the flue gas stream, it creates other new environmental residuals -- solid waste, sludge, and ash. There are many different types of mined coal. For informational purposes, two types from two major producing regions, the East and the West, are characterized here. The eastern coal is typical of the Northern Appalachian coal district with a high sulfur and heat content. The western coal, from the Powder River Basin, has much less sulfur, but also has a substantially lower heating value.

  3. USE OF COAL DRYING TO REDUCE WATER CONSUMED IN PULVERIZED COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward Levy; Harun Bilirgen; Ursla Levy; John Sale; Nenad Sarunac

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the twelfth Quarterly Report for this project. The background and technical justification for the project are described, including potential benefits of reducing fuel moisture using power plant waste heat, prior to firing the coal in a pulverized coal boiler. During this last Quarter, the development of analyses to determine the costs and financial benefits of coal drying was continued. The details of the model and key assumptions being used in the economic evaluation are described in this report and results are shown for a drying system utilizing a combination of waste heat from the condenser and thermal energy extracted from boiler flue gas.

  4. Improving conversion rates in low severity coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, B. [West Georgia College, Carrollton, GA (United States)

    1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of reactions were run with lignite coal and subbituminous coal. The purpose was: (1) to prove the importance that various treatments have in producing high conversion rates in low severity coal liquefaction, and (2) to determine their independent and combined effectiveness. The coal was pretreated with HCI and methanol. Molybdenum naphthanate and nickel octoate were independently used as catalysts. Also, the cyclic olefin, 1, 4, 5, 8, 9, 10-hexahydroanthracene (HHA), was tested as a hydrogen donor. By using all of these treatments with molybdenum naphthanate as the catalyst, the best conversion rate of 56% was achieved. This project was made possible by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) University Coal Research (UCR) Internship Program. This program is managed and operated for DOE by the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE). Participants are assigned to universities conducting fossil energy-related research under UCR grants from the Pittsburgh Technology Center (PETC). All research was performed at Auburn University under the supervision of Dr. Christine W. Curtis.

  5. SYSTEM ANALYSIS OF NUCLEAR-ASSISTED SYNGAS PRODUCTION FROM COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; J. E. O'Brien

    2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system analysis has been performed to assess the efficiency and carbon utilization of a nuclear-assisted coal gasification process. The nuclear reactor is a high-temperature helium-cooled reactor that is used primarily to provide power for hydrogen production via high-temperature electrolysis. The supplemental hydrogen is mixed with the outlet stream from an oxygen-blown coal gasifier to produce a hydrogen-rich gas mixture, allowing most of the carbon dioxide to be converted into carbon monoxide, with enough excess hydrogen to produce a syngas product stream with a hydrogen/carbon monoxide molar ratio of about 2:1. Oxygen for the gasifier is also provided by the high-temperature electrolysis process. Results of the analysis predict 90.5% carbon utilization with a syngas production efficiency (defined as the ratio of the heating value of the produced syngas to the sum of the heating value of the coal plus the high-temperature reactor heat input) of 66.1% at a gasifier temperature of 1866 K for the high-moisture-content lignite coal considered. Usage of lower moisture coals such as bituminous can yield carbon utilization approaching 100% and 70% syngas production efficiency.

  6. A study of uranium in South Texas lignite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilger, Wayne Arthur

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pointing downd1p" (1). Th1s type of depos1t occurs when slightly basic, oxygenated, uranium-enriched ground water encounters an acidic reduc1ng layer of ground water, typ1cally conta1ning hydrogen sulfide, pyrite, and sandstone rich in organic matter... and organic matter has been recognized for many years. Berthoud (7), in 1875, , ' reported on the association of some uranium minerals with coal in , Colorado. In 1905, Boutwell (8) found coal1f1ed logs that also contained uranium minerals. In 1955...

  7. New coal dewatering technology turns sludge to powder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Virginian Tech's College of Engineering's Roe-Hoan Yoon and his group have developed a hyperbaric centrifuge that can dewater coal as fine as talcum powder. Such coal fines presently must be discarded by even the most advanced coal cleaning plants because of their high moisture content. The new technology can be used with the Microcel technology to remove ash, to re-mine the fine coal discarded to impoundments and to help minimize waste generation. Virginia Tech has received $1 million in funding from the US Department of State to also help the Indian coal industry produce a cleaner product. 1 photo.

  8. Co-pyrolysis of low rank coals and biomass: Product distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soncini, Ryan M.; Means, Nicholas C.; Weiland, Nathan T.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pyrolysis and gasification of combined low rank coal and biomass feeds are the subject of much study in an effort to mitigate the production of green house gases from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems. While co-feeding has the potential to reduce the net carbon footprint of commercial gasification operations, the effects of co-feeding on kinetics and product distributions requires study to ensure the success of this strategy. Southern yellow pine was pyrolyzed in a semi-batch type drop tube reactor with either Powder River Basin sub-bituminous coal or Mississippi lignite at several temperatures and feed ratios. Product gas composition of expected primary constituents (CO, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}) was determined by in-situ mass spectrometry while minor gaseous constituents were determined using a GC-MS. Product distributions are fit to linear functions of temperature, and quadratic functions of biomass fraction, for use in computational co-pyrolysis simulations. The results are shown to yield significant nonlinearities, particularly at higher temperatures and for lower ranked coals. The co-pyrolysis product distributions evolve more tar, and less char, CH{sub 4}, and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, than an additive pyrolysis process would suggest. For lignite co-pyrolysis, CO and H{sub 2} production are also reduced. The data suggests that evolution of hydrogen from rapid pyrolysis of biomass prevents the crosslinking of fragmented aromatic structures during coal pyrolysis to produce tar, rather than secondary char and light gases. Finally, it is shown that, for the two coal types tested, co-pyrolysis synergies are more significant as coal rank decreases, likely because the initial structure in these coals contains larger pores and smaller clusters of aromatic structures which are more readily retained as tar in rapid co-pyrolysis.

  9. Effects of hydrogeology on lignite recovery in the Manning Formation, Grimes County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levitan, Leslie Mark

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF HyDROGEOLOGY ON LIGNITE RECOVER IN THE IVJBiING FOiVcATION, GR MES COU!!a I, TEXAS A Thesis IZSIIE NARX LEUITAN Su'omitteu to ' he Graduate ColleSe of Texas A@I1 University in parti ! t'ulfill!n nt cf the requiremert for the degree... of !IASTER OF SCIENCE Decesher 1976 Najor Suhject: Geolody EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOLOGY ON LIGNITE RECOVERY IN THE MAIDNING FORMATION, GRIMES COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis LESLIE MARK IZVITAN Approved as to style and content by: (Ctwirman of Committee Head...

  10. Variation in physical rock properties determined from sonic logs at a South Texas lignite mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cato, Kerry Don

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    or underburden units which were identified as potential problem units. S1gn1ficance of Study In the planning and design of a Gulf Coast lignite mi ne, a need exists to deter nine the variability of phys1cal rock properties within strati graphic units...VARIATION IN PHVSICAL ROCK PROPERTIES DETERMINED FROM SONIC LOGS AT A SOUTH TEXAS LIGNITE MINE A Thesis by KERRV OON CATO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  11. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950[degree]C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800[degree] to 950[degree]C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na[sub 2]O, NaCl, and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4]) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820[degree]. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na[sub 2]SO[sub 4] increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 [mu]m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  12. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pollutants Associated With Coal Combustion. • E.P.A.Control Guidelines for Coal-Derived Pollutants .Forms of Sulfur in Coal • . . . . Coal Desulfurization

  13. Coal slurry pipeline based midwest fuel hub

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huettenhain, H. [Bechtel Technology & Consulting San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Low sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal is a sought after fuel to comply with the year 2000 emission regulation for utility boilers. PRB coal is presently not competitive East of the Mississippi mainly because of railroad switching requirements and boiler designs not compatible with the PRB fuel characteristics. The use of the Lakes for transportation is an exception. The Lakes shipping lanes however, are only open part of the year. It is proposed to construct a coal slurry pipeline from the center of Wyoming coalfields to a hub near Detroit with access to low cost waste energy from power generation stations. The coal slurry pipeline will transport up to 25 million tons per year of fine PRB coal which has been removed from the conventionally transported coal, namely coal transported by rail. The rail delivered coal will have less dust. The system fits the DOE Vision 21 concept to mine and utilize coal in highly efficient systems and with the least environmental impact. The PRB coal is of subbituminous rank and not directly compatible with the boilers in Michigan/Indiana/Ohio area, which are designed to burn bituminous coal. Upgrading of the PRB coal using the hydrothermal slurry upgrading process can transform the PRB coal into a higher Btu content fuel by removing a large portion of the inherent moisture. Such upgraded PRB coal has proven an excellent reactive fuel when burned conventionally as PC fuel, or even when burned in slurry form as Coal Water Fuel (CWF). The cost of the process can be recovered when the process is combined with a coal slurry pipeline transport system. The result is an upgraded competitive fuel or fuels, which can be used for co-firing or re-burning applications to reduce SO{sub 2} and NOx emissions of utility boilers. The fuels can be powdered for direct fuel injection into boilers or blast furnaces as well as CWF. Depending on the stability of the upgraded PRB coal, the pipeline product could also be dewatered and prepared for export. This paper describes the concept and preliminary cost information. It also reports on reactions of the industries, which could be involved in the complex system, namely, coal mining companies, railroads, pipeline operators, fuel suppliers, and utilities.

  14. Health effects of coal technologies: research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this 1977 Environmental Message, President Carter directed the establishment of a joint program to identify the health and environmental problems associated with advanced energy technologies and to review the adequacy of present research programs. In response to the President's directive, representatives of three agencies formed the Federal Interagency Committee on the Health and Environmental Effects of Energy Technologies. This report was prepared by the Health Effects Working Group on Coal Technologies for the Committee. In this report, the major health-related problems associated with conventional coal mining, storage, transportation, and combustion, and with chemical coal cleaning, in situ gasification, fluidized bed combustion, magnetohydrodynamic combustion, cocombustion of coal-oil mixtures, and cocombustion of coal with municipal solid waste are identified. The report also contains recommended research required to address the identified problems.

  15. Fine coal flotation plant waste comparison--column vs. sub-a cells. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to compare results from a small commercially sized Deister Flotaire column flotation cell with the subaeration cells at Kerr-McGee`s Galatia plant during side by side testing of feed splits from the same sources. Typical cell criteria for both cells are included in the appendix. The project involved the activities of three organizations: the Kerr-McGee Coal Corporation, the Deister Concentrator Company, and the Illinois State Geological Survey. Their roles were as follows: Kerr-McGee installed the Deister column with sample splitter and tailings volume measuring cell in the Galatia Coal Preparation Plant to treat a representative split of their flotation feed; Deister provided a 30 inch diameter {times} 35{prime} high Deister Flotaire Column Flotation Cell capable of treating nominally one ton per hour or slightly over 1% of the plant feed. Deister additionally provided the sample splitter and the tailings volume measuring cell. ISGS personnel worked with both companies on the installation, conducted laboratory tests to direct the early plant test reagent practice, attended all of the plant runs cutting representative samples of feed, measuring slurry and reagent flows, preparing samples and writing reports.

  16. Low-grade coals: a review of some prospective upgrading technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassan Katalambula; Rajender Gupta [University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada). Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    There is a growing need of using low-grade coals because of higher quest for power generation. In the present carbon-constrained environment, there is a need of upgrading these coals in terms of moisture, ash, and/or other trace elements. The current paper reviews technologies used mainly categorized as drying for reducing moisture and cleaning the coal for reducing mineral content of coal and related harmful constituents, such as sulfur and mercury. The earliest upgrading of high-moisture lignite involved drying and manufacturing of briquettes. Drying technologies consist of both evaporative and non-evaporative (dewatering) types. The conventional coal cleaning used density separation in water medium. However, with water being a very important resource, conservation of water is pushing toward the development of dry cleaning of coal. There are also highly advanced coal-cleaning technologies that produce ultra-clean coals and produce coals with less than 0.1% of ash. The paper discusses some of the promising upgrading technologies aimed at improving these coals in terms of their moisture, ash, and other pollutant components. It also attempts to present the current status of the technologies in terms of development toward commercialization and highlights on problems encountered. It is obvious that still the upgrading goal has not been realized adequately. It can therefore be concluded that, because reserves for low-grade coals are quite plentiful, it is important to intensify efforts that will make these coals usable in an acceptable manner in terms of energy efficiency and environmental protection. 68 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Coal combustion by wet oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bettinger, J.A.; Lamparter, R.A.; McDowell, D.C.

    1980-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The combustion of coal by wet oxidation was studied by the Center for Waste Management Programs, of Michigan Technological University. In wet oxidation a combustible material, such as coal, is reacted with oxygen in the presence of liquid water. The reaction is typically carried out in the range of 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 353/sup 0/C (650/sup 0/F) with sufficient pressure to maintain the water present in the liquid state, and provide the partial pressure of oxygen in the gas phase necessary to carry out the reaction. Experimental studies to explore the key reaction parameters of temperature, time, oxidant, catalyst, coal type, and mesh size were conducted by running batch tests in a one-gallon stirred autoclave. The factors exhibiting the greatest effect on the extent of reaction were temperature and residence time. The effect of temperature was studied from 204/sup 0/C (400/sup 0/F) to 260/sup 0/C (500/sup 0/F) with a residence time from 600 to 3600 seconds. From this data, the reaction activation energy of 2.7 x 10/sup 4/ calories per mole was determined for a high-volatile-A-Bituminous type coal. The reaction rate constant may be determined at any temperature from the activation energy using the Arrhenius equation. Additional data were generated on the effect of mesh size and different coal types. A sample of peat was also tested. Two catalysts were evaluated, and their effects on reaction rate presented in the report. In addition to the high temperature combustion, low temperature desulfurization is discussed. Desulfurization can improve low grade coal to be used in conventional combustion methods. It was found that 90% of the sulfur can be removed from the coal by wet oxidation with the carbon untouched. Further desulfurization studies are indicated.

  18. Coal industry annual 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1997 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. US Coal production for 1997 and previous years is based on the annual survey EIA-7A, Coal Production Report. This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report includes a national total coal consumption for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  19. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    anthracite, and lignite and brown coal make up the remainingCoal Anthracite Lignite and Brown Coal Source: China Energyof Coal in 2006 Lignite and Brown Coal Anthracite Bituminous

  20. Coal Industry Annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 21 million short tons for 1995.

  1. Coal industry annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, and coal quality, and emissions for Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States.This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility power producers that are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. Consumption for nonutility power producers not included in this report is estimated to be 24 million short tons for 1996. 14 figs., 145 tabs.

  2. Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Eric Scott

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

  3. Prediction of postmine ground-water quality at a Texas surface lignite mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Clifton Farrell

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The predominant factors which affect spoil water quality have not been completely identified to date. Therefore, the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas was chosen as a test site to evaluate the potential factors that can affect the geochemical...

  4. Prediction of postmine ground-water quality at a Texas surface lignite mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wise, Clifton Farrell

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The predominant factors which affect spoil water quality have not been completely identified to date. Therefore, the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas was chosen as a test site to evaluate the potential factors that can affect the geochemical...

  5. Production of cooking briquettes from Maissade (Haiti) lignite. Feasibility study and preliminary plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hauserman, W.B.; Johnson, M.D.

    1986-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was done to establish the technical feasibility of producing domestic cooking briquettes to be marketed in Haiti, from the Maissade lignite reserves of that country, which are high in both ash and sulfur and not yet mined. It was found that acceptable briquettes could be made from Maissade char, pyrolized and compacted with a molasses-lime binder and the addition of bagasse to improve strength and burning rate. Molasses, lime and bagasse are all produced in Haiti. Sodium nitrate was added to enhance ignition, and borax as a wetting and release agent. Standard, ''pillow-shaped'' briquettes were successfully produced on a standard, double roll briquetting machine. The recommended process sequence and equipment selection are virtually identical to that used to produce standard US barbecue briquettes from North Dakota lignite. The heating value of the Maissade briquettes is lower due to their high ash level, which may be acceptable if they can be produced at a cost per heating value comparable to wood charcoal, currently used in Haiti. The high sulfur content, mostly in organic form, presents no problem, since it is tied up after combustion as CaSO/sub 4/ by the unusually high calcium content of this lignite. Detailed analyses of Maissade lignite and its mineral components are included, as well as a preliminary plant design and capital cost estimate, for capacities of 10,000 and 50,000 metric tons per year, and for a smaller pilot plant.

  6. Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, Robert Reginald

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    research attention. With the projected U. S. energy needs in the year ZOOO at more than 2. 6 times the 197Z level, an abundant energy source must be developed (Kaiser, 1974). Coal is the most often mentioned, immediate source of energy. The present... the problems associated with solids handling, maintenance, and disposal of the spent adsorbent. Other methods of chemical desulfuriz ation include solution leaching, bacterial catalyzed removal, gasification followed hy scrubbi ng, thermal treating, and gas...

  7. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, G.W.; Lewis, S.N.

    1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to a cell-free preparation and process for the microbial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products. More specifically, the present invention relates to bacterial solubilization of coal into solubilized coal products and a cell-free bacterial byproduct useful for solubilizing coal. 5 tabs.

  8. Clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang-Shih Fan; Fanxing Li [Ohio State University, OH (United States). Dept. of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering

    2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article describes the physics-based techniques that are helping in clean coal conversion processes. The major challenge is to find a cost- effective way to remove carbon dioxide from the flue gas of power plants. One industrially proven method is to dissolve CO{sub 2} in the solvent monoethanolamine (MEA) at a temperature of 38{sup o}C and then release it from the solvent in another unit when heated to 150{sup o}C. This produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. Research is in progress with alternative solvents that require less energy. Another technique is to use enriched oxygen in place of air in the combustion process which produces CO{sub 2} ready for sequestration. A process that is more attractive from an energy management viewpoint is to gasify coal so that it is partially oxidized, producing a fuel while consuming significantly less oxygen. Several IGCC schemes are in operation which produce syngas for use as a feedstock, in addition to electricity and hydrogen. These schemes are costly as they require an air separation unit. Novel approaches to coal gasification based on 'membrane separation' or chemical looping could reduce the costs significantly while effectively capturing carbon dioxide. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 photo.

  9. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingslag or bottom ash, coal gasification, or coal liquefactionCoal (Ref. 46). COAL PREPARATION GASIFICATION 3 K·T GASI FI

  10. Coal liquefaction and hydrogenation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schindler, Harvey D. (Fair Lawn, NJ); Chen, James M. (Edison, NJ)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed is a coal liquefaction process using two stages. The first stage liquefies the coal and maximizes the product while the second stage hydrocracks the remainder of the coal liquid to produce solvent.

  11. Coal industry annual 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Industry Annual 1993 replaces the publication Coal Production (DOE/FIA-0125). This report presents additional tables and expanded versions of tables previously presented in Coal Production, including production, number of mines, Productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves. This report also presents data on coal consumption, coal distribution, coal stocks, coal prices, coal quality, and emissions for a wide audience including the Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In addition, Appendix A contains a compilation of coal statistics for the major coal-producing States. This report does not include coal consumption data for nonutility Power Producers who are not in the manufacturing, agriculture, mining, construction, or commercial sectors. This consumption is estimated to be 5 million short tons in 1993.

  12. The demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor, with internal sulfur, nitrogen, and ash control for the conversion of a 23 MMBTU/hour oil fired boiler to pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zauderer, B.; Fleming, E.S.

    1991-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This work contains to the final report of the demonstration of an advanced cyclone coal combustor. Titles include: Chronological Description of the Clean Coal Project Tests,'' Statistical Analysis of Operating Data for the Coal Tech Combustor,'' Photographic History of the Project,'' Results of Slag Analysis by PA DER Module 1 Procedure,'' Properties of the Coals Limestone Used in the Test Effort,'' Results of the Solid Waste Sampling Performed on the Coal Tech Combustor by an Independent Contractor During the February 1990 Tests.'' (VC)

  13. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, May 1, 1993--April 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Accomplishments for the past year are presented for the following tasks: coliquefaction of coal with waste materials; catalysts for coal liquefaction to clean transportation fuels; fundamental research in coal liquefaction; and in situ analytical techniques for coal liquefaction and coal liquefaction catalysts some of the highlights are: very promising results have been obtained from the liquefaction of plastics, rubber tires, paper and other wastes, and the coliquefaction of wastes with coal; a number of water soluble coal liquefaction catalysts, iron, cobalt, nickel and molybdenum, have been comparatively tested; mossbauer spectroscopy, XAFS spectroscopy, TEM and XPS have been used to characterize a variety of catalysts and other samples from numerous consortium and DOE liquefaction projects and in situ ESR measurements of the free radical density have been conducted at temperatures from 100 to 600{degrees}C and H{sub 2} pressures up to 600 psi.

  14. Coal combustion science

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardesty, D.R. (ed.); Baxter, L.L.; Fletcher, T.H.; Mitchell, R.E.

    1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this activity is to support the Office of Fossil Energy in executing research on coal combustion science. This activity consists of basic research on coal combustion that supports both the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) Direct Utilization Advanced Research and Technology Development Program, and the International Energy Agency (IEA) Coal Combustion Science Project. Specific tasks include: coal devolatilization, coal char combustion, and fate of mineral matter during coal combustion. 91 refs., 40 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. (Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States) DESTEC Energy (United States) Williams Technology (United States) Illinois Coal Association (United States))

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. This project will bring the expertise of four organizations together to perform the various tasks. The Illinois Coal Association will help direct the project to be the most beneficial to the Illinois coal industry. DESTEC Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technology will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handlability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals. As reported earlier, a variety of possible samples of coal have been analyzed and the gasification performance evaluation reported. Additionally, commercial sized samples of -28 mesh {times} 100 mesh coal -100 {times} 0 coal were subjected to pumpability testing. Neither the coarse product nor the fine product by themselves proved to be good candidates for trouble free pumping, but the mix of the two proved to be a very acceptable product

  16. Coal Mining (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These sections describe procedures for coal exploration and extraction, as well as permitting requirements relating to surface and underground coal mining. These sections also address land...

  17. An investigation of changes in groundwater quality caused by in-situ gasification of East Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach, Kimberly Sue

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AGM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Approved as to style and content by...

  18. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A86YI University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Mechanical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF A ONE-CYLINDER DIESEL ENGINE MODIFIED TO BURN LOW-BTU (LIGNITE) GAS A Thesis by JAMES RICHARD BLACKSMITH...

  19. The stratigraphy and environment of deposition of the Wilcox lignite deposit south of Hallsville, Harrison County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Joseph Quealy

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    THE STBATIGRAPHY AND ENVIBONHENT OF DEPOSITION OF THE WILCOX LIGNITE DEPOSIT SOUTH OF HALLS'71LLE, HARRISON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis JOSEPH QUEALY WATSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&H University in partial fulfillment... of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1979 Major Subject: Geologv THE STRATIGRAPHY AND ENVIRONMENT OF DEPOSITION OF THE WILCOX LIGNITE DEPOSIT SOUTH OF H)i&LSVILLE, HARRISON COUNTY, TEXAS A Thesis by JOSEPH QUEALY WATSON Approved...

  20. Reaction rate kinetics for the non-catalytic hydrogenation of Texas lignite with tetralin and hydrogen gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shumbera, David Allen

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACTION RATE KINETICS FOR HE NON-CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE WITH TETRALIN AND HYDROGEN GAS A Thesis by DAVID ALLEN SHUMBERA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1980 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering REACTION RATE KINETICS FOR THE NON-CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE WITH TETRALIN AND HYDROGEN GAS A Thesis by DAVID ALLEN SHUMBERA Approved as to style and content...

  1. NETL: Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > The EnergyCenterDioxide CaptureSee the Foundry'sMcGuireNETLCareersCoal

  2. Cooperative research program in coal liquefaction. Quarterly report, May 1, 1993--October 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, G.P. [ed.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes progress in four areas of research under the general heading of Coal Liquefaction. Results of studies concerning the coliquefaction of coal with waste organic polymers or chemical products of these polymers were reported. Secondly, studies of catalytic systems for the production of clean transportation fuels from coal were discussed. Thirdly, investigations of the chemical composition of coals and their dehydrogenated counterparts were presented. These studies were directed toward elucidation of coal liquefaction processes on the chemical level. Finally, analytical methodologies developed for in situ monitoring of coal liquefaction were reported. Techniques utilizing model reactions and methods based on XAFS, ESR, and GC/MS are discussed.

  3. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  4. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  5. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman; R.W. Swindeman; J. Sarver; J. Blough; W. Mohn; M. Borden; S. Goodstine; I. Perrin

    2003-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  6. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    is produced via coal gasification, then, depending on thenot be amenable to coal gasification and, thus, Eastern coalto represent a coal-to- hydrogen gasification process that

  7. An engineering geologic impact analysis of hydraulic dredging for lignite in Texas alluvial valleys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Erich Donald Luis

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    floodplain, and the conditions will be conducive for aquifer restoration, soil restoration, revegetation, and wildlife habitat redevelopment. The study site for the present research is in the floodplain of the Navasota River in Grimes County, Texas..., and is the same site used by Cason ( 1982). These two studies exhibit that dredge mining of lignite at the Grimes County site is feasible economically and environmentally. A pilot dredge program is now needed to determine if the studies represent reality...

  8. Low-rank coal research. Quarterly report, January--March 1990

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document contains several quarterly progress reports for low-rank coal research that was performed from January-March 1990. Reports in Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research are in Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, and Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains. Reports in Advanced Research and Technology Development are presented in Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Reports in Combustion Research cover Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Coal Fuels, Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals, and Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications. Liquefaction Research is reported in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction. Gasification Research progress is discussed for Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coal and for Chemistry of Sulfur Removal in Mild Gas.

  9. Coal data: A reference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report, Coal Data: A Reference, summarizes basic information on the mining and use of coal, an important source of energy in the US. This report is written for a general audience. The goal is to cover basic material and strike a reasonable compromise between overly generalized statements and detailed analyses. The section ``Supplemental Figures and Tables`` contains statistics, graphs, maps, and other illustrations that show trends, patterns, geographic locations, and similar coal-related information. The section ``Coal Terminology and Related Information`` provides additional information about terms mentioned in the text and introduces some new terms. The last edition of Coal Data: A Reference was published in 1991. The present edition contains updated data as well as expanded reviews and additional information. Added to the text are discussions of coal quality, coal prices, unions, and strikes. The appendix has been expanded to provide statistics on a variety of additional topics, such as: trends in coal production and royalties from Federal and Indian coal leases, hours worked and earnings for coal mine employment, railroad coal shipments and revenues, waterborne coal traffic, coal export loading terminals, utility coal combustion byproducts, and trace elements in coal. The information in this report has been gleaned mainly from the sources in the bibliography. The reader interested in going beyond the scope of this report should consult these sources. The statistics are largely from reports published by the Energy Information Administration.

  10. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    90e COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION J. Wrathall, T.of coal during combustion. The process involves the additionCOAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION Lawrence Berkeley

  11. coal | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Commercial Technologies for Coal Storage and Feed Preparation AlternativesSupplements to Coal - Feedstock Flexibility DOE Supported R&D for CoalBiomass Feed and Gasification...

  12. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale, Crude oil and naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. Crude oil and natural

  13. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, naturalcoal, lignite, peat, and oil shale. [2] Crude oil, natural

  14. Understanding Trends in Wind Turbine Prices Over the Past Decade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption of a variety of primary energy sources – including hard coal, lignite (soft coal), crude oil,

  15. Understanding Wind Turbine Price Trends in the U.S. Over the Past Decade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolinger, Mark

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    consumption of a variety of primary energy sources – including hard coal, lignite (soft coal), crude oil,

  16. Electric Reliability & Hurricane Preparedness Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    · Clean coal technology · On line ­ May 2014 · Generation mix: Natural gas, coal and lignite · Base load

  17. Development of an Ultra-fine Coal Dewatering Technology and an Integrated Flotation-Dewatering System for Coal Preparation Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu Zhang; David Yang; Amar Amarnath; Iftikhar Huq; Scott O'Brien; Jim Williams

    2006-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The project proposal was approved for only the phase I period. The goal for this Phase I project was to develop an industrial model that can perform continuous and efficient dewatering of fine coal slurries of the previous flotation process to fine coal cake of {approx}15% water content from 50-70%. The feasibility of this model should be demonstrated experimentally using a lab scale setup. The Phase I project was originally for one year, from May 2005 to May 2006. With DOE approval, the project was extended to Dec. 2006 without additional cost from DOE to accomplish the work. Water has been used in mining for a number of purposes such as a carrier, washing liquid, dust-catching media, fire-retardation media, temperature-control media, and solvent. When coal is cleaned in wet-processing circuits, waste streams containing water, fine coal, and noncombustible particles (ash-forming minerals) are produced. In many coal preparation plants, the fine waste stream is fed into a series of selection processes where fine coal particles are recovered from the mixture to form diluted coal fine slurries. A dewatering process is then needed to reduce the water content to about 15%-20% so that the product is marketable. However, in the dewatering process currently used in coal preparation plants, coal fines smaller than 45 micrometers are lost, and in many other plants, coal fines up to 100 micrometers are also wasted. These not-recovered coal fines are mixed with water and mineral particles of the similar particle size range and discharged to impoundment. The wasted water from coal preparation plants containing unrecoverable coal fine and mineral particles are called tailings. With time the amount of wastewater accumulates occupying vast land space while it appears as threat to the environment. This project developed a special extruder and demonstrated its application in solid-liquid separation of coal slurry, tailings containing coal fines mostly less than 50 micron. The extruder is special because all of its auger surface and the internal barrier surface are covered with the membranes allowing water to drain and solid particles retained. It is believed that there are four mechanisms working together in the dewatering process. They are hydrophilic diffusion flow, pressure flow, agitation and air purging. Hydrophilic diffusion flow is effective with hydrophilic membrane. Pressure flow is due to the difference of hydraulic pressure between the two sides of the membrane. Agitation is provided by the rotation of the auger. Purging is achieved with the air blow from the near bottom of the extruder, which is in vertical direction.

  18. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  19. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  20. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  1. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Cleaning Costs Process Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (DryMM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis) Net OperatingCost, $/T (Clean Coal Bases) Case NA Hazen KVB Battelle

  2. A study of the volatile matter of coal as a function of the heating rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yanes, E.; Wilhite, D.; Riley, J.M. Jr. [Western Kentucky Univ., Bowling Green, KY (United States)] [and others

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the volatile matter yields as a function of the heating rate was conducted. A suite of 21 coal and coke samples varying in rank from anthracitic to lignitic and heating rates from 10{degrees}C/min to about 450{degrees}C/min were used in the study. Heating rates up to 60{degrees}C per minute, which are typically used in ASTM Test Method 5142 (instrumental Proximate Analysis), were achieved in a macro thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) system. Heating rates of 50-200{degrees}C/min were obtained in a micro TGA system. All measurements were made in a nitrogen atmosphere. The results of the study illustrate the dependence of the volatile matter yield on the heating rate. For most coals and cokes the optimum heating rate for determining volatile matter values that agree with those obtained by ASTM Method D 3175 appears to be in the 100-150{degrees}C range.

  3. Maternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal Fly Ash Basins

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    be warranted. The disposal of slurried coal combustion waste (hereafter, ash) into open settling impoundmentsMaternal Transfer of Contaminants to Eggs in Common Grackles (Quiscalus quiscala) Nesting on Coal 2002/Accepted: 13 February 2003 Abstract. Coal combustion is a major source of trace elements

  4. Upgraded Coal Interest Group

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evan Hughes

    2009-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) is an EPRI 'users group' that focuses on clean, low-cost options for coal-based power generation. The UCIG covers topics that involve (1) pre-combustion processes, (2) co-firing systems and fuels, and (3) reburn using coal-derived or biomass-derived fuels. The UCIG mission is to preserve and expand the economic use of coal for energy. By reducing the fuel costs and environmental impacts of coal-fired power generation, existing units become more cost effective and thus new units utilizing advanced combustion technologies are more likely to be coal-fired.

  5. Coal Severance Tax (North Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Severance Tax is imposed on all coal severed for sale or industrial purposes, except coal used for heating buildings in the state, coal used by the state or any political subdivision of...

  6. Coal Direct Chemical Looping Retrofit to Pulverized Coal Power Plants for In-Situ CO2 Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng, Liang; Li, Fanxing; Kim, Ray; Bayham, Samuel; McGiveron, Omar; Tong, Andrew; Connell, Daniel; Luo, Siwei; Sridhar, Deepak; Wang, Fei; Sun, Zhenchao; Fan, Liang-Shih

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel Coal Direct Chemical Looping (CDCL) system is proposed to effectively capture CO2 from existing PC power plants. The work during the past three years has led to an oxygen carrier particle with satisfactory performance. Moreover, successful laboratory, bench scale, and integrated demonstrations have been performed. The proposed project further advanced the novel CDCL technology to sub-pilot scale (25 kWth). To be more specific, the following objectives attained in the proposed project are: 1. to further improve the oxygen carrying capacity as well as the sulfur/ash tolerance of the current (working) particle; 2. to demonstrate continuous CDCL operations in an integrated mode with > 99% coal (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite) conversion as well as the production of high temperature exhaust gas stream that is suitable for steam generation in existing PC boilers; 3. to identify, via demonstrations, the fate of sulfur and NOx; 4. to conduct thorough techno-economic analysis that validates the technical and economical attractiveness of the CDCL system. The objectives outlined above were achieved through collaborative efforts among all the participants. CONSOL Energy Inc. performed the techno-economic analysis of the CDCL process. Shell/CRI was able to perform feasibility and economic studies on the large scale particle synthesis and provide composite particles for the sub-pilot scale testing. The experience of B&W (with boilers) and Air Products (with handling gases) assisted the retrofit system design as well as the demonstration unit operations. The experience gained from the sub-pilot scale demonstration of the Syngas Chemical Looping (SCL) process at OSU was able to ensure the successful handling of the solids. Phase 1 focused on studies to improve the current particle to better suit the CDCL operations. The optimum operating conditions for the reducer reactor such as the temperature, char gasification enhancer type, and flow rate were identified. The modifications of the existing bench scale reactor were completed in order to use it in the next phase of the project. In Phase II, the optimum looping medium was selected, and bench scale demonstrations were completed using them. Different types of coal char such as those obtained from bituminous, subbituminous, and lignite were tested. Modifications were made on the existing sub-pilot scale unit for coal injection. Phase III focused on integrated CDCL demonstration in the sub-pilot scale unit. A comprehensive ASPEN® simulations and economic analysis was completed by CONSOL t is expected that the CDCL process will be ready for further demonstrations in a scale up unit upon completion of the proposed project.

  7. Liquid CO{sub 2}/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marasigan, Jose; Goldstein, Harvey; Dooher, John

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO{sub 2} has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO{sub 2} is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO{sub 2} through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO{sub 2} is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO{sub 2} slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO{sub 2} has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO{sub 2} over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry properties. This low-rank coal study extends the existing knowledge base to evaluate the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry concept on an E-Gas™-based IGCC plant with full 90% CO{sub 2} capture. The overall objective is to determine if this technology could be used to reduce the cost and improve the efficiency of IGCC plants. The study goes beyond the systems-level analyses and initial lab work that formed the bases of previous studies and includes the following tasks: performing laboratory tests to quantify slurry properties; developing an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2} slurry preparation and feed system; conducting a full IGCC plant techno-economic analysis for Powder River Basin (PRB) coal and North Dakota lignite in both water and liquid CO{sub 2} slurries; and identifying a technology development plan to continue the due diligence to conduct a comprehensive evaluation of this technology. The initial task included rheology tests and slurry data analyses that would increase the knowledge and understanding of maximum solids loading capability for both PRB and lignite. Higher coal concentrations have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} over water slurries, and a coal concentration of 75% by weight in liquid CO{sub 2} has been estimated to be achievable in a commercial application. In addition, lower slurry viscosities have been verified in liquid CO{sub 2} at the same solids loading, where the liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry viscosity has been measured to be about a factor of 10 lower than the comparable water slurry and estimated to be less than 100 centipoise in a commercial application. In the following task, an engineering design of a liquid CO{sub 2}/coal slurry preparation and mixing system has been developed for both a batch and continuous system. The capital cost of the design has also been estimated so that it could be used in the economic analysis. An industry search and survey has been conducted to determine if essential components required to construct the feed system are available from commercial sources or if targeted R&D efforts are required. The search and survey concluded that commercial sources are available for selected components that comprise both the batch and continuous type systems. During normal operation, the fuel exits the bottom of the coal silo and is fed to a rod mill fo

  8. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2002-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  9. BOILER MATERIALS FOR ULTRASUPERCRITICAL COAL POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Viswanathan; K. Coleman

    2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The principal objective of this project is to develop materials technology for use in ultrasupercritical (USC) plant boilers capable of operating with 760 C (1400 F), 35 MPa (5000 psi) steam. In the 21st century, the world faces the critical challenge of providing abundant, cheap electricity to meet the needs of a growing global population while at the same time preserving environmental values. Most studies of this issue conclude that a robust portfolio of generation technologies and fuels should be developed to assure that the United States will have adequate electricity supplies in a variety of possible future scenarios. The use of coal for electricity generation poses a unique set of challenges. On the one hand, coal is plentiful and available at low cost in much of the world, notably in the U.S., China, and India. Countries with large coal reserves will want to develop them to foster economic growth and energy security. On the other hand, traditional methods of coal combustion emit pollutants and CO{sub 2} at high levels relative to other generation options. Maintaining coal as a generation option in the 21st century will require methods for addressing these environmental issues. This project has established a government/industry consortium to undertake a five-year effort to evaluate and develop of advanced materials that allow the use of advanced steam cycles in coal-based power plants. These advanced cycles, with steam temperatures up to 760 C, will increase the efficiency of coal-fired boilers from an average of 35% efficiency (current domestic fleet) to 47% (HHV). This efficiency increase will enable coal-fired power plants to generate electricity at competitive rates (irrespective of fuel costs) while reducing CO{sub 2} and other fuel-related emissions by as much as 29%. Success in achieving these objectives will support a number of broader goals. First, from a national prospective, the program will identify advanced materials that will make it possible to maintain a cost-competitive, environmentally acceptable coal-based electric generation option. High sulfur coals will specifically benefit in this respect by having these advanced materials evaluated in high-sulfur coal firing conditions and from the significant reductions in waste generation inherent in the increased operational efficiency. Second, from a national prospective, the results of this program will enable domestic boiler manufacturers to successfully compete in world markets for building high-efficiency coal-fired power plants.

  10. Utilization ROLE OF COAL COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    , materials left after combustion of coal in conventional and/ or advanced clean-coal technology combustors and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. This paper describes various coal combustion products produced (FGD) products from pulverized coal and advanced clean-coal technology combustors. Over 70% of the CCPs

  11. International perspectives on coal preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The report consists of the vugraphs from the presentations which covered the following topics: Summaries of the US Department of Energy`s coal preparation research programs; Preparation trends in Russia; South African coal preparation developments; Trends in hard coal preparation in Germany; Application of coal preparation technology to oil sands extraction; Developments in coal preparation in China; and Coal preparation in Australia.

  12. Characteristics of chars produced from lignites by pyrolysis at 808C following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in a stream of cold nitrogen. Design requires that the mass flow of cold nitrogen plus coal is small compared

  13. Indonesian coal mining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The article examines the opportunities and challenges facing the Indonesian coal mining industry and how the coal producers, government and wider Indonesian society are working to overcome them. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Microbial solubilization of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Strandberg, Gerald W. (Farragut, TN); Lewis, Susan N. (Knoxville, TN)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention deals with the solubilization of coal using species of Streptomyces. Also disclosed is an extracellular component from a species of Streptomyces, said component being able to solubilize coal.

  15. Coal Production 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1992 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, productive capacity, and recoverable reserves to a wide audience including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. In 1992, there were 3,439 active coal mining operations made up of all mines, preparation plants, and refuse operations. The data in Table 1 cover the 2,746 mines that produced coal, regardless of the amount of production, except for bituminous refuse mines. Tables 2 through 33 include data from the 2,852 mining operations that produced, processed, or prepared 10 thousand or more short tons of coal during the period, except for bituminous refuse, and includes preparation plants with 5 thousand or more employee hours. These mining operations accounted for over 99 percent of total US coal production and represented 83 percent of all US coal mining operations in 1992.

  16. Coal gasification apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nagy, Charles K. (Monaca, PA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal hydrogenation vessel has hydrogen heating passages extending vertically through its wall and opening into its interior.

  17. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol. W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test data from the Ruhrchemie/Ruhrkohle Texaco coal gasification demonstration plant at Oberhausen are reported. (5 refs.)

  18. Coal production 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal Production 1989 provides comprehensive information about US coal production, the number of mines, prices, productivity, employment, reserves, and stocks to a wide audience including Congress, federal and state agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. 7 figs., 43 tabs.

  19. Coal-ash spills highlight ongoing risk to ecosystems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chatterjee, R.

    2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two recent large-scale spills of coal combustion waste have highlighted the old problem of handling the enormous quantity of solid waste produced by coal. Both spills happened at power plants run by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). In December 2008 a holding pond for coal ash collapsed at a power plant in Kingstom, Tenn., releasing coal-ash sludge onto farmland and into rivers: in January 2009 a break in a pipe removing water from a holding pond for gypsum caused a spill at Widows Creek Fossil Plant in Stevenson, Ala. The article discusses the toxic outcome of such disasters on ecosystems, quoting work by Willaim Hopkins at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University and recommendations and reports of the US EPA. 2 photos.

  20. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950{degree}C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800{degree} to 950{degree}C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na{sub 2}O, NaCl, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820{degree}. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 {mu}m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  1. Development and evaluation of a lignite-stillage carrier system for application and study of biological control agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard Worth

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of Department) December 1983 ABSTRACT Development and Evaluation of a Lignite-Sti liege Carrier System for Application and Study of Biological Agents. (December 1983.... The carrier system consisted of lignite granules amended with thin liquid sti llage. This carrier system supported fungal propagule production as high as 2. 0 x 10g propagules/g carrier. Thin liquid sti llage supported the production of 4. 0-4. 5 mg of g...

  2. Plant mixtures and monocultures on topsoiled and nontopsoiled lignite spoil in the Post Oak Savannah of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Van Hook, Kevin

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PLANT MIXTURES AND MONOCULTURES ON TOPSOILED AND NONTOPSOILED LIGNITE SPOIL IN THE POST OAK SAVANNAH OF TEXAS A Thesis KEVIN VAN HOOK Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1984 Major Subject: Range Science PLANT MIXTURES AND MONOCULTURES OiN TOPSOILED AND NONTOPSOILED LIGNITE SPOIL IiN THE POST OAK SAVANNAH OF TEXAS A Thesis by KEVIN VAN HOOK Approved as to style and content by...

  3. Development and chemical quality of a ground-water system in cast overburden as the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borbely, Evelyn Susanna

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -water conditions which develop in response to surface mining. TMPA has supported research at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in order to meet the needs of mine develop- ment and permitting, Most of the data on ground-water conditions 1n reclaimed spoil has been... on the west by the Navasota River, on the south by Gibbons Creek, and on the north by State Highway 30 (Figure 1). This area includes the Gibbons Creek Steam Electric Station. Lignite is extracted from two pits within the permit boundary, termed the A...

  4. Characterization of Texas lignite and numerical modeling of its in-situ gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yih-Jy

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Modeling Site selection for in-situ gasification projects normally involves application of site screen1ng criteria. Some of these cr1teria were discussed by Russell et al. (1983). Numerical simulation may play an important role in s1te selection...CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ITS IN-SITU GASIFICATION A Thesis by YIH-JY WANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  5. A study of uranium distribution in an upper Jackson lignite-sandstone ore body, South Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatham, James Randall

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -central Wyoming (Denson, 1959). Since then similar discoveries have been made in North and South Dakota, Montana, Idaho, New Mexico, and most recently, in Texas. Porous, organic-r1ch sediments have repeatedly been proven to be favorable sites for uranium...A STUDY OF URANIUM DISTRIBUTION IN AN UPPER JACKSON LIGNITE-SANDSTONE ORE BODY, SOUTH TEXAS A Thesis James Randall Chatham Subnitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  6. Coal recovery process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Good, Robert J. (Grand Island, NY); Badgujar, Mohan (Williamsville, NY)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for the beneficiation of coal by selective agglomeration and the beneficiated coal product thereof is disclosed wherein coal, comprising impurities, is comminuted to a particle size sufficient to allow impurities contained therein to disperse in water, an aqueous slurry is formed with the comminuted coal particles, treated with a compound, such as a polysaccharide and/or disaccharide, to increase the relative hydrophilicity of hydrophilic components, and thereafter the slurry is treated with sufficient liquid agglomerant to form a coagulum comprising reduced impurity coal.

  7. Coal: the new black

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tullo, A.H.; Tremblay, J.-F.

    2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Long eclipsed by oil and natural gas as a raw material for high-volume chemicals, coal is making a comeback, with oil priced at more than $100 per barrel. It is relatively cheap feedstock for chemicals such as methanol and China is building plants to convert coal to polyolefins on a large scale and interest is spreading worldwide. Over the years several companies in the US and China have made fertilizers via the gasification of coal. Eastman in Tennessee gasifies coal to make methanol which is then converted to acetic acid, acetic anhydride and acetate fiber. The future vision is to convert methanol to olefins. UOP and Lurgi are the major vendors of this technology. These companies are the respective chemical engineering arms of Honeywell and Air Liquide. The article reports developments in China, USA and India on coal-to-chemicals via coal gasification or coal liquefaction. 2 figs., 2 photo.

  8. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  9. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    bituminous coal, and brown coal, but not slaty coal. Figureston) f 19.92 to 33. II Brown coals, lignites (metric ton) fcoal, and 13%, lignite (brown coal). Coal bed methane may

  10. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Subtotal Lignite and Brown Coal Total Source: NBS, ChinaSubtotal Lignite and Brown Coal Total Source: NBS, ChinaGt) Coal Classification brown coal bituminous coal gas coal

  11. Polycyclic aromatic compounds in fluidized bed combustion of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walsh, P.M.; Beer, J.M.; Biermann, K.; Chiu, K.S.

    1983-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC) have been determined in the gas and particulate effluents from fluidized bed combustion of coal, lignite, and oil shale by a number of investigators. A bibliography of the reports of these investigations is contained in a paper by Chiu, Walsh, Beer, and Biemann (1983). The concentrations of PAC in the effluents are often quite low, but depend upon the combustor configuration and operating conditions. The goal of the present investigation is to develop a mechanism consistent with measured rates of formation and destruction of PAC in atmospheric pressure fluidized bed combustion (AFBC), so that a rational approach may be taken to adjustment of conditions for minimization of PAC in the effluents. PAC are determined in samples taken from the freeboard (space above the bed), rather than from the exhaust, to observe the evolution of the PAC distribution within the combustor. Mass fractions of the most abundant PAC observed in the freeboard during AFBC of high volatile bituminous coal were reported by Chiu, et al (1983). Some correlation of the rates of disappearance of PAC with particle concentration was noted by Dutta, Chiu, Walsh, Beer, and Biemann (1983). In the present paper theoretical estimates of the rates at which PAC might be consumed by heterogeneous reactions are compared with experimental rates estimated from PAC profiles determined by Chiu et al (1983).

  12. Secondary atomization of single coal-water fuel droplets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hassel, G.R.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The evaporative behavior of single, well characterized droplets of a lignite coal-water slurry fuel (CWSF) and a carbon black in water slurry was studied as a function of heating rate and droplet composition. Induced droplet heating rates were varied from 0 to 10{sup 5} K/s. Droplets studied were between 97 and 170 {mu}m in diameter, with compositions ranging from 25 to 60% solids by weight. The effect of a commercially available surfactant additive package on droplet evaporation rate, explosive boiling energy requirements, and agglomerate formation was assessed. Surfactant concentrations were varied from none to 2 and 4% by weight solution (1.7 and 3.6% by weight of active species on a dry coal basis). The experimental system incorporated an electrodynamic balance to hold single, free droplets, a counterpropagating pulsed laser heating arrangement, and both video and high speed cinematographic recording systems. Data were obtained for ambient droplet evaporation by monitoring the temporal size, weight, and solids concentration changes. 49 refs., 31 figs.

  13. An experimental study of temperature of burning coal particle in fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mirko Komatina; Vasilije Manovic; Dragoljub Dakic [University of Belgrade, Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the temperature of coal particle during combustion in fluidized bed (FB). It is necessary to know the coal particle temperature in order to predict kinetics of chemical reactions within and at the surface of coal particle, accurate NOx and SO{sub 2} emission, fragmentation, attrition, the possibility of ash melting, etc. The experimental investigations were conducted in order to obtain the reliable data on the temperature of particle burning in the FB. A method using thermocouple was developed and applied for measurements. Thermocouple was inserted in the center of the particle shaped into spherical form with various diameters: 5, 7, 8, and 10 mm. Two characteristic types of low-rank Serbian coals were investigated. Experiments were done at the FB temperature in the range of 590-710{sup o}C. Two types of experiments were performed: (I) combustion using air as fluidization gas and (ii) devolatilization with N{sub 2} followed by combustion of obtained char in air. The temperature histories of particles during all stages after introducing in the FB were analyzed. Temperature difference between the burning particle and the FB was defined as a criterion, for comparison. It was shown that the temperature profile depends on the type of the coal and the particle size. The higher temperature difference between the burning particle and the FB was obtained for smaller particles and for lignite (130-180{sup o}C) in comparison to the brown coal (70-130{sup o}C). The obtained results indicated that a primary role in the temperature history of coal particle have the mass and heat transfer through combusting particle. 24 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Radioactive Waste Radioactive Waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slatton, Clint

    form · Separate liquid from solid · Radionuclide · Separate all but H3/C14 #12;#12;Radioactive Waste;Radioactive Waste H3/C14 solids Type B (non-incinerable) metal glass hazardous materials #12;#12;Radioactive#12;Radioactive Waste at UF Bldg 831 392-8400 #12;Radioactive Waste · Program is designed to

  15. Coal sector profile

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is our largest domestic energy resource with recoverable reserves estimated at 268 billion short tons or 5.896 quads Btu equivalent. This is approximately 95 percent of US fossil energy resources. It is relatively inexpensive to mine, and on a per Btu basis it is generally much less costly to produce than other energy sources. Its chief drawbacks are the environmental, health and safety concerns that must be addressed in its production and consumption. Historically, coal has played a major role in US energy markets. Coal fueled the railroads, heated the homes, powered the factories. and provided the raw materials for steel-making. In 1920, coal supplied over three times the amount of energy of oil, gas, and hydro combined. From 1920 until the mid 1970s, coal production remained fairly constant at 400 to 600 million short tons a year. Rapid increases in overall energy demands, which began during and after World War II were mostly met by oil and gas. By the mid 1940s, coal represented only half of total energy consumption in the US. In fact, post-war coal production, which had risen in support of the war effort and the postwar Marshall plan, decreased approximately 25 percent between 1945 and 1960. Coal demand in the post-war era up until the 1970s was characterized by increasing coal use by the electric utilities but decreasing coal use in many other markets (e.g., rail transportation). The oil price shocks of the 1970s, combined with natural gas shortages and problems with nuclear power, returned coal to a position of prominence. The greatly expanded use of coal was seen as a key building block in US energy strategies of the 1970s. Coal production increased from 613 million short tons per year in 1970 to 950 million short tons in 1988, up over 50 percent.

  16. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  17. Nitrogen oxides emission control through reburning with biomass in coal-fired power plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arumugam, Senthilvasan

    2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    be applied to farmland in accordance with nutrient management plans and stockpiled waste poses economic and environmental liabilities. In the present study, the feasibility of using biomass as a reburn fuel in existing coal-fired power plants is considered...

  18. Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasificaiton Slags

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhry, V.; Hadley, S. [Praxis Engineers, Inc., Milpitas, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power; however, it generates solid waste materials in relatively large quantities. For example, a 400-MW power plant using 4000 tons of 10% ash coal per day may generate over 440 tons/day of solid waste of slag, consisting of vitrified mineral matter and unburned carbon. The disposal of the wastes represents significant costs. Regulatory trends with respect to solid wastes disposal, landfill development costs and public concern make utilization of solid wastes a high-priority issue. As coal gasification technologies find increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feed stocks, it becomes imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. Praxis is working on a DOE/METC funded project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of making lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates from slags left as solid by-products from the coal gasification process. The project objectives are to develop and demonstrate the technology for producing slag-based lightweight aggregates (SLA), to produce 10 tons of SLA products with different unit weights from two slags, to collect operational and emissions data from pilot-scale operations, and to conduct laboratory and commercial scale evaluations of SLA with conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates.

  19. Ma,BonzongoandGao/UniversityofFlorida Characterization and Leachability of Coal Combustion Residues

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Lena

    Ma,BonzongoandGao/UniversityofFlorida Characterization and Leachability of Coal Combustion Residues an important solid waste in Florida, i.e., coal combustion residues (CCR) detailed in #2-4 of the current simulating ash slurry stored in ash ponds. Our research should greatly benefit FDEP, the public and utility

  20. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ~ - - - - - ' Gri~ing Feed Coal Slurry Feed Pump Filterused to heat a coal-solvent slurry up to the tempera- turePULVERIZED COAL DISSOLVER PRODUCT SLURRY L-. 5 TJ'OON , ~ (

  1. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a particular type of coal, each of which is inherentlyThere are four classes of coal: bituminous, sub-bituminous,minerals Metallic ores Coal Crude petroleum Gasoline Fuel

  2. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal-to-hydrogen plant capital costs .Capital cost of pulverized coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost ofIGCC coal plant ($/kW) Capital cost of repowering PC plant

  3. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Clean Coal Produced, * T/D (Dry Basis) Installed Plant Cost,Plant Cost, MM$ Net Operating Cost, $/T (Clean Coal Basis)Cost increments fora 25246 ton coal per day SRC plant are

  4. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5 Figure 1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating1: Map of U.S. coal plants and generating units (GED, 2006a)of an electric generating coal power plant that would be

  5. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Council (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, VolumeAssessments to Inform Energy Policy, “Coal: Research andOF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy Regulatory

  6. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF RAIL TRANSPORTATION OF COAL The Federal Energy RegulatoryPlants Due to Coal Shortages”, Federal Energy RegulatoryCouncil (NCC), 2006, “Coal: America’s Energy Future”, Volume

  7. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of total electricity generation is because coal plants haveplants come to play an important role in the electricity generationplants will be built in the years around 2020, thereby increasing coal’s share of electricity generation

  8. Refining and upgrading of synfuels from coal and oil shales by advanced catalytic processes. Quarterly report, January-March 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, R. F.; O'Rear, D. J.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Samples of SRC-II naphtha, middle distillate, and heavy distillate were received and analyzed. These samples are part of a planned study of the potential biological hazards of synthetic crudes. These oils will be hydrotreated when DOE provides blending instructions. Five drums of EDS syncrude made from Big Brown Texas lignite were received and analyzed. The boiling range and other properties of this syncrude are very similar to the properties of the previously studied H-Coal and SRC-II syncrudes. The hydrotreating severities, which were employed to upgrade the H-Coal and SRC-II syncrudes to transportation fuels, are expected to be close to the severities needed for the EDS syncrude.

  9. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rini, Michael J. (Hebron, CT); Towle, David P. (Windsor, CT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  10. Coal Mining Regulations (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Kentucky Administrative Regulation Title 405 chapters 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 16, 18 and 20 establish the laws governing coal mining in the state.

  11. Coal Development (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This section provides for the development of newly-discovered coal veins in the state, and county aid for such development.

  12. Coal Market Module This

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    on fossil energy technologies. This includes 800 million to fund projects under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program, focusing on projects that capture and sequester...

  13. Coal Market Module

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on fossil energy technologies. This includes 800 million to fund projects under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) program, focusing on projects that capture and sequester...

  14. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  15. Clean Coal Projects (Virginia)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation directs the Virginia Air Pollution Control Board to facilitate the construction and implementation of clean coal projects by expediting the permitting process for such projects.

  16. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle ( IGCC)coal (PC) or integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC)will be integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) (Same

  17. Coal Mining Tax Credit (Arkansas)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Coal Mining Tax Credit provides an income or insurance premium tax credit of $2.00 per ton of coal mined, produced or extracted on each ton of coal mined in Arkansas in a tax year. An...

  18. COAL DESULFURIZATION PRIOR TO COMBUSTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, J.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Corporation, 5-25~79. on Coal Liquefaction at ChevronHamersma, et a L, "Meyers Process for Coal Desulfurization,"in Wheelock, Coal Desulfurization, ACS Symp. Ser 64 (1977(.

  19. Illinois Coal Revival Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Revival Program is a grants program providing partial funding to assist with the development of new, coal-fueled electric generation capacity and coal gasification or IGCC units...

  20. Sandia National Laboratories: Clean Coal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ManagementClean Coal Clean Coal The term clean coal refers to a number of initiatives that seek to reduce or eliminate the hazardous emission or byproducts that result from using...

  1. Fossil energy waste management. Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bossart, S.J.; Newman, D.A.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the current status and recent accomplishments of the Fossil Energy Waste Management (FE WM) projects sponsored by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE). The primary goal of the Waste Management Program is to identify and develop optimal strategies to manage solid by-products from advanced coal technologies for the purpose of ensuring the competitiveness of advanced coal technologies as a future energy source. The projects in the Fossil Energy Waste Management Program are divided into three types of activities: Waste Characterization, Disposal Technologies, and Utilization Technologies. This technology status report includes a discussion on barriers to increased use of coal by-products. Also, the major technical and nontechnical challenges currently being addressed by the FE WM program are discussed. A bibliography of 96 citations and a list of project contacts is included if the reader is interested in obtaining additional information about the FE WM program.

  2. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · CoalTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL · Indiana Coal Forecasting · Under-Ground Coal Gasification · Benefits of Oxyfuel Combustion · Economic

  3. Fuel blending with PRB coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCartney, R.H.; Williams, R.L. Jr. [Roberts and Schaefer, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2009-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Many methods exist to accomplish coal blending at a new or existing power plant. These range from a basic use of the secondary (emergency) stockout/reclaim system to totally automated coal handling facilities with segregated areas for two or more coals. Suitable choices for different sized coal plant are discussed, along with the major components of the coal handling facility affected by Powder River Basin coal. 2 figs.

  4. Industrial Wastes as a Fuel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richardson, G.; Hendrix, W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    available for coal since it was at one time a major industrial fuel and is still used extensively for electric power generation. However, combustion data for other fuels such as wood and solid materials typically generated as industrial wastes can only...

  5. Gasifier feed - Tailor-made from Illinois coals. [Quarterly] report, March 1, 1992--May 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)]|[DESTEC Energy (United States)]|[Williams Technology (United States)]|[Illinois Coal Association (United States)

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. This project will bring the expertise of four organizations together to perform the various tasks. The Illinois Coal Association will help direct the project to be the most beneficial to the Illinois coal industry. DESTEC Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technology will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handlability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals. As reported earlier, a variety of possible samples of coal have been analyzed and the gasification performance evaluation reported. Additionally, commercial sized samples of -28 mesh {times} 100 mesh coal -100 {times} 0 coal were subjected to pumpability testing. Neither the coarse product nor the fine product by themselves proved to be good candidates for trouble free pumping, but the mix of the two proved to be a very acceptable product

  6. Coal resources of Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Landis, E.R.; Bostick, N.H.; Gluskoter, H.J.; Johnson, E.A. [Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States); Harrison, C.D. [CQ Inc., Homer City, PA (United States); Huber, D.W.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The rugged, mountainous country of Kyrgyzstan contains about one-half of the known coal resources of central Asia (a geographic and economic region that also includes Uzbekistan, Tadjikistan and Turkmenistan). Coal of Jurassic age is present in eight regions in Kyrgyzstan in at least 64 different named localities. Significant coal occurrences of about the same age are present in the central Asian countries of Kazakhstan, China, and Russia. Separation of the coal-bearing rocks into individual deposits results more than earth movements before and during formation of the present-day mountains and basins of the country than from deposition in separate basins.Separation was further abetted by deep erosion and removal of the coal-bearing rocks from many areas, followed by covering of the remaining coal-bearing rocks by sands and gravels of Cenozoic age. The total resources of coal in Kyrgyzstan have been reported as about 30 billion tons. In some of the reported localities, the coal resources are known and adequately explored. In other parts of the republic, the coal resources are inadequately understood or largely unexplored. The resource and reserve inventory of Kyrgyzstan is at best incomplete; for some purposes, such as short-term local and long-range national planning, it may be inadequate. Less than 8% of the total estimated resources are categorized as recoverable reserves, and the amount that is economically recoverable is unknown. The coal is largely of subbituminous and high-volatile C bituminous rank, most has low and medium ash and sulfur contents, and coals of higher rank (some with coking qualities) are present in one region. It is recommended that appropriate analyses and tests be made during planning for utilization.

  7. Search for: "coal" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    coal" Find + Advanced Search Advanced Search All Fields: "coal" Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator Author: Name Name ORCID Search Authors Type: All Accepted...

  8. Illinois Coal Development Program (Illinois)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Illinois Coal Development Program seeks to advance promising clean coal technologies beyond research and towards commercialization. The program provides a 50/50 match with private industry...

  9. Sulfur and ash reduction potential and selected chemical and physical properties of United States coals. [Contains glossary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavallaro, J.A.; Deurbrouck, A.W.; Killmeyer, R.P.; Fuchs, W. (USDOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, PA (USA). Coal Preparation Div.); Jacobsen, P.S. (Burns and Roe Services Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA))

    1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the washability and comprehensive characterization results of 184 raw coal channel samples, including anthracite, bituminous and lignite coals, collected from the Central Region of the United States. This is the second of a three volume report on the coals of the United States. All the data are presented in six appendices. Statistical techniques and definitions are presented in Appendix A, and a glossary of terms is presented in Appendix B. The complete washability data and an in-depth characterization of each sample are presented alphabetically by state in Appendix C. In Appendix D, a statistical evaluation is given for the composited washability data, selected chemical and physical properties and washability data interpolated at various levels of Btu recovery. This presentation is shown by state, section, and region where four or more samples were collected. Appendix E presents coalbed codes and names for the Central Region coals. Graphical summations are presented by state, section and region showing the effects of crushing on impurity reductions, and the distribution of raw and clean coal samples meeting various levels of SO{sub 2} emissions. 35 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. Improving pulverized coal plant performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regan, J.W.; Borio, R.W.; Palkes, M.; Mirolli, M. [ABB Combustion Engineering, Inc., Windsor, CT (United States); Wesnor, J.D. [ABB Environmental Systems, Birmingham, AL (United States); Bender, D.J. [Raytheon Engineers and Constructors, Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A major deliverable of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emissions Boiler Systems`` (LEBS) is the design of a large, in this case 400 MWe, commercial generating unit (CGU) which will meet the Project objectives. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future pulverized coal fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. The DOE specified the use of near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that partially developed, to reduce NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulate emissions to be substantially less than current NSPS limits. In addition, air toxics must be in compliance and waste must be reduced and made more disposable. The design being developed by the ABB Team is projected to meet all the contract objectives and to reduce emission of NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and particulates to one-fifth to one-tenth NSPS limits while increasing net station efficiency significantly and reducing the cost of electricity. This design and future work are described in the paper.

  11. Healy Clean Coal Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2003-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is to provide the energy marketplace with advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization options by conducting demonstrations of new technologies. These demonstration projects are intended to establish the commercial feasibility of promising advanced coal technologies that have been developed to a level at which they are ready for demonstration testing under commercial conditions. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP), selected under Round III of the CCT Program, and described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy, 1991). The desire to demonstrate an innovative power plant that integrates an advanced slagging combustor, a heat recovery system, and both high- and low-temperature emissions control processes prompted the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) to submit a proposal for this project. In April 1991, AIDEA entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. Other team members included Golden Valley Electric Association (GVEA), host and operator; Usibelli Coal Mine, Inc., coal supplier; TRW, Inc., Space & Technology Division, combustor technology provider; Stone & Webster Engineering Corp. (S&W), engineer; Babcock & Wilcox Company (which acquired the assets of Joy Environmental Technologies, Inc.), supplier of the spray dryer absorber technology; and Steigers Corporation, provider of environmental and permitting support. Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation supplied the boiler. GVEA provided oversight of the design and provided operators during demonstration testing. The project was sited adjacent to GVEA's Healy Unit No. 1 in Healy, Alaska. The objective of this CCT project was to demonstrate the ability of the TRW Clean Coal Combustion System to operate on a blend of run-of-mine (ROM) coal and waste coal, while meeting strict environmental requirements. DOE provided $117,327,000 of the total project cost of $282,300,000, or 41.6 percent. Construction for the demonstration project was started in May 1995, and completed in November 1997. Operations were initiated in January 1998, and completed in December 1999. The evaluation contained herein is based primarily on information from the AIDEA's Final Report (Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority, 2001), as well as other references cited.

  12. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, Wendell H. (Kaysville, UT); Oblad, Alex G. (Salt Lake City, UT); Shabtai, Joseph S. (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400.degree. C. at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1.

  13. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  14. EIS-0357- Gilberton Coal-to-Clean Fuels and Power Project in Giberton, PA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) assesses the potential environmental impacts that would result from a proposed Department of Energy (DOE) action to provide cost-shared funding for construction and operation of facilities near Gilberton, Pennsylvania, which have been proposed by WMPI PTY, LLC, for producing electricity, steam, and liquid fuels from anthracite coal waste (culm). The project was selected by DOE under the Clean Coal Power Initiative (CCPI) to demonstrate the integration of coal waste gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon fuels at commercial scale.

  15. Coal in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minchener, A.J. [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The article gives an overview of the production and use of coal in China, for power generation and in other sectors. Coal use for power generation was 850 million tonnes in 2003 and 800 million tonnes in the non-power sector. The majority of power will continue to be produced from coal, with a trend towards new larger pulverised coal fired units and introduction of circulating fluidised bed combustors. Stricter regulations are forcing introduction of improved pollution control technologies. It seems likely that China will need international finance to supplement private and state investment to carry out a programme to develop and apply clean coal technologies. The author concludes that there is evidence of a market economy being established but there is a need to resolve inconsistencies with the planned aspects of the economy and that additional policies are needed in certain sectors to achieve sustainable development. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Low-rank coal research under the UND/DOE cooperative agreement. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1983-June 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiltsee, Jr., G. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) gasification wastewater treatment and reuse; (2) fine coal cleaning; (3) coal-water slurry preparation; (4) low-rank coal liquefaction; (5) combined flue gas cleanup/simultaneous SO/sub x/-NO/sub x/ control; (6) particulate control and hydrocarbons and trace element emissions from low-rank coals; (7) waste characterization; (8) combustion research and ash fowling; (9) fluidized-bed combustion of low-rank coals; (10) ash and slag characterization; (11) organic structure of coal; (12) distribution of inorganics in low-rank coals; (13) physical properties and moisture of low-rank coals; (14) supercritical solvent extraction; and (15) pyrolysis and devolatilization.

  17. Wood-Coal Fired "Small" Boiler Case Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pincelli, R. D.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Galaxy Carpet Corporation installed a coal and wood waste fired boiler approximately twelve months ago. Its first year net savings were $195,000.00 Total capital investment was paid off in 1.9 years. 20% investment tax credits were granted...

  18. State coal profiles, January 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of State Coal Profiles is to provide basic information about the deposits, production, and use of coal in each of the 27 States with coal production in 1992. Although considerable information on coal has been published on a national level, there is a lack of a uniform overview for the individual States. This report is intended to help fill that gap and also to serve as a framework for more detailed studies. While focusing on coal output, State Coal Profiles shows that the coal-producing States are major users of coal, together accounting for about three-fourths of total US coal consumption in 1992. Each coal-producing State is profiled with a description of its coal deposits and a discussion of the development of its coal industry. Estimates of coal reserves in 1992 are categorized by mining method and sulfur content. Trends, patterns, and other information concerning production, number of mines, miners, productivity, mine price of coal, disposition, and consumption of coal are detailed in statistical tables for selected years from 1980 through 1992. In addition, coal`s contribution to the State`s estimated total energy consumption is given for 1991, the latest year for which data are available. A US summary of all data is provided for comparing individual States with the Nation as a whole. Sources of information are given at the end of the tables.

  19. The foul side of 'clean coal'

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, J.

    2009-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As power plants face new air pollution control, ash piles and their environmental threats are poised to grow. Recent studies have shown that carcinogens and other contaminants in piles of waste ash from coal-fired power plants can leach into water supplies at concentrations exceeding drinking water standards. Last year an ash dam broke at the 55-year old power plant in Kingston, TN, destroying homes and rising doubts about clean coal. Despite the huge amounts of ash generated in the USA (131 mtons per year) no federal regulations control the fate of ash from coal-fired plants. 56% of this is not used in products such as concrete. The EPA has found proof of water contamination from many operating ash sites which are wet impoundments, ponds or reservoirs of some sort. Several member of Congress have show support for new ash-handling requirements and an inventory of waste sites. Meanwhile, the Kingston disaster may well drive utilities to consider dry handling. 3 photos.

  20. Developments to watch/cross flow of air is effective for separating coal from pyrite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cross flow of air is effective for separating coal from pyrite, limestone, clay, and shale while in the dry state to achieve a concentration of 90% purity at a competitive cost, according to West Virginia University Coal Research Bureau. The coal is crushed, screened to size, and placed in a vibrating feeder modified by adding small ridges parallel to the vibrating motion on the plate surface. The plate motion moves lighter coal particles slightly higher than the same size, heavier waste particles. A cross flow of air, which blows perpendicular to the vibratory motion, enhances the separation system.

  1. Potential growth of nuclear and coal electricity generation in the US

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Merrill, E.T.

    1989-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity demand should continue to grow at about the same rate as GNP, creating a need for large amounts of new generating capacity over the next fifty years. Only coal and nuclear at this time have the abundant domestic resources and assured technology to meet this need. However, large increase in both coal and nuclear usage will require solutions to many of the problems that now deter their increased usage. For coal, the problems center around the safety and environmental impacts of increased coal mining and coal combustion. For nuclear, the problems center around reactor safety, radioactive waste disposal, financial risk, and nuclear materials safeguards. This report assesses the impacts associated with a range of projected growth rates in electricity demand over the next 50 years. The resource requirements and waste generation resulting from pursuing the coal and nuclear fuel options to meet the projected growth rates are estimated. The fuel requirements and waste generation for coal plants are orders of magnitude greater than for nuclear. Improvements in technology and waste management practices must be pursued to mitigate environmental and safety concerns about electricity generation from both options. 34 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Bioremediation of Waste in a Porous Medium Changsheng Chen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chadam, John

    @pitt.edu 1 #12;Consider a region of soil that has been contaminated by an immobile waste product (e.g., coal with nutrients (and perhaps even particular strains of bacteria) so that the activated bacteria will remove

  3. Method of operating a coal predrying and heating plant in connection with a coking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocsanczy, J.; Knappstein, J.; Stalherm, D.

    1981-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing and delivering coal to a coking plant comprises conveying the coal to the plant on a moving conveyor while an inert combustion gas is directed over the coal being conveyed. The combustion gas is generated by burning a fuel with air to produce a substantially inert combustion gas which is passed over the coal during its conveying and, thereafter, passed through a cooler for removing the moisture which has been picked up from the coal by the gas. The heating and predrying inert gases are advantageously generated by the direct combustion of air and fuel which are passed through flash dryer tubes and one or more separate separator systems and then delivered into a conveyor pipeline through which the coal is conveyed. A portion of the gases which are generated are also directed with a return gas to a filter for removal of any coal therefrom and to a cooler for removing the moisture picked up from the coal and then back into the stream for delivery to the conveyor for the coal. The inert gas may also be a gas which is circulated in heat exchange relationship with combustion gases which are generated by a combustion of the coal itself. In such a system, a portion of the combustion gases generated are also passed through a condenser or cooler and the cooled and dried waste gases are circulated over the coal being conveyed to the coking oven or its bunkers.

  4. A fresh look at coal-derived liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul, A.D. [Benham Companies LLC (USA)

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    35% of the world's energy comes from oil, and 96% of that oil is used for transportation. The current number of vehicles globally is estimated to be 700 million; that number is expected to double overall by 2030, and to triple in developing countries. Now consider that the US has 27% of the world's supply of coal yet only 2% of the oil. Coal-to-liquids technologies could bridge the gap between US fuel supply and demand. The advantages of coal-derived liquid fuels are discussed in this article compared to the challenges of alternative feedstocks of oil sands, oil shale and renewable sources. It is argued that pollutant emissions from coal-to-liquid facilities could be minimal because sulfur compounds will be removed, contaminants need to be removed for the FT process, and technologies are available for removing solid wastes and nitrogen oxides. If CO{sub 2} emissions for coal-derived liquid plants are captured and sequestered, overall emissions of CO{sub 2} would be equal or less than those from petroleum. Although coal liquefaction requires large volumes of water, most water used can be recycled. Converting coal to liquid fuels could, at least in the near term, bring a higher level of stability to world oil prices and the global economy and could serve as insurance for the US against price hikes from oil-producing countries. 7 figs.

  5. Consensus Coal Production Forecast for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 2009-2030 Prepared for the West Virginia Summary 1 Recent Developments 2 Consensus Coal Production Forecast for West Virginia 10 Risks References 27 #12;W.Va. Consensus Coal Forecast Update 2009 iii List of Tables 1. W.Va. Coal Production

  6. Clean coal technology: The new coal era

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Clean Coal Technology Program is a government and industry cofunded effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal processes in a series of full-scale showcase`` facilities built across the country. Begun in 1986 and expanded in 1987, the program is expected to finance more than $6.8 billion of projects. Nearly two-thirds of the funding will come from the private sector, well above the 50 percent industry co-funding expected when the program began. The original recommendation for a multi-billion dollar clean coal demonstration program came from the US and Canadian Special Envoys on Acid Rain. In January 1986, Special Envoys Lewis and Davis presented their recommendations. Included was the call for a 5-year, $5-billion program in the US to demonstrate, at commercial scale, innovative clean coal technologies that were beginning to emerge from research programs both in the US and elsewhere in the world. As the Envoys said: if the menu of control options was expanded, and if the new options were significantly cheaper, yet highly efficient, it would be easier to formulate an acid rain control plan that would have broader public appeal.

  7. Recent advances in coal geochemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chyi, L.L. (Dept. of Geology, Univ. of Akron, Akron, OH (US)); Chou, C.-L. (Illinois State Geological Survey, 615 E. Peabody Drive, Champaign, IL (US))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chapters in this collection reflect the recent emphasis both on basic research in coal geochemistry and on applied aspects related to coal utilization. Geochemical research on peat and coal generates compositional data that are required for the following reasons. First, many studies in coal geology require chemical data to aid in interpretation for better understanding of the origin and evolution of peat and coal. Second, coal quality assessment is based largely on composition data, and these data generate useful insights into the geologic factors that control the quality of coal. Third, compositional data are needed for effective utilization of coal resources and to reflect the recent emphasis on both basic research in coal geochemistry and environmental aspects related to coal utilization.

  8. Modules for estimating solid waste from fossil-fuel technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crowther, M.A.; Thode, H.C. Jr.; Morris, S.C.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid waste has become a subject of increasing concern to energy industries for several reasons. Increasingly stringent air and water pollution regulations result in a larger fraction of residuals in the form of solid wastes. Control technologies, particularly flue gas desulfurization, can multiply the amount of waste. With the renewed emphasis on coal utilization and the likelihood of oil shale development, increased amounts of solid waste will be produced. In the past, solid waste residuals used for environmental assessment have tended only to include total quantities generated. To look at environmental impacts, however, data on the composition of the solid wastes are required. Computer modules for calculating the quantities and composition of solid waste from major fossil fuel technologies were therefore developed and are described in this report. Six modules have been produced covering physical coal cleaning, conventional coal combustion with flue gas desulfurization, atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion, coal gasification using the Lurgi process, coal liquefaction using the SRC-II process, and oil shale retorting. Total quantities of each solid waste stream are computed together with the major components and a number of trace elements and radionuclides.

  9. Environmental control implications of coal use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Livengood, C.D.; Farber, P.S.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Environmental Control Technology for Coal Utilization program at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is assisting DOE by providing information required in the planning and guidance of R and D programs for coal utilization technologies and the associated environmental controls. Both available and developing technologies for the entire energy system from the mine mouth through ultimate waste disposal are analyzed. The tools of technology assessment and systems analysis are used to provide balanced evaluations of the engineering, environmental, and economic aspects of the technologies, as well as identification of synergistic effects and secondary or indirect impacts. This paper deals with three topics: First, the assessments performed to date that indicate the nature of our current work are briefly reviewed. Next, the computerized models and data bases utilized in our assessments are described. Lastly, some of the results from a major ongoing study of environmental controls for industrial boilers are presented and their implications discussed.

  10. Coal liquefaction by base-catalyzed hydrolysis with CO.sub.2 capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Xin

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    The one-step hydrolysis of diverse biomaterials including coal, cellulose materials such as lumber and forestry waste, non-food crop waste, lignin, vegetable oils, animal fats and other source materials used for biofuels under mild processing conditions which results in the formation of a liquid fuel product along with the recovery of a high purity CO.sub.2 product is provided.

  11. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  12. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  13. Clean coal today

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the first issue of the Clean Coal Today publication. Each issue will provide project status reports, feature articles about certain projects and highlight key events concerning the US Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program. Projects described in this publication include: Colorado-Ute Electric Association Circulating Fluidized Bed Combustor Project at Nucla, Colorado; Babcock and Wilcox coolside and limestone injection multistage burner process (dry sorbent injection); Coal Tech's Advanced Cyclone Combustor Project; and the TIDD pressurized fluidized bed combustor combined cycle facility in Brilliant, Ohio. The status of other projects is included.

  14. Coal | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the YouTube platformBuildingCoal Combustion Products Coal Combustion ProductsCoal to

  15. Coal | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directed off Energy.gov. Are you sure you want toworldPower 2010 1AAcquisitionDevelopmentChooseCoal Coal Coal

  16. Coal | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualProperty EditCalifornia:PowerCER.png El CER esDatasetCityFundCo-benefits EvaluationCoalCoalCoal

  17. The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, William Russell

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... time when I was in need. Finally, the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station for support related to this research. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES V1...

  18. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States); Lytle, J.M.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.A.; Kohlenberger, L.B.; Brewer, K.K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)]|[DESTEC Energy (United States)]|[Williams Technologies, Inc. (United States)]|[Illinois Coal Association (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project was to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois (IL) coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high-sulfur content and high-Btu value of IL coals are Particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary-calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high-sulfur coal is more than offset b the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high-Btu IL coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is--higher not only because of the hither Btu value of the coal but also because IL coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for IL coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. During the contract extension, additional coal testing was completed confirming the fact that coal concentrates can be made from plant waste under a variety of flotation conditions 33 tests were conducted, yielding an average of 13326 Btu with 9.6% ash while recovering 86.0%-Of the energy value.

  19. Opportunities in underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloomstran, M.A.; Davis, B.E.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of the results obtained on DOE-sponsored field tests of underground coal gasification in steeply-dipping beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The coal gas composition, process parameters, and process economics are described. Steeply-dipping coal resources, which are not economically mineable using conventional coal mining methods, are identified and potential markets for underground coal gasification products are discussed. It is concluded that in-situ gasification in steeply-dipping deposits should be considered for commercialization.

  20. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial actions at Belfield and Bowman inactive lignite ashing sites in southwestern North Dakota to reduce the potential public health impacts from the residual radioactivity remaining at the sites. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards (40 CFR 192) that contain measures to control the residual radioactive materials and other contaminated materials, and proposed standards to protect the groundwater from further degradation. Remedial action at the Belfield and Bowman sites must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The Belfield and Bowman designated sites were used by Union Carbide and Kerr-McGee, respectively, to process uraniferous lignite in the 1960s. Uranium-rich ash from rotary kiln processing of the lignite was loaded into rail cars and transported to uranium mills in Rifle, Colorado, and Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, respectively. As a result of the ashing process, there is a total of 158,400 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) [121,100 cubic meters (m{sup 3})] of radioactive ash-contaminated soils at the two sites. Windblown ash-contaminated soil covers an additional 21 acres (8.5 ha) around the site, which includes grazing land, wetlands, and a wooded habitat.

  1. Advanced Acid Gas Separation Technology for the Utilization of Low Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kloosterman, Jeff

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Products has developed a potentially ground-breaking technology – Sour Pressure Swing Adsorption (PSA) – to replace the solvent-based acid gas removal (AGR) systems currently employed to separate sulfur containing species, along with CO{sub 2} and other impurities, from gasifier syngas streams. The Sour PSA technology is based on adsorption processes that utilize pressure swing or temperature swing regeneration methods. Sour PSA technology has already been shown with higher rank coals to provide a significant reduction in the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for power generation, which should translate to a reduction in cost of electricity (COE), compared to baseline CO{sub 2} capture plant design. The objective of this project is to test the performance and capability of the adsorbents in handling tar and other impurities using a gaseous mixture generated from the gasification of lower rank, lignite coal. The results of this testing are used to generate a high-level pilot process design, and to prepare a techno-economic assessment evaluating the applicability of the technology to plants utilizing these coals.

  2. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08T23:59:59.000Z

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  3. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of deploying advanced coal power in the Chinese context,”12 2.6. International coal prices and12 III. Chinese Coal

  4. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Figures Figure ES-1. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Basicviii Figure 1. Advanced-Coal Wind Hybrid: Basic29 Figure 9. Sensitivity to Coal

  5. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    farms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingfarms with advanced coal generation facilities and operatingin the stand-alone coal generation option (IGCC+CCS plant)

  6. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    services. Power generation Coal increasingly dominates28 Thermal coal electricity generation efficiency alsostudy examines four coal-thermal generation technology types

  7. Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification The Coal-Biomass Feed and Gasification Key Technology is advancing scientific knowledge of the production of liquid hydrocarbon fuels from coal...

  8. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    generation systems. Coal energy density could be increasedfuel reserves were coal by energy content; 19% were oil, andConsumption, 2007 coal/primary energy consumption Source: BP

  9. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

  10. Clean Coal Power Initiative | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Clean Coal Power Initiative Clean Coal Power Initiative "Clean coal technology" describes a new generation of energy processes that sharply reduce air emissions and other...

  11. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H.; Smit, Francis J.; Swanson, Wilbur W.

    1993-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  12. Aqueous coal slurry

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berggren, Mark H. (Golden, CO); Smit, Francis J. (Arvada, CO); Swanson, Wilbur W. (Golden, CO)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An aqueous slurry containing coal and dextrin as a dispersant. The slurry, in addition to containing dextrin, may contain a conventional dispersant or, alternatively, a pH controlling reagent.

  13. Quarterly coal report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Young, P.

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Quarterly Coal Report (QCR) provides comprehensive information about U.S. coal production, distribution, exports, imports, receipts, prices, consumption, and stocks to a wide audience, including Congress, Federal and State agencies, the coal industry, and the general public. Coke production, consumption, distribution, imports, and exports data are also provided. The data presented in the QCR are collected and published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) to fulfill data collection and dissemination responsibilities as specified in the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (Public Law 93-275), as amended. This report presents detailed quarterly data for October through December 1995 and aggregated quarterly historical data for 1987 through the third quarter of 1995. Appendix A displays, from 1987 on, detailed quarterly historical coal imports data, as specified in Section 202 of the Energy Policy and Conservation Amendments Act of 1985 (Public Law 99-58). Appendix B gives selected quarterly tables converted to metric tons.

  14. Clean Coal Research

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE's clean coal R&D is focused on developing and demonstrating advanced power generation and carbon capture, utilization and storage technologies for existing facilities and new fossil-fueled...

  15. Clean Coal Technology (Indiana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A public utility may not use clean coal technology at a new or existing electric generating facility without first applying for and obtaining from the Utility Regulatory Commission a certificate...

  16. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  17. Coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA); Znaimer, Samuel (Vancouver, CA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  18. Method for coal liquefaction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiser, W.H.; Oblad, A.G.; Shabtai, J.S.

    1994-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is disclosed for coal liquefaction in which minute particles of coal in intimate contact with a hydrogenation catalyst and hydrogen arc reacted for a very short time at a temperature in excess of 400 C at a pressure of at least 1500 psi to yield over 50% liquids with a liquid to gaseous hydrocarbon ratio in excess of 8:1. 1 figures.

  19. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report. Part 2. A multivariate study of the interrelationships among selected variables of the organic fraction of samples of United States' coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerencher, J.J. Jr.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Multivariate statistical techniques have been applied to study interrelationships among 12 variables within a set of 277 coals representing whole-seam channel, column, and core samples obtained from each of the 6 coal provinces of the United States, and varying in rank from lignite through anthracite. The data are maintained in computerized data base at The Pennsylvania State University Coal Research Section. The variables selected are components of the elemental analysis (carbon, oxygen, organic sulfur, hydrogen, and nitrogen), selected components of the proximate analysis (volatile matter and moisture), calorific value, reflectance of vitrinite, and the relative proportions of the 3 maceral groups (total vitrinite, inertinite, and liptinite group macerals). Faactor analyses performed on the entire data set and on subsets separated on the basis of rank, geographic location, and by cluster analysis indicated that rank is the most important factor in determining the amount of variation of each data set. The rank-dependent variables for the entire data set are carbon, reflectance, oxygen, volatile matter, calorific value, and moisture. The maceral groups account for the next greatest source of variation. Organic sulfur is independent of the first 2 factors and is the third most important source of variation. Cluster analyses indicated that the most significant partitioning produces 4 groups which are differentiated primarily on the basis of rank, maceral composition, and organic sulfur content. Factor analyses of the individual groups provide insights into the coalification processes of these more homogeneous coal associations.

  20. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  1. Performance simulation of fluidized-bed coal combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandran, R.R.; Sutherland, D.D. (The Babcock and Wilcox Co., R and D Div., Alliance, OH (US))

    1988-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A code, referred to as FBCSIM, is being developed to predict large-scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) performance with fundamental fuel data from bench-scale test units as input. This work is carried out as a part of AFBC fuels characterization program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The code accounts for the physics of fluidization, which is unit specific, and the chemistry of combustion, which is fuel specific. The code includes a 3-D model and modules on bed hydrodynamics, chemical kinetics, solid distribution, and transport phenomena. The model for in-bed combustion incorporates a two-region particle mixing formulation. The code for in-bed combustion has been validated for different AFBC unit sizes (0.1, 2, and 20 MW) and different coals (two bituminous and a lignite). Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to identify the controlling variables and guide experimental work. Computer simulations have also been performed to delineate system response to operational parameters.

  2. Performance simulation of fluidized-bed coal combustors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandran, R.R.; Sutherland, D.D. (Babcock Wilcox Company, Alliance, OH (USA))

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A code, referred to as FBCSIM, is being developed to predict large-scale atmospheric fluidized-bed combustor (AFBC) performance with fundamental fuel data from bench-scale test units as input. This work is carried out as a part of AFBC fuels characterization program sponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The code accounts for the physics of fluidization, which is unit specific, and the chemistry of combustion, which is fuel specific. The code includes a 3-D model and modules on bed hydrodynamics, chemical kinetics, solid distribution, and transport phenomena. The model for in-bed combustion incorporates a two-region particle mixing formulation. The code for in-bed combustion has been validated for different AFBC unit sizes (0.1, 2, and 20 MW) and different coals (two bituminous and a lignite). Sensitivity analyses have been carried out to identify the controlling variables and guide experimental work. Computer simulations have also been performed to delineate system response to operational parameters.

  3. Proceedings of Office of Surface Mining Coal Combustion By-product Government/Regulatory Panel: University of Kentucky international ash utilization symposium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vories, K.C. (ed.)

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Short papers are given on: the Coal Combustion Program (C2P2) (J. Glenn); regional environmental concerns with disposal of coal combustion wastes at mines (T. FitzGerald); power plant waste mine filling - an environmental perspective (L.G. Evans); utility industry perspective regarding coal combustion product management and regulation (J. Roewer); coal combustion products opportunities for beneficial use (D.C. Goss); state perspective on mine placement of coal combustion by-products (G.E. Conrad); Texas regulations provide for beneficial use of coal combustion ash (S.S. Ferguson); and the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act - a response to concerns about placement of CCBs at coal mine sites (K.C. Vories). The questions and answers are also included.

  4. Environmental, Economic, and Energy Assessment of the Ultimate Analysis and Moisture Content of Municipal Solid Waste in a Parallel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Pedro J.

    pollution for the co-combustion of coal with MSW using five MSW composition scenarios, four of which were ABSTRACT: Use of municipal solid waste (MSW) as fuel for electricity generation reduces landfill disposal-combustion is a waste-to-energy technology that can use MSW and coal as co-fuels, offering potential energy recovery

  5. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    located in Wyoming using PRB coal. These costs take intolocated in Wyoming using PRB coal and take into account the2007 forecast for coal prices for PRB coal. Transmission We

  6. Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowen, James D.

    Coal Problems 1. Name two examples of clean coal technology and in what manner do they clean the coal? a. Coal Washing- Crushing coal then mixing it with a liquid to allow the impurities to settle. b burning coal altogether. With integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems, steam and hot

  7. Method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yavorsky, Paul M. (Monongahela, PA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of extracting coal from a coal refuse pile comprises soaking the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution and distributing an oxygen-containing gas throughout the coal refuse pile for a time period sufficient to effect oxidation of coal contained in the coal refuse pile. The method further comprises leaching the coal refuse pile with an aqueous alkali solution to solubilize and extract the oxidized coal as alkali salts of humic acids and collecting the resulting solution containing the alkali salts of humic acids. Calcium hydroxide may be added to the solution of alkali salts of humic acid to form precipitated humates useable as a low-ash, low-sulfur solid fuel.

  8. DESULFURIZATION OF COAL MODEL COMPOUNDS AND COAL LIQUIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wrathall, James Anthony

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of coal sulfur K-T gasification process SRC I process U. S.flow sheet of a K-T coal gasification complex for producingProduction via K-T Gasification" © CEP Aug. 78. Feed

  9. Coliquefaction of coal and black liquor to environmentally acceptable liquid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Akash, B.A. [Southern Illinois Univ., Carbondale, IL (United States)

    1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Previous work in the laboratories has demonstrated that addition to lignin to coal during liquefaction significantly increases the depolymerization of coal and enhances the quality of the liquid products. It is believed that thermolysis of the lignin results in the formation of phenoxyl and other reactive radicals at temperatures too low for significant thermolysis of the coal matrix; such radicals are effective and active intermediates that depolymerize coal by cleaving methylene bridges. It has been reported that alkali is also effective for extraction of liquids from coal. The work presented here combines these two reactive agents by utilizing the black liquor waste stream from the Kraft pulping process for coal depolymerization. That waste stream contains large amounts of lignin and sodium hydroxide, as well as other components. To permit comparative evaluations of the extent of coal depolymerization by coprocessing coal and black liquor, reference runs were performed with tetralin alone, sodium hydroxide in tetralin, and lignin in tetralin. Results indicated that the sodium hydroxide-tetralin system resulted in almost 67% conversion at 375 C, 1 hour. The black liquor system exhibited a lower conversion of 60%, indicating some inhibition of the depolymerization reactions by components in the black liquor.

  10. Advanced Coal Wind Hybrid: Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phadke, Amol

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    application of new clean coal technologies with near zeroapplication of new clean coal technologies with near zero

  11. Composition and properties of coals from the Yurty coal occurrence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N.G. Vyazova; L.N. Belonogova; V.P. Latyshev; E.A. Pisar'kova [Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk (Russia). Research Institute of Oil and Coal Chemistry and Synthesis

    2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Coals from the Yurty coal occurrence were studied. It was found that the samples were brown non-coking coals with low sulfur contents (to 1%) and high yields of volatile substances. The high heat value of coals was 20.6-27.7 MJ/kg. The humic acid content varied from 5.45 to 77.62%. The mineral matter mainly consisted of kaolinite, a-quartz, and microcline. The concentration of toxic elements did not reach hazardous values.

  12. Quality characterization of western Cretaceous coal from the Colorado Plateau as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Coal Resource Assessment Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Affolter, R.H.; Brownfield, M.E.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the Colorado Plateau Coal Assessment program is to provide an overview of the geologic setting, distribution, resources, and quality of Cretaceous coal in the Colorado Plateau. This assessment, which is part of the US Geological Survey's National Coal Resource Assessment Program, is different from previous coal assessments in that the major emphasis is placed on coals that are most likely to provide energy over the next few decades. The data is also being collected and stored in digital format that can be updated as new information becomes available. Environmental factors may eventually control how coal will be mined, and determine to what extent measures will be implemented to reduce trace element emissions. In the future, increased emphasis will also be placed on coal combustion products and the challenges of waste product disposal or utilization. Therefore, coal quality characterization is an important aspect of the coal assessment program in that it provides important data that will influence future utilization of this resource. The Colorado Plateau study is being completed in cooperation with the US Bureau of Land Management, US Forest Service, Arizona Geological Survey, Colorado Geological Survey, New Mexico Bureau of Mines and Mineral Resources, and the Utah Geological Survey. Restrictions on coal thickness and overburden will be applied to the resource calculations and the resources will be categorized by land ownership. In some areas these studies will also delineate areas where coal mining may be restricted because of land use, industrial, social, or environmental factors. Emphasis is being placed on areas where the coal is controlled by the Federal Government.

  13. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Interim final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III; Lytle, J.; Frost, R.R.; Lizzio, A.; Kohlenberger, L.; Brewer, K. [Illinois State Geological Survey, Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main purpose of this project is to produce a feedstock from preparation plant fines from an Illinois coal that is ideal for a slurry fed, slagging, entrained-flow coal gasifier. The high sulfur content and high Btu value of Illinois coals are particularly advantageous in such a gasifier; preliminary calculations indicate that the increased cost of removing sulfur from the gas from a high sulfur coal is more than offset by the increased revenue from the sale of the elemental sulfur; additionally the high Btu Illinois coal concentrates more energy into the slurry of a given coal to water ratio. The Btu is higher not only because of the higher Btu value of the coal but also because Illinois coal requires less water to produce a pumpable slurry than western coal, i.e., as little as 30--35% water may be used for Illinois coal as compared to approximately 45% for most western coals. Destec Energy, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Dow Chemical Company, will provide guidelines and test compatibility of the slurries developed for gasification feedstock. Williams Technologies, Inc., will provide their expertise in long distance slurry pumping, and test selected products for viscosity, pumpability, and handleability. The Illinois State Geological Survey will study methods for producing clean coal/water slurries from preparation plant wastes including the concentration of pyritic sulfur into the coal slurry to increase the revenue from elemental sulfur produced during gasification operations, and decrease the pyritic sulfur content of the waste streams. ISGS will also test the gasification reactivity of the coals.

  14. Coal combustion system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkes, Colin (Lebanon, IN); Mongia, Hukam C. (Carmel, IN); Tramm, Peter C. (Indianapolis, IN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a coal combustion system suitable for a gas turbine engine, pulverized coal is transported to a rich zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio exceeding 1 at a temperature above the slagging temperature of the coal so that combustible hot gas and molten slag issue from the rich zone combustor. A coolant screen of water stretches across a throat of a quench stage and cools the combustible gas and molten slag to below the slagging temperature of the coal so that the slag freezes and shatters into small pellets. The pelletized slag is separated from the combustible gas in a first inertia separator. Residual ash is separated from the combustible gas in a second inertia separator. The combustible gas is mixed with secondary air in a lean zone combustor and burned at an equivalence ratio of less than 1 to produce hot gas motive at temperature above the coal slagging temperature. The motive fluid is cooled in a dilution stage to an acceptable turbine inlet temperature before being transported to the turbine.

  15. The Caterpillar Coal Gasification Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welsh, J.; Coffeen, W. G., III

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper is a review of one of America's premier coal gasification installations. The caterpillar coal gasification facility located in York, Pennsylvania is an award winning facility. The plant was recognized as the 'pace setter plant of the year...

  16. Surface Coal Mining Regulations (Mississippi)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Surface Coal Mining Regulations are a combination of permitting requirements and environmental regulations that limit how, where and when coal can be mined. It protects lands that are under...

  17. The world price of coal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ellerman, A. Denny

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A significant increase in the seaborne trade for coal over the past twenty years has unified formerly separate coal markets into a world market in which prices move in tandem. Due to its large domestic market, the United ...

  18. Hydrogen from Coal Edward Schmetz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turbines Carbon Capture & Sequestration Carbon Capture & Sequestration The Hydrogen from Coal Program Cells, Turbines, and Carbon Capture & Sequestration #12;Production Goal for Hydrogen from Coal Central Separation System PSA Membrane Membrane Carbon Sequestration Yes (87%) Yes (100%) Yes (100%) Hydrogen

  19. Montana Coal Mining Code (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Department of Labor and Industry is authorized to adopt rules pertaining to safety standards for all coal mines in the state. The Code requires coal mine operators to make an accurate map or...

  20. 2009 Coal Age Buyers Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The buyers guide lists more than 1200 companies mainly based in the USA, that provide equipment and services to US coal mines and coal preparation plants. The guide is subdivided by product categories.

  1. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Western Energy Company (WECO) was selected by the Department of Energy (DOE) to demonstrate the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) which upgrades low rank coals into high Btu, low sulfur, synthetic bituminous coal. As specified in the Corporate Agreement, RSCP is required to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) which describes in detail the environmental monitoring activities to be performed during the project execution. The purpose of the EMP is to: (1) identify monitoring activities that will be undertaken to show compliance to applicable regulations, (2) confirm the specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act documentation, and (3) establish an information base of the assessment of the environmental performance of the technology demonstrated by the project. The EMP specifies the streams to be monitored (e.g. gaseous, aqueous, and solid waste), the parameters to be measured (e.g. temperature, pressure, flow rate), and the species to be analyzed (e.g. sulfur compounds, nitrogen compounds, trace elements) as well as human health and safety exposure levels. The operation and frequency of the monitoring activities is specified, as well as the timing for the monitoring activities related to project phase (e.g. preconstruction, construction, commissioning, operational, post-operational). The EMP is designed to assess the environmental impacts and the environmental improvements resulting from construction and operation of the project.

  2. Hydroliquefaction of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Morgan C. (Upper Montclair, NJ); Schindler, Harvey D. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Coal is catalytically hydroliquefied by passing coal dispersed in a liquefaction solvent and hydrogen upwardly through a plurality of parallel expanded catalyst beds, in a single reactor, in separate streams, each having a cross-sectional flow area of no greater than 255 inches square, with each of the streams through each of the catalyst beds having a length and a liquid and gas superficial velocity to maintain an expanded catalyst bed and provide a Peclet Number of at least 3. If recycle is employed, the ratio of recycle to total feed (coal and liquefaction solvent) is no greater than 2:1, based on volume. Such conditions provide for improved selectivity to liquid product to thereby reduce hydrogen consumption. The plurality of beds are formed by partitions in the reactor.

  3. Healy Clean Coal Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The Healy Clean Coal Project, selected by the U.S. Department of Energy under Round 111 of the Clean Coal Technology Program, has been constructed and is currently in the Phase 111 Demonstration Testing. The project is owned and financed by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA), and is cofunded by the U.S. Department of Energy. Construction was 100% completed in mid-November of 1997, with coal firing trials starting in early 1998. Demonstration testing and reporting of the results will take place in 1998, followed by commercial operation of the facility. The emission levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur dioxide (S02), and particulate from this 50-megawatt plant are expected to be significantly lower than current standards.

  4. Pyrolysis of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Babu, Suresh P. (Willow Springs, IL); Bair, Wilford G. (Morton Grove, IL)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for mild gasification of crushed coal in a single vertical elongated reaction vessel providing a fluidized bed reaction zone, a freeboard reaction zone, and an entrained reaction zone within the single vessel. Feed coal and gas may be fed separately to each of these reaction zones to provide different reaction temperatures and conditions in each reaction zone. The reactor and process of this invention provides for the complete utilization of a coal supply for gasification including utilization of caking and non-caking or agglomerating feeds in the same reactor. The products may be adjusted to provide significantly greater product economic value, especially with respect to desired production of char having high surface area.

  5. Sustainable development with clean coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the opportunities available with clean coal technologies. Applications include new power plants, retrofitting and repowering of existing power plants, steelmaking, cement making, paper manufacturing, cogeneration facilities, and district heating plants. An appendix describes the clean coal technologies. These include coal preparation (physical cleaning, low-rank upgrading, bituminous coal preparation); combustion technologies (fluidized-bed combustion and NOx control); post-combustion cleaning (particulate control, sulfur dioxide control, nitrogen oxide control); and conversion with the integrated gasification combined cycle.

  6. Ashing properties of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, D.L.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fusion properties of sulfur materials present in coals were investigated. The treatment of the samples of eleven different coals is described. Thermal treatment of low temperature ashing (LTA) concentrates of eight of the coals was performed, and raw and wash ashing curves were examined to determine what quantitative correlations, if any, exist between ashing parameters and rank of coal. The actual form of the function which describes the ashing curve is derived.

  7. Staged fluidized-bed coal combustor for boiler retrofit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rehmat, A. (Institute of Gas Technology, Chicago, IL (United States)); Dorfman, L.; Shibayama, G. (Fluor-Daniels, Inc., Chicago, IL (United States)); Waibel, R. (Zink (J.) and Co., Tulsa, OK (United States))

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Staged Fluidized-Bed Coal Combustion System (ASC) is a novel clean coal technology for either coal-fired repowering of existing boilers or for incremental power generation using combined-cycle gas turbines. This new technology combines staged combustion for gaseous emission control, in-situ sulfur capture, and an ash agglomeration/vitrification process for the agglomeration/vitrification of ash and spent sorbent, thus rendering solid waste environmentally benign. The market for ASC is expected to be for clean coal-fired repowering of generating units up to 250 MW, especially for units where space is limited. The expected tightening of the environmental requirements on leachable solids residue by-products could considerably increase the marketability for ASC. ASC consists of modular low-pressure vessels in which coal is partially combusted and gasified using stacked fluidized-bed processes to produce low-to-medium-Btu, high-temperature gas. This relatively clean fuel gas is used to repower/refuel existing pulverized-coal, natural gas, or oil-fired boilers using bottom firing and reburning techniques. The benefits of ASC coal-fired repowering include the ability to repower boilers without obtaining additional space while meeting the more stringent environmental requirements of the future. Low NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulate levels are expected while a nonleachable solid residue with trace metal encapsulation is produced. ASC also minimizes boiler modification and life-extension expenditures. Repowered efficiencies can be restored to the initial operating plant efficiency, and the existing boiler capacity can be increased by 10%. Preliminary cost estimates indicate that ASC will have up to a $250/kW capital cost advantage over existing coal-fired repowering options. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  8. CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramanian, Venkat

    CONSORTIUM FOR CLEAN COAL UTILIZATION Call for Proposals Date of Issue: July 29, 2013 The Consortium for Clean Coal Utilization (CCCU) at Washington University in St. Louis was established in January of Clean Coal Utilization. The format may be a conference or workshop, or a seminar given by a leading

  9. Clean Coal Power Initiative

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doug Bartlett; Rob James; John McDermott; Neel Parikh; Sanjay Patnaik; Camilla Podowski

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is the fifth quarterly Technical Progress Report submitted by NeuCo, Incorporated, under Award Identification Number, DE-FC26-04NT41768. This award is part of the Clean Coal Power Initiative (''CCPI''), the ten-year, $2B initiative to demonstrate new clean coal technologies in the field. This report is one of the required reports listed in Attachment B Federal Assistance Reporting Checklist, part of the Cooperative Agreement. The report covers the award period January 1, 2006 - March 31, 2006 and NeuCo's efforts within design, development, and deployment of on-line optimization systems during that period.

  10. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  11. Underground coal gasification. Presentations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 8 presentations are: underground coal gasification (UCG) and the possibilities for carbon management (J. Friedmann); comparing the economics of UCG with surface gasification technologies (E. Redman); Eskom develops UCG technology project (C. Gross); development and future of UCG in the Asian region (L. Walker); economically developing vast deep Powder River Basin coals with UCG (S. Morzenti); effectively managing UCG environmental issues (E. Burton); demonstrating modelling complexity of environmental risk management; and UCG research at the University of Queensland, Australia (A.Y. Klimenko).

  12. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742 33 111 1,613 122 40Coal Stocks at1,066,688 760,877 951,322 1,381,127byForms What'sAnnual Coal

  13. Coal-Producing Region

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625govInstrumentstdmadapInactiveVisiting the TWPSuccessAlamosCharacterization2Climate, OceanPublicationandCoal Coal.

  14. Low-rank coal research. Final technical report, April 1, 1988--June 30, 1989, including quarterly report, April--June 1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1989-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is a compilation of reports on ongoing research at the University of North Dakota. Topics include: Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research (SO{sub x}/NO{sub x} control, waste management), Advanced Research and Technology Development (turbine combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation, coal/char reactivity, liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, fine particulate emissions), Combustion Research (fluidized bed combustion, beneficiation of low-rank coals, combustion characterization of low-rank coal fuels, diesel utilization of low-rank coals), Liquefaction Research (low-rank coal direct liquefaction), and Gasification Research (hydrogen production from low-rank coals, advanced wastewater treatment, mild gasification, color and residual COD removal from Synfuel wastewaters, Great Plains Gasification Plant, gasifier optimization).

  15. Coal Gasification Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Recommendations 4.5. Non-Fossil Technologies Non-fossil technologies include nuclear, photovoltaic, solar thermal, biomass IGCC, municipal solid waste, geothermal, wind,...

  16. Fluorine in coal and coal by-products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Hower, J.C. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorine occurs in awe amounts in most coals. It is typically associated with minerals of the apatite group, principally fluorapatite and clays, and with fluorite, tourmaline, topaz, amphiboles and micas. The average fluorine content of US coal is, according to the tabulation of Swanson, 74 {mu}g/g. In the United States, the lowest average fluorine concentration of 30 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Eastern Kentucky and the highest average value of 160 {mu}g/g is found in coals from Wyoming and New Mexico. The concentration range of fluorine in European coals is similar to that found in the US while the average fluorine content of Australian coals ranges from 15 to 500 {mu}g/g. We have determined the fluorine content in coal and fly ash standards by proton-induced gamma ray emission analysis (PIGE).

  17. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  18. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  19. Radioactive Waste Management Information for 1992 and record-to-date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Litteer, D.L.; Randall, V.C.; Sims, A.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on air borne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1992. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  20. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Nonradiological Waste Management Information for 1993 and record to date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sims, A.M.; Taylor, K.A.

    1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1993. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  1. Idaho National Engineering Laboratory Nonradiological Waste Management Information for 1992 and record to date

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randall, V.C.; Sims, A.M.

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides detailed data and graphics on airborne and liquid effluent releases, fuel oil and coal consumption, water usage, and hazardous and mixed waste generated for calendar year 1992. This report summarizes industrial waste data records compiled since 1971 for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The data presented are from the INEL Nonradiological Waste Management Information System.

  2. Establishment, growth and water use of Quercus virginiana (Mill.) on lignite surface-mined soils in response to irrigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duncan, Jacalyn E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 percent slope and an aspect of 95'. The plot location is at latitude 30'35'N and longitude 96 06'W at an elevation of 85 meters. The study site is in the Post Oak Savannah region of Texas which is characterized by gently rolling to hilly... applied to 12 live oak seedlings on reclaimed lignite surface-mined soils in central Texas as a means to study the physiology and growth of seedlings during establishment. The study period was 4 July 1990 through 30 September 1990. Transpiration...

  3. Low-rank coal research, Task 5.1. Topical report, April 1986--December 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a topical progress report for Low-Rank Coal Research performed April 1986 - December 1992. Control Technology and Coal Preparation Research is described for Flue Gas Cleanup, Waste Management, Regional Energy Policy Program for the Northern Great Plains, and Hot-Gas Cleanup. Advanced Research and Technology Development was conducted on Turbine Combustion Phenomena, Combustion Inorganic Transformation (two sections), Liquefaction Reactivity of Low-Rank Coals, Gasification Ash and Slag Characterization, and Coal Science. Combustion Research is described for Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Combustion, Beneficiation of Low-Rank Coals, Combustion Characterization of Low-Rank Fuels (completed 10/31/90), Diesel Utilization of Low-Rank Coals (completed 12/31/90), Produce and Characterize HWD (hot-water drying) Fuels for Heat Engine Applications (completed 10/31/90), Nitrous Oxide Emission, and Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion. Liquefaction Research in Low-Rank Coal Direct Liquefaction is discussed. Gasification Research was conducted in Production of Hydrogen and By-Products from Coals and in Sulfur Forms in Coal.

  4. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  5. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  6. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  7. Catalytic coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, D.; Sunder, S.

    1986-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved process for catalytic solvent refining or hydroliquefaction of non-anthracitic coal at elevated temperatures under hydrogen pressure in a solvent comprises using as catalyst a mixture of a 1,2- or 1,4-quinone and an alkaline compound, selected from ammonium, alkali metal, and alkaline earth metal oxides, hydroxides or salts of weak acids. 1 fig.

  8. Underground Coal Thermal Treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Smith; M. Deo; E. Eddings; A. Sarofim; K. Gueishen; M. Hradisky; K. Kelly; P. Mandalaparty; H. Zhang

    2011-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The long-term objective of this work is to develop a transformational energy production technology by insitu thermal treatment of a coal seam for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) while leaving much of the coalâ??s carbon in the ground. This process converts coal to a high-efficiency, low-GHG emitting gas fuel. It holds the potential of providing environmentally acceptable access to previously unusable coal resources. This topical report discusses the development of experimental capabilities, the collection of available data, and the development of simulation tools to obtain process thermo-chemical and geo-thermal parameters in preparation for the eventual demonstration in a coal seam. It also includes experimental and modeling studies of CO{sub 2} sequestration. Efforts focused on: â?¢ Constructing a suite of three different coal pyrolysis reactors. These reactors offer the ability to gather heat transfer, mass transfer and kinetic data during coal pyrolysis under conditions that mimic in situ conditions (Subtask 6.1). â?¢ Studying the operational parameters for various underground thermal treatment processes for oil shale and coal and completing a design matrix analysis for the underground coal thermal treatment (UCTT). This analysis yielded recommendations for terms of targeted coal rank, well orientation, rubblization, presence of oxygen, temperature, pressure, and heating sources (Subtask 6.2). â?¢ Developing capabilities for simulating UCTT, including modifying the geometry as well as the solution algorithm to achieve long simulation times in a rubblized coal bed by resolving the convective channels occurring in the representative domain (Subtask 6.3). â?¢ Studying the reactive behavior of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with limestone, sandstone, arkose (a more complex sandstone) and peridotite, including mineralogical changes and brine chemistry for the different initial rock compositions (Subtask 6.4). Arkose exhibited the highest tendency of participating in mineral reactions, which can be attributed to the geochemical complexity of its initial mineral assemblage. In experiments with limestone, continuous dissolution was observed with the release of CO{sub 2} gas, indicated by the increasing pressure in the reactor (formation of a gas chamber). This occurred due to the lack of any source of alkali to buffer the solution. Arkose has the geochemical complexity for permanent sequestration of CO{sub 2} as carbonates and is also relatively abundant. The effect of including NH{sub 3} in the injected gas stream was also investigated in this study. Precipitation of calcite and trace amounts of ammonium zeolites was observed. A batch geochemical model was developed using Geochemists Workbench (GWB). Degassing effect in the experiments was corrected using the sliding fugacity model in GWB. Experimental and simulation results were compared and a reasonable agreement between the two was observed.

  9. National Coal Quality Inventory (NACQI)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Finkelman

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) conducted the National Coal Quality Inventory (NaCQI) between 1999 and 2005 to address a need for quality information on coals that will be mined during the next 20-30 years. Collaboration between the USGS, State geological surveys, universities, coal burning utilities, and the coal mining industry plus funding support from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) permitted collection and submittal of coal samples for analysis. The chemical data (proximate and ultimate analyses; major, minor and trace element concentrations) for 729 samples of raw or prepared coal, coal associated shale, and coal combustion products (fly ash, hopper ash, bottom ash and gypsum) from nine coal producing States are included. In addition, the project identified a new coal reference analytical standard, to be designated CWE-1 (West Elk Mine, Gunnison County, Colorado) that is a high-volatile-B or high-volatile-A bituminous coal with low contents of ash yield and sulfur, and very low, but detectable contents of chlorine, mercury and other trace elements.

  10. assessing coal combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  11. advanced coal combustion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  12. apec coal flow: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  13. alkaline coal ash: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  14. advanced slagging coal: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from pulverized coal pulverized-coal-fired furnaces, cyclone furnaces, or advanced clean-coal technology furnaces. The ash collected from pulverized-coal-fired furnaces is fly...

  15. Coal-oil slurry preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pumpable slurry of pulverized coal in a coal-derived hydrocarbon oil carrier which slurry is useful as a low-ash, low-sulfur clean fuel, is produced from a high sulfur-containing coal. The initial pulverized coal is separated by gravity differentiation into (1) a high density refuse fraction containing the major portion of non-coal mineral products and sulfur, (2) a lowest density fraction of low sulfur content and (3) a middlings fraction of intermediate sulfur and ash content. The refuse fraction (1) is gasified by partial combustion producing a crude gas product from which a hydrogen stream is separated for use in hydrogenative liquefaction of the middlings fraction (3). The lowest density fraction (2) is mixed with the liquefied coal product to provide the desired fuel slurry. Preferably there is also separately recovered from the coal liquefaction LPG and pipeline gas.

  16. The reduced environmental liability of clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leslie, A.C.D. [Energetics, Inc., Columbia, MD (United States); McMillen, M. [Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the authors will discuss the waste stream minimization that future commercially operated clean coal technologies can effect. They will explore the ability of these now-beginning-to-mature technologies to reduce those aspects of the emission streams that have greatest potential for what the authors term as environmental liability. Environmental liability is manifested in a variety of forms. There are both current liabilities and future liabilities. In addition, uncertainties may reside in future anticipated regulatory compliance and the costs of such compliance. Exposure to liability translates into perceived risk which creates an air of uncertainty to the power industry and its lenders who provide the capital to build new power plants. In the context of electric power generation, newer, high efficiency power generation technologies developed in the course of the Clean Coal Technology Program of the US Department of Energy result in reduced waste stream emissions when compared against more aging conventional combustion technologies. This paper will discuss how the introduction of new clean coal technologies will help balance the conflict between adverse environmental impact and the global demand for increased energy. The authors will discuss how clean coal technologies will facilitate compliance with future air standards that may otherwise expose power producers to modification and cleanup costs, noncompliance penalties, or premature shut down.

  17. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    coal, lignite, briquettes, and coal slurry. Includes retortlignite, briquettes, and coal slurry. [3] Includes retortlignite, briquettes, and coal slurry. Chapter 7, Imports and

  18. Gasifier feed: Tailor-made from Illinois coals. Technical report, September 1, 1991--November 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehrlinger, H.P. III

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research is to develop a coal slurry from waste streams using Illinois coal that is ideally suited for a gasification feed. The principle items to be studied are (1) methods of concentrating pyrite and decreasing other ash forming minerals into a high grade gasification feed using froth flotation and gravity separation techniques; (2) chemical and particle size analyses of coal slurries; (3) determination of how that slurry can be densified and to what degree of densification is optimum from the pumpability and combustibility analyses; and (4) reactivity studies.

  19. Selenium And Arsenic Speciation in Fly Ash From Full-Scale Coal-Burning Utility Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huggins, F.E.; Senior, C.L.; Chu, P.; Ladwig, K.; Huffman, G.P.; /Kentucky U. /Reaction Engin. Int. /Elect. Power Res. Inst., Palo Alto

    2007-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy has been used to determine directly the oxidation states and speciation of selenium and arsenic in 10 fly ash samples collected from full-scale utility plants. Such information is needed to assess the health risk posed by these elements in fly ash and to understand their behavior during combustion and in fly ash disposal options, such as sequestration in tailings ponds. Selenium is found predominantly as Se(IV) in selenite (SeO{sub 3}{sup 2-}) species, whereas arsenic is found predominantly as As(V) in arsenate (AsO{sub 4}{sup 3-}) species. Two distinct types of selenite and arsenate spectra were observed depending upon whether the fly ash was derived from eastern U.S. bituminous (Fe-rich) coals or from western subbituminous or lignite (Ca-rich) coals. Similar spectral details were observed for both arsenic and selenium in the two different types of fly ash, suggesting that the post-combustion behavior and capture of both of these elements are likely controlled by the same dominant element or phase in each type of fly ash.

  20. Eight Advanced Coal Projects Chosen for Further Development by DOE's University Coal Research Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has selected eight new projects to further advanced coal research under the University Coal Research Program. The selected projects will improve coal conversion and use and will help propel technologies for future advanced coal power systems.

  1. Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal. Semi-annual report, January--June 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Summaries of progress on the following tasks are presented: Mixed waste treatment; Hot water extraction of nonpolar organic pollutant from soils; Aqueous phase thermal oxidation wastewater treatment; Review of results from comprehensive characterization of air toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants; Air toxic fine particulate control; Effectiveness of sorbents for trace elements; Catalyst for utilization of methane in selective catalytic reduction of NOx; Fuel utilization properties; Hot gas cleaning; PFBC; catalytic tar cracking; sulfur forms in coal; resid and bitumen desulfurization; biodesulfurization; diesel fuel desulfurization; stability issues; Sorbent carbon development; Evaluation of carbon products; Stable and supercritical chars; Briquette binders; Carbon molecular sieves; Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent; Development of a coal by-product classification protocol for utilization; Use of coal ash in recycled plastics and composite materials; Corrosion of advanced structural materials; Joining of advanced structural materials; Resource data evaluation; and the Usti and Labem (Czech Republic) coal-upgrading program.

  2. Moist caustic leaching of coal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nowak, Michael A. (Elizabeth, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for reducing the sulfur and ash content of coal. Particulate coal is introduced into a closed heated reaction chamber having an inert atmosphere to which is added 50 mole percent NaOH and 50 mole percent KOH moist caustic having a water content in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and in a caustic to coal weight ratio of about 5 to 1. The coal and moist caustic are kept at a temperature of about 300.degree. C. Then, water is added to the coal and caustic mixture to form an aqueous slurry, which is washed with water to remove caustic from the coal and to produce an aqueous caustic solution. Water is evaporated from the aqueous caustic solution until the water is in the range of from about 15% by weight to about 35% by weight and is reintroduced to the closed reaction chamber. Sufficient acid is added to the washed coal slurry to neutralize any remaining caustic present on the coal, which is thereafter dried to produce desulfurized coal having not less than about 90% by weight of the sulfur present in the coal feed removed and having an ash content of less than about 2% by weight.

  3. Production of New Biomass/Waste-Containing Solid Fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glenn A. Shirey; David J. Akers

    2005-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    CQ Inc. and its industry partners--PBS Coals, Inc. (Friedens, Pennsylvania), American Fiber Resources (Fairmont, West Virginia), Allegheny Energy Supply (Williamsport, Maryland), and the Heritage Research Group (Indianapolis, Indiana)--addressed the objectives of the Department of Energy and industry to produce economical, new solid fuels from coal, biomass, and waste materials that reduce emissions from coal-fired boilers. This project builds on the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production. The electric utility industry is interested in the use of biomass and wastes as fuel to reduce both emissions and fuel costs. In addition to these benefits, utilities also recognize the business advantage of consuming the waste byproducts of customers both to retain customers and to improve the public image of the industry. Unfortunately, biomass and waste byproducts can be troublesome fuels because of low bulk density, high moisture content, variable composition, handling and feeding problems, and inadequate information about combustion and emissions characteristics. Current methods of co-firing biomass and wastes either use a separate fuel receiving, storage, and boiler feed system, or mass burn the biomass by simply mixing it with coal on the storage pile. For biomass or biomass-containing composite fuels to be extensively used in the U.S., especially in the steam market, a lower cost method of producing these fuels must be developed that is applicable to a variety of combinations of biomass, wastes, and coal; economically competitive with current fuels; and provides environmental benefits compared with coal. During Phase I of this project (January 1999 to July 2000), several biomass/waste materials were evaluated for potential use in a composite fuel. As a result of that work and the team's commercial experience in composite fuels for energy production, paper mill sludge and coal were selected for further evaluation and demonstration in Phase II. In Phase II (June 2001 to December 2004), the project team demonstrated the GranuFlow technology as part of a process to combine paper sludge and coal to produce a composite fuel with combustion and handling characteristics acceptable to existing boilers and fuel handling systems. Bench-scale studies were performed at DOE-NETL, followed by full-scale commercial demonstrations to produce the composite fuel in a 400-tph coal cleaning plant and combustion tests at a 90-MW power plant boiler to evaluate impacts on fuel handling, boiler operations and performance, and emissions. A circuit was successfully installed to re-pulp and inject paper sludge into the fine coal dewatering circuit of a commercial coal-cleaning plant to produce 5,000 tons of a ''composite'' fuel containing about 5% paper sludge. Subsequent combustion tests showed that boiler efficiency and stability were not compromised when the composite fuel was blended with the boiler's normal coal supply. Firing of the composite fuel blend did not have any significant impact on emissions as compared to the normal coal supply, and it did not cause any excursions beyond Title V regulatory limits; all emissions were well within regulatory limits. SO{sub 2} emissions decreased during the composite fuel blend tests as a result of its higher heat content and slightly lower sulfur content as compared to the normal coal supply. The composite fuel contained an extremely high proportion of fines because the parent coal (feedstock to the coal-cleaning plant) is a ''soft'' coal (HGI > 90) and contained a high proportion of fines. The composite fuel was produced and combustion-tested under record wet conditions for the local area. In spite of these conditions, full load was obtained by the boiler when firing the composite fuel blend, and testing was completed without any handling or combustion problems beyond those typically associated with wet coal. Fuel handling and pulverizer performance (mill capacity and outlet temperatures) could become greater concerns when firing composite fuels which contain higher percent

  4. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beeson, Justin L. (Woodridge, IL)

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  5. High-sulfur coals in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hower, J.C.; Graham, U.M. (Univ. of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY (United States)); Eble, C.F. (Kentucky Geological Survey, Lexington, KY (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Eastern Kentucky coal field is notable for relatively low-sulfur, [open quotes]compliance[close quotes] coals. Virtually all of the major coals in this area do have regions in which higher sulfur lithotypes are common, if not dominant, within the lithologic profile. Three Middle Pennsylvanian coals, each representing a major resource, exemplify this. The Clintwood coal bed is the stratigraphically lowest coal bed mined throughout the coal field. In Whitley County, the sulfur content increase from 0.6% at the base to nearly 12% in the top lithotype. Pyrite in the high-sulfur lithotype is a complex mixture of sub- to few-micron syngenetic forms and massive epigenetic growths. The stratigraphically higher Pond Creek coal bed is extensively mined in portions of the coal field. Although generally low in sulfur, in northern Pike and southern Martin counties the top one-third can have up to 6% sulfur. Uniformly low-sulfur profiles can occur within a few hundred meters of high-sulfur coal. Pyrite occurs as 10-50 [mu]m euhedra and coarser massive forms. In this case, sulfur distribution may have been controlled by sandstone channels in the overlying sediments. High-sulfur zones in the lower bench of the Fire Clay coal bed, the stratigraphically highest coal bed considered here, are more problematical. The lower bench, which is of highly variable thickness and quality, generally is overlain by a kaolinitic flint clay, the consequence of a volcanic ash fall into the peat swamp. In southern Perry and Letcher counties, a black, illite-chlorite clay directly overlies the lower bench. General lack of lateral continuity of lithotypes in the lower bench suggests that the precursor swamp consisted of discontinuous peat-forming environments that were spatially variable and regularly inundated by sediments. Some of the peat-forming areas may have been marshlike in character.

  6. Western Coal/Great Lakes Alternative export-coal conference

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference dealt with using the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway as an alternative to the East and Gulf Coasts for the exporting of coal to Europe and the potential for a piece of the European market for the subbituminous coals of Montana and Wyoming. The topics discussed included: government policies on coal exports; the coal reserves of Montana; cost of rail transport from Western mines to Lake Superior; the planning, design, and operation of the Superior Midwest Energy Terminal at Superior, Wisconsin; direct transfer of coal from self-unloading lakers to large ocean vessels; concept of total transportation from mines to users; disadvantage of a nine month season on the Great Lakes; costs of maritime transport of coal through the Great Lakes to Europe; facilities at the ice-free, deep water port at Sept Iles; the use of Western coals from an environmental and economic viewpoint; the properties of Western coal and factors affecting its use; the feasibility of a slurry pipeline from the Powder River Basin to Lake Superior; a systems analysis of the complete hydraulic transport of coal from the mine to users in Europe; the performance of the COJA mill-burner for the combustion of superfine coal; demand for steam coal in Western Europe; and the effect the New Source Performance Standards will have on the production and use of Western coal. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 19 papers for the Energy Data Base (EDB); 17 will appear in Energy Research Abstracts (ERA) and 11 in Energy Abstracts for Policy Analysis (EAPA). (CKK)

  7. Autothermal coal gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Konkol, W.; Ruprecht, P.; Cornils, B.; Duerrfeld, R.; Langhoff, J.

    1982-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents test results of a pilot plant study of coal gasification system based on the process developed by Texaco. This process has been improved by the project partners Ruhrchenie A.G. and Ruhrkohle A.C. in West Germany and tested in a demonstration plant that operated for more than 10,000 hours, converting over 50,000 tons of coal into gas. The aim was to develop a process that would be sufficiently flexible when used at the commercial level to incorporate all of the advantages inherent in the diverse processes of the 'first generation' - fixed bed, fluidized bed and entrained bed processes - but would be free of the disadvantages of these processes. Extensive test results are tabulated and evaluated. Forecast for future development is included. 5 refs.

  8. Flotation and flocculation chemistry of coal and oxidized coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Somasundaran, P.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research project is to understand the fundamentals involved in the flotation and flocculation of coal and oxidized coals and elucidate mechanisms by which surface interactions between coal and various reagents enhance coal beneficiation. An understanding of the nature of the heterogeneity of coal surfaces arising from the intrinsic distribution of chemical moieties is fundamental to the elucidation of mechanism of coal surface modification and its role in interfacial processes such as flotation, flocculation and agglomeration. A new approach for determining the distribution in surface properties of coal particles was developed in this study and various techniques capable of providing such information were identified. Distributions in surface energy, contact angle and wettability were obtained using novel techniques such as centrifugal immersion and film flotation. Changes in these distributions upon oxidation and surface modifications were monitored and discussed. An approach to the modelling of coal surface site distributions based on thermodynamic information obtained from gas adsorption and immersion calorimetry is proposed. Polyacrylamide and dodecane was used to alter the coal surface. Methanol adsorption was also studied. 62 figs.

  9. Future Impacts of Coal Distribution Constraints on Coal Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCollum, David L

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    21 Figure 6: Map of PRB coal mines serviced by the BNSF-UPPRB.of the Powder River Basin (PRB) in Wyoming. Although traffic

  10. Coal Bed Methane Primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dan Arthur; Bruce Langhus; Jon Seekins

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    During the second half of the 1990's Coal Bed Methane (CBM) production increased dramatically nationwide to represent a significant new source of income and natural gas for many independent and established producers. Matching these soaring production rates during this period was a heightened public awareness of environmental concerns. These concerns left unexplained and under-addressed have created a significant growth in public involvement generating literally thousands of unfocused project comments for various regional NEPA efforts resulting in the delayed development of public and fee lands. The accelerating interest in CBM development coupled to the growth in public involvement has prompted the conceptualization of this project for the development of a CBM Primer. The Primer is designed to serve as a summary document, which introduces and encapsulates information pertinent to the development of Coal Bed Methane (CBM), including focused discussions of coal deposits, methane as a natural formed gas, split mineral estates, development techniques, operational issues, producing methods, applicable regulatory frameworks, land and resource management, mitigation measures, preparation of project plans, data availability, Indian Trust issues and relevant environmental technologies. An important aspect of gaining access to federal, state, tribal, or fee lands involves education of a broad array of stakeholders, including land and mineral owners, regulators, conservationists, tribal governments, special interest groups, and numerous others that could be impacted by the development of coal bed methane. Perhaps the most crucial aspect of successfully developing CBM resources is stakeholder education. Currently, an inconsistent picture of CBM exists. There is a significant lack of understanding on the parts of nearly all stakeholders, including industry, government, special interest groups, and land owners. It is envisioned the Primer would being used by a variety of stakeholders to present a consistent and complete synopsis of the key issues involved with CBM. In light of the numerous CBM NEPA documents under development this Primer could be used to support various public scoping meetings and required public hearings throughout the Western States in the coming years.

  11. Exploration for deep coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The most important factor in safe mining is the quality of the roof. The article explains how the Rosebud Mining Co. conducts drilling and exploration in 11 deep coal mine throughout Pennsylvania and Ohio. Rosebud uses two Atlas Copco CS10 core drilling rigs mounted on 4-wheel drive trucks. The article first appeared in Atlas Copco's in-house magazine, Deep Hole Driller. 3 photos.

  12. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: catalog of bituminous coals and site selection. Appendix A. National coal resource data system: Ecoal, Wcoal, and Bmalyt. Final report, Phase I. [Bituminous coal; by state; coal seam depth and thickness; identification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1982-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Appendix A is a catalog of the bituminous coal in 29 states of the contiguous United States which contain identified bituminous coal resources.

  13. Milliken Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project. Project performance summary, Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2002-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The New York State Electric & Gas Corporation (NYSEG) demonstrated a combination of technologies at its Milliken Station in Lansing, New York, designed to: (1) achieve high sulfur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency, (2) bring nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions into compliance with Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), (3) maintain high station efficiency, and (4) eliminate waste water discharge. This project is part of the U.S. Department of Energy?s (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCTDP) established to address energy and environmental concerns related to coal use. DOE sought cost-shared partnerships with industry through five nationally competed solicitations to accelerate commercialization of the most promising advance coal-based power generation and pollution control technologies. The CCTDP, valued at over five billion dollars, has significantly leveraged federal funding by forging effective partnerships founded on sound principles. For every federal dollar invested, CCTDP participants have invested two dollars. These participants include utilities, technology developers, state governments, and research organizations. The project presented here was one of nine selected in January 1991 from 33 proposals submitted in response to the program?s fourth solicitation.

  14. Iron catalyzed coal liquefaction process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garg, Diwakar (Macungie, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process is described for the solvent refining of coal into a gas product, a liquid product and a normally solid dissolved product. Particulate coal and a unique co-catalyst system are suspended in a coal solvent and processed in a coal liquefaction reactor, preferably an ebullated bed reactor. The co-catalyst system comprises a combination of a stoichiometric excess of iron oxide and pyrite which reduce predominantly to active iron sulfide catalysts in the reaction zone. This catalyst system results in increased catalytic activity with attendant improved coal conversion and enhanced oil product distribution as well as reduced sulfide effluent. Iron oxide is used in a stoichiometric excess of that required to react with sulfur indigenous to the feed coal and that produced during reduction of the pyrite catalyst to iron sulfide.

  15. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MEIYU SHEN; ROYCE ABBOTT; T.D. WHEELOCK

    1998-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The agglomeration of ultrafine-size coal particles in an aqueous suspension by means of microscopic gas bubbles was demonstrated in numerous experiments with a scale model mixing system. Coal samples from both the Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam and the Upper Freeport Seam were used for these experiments. A small amount of i-octane was added to facilitate the process. Microscopic gas bubbles were generated by saturating the water used for suspending coal particles with gas under pressure and then reducing the pressure. Microagglomerates were produced which appeared to consist of gas bubbles encapsulated in coal particles. Since dilute particle suspensions were employed, it was possible to monitor the progress of agglomeration by observing changes in turbidity. By such means it became apparent that the rate of agglomeration depends on the concentration of microscopic gas bubbles and to a lesser extent on the concentration of i-octane. Similar results were obtained with both Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and Upper Freeport coal.

  16. thermochemical conversion (TCC) process of swine manure as an alternative means of waste

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Brian

    substantially reduce the waste strength of swine manure slurry but also produce renewable energy. The end was historically linked to hydrogenation and other high-pressure thermal decomposition processes of coal

  17. Evaluation of Industrial Energy Options for Cogeneration, Waste Heat Recovery and Alternative Fuel Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hencey, S.; Hinkle, B.; Limaye, D. R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the energy options available to Missouri industrial firms in the areas of cogeneration, waste heat recovery, and coal and alternative fuel utilization. The project, being performed by Synergic Resources Corporation...

  18. Trace-element geochemistry of coal resource development related to environmental quality and health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report assesses for decision makers and those involved in coal resource development the environmental and health impacts of trace-element effects arising from significant increases in the use of coal, unless unusual precautions are invoked. Increasing demands for energy and the pressing need for decreased dependence of the United States on imported oil require greater use of coal to meet the nation's energy needs during the next decade. If coal production and consumption are increased at a greatly accelerated rate, concern arises over the release, mobilization, transportation, distribution, and assimilation of certain trace elements, with possible adverse effects on the environment and human health. It is, therefore, important to understand their geochemical pathways from coal and rocks via air, water, and soil to plants, animals, and ultimately humans, and their relation to health and disease. To address this problem, the Panel on Trace Element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Health (PECH) was established. Certain assumptions were made by the Panel to highlight the central issues of trace elements and health and to avoid unwarranted duplication of other studies. Based on the charge to the Panel and these assumptions, this report describes the amounts and distribution of trace elements related to the coal source; the various methods of coal extraction, preparation, transportation, and use; and the disposal or recycling of the remaining residues or wastes. The known or projected health effects are discussed at the end of each section.

  19. Transporting export coal from Appalachia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This publication is part of a series titled Market Guide for Steam Coal Exports from Appalachia. It focuses on the transportation link in the steam-coal supply chain, enabling producers to further assess their transportation options and their ability to compete in the export-coal marketplace. Transportation alternatives and handling procedures are discussed, and information is provided on the costs associated with each element in the transportation network.

  20. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.C.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this proposed research are to refine further the inverse liquid chromatography technique for the study of surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals in water, to evaluate relatively surface properties of raw coals, treated coals and coal minerals by inverse liquid chromatography, and to evaluate floatability of various treated coals in conjunction with surface properties of coals. Alcohols such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, isobutanol, tert-butanol, heptanol, 1-hexadecanol, 2-methyl-pentanol, 4-methyl-2-penthanol (methylisobutyl carbinol), n-octanol, s-octanol, and cyclohexanol as probe compounds are utilized to evaluate hydrophilicity of coals and coal minerals. N-alkanes such as hexane, heptane and octane, and stearic acid are employed as probe compounds to evaluate hydrophobicity of coals and coal minerals. Aromatic compounds such as benzene and toluene as probe compounds are used to examine aromaticity of coal surface. Aromatic acids such as o-cresol, m-cresol, p-cresol, phenol and B-naphthol are used to detect aromatic acidic sites of coal surface. Hydrophilicity, hydrophobicity and aromaticity of surfaces for either raw coals or treated coals in water are relatively determined by evaluating both equilibrium physical/chemical adsorption and dynamic adsorption of probe compounds on various raw coals and treated coals to compare affinities of coals for water.