National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lignite coke coke

  1. Investigation of bonding mechanism of coking on semi-coke from lignite with pitch and tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vedat Arslan [Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty

    2006-10-15

    In coking, the bonding ability of inert macerals by reactive macerals is dependent on various parameters and also is related to the wettability of the inert macerals. In this study, the effect of carbonization temperature on the wettability of semi-cokes produced at various temperatures has been investigated. Soma and Yatagan semicokes represent inert macerals, and pitch was used as a reactive structure in the experiments. The briquetted pitch blocks were located on the semi-cokes and heated from the softening temperature of pitch (60{sup o}C) to 140{sup o}C to observe the wettability. In addition, liquid tar was also used to determine the wettability of semi-cokes. From the standpoint of wettability, the temperature of 900{sup o}C was determined to be the critical point for coke produced from sub-bituminous coals. 15 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Blast furnace coke quality in relation to petroleum coke addition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarez, R.; Diez, M.A.; Menendez, J.A.; Barriocanal, C.; Pis, J.J. [CSIC, Oviedo (Spain). Inst. Nacional del Carbon; Sirgado, M. [ENSIDESA, Aviles (Spain)

    1995-12-01

    The incorporation of petroleum coke as an additive in industrial coking coal blends is a practice often used by steel companies. A suitable blast furnace coke produced by replacing part of the coking coal blend with a suitable petroleum coke (addition of 5 to 15%), was made by Great Lakes Carbon Corporation and successfully tested at several blast furnaces. This coke had lower reactivity, less ash and slightly higher sulfur content than coke made without the addition of petroleum coke. In contrast with these results, it has been reported in a BCRA study that additions of petroleum coke to a strong coking coal, above 5 wt%, increased coke reactivity. These differences may be explained on the basis of the coal or blend characteristics to which petroleum coke is added. Petroleum coke addition seems to give better results if the coal/blend has high fluidity. The present situation in Spain is favorable for the use of petroleum coke. So, a study of laboratory and semi-industrial scale was made to assess the possibility of using petroleum coke as an additive to the typical industrial coal blend coked by the Spanish Steel Company, ENSIDESA. The influence of the petroleum coke particle size was also studied to semi-industrial scale.

  3. Western Canadian coking coals -- Thermal rheology and coking quality

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeder, W.R. [Teck Corp. (Canada); Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F. [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    Methods of predicting coke strength developed from the thermal rheological properties of Carboniferous coals frequently indicate that Cretaceous coals would not make high quality coke -- yet both types of coals produce coke suitable for the iron blast furnace. This paper will discuss the reasons why Western Canadian coals exhibit lower rheological values and how to predict the strength of coke produced from them.

  4. Richard Coke Building 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Unknown

    2011-08-17

    ir.on and steel sector. GroBs Energy Consumption Fuel Type (10 12 Btu/yr) Coal 1,824.9 Tar and Pitch 5.4 Coke 177 .9 Coke Oven Gas 3.6 Natural Gas 659.2 Middle Disti.llate Fuels 13.5 Residual Fuel Oil 206.5 Liquid Petroleum Cas 1... sector fol owed by aluminum and copper. 4.1.1 Iron and Steel Table 3 shows energy use in the steel sector to be about 3.4 quad with over 50% accounted for by coal. Major energy consuming proc ss steps include coke ovens, bl st furnaces...

  5. Coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank F. (Baytown, TX)

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  6. High coking value pitch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Douglas J.; Chang, Ching-Feng; Lewis, Irwin C.; Lewis, Richard T.

    2014-06-10

    A high coking value pitch prepared from coal tar distillate and has a low softening point and a high carbon value while containing substantially no quinoline insolubles is disclosed. The pitch can be used as an impregnant or binder for producing carbon and graphite articles.

  7. COKEMASTER: Coke plant management system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johanning, J.; Reinke, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    To keep coke utilization in ironmaking as competitive as possible, the potential to improve the economics of coke production has to be utilized. As one measure to meet this need of its customers, Krupp Koppers has expanded its existing ECOTROL computer system for battery heating control to a comprehensive Coke Plant Management System. Increased capacity utilization, lower energy consumption, stabilization of plant operation and ease of operation are the main targets.

  8. Design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant, Poland

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.M. Kravchenko; D.P. Yarmoshik; V.B. Kamenyuka; G.E. Kos'kova; N.I. Shkol'naya; V.V. Derevich; A.S. Grankin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In the design and construction of coke battery 1A at Radlin coke plant (Poland), coking of rammed coke with a stationary system was employed for the first time. The coke batteries are grouped in blocks. Safety railings are provided on the coke and machine sides of the maintenance areas.

  9. Coke from coal and petroleum

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wynne, Jr., Francis E. (Allison Park, PA); Lopez, Jaime (Pittsburgh, PA); Zaborowsky, Edward J. (Harwick, PA)

    1981-01-01

    A carbonaceous coke is manufactured by the delayed coking of a slurry mixture of from about 10 to about 30 weight percent of caking or non-caking coal and the remainder a petroleum resid blended at below 50.degree. C.

  10. Petroleum Coke: A Viable Fuel for Cogeneration 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dymond, R. E.

    1992-01-01

    VIABLE FUEL FOR COGENERATION RAYMOND E. DYMOND, DIRECTOR-PETROLEUM COKE, THE PACE CONSULTANTS, INC., HOUSTON, TEXAS OVERVIEW Petroleum coke is a by-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual oils into higher...-product of the coking process which upgrades (converts) low-valued residual oils into higher-valued transportation, heating and industrial fuels. Within the petroleum refining industry there are three different types of coking processes-

  11. New coke-sorting system at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.Kh. Bulaevskii; V.S. Shved; Yu.V. Kalimin; S.D. Filippov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    A new coke-sorting system has been introduced at OAO Koks. It differs from the existing system in that it has no bunkers for all-purpose coke but only bunkers for commercial coke. In using this system with coke from battery 4, the crushing of the coke on conveyer belts, at roller screens, and in the commercial-coke bunkers is studied. After installing braking elements in the coke path, their effectiveness in reducing coke disintegration and improving coke screening is investigated. The granulometric composition and strength of the commercial coke from coke battery 3, with the new coke-sorting system, is evaluated.

  12. Trends in the automation of coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; K.G. Lavrov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Up-to-date mathematical methods, such as correlation analysis and expert systems, are employed in creating a model of the coking process. Automatic coking-control systems developed by Giprokoks rule out human error. At an existing coke battery, after introducing automatic control, the heating-gas consumption is reduced by {>=}5%.

  13. New technology suppresses coke dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A brief account is given of the technique of electrostatic fogging which has been tested successfully at a Canadian steel mill to control coke dust in the respirable size range. A spray of very fine droplets (<10 MUm) has an electrostatic charge imparted to each droplet. The spray of electrostatically-charged fog suppresses the dust by a combination of scrubbing and electrostatic attraction.

  14. Clean Production of Coke from Carbonaceous Fines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig N. Eatough

    2004-11-16

    In order to produce steel (a necessary commodity in developed nations) using conventional technologies, you must have metallurgical coke. Current coke-making technology pyrolyzes high-quality coking coals in a slot oven, but prime coking coals are becoming more expensive and slot ovens are being shut-down because of age and environmental problems. The United States typically imports about 4 million tons of coke per year, but because of a world-wide coke scarcity, metallurgical coke costs have risen from about $77 per tonne to more than $225. This coke shortage is a long-term challenge driving up the price of steel and is forcing steel makers to search for alternatives. Combustion Resources (CR) has developed a technology to produce metallurgical coke from alternative feedstocks in an environmentally clean manner. The purpose of the current project was to refine material and process requirements in order to achieve improved economic benefits and to expand upon prior work on the proposed technology through successful prototype testing of coke products. The ultimate objective of this project is commercialization of the proposed technology. During this project period, CR developed coke from over thirty different formulations that meet the strength and reactivity requirements for use as metallurgical coke. The technology has been termed CR Clean Coke because it utilizes waste materials as feedstocks and is produced in a continuous process where pollutant emissions can be significantly reduced compared to current practice. The proposed feed material and operating costs for a CR Clean Coke plant are significantly less than conventional coke plants. Even the capital costs for the proposed coke plant are about half that of current plants. The remaining barrier for CR Clean Coke to overcome prior to commercialization is full-scale testing in a blast furnace. These tests will require a significant quantity of product (tens of thousands of tons) necessitating the construction of a demonstration facility. Talks are currently underway with potential partners and investors to build a demonstration facility that will generate enough coke for meaningful blast furnace evaluation tests. If the testing is successful, CR Clean Coke could potentially eliminate the need for the United States to import any coke, effectively decreasing US Steel industry dependence on foreign nations and reducing the price of domestic steel.

  15. Mathematical modeling of clearance between wall of coke oven and coke cake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nushiro, K.; Matsui, T.; Hanaoka, K.; Igawa, K.; Sorimachi, K.

    1995-12-01

    A mathematical model was developed for estimating the clearance between the wall of the coke oven and the coke cake. The prediction model is based on the balance between the contractile force and the coking pressure. A clearance forms when the contractile force exceeds the coking pressure in this model. The contractile force is calculated in consideration of the visco-elastic behavior of the thermal shrinkage of the coke. The coking pressure is calculated considering the generation and dispersion of gas in the melting layer. The relaxation time off coke used in this model was obtained with a dilatometer under the load application. The clearance was measured by the laser sensor, and the internal gas pressure was measured in a test oven. The clearance calculated during the coking process were in good agreement with the experimental results, which supported the validity of the mathematical model.

  16. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  17. Collector main replacement at Indianapolis Coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sickle, R.R. Van

    1997-12-31

    Indianapolis Coke is a merchant coke producer, supplying both foundry and blast furnace coke to the industry. The facility has three coke batteries: two 3 meter batteries, one Wilputte four divided and one Koppers Becker. Both batteries are underjet batteries and are producing 100% foundry coke at a net coking time of 30.6 hours. This paper deals with the No. 1 coke battery, which is a 72 oven, gun fired, 5 meter Still battery. No. 1 battery produces both foundry and blast furnace coke at a net coking rate of 25.4 hours. No. 1 battery was commissioned in 1979. The battery is equipped with a double collector main. Although many renovations have been completed to the battery, oven machinery and heating system, to date no major construction projects have taken place. Deterioration of the collector main was caused in part from elevated levels of chlorides in the flushing liquor, and temperature fluctuations within the collector main. The repair procedures are discussed.

  18. Factors affecting coking pressures in tall coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimley, J.J.; Radley, C.E. [British Steel plc, Scunthorpe (United Kingdom). Scunthorpe Works

    1995-12-01

    The detrimental effects of excessive coking pressures, resulting in the permanent deformation of coke oven walls, have been recognized for many years. Considerable research has been undertaken worldwide in attempts to define the limits within which a plant may safely operate and to quantify the factors which influence these pressures. Few full scale techniques are available for assessing the potential of a coal blend for causing wall damage. Inference of dangerous swelling pressures may be made however by the measurement of the peak gas pressure which is generated as the plastic layers meet and coalesce at the center of the oven. This pressure is referred to in this report as the carbonizing pressure. At the Dawes Lane cokemaking plant of British Steel`s Scunthorpe Works, a large database has been compiled over several years from the regulator measurement of this pressure. This data has been statistically analyzed to provide a mathematical model for predicting the carbonizing pressure from the properties of the component coals, the results of this analysis are presented in this report.

  19. Coke formation in visbreaking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, T.Y. )

    1987-04-01

    Visbreaking is a mild cracking process primarily used to reduce residual oil viscosity and thus decrease the amount of cutter stock required for blending to heavy fuels specification. It can also be used to produce incremental quantities of gasoline, middle distillates and catalytic cracker feeds. This process was widely used in the 1930s and 1940s and became obsolete until a few years ago. When the need for increased conversion of residues to light products became desirable, visbreaking offered economic advantages to many refining schemes - especially in Western Europe. Between 1978-1981, Exxon brought on stream seven visbreakers ranging from 1900 to 9100 tons/SD capacity. In January 1983, the world-wide visbreaking capacity was over 2 MM B/SD. The visbreaking process and its application in refinery operations have been well described. In general, the process economics improve as the process severity is increased but it is limited by coke formation in the process. For this reason, they have studied the kinetics of coke formation in the visbreaking process.

  20. Simulation of industrial coking -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todoschuk, T.W.; Price, J.T.; Gransden, J.F.

    1997-12-31

    Two statistically designed experimental programs using an Appalachian and a Western Canadian coal blend were run in CANMET`s 460mm (18 inch) movable wall oven. Factors included coal grind, moisture, oil addition, carbonization rate and final coke temperature. Coke quality parameters including CSR, coal charge characteristics and pressure generation were analyzed.

  1. Coke oven gas injection to blast furnaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena, F.L.; Terza, R.R.; Sobek, T.F.; Myklebust, K.L. [U.S. Steel, Clairton, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    U.S. Steel has three major facilities remaining in Pennsylvania`s Mon Valley near Pittsburgh. The Clairton Coke Works operates 12 batteries which produce 4.7 million tons of coke annually. The Edgar Thomson Works in Braddock is a 2.7 million ton per year steel plant. Irvin Works in Dravosburg has a hot strip mill and a range of finishing facilities. The coke works produces 120 mmscfd of coke oven gas in excess of the battery heating requirements. This surplus gas is used primarily in steel re-heating furnaces and for boiler fuel to produce steam for plant use. In conjunction with blast furnace gas, it is also used for power generation of up to 90 MW. However, matching the consumption with the production of gas has proved to be difficult. Consequently, surplus gas has been flared at rates of up to 50 mmscfd, totaling 400 mmscf in several months. By 1993, several changes in key conditions provided the impetus to install equipment to inject coke oven gas into the blast furnaces. This paper describes the planning and implementation of a project to replace natural gas in the furnaces with coke oven gas. It involved replacement of 7 miles of pipeline between the coking plants and the blast furnaces, equipment capable of compressing coke oven gas from 10 to 50 psig, and installation of electrical and control systems to deliver gas as demanded.

  2. New designs in the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.S. Larin; V.V. Demenko; V.L. Voitanik [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    In recent Giprokoks designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems, high-productivity vibrational-inertial screens have been employed. This permits single-stage screening and reduction in capital and especially operating expenditures, without loss of coke quality. In two-stage screening, >80 mm coke (for foundry needs) is additionally separated, with significant improvement in quality of the metallurgical coke (25-80 mm). New designs for the reconstruction of coke-sorting systems employ mechanical treatment of the coke outside the furnace, which offers new scope for stabilization of coke quality and permits considerable improvement in mechanical strength and granulometric composition of the coke by mechanical crushing.

  3. Delayed coking of decant oil and coal in a laboratory-scale coking unit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oemer Guel; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University Park, PA (United States). Energy Institute, C205 Coal Utilization Laboratory

    2006-08-15

    In this paper, we describe the development of a laboratory-scale delayed coker and present results of an investigation on the recovered liquid from the coking of decant oil and decant oil/coal mixtures. Using quantitative gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS) and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR, a study was made of the chemical composition of the distillate liquids isolated from the overheads collected during the coking and co-coking process. {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR analyses of combined liquids from coking and co-coking did not show any substantial differences. These NMR results of coking and co-coking liquids agree with those of GC/MS. In these studies, it was observed that co-coking with coal resulted in a decrease in the paraffins contents of the liquid. The percentage of cycloparaffins, indenes, naphthalenes, and tetralins did not change significantly. In contrast, alkyl benzenes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the distillate were higher in the co-coking experiments which may have resulted from the distillation of thermally cracked coal macromolecules and the contribution of these molecules to the overall liquid composition. 40 refs., 3 figs., 13 tabs.

  4. The waste water free coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuepphaus, K.; Brink, N. [Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik GmbH, Bochum (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Apart from coke which is the actual valuable material a coke oven plant also produces a substantial volume of waste water. These effluent water streams are burdened with organic components (e.g. phenols) and inorganic salts (e.g. NH{sub 4}Cl); due to the concentration of the constituents contained therein these effluent waters must be subjected to a specific treatment before they can be introduced into public waters. For some years a lot of separation tasks have been solved successfully by applying the membrane technology. It was especially the growing number of membrane facilities for cleaning of landfill leakage water whose composition can in fact be compared with that of coking plant waste waters (organic constituents, high salt fright, ammonium compounds) which gave Thyssen Still Otto Anlagentechnik the idea for developing a process for coke plant effluent treatment which contains the membrane technology as an essential component.

  5. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2004-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  6. New and revised standards for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.A. Kotsyuba; M.I. Alpatov; Y.G. Shapoval [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The need for new and revised standards for coke production in Ukraine and Russia is outlined. Such standards should address improvements in plant operation, working conditions, environmental protection, energy conservation, fire and explosion safety, and economic indices.

  7. Mozambique becomes a major coking coal exporter?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruffini, A.

    2008-06-15

    In addition to its potential role as a major international supplier of coking coal, Mozambique will also become a major source of power generation for southern Africa. 3 figs.

  8. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk; Keith Wisecarver

    2003-09-26

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking.

  9. Unmanned operation of the coke guides at Hoogovens IJmuiden Coke Plant 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vos, D.; Mannes, N.; Poppema, B. [Hoogovens IJmuiden B.V. (Netherlands)

    1995-12-01

    Due to the bad condition of batteries and many ovens under repair, Hoogovens was forced to partially repair and rebuild the Coke plant No. 1. The production of coke at Coke plant No. 1 is realized in 3 production blocks subdivided in 6 batteries. Besides a renovated installation, all coke oven machines were renewed. A total of five identical machine sets are available. Each consists of a pusher machine, larry car, coke guide and quench car with diesel locomotive. A complete automated control system was implemented. The main objectives were a highly regular coking and pushing process, automated traveling and positioning and a centrally coordinated interlocking of machine functions. On each operational machine however an operator performed the supervisory control of the automated machine functions. After years of good experience with the automated system, economical reasons urged further personnel reduction from 1994 on. Totally 375 people were involved, including the maintenance department. To reduce the occupation at coke plant No. 1, the coke guide was the first machine to be fully automated because of the isolated and uncomfortable working place.

  10. Giprokoks proposals for improvement in air quality at coke battery 1A of Radlin coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 1A, which uses rammed batch, has gone into production at Radlin coke plant (Poland), on the basis of Giprokoks designs. Up-to-date dust-trapping methods are used for the first time within the aspiration systems in the coal-preparation shop and in improving dust collection within the production buildings.

  11. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Volk Jr., Michael; Wisecarver, Keith D.; Sheppard, Charles M.

    2003-02-07

    The coking test facilities include three reactors (or cokers) and ten utilities. Experiments were conducted using the micro-coker, pilot-coker, and stirred-batch coker. Gas products were analyzed using an on-line gas chromatograph. Liquid properties were analyzed in-house using simulated distillation (HP 5880a), high temperature gas chromatography (6890a), detailed hydrocarbon analysis, and ASTM fractionation. Coke analyses as well as feedstock analyses and some additional liquid analyses (including elemental analyses) were done off-site.

  12. Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karp, Larry S.

    Working Paper No. 789 ESTIMATING COKE AND PEPSI'S PRICE AND ADVERTISING STRATEGIES (formerly Estimating Firms'Mixed Price and Advertising Strategies: Coke and Pepsi) by Amos Golan, Larry S. Karp. #12;Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M

  13. Fundamentals of Delayed Coking Joint Industry Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Volk Jr; Keith Wisecarver

    2005-10-01

    Delayed coking evolved steadily over the early to mid 1900s to enable refiners to convert high boiling, residual petroleum fractions to light products such as gasoline. Pound for pound, coking is the most energy intensive of any operation in a modern refinery. Large amounts of energy are required to heat the thick, poor-quality petroleum residuum to the 900 to 950 degrees F required to crack the heavy hydrocarbon molecules into lighter, more valuable products. One common misconception of delayed coking is that the product coke is a disadvantage. Although coke is a low valued (near zero economic value) byproduct, compared to transportation fuels, there is a significant worldwide trade and demand for coke as it is an economical fuel. Coke production has increased steadily over the last ten years, with further increases forecast for the foreseeable future. Current domestic production is near 111,000 tons per day. A major driving force behind this increase is the steady decline in crude quality available to refiners. Crude slates are expected to grow heavier with higher sulfur contents while environmental restrictions are expected to significantly reduce the demand for high-sulfur residual fuel oil. Light sweet crudes will continue to be available and in even greater demand than they are today. Refiners will be faced with the choice of purchasing light sweet crudes at a premium price, or adding bottom of the barrel upgrading capability, through additional new investments, to reduce the production of high-sulfur residual fuel oil and increase the production of low-sulfur distillate fuels. A second disadvantage is that liquid products from cokers frequently are unstable, i.e., they rapidly form gum and sediments. Because of intermediate investment and operating costs, delayed coking has increased in popularity among refiners worldwide. Based on the 2000 Worldwide Refining Survey published in the Oil and Gas, the delayed coking capacity for 101 refineries around the world is 2,937,439 barrels/calendar day. These cokers produce 154,607 tons of coke per day and delayed coking accounts for 88% of the world capacity. The delayed coking charge capacity in the United States is 1,787,860 b/cd. Despite its wide commercial use, only relatively few contractors and refiners are truly knowledgeable in delayed-coking design, so that this process carries with it a ''black art'' connotation. Until recently, the expected yield from cokers was determined by a simple laboratory test on the feedstock. As a result of Tulsa University's prior related research, a process model was developed that with additional work could be used to optimize existing delayed cokers over a wide range of potential feedstocks and operating conditions. The objectives of this research program are to: utilize the current micro, batch and pilot unit facilities at The University of Tulsa to enhance the understanding of the coking process; conduct additional micro and pilot unit tests with new and in-house resids and recycles to make current optimization models more robust; conduct focused kinetic experiments to enhance the furnace tube model and to enhance liquid production while minimizing sulfur in the products; conduct detailed foaming studies to optimize the process and minimize process upsets; quantify the parameters that affect coke morphology; and to utilize the knowledge gained from the experimental and modeling studies to enhance the computer programs developed in the previous JIP for optimization of the coking process. These refined computer models will then be tested against refinery data provided by the member companies. Novel concepts will also be explored for hydrogen sulfide removal of furnace gases as well as gas injection studies to reduce over-cracking. The following deliverables are scheduled from the two projects of the three-year JIP: (1) A novel method for enhancing liquid yields from delayed cokers and data that provide insight as to the optimum temperature to remove hydrogen sulfide from furnace gases. (2) An understanding of what causes foaming in c

  14. Water protection in coke-plant design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.I. Alekseev [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Wastewater generation, water consumption, and water management at coke plants are considered. Measures to create runoff-free water-supply and sewer systems are discussed. Filters for water purification, corrosion inhibitors, and biocides are described. An integrated single-phase technology for the removal of phenols, thiocyanides, and ammoniacal nitrogen is outlined.

  15. Reducing dust emissions at OAO Alchevskkoks coke battery 10A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; E.N. Lanina [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke battery 10A with rammed batch is under construction at OAO Alchevskkoks. The design documentation developed by Giprokoks includes measures for reducing dust emissions to the atmosphere. Aspiration systems with dry dust trapping are employed in the new components of coke battery 10A and in the existing coke-sorting equipment. Two-stage purification of dusty air in cyclones and bag filters is employed for the coke-sorting equipment. This system considerably reduces coke-dust emissions to the atmosphere.

  16. Model based control of a coke battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stone, P.M.; Srour, J.M.; Zulli, P. [BHP Research, Mulgrave (Australia). Melbourne Labs.; Cunningham, R.; Hockings, K. [BHP Steel, Pt Kembla, New South Wales (Australia). Coal and Coke Technical Development Group

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes a model-based strategy for coke battery control at BHP Steel`s operations in Pt Kembla, Australia. The strategy uses several models describing the battery thermal and coking behavior. A prototype controller has been installed on the Pt Kembla No. 6 Battery (PK6CO). In trials, the new controller has been well accepted by operators and has resulted in a clear improvement in battery thermal stability, with a halving of the standard deviation of average battery temperature. Along with other improvements to that battery`s operations, this implementation has contributed to a 10% decrease in specific battery energy consumption. A number of enhancements to the low level control systems on that battery are currently being undertaken in order to realize further benefits.

  17. Cyanide treatment options in coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minak, H.P.; Lepke, P. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses the formation of cyanides in coke oven gas and describes and compares waste processing options. These include desulfurization by aqueous ammonia solution, desulfurization using potash solution, desulfurization in oxide boxes, decomposition of NH{sub 3} and HCN for gas scrubbing. Waste water treatment methods include chemical oxidation, precipitation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, and biological treatment. It is concluded that biological treatment is the most economical process, safe in operation and requires a minimum of manpower.

  18. REDUCING POWER PRODUCTION COSTS BY UTILIZING PETROLEUM COKE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance. Although the blending of petroleum coke with coal may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  19. Coking properties of perhydrous low-rank vitrains. Influence of pyrolysis conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    generally lead to increased coking potential of coals characterised in the resulting cokes by large sizes equivalent to natural coking coals, since the cokes from these residues are always made of smaller MOD than those obtained for coking coals. For comparison, a similar characterisation, carried out

  20. The methods of steam coals usage for coke production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korobetskii, I.A.; Ismagilov, M.S.; Nazimov, S.A.; Sladkova, I.L.; Shudrikov, E.S.

    1998-07-01

    Nowadays, high volatile bituminous coals are broadly used for metallurgical coke production in Russia. The share of such coals in the coking blend is variable from 20 to 40% by weight. There are some large coal deposits in Kuznetskii basin which have coals with low caking tendency. The low caking properties of such coals limit of its application in the coking process. At the same time the usage of low caking coals for coke production would allow flexibility of the feedstock for coke production. Preliminary tests, carried out in COAL-C's lab has shown some differences in coal properties with dependence on the size distribution. That is why the separation of the well-caking fraction from petrographically heterogeneous coals and its further usage in coking process may be promising. Another way for low caking coals application in the coke industry is briquettes production from such coals. This method has been known for a very long time. It may be divided into two possible directions. First is a direct coking of briquettes from the low caking coals. Another way is by adding briquettes to coal blends in defined proportion and combined coking. The possibility of application of coal beneficiation methods mentioned above was investigated in present work.

  1. Reducing power production costs by utilizing petroleum coke. Annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galbreath, K.C.

    1998-07-01

    A Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the North Antelope mine and a petroleum shot coke were received from Northern States Power Company (NSP) for testing the effects of parent fuel properties on coal-coke blend grindability and evaluating the utility of petroleum coke blending as a strategy for improving electrostatic precipitator (ESP) particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes are generally harder than coals, as indicated by Hardgrove grindability tests. Therefore, the weaker coal component may concentrate in the finer size fractions during the pulverizing of coal-coke blends. The possibility of a coal-coke size fractionation effect is being investigated because it may adversely affect combustion performance, it may enhance ESP particulate collection efficiency. Petroleum cokes contain much higher concentrations of V relative to coals. Consequently, coke blending can significantly increase the V content of fly ash resulting from coal-coke combustion. Pentavalent vanadium oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is a known catalyst for transforming gaseous sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}[g]) to gaseous sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}[g]). The presence of SO{sub 3}(g) strongly affects fly ash resistivity and, thus, ESP performance.

  2. Dry purification of aspirational air in coke-sorting systems with wet slaking of coke

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.F. Trembach; A.G. Klimenko [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Coke transportation after wet slaking is accompanied by the release of dust in the production building and in the surrounding atmosphere. Wet methods are traditionally used to purify very humid air. Giprokoks has developed designs for highly efficient dry dust-removal methods in such conditions.

  3. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Coke calcination is a process that involves the heating of green petroleum coke in order to remove volatile material and purify the coke for further processing. Calcined coke is vital to the...

  4. VACASULF operation at Citizens Gas and Coke Utility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Currey, J.H. [Citizens Gas and Coke Utility, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Citizens Gas and Coke Utility is a Public Charitable Trust which operates as the Department of Utilities of the City of Indianapolis, Indiana. Indianapolis Coke, the trade name for the Manufacturing Division of the Utility, operates a by-products coke plant in Indianapolis, Indiana. The facility produces both foundry and blast furnace coke. Surplus Coke Oven gas, generated by the process, is mixed with Natural Gas for sale to industrial and residential customers. In anticipation of regulatory developments, beginning in 1990, Indianapolis Coke undertook the task to develop an alternate Coke Oven Gas desulfurization technology for its facility. The new system was intended to perform primary desulfurization of the gas, dramatically extending the oxide bed life, thus reducing disposal liabilities. Citizens Gas chose the VACASULF technology for its primary desulfurization system. VACASULF requires a single purchased material, Potassium Hydroxide (KOH). The KOH reacts with Carbon Dioxide in the coke Oven Gas to form Potassium Carbonate (potash) which in turn absorbs the Hydrogen Sulfide. The rich solution releases the absorbed sulfide under strong vacuum in the desorber column. Operating costs are reduced through utilization of an inherent heat source which is transferred indirectly via attendant reboilers. The Hydrogen Sulfide is transported by the vacuum pumps to the Claus Kiln and Reactor for combustion, reaction, and elemental Sulfur recovery. Regenerated potash solution is returned to the Scrubber.

  5. Coke Gasification - A Solution to Excess Coke Capacity and High Energy Costs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patel, S. S.

    1982-01-01

    under the name GKT. Recently, the GKT gasifier was selected over the Texaco gasifier for the TVA Murphy Hill coal gasification project and -the Solvent Refined Coal-I coal liquefaction project A schematic :of the GKT gasifier is shown in Figure 1...;! at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory in California. ThEil pilot plant has been tested with various coals, petroleum coke and residues from coal liquefaction processes. Currently there are two 20 ton per day pilot plants operating at Montebello...

  6. New process to avoid emissions: Constant pressure in coke ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giertz, J.; Huhn, F. [DMT-Gesellschaft fuer Forschung und Pruefung mbH, Essen (Germany). Inst. for Cokemaking and Fuel Technology; Hofherr, K. [Thyssen Stahl AG, Duisburg (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    A chamber pressure regulation (PROven), especially effective in regard to emission control problems of coke ovens is introduced for the first time. Because of the partial vacuum in the collecting main system, it is possible to keep the oven`s raw gas pressure constant on a low level over the full coking time. The individual pressure control for each chamber is assured directly as a function of the oven pressure by an immersion system controlling the flow resistance of the collecting main valve. The latter is a fixed-position design (system name ``FixCup``). By doing away with the interdependence of collecting main pressure and chamber pressure, a parameter seen as a coking constant could not be made variable. This opens a new way to reduce coke oven emissions and simultaneously to prevent the ovens from damage caused by air ingress into the oven.

  7. Coke profile and effect on methane/ethylene conversion process 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Solami, Bandar

    2002-01-01

    experiment data on product flow rate, reactor temperature, and product distribution were collected. And at the end of each run, the amount of coke deposited on the catalyst was measured. Hydrogen concentration in the product distribution decreased as a...

  8. RESIDUA UPGRADING EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT MODELS: WRI COKING INDEXES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani, Jr.; Francis P. Miknis; Thomas F. Turner

    2003-06-01

    Pyrolysis experiments were conducted with three residua at 400 C (752 F) at various residence times. The wt % coke and gaseous products were measured for the product oils. The Western Research Institute (WRI) Coking Indexes were determined for the product oils. Measurements were made using techniques that might correlate with the Coking Indexes. These included spin-echo proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, heat capacity measurements at 280 C (536 F), and ultrasonic attenuation. The two immiscible liquid phases that form once coke formation begins were isolated and characterized for a Boscan residuum pyrolyzed at 400 C (752 F) for 55 minutes. These materials were analyzed for elemental composition (CHNS), porphyrins, and metals (Ni,V) content.

  9. Priorities in the design of chemical shops at coke plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.V. Grabko; L.A. Kazak [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Recent trends in the design of chemical equipment at coke plants are described, through the lens of experience at Giprokoks. The main priorities were to improve the removal of impurities from coke oven gas; to improve equipment design on the basis of new materials; to reduce reagent consumption; to reduce the materials and energy consumed in the construction of new equipment; and to minimize impacts on the environment and worker health. Some technological equipment is briefly characterized.

  10. Prediction of metallurgical coke strength from the petrographic composition of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutcu, H.; Toroglu, I.; Piskin, S. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey)

    2009-07-01

    Turkey, especially Zonguldak on the West Coast of Black Sea region, has large reserves of bituminous coal that can be used either directly or in blends with other coals for metallurgical coke production. It is possible to predict the coking properties of these coals by petrographic analysis. In this study, semi- and non-coking coals were blended with coking bituminous coals in varying proportions and an estimation was made as to their stability factors through petrographic techniques. It was established that semi- and non-coking bituminous coals could be used in the production of metallurgical coke.

  11. A coke oven model including thermal decomposition kinetics of tar

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munekane, Fuminori; Yamaguchi, Yukio [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Yokohama (Japan); Tanioka, Seiichi [Mitsubishi Chemical Corp., Sakaide (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    A new one-dimensional coke oven model has been developed for simulating the amount and the characteristics of by-products such as tar and gas as well as coke. This model consists of both heat transfer and chemical kinetics including thermal decomposition of coal and tar. The chemical kinetics constants are obtained by estimation based on the results of experiments conducted to investigate the thermal decomposition of both coal and tar. The calculation results using the new model are in good agreement with experimental ones.

  12. New packing in absorption systems for trapping benzene from coke-oven gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.V. Grabko; V.M. Li; T.A. Shevchenko; M.A. Solov'ev

    2009-07-15

    The efficiency of benzene removal from coke-oven gas in absorption units OAO Alchevskkoks with new packing is assessed.

  13. Process for converting coal into liquid fuel and metallurgical coke

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wolfe, Richard A. (Abingdon, VA); Im, Chang J. (Abingdon, VA); Wright, Robert E. (Bristol, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A method of recovering coal liquids and producing metallurgical coke utilizes low ash, low sulfur coal as a parent for a coal char formed by pyrolysis with a volatile content of less than 8%. The char is briquetted and heated in an inert gas over a prescribed heat history to yield a high strength briquette with less than 2% volatile content.

  14. Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carlini, David

    Estimating Coke and Pepsi's Price and Advertising Strategies Amos Golan* Larry S. Karp** Jeffrey M strategies in prices and advertising for Coca-Cola and Pepsi-Cola. Separate strategies for each firm variables are prices and advertising. We divide each firm's continuous price-advertising action space

  15. Coke quality for blast furnaces with coal-dust fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y.A. Zolotukhin; N.S. Andreichikov [Eastern Coal-Chemistry Institute, Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation)

    2009-07-01

    Recently, plans have been developed for the introduction of pulverized coal injection (PCI) at various Russian metallurgical enterprises. The main incentive for switching to PCI is the recent price rises for Russian natural gas. The paper discusses the quality of coke for PCI into blast furnaces.

  16. Coke battery with 51-m{sup 3} furnace chambers and lateral supply of mixed gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; N.Y. Chebotarev; O.N. Surenskii; V.V. Derevich [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    The basic approaches employed in the construction of coke battery 11A at OAO Magnitogorskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat are outlined. This battery includes 51.0-m{sup 3} furnaces and a dust-free coke-supply system designed by Giprokoks with lateral gas supply; it is heated exclusively by low-calorific mixed gas consisting of blast-furnace gas with added coke-oven gas. The 82 furnaces in the coke battery are divided into two blocks of 41. The gross coke output of the battery (6% moisture content) is 1140000 t/yr.

  17. An overview of crisis management in the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saunders, D.A.

    1995-12-01

    Members of the American Coke and Coal Chemicals Institute (ACCCI), as responsible corporate citizens, have embraced the concepts of crisis management and progress down the various paths of planning and preparation, monitoring, media communications, community outreach, emergency response, and recovery. Many of the concepts outlined here reflect elements of crisis management guidelines developed by the Chemical Manufacturers Association (CMA). At a coke plant, crises can take the form of fires, chemical releases, labor strikes, feedstock supply disruptions, and excessive snowfall, just to name a few. The CMA defines a crisis as: ``an unplanned event that has the potential to significantly impact a company`s operability or credibility, or to pose a significant environment, economic or legal liability``; and crisis management as: ``those activities undertaken to anticipate or prevent, prepare for, respond to and recover from any incident that has the potential to greatly affect the way a company conducts its business.

  18. Integrated coke, asphalt and jet fuel production process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shang, Jer Y. (McLean, VA)

    1991-01-01

    A process and apparatus for the production of coke, asphalt and jet fuel m a feed of fossil fuels containing volatile carbon compounds therein is disclosed. The process includes the steps of pyrolyzing the feed in an entrained bed pyrolyzing means, separating the volatile pyrolysis products from the solid pyrolysis products removing at least one coke from the solid pyrolysis products, fractionating the volatile pyrolysis products to produce an overhead stream and a bottom stream which is useful as asphalt for road pavement, condensing the overhead stream to produce a condensed liquid fraction and a noncondensable, gaseous fraction, and removing water from the condensed liquid fraction to produce a jet fuel-containing product. The disclosed apparatus is useful for practicing the foregoing process. the process provides a useful method of mass producing and jet fuels from materials such as coal, oil shale and tar sands.

  19. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  20. Development of advanced technology of coke oven gas drainage treatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higashi, Tadayuki; Yamaguchi, Akikazu; Ikai, Kyozou; Kamiyama, Hisarou; Muto, Hiroshi

    1996-12-31

    In April 1994, commercial-scale application of ozone oxidation to ammonia liquor (which is primarily the water condensing from coke oven gas) to reduce its chemical oxygen demand (COD) was started at the Nagoya Works of Nippon Steel Corporation. This paper deals with the results of technical studies on the optimization of process operating conditions and the enlargement of equipment size and the operating purification system.

  1. New environmental concepts in the chemical and coke industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    A.Yu. Naletov; V.A. Naletov [Mendeleev Russian Chemical-Engineering University (Russian Federation)

    2007-05-15

    We know that environmentally pure technologies do not exist. Coke production is no exception to the rule. The article considers the logic of environmental decision making. Attention focuses on a new bank of ecologically appropriate materials whose release to the biosphere must be considered solely in quantititative terms. Qualitativily all these materials are familiar; they are assimilated by populations of microorganisms and tar thus compatible with the biosphere.

  2. Low-coke rate operation under high PCI at Kobe No. 3 BF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsuo, Tadasu; Kanazuka, Yasuo; Hoshino, Koichi; Yoshida, Yasuo; Kitayama, Syuji; Ishiwaki, Shiro [Kobe Steel Ltd. (Japan). Kobe Works

    1997-12-31

    Kobe No. 3 blast furnace (BF) suffered tremendous damage when the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake rocked the area on January 17, 1995. However, working as quickly as possible to dig out of the burden and rehabilitate various facilities, the company managed to restart the No. 3 BF on April 2. After the restart, which went smoothly, production was shifted into the low coke rate operation which was being promoted before the disaster. In October, 1995, only seven months after the restart, the nation record of 296 kg/t low coke rate could be achieved. Subsequently, in January, 1996, coke rate reached 290 kg/t and the low coke rate operation was renewed. Since that time the same level of coke rate has been maintained. The paper discusses how low coke rate operation was achieved.

  3. How to implement a quality program in a coking plant. The AHMSA experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reyes M, M.A.; Perez, J.L.; Garza, C. de la; Morales, M.

    1995-12-01

    AHMSA (Altos Hornos de Mexico) is the largest integrated Steel Plant in Mexico, with its 3.1 MMMT of Liquid Steel production program for 1995. AHMSA operates two coke plants which began operations in 1955 and 1976. Total coke monthly production capacity amounts to as much as 106,000 Metric Tons (MT). The coke plants working philosophy was discussed and established in 1986 as part of the Quality Improvement Program, where its ultimate goal is to give the best possible coke quality to its main client--the blast furnaces. With this goal in mind, a planned joint effort with their own coal mines was initiated. This paper deals with the implementation process of the Quality Program, and the results of this commitment at the coal mines, coke plants and blast furnaces. The coke quality improvement is shown since 1985 to 1994, as well as the impact on the blast furnace operation.

  4. Heating control methodology in coke oven battery at Rourkela Steel Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandyopadhyay, S.S.; Parthasarathy, L.; Gupta, A.; Bose, P.R.; Mishra, U.

    1996-12-31

    A methodology of heating control was evolved incorporating temperature data generated through infra-red sensor at quenching station and thermocouples specially installed in the gooseneck of coke oven battery No. 3 of RSP. Average temperature of the red-hot coke as pushed helps in diagnosis of the abnormal ovens and in setting the targeted battery temperature. A concept of coke readiness factor (Q) was introduced which on optimization resulted in lowering the specific heat consumption by 30 KCal/Kg.

  5. Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company`s non-recovery ovens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ellis, C.E.; Pruitt, C.W.

    1995-12-01

    Operational improvements at Jewell Coal and Coke Company over the past five years includes safety and environmental concerns, product quality, equipment availability, manpower utilization, and productivity. These improvements with Jewell`s unique process has allowed Jewell Coal and Coke Company to be a consistent, high quality coke producer. The paper briefly explains Jewell`s unique ovens, their operating mode, improved process control, their maintenance management program, and their increase in productivity.

  6. The new Kaiserstuhl coking plant: The heating system -- Design, construction and initial operating experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strunk, J.

    1996-12-31

    At the end of 1992 the new coke plant Kaiserstuhl in Dortmund/Germany with presently the largest coke ovens world-wide started its production operation in close linkage to the Krupp-Hoesch Metallurgical Works after about 35 months construction time. This plant incorporating comprehensive equipment geared to improve environmental protection is also considered as the most modern coke plant of the world. The heating-system and first results of operation will be presented.

  7. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  8. The effects of ash and maceral composition of Azdavay and Kurucasile (Turkey) coals on coking properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroglu, I. [Zonguldak Karaelmas University, Zonguldak (Turkey). Faculty of Engineering

    2006-07-01

    In this study, investigations were made as to the effect of the maceral compositions and mineral matter content of Azdavay and Kurucasile coals on the coking property. Chemical and maceral analyses and coking properties were determined for the products of the float-sink procedure. The coking properties were established on the basis of free swelling index and Ruhr dilatometer tests. Maceral analyses showed that as the ash content of a coal containing both high and medium volatile matter increases, its effective maceral proportion decreases, and the coking property is affected in an unfavorable way.

  9. X-ray evaluation of coke-oven gas line deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swain, Y.T.

    1983-08-01

    Control of coke-oven gas pipeline deposits has been facilitated through the use of an X-ray technique that provides quantitative data without disrupting plant operations.

  10. Coke County, Texas: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) JumpIowa: EnergyEnergyCoherent Inc Jump to:Coke County,

  11. Nippon Coke and Engineering Sumitomo Corp JV | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIXsourceII Jump to:Information 3rd congressionalNearshoreNilam has notCoke and

  12. Teamwork in planning and carrying out the first inspection of the coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant of the Kaiserstuhl Coking Facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burchardt, G.

    1996-12-31

    The coke plant Kaiserstuhl operates a coke dry quenching (CDQ) plant with a downstream installed waste heat boiler to satisfy statutory pollution control rules and requirements. This CDQ which went on stream in March 1993 cools the whole coke production output from the Kaiserstuhl coke plant in counterflow to an inert cooling gas. This brief overview on the whole CDQ plant should elucidate the complex of problems posed when trying to make an exact plant revision plan. After all it was impossible to evaluate or to assess all the interior process technology relevant components during the planning stage as the plant was in operation. The revision data for the first interior check was determined and fixed by the statutory rule for steam boilers and pressure vessels. The relevant terms for this check are mandatorily prescribed. In liaison with the testing agency (RW TUEV) the date for the first revision was fixed for April 1995, that means two years after the first commissioning.

  13. Ammonia removal process upgrade to the Acme Steel Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, J.L. [Acme Steel Co., Chicago, IL (United States). Chicago Coke Plant

    1995-12-01

    The need to upgrade the ammonia removal process at the Acme Steel Coke Plant developed with the installation of the benzene NESHAP (National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants) equipment, specifically the replacement of the final cooler. At Acme Steel it was decided to replace the existing open cooling tower type final cooler with a closed loop direct spray tar/water final cooler. This new cooler has greatly reduced the emissions of benzene, ammonia, hydrogen sulfide and hydrogen cyanide to the atmosphere, bringing them into environmental compliance. At the time of its installation it was not fully recognized as to the effect this would have on the coke oven gas composition. In the late seventies the decision had been made at Acme Steel to stop the production of ammonia sulfate salt crystals. The direction chosen was to make a liquid ammonia sulfate solution. This product was used as a pickle liquor at first and then as a liquid fertilizer as more markets were developed. In the fall of 1986 the ammonia still was brought on line. The vapors generated from the operation of the stripping still are directed to the inlet of the ammonia absorber. At that point in time it was decided that an improvement to the cyclical ammonia removal process was needed. The improvements made were minimal yet allowed the circulation of solution through the ammonia absorber on a continuous basis. The paper describes the original batch process and the modifications made which allowed continuous removal.

  14. Influence of coal on coke properties and blast-furnace operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G.R. Gainieva; L.D. Nikitin [OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (Russian Federation)

    2007-07-01

    With unstable coal supplies and properties and a fluctuating content of coking coal in the batch at OAO Zapadno-Sibirskii Metallurgicheskii Kombinat (ZSMK) and of bituminous coal at Kuznetskaya enrichment facility, it is important to optimize the rank composition of the batch for coke production.

  15. Analytical input-output and supply chain study of China's coke and steel sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Yu, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    I design an input-output model to investigate the energy supply chain of coal-coke-steel in China. To study the demand, supply, and energy-intensity issues for coal and coke from a macroeconomic perspective, I apply the ...

  16. Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau (CPM)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    - 1 - Modelling of a coke oven heating wall M. Landreau, D. Isler, Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau with thermomechanical modelling of a coke oven heating wall. The objective is to define the safe limits of coke oven of walls, roof and larry car, pre-stresses (anchoring system), lateral pressure due to coal pushing A 3D

  17. Characterization of liquids derived from laboratory coking of decant oil and co-coking of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omer Gul; Caroline Clifford; Leslie R. Rudnick; Harold H. Schobert [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    In this study, decant oil and a blend of Pittsburgh seam bituminous coal with decant oil were subjected to coking and co-coking in a laboratory-scale delayed coker. Higher yields of coke and gas were obtained from co-coking than from coking. Coal addition into the feedstock resulted in lighter overhead liquid. GC/MS analyses of gasoline, jet fuel, and diesel show that co-coking of coal/decant oil gave higher quantity aromatic components than that of coking of decant oil alone. Simulated distillation gas chromatography analyses of overhead liquids and GC/MS analyses of vacuum fractions show that when coal was reacted with a decant oil, the coal constituents contributed to the distillable liquids. To address the reproducibility of the liquid products, overhead liquid samples collected at the first, third, and fifth hours of experiments of 6 h duration were evaluated using simulated distillation gas chromatography and {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR. NMR analyses of the liquid products showed that, even though there were slight changes in the {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C spectra, the standard deviation was low for the time-dependent samples. Simulated distillation gas chromatography showed that the yields of refinery boiling range materials (i.e., gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, and fuel oil cuts) were reproducible between runs. Fractionation of the overhead liquids into refinery boiling range materials (gasoline, jet fuel, diesel, fuel oil fractions) showed that the boiling range materials and chemical compositions of fractions were found to be reproducible. 54 refs., 17 tabs.

  18. Gas treatment and by-products recovery of Thailand`s first coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diemer, P.E.; Seyfferth, W. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Coke is needed in the blast furnace as the main fuel and chemical reactant and the main product of a coke plant. The second main product of the coke plant is coke oven gas. During treatment of the coke oven gas some coal chemicals like tar, ammonia, sulphur and benzole can be recovered as by-products. Since the market prices for these by-products are rather low and often erratic it does not in most cases justify the investment to recover these products. This is the reason why modern gas treatment plants only remove those impurities from the crude gas which must be removed for technical and environmental reasons. The cleaned gas, however, is a very valuable product as it replaces natural gas in steel work furnaces and can be used by other consumers. The surplus can be combusted in the boiler of a power plant. A good example for an optimal plant layout is the new coke oven facility of Thai Special Steel Industry (TSSI) in Rayong. The paper describes the TSSI`s coke oven gas treatment plant.

  19. Development of automatic operation system for coke oven machines at Yawata Works of Nippon Steel Corporation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matsunaga, Masao; Uematsu, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Yoji; Ishiharaguchi, Yuji

    1995-12-01

    The coke plant is a working environment involving heavy dust emissions, high heat and demanding physical labor. The labor-saving operation of the coke plant is an essential issue from the standpoints of not only improvement in working environment, but also reduction in fixed cost by enhancement of labor productivity. Under these circumstances, Nippon Steel has implemented the automation of coke oven machines. The first automatic operation system for coke oven machinery entered service at Oita Works in 1992, followed by the second system at the No. 5 coke oven battery of the coke plant at Yawata Works. The Yawata automatic operation system is characterized by the installation of coke oven machinery to push as many as 140 ovens per day within a short cycle time, such as a preliminary ascension pipe cap opening car and cycle time simulator by the manned operation of the pusher, which is advantageous from the standpoint of investment efficiency, and by the monitoring of other oven machines by the pusher. These measures helped to reduce the manpower requirement to 2 persons per shift from 4 persons per shift. The system entered commercial operation in March, 1994 and has been smoothly working with an average total automatic rate of 97%. Results from the startup to recent operation of the system are reported below.

  20. Glass-coating and cleaning system to prevent carbon deposition on coke oven walls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahira, Takuya; Ando, Takeshi; Kasaoka, Shizuki; Yamauchi, Yutaka [Kawasaki Steel Corp., Mizushima, Kurashiki (Japan). Mizushima Works

    1997-12-31

    The new technology for protecting the coking chamber bricks from damage by hard-pushing is described. The technology consists of the glass coating on the wall bricks and a wall cleaner to blow deposited carbon. For the glass coating, a specially developed glaze is sprayed onto the wall bricks by a spraying device developed to completely spray one coking chamber in a few minutes. The wall cleaner is installed on a pusher ram in the facility to automatically blow air at a sonic speed during coke pushing. The life of the glazed layer is estimated to be over two years.

  1. Current developments at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.I. Rudyka; Y.E. Zingerman; V.B. Kamenyuka; O.N. Surenskii; G.E. Kos'kova; V.V. Derevich; V.A. Gushchin [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Approaches developed at Giprokoks for coke-battery construction and reconstruction are considered. Recommendations regarding furnace construction and reconstruction are made on the basis of Ukrainian and world experience.

  2. Producing and controlling of the pollutant in the coal`s coking process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, S. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China); Fan, Z. [Shanxi Central Environmental Monitoring Station (China)

    1997-12-31

    In the process of heating and coke shaping, different pollutants and polluting factors will be produced and lost to the environment due to the different coking methods. The paper analyzes the production mechanism, type, emission, average quantity, and damage to the environment of the major pollutants and polluting factors produced in several kinds of coking processes in China at the present. Then, the paper concludes that an assessment for any coking method should include a comprehensive beneficial assessment of economical benefit, environmental benefit and social benefit. The items in the evaluation should consist of infrastructure investment, which includes production equipment and pollution control equipment, production cost, benefit and profit produced by one ton coal, whether the pollution complies with the environmental requirement, extent of the damage, influence to the social development, and etc.

  3. The Videofil probe, a novel instrument to extend the coke oven service life

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaillet, J.P.; Isler, D. [Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau, Forbach (France)

    1997-12-31

    To prolong the service life of coke oven batteries, the Centre de Pyrolyse de Marienau developed the Videofil probe, a novel instrument to conduct diagnoses and to help repair operations of coke ovens. The Videofil probe is a flexible non-water-cooled endoscope which is used to locate flue wall damage and estimate its importance, to define the oven zones to repair and guide the repair work and to control the quality of the repair work and its durability.

  4. Cryogenic fractionator gas as stripping gas of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeGeorge, Charles W. (Chester, NJ)

    1981-01-01

    In an integrated coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped with a stripping gas to remove acidic gases, at least a portion of the stripping gas comprises a gas comprising hydrogen, nitrogen and methane separated from the coker products.

  5. The nature and formation of coke in the reaction of methanol to hydrocarbons over chabazite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McLaughlin, Kenneth Woot

    1983-01-01

    45 Figure 9. Relationship between enhanced coke formation with increasing yields of paraffins and diminishing yields of olefins 46 Figure 10. Gas chromatogram of the concentrated carbon tetrachloride extract of spent catalyst pellets . . . 49...THE NATURE ABD FORMATION OF COKE IB THE REACTIOB OF METHANOL TO HIDROCARBOBS OVER CHABAZITE A Thesis KENNETH WOOT MCLAUGHLLN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AAM Univers ty partial. fulfillment nf the req~nt fo~he degree of MASTER...

  6. Application of process safety management to the coke industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mentzer, W.P. (USX Corp., Clairton, PA (United States))

    1994-09-01

    OSHA's Process Safety Management (PSM) standard went into effect on May 26, 1992. Explosions at various industrial facilities that claimed the lives of workers over the past several years were the catalyst for the new federal regulations. The new PSM standard deals with 130 specific chemicals along with flammable liquids and gases used at nearly 25,000 worksites. The performance-based PSM standard consists of 14 elements that establish goals and describe basic program elements to fulfill these goals. The PSM standard requires employers to conduct a process hazard analysis to examine potential problems and determine what preventative measures should be taken. Key elements include employee training, written operating procedures, safety reviews and maintenance requirements to insure the mechanical integrity of critical components. The presentation will cover the evolution of OSHA's PSM standard, the requirements of the 14 elements in the PSM standard and discuss the significant achievements in the development and implementation of the PSM process at US Steel's Clairton coke plant.

  7. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    the right place to get compost, or how you get the beststerilized or pasteurized our compost before we put it out.

  8. Dale Coke: Coke Farm

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farmer, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    I grew up there and in Los Gatos, in the Santa Clara Valley.that wasn’t really in Los Gatos. It was outside the town,high school there in Los Gatos, and on to San Jose State. I

  9. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System Utilizing Off-Gas from Coke Calcination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process.

  10. Effect of coal and coke qualities on blast furnace injection and productivity at Taranto

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salvatore, E.; Calcagni, M. [ILVA, Taranto (Italy); Eichinger, F.; Rafi, M.

    1995-12-01

    Injection rates at Taranto blast furnaces Nos. 2 and 4, for more than 16 months, was maintained above 175 kg/thm. Monthly average injection rate for two months stabilized above 190 kg/thm. This performance was possible due to the very high combined availabilities of Taranto blast furnaces and the KST injection system. Based upon this experience the quantitative relationships between coke/coal and blast furnace operational parameters were studied and are shown graphically. During this period due to coke quality changes, injection rate had to be reduced. The effect of using coke breeze in coke/ferrous charge as well as coal blend was also evaluated. Permeability of the furnace was found to be directly affected by O{sub 2} enrichment level, while at a high PCI rate no correlation between actual change in coke quality and permeability could be established. The future of PCI technology lies in better understanding of relationships between material specifications and blast furnace parameters of which permeability is of prime importance.

  11. Automatic coke oven heating control system at Burns Harbor for normal and repair operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Battle, E.T.; Chen, K.L. [Bethlehem Steel Corp., Burns Harbor, IN (United States); [Bethlehem Steel Corp., PA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    An automatic heating control system for coke oven batteries was developed in 1985 for the Burns Harbor No. 1 battery and reported in the 1989 Ironmaking Conference Proceedings. The original system was designed to maintain a target coke temperature at a given production level under normal operating conditions. Since 1989, enhancements have been made to this control system so that it can also control the battery heating when the battery is under repair. The new control system has improved heating control capability because it adjusts the heat input to the battery in response to anticipated changes in the production schedule. During a recent repair of this 82 oven battery, the pushing schedule changed from 102 ovens/day to 88 ovens/day, then back to 102 ovens/day, then to 107 ovens/day. During this repair, the control system was able to maintain the coke temperature average standard deviation at 44 F, with a maximum 75 F.

  12. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A. [National Steel Corp., Granite City, IL (United States). Granite City Div.

    1995-12-01

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  13. An active carbon catalyst prevents coke formation from asphaltenes during the hydrocracking of vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fukuyama, H.; Terai, S. [Toyo Engineering Corp., Chiba (Japan). Technological Research Center

    2007-07-01

    Active carbons were prepared by the steam activation of a brown coal char. The active carbon with mesopores showed greater adsorption selectivity for asphaltenes. The active carbon was effective at suppressing coke formation, even with the high hydrocracking conversion of vacuum residue. The analysis of the change in the composition of saturates, aromatics, resins, and asphaltenes in the cracked residue with conversion demonstrated the ability of active carbon to restrict the transformation of asphaltenes to coke. The active carbon that was richer in mesopores was presumably more effective at providing adsorption sites for the hydrocarbon free-radicals generated initially during thermal cracking to prevent them from coupling and polycondensing.

  14. Who lives near coke plants and oil refineries An exploration of the environmental inequity hypothesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graham, J.D.; Beaulieu, N.D.; Sussman, D.; Sadowitz, M.; Li, Y.C. )

    1999-04-01

    Facility-specific information on pollution was obtained for 36 coke plants and 46 oil refineries in the US and matched with information on populations surrounding these 82 facilities. These data were analyzed to determine whether environmental inequities were present, whether they were more economic or racial in nature, and whether the racial composition of nearby communities has changed significantly since plants began operations. The Census tracts near coke plants have a disproportionate share of poor and nonwhite residents. Multivariate analyses suggest that existing inequities are primarily economic in nature. The findings for oil refineries are not strongly supportive of the environmental inequity hypothesis. Rank ordering of facilities by race, poverty, and pollution produces limited (although not consistent) evidence that the more risky facilities tend to be operating in communities with above-median proportions of nonwhite residents (near coke plants) and Hispanic residents (near oil refineries). Over time, the radical makeup of many communities near facilities has changed significantly, particularly in the case of coke plants sited in the early 1900s. Further risk-oriented studies of multiple manufacturing facilities in various industrial sectors of the economy are recommended.

  15. Simulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore Torquatob)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Torquato, Salvatore

    microscopy," scanning tunneling electron microscopy," and synchrotron based tomography,t3 it is possibleSimulation of diffusion and trapping in digitized heterogeneous media David A. Coke@ and Salvatore of a Brownian particle diffusing among a, digitized lattice-based domain of traps. Following the first

  16. Innovative coke oven gas cleaning system for retrofit applications. Volume 1, Public design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-05-24

    This Public Design Report provides, in a single document, available nonproprietary design -information for the ``Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications`` Demonstration Project at Bethlehem Steel Corporation`s Sparrows Point, Maryland coke oven by-product facilities. This project demonstrates, for the first time in the United States, the feasibility of integrating four commercially available technologies (processes) for cleaning coke oven gas. The four technologies are: Secondary Gas Cooling, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Removal, Hydrogen Sulfide and Ammonia Recovery, and Ammonia Destruction and Sulfur Recovery. In addition to the design aspects, the history of the project and the role of the US Department of,Energy are briefly discussed. Actual plant capital and projected operating costs are also presented. An overview of the integration (retrofit) of the processes into the existing plant is presented and is followed by detailed non-proprietary descriptions of the four technologies and their overall effect on reducing the emissions of ammonia, sulfur, and other pollutants from coke oven gas. Narrative process descriptions, simplified process flow diagrams, input/output stream data, operating conditions, catalyst and chemical requirements, and utility requirements are given for each unit. Plant startup provisions, environmental considerations and control monitoring, and safety considerations are also addressed for each process.

  17. Coal flow aids reduce coke plant operating costs and improve production rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bedard, R.A.; Bradacs, D.J.; Kluck, R.W.; Roe, D.C.; Ventresca, B.P.

    2005-06-01

    Chemical coal flow aids can provide many benefits to coke plants, including improved production rates, reduced maintenance and lower cleaning costs. This article discusses the mechanisms by which coal flow aids function and analyzes several successful case histories. 2 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Final environmental information volume for the coke oven gas cleaning project at the Bethlehem Steel Corporation Sparrows Point Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-04-24

    Bethelehem Steel Corporation (BSC) is planning to conduct a demonstration project involving an integrated system that can be retrofitted into coke oven gas handling systems to address a variety of environmental and operational factors in a more cost-effective manner. Successful application of this technology to existing US coke plants could: (1) reduce emissions of sulfur dioxide, cyanide, and volatile organic compounds (including benzene) (2) reduce the cost and handling of processing feed chemicals, (3) disposal costs of nuisance by-products and (4) increase reliability and reduce operation/maintenance requirements for coke oven gas desulfurization systems. The proposed system will remove sulfur from the coke oven gas in the form of hydrogen sulfide using the ammonia indigenous to the gas as the primary reactive chemical. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide are also removed in this process. The hydrogen sulfide removed from the coke oven gas in routed to a modified Claus plant for conversion to a saleable sulfur by-product. Ammonia and hydrogen cyanide will be catalytically converted to hydrogen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and carbon monoxide. The tail gas from the sulfur recovery unit is recycled to the coke oven gas stream, upstream of the new gas cleaning system. The proposed demonstration project will be installed at the existing coke oven facilities at BSC's Sparrows Point Plant. This volume describes the proposed actions and the resulting environmental impacts. 21 refs., 19 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Torrefaction reduction of coke formation on catalysts used in esterification and cracking of biofuels from pyrolysed lignocellulosic feedstocks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kastner, James R; Mani, Sudhagar; Hilten, Roger; Das, Keshav C

    2015-11-04

    A bio-oil production process involving torrefaction pretreatment, catalytic esterification, pyrolysis, and secondary catalytic processing significantly reduces yields of reactor char, catalyst coke, and catalyst tar relative to the best-case conditions using non-torrefied feedstock. The reduction in coke as a result of torrefaction was 28.5% relative to the respective control for slow pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading. In fast pyrolysis bio-oil processing, the greatest reduction in coke was 34.9%. Torrefaction at 275.degree. C. reduced levels of acid products including acetic acid and formic acid in the bio-oil, which reduced catalyst coking and increased catalyst effectiveness and aromatic hydrocarbon yields in the upgraded oils. The process of bio-oil generation further comprises a catalytic esterification of acids and aldehydes to generate such as ethyl levulinate from lignified biomass feedstock.

  20. A mathematical model for the estimation of flue temperature in a coke oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, K.I.; Kim, S.Y.; Suo, J.S.; Hur, N.S.; Kang, I.S.; Lee, W.J.

    1997-12-31

    The coke plants at the Kwangyang works has adopted an Automatic Battery Control (ABC) system which consists of four main parts, battery heating control, underfiring heat and waste gas oxygen control, pushing and charging schedule and Autotherm-S that measures heating wall temperature during pushing. The measured heating wall temperature is used for calculating Mean Battery Temperature (MBT) which is average temperature of flues for a battery, but the Autotherm-S system can not provide the flue temperatures of an oven. This work attempted to develop mathematical models for the estimation of the flue temperature using the measured heating wall temperature and to examine fitness of the mathematical model for the coke plant operation by analysis of raw gas temperature at the stand pipe. Through this work it is possible to reflect heating wall temperature in calculating MBT for battery heating control without the interruption caused by a maintenance break.

  1. Operating temperature effects on nozzle coking in a cottonseed oil fueled diesel engine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yarbrough, Charles Michael

    1984-01-01

    OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE COKING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree cf... MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1984 Major Subject: Agricultural Engineering OPERATING TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON NOZZLE CORING IN A COTTONSEED OIL FUELED DIESEL ENGINE A Thesis by CHARLES MICHAEL YARBROUGH Approved as to style and content by: ayne A. Le...

  2. Incorporation of deuterium in coke formed on an acetylene hydrogenation catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsson, M.; Jansson, J.; Asplund, S.

    1996-09-01

    In selective hydrogenation of acetylene in excess ethylene, considerable amounts of coke or {open_quotes}green oils{close_quotes} are formed and accumulate on the catalyst. A fraction of the acetylene undergoes oligomerization reactions producing C{sub 4}`s and larger hydrocarbons. Compounds larger than C{sub 8} are retained on the catalysts surface or as a condensed phase in the pore system. The reaction mechanism is largely unknown but several authors have postulated that oligomerization occurs through dissociatively adsorbed acetylene (2), i.e., C{sub 2}H(ads) and C{sub 2}(ads). In this paper a novel method of studying the coke formation on a catalyst is introduced. Deuterium is incorporated in the coke during hydrogenation of acetylene, and during temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO) experiments the deuterium content is analyzed. The objective is to shed some light on the mechanism for oligomer formation in this system. The catalyst, Pd/{alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was prepared by the impregnation of {alpha}-alumina (Sued-Chemie) with a solution of Pd(NO{sub 3}){sub 2} in 30% HNO{sub 3}. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  3. Usiing NovoCOS cleaning equipment in repairing the furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries 4 & 5 at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.G. Protasov; R. Linden; A. Gross [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Experience with a new surface-preparation technology for the ceramic resurfacing of the refractory furnace-chamber lining in coke batteries is described.

  4. Experience and results of new heating control system of coke oven batteries at Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swanljung, J.; Palmu, P. [Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The latest development and results of the heating control system at Raahe Steel are presented in this paper. From the beginning of coke production in Rautaruukki Oy Raahe Steel (October 1987) the heating control systems have been developed. During the first stage of development work at the coking plant (from year 1987 to 1992), when only the first coke oven battery consisting of 35 ovens was in production, the main progress was in the field of process monitoring. After commissioning of the second stage of the coking plant (November 1992), the development of the new heating control model was started. Target of the project was to develop a dynamic control system which guides the heating of batteries through the various process conditions. Development work took three years and the heating control system was commissioned in the year 1995. Principle of the second generation system is an energy balance calculation, coke end temperature determination and dynamic oven scheduling system. The control is based on simultaneous feedforward and feedback control. The fuzzy logic components were added after about one year experience.

  5. Proposal of a novel multifunctional energy system for cogeneration of coke, hydrogen, and power - article no. 052001

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jin, H.G.; Sun, S.; Han, W.; Gao, L.

    2009-09-15

    This paper proposes a novel multifunctional energy system (MES), which cogenerates coke, hydrogen, and power, through the use of coal and coke oven gas (COG). In this system, a new type of coke oven, firing coal instead of COG as heating resource for coking, is adopted. The COG rich in H{sub 2} is sent to a pressure swing adsorption (PSA) unit to separate about 80% of hydrogen first, and then the PSA purge gas is fed to a combined cycle as fuel. The new system combines the chemical processes and power generation system, along with the integration of chemical conversion and thermal energy utilization. In this manner, both the chemical energy of fuel and thermal energy can be used more effectively. With the same inputs of fuel and the same output of coking heat, the new system can produce about 65% more hydrogen than that of individual systems. As a result, the thermal efficiency of the new system is about 70%, and the exergy efficiency is about 66%. Compared with individual systems, the primary energy saving ratio can reach as high as 12.5%. Based on the graphical exergy analyses, we disclose that the integration of synthetic utilization of COG and coal plays a significant role in decreasing the exergy destruction of the MES system. The promising results obtained may lead to a clean coal technology that will utilize COG and coal more efficiently and economically.

  6. Coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant of Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Egorov, V.N.; Anikin, G.J. [Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, (Russian Federation); Gross, M. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    Magnitogorsk Integrated Iron and Steel Works, Russia, decided to erect a new coke oven gas treatment and by-product plant to replace the existing obsolete units and to improve the environmental conditions of the area. The paper deals with the technological concept and the design requirements. Commissioning is scheduled at the beginning of 1996. The paper describes H{sub 2}S and NH{sub 3} removal, sulfur recovery and ammonia destruction, primary gas cooling and electrostatic tar precipitation, and the distributed control system that will be installed.

  7. Improved wastewater treatment at Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporations`s Steubenville East Coke Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goshe, A.J.; Nodianos, M.J. [Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corp., Follansbee, WV (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation recently improved its wastewater treatment at it`s by-products coke plant. This has led to greatly improved effluent quality. Excess ammonia liquor, along with wastewater from the light oil recovery plant, desulfurization facility, and coal pile runoff, must be treated prior to being discharged into the Ohio River. This is accomplished using a biological wastewater treatment plant to remove 99.99% of the organic contaminants and ammonia. Biologically treated, clarified wastewater is now polished in the newly constructed tertiary treatment plant.

  8. Use of resin-bearing wastes from coke and coal chemicals production at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kul'kova, T.N.; Yablochkin, N.V.; Gal'chenko, A.I.; Karyakina, E.A.; Litvinova, V.A.; Gorbach, D.A.

    2007-03-15

    The coke and coal chemicals plant at the Novokuznetsk Metallurgical Combine is making trial use of a technology that recycles waste products in 'tar ponds.' Specialists from the Ekomash company have installed a recycling unit in one area of the plant's dump, the unit including an inclined conveyor with a steam heater and a receiving hopper The coal preparation shop receives the wastes in a heated bin, where a screw mixes the wastes with pail of the charge for the coking ovens. The mixture subsequently travels along a moving conveyor belt together with the rest of the charge materials. The addition of up to 2% resin-bearing waste materials to the coal charge has not had any significant effect on the strength properties of the coke.

  9. Petroleum Coke

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet) Year Jan FebPrice82,516 82,971 84,053 85,190

  10. Cracking of simulated oil refinery off-gas over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan Zhang; Jin-hu Wu; Dong-ke Zhang

    2008-03-15

    The cracking of oil refinery off-gas, simulated with a gas mixture containing methane (51%), ethylene (21.4%), ethane (21.1%), and propane (6.5%), over a coal char, petroleum coke, and quartz, respectively, has been studied in a fixed bed reactor. The experiments were performed at temperatures between 850 and 1000{sup o}C and at atmospheric pressure. The results show that the conversions of all species considered increased with increasing temperature. Ethane and propane completely decomposed over all three bed materials in the temperature range investigated. However, the higher initial conversion rates of methane and ethylene cracking at all temperatures were observed only over the coal char and not on the petroleum coke and quartz, indicating a significant catalytic effect of the coal char on methane and ethylene cracking. Methane and ethylene conversions decreased with reaction time due to deactivation of the coal char by carbon deposition on the char surface and, in the later stage of a cracking experiment, became negative, suggesting that methane and ethylene had been formed during the cracking of ethane and propane. 16 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Method of operating a coal predrying and heating plant in connection with a coking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bocsanczy, J.; Knappstein, J.; Stalherm, D.

    1981-01-27

    A method of preparing and delivering coal to a coking plant comprises conveying the coal to the plant on a moving conveyor while an inert combustion gas is directed over the coal being conveyed. The combustion gas is generated by burning a fuel with air to produce a substantially inert combustion gas which is passed over the coal during its conveying and, thereafter, passed through a cooler for removing the moisture which has been picked up from the coal by the gas. The heating and predrying inert gases are advantageously generated by the direct combustion of air and fuel which are passed through flash dryer tubes and one or more separate separator systems and then delivered into a conveyor pipeline through which the coal is conveyed. A portion of the gases which are generated are also directed with a return gas to a filter for removal of any coal therefrom and to a cooler for removing the moisture picked up from the coal and then back into the stream for delivery to the conveyor for the coal. The inert gas may also be a gas which is circulated in heat exchange relationship with combustion gases which are generated by a combustion of the coal itself. In such a system, a portion of the combustion gases generated are also passed through a condenser or cooler and the cooled and dried waste gases are circulated over the coal being conveyed to the coking oven or its bunkers.

  12. Urinary 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers relative to job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bo Chen; Yunping Hu; Lixing Zheng; Qiangyi Wang; Yuanfen Zhou; Taiyi Jin [Fudan University, Shanghai (China). School of Public Health

    2007-09-15

    1-Hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) is a biomarker of recent exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). We investigated whether urinary 1-OHP concentrations in Chinese coke oven workers (COWs) are modulated by job category, respirator usage, and cigarette smoking. The present cross-sectional study measured urinary 1-OHP concentrations in 197 COWs from Coking plant I and 250 COWs from Coking plant II, as well as 220 unexposed referents from Control plant I and 56 referents from Control plant II. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations (geometric mean, {mu}mol/mol creatinine) were 5.18 and 4.21 in workers from Coking plants I and II, respectively. The highest 1-OHP levels in urine were found among topside workers including lidmen, tar chasers, and whistlers. Benchmen had higher 1-OHP levels than other workers at the sideoven. Above 75% of the COWs exceeded the recommended occupational exposure limit of 2.3 {mu}mol/mol creatinine. Respirator usage and increased body mass index (BMI) slightly reduced 1-OHP levels in COWs. Cigarette smoking significantly increased urinary 1-OHP levels in unexposed referents but had no effect in COWs. Chinese COWs, especially topside workers and benchmen, are exposed to high levels of PAHs. Urinary 1-OHP concentrations appear to be modulated by respirator usage and BMI in COWs, as well as by smoking in unexposed referents.

  13. Cyanide leaching from soil developed from coking plant purifier waste as influenced by citrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tim Mansfeldt; Heike Leyer; Kurt Barmettler; Ruben Kretzschmar [Ruhr-University Bochum, Bochum (Germany). Soil Science and Soil Ecology Group, Faculty of Geosciences

    2004-07-01

    Soils in the vicinity of manufactured gas plants and coal coking plants are often highly contaminated with cyanides in the form of the compound Prussian blue. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of citrate on the leaching of iron-cyanide complexes from an extremely acidic soil (pH 2.3) developed from gas purifier waste near a former coking plant. The soil contained 63 g kg{sup -1} CN, 148 g kg{sup -1} Fe, 123 g kg{sup -1} S, and 222 g kg{sup -1} total C. Analysis of the soil by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy revealed the presence of Prussian blue, gypsum, elemental sulfur, jarosite, and hematite. For column leaching experiments, air-dried soil was mixed with purified cristabolite sand at a ratio of 1:3 and packed into chromatography columns. The soil was leached with dilute (0.1 or 1 mM) CaCl{sub 2} solutions and the effluent was collected and analyzed for total and dissolved CN, Ca, Fe, SO{sub 4}, pH, and pe. In the absence of citrate, the total dissolved CN concentration in the effluent was always below current drinking water limits (< 1.92 {mu}M), indicating low leaching potential. Adding citrate at a concentration of 1 mM had little effect on the CN concentrations in the column effluent. Addition of 10 or 100 mM citrate to the influent solution resulted in strong increases in dissolved and colloidal CN concentrations in the effluent.

  14. Development and Testing of the Advanced CHP System Utilizing the Off-Gas from the Innovative Green Coke Calcining Process in Fluidized Bed

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chudnovsky, Yaroslav; Kozlov, Aleksandr

    2013-08-15

    Green petroleum coke (GPC) is an oil refining byproduct that can be used directly as a solid fuel or as a feedstock for the production of calcined petroleum coke. GPC contains a high amount of volatiles and sulfur. During the calcination process, the GPC is heated to remove the volatiles and sulfur to produce purified calcined coke, which is used in the production of graphite, electrodes, metal carburizers, and other carbon products. Currently, more than 80% of calcined coke is produced in rotary kilns or rotary hearth furnaces. These technologies provide partial heat utilization of the calcined coke to increase efficiency of the calcination process, but they also share some operating disadvantages. However, coke calcination in an electrothermal fluidized bed (EFB) opens up a number of potential benefits for the production enhancement, while reducing the capital and operating costs. The increased usage of heavy crude oil in recent years has resulted in higher sulfur content in green coke produced by oil refinery process, which requires a significant increase in the calcinations temperature and in residence time. The calorific value of the process off-gas is quite substantial and can be effectively utilized as an “opportunity fuel” for combined heat and power (CHP) production to complement the energy demand. Heat recovered from the product cooling can also contribute to the overall economics of the calcination process. Preliminary estimates indicated the decrease in energy consumption by 35-50% as well as a proportional decrease in greenhouse gas emissions. As such, the efficiency improvement of the coke calcinations systems is attracting close attention of the researchers and engineers throughout the world. The developed technology is intended to accomplish the following objectives: - Reduce the energy and carbon intensity of the calcined coke production process. - Increase utilization of opportunity fuels such as industrial waste off-gas from the novel petroleum coke calcination process. - Increase the opportunity of heat (chemical and physical) utilization from process off-gases and solid product. - Develop a design of advanced CHP system utilizing off-gases as an “opportunity fuel” for petroleum coke calcinations and sensible heat of calcined coke. A successful accomplishment of the aforementioned objectives will contribute toward the following U.S. DOE programmatic goals: - Drive a 25% reduction in U. S. industrial energy intensity by 2017 in support of EPAct 2005; - Contribute to an 18% reduction in U.S. carbon intensity by 2012 as established by the Administration’s “National Goal to Reduce Emissions Intensity.” 8

  15. Role of hydrogen in blast furnaces to improve productivity and decrease coke consumption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agarwal, J.C.; Brown, F.C.; Chin, D.L.; Stevens, G.; Clark, R.; Smith, D.

    1995-12-01

    The hydrogen contained in blast furnace gases exerts a variety of physical, thermochemical, and kinetic effects as the gases pass through the various zones. The hydrogen is derived from two sources: (1) the dissociation of moisture in the blast air (ambient and injected with hot blast), and (2) the release from partial combustion of supplemental fuels (including moisture in atomizing water, steam, or transport air, if any). With each atom of oxygen (or carbon), the molar amounts of hydrogen released are more than six times higher for natural gas than for coal, and two times higher for natural gas than for oil. Injection of natural gas in a blast furnace is not a new process. Small amounts of natural gas--about 50--80 lb or 1,100--1,700 SCF/ton of hot metal--have been injected in many of the North American blast furnaces since the early 1960s, with excellent operating results. What is new, however, is a batter understanding of how natural gas reacts in the blast furnace and how natural gas and appropriate quantities of oxygen can be used to increase the driving rate or combustion rate of carbon (coke) in the blast furnace without causing hanging furnace and operating problems. The paper discusses the factors limiting blast furnace productivity and how H{sub 2} and O{sub 2} can increase productivity.

  16. Effects of HyperCoal addition on coke strength and thermoplasticity of coal blends

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toshimasa Takanohashi; Takahiro Shishido; Ikuo Saito [National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba (Japan). Energy Technology Research Institute

    2008-05-15

    Ashless coal, also known as HyperCoal (HPC), was produced by thermal extraction of three coals of different ranks (Gregory caking coal, Warkworth steam coal, and Pasir subbituminous coal) with 1-methylnaphthalene (1-MN) at 360, 380, and 400{sup o}C. The effects of blending these HPCs into standard coal blends were investigated. Blending HPCs as 5-10% of a standard blend (Kouryusho:Goonyella:K9) enhanced the thermoplasticity over a wide temperature range. For blends made with the Pasir-HPC, produced from a noncaking coal, increasing the extraction temperature from 360 to 400{sup o}C increased the thermoplasticity significantly. Blends containing Warkworth-HPC, produced from a slightly caking coal, had a higher tensile strength than the standard blend in semicoke strength tests. The addition of 10% Pasir-HPC, extracted at 400{sup o}C, increased the tensile strength of the semicokes to the same degree as those made with Gregory-HPC. Furthermore, all HPC blends had a higher tensile strength and smaller weight loss during carbonization. These results suggest that the HPC became integrated into the coke matrix, interacting strongly with the other raw coals. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Impact of Zr metal and coking reactions on the ex-vessel source term predictions of CORCON/VANESA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, M.; Davis, R.E.; Khatib-Rahbar, M.

    1987-01-01

    During a core meltdown accident in a LWR, molten core materials (corium) could leave the reactor vessel and interact with concrete. In this paper, the impact of the zirconium content of the corium pool and the coking reaction on the release of fission products are quantified using CORCON/Mod2 and VANESA computer codes. Detailed calculations show that the total aerosol generation is proportional to the zirconium content of the corium pool. Among the twelve fission product groups treated by the VANESA code, CsI, Cs/sub 2/O and Nb/sub 2/O/sub 5/ are completely released over the course of the core/concrete interaction, while an insignificant quantity of Mo, Ru and ZrO/sub 2/ are predicted to be released. The release of BaO, SrO and Ce/sub 2/O increase, while the releases of Te and La/sub 2/O/sub 3/ are relatively unaffected by the Zr content of the corium pool. The impact of the coking reaction on the radionuclide release and aerosol production was found to be insignificant.

  18. Dispersion modeling of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from combustion of biomass and fossil fuels and production of coke in Tianjin, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu Tao; Xinrong Li; Yu Yang; Raymond M. Coveney, Jr.; Xiaoxia Lu; Haitao Chen; Weiran Shen [Peking University, Beijing (China). Laboratory for Earth Surface Processes, College of Environmental Sciences

    2006-08-01

    A USEPA procedure, ISCLT3 (Industrial Source Complex Long-Term), was applied to model the spatial distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from various sources including coal, petroleum, natural gas, and biomass into the atmosphere of Tianjin, China. Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations (BaPeq) were calculated for risk assessment. Model results were provisionally validated for concentrations and profiles based on the observed data at two monitoring stations. The dominant emission sources in the area were domestic coal combustion, coke production, and biomass burning. Mainly because of the difference in the emission heights, the contributions of various sources to the average concentrations at receptors differ from proportions emitted. The shares of domestic coal increased from {approximately} 43% at the sources to 56% at the receptors, while the contributions of coking industry decreased from {approximately} 23% at the sources to 7% at the receptors. The spatial distributions of gaseous and particulate PAHs were similar, with higher concentrations occurring within urban districts because of domestic coal combustion. With relatively smaller contributions, the other minor sources had limited influences on the overall spatial distribution. The calculated average BaPeq value in air was 2.54 {+-} 2.87 ng/m{sup 3} on an annual basis. Although only 2.3% of the area in Tianjin exceeded the national standard of 10 ng/m{sup 3}, 41% of the entire population lives within this area. 37 refs., 9 figs.

  19. Determination of the effect of different additives in coking blends using a combination of in situ high-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miguel C. Diaz; Karen M. Steel; Trevor C. Drage; John W. Patrick; Colin E. Snape [Nottingham University, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2005-12-01

    High-temperature {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry measurements were carried out on 4:1 wt/wt blends of a medium volatile bituminous coal with two anthracites, two petroleum cokes, charcoal, wood, a low-temperature coke breeze, tyre crumb, and active carbon to determine the effects on fluidity development to identify the parameters responsible for these effects during pyrolysis and to study possible relationships among the parameters derived from these techniques. Positive, negative, and neutral effects were identified on the concentration of fluid material. Small positive effects (ca. 5-6%) were caused by blending the coal with petroleum cokes. Charcoal, wood, and active carbon all exerted negative effects on concentration (18-27% reduction) and mobility (12-25% reduction in T2) of the fluid phase, which have been associated with the inert character and high surface areas of these additives that adsorb the fluid phase of the coal. One of the anthracites and the low-temperature coke breeze caused deleterious effects to a lesser extent on the concentration (7-12%) and mobility (13-17%) of the fluid material, possibly due to the high concentration of metals in these additives (ca. 11% ash). Despite the high fluid character of tyre crumb at the temperature of maximum fluidity of the coal (73%), the mobility of the fluid phase of the blend was lower than expected. The comparison of {sup 1}H NMR and rheometry results indicated that to account for the variations in minimum complex viscosity for all the blends, both the maximum concentration of fluid phase and the maximum mobility of the fluid material had to be considered. For individual blends, two exponential relationships have been found between the complex viscosity and the concentration of solid phase in both the softening and resolidification stages but the parameters are different for each blend. 30 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  20. Mechanistic insights of ethanol steam reforming over Ni-CeOx(111): The importance of hydroxyl groups for suppressing coke formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Duchon, Tomas; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolin, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; et al

    2015-07-10

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³? concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni? is themore »active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni?C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.« less

  1. Mechanistic Insights of Ethanol Steam Reforming over Ni–CeO x (111): The Importance of Hydroxyl Groups for Suppressing Coke Formation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Ducho?, Tomáš; Wang, Huanru; Peterson, Erik W.; Zhou, Yinghui; Luo, Si; Zhou, Jing; Matolín, Vladimir; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Rodriguez, José A.; et al

    2015-07-30

    We have studied the reaction of ethanol and water over Ni–CeO2-x(111) model surfaces to elucidate the mechanistic steps associated with the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction. Our results provide insights about the importance of hydroxyl groups to the ESR reaction over Ni-based catalysts. Systematically, we have investigated the reaction of ethanol on Ni–CeO2-x(111) at varying Ce³? concentrations (CeO1.8–2.0) with absence/presence of water using a combination of soft X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (sXPS) and temperature-programmed desorption (TPD). Consistent with previous reports, upon annealing, metallic Ni formed on reduced ceria while NiO was the main component on fully oxidized ceria. Ni? is themore »active phase leading to both the C–C and C–H cleavage of ethanol but is also responsible for carbon accumulation or coking. We have identified a Ni?C phase that formed prior to the formation of coke. At temperatures above 600K, the lattice oxygen from ceria and the hydroxyl groups from water interact cooperatively in the removal of coke, likely through a strong metal–support interaction between nickel and ceria that facilitates oxygen transfer.« less

  2. Reduction of COD in leachate from a hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke-making facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Banerjee, K.; O`Toole, T.J. [Chester Environmental, Moon Township, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    A hazardous waste landfill adjacent to a coke manufacturing facility was in operation between July 1990 and December 1991. A system was constructed to collect and treat the leachate from the landfill prior to discharge to the river. Occasionally, the discharge from the treatment facility exceeded the permit limitations for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD), and Total Organic Carbon (TOC). The objectives of this study were to determine treatment methods which would enable compliance with the applicable discharge limits; to establish the desired operating conditions of the process; and to investigate the effect of various parameters such as pH, catalyst dosage, and reaction time on the COD destruction efficiency. The characteristics of the landfill leachate in question were significantly variable in terms of chemical composition. A review of the influent quality data suggests that the COD concentration ranges between 80 and 390 mg/l. The oxidation processes using Fenton`s reagent or a combination of UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst are capable of reducing the COD concentration of the leachate below the discharge limitation of 35 mg/l. The estimated capital cost associated with the Fenton`s reagent process is approximately $525,000, and the annual operating and maintenance cost is $560,000. The estimated capital cost for the UV/hydrogen peroxide/catalyst treatment system is $565,000. The annual operating and maintenance cost of this process would be approximately $430,000.

  3. Converting Petroleum Coke to Electricity 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pavone, A.

    1992-01-01

    Changes in oil refining technology and economics are driving refiners to utilize thermal processes to maximize the conversion of heavy crude oil components to clean products. Since the primary unit operation to accomplish this objective...

  4. Laboratory investigation of the extrusion of North Dakota lignite fines for fixed-bed gasification. Report for September 1982-December 1983

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, A.H.; Smith, D.P.

    1984-01-01

    Lignite coal will be used as the gasifier feedstock in the first commercial substitute high-Btu fuels plant to be built in the U.S. The Great Plains plant, which is due to go on line in 1984, will use O2 blown, fixed-bed gasifiers to convert lignite coal into a medium Btu gas which is then upgraded to pipeline quality gas for final distribution. Since the fixed-bed gasifier requires a sized feedstock, up to 35% of the incoming run-of-mine lignite could be rejected as fines unless an alternative use can be found for the-1/4-inch fraction. Evaluation tests were run in the General Electric 6-inch single screw coal extruder to test the suitability of this process for utilization of lignite fines. Both organic and inorganic binders were evaluated. Tests were performed on the extrudate to evaluate their mechanical strength as well as their ability to withstand exposure to a high temperature gasification environment. Successful compacts were produced using bentonite clay, processed lignite coal tar, and a commercial coke oven pitch as the binding agent.

  5. Potential use of California lignite and other alternate fuel for enhanced oil recovery. Phase I and II. Final report. [As alternative fuels for steam generation in thermal EOR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shelton, R.; Shimizu, A.; Briggs, A.

    1980-02-01

    The Nation's continued reliance on liquid fossil fuels and decreasing reserves of light oils gives increased impetus to improving the recovery of heavy oil. Thermal enhanced oil recovery EOR techniques, such as steam injection, have generally been the most effective for increasing heavy oil production. However, conventional steam generation consumes a large fraction of the produced oil. The substitution of alternate (solid) fuels would release much of this consumed oil to market. This two-part report focuses on two solid fuels available in California, the site of most thermal EOR - petroleum coke and lignite. Phase I, entitled Economic Analysis, shows detailed cost comparisons between the two candidate fuels and also with Western coal. The analysis includes fuels characterizations, process designs for several combustion systems, and a thorough evaluation of the technical and economic uncertainties. In Phase II, many technical parameters of petroleum coke combustion were measured in a pilot-plant fluidized bed. The results of the study showed that petroleum coke combustion for EOR is feasible and cost effective in a fluidized bed combustor.

  6. JV Task 90 - Activated Carbon Production from North Dakota Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson; Charlene Crocker; Rokan Zaman; Mark Musich; Edwin Olson

    2008-03-31

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has pursued a research program for producing activated carbon from North Dakota lignite that can be competitive with commercial-grade activated carbon. As part of this effort, small-scale production of activated carbon was produced from Fort Union lignite. A conceptual design of a commercial activated carbon production plant was drawn, and a market assessment was performed to determine likely revenue streams for the produced carbon. Activated carbon was produced from lignite coal in both laboratory-scale fixed-bed reactors and in a small pilot-scale rotary kiln. The EERC was successfully able to upgrade the laboratory-scale activated carbon production system to a pilot-scale rotary kiln system. The activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite was superior to commercial grade DARCO{reg_sign} FGD and Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product with respect to iodine number. The iodine number of North Dakota lignite-derived activated carbon was between 600 and 800 mg I{sub 2}/g, whereas the iodine number of DARCO FGD was between 500 and 600 mg I{sub 2}/g, and the iodine number of Rheinbraun's HOK activated coke product was around 275 mg I{sub 2}/g. The EERC performed both bench-scale and pilot-scale mercury capture tests using the activated carbon made under various optimization process conditions. For comparison, the mercury capture capability of commercial DARCO FGD was also tested. The lab-scale apparatus is a thin fixed-bed mercury-screening system, which has been used by the EERC for many mercury capture screen tests. The pilot-scale systems included two combustion units, both equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Activated carbons were also tested in a slipstream baghouse at a Texas power plant. The results indicated that the activated carbon produced from North Dakota lignite coal is capable of removing mercury from flue gas. The tests showed that activated carbon with the greatest iodine number was superior to commercial DARCO FGD for mercury capture. The results of the activated carbon market assessment indicate an existing market for water treatment and an emerging application for mercury control. That market will involve both existing and new coal-fired plants. It is expected that 20% of the existing coal-fired plants will implement activated carbon injection by 2015, representing about 200,000 tons of annual demand. The potential annual demand by new plants is even greater. In the mercury control market, two characteristics are going to dominate the customer's buying habit-performance and price. As continued demonstration testing of activated carbon injection at the various coal-fired power plants progresses, the importance of fuel type and plant configuration on the type of activated carbon best suited is being identified.

  7. Table 16. U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,013 34,4670.2.3.5.6.

  8. Table 21. U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,0138. U.S. Coal9.0.1.

  9. Desulfurization of lignite using steam and air 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carter, Glenn Allen

    1982-01-01

    in a setting that would be similar to a full scale plan+. Results from +he batch sys+ m were excellent, with as much as 98. 6% of the sulfur removed at 1089 K. The product recovery was abou+ 68%; the remainder of the coal had been gasified... OF CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW Sulfur Removal Using a Fixed Bed Reactor Sulfur Removal Using a Batch Fluidized Bed Reactor . . 9 Continuous Fluidized Bed Reactor Systems for Desulfurization of Coal Clean Coke Process IGT Process...

  10. LIGNITE FUEL ENHANCEMENT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger

    2005-06-07

    This 3rd quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2005. It also summarizes the subsequent purchasing activity and final dryer/process design.

  11. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger; Nenad Sarunac

    2010-03-31

    Pulverized coal power plants which fire lignites and other low-rank high-moisture coals generally operate with reduced efficiencies and increased stack emissions due to the impacts of high fuel moisture on stack heat loss and pulverizer and fan power. A process that uses plant waste heat sources to evaporate a portion of the fuel moisture from the lignite feedstock in a moving bed fluidized bed dryer (FBD) was developed in the U.S. by a team led by Great River Energy (GRE). The demonstration was conducted with Department of Energy (DOE) funding under DOE Award Number DE-FC26-04NT41763. The objectives of GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project were to demonstrate reduction in lignite moisture content by using heat rejected from the power plant, apply technology at full scale at Coal Creek Station (CCS), and commercialize it. The Coal Creek Project has involved several stages, beginning with lignite drying tests in a laboratory-scale FBD at the Energy Research Center (ERC) and development of theoretical models for predicting dryer performance. Using results from these early stage research efforts, GRE built a 2 ton/hour pilot-scale dryer, and a 75 ton/hour prototype drying system at Coal Creek Station. Operated over a range of drying conditions, the results from the pilot-scale and prototype-scale dryers confirmed the performance of the basic dryer design concept and provided the knowledge base needed to scale the process up to commercial size. Phase 2 of the GRE's Lignite Fuel Enhancement project included design, construction and integration of a full-scale commercial coal drying system (four FBDs per unit) with Coal Creek Units 1 and 2 heat sources and coal handling system. Two series of controlled tests were conducted at Coal Creek Unit 1 with wet and dried lignite to determine effect of dried lignite on unit performance and emissions. Wet lignite was fired during the first, wet baseline, test series conducted in September 2009. The second test series was performed in March/April 2010 after commercial coal drying system was commissioned. Preliminary tests with dried coal were performed in March/April 2010. During the test Unit 2 was in outage and, therefore, test unit (Unit 1) was carrying entire station load and, also, supplying all auxiliary steam extractions. This resulted in higher station service, lower gross power output, and higher turbine cycle heat rate. Although, some of these effects could be corrected out, this would introduce uncertainty in calculated unit performance and effect of dried lignite on unit performance. Baseline tests with dried coal are planned for second half of 2010 when both units at Coal Creek will be in service to establish baseline performance with dried coal and determine effect of coal drying on unit performance. Application of GRE's coal drying technology will significantly enhance the value of lignite as a fuel in electrical power generation power plants. Although existing lignite power plants are designed to burn wet lignite, the reduction in moisture content will increase efficiency, reduce pollution and CO{sub 2} emissions, and improve plant economics. Furthermore, the efficiency of ultra supercritical units burning high-moisture coals will be improved significantly by using dried coal as a fuel. To date, Great River Energy has had 63 confidentiality agreements signed by vendors and suppliers of equipment and 15 utilities. GRE has had agreements signed from companies in Canada, Australia, China, India, Indonesia, and Europe.

  12. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    Coal Washed Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other CokingTJ) Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking Products

  13. Cogeneration Waste Heat Recovery at a Coke Calcining Facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, R. L.

    1986-01-01

    for sale to a major oil refinery, while the remainder passes through a steam turbine generator and is used for deaeration and feedwater heating. The electricity produced is used for the plant auxiliaries and sold to the local utility. Many design... pumps and equipment on other critical systems. A backpressure steam turbine generator and a new 69 kV feeder from the local utility were included in the project scope. A simplified plant cycle diagram and performance summary at the plant design...

  14. Hydroprocessing Bio-oil and Products Separation for Coke Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Neuenschwander, Gary G.; Hart, Todd R.

    2013-04-01

    Fast pyrolysis of biomass can be used to produce a raw bio-oil product, which can be upgraded by catalytic hydroprocessing to hydrocarbon liquid products. In this study the upgraded products were distilled to recover light naphtha and oils and to produce a distillation resid with useful properties for coker processing and production of renewable, low-sulfur electrode carbon. For this hydroprocessing work, phase separation of the bio-oil was applied as a preparatory step to concentrate the heavier, more phenolic components thus generating a more amenable feedstock for resid production. Low residual oxygen content products were produced by continuous-flow, catalytic hydroprocessing of the phase separated bio-oil.

  15. Table 38. Coal Stocks at Coke Plants by Census Division

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming963 1.969 1.979 1.988 1.996Deutsche Bank AGTotal96 Created on:U.S.

  16. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,013

  17. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Prices Brent396,0138. U.S.

  18. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    factor of bituminous coal, coking coal, and coke consumed inprice of Bituminous coal, coking coal, and coke consumed in

  19. Lignite Fuel Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles Bullinger

    2007-03-31

    This 11th quarterly Technical Progress Report for the Lignite Fuel Enhancement Project summarizes activities from January 1st through March 31st of 2007. It summarizes the completion of the Prototype testing activity and initial full-scale dryer design, Budget Period 2 activity during that time period. The Design Team completed process design and layouts of air, water, and coal systems. Heyl-Patterson completed dryer drawings and has sent RFPs to several fabricators for build and assembly. Several meetings were held with Barr engineers to finalize arrangement of the drying, air jig, and coal handling systems. Honeywell held meetings do discuss the control system logic and hardware location. By the end of March we had processed nearly 300,000 tons of lignite through the dryer. Outage preparation maintenance activities on a coal transfer hopper restricted operation of the dryer in February and March. The Outage began March 17th. We will not dry coal again until early May when the Outage on Unit No.2 completes. The Budget Period 1 (Phase 1) final report was submitted this quarter. Comments were received from NETL and are being reviewed. The Phase 2 Project Management Plan was submitted to NETL in January 2007. This deliverable also included the Financing Plan. An application for R&D 100 award was submitted in February. The project received an award from the Minnesota Professional Engineering Society's Seven Wonders of Engineering Award and Minnesota ACEC Grand Award in January. To further summarize, the focus this quarter has been on finalizing commercial design and the layout of four dryers behind each Unit. The modification to the coal handling facilities at Coal Creek and incorporation of air jigs to further beneficiate the segregated material the dryers will reject 20 to 30 % of the mercury and sulfur is segregated however this modification will recover the carbon in that stream.

  20. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    and derived fuels (coke, coke oven gas, and other cokingMt Briquettes Mt Coke Mt Coke Oven Gas Billion m 3 Other GasCoal Gas not Coke Other Total Oven Gas Coke Source Products

  1. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    and derived fuels (coke, coke oven gas, and other cokingMt Briquettes Mt Coke Mt Coke Oven Gas Billion m 3 Other GasCoal Gas not Coke Other Total Oven Gas Coke Source Products

  2. ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT (Technical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT Citation Details In-Document Search Title: ACTIVATED CARBON FROM LIGNITE FOR WATER TREATMENT You are accessing a document from...

  3. Lignite pellets and methods of agglomerating or pelletizing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Albert F. (Pittsburgh, PA); Blaustein, Eric W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Deurbrouck, Albert W. (Pittsburgh, PA); Garvin, John P. (Pittsburgh, PA); McKeever, Robert E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1981-01-01

    The specification discloses lignite pellets which are relatively hard, dust resistant, of generally uniform size and free from spontaneous ignition and general degradation. Also disclosed are methods for making such pellets which involve crushing as mined lignite, mixing said lignite with a binder such as asphalt, forming the lignite binder mixture into pellets, and drying the pellets.

  4. COFIRING BIOMASS WITH LIGNITE COAL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darren D. Schmidt

    2002-01-01

    The University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center, in support of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) biomass cofiring program, completed a Phase 1 feasibility study investigating aspects of cofiring lignite coal with biomass relative to utility-scale systems, specifically focusing on a small stoker system located at the North Dakota State Penitentiary (NDSP) in Bismarck, North Dakota. A complete biomass resource assessment was completed, the stoker was redesigned to accept biomass, fuel characterization and fireside modeling tests were performed, and an engineering economic analysis was completed. In general, municipal wood residue was found to be the most viable fuel choice, and the modeling showed that fireside problems would be minimal. Experimental ash deposits from firing 50% biomass were found to be weaker and more friable compared to baseline lignite coal. Experimental sulfur and NO{sub x} emissions were reduced by up to 46%. The direct costs savings to NDSP, from cogeneration and fuel saving, results in a 15- to 20-year payback on a $1,680,000 investment, while the total benefits to the greater community would include reduced landfill burden, alleviation of fees for disposal by local businesses, and additional jobs created both for the stoker system as well as from the savings spread throughout the community.

  5. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  6. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    for some fuels, such as coke oven gas and other gas, NBSCoal Washed Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Cokingt CO 2 /TJ) Coal Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Coking

  7. les jabots des abeilles taient beaucoup plus remplis et la dissection et l'analyse ont t

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of tar of brown coal and19 million tons of mineral oil have been processed into the final-products bitumin, paraffine, fuel, petrol and coke in the tar factory Rositz (Altenburger Land) from 1917 1990, 19 millions de tonnes de goudron de lignite ont été tranformés en coke, bitume et paraffine, et19

  8. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    plants Adjustable speed drives, coke oven gas compressors,heat recovery coke oven gases, and dry coke quenching

  9. Life-Cycle Evaluation of Concrete Building Construction as a Strategy for Sustainable Cities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stadel, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    feedstock to coke and coke oven gas, for subsequent use inblast furnace and coke oven gas) generation and recovery

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    In addition, the coking coal market began to deteriorateits permeability. Bituminous, or coking coal, is blended andmerchant coke plants, coking coal is heated in a low-oxygen,

  11. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    Coal Briquettes Coke Coke Oven Gas Other Gas Other Cokingsignificant volumes of coke oven gas and other coal gasesannual variations in “Coke Oven Gas” and “Other Gases” (

  12. Process safety management (OSHA) and process risk management (CAA) application. Application to a coke plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graeser, W.C.; Mentzer, W.P.

    1995-12-01

    Risk Management Programs for Chemical Accidental Release Prevention is the name of the proposed rule for the RMP Risk Management Program. The RMP was written in response to several catastrophic releases of hazardous substances. The rule is applicable to facilities that store, process or use greater than threshold quantities of 62 listed flammable chemicals and another 100 listed toxic substances. Additionally, a Risk Management Plan is registered with the EPA, Chemical Safety and Hazardous Investigation Board, state governments and the local emergency planning commission. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (specifically Section 112r) required the EPA to develop a three phase Risk Management Plan for industry: prevention program; hazard assessment; and emergency response program. The Prevention Program closely follows the OSHA`s Process Safety Management Standard. The Hazard Assessment section requires facilities to develop plans for a worst case scenario. The Emergency Response section defines the steps the facility and each employee will take if a release occurs. This section also needs to be coordinated with the Local Emergency Planning Commission. These regulations are described using Clairton Works as an example of compliance.

  13. Technology for processing ammonium rhodanide of coking plants into high-purity ammonium thiocyanate and thiourea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urakaev, F.K. [Institute of Geology & Mineral SB RAS, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2009-04-15

    The regularities of the reversible reaction of isomerization of ammonium thiocyanate (NH{sub 4}NCS) into thiourea (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS, and the reverse reaction, were analyzed. An ecologically clean and highly efficient method for the extraction, purification, separation, and production of isomers from the coal byproduct ammonium thiocyanate was developed based on the measured volatilities of NH{sub 4}NCS and (NH{sub 2}){sub 2}CS.

  14. EXPERIMENT 12. HIGH PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY DETERMINATION OF CAFFEINE IN COFFEE, COKE, OR TEA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    , OR TEA The purpose of this experiment is to identify the caffeine which is present in an unknown mixture provided). Make 0.2, 0.1 , and 0.05 mg/mL solutions. Make tea or coffee the way you like. Do not add sugar

  15. ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 02 PETROLEUM; 01 COAL, LIGNITE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Philippines: Asia Pacific energy series: Country report Hoffman, S. 29 ENERGY PLANNING, POLICY AND ECONOMY; 02 PETROLEUM; 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; PHILIPPINES; ECONOMIC...

  16. POWDERED ACTIVATED CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CARBON FROM NORTH DAKOTA LIGNITE: AN OPTION FOR DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCT CONTROL IN WATER TREATMENT PLANTS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: POWDERED ACTIVATED...

  17. A study of pyrolysis of Texas lignites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, Robert A

    1979-01-01

    . Typical experiments per- formed by Coates, et al. involve the heating of powdered coal to 2500 degrees Fahrenheit within . 3 seconds. The resulting char is then quenched with a spray of water. This process simulates an above ground gasifier... France, Great Britain, and Italy have tested projects for underaround gasification of both coal and lignite. However, their experiments were 2 not very successful. The U. S. Bureau of Mines conducted a field test at Gorgas, Alabama, in the 1950's...

  18. Survey of synfuel technology for lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.

    1982-01-01

    The most important market for lignite will continue to be the electric utility industry, where it is used to fuel large pc-fired boilers serving major regional power grids. However, the growth of this market and thechnology is being challenged by new and more stringent environmental control requirements, including the international concern over acid rain. Environmental and economic issues could either encourage or limit the development of a synfuels market for lignite depending on the cost effectiveness of the technological solutions that are developed. Clearly the United States needs to develop its coal resources to reduce dependence on imported oil. However, demand for coal derived substitute petroleum will be constrained by cost for the forseeable future. Government policy initiatives and new technology will be the keys to removing these constraints in the decades ahead. A crossover point with respect to petroleum and natural gas will be reached at some point in the future, which will allow synthetic fuels to penetrate the markets now served by oil and gas. Those of us who are today concerned with the development of lignite resources can look forward to participating in the major synfuels market that will emerge when those economic conditions are realized.

  19. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    35 Table 2-17 Coking Coal Used in Coke Production (1980-Figure 2-5, Figure 2-6). Coking coal accounts for about 45%although less than 40% of coking coal is used for coking (

  20. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    back to cleaned coal (coking coal) and added to the rest ofother bituminous coal and coking coal. Small differences incoal (used as fuel) Coking coal Coke oven coke Natural gas

  1. Sectoral trends in global energy use and greenhouse gas emissions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2006-01-01

    patent fuel, coke oven coke, coke oven gas, blastproduction of steel. Coke oven gas is produced as byproductgas and briquettes (BKB) -- were derived as the ratio of fuel inputs at coke ovens,

  2. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    Variable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke dryVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke drythe waste heat from the coke oven gas to dry the coal used

  3. The Products of the Destructive Distillation of Keratin in the Form of Leather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Reed Phillips

    1913-01-01

    are treated under the same conditions* Prom our knowledge of the de­ structive distillation of organic substances, the most common of which are coal, wood, bones, peat and lignite, it is reasonable to conclude also that the destructive distillation... the question as to what are the char­ acteristic properties of the two carbon residues 20 obtained from the decomposition of carbonaceous materials, termed coke and charcoal. Some author­ ities use the term coke for the carbon residue from coal and call all...

  4. Microbial activities in forest soils exposed to chronic depositions from a lignite power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klose, Susanne; Wernecke, K D; Makeschin, F

    2004-01-01

    around a coal-burning power plant: a case study in the Czechdepositions from a lignite power plant Susanne Klose 1* ,DEPOSITIONS FROM A LIGNITE POWER PLANT Susanne Klose 1* ,

  5. The washability of lignites for clay removal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oteyaka, B.; Yamik, A.; Ucar, A.; Sahbaz, O.; Demir, U. [Dumlupinar University, Kutahya (Turkey). Dept. of Mining Engineering

    2008-07-01

    In the washability research of the Seyitomer Lignites (Kutahya-Turkey), with lower calorific value (1,863 kcal/kg) and high ash content (51.91%), by heavy medium separation, it was found out that middling clay in the coal had an effect to change the medium density. To prevent this problem, a trommel sieve with 18 and 5 mm aperture diameter was designed, and the clay in the coal was tried to be removed using it before the coal was released to heavy medium. Following that, the obtained coal in -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm fractions was subjected to sink and float test having 1.4 gcm{sup -3} and 1.7 gcm{sup -3} medium densities (-5 mm fraction will be evaluated in a separate work). Depending on the raw coal, with the floating of -100 + 18 mm and -18 + 5 mm size fraction in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} medium density, clean coal with 60.10% combustible matter recovery, 19.12% ash, and 3,150 kcal/kg was obtained. Also floating of the samples sinking in 1.4 gcm{sup -3} in the medium density (1.7 gcm{sup -3}), middling with 18.70% combustible matter recovery, 41.93% ash, 2,150 kcal/kg, and tailing having 78.31% ash were obtained.

  6. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Extraction Coking, Coal Gas and Coal Products Oil and NaturalExtraction Coking, Coal Gas and Coal Products Oil and Naturalextraction processing Coke, Coal Gas & Products Oil & Natural

  7. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    Extraction Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products Oil & NaturalExtraction Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products Oil & NaturalExtraction Coking, Coal Gas & Coal Products [3] Oil & Natural

  8. Key China Energy Statistics 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasPower Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Total ConsumptionHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries Gas

  9. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    generation, heating, coking and coal gas production, andgeneration, heating, coking and coal gas production, andgeneration, heating, coking and coal gas production, and

  10. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    refining, oil extraction, coking, coal mining, natural gasthe use of expensive heavy coking coal and increase theof inexpensive semi-coking coal. The ability to substitute

  11. China's Coal: Demand, Constraints, and Externalities

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel

    2010-01-01

    19 3.4. Coking coal for iron & steels FOB export value for coking coal was relatively stables FOB export value for coking coal significantly increased

  12. Key China Energy Statistics 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Heating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasHeating Supply Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries GasRefueling in China Coal Washing Coking Petroleum Refineries

  13. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    gas petroleum waxes coking coal t C/TJ other bituminous coalprocesses of coal washing, coking, petroleum refineries, gaslosses include coal washing, coking, petroleum refining, gas

  14. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    CDQ) Programmed heating Coke oven gas (COG) Variablespeed drive coke oven gas compressors Next generation cokerecovery Injection of coke oven gas and basic oxygen furnace

  15. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    bem) tndustiy Total S' Coke Oven Gas (bem) Light Industry!Manufacturing Balance^ Coke Oven Gas (bcm) Other Coal Gas (Consumption * (continued) Coke Oven Gas (bcm) Subsector

  16. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    years report coking and oil refining investment in a singleyears report coking and oil refining investment in a singleyears report coking and oil refining investment in a single

  17. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORMs) generated from lignite-fired power plants in Kosovo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Available online 16 September 2014 Keywords: Lignite Coal fired power plant Fly ash Bottom ash Naturally depends primarily on lignite-fired power plants. During coal com- bustion, huge amounts of fly ash exposure of workers and the local population. Lignite samples and NORMs of fly ash and bottom ash generated

  18. Hydroliquefaction of Big Brown lignite in supercritical fluids 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Hui

    1996-01-01

    Big Brown lignite was liquefied in a fixed bed tube reactor. Three solvents were used in the liquefaction studies, toluene, cyclohexane and methanol. Two co-solvents, tetralin and water were used with toluene. The effects of the solvents and co...

  19. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    Unit: (Mtce) Liquid Petroleum Gas Natural Gas ElectricityCoke Source Coke Oven Gas Natural Gas Liquid Petroleum GasLiquid Coke Petroleum Refinery Natural Coke Total Petroleum Other Other Gas

  20. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    2] In 1996, 1997, 1998, coking and coal numbers are combined2] In 1996, 1997, 1998, coking and coal numbers are combined1949-2006 Table 2B.7. Coking Coal Used in Coke Production,

  1. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    in BF N.A. Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressureVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke dryin BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recovery

  2. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in India's Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    coal; 6.2% for coke, coke oven gas, natural gas, and cokeexcept for injection of coke oven gas in blast furnace which6   Injection of coke oven gas in BF   7   Top?pressure 

  3. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    2006) 99 Figure 3-28 Coke Oven Gas End-use and Inputsnatural gas use declined. Coke oven gas consumption remainedCoal Total Petroleum Coke Oven Gas Coke Natural Gas

  4. Energy efficiency and carbon dioxide emissions reduction opportunities in the U.S. Iron and Steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Martin, N.; Price, L.

    1999-01-01

    Variable speed drive on coke oven gas compressors DirectVariable speed drive coke oven gas compressors Coke drylevels of off-gases (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and

  5. Hydrogen production from steam reforming of coke oven gas and its utility for indirect reduction of iron oxides in blast

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    a remarkable source of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from anthropogenic and industrial activities [4 for indirect reduction (IR) of iron oxides in blast furnaces (BFs), carbon dioxide emissions can be lessened. Motivated from utilizing hydrogen and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in ironmaking, the reaction

  6. Enhancing P-xylene selectivity during m-xylene transformation using mildly pre-coked ZSM-5 catalyst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    -xylene theoretically obtainable from these aromatic compounds is very much limited by thermodynamics. Consequently [1]. It should be mentioned that toluene alkylation with methanol over ZSM-5 was the first test

  7. The Cylinder: Kinematics of the Nineteenth Century

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Müller-Sievers, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    distillation. The coking of coal as well as the productionin coal mines, in steel and paper mills, in coking plants,

  8. Adding coal dust to coal batch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    V.S. Shved; A.V.Berezin [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    The granulometric composition of coke dust from the dry-slaking machine is determined. The influence of additions of 3-7% coke dust on the quality of industrial coking batch and the coke obtained by box coking is estimated. Adding 1% coke dust to coking batch does not markedly change the coke quality. Industrial equipment for the supply of dry-slaking dust to the batch is described.

  9. A Long, Contingent Path to Comparative Advantage: Industrial Policy and the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900-1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ELBAUM, BERNARD

    2006-01-01

    Overseas Procurement of Coking Coal By the Japanese Steelendowed as Japan in coking coal and iron ore (Yonekura,

  10. Japan's Long-term Energy Demand and Supply Scenario to 2050 - Estimation for the Potential of Massive CO2 Mitigation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Komiyama, Ryoichi

    2010-01-01

    Consumption of coking coal mainly for steelmaking will dropelectricity and town gas. Coking coal consumption mainly for

  11. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    calcium carbide, coking, cement, coal, plate glass, pulp andcarbide 2 Mt Coking 80 Mt Cement 250 Mt Coal mining (

  12. Energy use and carbon dioxide emissions in the steel sector in key developing countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Phylipsen, Dian; Worrell, Ernst

    2001-01-01

    blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, residual and distillateexcess fuel gas is used on site in furnaces and coke ovens (

  13. Assessment of China's Energy-Saving and Emission-Reduction Accomplishments and Opportunities During the 11th Five Year Plan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levine, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    blast furnace, and coke oven gas. Energy savings resultswashed coal, coal gas from blast furnace, and coke oven This

  14. Development of a thermobalance and analysis of lignites by thermogravimetric and statistical methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferguson, James Allen

    1984-01-01

    LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION V11 V1 1 1 THERMAL ANALYSIS COAL EXPERIMENTAL METHODS 12 20 CALCULATING THE CALORIFIC VALUE OF LIGNITES FROM PROXIMATE ANALYSIS DATA GAUSS REDUCTION ILLUSTRATION CONSTRUCTION OF THE THERMOBALANCE... diagram illustrating procedure for determining the proximate analyses of coal or lignite by thermogravimetry 20 EXPERIMENTAL METHODS CALCULATING THE CALORIFIC VALUE OF LIGNITES FROM PROXIMATE ANALISIS DATA One of the most important properties of a...

  15. Impacts of stripmining lignite on net returns for agricultural enterprises in East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morris, Christina

    1984-01-01

    mining. Eighty to 95 percent of the lignite is recovezed. Mining is currently only done to depths of 120 feet; greater than 150 feet is not yet economically feasible (Kaiser et al. 1980). During mining, draglines remove the earth above the lignite... (multiseam) to be mined. The same equipment, draglines and/or scrapers are used to replace and contour the overburden after the lignite is removed. Once the overburden is replaced and contoured the land is revegetated using bermudagrass in warm weather...

  16. Gidaspow, D.; Bezburuah, R.; Ding, J. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    fluidized beds: Kinetic theory approach Gidaspow, D.; Bezburuah, R.; Ding, J. 01 COAL, LIGNITE, AND PEAT; 42 ENGINEERING; 99 GENERAL AND MISCELLANEOUSMATHEMATICS,...

  17. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  18. European Customs & Trade Welcome to the twenty-first

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    duties system. The Coal Tax will be levied on coal, cokes and lignite. It is envisaged that the duty rate on Coal in the Netherlands · East African Community (EAC) Partner States Sign Interim Framework Agreement on Coal in the Netherlands From January 1, 2008, the present Dutch Fuel Tax on coal will no longer apply

  19. Potential Impact of the Development of Lignite Reserves on Water Resources of East Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    James, W. P.; Slowey, J. F.; Garret, R. L.; Ortiz, C.; Bright, J.; King, T.

    1976-01-01

    ,OOO-megawatt plant requires approximately six million tons of lignite per year. When the lignite is fired at the plant some trace metals are concentrated in the fly ash (arsenic, iron, manganese and lead), while others are discharged from the stack primarily as a...

  20. A study of uranium in South Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ilger, Wayne Arthur

    1983-01-01

    , the humic acid was 1solated from uran1ferous Conquista lign1te us1ng Kerndorf's (p. g ) previously mentioned separation procedure. Forty-five percent of the uranium from the or1g1nal lign1te st111 remained in the three times precipitated humic acid, when...A STUDY OF URANIUM IN SOUTH TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by WAYNE ARTHUR ILGER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1983 Major Subject...

  1. Correlation of stratigraphy with revegetation conditions at the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine, Grimes County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parisot, Laurence D.

    1991-01-01

    (after Ott, 1988). . 2 Table for determining the tail area (after Ott, 1988). . . . 59 60 LIST OF FIGURES Figure Page 1 Lignite resources in Texas 2 Use of dragline for surface-mining at the Gibbons Creek Mine, Texas. . 3 3 Method of surface... of the lignite in a trench involves the removal of the overburden with the use of a dragline (Figure 2). When the lignite has been extracted from the cut, the trench is backfilled with the overburden of the adjacent trench. This new overburden forms the spoil...

  2. Engineering geologic analysis of reclaimed spoil at a southeast Texas Gulf Coast surface lignite mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armstrong, Scott Charles

    1987-01-01

    to be extremely heterogeneous. The spoil is composed of sand- to boulder-sxzed fragments of the pre-mtne overburden oriented randomly )n a clay/silt matrtx. The spoil material was found to segregate upon dragline dumping. The coarser clastic material was found... mining technique used in Texas lignite mines. At the Gibbons Creek Lignite Nine overburden is removed by dragline and cast in conical piles to form rows of spoil ridges in the mined-out portion of the preceding mine cut. The lignite is then removed...

  3. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  4. Production of Medium BTU Gas by In Situ Gasification of Texas Lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edgar, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    ~vity planned for the mining of lignite by 1985, at which time Texas is projected to becom~ the seventh largest coal mining state. However, the deep basin lignite cannot be economically recovered by strip or shaft mining. For this lignite there is great...-770652, 1977. 11. Gregg, D. W., and T. F. Edgar, "Underground Coal Gasification," AIChE J., ~, 753 (1978) ? 12. Gregg, D. W., R. W. Hill, and D. U. Olness, "An Overview of the Soviet Effort in Underground Coal Gasification," Lawrence Livermore...

  5. DOE-Sponsored Field Test Finds Potential for Permanent Storage of CO2 in Lignite Seams

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A field test sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy has demonstrated that opportunities to permanently store carbon in unmineable seams of lignite may be more widespread than previously documented.

  6. Evaluation of the Impact of Texas Lignite Development on Texas Water Resources 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathewson, C. C.; Cason, C. L.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel shortages and resultant rising fuel costs as well as federal policies prompting energy independence have served to encourage power companies to exploit available lignite deposits of the western states as a viable fuel source. Large reserves...

  7. Water table recovery in a reclaimed surface lignite mine, Grimes County, Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peace, Kelley H.

    1995-01-01

    Water table recovery in four reclaimed mine blocks containing replaced overburden has been monitored at Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine in Grimes County, Texas since 1986. Recovery analysis was conducted based on data recorded at 27 wells installed...

  8. Engineering geologic feasibility of lignite mining in alluvial valleys by hydraulic dredging methods 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cason, Cynthia Lynn

    1982-01-01

    Stability . Sediment Volume Changes Conventional Lignite Mining Technology Dragline Bucket wheel Excavator . ALLUVIAL VALLEY SEDIMENTS Environment of Deposition Engineering Geology of Alluvial Valley Sediments Disadvantages of Applying Conventional... on samples with varying percentages of sand 54 33 Ultimate percent swell v. highwall height for varying percentages of sand in the overburden spoil . . . . . . . 55 34 Area lignite surface mining with a walking dragline and truck/shovel operations...

  9. The effect of sewage sludge on the physical properties of lignite overburden 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cocke, Catherine Lynn

    1985-01-01

    THE EFFECT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGNITE OVERBURDEN A Thesis by CATHERINE LYNN COCKE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE August 1985 Major Subject: Soil Science THE EFFECT OF SEWAGE SLUDGE ON THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF LIGNITE OVERBURDEN A Thesis by CATHERINE LYNN COCK E Appr as o style and content by: . W. Brown (Chairman of Committee) . Hons (Member...

  10. JV Task - 129 Advanced Conversion Test - Bulgarian Lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Everett Sondreal; Daniel Laudal; Douglas Hajicek; Ann Henderson; Brandon Pavlish

    2009-03-27

    The objectives of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project were to evaluate Bulgarian lignite performance under both fluid-bed combustion and gasification conditions and provide a recommendation as to which technology would be the most technically feasible for the particular feedstock and also identify any potential operating issues (such as bed agglomeration, etc.) that may limit the applicability of a potential coal conversion technology. Gasification tests were run at the EERC in the 100-400-kg/hr transport reactor development unit (TRDU) on a 50-tonne sample of lignite supplied by the Bulgarian Lignite Power Project. The quality of the test sample was inferior to any coal previously tested in this unit, containing 50% ash at 26.7% moisture and having a higher heating value of 5043 kJ/kg after partial drying in preparation for testing. The tentative conclusion reached on the basis of tests in the TRDU is that oxygen-blown gasification of this high-ash Bulgarian lignite sample using the Kellogg, Brown, and Root (KBR) transport gasifier technology would not provide a syngas suitable for directly firing a gas turbine. After correcting for test conditions specific to the pilot-scale TRDU, including an unavoidably high heat loss and nitrogen dilution by transport air, the best-case heating value for oxygen-blown operation was estimated to be 3316 kJ/m{sup 3} for a commercial KRB transport gasifier. This heating value is about 80% of the minimum required for firing a gas turbine. Removing 50% of the carbon dioxide from the syngas would increase the heating value to 4583 kJ/m{sup 3}, i.e., to about 110% of the minimum requirement, and 95% removal would provide a heating value of 7080 kJ/m{sup 3}. Supplemental firing of natural gas would also allow the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology to be utilized without having to remove CO{sub 2}. If removal of all nitrogen from the input gas streams such as the coal transport air were achieved, a heating value very close to that needed to fire a gas turbine would be achieved; however, some operational issues associated with utilizing recycled syngas or carbon dioxide as the transport gas would also have to be resolved. Use of a coal with a quality similar to the core samples provided earlier in the test program would also improve the gasifier performance. Low cold-gas efficiencies on the order of 20% calculated for oxygen-blown tests resulted in part from specific difficulties experienced in trying to operate the pilot-scale TRDU on this very high-ash lignite. These low levels of efficiency are not believed to be representative of what could be achieved in a commercial KRB transport gasifier. Combustion tests were also performed in the EERC's circulating fluidized-bed combustor (CFBC) to evaluate this alternative technology for use of this fuel. It was demonstrated that this fuel does have sufficient heating value to sustain combustion, even without coal drying; however, it will be challenging to economically extract sufficient energy for the generation of steam for electrical generation. The boiler efficiency for the dried coal was 73.5% at 85% sulfur capture (21.4% moisture) compared to 55.3% at 85% sulfur capture (40% moisture). Improved boiler efficiencies for this coal will be possible operating a system more specifically designed to maximize heat extraction from the ash streams for this high-ash fuel. Drying of the coal to approximately 25% moisture probably would be recommended for either power system. Fuel moisture also has a large impact on fuel feedability. Pressurized gasifiers generally like drier fuels than systems operating at ambient pressures. The commercially recommended feedstock moisture for a pressurized transport reactor gasifier is 25% moisture. Maximum moisture content for a CFB system could be approximately 40% moisture as has been demonstrated on the Alstom CFB operating on Mississippi lignite. A preliminary economic evaluation for CO{sub 2} was performed on the alternatives of (1) precombustion separation of CO{sub 2} in

  11. Investigation of the combustion characteristics of Zonguldak bituminous coal using DTA and DTG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haykiri-Acma, H.; Yaman, S.; Kucukbayrak, S.; Okutan, H. [Istanbul Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2006-06-21

    Combustion characteristics of coking, semicoking, and noncoking Turkish bituminous coal samples from Zonguldak basin were investigated applying differential thermal analysis (DTA) and differential thermogravimetry (DTG) techniques. Results were compared with that of the coke from Zonguldak bituminous coal, a Turkish lignite sample from Soma, and a Siberian bituminous coal sample. The thermal data from both techniques showed some differences depending on the proximate analyses of the samples. Noncombustible components of the volatile matter led to important changes in thermal behavior. The data front both methods were, evaluated jointly, and some thermal properties were interpreted considering these methods in a complementary combination.

  12. Desulfurization of organic sulfur from lignite by an electron transfer process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

    2006-10-15

    This study is an attempt to desulfurize organic sulfur from lignite samples with ferrocyanide ion as the electron transferring agent. Effect of temperature, particle size and concentration of ferrocyanide ion on desulfurization from the lignite samples has been investigated. The desulfurization process has been found to be continuous and gradually increases with increase of temperature from 298 to 368 K. The particle size has no significant impact on sulfur removal from the lignite samples. Particle size has no profound impact on the amount of sulfur removal. The desulfurization reaction has been found to be dependent on the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide. Gradual increase in the concentration of potassium ferrocyanide raised the magnitude of desulfurization, but at a higher concentration, the variation is not significant.

  13. Development and evaluation of two reactor designs for desulfurization of Texas lignites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Merritt, Stanley Duane

    1991-01-01

    and organic oxygen. Qn a mass basis, lignites contain very little sulfur; but since the NSPS are based on a pounds of SQx per million Btu measurement, one finds that lignites are dirtier than the high medium volatile bituminous, mvb, coals of the Midwest... if it were not for a moisture content of approximately 30%. All coals were stored under nitrogen to prevent weathering and loss of moisture from the coal. Coal samples were weighed into glass vials for transport to the reactor. A blank was also prepared...

  14. Lignite mine spoil characterization and approaches for its rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Praveen-Kumar; Kumar, S.; Sharma, K.D.; Choudhary, A.; Gehlot, K. [Central Arid Zone Research Inst., Jodhpur (India)

    2005-01-15

    Open cast mining of lignite leaves behind stockpiles of excavated materials (dumps) and refilled mining pits (spoils). Physicochemical and biochemical properties of both kinds of sites were estimated to identify the reasons for their barrenness. Subsequently, surface modifications were attempted, first in a greenhouse and later infield to develop a suitable approach for their rehabilitation. Dumps had low pH (4.8) and high Na{sup +} (2.5 mg g{sup -1}), spoils high pH (8.7) and high Na{sup +} (1.59 mg g{sup -1} soil). Both sites had low available nitrogen and phosphorus and showed very low dehydrogenase and phosphatases activity but no nitrification. The extreme physicochemical conditions and inert nature of damps and spoils explained their barrenness. In the greenhouse experiment, 14 plant species sown in surface materials of dumps and spoils after spreading a 0.15 m thick layer of dune sand, germinated ({gt}85%), and their seedlings survived for two months. This technique was followed at a spoil site (modified spoil site). After three years of stabilization the modified spoil site had only one-fifth Na{sup +} of that in spoil surface in the beginning and also showed higher dehydrogenase and phosphatase activity and nitrification. Pearl millet and Cenchrus ciliaris grown in modified spoil produced 128 to 394 kg and 2.25 to 3.50 Mg dry matter ha{sup -1}. Addition of farmyard manure with N and P fertilizers increased pearl millet yields.

  15. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    effective use of non-coking coal and iron-bearing dust andfrom iron ore and non-coking coal. The process was developedBF production in using non-coking coal as reducing agent and

  16. REGULATION AND SYSTEM INTERDEPENDENCE: EFFECTS ON THE SITING OF CALIFORNIA ELECTRICAL ENERGY FACILITIES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kooser, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    p. 297. Allan Rodgers, "Coking Coal Supply: Its Role in theChanges in the Supply of Coking Coal in Belgium since 1945,"Changes in the Supply of Coking Coal in Belgiumsince 1945,"

  17. Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in China: Growth, Transition, and Institutional Change

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahrl, Fredrich James

    2011-01-01

    coal mining, petroleum extraction and refining, coking, andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking andCoal Mining and Dressing Petroleum and Natural Gas Extraction Petroleum Processing, Coking and

  18. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01

    of medium / poor coking coals (i.e. Partial Briquetting andNevertheless, the Indian non-coking coals, suitable for SSI,blast furnaces require coking coal that is mostly imported.

  19. Review of China's Low-Carbon City Initiative and Developments in the Coal Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2014-01-01

    the slowing growth in coking coal production after 2005,the relative share of coking coal has continued to declinein domestic production of coking coal can be linked to the

  20. China's Energy and Carbon Emissions Outlook to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2011-01-01

    power generation and coal input to coking is not included inTransformation Coking Generation CIS Total Coal Demand (Coking Generation AIS Figure 44 CIS and AIS Coal Demand by

  1. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    BF) and injection of coke oven gas in BF, which were treatedin BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recoverythe use of untapped coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, and

  2. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    third of the cleaned coke oven gas (COG) is used to fuel theor higher Utilization of coke oven gas as energy carrier,include a coal gasifier, coke oven gas, or BOF gas. The big

  3. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    in BF Injection of coke oven gas in BF Top-pressure recoverythe use of untapped coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, andthe sensible heat of the coke oven gas (COG) is collected by

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    for utilization of coke oven gas in integrated iron andexcluded (e.g. steam, coke oven gases, BF gases). The lineof properly). The resulting coke oven gas is used as a fuel,

  5. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01

    and Stamp Charging). Maximum Recovery of Coke Oven GasUsing Coke Oven Gas for achieving higher blast temperatureA. Automatic Ignition of Coke Oven Gas Flare Units Equipped

  6. A Comparison of Iron and Steel Production Energy Use and Energy Intensity in China and the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Natural gas Electricity Coke oven gas (COG) Unit Convertin Table 17. Convert Coke Oven Gas (COG) and Other Coal Gassteel industry, such as coke oven gas and other coal gas,

  7. THE FURNACE COMBUSTION AND RADIATION CHARACTERISTICS OF METHANOL AND A METHANOL/COAL SLURRY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosshandler, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Fl ames of Liqui d Fuel/Coke-Oven Gas Mixtures, ..2. I Fuelof liquid fuel with coke-oven gas was the I subject ofabout twice as large. Coke-oven gas, which has less methane

  8. Ground-water hydrogeology and geochemistry of a reclaimed lignite surface mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pollock, Clifford Ralph

    1982-01-01

    is removed by a walking dragline and cast in con- ical piles to form rows of spoil ridges in the mined-out portion of the preceding mine cut. The lignite is removed by smaller pieces of earth- moving equipment, such as crawler-mounted power shovels, front...

  9. Soil microbial biomass: an estimator of soil development in reclaimed lignite mine soil 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swanson, Eric Scott

    1996-01-01

    A two-year study was conducted at the Big Brown lignite mine in Fairfield, Texas, to determine the rate and extent of recovery of the soil microbial biomass (SMB) in mixed overburden. The relationships between SMB carbon (SMBC), basal respiration...

  10. Characteristics of chars produced from lignites by pyrolysis at 808C following

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Characteristics of chars produced from lignites by pyrolysis at 808°C following rapid heating heating up at 8 x 103'C/s. Following pyrolysis, the chars were rapidly cooled - at about 3 x 104"C/s. Weight losses were measured as a function of pyrolysis time. The following measure- ments were made

  11. Coke oven air and water pollution. 1970-June, 1981 (citations from the Engineering Index Data Base). Report for 1970-Jun 81

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-07-01

    Monitoring, sampling, analyzing, transport properties, and control of emissions and effluents are cited in this compilation from worldwide journals. Pollutants described are sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, phenols, benzopyrene, particulates and other trace elements and compounds. Process and equipment modifications, such as pipeline charging, wet and dry quenching, retrofitting, and oven leakage preventives are included. (This updated bibliography contains 210 citations, 9 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  12. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for Relative Standard Errors for Table

  13. ,,,,,,"Coal Components",,,"Coke",,,"Electricity Components",,,,,,,,,,,,,,"Natural Gas Components",,,"Steam Components"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: AlternativeMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"Release7 Relative Standard Errors for Relative Standard Errors for Table2

  14. Industrial Sector Energy Conservation Programs in the People's Republic of China during the Seventh Five-Year Plan (1986-1990)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhiping, L.

    2010-01-01

    in coking, sterling, ironmaking, and open hearth processes,injections for coke in ironmaking is a common practiceinjection methods i n ironmaking. Data from the Anshan Iron

  15. Fuel Tables.indd

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    8: Coal Price and Expenditure Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2013 State Coal Coal Coke Prices Expenditures Prices Expenditures Residential Commercial Industrial...

  16. Fuel Tables.indd

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7: Coal Consumption Estimates and Imports and Exports of Coal Coke, 2013 State Coal Coal Coke Residential a Commercial Industrial Electric Power Total Residential a Commercial...

  17. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    of steam coal and coking coal to be $15/t (IEA, 1995). Thisaround 8-9% for good coking coal (IISI, 1982). Drying

  18. India Energy Outlook: End Use Demand in India to 2020

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2009-01-01

    5% of its reserve is coking coal used by the steel industry.imports around 70% of coking coal annually. More recently,

  19. How Godzilla Ate Pittsburgh: The Long Rise of the Japanese Iron and Steel Industry, 1900–1973

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernard Elbaum

    2007-01-01

    poorly endowed as Japan in coking coal and iron ore (WarrenYawata of iron ore for coking coal and the progressive in-

  20. DISTRIBUTED ENERGY SYSTEMS IN CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: A PRELIMINARY REPORT, VOLUME I

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Authors, Various

    2010-01-01

    d The predominant use is coking coal for steel production.a,metallurgical grade coal for coking use in steel making (

  1. National Level Co-Control Study of the Targets for Energy Intensity and Sulfur Dioxide in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2013-01-01

    coal Gas coal Fat coal Coking coal Lean coal Meagre coalCoal used for coking Natural Gas Coal used as fuel Source:

  2. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    laden gas with self-cleaning boiler. ” March, No. 1. -----.Coal Coke & other Total Boilers Total Process Use Processwere previously not allocated to boiler inputs and coke for

  3. Clean Energy Technologies: A Preliminary Inventory of the Potential for Electricity Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen; Worrell, Ernst

    2005-01-01

    levels of off-gases (coke oven gas, blast furnace gas, andhave ready access to coke oven gas (55% of integrated plants

  4. Emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2000-01-01

    High Levels Of PCI Coke Oven Gas Cogeneration "Pickliq" HCLt gy ypes N at algas,coke oven gas ur Fuel M ar segm ent ket

  5. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    was removed from a coke-oven gas stream by absorption into afrom the The gas stream leaving the coke ovens is usually

  6. Determination of performance characteristics of a one-cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu (lignite) gas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blacksmith, James Richard

    1979-01-01

    -Btu (Lignite) Gas. (August 1979) James Richard Blacksmith, B. S. , Texas ASM University Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. Francis W. Holm An experimental investigation was conducted to deter- mine the dual-fuel performance characteristics of a one...- cylinder diesel engine modified to burn low-Btu gas, such as would be obtained from the underground gasification of lignite. Conventional diesel and dual-fuel engine performance tests were conducted with the engine coupled to a station- ary water...

  7. An investigation of changes in groundwater quality caused by in-situ gasification of East Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach, Kimberly Sue

    1988-01-01

    AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AGM University in Partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1988 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering AN INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES IN GROUNDWATER QUALITY CAUSED BY IN-SITU GASIFICATION OF EAST TEXAS LIGNITE A Thesis by KIMBERLY SUE LEACH Approved as to style and content by...

  8. An engineering geologic impact analysis of hydraulic dredging for lignite in Texas alluvial valleys 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nolan, Erich Donald Luis

    1985-01-01

    percent, or 4. 7 billion tons of the state's lignite is present in alluvial valleys. Due to frequent surface-water flooding and shallow ground-water tables, mining in the floodplain environment by the dragline-shovel-haul truck method would... in an alluvial valley would pose a constant problem. In fact, present surface mining techniques utilizing the dragline-shovel- haul truck method could not. operate in the floodplain environment without large scale, expensive surface water and ground water...

  9. Potential for selenium migration at a lignite power plant solid waste disposal facility 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Steven Douglas

    1986-01-01

    . All groundwater that recharges on the disposal site is slightly saline and flows east, probably discharging into the Gibbons Creek Reservoir. Selenium, arsenic, boron, iron, manganese, and sulfate in the lignite waste effluent exceed either EPA... ( 1975) drinking water standards or EPA (1973) recommended livestock water standards. Since the natural groundwater contains higher concentrations of selenium, iron, manganese, and sulfate than the waste effluent, only arsenic and boron should...

  10. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite. Task 3.6, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    The US has invested heavily in research, development, and demonstration of efficient and environmentally acceptable technologies for the use of coal. The US has the opportunity to use its leadership position to market a range of advanced coal-based technologies internationally. For example, coal mining output in the Czech Republic has been decreasing. This decrease in demand can be attributed mainly to the changing structure of the Czech economy and to environmental constraints. The continued production of energy from indigenous brown coals is a major concern for the Czech Republic. The strong desire to continue to use this resource is a challenge. The Energy and Environmental Research Center undertook two major efforts recently. One effort involved an assessment of opportunities for commercialization of US coal technologies in the Czech Republic. This report is the result of that effort. The technology assessment focused on the utilization of Czech brown coals. These coals are high in ash and sulfur, and the information presented in this report focuses on the utilization of these brown coals in an economically and environmentally friendly manner. Sections 3--5 present options for utilizing the as-mined coal, while Sections 6 and 7 present options for upgrading and generating alternative uses for the lignite. Contents include Czech Republic national energy perspectives; powering; emissions control; advanced power generation systems; assessment of lignite-upgrading technologies; and alternative markets for lignite.

  11. Enhancing Carbon Reactivity in Mercury Control in Lignite-Fired Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chad Wocken; Michael Holmes; John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Katie Brandt; Brandon Pavlish; Dennis Laudal; Kevin Galbreath; Michelle Olderbak

    2008-06-30

    This project was awarded through the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Program Solicitation DE-PS26-03NT41718-01. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) led a consortium-based effort to resolve mercury (Hg) control issues facing the lignite industry. The EERC team-the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI); the URS Corporation; the Babcock & Wilcox Company; ADA-ES; Apogee; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Otter Tail Power Company; Great River Energy; Texas Utilities; Montana-Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnkota Power Cooperative, Inc.; BNI Coal Ltd.; Dakota Westmoreland Corporation; the North American Coal Corporation; SaskPower; and the North Dakota Industrial Commission-demonstrated technologies that substantially enhanced the effectiveness of carbon sorbents to remove Hg from western fuel combustion gases and achieve a high level ({ge} 55% Hg removal) of cost-effective control. The results of this effort are applicable to virtually all utilities burning lignite and subbituminous coals in the United States and Canada. The enhancement processes were previously proven in pilot-scale and limited full-scale tests. Additional optimization testing continues on these enhancements. These four units included three lignite-fired units: Leland Olds Station Unit 1 (LOS1) and Stanton Station Unit 10 (SS10) near Stanton and Antelope Valley Station Unit 1 (AVS1) near Beulah and a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB)-fired unit: Stanton Station Unit 1 (SS1). This project was one of three conducted by the consortium under the DOE mercury program to systematically test Hg control technologies available for utilities burning lignite. The overall objective of the three projects was to field-test and verify options that may be applied cost-effectively by the lignite industry to reduce Hg emissions. The EERC, URS, and other team members tested sorbent injection technologies for plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and spray dryer absorbers combined with fabric filters (SDAs-FFs). The work focused on technology commercialization by involving industry and emphasizing the communication of results to vendors and utilities throughout the project.

  12. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options in ISEEM Global Energy Model: 2010-2050 Scenario Analysis for Least-Cost Carbon Reduction in Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karali, Nihan

    2014-01-01

    forecast future prices of all the raw materials, coking coal andprices of coking coal and coke using China’s production as input in the forecastforecasts for the period 2010-2035 are used to project future prices of the energy sources other than coking coal and

  13. Division Person Title Authors Authorship Role(s) Research Theme Citation Uptake and speciation of vanadium in the benthic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacMillan, Andrew

    ;():() Impact of petroleum coke characteristics on the adsorption of the organic fractions from oil sands

  14. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    fuel must be solid and have downdraft combustion characteristics similar to those of coke breeze. Charcoal

  15. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    distillation, petroleum coking, catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrotreating (catalytic cracker feed/diesel/kerosene/naphtha/gasoline),

  16. A Online appendix to accompany "A Spatial Approach to Energy Economics"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calgary, University of

    of the Standard International Trade Classification, Rev. 4 as: coal, coke and briquettes; petroleum, petroleum

  17. Description: Start | Grid View | Browse by Day OR Group/Topical | Author Index | Keyword Index | Personal Scheduler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    Knowlton (172b) COAL Direct Chemical Looping Process: Metallurigical Coke and PRB COAL Conversions L. - S

  18. Implementation of SB 1368 Emission Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ........................................................................... 8 Chapter 4: Emissions Performance Standard .....................13 Coal................................................................................................................. 14 Petroleum Coke

  19. Development and evaluation of a lignite-stillage carrier system for application and study of biological control agents 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Richard Worth

    1983-01-01

    Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) (Head of Department) December 1983 ABSTRACT Development and Evaluation of a Lignite-Sti liege Carrier System for Application and Study of Biological Agents. (December 1983.... The carrier system consisted of lignite granules amended with thin liquid sti llage. This carrier system supported fungal propagule production as high as 2. 0 x 10g propagules/g carrier. Thin liquid sti llage supported the production of 4. 0-4. 5 mg of g...

  20. A study of uranium distribution in an upper Jackson lignite-sandstone ore body, South Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatham, James Randall

    1979-01-01

    mentary uranium ore depos- its. Dickinson and Duval (1977) 11st these major ore controls as follows: I) a source rock; 2) a leaching mechanism; 3) a transporting medium; 4) a host rock; 5) a reductant; and 6) preservation of the deposit. A su1table...A STUDY OF URANIUM DISTRIBUTION IN AN UPPER JACKSON LIGNITE-SANDSTONE ORE BODY, SOUTH TEXAS A Thesis James Randall Chatham Subnitted to the Graduate College of Texas A8M University in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree...

  1. Characterization of Texas lignite and numerical modeling of its in-situ gasification 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yih-Jy

    1983-01-01

    Modeling Site selection for in-situ gasification projects normally involves application of site screen1ng criteria. Some of these cr1teria were discussed by Russell et al. (1983). Numerical simulation may play an important role in s1te selection...CHARACTERIZATION OF TEXAS LIGNITE AND NUMERICAL MODELING OF ITS IN-SITU GASIFICATION A Thesis by YIH-JY WANG Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER...

  2. JV Task 117 - Impact of Lignite Properties on Powerspan's NOx Oxidation System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scott Tolbert; Steven Benson

    2008-02-29

    Powerspan's multipollutant control process called electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) technology is designed to simultaneously remove SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, PM{sub 2.5}, acid gases (such as hydrogen fluoride [HF], hydrochloric acid [HCl], and sulfur trioxide [SO{sub 3}]), Hg, and other metals from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. The core of this technology is a dielectric barrier discharge reactor composed of cylindrical quartz electrodes residing in metal tubes. Electrical discharge through the flue gas, passing between the electrode and the tube, produces reactive O and OH radicals. The O and OH radicals react with flue gas components to oxidize NO to NO{sub 2} and HNO{sub 3} and a small portion of the SO{sub 2} to SO{sub 3} and H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The oxidized compounds are subsequently removed in a downstream scrubber and wet electrostatic precipitator. A challenging characteristic of selected North Dakota lignites is their high sodium content. During high-sodium lignite combustion and gas cooling, the sodium vaporizes and condenses to produce sodium- and sulfur-rich aerosols. Based on past work, it was hypothesized that the sodium aerosols would deposit on and react with the silica electrodes and react with the silica electrodes, resulting in the formation of sodium silicate. The deposit and reacted surface layer would then electrically alter the electrode, thus impacting its dielectric properties and NO{sub x} conversion capability. The purpose of this project was to determine the impact of lignite-derived flue gas containing sodium aerosols on Powerspan's dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) reactor with specific focus on the interaction with the quartz electrodes. Partners in the project were Minnkota Power Cooperative; Basin Electric Power Cooperative; Montana Dakota Utilities Co.; Minnesota Power; the North Dakota Industrial Commission, the Lignite Energy Council, and the Lignite Research Council; the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); and the U.S. Department of Energy. An electrocatalytic oxidation (ECO) reactor slipstream system was designed by Powerspan and the EERC. The slipstream system was installed by the EERC at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young Station Unit 1 downstream of the electrostatic precipitator where the flue gas temperature ranged from 300 to 350 F. The system was commissioned on July 3, 2007, operated for 107 days, and then winterized upon completion of the testing campaign. Operational performance of the system was monitored, and data were archived for postprocessing. A pair of electrodes were extracted and replaced on a biweekly basis. Each pair of electrodes was shipped to Powerspan to determine NO conversion efficiency in Powerspan's laboratory reactor. Tested electrodes were then shipped to the EERC for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and x-ray microanalysis. Measurement of NO{sub x} conversion online in operating the slipstream system was not possible because the nitric and sulfuric acid production by the DBD reactor results in conditioning corrosion challenges in the sample extraction system and NO measurement technologies. The operational observations, performance results, and lab testing showed that the system was adversely affected by accumulation of the aerosol materials on the electrode. NO{sub x} conversion by ash-covered electrodes was significantly reduced; however, with electrodes that were rinsed with water, the NOx conversion efficiency recovered to nearly that of a new electrode. In addition, the visual appearance of the electrode after washing did not show evidence of a cloudy reacted surface but appeared similar to an unexposed electrode. Examination of the electrodes using SEM x-ray microanalysis showed significant elemental sodium, sulfur, calcium, potassium, and silica in the ash coating the electrodes. There was no evidence of the reaction of the sodium with the silica electrodes to produce sodium silicate layers. All SEM images showed a clearly marked boundary between the ash and the silica. Sodium and sulfur are the main culprits in the

  3. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Michael J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Jill M. Mackenzie; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang

    2005-02-01

    The overall objective of the project was to develop advanced innovative mercury control technologies to reduce mercury emissions by 50%-90% in flue gases typically found in North Dakota lignite-fired power plants at costs from one-half to three-quarters of current estimated costs. Power plants firing North Dakota lignite produce flue gases that contain >85% elemental mercury, which is difficult to collect. The specific objectives were focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The approach to developing Hg control technologies for North Dakota lignites involved examining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg capture upstream of an ESP using sorbent enhancement, Hg oxidation and control using dry scrubbers, enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel and oxidizing catalysts, and testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter.

  4. Advanced power assessment for Czech lignite task 3.6. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondreal, E.A.; Mann, M.D.; Weber, G.W.; Young, B.C.

    1995-12-01

    Major reforms in the Czech energy sector have been initiated to reverse 40 years of central planning, subsidized energy pricing, unchecked pollution from coal-fired plants, concerns over nuclear safety and fuel cycle management, and dependence on the former U.S.S.R. for oil, gas, and nuclear fuel processing. Prices for electricity, heat, and natural gas paid by industry are close to western levels, but subsidized prices for households are as much as 40% lower and below economic cost. State control of major energy enterprises is being reduced by moving toward government-regulated, investor-owned companies to raise needed capital, but with a strategic stake retained by the state. Foreign firms will participate in privatization, but they are not expected to acquire a controlling interest in Czech energy companies. Economic conditions in the Czech Republic are now improving after the disruptions caused by restructuring since 1989 and separation of the former Czech and Slovak Federal Republics in January 1993. The downturn in the economy after 1989 was concentrated in energy-intensive heavy industry, and recovery is paced by consumer trade, services, light industry and construction. Energy use in relation to gross domestic product (GDP) has declined, but it is still significantly higher than in OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) countries. The GDP increased by 2% in 1994 after dropping 22% between 1989 and 1993. A positive balance of payments has been achieved, with foreign investment offsetting a small trade deficit. The government`s external debt is only 4% of GDP. This report studies the application of lignite resources within the newly formulated energy policies of the republic, in light of a move toward privatization and stronger air pollution regulations. Lignite has represented the major energy source for the country.

  5. Development and chemical quality of a ground-water system in cast overburden as the Gibbons Creek Lignite Mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borbely, Evelyn Susanna

    1988-01-01

    Hydrogeochemistry of Reclaimed Spoil RESEARCH METHODOLOGY Field Methods Monitoring Well Locations Drilling and Spoil Sampling Installation and Development of Monitoring Wells Ground-Water Sampling Hydraulic Conductivity Testing Page V1 1X X111 14 21 22... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Locations of research stations in reclaimed portions of the A and B surface mining pits Distribution of Texas near-surface lignite (Kaiser et al. , 1974) Fayette fluvial-delta system and dip profile, Jackson Group, central and East Texas...

  6. The effect of CO? on the flammability limits of low-BTU gas of the type obtained from Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gaines, William Russell

    1983-01-01

    Chairman of Advisory Committee: Dr. W. N. Heffington An experimental study was conducted to determine if relatively large amounts of CO in a low-BTU gas of the type 2 derived from underground gasification of Texas lignite would cause significant... time when I was in need. Finally, the Center for Energy and Mineral Resources and the Texas Engineering Experiment Station for support related to this research. TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE ABSTRACT ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES V1...

  7. Large-Scale Mercury Control Technology Testing for Lignite-Fired Utilities - Oxidation Systems for Wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Michael J. Holmes; Donald P. McCollor; Jill M. Mackenzie; Charlene R. Crocker; Lingbu Kong; Kevin C. Galbreath

    2007-03-31

    Mercury (Hg) control technologies were evaluated at Minnkota Power Cooperative's Milton R. Young (MRY) Station Unit 2, a 450-MW lignite-fired cyclone unit near Center, North Dakota, and TXU Energy's Monticello Steam Electric Station (MoSES) Unit 3, a 793-MW lignite--Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal-fired unit near Mt. Pleasant, Texas. A cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber are used at MRY and MoSES for controlling particulate and sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions, respectively. Several approaches for significantly and cost-effectively oxidizing elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in lignite combustion flue gases, followed by capture in an ESP and/or FGD scrubber were evaluated. The project team involved in performing the technical aspects of the project included Babcock & Wilcox, the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC), the Electric Power Research Institute, and URS Corporation. Calcium bromide (CaBr{sub 2}), calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), magnesium chloride (MgCl{sub 2}), and a proprietary sorbent enhancement additive (SEA), hereafter referred to as SEA2, were added to the lignite feeds to enhance Hg capture in the ESP and/or wet FGD. In addition, powdered activated carbon (PAC) was injected upstream of the ESP at MRY Unit 2. The work involved establishing Hg concentrations and removal rates across existing ESP and FGD units, determining costs associated with a given Hg removal efficiency, quantifying the balance-of-plant impacts of the control technologies, and facilitating technology commercialization. The primary project goal was to achieve ESP-FGD Hg removal efficiencies of {ge}55% at MRY and MoSES for about a month.

  8. Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katherine Dombrowski

    2009-12-31

    This report presents the results of a multi-year test program conducted as part of Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-06NT42779, 'Mercury Control for Plants Firing Texas Lignite and Equipped with ESP-wet FGD.' The objective of this program was to determine the level of mercury removal achievable using sorbent injection for a plant firing Texas lignite fuel and equipped with an ESP and wet FGD. The project was primarily funded by the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory. EPRI, NRG Texas, Luminant (formerly TXU), and AEP were project co-funders. URS Group was the prime contractor, and Apogee Scientific and ADA-ES were subcontractors. The host site for this program was NRG Texas Limestone Electric Generating Station (LMS) Units 1 and 2, located in Jewett, Texas. The plant fires a blend of Texas lignite and Powder River Basin (PRB) coal. Full-scale tests were conducted to evaluate the mercury removal performance of powdered sorbents injected into the flue gas upstream of the ESP (traditional configuration), upstream of the air preheater, and/or between electric fields within the ESP (Toxecon{trademark} II configuration). Phases I through III of the test program, conducted on Unit 1 in 2006-2007, consisted of three short-term parametric test phases followed by a 60-day continuous operation test. Selected mercury sorbents were injected to treat one quarter of the flue gas (e.g., approximately 225 MW equivalence) produced by Limestone Unit 1. Six sorbents and three injection configurations were evaluated and results were used to select the best combination of sorbent (Norit Americas DARCO Hg-LH at 2 lb/Macf) and injection location (upstream of the ESP) for a two-month performance evaluation. A mercury removal rate of 50-70% was targeted for the long-term test. During this continuous-injection test, mercury removal performance and variability were evaluated as the plant operated under normal conditions. Additional evaluations were made to determine any balance-of-plant impacts of the mercury control process, including those associated with ESP performance and fly ash reuse properties. Upon analysis of the project results, the project team identified several areas of interest for further study. Follow-on testing was conducted on Unit 2 in 2009 with the entire unit treated with injected sorbent so that mercury removal across the FGD could be measured and so that other low-ash impact technologies could be evaluated. Three approaches to minimizing ash impacts were tested: (1) injection of 'low ash impact' sorbents, (2) alterations to the injection configuration, and (3) injection of calcium bromide in conjunction with sorbent. These conditions were tested with the goal of identifying the conditions that result in the highest mercury removal while maintaining the sorbent injection at a rate that preserves the beneficial use of ash.

  9. EFFECTS OF SODIUM AND CALCIUM IN LIGNITE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwin S. Olson; Kurt E. Eylands; Daniel J. Stepan

    2001-12-01

    New federal drinking water regulations have been promulgated to restrict the levels of disinfection by-products (DBPs) in finished public water supplies. DBPs are suspected carcinogens and are formed when organic material is partially oxidized by disinfectants commonly used in the water treatment industry. Additional federal mandates are expected in the near future that will also affect public water suppliers with respect to DBPs. These new federal drinking water regulations may require public water suppliers to adjust treatment practices or incorporate additional treatment operations into their existing treatment trains. Many options have been identified, including membrane processes, granular activated carbon, powered activated carbon (PAC), enhanced coagulation and/or softening, and alternative disinfectants (e.g., chlorine dioxide, ozone, and chloramines). Of the processes being considered, PAC appears to offer an attractive benefit-to-cost advantage for many water treatment plants, particularly small systems (those serving fewer than 10,000 customers). PAC has traditionally been used by the water treatment industry for the removal of compounds contributing to taste and odor problems. PAC also has the potential to remove naturally occurring organic matter (NOM) from raw waters prior to disinfection, thus controlling the formation of regulated DBPs. Many small water systems are currently using PAC for taste and odor control and have the potential to use PAC for controlling DBPs. Activated carbons can be produced from a variety of raw materials, including wood, peat, coconut husks, and numerous types of coal. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has been working on the development of a PAC product to remove NOM from surface water supplies to prevent the formation of carcinogenic DBPs during chlorination. During that study, the sodium and calcium content of the lignites showed a significant effect on the sorption capacity of the activated carbon product. As much as a 130% increase in the humic acid sorption capacity of a PAC produced from a high-sodium-content lignite was observed. We hypothesize that the sodium and calcium content of the coal plays a significant role in the development of pore structures and pore-size distribution, ultimately producing activated carbon products that have greater sorption capacity for specific contaminants, depending on molecular size.

  10. PILOT-AND FULL-SCALE DEMONSTRATION OF ADVANCED MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR LIGNITE-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Kevin C. Galbreath; Jay R. Gunderson; Mike J. Holmes; Jason D. Laumb; Michelle R. Olderbak; John H. Pavlish; Li Yan; Ye Zhuang; Jill M. Zola

    2004-02-01

    North Dakota lignite-fired power plants have shown a limited ability to control mercury emissions in currently installed electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), dry scrubbers, and wet scrubbers (1). This low level of control can be attributed to the high proportions of Hg{sup 0} present in the flue gas. Speciation of Hg in flue gases analyzed as part of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) information collection request (ICR) for Hg data showed that Hg{sup 0} ranged from 56% to 96% and oxidized mercury ranged from 4% to 44%. The Hg emitted from power plants firing North Dakota lignites ranged from 45% to 91% of the total Hg, with the emitted Hg being greater than 85% elemental. The higher levels of oxidized mercury were only found in a fluidized-bed combustion system. Typically, the form of Hg in the pulverized and cyclone-fired units was dominated by Hg{sup 0} at greater than 85%, and the average amount of Hg{sup 0} emitted from North Dakota power plants was 6.7 lb/TBtu (1, 2). The overall objective of this Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) project is to develop and evaluate advanced and innovative concepts for controlling Hg emissions from North Dakota lignite-fired power plants by 50%-90% at costs of one-half to three-fourths of current estimated costs. The specific objectives are focused on determining the feasibility of the following technologies: Hg oxidation for increased Hg capture in wet and dry scrubbers, incorporation of additives and technologies that enhance Hg sorbent effectiveness in ESPs and baghouses, the use of amended silicates in lignite-derived flue gases for Hg capture, and the use of Hg adsorbents within a baghouse. The scientific approach to solving the problems associated with controlling Hg emissions from lignite-fired power plants involves conducting testing of the following processes and technologies that have shown promise on a bench, pilot, or field scale: (1) activated carbon injection (ACI) upstream of an ESP combined with sorbent enhancement, (2) Hg oxidation and control using wet and dry scrubbers, (3) enhanced oxidation at a full-scale power plant using tire-derived fuel (TDF) and oxidizing catalysts, and (4) testing of Hg control technologies in the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter insert.

  11. Industrial properties of lignitic and lignocellulosic fly ashes from Turkish sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demirbas, A.; Cetin, S.

    2006-01-21

    Fly ash is an inorganic matter from combustion of the carbonaceous solid fuels. More than half the electricity in Turkey is produced from lignite-fired power plants. This energy production has resulted in the formation of more than 13 million tons of fly ash waste annually. The presence of carbon in fly ash inducing common faults include adding unwanted black color and adsorbing process or product materials such as water and chemicals. One of the reasons for not using fly ash directly is its carbon content. For some uses carbon must be lower than 3%. Fly ash has been used for partial replacement of cement, aggregate, or both for nearly 70 years, and it is still used on a very limited scale in Turkey. The heavy metal content of industrial wastewaters is an important source of environmental pollution. Each of the three major oxides (SiO{sub 2} + Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} + Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) in fly ash can be ideal as a metal adsorbent.

  12. JV Task 106 - Feasibility of CO2 Capture Technologies for Existing North Dakota Lignite-Fired Pulverized Coal Boilers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael L. Jones; Brandon M. Pavlish; Melanie D. Jensen

    2007-05-01

    The goal of this project is to provide a technical review and evaluation of various carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture technologies, with a focus on the applicability to lignite-fired facilities within North Dakota. The motivation for the project came from the Lignite Energy Council's (LEC's) need to identify the feasibility of CO{sub 2} capture technologies for existing North Dakota lignite-fired, pulverized coal (pc) power plants. A literature review was completed to determine the commercially available technologies as well as to identify emerging CO{sub 2} capture technologies that are currently in the research or demonstration phase. The literature review revealed few commercially available technologies for a coal-fired power plant. CO{sub 2} separation and capture using amine scrubbing have been performed for several years in industry and could be applied to an existing pc-fired power plant. Other promising technologies do exist, but many are still in the research and demonstration phases. Oxyfuel combustion, a technology that has been used in industry for several years to increase boiler efficiency, is in the process of being tailored for CO{sub 2} separation and capture. These two technologies were chosen for evaluation for CO{sub 2} separation and capture from coal-fired power plants. Although oxyfuel combustion is still in the pilot-scale demonstration phase, it was chosen to be evaluated at LEC's request because it is one of the most promising emerging technologies. As part of the evaluation of the two chosen technologies, a conceptual design, a mass and energy balance, and an economic evaluation were completed.

  13. Transformation of alkali metals during pyrolysis and gasification of a lignite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiaofang Wei; Jiejie Huang; Tiefeng Liu; Yitian Fang; Yang Wang [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Institute of Coal Chemistry

    2008-05-15

    Transformation of Na and K in a lignite was investigated during pyrolysis and gasification in a fixed-bed by using a serial dissolution method with H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solutions. The evolution of the fractions of four forms in solid and alkali volatilization during pyrolysis and gasification was determined. The results show that a different mode of occurrence between Na and of K in coal existed. Na in coal can be nearly completely dissolved by H{sub 2}O, CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4}, and HCl solution. However, K in coal exists almost in the stable forms. Both H{sub 2}O soluble and CH{sub 3}COONH{sub 4} soluble Na and K fractions decline during pyrolysis and early gasification stage and increase a little with the process of char gasification. The stable form Na in the char produced during pyrolysis is transferred to other forms during char gasification via the pore opening and a series of chemical reactions. Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) may play an important role in producing stable forms such as Na{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}2SiO{sub 2} and K{sub 2}O.Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.2SiO{sub 2} during pyrolysis. The fraction of HCl soluble K increases during pyrolysis but decreases markedly during the early gasification stage. 20 refs., 7 figs., 1 tabs.

  14. "Code(a)","End Use","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)"," Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981" ,"DataWorking17.2Residential"0 DETAILED DATA52.31.33

  15. "End Use","for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981" ,"DataWorking17.2Residential"0 DETAILED3.49

  16. Baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-11-01

    This baseline risk assessment of ground water contamination at the inactive uraniferous lignite ashing site near Bowman, North Dakota, evaluates the potential impacts to public health or the environment from contaminated ground water at this site. This contamination is a result of the uraniferous lignite ashing process, when coal containing uranium was burned to produce uranium. Potential risk is quantified only for constituents introduced by the processing activities and not for the constituents naturally occurring in background ground water in the site vicinity. Background ground water, separate from any site-related contamination, imposes a percentage of the overall risk from ground water ingestion in the Bowman site vicinity. The US Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project is developing plans to address soil and ground water contamination at the site. The UMTRA Surface Project involves the determination of the extent of soil contamination and design of an engineered disposal cell for long-term storage of contaminated materials. The UMTRA Ground Water Project evaluates ground water contamination. Based on results from future site monitoring activities as defined in the site observational work plan and results from this risk assessment, the DOE will propose an approach for managing contaminated ground water at the Bowman site.

  17. Improving the Carbon Dioxide Emission Estimates from the Combustion of Fossil Fuels in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane

    2010-01-01

    residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oil)residual fuel oil, petroleum coke, and waste and other oilOil Lubricants Naphtha Petroleum feedstocks Natural Gas Liquids Municipal Solid Waste

  18. Energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jingsi, M.C.P. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I examine the spatial and economic factors that influence energy intensity in China's iron and steel sector, namely industrial value added, renovation investment, coke consumption, and local coke supply. ...

  19. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorighi, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    poor coking coal in order to increase its coking properties.property of being able to dissolve an appreciable amount of coalcoal. Many attempts have been made to correlate solvent activity with physical properties

  20. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    a refinery: coking, catalytic cracking and hydrocracking,hydrocracking and coking processes are the most complex processes found in a refinery.refineries also process residual oils in specially designed hydrocracking

  1. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    Consumption by Fuel COAL NATURAL GAS PETROLEUM Figure 1. China’Consumption Coal Coke and Other Derivatives Petroleum Natural Gas Figure 10. China’Consumption Coal Coke and Other Derivatives Petroleum Natural Gas Figure 11. China’

  2. To link to this article : DOI:10.1016/j.fuel.2011.11.066 URL : http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0016236111007800#

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , alexandre and Debenest, Gérald Modelling of non-consolidated oil shale semi- coke forward combustion : 10.1016/j.fuel.2011.11.066 #12;Modelling of non-consolidated oil shale semi-coke forward combustion

  3. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    icity heat Ammonia NG Fuel Oil Heavy oil Electric ity heatNaphtha Feed Stock Coal Heavy oil NG biomass ElectricityCoal Coke Electricit y NG Heavy oil Coal Coke Electricity

  4. Is China on Track to Comply with Its 2020 Copenhagen Carbon Intensity Commitment?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Yuan; Zhang, Junjie; Wang, Can

    2014-01-01

    consumption data by types: coal, coke, crude oil, gasoline,consumption data by type including: coal, coke, crude oil,various fossil fuels Fuel type Raw coal Cleaned coal Other

  5. China's Industrial Carbon Dioxide Emissions in Manufacturing Subsectors and in Selected Provinces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Hongyou

    2013-01-01

    values for fuels, such as crude oil and raw coal, and theseGas Other Coking Products Crude Oil Gasoline Kerosene DieselGas Other Coking Products Crude Oil Gasoline Kerosene Diesel

  6. Valorization of Automotive Shredder Residues in metallurgical furnaces Project REFORBA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ) and the electric arc furnace (EAF) routes, P1 could be used as substitute for coal or coke, and P2 could replace with raw materials cheaper than coke. As additional potential benefits the amount of CO2 generated

  7. 7, 14791506, 2007 apportionment of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , coal residential, coke oven, coal power plant, biomass burning, natural gas (NG) combustion. The major showed distinct seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke is the world's largest coal consumption region (IEA, 2006). Thu

  8. INTERACTION OF ORGANIC SOLVENTS WITH A SUBBITUMINOUS COAL BELOW PYROLYSIS TEMPERATURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorighi, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    this substance could be added to a poor coking coal in ordersubstance from the coal called the "coking principle." Itcoking properties. These attempts failed, but they provided the starting point for further investigation of coal

  9. Taking out 1 billion tons of CO2: The magic of China's 11th Five-Year Plan?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Jiang

    2008-01-01

    Naphtha Feed Stock Coal Heavy oil NG biomass Electricityheat Ammonia NG Fuel Oil Heavy oil Electric ity heat CoalCoke Electricit y NG Heavy oil Coal Coke Electricity Diesel

  10. Energy Conservation: Policy Issues and End-Use Scenarios of Savings Potential -- Part 3, Policy Barriers and Investment Decisions in Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benenson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Petro. Gas Natural Gas Coke Oven Gas Blast Furnace Gas *cu.ft l, OOOBTU=cu. ft • Coke Oven Gas MM cu.ft 500BTU=cu.

  11. Fluid&ParticulateSystems 424514/2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    of hydrocarbon and coke - burning solid fuels (with SO2-capturing lime stone) - polymerisation januari 2014 Ro

  12. Public Health Benefits of End-Use Electrical Energy Efficiency in California: An Exploratory Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2011-01-01

    Hanford Woodwaste Steam Turbine, Cfb Fresno Petroleum Coke,Woodwaste MSW Steam Turbine, Cfb Riverside Corona Landfill

  13. Potentials and policy implications of energy and material efficiency improvement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst; Levine, Mark; Price, Lynn; Martin, Nathan; van den Broek, Richard; Block, Kornelis

    1997-01-01

    vacuum pumps, intermediate reboilers and condensers Fluid coking to gasification, turbine power recovery train at the FCC, hydraulic

  14. An error formula for Monte Carlo based portfolio optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hurd, Thomas R.

    equities, GE, Exxon-Mobil, Coke and Intel. The risk aversion parameter in the optimization is taken over

  15. SOLVENT EXTRACTION OF PHENOLS FROM WATER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greminger, Douglas C.

    2012-01-01

    coking (Wurm, 1968) • Phenols are also the principal organic constituents in con- densate waters formed during coal

  16. Nordic Energy Basics Tiina Koljonen, Esa Pursiheimo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    % - 4 17 49 10 Nuclear fuel % - 18 - - 33 Coal and coke % 21 12 - 157) 4 Geothermal % - - 55 - - Other1

  17. Trends in the Carbonyl Core (C 1S, O 1S) f *C)O Transition in the Near-Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure Spectra of Organic Molecules

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ,2 meteorites3 and interplanetary dust particles,4 eocene and recent wood,5,6 coal, coke, and other organic

  18. Sohn International Symposium, 27-31 Aug. 06, San Diego. Proceedings edited by F. Kongoli and R.G. Reddy, TMS, vol. 1, pp. 141-153.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    and reduction, the oxidation of metals, the pyrolysis of coal, the oxidation of coke. In most cases the kinetic

  19. Lemonade $3.00 Traditional or Strawberry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hampton, Randy

    Tazo Iced Tea $4.00 Zen Green or Peach Black Izze Sparkling Juices $4.00 Clementine, Blackberry, Pink Soft Drinks $3.00 Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite or Coke Zero Tazo Iced Tea $4.00 Zen Green or Peach Black $6.00 Vegetarian Thai Noodle Salad $8.00 Noodles Marinated in Sesame Dressing, Mixed Greens, Crisp

  20. Tracking Progress Last updated 6/2/2014 Current and Expected Energy From Coal for California 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2007 to 2012, energy from in-state coal and petroleum (pet) coke plants declined by 62 percent. These trends are shown in Figure 1. Eight in-state coal and pet coke plants retired or stopped operating in 2011 and 2012. Of the 16 in-state coal and pet coke plants that once operated in California, only two

  1. Novel Regenerated Solvent Extraction Processes for the Recovery of Carboxylic Acids or Ammonia from Aqueous Solutions Part II. Recovery of Ammonia from Sour Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poole, L.J.

    2008-01-01

    19,20). In the coking step, coal is heated III the absencethe "coking" process in In the second step the which coal isCoal Liquefaction Wastewaters Sour Waters from Oil Shale Retorting Sour Waters from Petroleum Refining Sour Waters from Coking

  2. RAIRO Operations Research Will be set by the publisher

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of the model is to prescribe optimal mixes of coal used to produce coke. The problem is formulated as a mixed In this paper, we consider a real life problem: a coal blending problem for coke production. The model includes, the coke delivered to the customers can be obtained using different mixes of coals. However, the total

  3. National Environmental Research Institute University of Aarhus . Denmark

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .2 Coal, other plants 99 1.3 Brown coal briquettes and Coke oven coke 100 1.4 Petroleum coke 100 1.5 Wood correspondence list 94 Appendix 4 Emission factors, references 96 1 SO2 97 1.1 Coal, large power plants 97 1

  4. ENERGY UTILIZATION AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES IN THE COAL-ELECTRIC CYCLE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrell, G.C.

    2010-01-01

    Plant - without coking (lb/hr) Feed Coal* Hydrogen YieldsCoking Summary Cost Estimates for Solvent Refining of Five U.S. CoalsCoal Handling and Preparation Preheaters and Dissolvers Mineral Separation (Filters) Solvent Recovery Gas Recovery Mineral Residue Processing and Storage Coking

  5. Near Surface 2011 17th European Meeting of Environmental and Engineering Geophysics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    campaigns performed around a housing estate located downstream to an old coke tar site in France. This coke than water, such as chlorinated solvents, wood preservative wastes, coal tar wastes, and pesticides electrical resistivity campaigns performed around a housing estate located downstream an old coke tar site

  6. ANT Automation, LLC is an American company dedicated to provide high quality Automation Ser-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maguitman, Ana Gabriela

    to be accepted before releasing it to production. COBOP: Coal Blend Optimization for Coke Plants. Predict the coke quality. Help to the process Engineer in decision making for the coal's purchasing. Minimize coal / Carbon, Scrap Consumption, Coke, Additives & Refractories among others. Minimizes overall cost in seconds

  7. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    Mtce) Table 4A.19.1. Coke Oven Gas End Use and Inputs toConversion Table 4A.19.2. Coke Oven Gas End Use and InputsMtce) Table 4A.19.1. Coke Oven Gas End Use and Inputs to

  8. JV TASK 45-MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR ELECTRIC UTILITIES BURNING LIGNITE COAL, PHASE I BENCH-AND PILOT-SCALE TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John H. Pavlish; Michael J. Holmes; Steven A. Benson; Charlene R. Crocker; Edwin S. Olson; Kevin C. Galbreath; Ye Zhuang; Brandon M. Pavlish

    2003-10-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center has completed the first phase of a 3-year, two-phase consortium project to develop and demonstrate mercury control technologies for utilities that burn lignite coal. The overall project goal is to maintain the viability of lignite-based energy production by providing utilities with low-cost options for meeting future mercury regulations. Phase I objectives are to develop a better understanding of mercury interactions with flue gas constituents, test a range of sorbent-based technologies targeted at removing elemental mercury (Hg{sup o}) from flue gases, and demonstrate the effectiveness of the most promising technologies at the pilot scale. The Phase II objectives are to demonstrate and quantify sorbent technology effectiveness, performance, and cost at a sponsor-owned and operated power plant. Phase I results are presented in this report along with a brief overview of the Phase II plans. Bench-scale testing provided information on mercury interactions with flue gas constituents and relative performances of the various sorbents. Activated carbons were prepared from relatively high-sodium lignites by carbonization at 400 C (752 F), followed by steam activation at 750 C (1382 F) and 800 C (1472 F). Luscar char was also steam-activated at these conditions. These lignite-based activated carbons, along with commercially available DARCO FGD and an oxidized calcium silicate, were tested in a thin-film, fixed-bed, bench-scale reactor using a simulated lignitic flue gas consisting of 10 {micro}g/Nm{sup 3} Hg{sup 0}, 6% O{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 15% H{sub 2}O, 580 ppm SO{sub 2}, 120 ppm NO, 6 ppm NO{sub 2}, and 1 ppm HCl in N{sub 2}. All of the lignite-based activated (750 C, 1382 F) carbons required a 30-45-minute conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas before they exhibited good mercury sorption capacities. The unactivated Luscar char and oxidized calcium silicate were ineffective in capturing mercury. Lignite-based activated (800 C, 1472 F) carbons required a shorter (15-minute) conditioning period in the simulated lignite flue gas and captured gaseous mercury more effectively than those activated at 750 C (1382 F). Subsequent tests with higher acid gas concentrations including 50 ppm HCl showed no early mercury breakthrough for either the activated (750 C, 1382 F) Bienfait carbon or the DARCO FGD. Although these high acid gas tests yielded better mercury capture initially, significant breakthrough of mercury ultimately occurred sooner than during the simulated lignite flue gas tests. The steam-activated char, provided by Luscar Ltd., and DARCO FGD, provided by NORIT Americas, were evaluated for mercury removal potential in a 580 MJ/hr (550,000-Btu/hr) pilot-scale coal combustion system equipped with four particulate control devices: (1) an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), (2) a fabric filter (FF), (3) the Advanced Hybrid{trademark} filter, and (4) an ESP and FF in series, an EPRI-patented TOXECON{trademark} technology. The Ontario Hydro method and continuous mercury monitors were used to measure mercury species concentrations at the inlet and outlet of the control technology devices with and without sorbent injection. Primarily Hg{sup o} was measured when lignite coals from the Poplar River Plant and Freedom Mine were combusted. The effects of activated Luscar char, DARCO FGD, injection rates, particle size, and gas temperature on mercury removal were evaluated for each of the four particulate control device options. Increasing injection rates and decreasing gas temperatures generally promoted mercury capture in all four control devices. Relative to data reported for bituminous and subbituminous coal combustion flue gases, higher sorbent injection rates were generally required for the lignite coal to effectively remove mercury. Documented results in this report provide the impacts of these and other parameters and provide the inputs needed to direct Phase II of the project.

  9. Raceway behaviors in blast furnace with pulverized coal injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, J.K.; Han, J.W.; Cho, B.R. [POSCO, Cheollanamdo (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-12-01

    The blast furnace raceway shows different characteristics with PCR (pulverized coal injection rate). It was found in this study that with the increase of PCR the raceway depth decreases, and the size of birds nest and sometimes with liquid holdup, increases. Oxygen enrichment with co-axial lances was known to be very effective on the extension of raceway depth and size reduction of birds nest. It was also found that there are various factors which affect the coke properties at tuyere level of the blast furnace. Coke traveling time was calculated to be extended with PCR and it had a close relationship with the coke size in bosh. Coke mean size decreased with the increase of coke traveling time, that is, with the increase of PCR. Both DI (the strength of coke in cold) and CSR (the strength of coke after reaction) were also decreased with PCR. RAFT (Raceway Adiabatic Flame Temperature) had a tendency to be decreased with the increase of PCR, which is obtained by the estimation of coke temperature via XRD analysis. From the analysis of alkali contents in coke sampled along the radius of the blast furnace, it was understood that no difference in alkali contents between fine and lump coke represents that coke fines generated from upper burden might appear at tuyere level.

  10. Behavior of chars from Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca Lignite (Turkey) during non-catalytic and catalytic gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozkurt, Y.; Misirlioglu, Z.; Sinag, A.; Tekes, A.T.; Canel, M. [Ankara University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemistry

    2008-07-01

    The reactivities of chars obtained by pyrolysis of Bursa Mustafa Kemal Pasa Alpagut lignite and Balkesir Dursunbey Cakiirca lignite (Turkey) at different temperatures were determined by CO{sub 2} gasification and by combustion with O{sub 2}. Catalytic effect of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} on the CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} gasification reactivity of chars was investigated. Gasification tests were performed in the fixed bed reactors operating at ambient pressure. Reactivity of chars during the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions was determined by calculating the reaction rate constants and reactivity of chars during the O{sub 2} gasification was determined by using ignition temperatures of the samples. Activation energies and Arrhenius constants of the chars on the CO{sub 2} gasification reactions were also calculated by the help of Arrhenius curves. The activation energy for CO{sub 2} gasification was generally decreased with pyrolysis temperature, due to the different surface characteristics and different nature of carbon atoms gasified as the gasification reactions proceed. Generally, the increase in pyrolysis temperature leads to an increase in gasification reactivity with CO{sub 2}. The reactivity of chars in catalytic gasification was higher than the corresponding non-catalytic reactivity of the same chars. Ignition temperature increased with increasing pyrolysis temperature.

  11. Geotechnical studies related to in situ lignite-gasification trials. Semi-annual technical report, October 1, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoskins, E.R.; Russell, J.E.

    1981-04-01

    The Petroleum Engineering Department at Texas A and M University has conducted field tests on in situ gasification of lignite first at the Easterwood Site near the main campus during 1978 and more recently at the Rockdale Site adjacent to the Sandow Mine near the town of Rockdale in Milam County, Texas. The present project is related to the gasification trials at the Rockdale Site. The objective of the current study is to investigate those geotechnical factors that may influence the performance of the in situ gasification process. These factors include: (1) pre-existing fracture patterns in the lignite and their influence on permeability; (2) strength and deformability of the overburden materials and how these properties are changed by the gasification process and their relationship to subsidence; and (3) the size, shape, and orientation of cavities produced by the process and their relationship to local fracture patterns and geologic structure. The current study is necessarily site specific and related to the Rockdale Site. Ultimately, the goal is to develop models that would be adaptable to any site with a minimum amount of site-specific investigation.

  12. A study on the flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suh, Y.K.; Lee, Y.J.; Baik, C.Y. [Pohang Iron and Steel Co., Ltd. (Korea, Republic of). Technical Research Labs.

    1996-12-31

    The flow of molten iron in the hearth of blast furnace was investigated by using a water model test and a numerical simulation. The water model apparatus was set up in order to evaluate the effects of coke size, coke bed structure, drain rate, and coke free space on the fluidity of molten iron through measurement of residence time and visualization of flow pattern. In addition, the flow was calculated by solving momentum equation in porous media using finite element method. The residence time increased with the coke size decrease, but decreased with the drain rate increase. If small coke was placed in the center of deadman, peripheral flow was enhanced. The flow path was changed due to the coke free space.

  13. Prolongation technologies for campaign life of tall oven

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doko, Yoshiji; Saji, Takafumi; Kitayama, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Shuhei [Sumitomo Metal Industries, Ltd., Kashima, Ibaraki (Japan). Kashima Steel Works

    1997-12-31

    In Kashima Steel Works, 25-year-old 7-meter-high coke ovens have damage on their walls. However, by using new methods of internal in-situ investigation, ceramic welding for the extended central and upper portions of coke ovens has prolonged the campaign life for over 40 years without large-scale hot repair. In this paper, introduction of these new methods, its application in Kashima and the policy of repairing the tall coke oven are reported.

  14. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 65716603, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/6571/2014/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    for coal-charging process 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 FGD for coke oven gas 0 0 0 0 10 10 0 Combination[1] BAU[2]/PC[2] 2005 2010 2020 2030 2020 2030 2030 Sintering FGD 0 10 20 40 95 100 100 Coke oven FGD 100 Hot rolling ESP 0 0 0 0 70 95 100 Cold rolling HED 0 0 0 0 70 95 100 Coke oven WET 100 100 100 100

  15. Characterization of carbon dissolution from the new Auscarb clean carbon for ironmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sahajwalla, V.; Farrell, K.; Gao, K. [Univ. of New South Wales, Sydney, New South Wales (Australia); Waugh, B. [CSIRO, North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia). Div. of Coal and Energy Technology; Roberts, C. [Australian Coal Industry Research Labs. Ltd., North Ryde, New South Wales (Australia); Langley, J.M. [White Mining Ltd., North Sydney, New South Wales (Australia)

    1995-12-01

    In the foundry industry, the recarburizing materials used can range from high purity graphite to chars. The dissolution performance of recarburizing materials is critical to the industry, as it has a direct bearing on productivity. In this study, the dissolution performance of a variety of clean Auscarb carbon materials has been determined to assess their suitability as recarburizing material. The carbon sources investigated were graphite (synthetic), coke A (2.5 and 18 hr), coke B (2.5, 3 and 18 hr) and coke C (2.5 hr). In addition, the effect of melt sulfur content and coke supplier (ACIRL or CSIRO laboratories) on dissolution performance was examined. Dissolution performance was characterized on the basis of the measured rate constant. The experimental investigation conducted in this study has established the trend in performance of the carbons. The results show that, for a fixed melt sulfur content of 0.2%, synthetic graphite was the best, although the dissolution performance of coke B approaches half that of synthetic graphite. The performance of cokes A and C fall slightly behind that of coke B. The cokes supplied from different sources were found to have similar dissolution performance only on extended coking times. Decreased melt sulfur content was found to increase the dissolution rate, and it was found that the extent of improvement was influenced by the nature of the carbonaceous material.

  16. Battery operation experience at SSAB, Luleaa six years after rehabilitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrini, H.; Sundgren, M. [SSAB Tunnplaat, Luleaa (Sweden); Meyer, G. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

    1995-12-01

    SSAB operates a coke oven plant in Luleaa, Sweden, consisting of one 7 m battery. Pushing the first coke in 1975, the battery encountered over the years more and more difficulties in keeping coking time and operation level at the design rate. In order to improve the coke supply a major repair of the battery was made. In 1989 the battery was fully rehabilitated by Krupp Koppers. The experience made during the years before and during repair contributed to a new policy for the operation of the plant. The policy has led to considerable improvements. It is clear that it is possible to successfully operate a rehabilitated battery.

  17. Development of an Energy Conservation Voluntary Agreement, Pilot Project in the Steel Sector in Shandong Province. Project Report to the State Economic and Trade Commission, People's Republic of China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Price, Lynn; Yun, Jiang; Worrell, Ernst; Wenwei, Du; Sinton, Jonathan E.

    2003-01-01

    sintering, pelleting), ironmaking, steelmaking (basic oxygenfor steelmaking covers ironmaking (including coking andEE_..) The six spreadsheets (ironmaking, BOF, EAF, Casting,

  18. Development and Application of Advanced Models for Steam Hydrogasification: Process Design and Economic Evaluation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Bell D, Towler B. Coal Gasification and Its Applications.C, Chaney R. Alaskan coal gasification feasibility studies -Task 2 Topical Report: Coke/Coal Gasification with Liquids

  19. Albany, OR * Anchorage, AK * Morgantown, WV * Pittsburgh, PA...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    expanding the DOE's focus on Carbon Capture Utilization and Storage (CCUS) for advanced coal power systems and other applications, including the use of petroleum coke as a...

  20. March 2013 | National Nuclear Security Administration

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Girl Scouts. About the photo: Female engineers from Pantex this weekend demonstrated a scientific principle known as nucleation. The engineers used Mentos dropped into Diet Coke...

  1. A Review of Hazardous Chemical Species Associated with CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants and Their Potential Fate in CO2 Geologic Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apps, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    from combustion and gasification of coal – an equilibriumHolysh, M. 2005. Coke Gasification: Advanced technology forfrom a Coal-Fired Gasification Plant. Final Report, December

  2. International Agreements Comments

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    (especially coking and cracking; (b) mineral reactions and their relationships to air pollution issues; (c) mining studies; and (d) systems analysis. VISITS AND...

  3. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement in the United States Petroleum Refining Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrow III, William R.

    2014-01-01

    24  3.4 Hydrocracking Unit (Unit HCU - HTU - HYS - Hydrocracking Unit Hydrotreating Unitcatalytic cracking, hydrocracking and coking processes are

  4. EA-0404: Finding of No Significant Impact

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program - Coke Oven Gas Cleaning Demonstration Project at the Bethlehem Steel Corp. Sparrows Point Plant, Baltimore County, Maryland

  5. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    4, Energy Consumption Total Petroleum Natural Gas Heat China4, Energy Consumption Natural & Other Gas China EnergyConsumption Coke Electricity Total Petroleum Natural Gas China

  6. Development of an Advanced Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Off-Gas from Coke Calcination More Documents & Publications Ex-Situ Catalytic Fast Pyrolysis Technology Pathway Preliminary Technology Readiness Assessment (TRA) for the Calcine...

  7. Company Name Company Name Address Place Zip Sector Product Website

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Energy GreatPoint Energy Third Street Cambridge Massachusetts Biomass Converts coal petroleum coke and biomass into natural gas http www greatpointenergy com Greater...

  8. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    20% natural gas, 10% heavy oil and 2% electricity were alsothe natural gas and heavy oil shares remained relativelyof electricity, natural gas, heavy oil, coke and coal were

  9. October 23, 2012 11:49 World Scientific Review Volume -9in x 6in ywangsmartgrid Smart Grid, Automation, and SCADA Systems Security

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yongge

    technologies that optimize the physical oper- ation of appliances and consumer devices for energy generation liquids, petroleum coke, natural gas, other gases, nuclear, hy- droelectric, renewables, hydroelectric

  10. brwtp-icoke | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1989) Comprehensive Report to Congress Comprehensive Report to Congress on the Clean Coal Technology Program: Innovative Coke Oven Gas Cleaning System for Retrofit Applications...

  11. CALDERON COKEMAKING PROCESS/DEMONSTRATION PROJECT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALBERT CALDERON

    1998-09-22

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon, with the following objectives geared to facilitate commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in hard-driving, large blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process; and (iv) demonstrating that coke can be produced economically, at a level competitive with coke imports. The activities of the past quarter were focused on the following: ? Consolidation of the project team-players; ? Recruiting Koppers Industries as an additional stakeholder; ? Developing a closed system for the production of binder pitch from tar in the Calderon coking process as the incentive for Koppers to join the team; ? Gathering appropriate equipment for conducting a set of experiments at bench scale to simulate tar quality produced from the Calderon coking process for the production of binder pitch; and ? Further progress made in the design of the commercial coking reactor.

  12. SILICON--1997 68.1 By Thomas S. Jones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    or quartzite) and costs of energy, reductant coke or low ash coal, iron in the form of steel scrap (if required

  13. Refines Efficiency Improvement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WRI

    2002-05-15

    Refinery processes that convert heavy oils to lighter distillate fuels require heating for distillation, hydrogen addition or carbon rejection (coking). Efficiency is limited by the formation of insoluble carbon-rich coke deposits. Heat exchangers and other refinery units must be shut down for mechanical coke removal, resulting in a significant loss of output and revenue. When a residuum is heated above the temperature at which pyrolysis occurs (340 C, 650 F), there is typically an induction period before coke formation begins (Magaril and Aksenova 1968, Wiehe 1993). To avoid fouling, refiners often stop heating a residuum before coke formation begins, using arbitrary criteria. In many cases, this heating is stopped sooner than need be, resulting in less than maximum product yield. Western Research Institute (WRI) has developed innovative Coking Index concepts (patent pending) which can be used for process control by refiners to heat residua to the threshold, but not beyond the point at which coke formation begins when petroleum residua materials are heated at pyrolysis temperatures (Schabron et al. 2001). The development of this universal predictor solves a long standing problem in petroleum refining. These Coking Indexes have great potential value in improving the efficiency of distillation processes. The Coking Indexes were found to apply to residua in a universal manner, and the theoretical basis for the indexes has been established (Schabron et al. 2001a, 2001b, 2001c). For the first time, a few simple measurements indicates how close undesired coke formation is on the coke formation induction time line. The Coking Indexes can lead to new process controls that can improve refinery distillation efficiency by several percentage points. Petroleum residua consist of an ordered continuum of solvated polar materials usually referred to as asphaltenes dispersed in a lower polarity solvent phase held together by intermediate polarity materials usually referred to as resins. The Coking Indexes focus on the amount of these intermediate polarity species since coke formation begins when these are depleted. Currently the Coking Indexes are determined by either titration or solubility measurements which must be performed in a laboratory. In the current work, various spectral, microscopic, and thermal techniques possibly leading to on-line analysis were explored for measuring the Coking Indexes.

  14. A Guidebook for Low-Carbon Development at the Local Level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan

    2012-01-01

    Coal mining (production) Cement Iron-making Steel-making Electricity Pulp & paper Alcohol Monosodium glutamate Electrolytic aluminum Citric acid Coking

  15. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01

    Years C. Hot Stove Waste Heat Recovery F. Coke Dry Quenchingheat integration and heat recovery in old Indian plants hasinnovative low grade heat recovery systems to be implemented

  16. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    coal, 20% natural gas, 10% heavy oil and 2% electricity wereof electricity, natural gas, heavy oil, coke and coal werethe natural gas and heavy oil shares remained relatively

  17. Strategies for Low Carbon Growth In India: Industry and Non Residential Sectors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sathaye, Jayant

    2011-01-01

    Years C. Hot Stove Waste Heat Recovery F. Coke Dry Quenchingcontroller unit, and heat recovery. Annex 11 shows a list ofHeat Integration Heat Recovery Insulation Maintenance

  18. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (including coke ovens), and rolling mills. 2. Denominators represent the entire steel industry, not those based mainly on electric, natural gas, residual fuel oil or coal. 3....

  19. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 43174337, 2015 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/4317/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens gas desulfuriza- tion (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2

  20. TABLE25A.CHP:Corel VENTURA

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    pentanes plus, petroleum coke, and waxes. d Formerly Zaire. e Includes Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. (s) Less than 500...

  1. Review of a Proposed Quarterly Coal Publication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    This Review of a Proposed Quartery Coal Publication contains findings and recommendations regarding the content of a new summary Energy Information Administration (EIA) coal and coke publication entitled The Quarterly Coal Review (QCR). It is divided into five sections: results of interviews with selected EIA data users; identification of major functions of the coal and coke industries; analysis of coal and coke data collection activities; evaluation of issues conerning data presentation including recommendations for the content of the proposed QCR; and comparison of the proposed QCR with other EIA publications. Major findings and recommendations are as follows: (1) User interviews indicate a definite need for a compehensive publication that would support analyses and examine economic, supply and demand trends in the coal industry; (2) the organization of the publication should reflect the natural order of activities of the coal and coke industries. Based on an analysis of the industries, these functions are: production, stocks, imports, exports, distribution, and consumption; (3) current EIA coal and coke surveys collect sufficient data to provide a summary of the coal and coke industries on a quarterly basis; (4) coal and coke data should be presented separately. Coke data could be presented as an appendix; (5) three geographic aggregations are recommended in the QCR. These are: US total, coal producing districts, and state; (6) coal consumption data should be consolidated into four major consumer categories: electric utilities, coke plants, other industrial, and residential commercial; (7) several EIA publications could be eliminated by the proposed QCR.

  2. Utilization of Process Off-Gas as a Fuel for Improved Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    with waste heat utilization. The calcining process is composed of the petroleum coke charger (black), fluidized bed calciner with electrodes and nitrogen supply (red), and gas...

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Worrell, Ernst

    2011-01-01

    of steam traps on superheated steam lines when they are notlb (225 tonne) of superheated steam per hour (SunCoke

  4. First Shell Energy Venture Camp Baton Rouge Area

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    how a four stroke engine works. Pressure Conductivity of water Distillation of coke Solar house Wind mills A great variety of experiments were used to reinforce fundamental...

  5. "Code(a)","End Use","Total","Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(f)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981" ,"DataWorking17.2Residential"0 DETAILED DATA52.31.332

  6. "Code(a)","End Use","for Electricity(b)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(c)","Natural Gas(d)","NGL(e)","Coke and Breeze)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981" ,"DataWorking17.2Residential"0 DETAILED DATA52.31.3324

  7. "End Use","Total","Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coke and Breeze)","Other(e)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981" ,"DataWorking17.2Residential"0 DETAILED3.49 Relative4226

  8. Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu

    2009-07-15

    Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. GLUTEN FREE MENU Whipped Feta Caprese***

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    & red onion in a lemon-fennel vinaigrette. 7 Pistachio Chicken Salad Mixed greens, romaine lettuce Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite, Root Beer, Orange, Ginger Ale, Minutemaid Light Lemonade, Raspberry Iced Tea, CranApple Raspberry Juice, Freshly Brewed Lipton Tea 2.00 Fair Trade Coffee, Hot Tea, Hot Chocolate 1

  10. Tossed Caprese Salad*** Our own house-made mozzarella tossed with mixed greens,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alpay, S. Pamir

    APPETIZERS Tossed Caprese Salad*** Our own house-made mozzarella tossed with mixed greens, red salad with roasted tomatoes, cucumber & lime curd. 12.5 Pistachio Chicken Salad Mixed greens, romaine Coke, Diet Coke, Sprite, Root Beer, Orange, Ginger Ale, Minutemaid Light Lemonade, Raspberry Iced Tea

  11. Vol. 60364 P. L. WALKER,JR.,AND EMILERAATS whether the swelling is of the predicted order of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . CHANGES IN PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF GRAPHITIZED CARBON RODS UPON GASIFICATION WITH CARBON DIOXIDE'J BYP. L Park, Penna~lvania Received September 1 , 1066 Changes in the physical properties of graphitized carbon ofpetro- leum coke bound together by a thin shell of coal tar pitch coke, which essentially consists

  12. 1996 worldwide refining survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-12-23

    Data are presented on the capacity of refineries for the following processes: vacuum distillation, coking, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Production capacities are also noted for alkylation, polymerization/dimerization, aromatics, isomerization, lubricants, oxygenates, hydrogen, coke, sulfur, and asphalts. Country totals are given, as well as the data for individual companies within each country, state, or province.

  13. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Relationship between ecological indicators (Arcellacea), total

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patterson, Timothy

    (Hg) is a trace element that can be toxic to aquatic biota at elevated concentrations (CEPA 1985 bitumen to syn- thetic crude oil involves coking, coke combustion, and production of wastes and fly ash (Jang and Etsell 2006; Allen 2008). Environment Canada's National Pollutant Release Inventory (NPRI 2010

  14. www.eprg.group.cam.ac.uk EPRGWORKINGPAPERNON-TECHNICALSUMMARY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Gispert, Adrià

    , most cement kilns today use coal and petroleum coke as primary fuels, whereas aluminum smelters-energy purposes, such as coking coal, petrochemical feedstocks, or lubricants, have few available substitutes are based on electrochemical operational processes. Therefore, observable substitution of coal

  15. PressurePressure Indiana Coal Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    TimeTime PressurePressure · Indiana Coal Characteristics · Indiana Coals for Coke · Coal Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsTransportation in Indiana · Coal Slurry Ponds Evaluation · Site Selection for Coal Gasification · Coal-To-Liquids Study, CTL

  16. Project Sponsors: California Energy Commission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mease, Kenneth D.

    Generation: H2 from Natural Gas (SMR) H2 from Petroleum Coke H2 from Coal with Carbon Capture H2 from from Natural Gas (SMR) H2 from Petroleum Coke H2 from Coal with Carbon Capture H2 from Renewable

  17. Briefing Note 2010 22 19 November 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedersen, Tom

    for cement production in 2008 came from coal and petroleum coke.iii Given the percentage of GHGs produced of alternative fuels involves replacing conventional fuels (mainly coal and petroleum coke), with alternative in efficiencies because of high-energy prices and low coal availability. A major limitation of increased thermal

  18. Neutrons for Catalysis: A Workshop on Neutron Scattering Techniques for Studies in Catalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    -EM Fischer Tropsch Catalysis on Fe- or Co-catalysts, ,,CTL" Coal to Liquids ­ ,a rough (?) analogy #12;Peter Albers, AQ-EM Carbonaceous Deposits on Catalysts #12;Peter Albers, AQ-EM IINS on Coked Catalysts from Industrial Plants High-temperature and low-temperature cokes deposited on catalysts during

  19. Energy conservation and efficiency in Giprokoks designs at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M.I. Fal'kov [Giprokoks, the State Institute for the Design of Coke-Industry Enterprises, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2009-07-15

    Energy conditions at Ukrainian ferrous-metallurgical enterprises are analyzed. Measures to boost energy conservation and energy efficiency are proposed: specifically, the introduction of systems for dry slaking of coke; and steam-gas turbines that employ coke-oven gas or a mixture of gases produced at metallurgical enterprises. Such turbines may be built from Ukrainian components.

  20. JOURNALDE PHYSIQUE IV ColloqueC7, supplkmentau Journal de Physique 111, Volume3,novembre 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    to that of a mixture of light benzene and bitumious coal tar if the pyrolysis gas is used as fluidizing gas. The other in the gas conditioning. Furthermore, the pollutants are concentrated in a coke-like residue surrounding them in melting vessels, blast furnaces, autoclaves, tube reactors, rotary kilns, coking chambers and fluidized

  1. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    wood with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke to generateCenter for By-Products Utilization DEVELOPMENT OF CLSM USING COAL ASH AND WOOD ASH, A SOURCE OF NEW

  2. F90 Journal of The Electrochemical Society, 160 (2) F90-F93 (2013) 0013-4651/2013/160(2)/F90/4/$28.00 The Electrochemical Society

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.

    2013-01-01

    materials, Ni-cermets, are susceptible to coking in many coal- and bio-derived syngas compositions,2, and coking behavior in surrogate coal gas fuel compositions have been reported.21 In order to understand. Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are well suited to replace coal com- bustion technologies because higher

  3. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    in a combination with a number of fuels including coal, petroleum coke, natural gas, etc. In the mid 1990s, the unit was firing a combination of coal and petroleum coke to generate energy. It has been established;1 PROJECT 1 - COAL COMBUSTION BY-PRODUCTS: CHARACTERIZATION AND USE OPTIONS Introduction An AFBC system

  4. By-Products Utilization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin-Milwaukee, University of

    with supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and coke by pulp and paper mills and wood, such as bark, twigs, knots, chips, etc. with other supplementary fuels such as coal, oil, natural gas, and cokeCenter for By-Products Utilization CLSM CONTAINING MIXTURES OF COAL ASH AND A NEW POZZOLANIC

  5. TRP0033 - PCI Coal Combustion Behavior and Residual Coal Char Carryover in the Blast Furnace of 3 American Steel Companies during Pulverized Coal Injection (PCI) at High Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Veena Sahajwalla; Sushil Gupta

    2005-04-15

    Combustion behavior of pulverized coals (PC), gasification and thermal annealing of cokes were investigated under controlled environments. Physical and chemical properties of PCI, coke and carbon residues of blast furnace dust/sludge samples were characterized. The strong influence of carbon structure and minerals on PCI reactivity was demonstrated. A technique to characterize char carryover in off gas emissions was established.

  6. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 7, 35873596, 2007 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/7/3587/2007/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    ovens, coal power plants, biomass burning, and natural gas (NG) combustion. The ma- jor sources daily and seasonal variations. High contributions of biomass burning and coal (residential and coke oven on the emis- sion data in Seoul and Northeast Asia: Gasoline and diesel vehicles, residential coal use, coke

  7. Pulverized coal injection (PCI) at Inland`s No. 7 blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, W.L.; Greenawald, P.B.; Ranade, M.G.; Ricketts, J.A.; Zuke, D.A. [Inland Steel Co., East Chicago, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Fuel injection at the tuyeres has always been part of normal operating practice on this blast furnace. It has been used as much because of the beneficial effects on furnace operation as for the replacement of some of the coke that would otherwise be consumed. Fuel oil was used at first, but since the early 1980s it was more economical to inject natural gas. Studies in 1990 indicated that natural gas could be increased to 75 kg/tHM on No. 7 Furnace, and this would result in a coke rate of approximately 360 kg/tHM. It was apparent that coal injection offered significantly more opportunity for coke savings. Coke rate could be lowered to 300 kg/tHM with coal injected at 175 kg/tHM. Some combustion limitations were expected at that level. A coke rate of 270 kg/tHM with coal at 200 kg/tHM may be possible once these limitations are overcome. Furnace permeability was expected to limit the ability to reduce coke rate any further. In addition, the relative cost of coal would be significantly lower than the cost of coke it replaced. This lead to the decision late in 1991 to install pulverized coal injection (PCI) equipment for all of Inland`s blast furnaces. This paper will deal with PCI experience at No. 7 Blast Furnace.

  8. Design, operation factors can up coker liquid yields. [Delayed liquid cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, J.D. (Foster Wheeler Corp., Clinton, NJ (US))

    1991-02-04

    Among refineries with delayed cokers, there is now major incentive to maximize coker fresh feed throughput while producing maximum possible liquid yields. There are design features and operating considerations that can increase liquid yields. Maximizing coke throughput is typically a necessity in overall refinery operations because coker capacity to process the bottom of the barrel can be a bottleneck to the entire refinery crude throughput. The incentive for achieving the maximum liquid yield from a coker is: clean distillates, even cracked distillates, are valuable while fuel grade coke is not. Another way to look at a maximum liquid yield coker operation is as a minimum coke yield operation.

  9. Civil, Canon and Common: Aspects of Legal History

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mason, Alexandra; Helyar, James

    1996-01-01

    Research Library Sir Edward Coke,1552-1634, The reports of Sir Edward Coke, Kt, in English, compleatin 13parts, London: E. and R. Nutt, and R. Gosling, for D. Browne [and 12 other publishers], 1727 (C10941) This copy of the 1727 edition of Coke... principles which greatly affected the development of the 19th century reforms of British legal procedure and led to the "ethical utilitarianism" which was developed by his pupil John Stuart Mill. 3 1 A research problem A manuscript of the Registrum...

  10. Geologic and climatic controls on the formation of the Permian coal measures in the Sohagpur coal field, Madhya Pradesh, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Milici, R.C.; Warwick, P.D.; Mukhopadhyah, A.; Adhikari, S.; Roy, S.P.; Bhattacharyya, S.

    1999-07-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Geological Survey of India (GSI) are concluding a cooperative study of the coking coal deposits in the Sohagpur coal field in central India. Because of the importance of coal in India's economy, the Coal Wing of the Geological Survey of India has studied the area intensely since the early 1980's. This report summarizes the overall stratigraphic, tectonic, and sedimentologic framework of the Sohagpur coal field area, and the interpretations of the geologic and climatic environments required for the accumulation of the thick Gondwana coal deposits, both coking and non-coking.

  11. 1 What is Statistics? Statistics is the science of data! Collecting, classifying, organizing, analyzing,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DeMaio, Joe

    and weigh him. Example 3 We don't ask Mean Joe Greene if he can tell the di¤erence between Coke and Pepsi are qualitative variables. 4 Exercises 1. For the players on the 1992 Dream Tea

  12. Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernstein, Lenny

    2008-01-01

    options for combined heat and power in Canada. Office ofpolicies to promote combined heat and power in US industry.conversions, such as combined heat and power and coke ovens,

  13. Inventory of China's Energy-Related CO2 Emissions in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2011-01-01

    Coking Products Petroleum Crude Oil Gasoline Kerosene Diesel7. Carbon Coefficients Name crude oil natural gas liquids0.001% in the case of crude oil and 0.45% for natural gas),

  14. Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 15, 65036519, 2015 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/15/6503/2015/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    sites (including off- shore) Large surface and underground coal mines Coke ovens Primary sources Power plants (>20MW; coal, oil and gas- fired) Petroleum refineries Oil and gas production

  15. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    TWh) Heating U (TJ) Kerosene (Mt) LPG (Mt) I.I Electricity fm3) 2. Mtce Year t K Coal* LPG Natural Gas Town Gas ¥ TotalIncludes refinery gas, LPG, various petroleum and coking

  16. Species visitation at free-choice quail feeders in west Texas 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henson, Kelly Diane

    2006-08-16

    at 4 sites in West Texas (Coke, Fisher and Stonewall counties). Quail feeders were monitored using active-infrared sensing camera systems and passive-infrared video systems, to compare data obtained via these 2 surveillance techniques. I tested 2...

  17. Overview of the Electrical Energy Segment of the Energy Information Administration/ Manufacturing Consumption Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lockhead, S.

    1999-01-01

    , liquefied petroleum gas, coke and breeze, coal, and electricity, only the electricity segment is overviewed. Along with pure electrical energy consumption information, newly available data covers methods that manufacturers used to purchase and modify...

  18. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    Final Energy Use (Mtce) Oil Products Solid Fuels 2010-30Electricity Heat Natural Gas Oil Products Solid Fuels UnlikeHeat Natural Gas Oil Products Coke Solid Fuels Efficiency

  19. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    oil, coke, other Coal,oil and oil product, crude oil, otherCoal,oil and oil product, crude oil, other Diesel, GasolinePipelin e Crude oil, oil products, NG, other Gas electricity

  20. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    oil, coke, other Coal,oil and oil product, crude oil, otherCoal,oil and oil product, crude oil, other Steam,diseal,International Crude oil, oil products, NG, other Gas Fuel

  1. Method for making spherical binderless pellets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubbs, Donald K. (Rector, PA); Kochanowski, Andrew T. (Spring Church, PA)

    1983-01-01

    A method for making spherical binderless pellets using a rotating drum mixer whereby at least a portion of the particles comprising the pellets is comprised of coking coal particles.

  2. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    Romania Russia Chapter 7, Imports and Exports Exports Coke2] (t) Exports Imports Qatar Romania Russia Rwanda St.Exports Imports Papua New Guinea Paraguay Peru Philippines Poland Portugal Qatar Romania Russia

  3. Fact #863 March 9, 2015 Crude Oil Accounts for the Majority of Primary Energy Imports while Exports are Mostly Petroleum Products

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, seventy percent of the primary energy imports were crude oil, followed by petroleum products (16%) and natural gas (12%). The remaining sources of primary energy imports: coal, coal coke,...

  4. Improving Process Heating System Performance: A Sourcebook for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    such as cement and wallboard, the recovery of lime in the kraft process of the pulp and paper industry, the production of anodes from petroleum coke for aluminum smelting, and the...

  5. RESEARCH/RESEARCHERS 490 MRS BULLETIN/JULY 2002

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qi, Limin

    due to the deposition of carbon, a process known as coking. The standard anodes in many SOFCs contain- tions of a double-hydrophilic block copoly- mer of poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly (methacrylic aci

  6. C:MydocsMYDOCSHATTIERECS97recsForms97Mail.PDF

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    in the neighborhood 02 Bottled Gas (LPG or Propane) 03 Fuel Oil 04 Kerosene or Coal Oil 05 Electricity 06 Coal or Coke 07 Wood 08 Solar Collectors 21 Other Fuel...

  7. Analysis of Energy Savings by Painting a Rotary Kiln Surface 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, X.; Wang, T.; Tonti, R. T.; Edwards, L.

    2007-01-01

    Rotary Kilns has been widely used for processing minerals, producing cement, calcining petroleum cokes, or drying biomass and wastes. Most of rotary kilns consume energy intensively. Therefore it is desired to assess the thermal losses from the kiln...

  8. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Feedstocks Some crude oil and heavy oil feedstocks are usedFeedstocks, 1980-1991—Mtce Heavy Oil* Year Coal Coke Crudeyuan ($287)/t for diesel. Heavy oil sold for half the price

  9. Form Approved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    FUEL OIL 04 KEROSENE OR COAL OIL 05 ELECTRICITY 06 COAL OR COKE 07 WOOD 08 SOLAR COLLECTORS 21 OTHER (SPECIFY): 255- 256 00 NO FUEL USED -- TAKE BACK...

  10. EA-1091: Calderon Cokemaking Process/Demonstration Project, Alliance, Ohio

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to evaluate a new design that allows coke production to occur in a completely closed system at the Calderon Energy Company, thus...

  11. Diesel injector carbonization by three alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrum, J.W.; Patel, V.C.; McClendon, R.W. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Three alternative diesel fuels were screened by analysis of fuel injector tip deposits. The test engines were operated on the Peterson (torque) test cycle; the average carbon deposit volume on an injector tip was measured by a computer vision method. Relative coke deposit quantity was obtained by area analysis of injector tip images. Repetitive image areas varied less than 1%. Coke deposit areas for repetitive fuel tests also varied less than 1%. Injector coking tendencies of tested fuels decreased in the following order: peanut oil, no. 2 diesel, tricaprylin, and tributyrin/no. 2 diesel blend. The observed dependence of the relative coke quantity on fuel type was consistent with the results from a photographic technique used previously for fuel screening. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. StephenLeharne Thechemistryofocid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Short, Daniel

    combuslionof 1o$rlInelsj Both coaL lnd oil combustion sill enir !ar!ing qurntniesof sulphurdioxidcand nnrogen Such proce$esinclude the relninC oI pefoleun.thesmchlngol metaloresand coking.lndeeda cof

  13. Synthetic Biology and reshaping plant form Jim Haseloff

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rosso, Lula

    Industrial Revolution: based on innovations in coal, iron, steam and mechanical engineering #12; Steam power machines.This enabled rapid development of e cient semi-automated factories Iron founding - Coke replaced

  14. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUEIV ColloqueC7, supplkmentau Journal de Physique111, Volume 3,novembre 1993

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , the manufacturing of flat coated products involve many operations starting from the ore and coal: pyrometallurgy in coking and sinter plants, elaboration of liquid metal in blast-furnace and converter, solidification

  15. Peer Reviewed Archival Publications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohaghegh, Shahab

    -176. Bayraktar* , O. and E.L. Kugler. 2002. Characterization of coke on equilibrium fluid-catalytic- cracking. Characteristics and carbonization behaviors of coal extracts. Fuel Processing Technology 79: 207-215. Stiller, A

  16. EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -benezene 4-Aminodiphenyl Asbestos Coal tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane Lead Cadmium Benzene Cotton dust Chromium VI

  17. Surface Science 123 ( 1982) 413-426 North-Holland Publishing Company

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Wayne

    for the efficient utilization of our national energy resources through, for example, coal gasification the support's acidity or to catalyze coke removal via hydrogen or steam reactions [20]. At atmospheric

  18. Electrodes for energy applications Development of improved high-performance electrodes is critically important to the efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Mo

    , longer and safer operation. Further developments of coking- and contaminant- tolerant anodes for solid of a wide variety of fuels, including hydrogen, hydrocarbon fuels, coal gas, and bio-derived fuels

  19. Rencontres Gosynthtiques -9-11 avril 2013, Dijon BASSIN HOUILLER LORRAIN : RHABILITATION DU TRIANGLE DE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : RÉHABILITATION DU TRIANGLE DE MARIENAU, DES TRAVAUX À LA SURVEILLANCE LORRAIN COAL BASIN: TRIANGLE DE MARIENAU of France and Germany. At this place, the Houillères du Bassin de Lorraine coking plant process waters were

  20. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.201100798 Design of a Highly Nanodispersed PdMgO/SiO2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henkelman, Graeme

    and coal combustion, which emits sub- stantial amounts of CO2--the most critical greenhouse gas.[3] Several by carbonaceous deposition on the active site, coking, and ag- glomeration of metal catalysts have been critical

  1. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Development at Topsoe Fuel Cell A/S and Ris National Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    catalyst. The range of fuels has further been extended to include ethanol and coal syn-gas by development of a new coke resistant catalyst suitable for future SOFC technology. CELL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCTION

  2. http://www.hnei.hawaii.edu/ HAWAI`I NATURAL ENERGY INSTITUTE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    consumed. Biocarbons can replace coking coal as a metal reductant, substitute for coal as a boiler fuelTM Demonstration Reactor Project Benefits Biocarbons are a renewable substitute for coal, the most harmful fuel

  3. Pyrolysis in Porous Media:1 Part 1. Numerical model and parametric study.2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    due to the formation of light species and heavy ones (up to solid coke particles). The1 presence by the formation of3 permeable char [10,11]. The coal pyrolysi

  4. Revised version European Journal of Mass Spectrometry 6, 457-460, 2000. doi: 10.1255/ejms.371

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    fossil fuels, e.g. coal and petroleum (Tissot et al., 1971), and 3) the rapid aromatisation of organic of PAHs in heavily-contaminated environmental samples, e.g. coke-plant soils or highway plants, are rather

  5. BEFORE THE ENERGY RESOURCES CONSERVATION AND DEVELOPMENT COMMISSION OF THE STATE OF CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Combined-Cycle (IGCC) polygeneration technology. It would gasify a 75 percent coal and 25 percent petroleum coke (petcoke) fuel blend to produce synthesis gas (syngas). Syngas produced via gasification would

  6. Calderon Cokemaking Process/Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1998-04-08

    This project deals with the demonstration of a coking process using proprietary technology of Calderon with the following objectives in order to enable its commercialization: (i) making coke of such quality as to be suitable for use in high driving (highly productive) blast furnaces; (ii) providing proof that such process is continuous and environmentally closed to prevent emissions; and (iii) demonstrating that high-coking-pressure (non-traditional) coal blends which cannot be safely charged into conventional by-product coke ovens can be used in the Calderon process. The activities of the past quarter were entirely focused on operating the Calderon Process Development Unit (PDU-I) in Alliance, Ohio conducting a series of tests under steady state using coal from Bethlehem Steel and U.S. Steel in order to demonstrate the above. The objectives mentioned above were successfully demonstrated.

  7. China Energy Databook - Rev. 4

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinton Editor, J.E.

    2010-01-01

    Feedstocks, 1980-1991—Mtce Heavy Oil* Year Coal Coke CrudeFeedstocks Some crude oil and heavy oil feedstocks are usedyuan ($287)/t for diesel. Heavy oil sold for half the price

  8. Energy Use in China: Sectoral Trends and Future Outlook

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-01-01

    ci ty Heat NG Fuel Oil Heavy oil Electri city Heat Coal CokeElectr icity H eat Coal Heavy oil NG Electr icity H eat NGRef Region: All Regions Heavy Oil Electricity Heat Variable:

  9. file://C:\\Documents and Settings\\bh5\\My Documents\\Energy Effici

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas 494 417 359 Coal 680 498 360 Coke and Breeze 196 176 85 Notes: 1. The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) has replaced the Standard Industrial Classification...

  10. Quarterly coal report, April 1996--June 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    This report provides information about U.S. coal production, distribution; exports, imports, prices, consumption, and stocks. Data on coke production is also provided. This report presents data for April 1996 thru June 1996.

  11. EAST CAROLINA UNIVERSITY HAZARDOUS CHEMICAL USE GRANT REVIEW FORM ECU policy requires that all grant proposals involving the use of hazardous chemicals be reviewed by an institutional review committee or

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gopalakrishnan, K.

    tar pitch volatiles Methyl chloromethyl ether Formaldehyde Vinyl chloride Coke oven emissions 1 materials. DOT Class 1 Explosive DOT Class 6 Poison Toxic DOT Class 2 Gas DOT Class 8 Corrosive Highly Toxic

  12. OMB No. 038-R0459 EIA 457B

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    FUEL OIL 04 KEROSENE OR COAL OIL 05 ELECTRICITY oe COAL OR COKE 07 WOOD 08 SOLAR COLLECTORS 2-Z OTHER (SPECIFY): 173- 174 TAKE BACK EXHIBIT 21 22. Do you...

  13. China Energy and Emissions Paths to 2030

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David

    2012-01-01

    is coal, the average unit price of coal consumed in cementthe average unit price of fuel (coal) in the cement industryclean coal, and coke so the weighted average price of these

  14. Coal keeps the home fires burning, at a price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connell, J.

    2007-11-15

    The wild ride of 2007 thermal and coking coal and freight prices does not show any signs of abating as 2008 nears, leaving consumers coping with historic high costs, except in the US. 3 figs.

  15. Use of Membranes in Non-Traditional Applications and Emerging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    i s Deoxygenated Acceptable level 0 200 400 600 800 1000 Coke formation prevents heating jet fuel to high temperature Fuel Out < 6 ppm O 2 Fuel In 70 ppm O 2 vacuum or oxygen-free...

  16. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Improvement and CO2 Emission Reduction Potentials in the Iron and Steel Industry in China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    systems Cogeneration for the use of untapped coke oven gas,systems in EAF plants Variable speed drives for flue gas control, pumps, fans in integrated steel mills Cogeneration

  17. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: CHP and Bioenergy for Landfills...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    z Black Liquor z Blast Furnace Gas z Coalbed Methane z Coke Oven Gas z Crop Residues z Food Processing Waste z Industrial VOC's z Landfill Gas z Municipal Solid Waste z...

  18. Department of Ecosystem Science & SOIL RESEARCH CLUSTER LABORATORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Organometallics, Gasoline and fuels, Coal and coke, Graphite and carbides, Metals and alloys · Operator: Julie Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) is the measurement of the light emitted by the elements in a liquid sample

  19. Estimating Total Energy Consumption and Emissions of China's Commercial and Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, David G.

    2008-01-01

    the primary fuels of coal and liquid fuels, the 1996 IPCCenergy consumed from coal, coke, liquid fuels, natural gas,coal equivalency. 2.1.8.1 T RANSPORT Since transport primarily relies on the use of liquid

  20. Development of Bottom-up Representation of Industrial Energy Efficiency Technologies in Integrated Assessment Models for the Iron and Steel Sector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, T.T.

    2011-01-01

    production and hence saving energy consumed in coke making (for collating the data on energy savings and costs for theircan result in significant energy savings and carbon-emission

  1. Pushing schedule derivation method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henriquez, B. [Compania Siderurgica Huachipato S.A., Talcahuano (Chile)

    1996-12-31

    The development of a Pushing Schedule Derivation Method has allowed the company to sustain the maximum production rate at CSH`s Coke Oven Battery, in spite of having single set oven machinery with a high failure index as well as a heat top tendency. The stated method provides for scheduled downtime of up to two hours for machinery maintenance purposes, periods of empty ovens for decarbonization and production loss recovery capability, while observing lower limits and uniformity of coking time.

  2. Cokemaking from coals of Kuzbas and Donbas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Umansky, R.Z. [Resourcecomplect, Donetsk (Ukraine); Kovalev, E.T.; Drozdnik, I.D. [UKHIN, Kharkov (Ukraine)

    1997-12-31

    The paper discusses features of Donetsk and Kuznetsk coals, the export capability of Ukraine coking industry, the selection of coal blends involving coals from different basins, and practical recommendations and techno-economic considerations. It is concluded that by raising the share of low-sulfur Kuznetsk coal in the blend to 50%, coke produced will meet all the requirements of European and American consumers.

  3. Modification of environmental control of cokemaking plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Katoh, H.; Yasuno, M.; Gotch, T.; Yoshida, F.

    1993-01-01

    Recently, global environmental protection has been a great concern in the world. In the United States of America, the Clean Air Act (CAA) has been revised to control emissions strictly. Especially in the field of cokemaking, the restriction of fume emission from a coke oven is so severe that old coke ovens will stop operation with the application of CAA. In Japan, it is expected that more severe protection measures are going to be requested for keeping environmental quality. In this situation, it is indispensable to strengthen environmental protection measures for cokemaking plants to continue coke production in the 21st century. In Chiba Works, Kawasaki Steep Corp., the Ironmaking Department has been struggling for the improvement of environmental measures for. These activities for coke ovens are described in this report. The paper describes fume emission control from the coke oven door and dust emission control measures, including the dust monitoring system, prevention of secondary dust scattering from coke ovens, replacement of dedusters, and fume and dust control of stack emission.

  4. Pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and other new ironmaking processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, A.K.; Oshnock, T.W. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The requirements for the physical, chemical and metallurgical properties of pellets have continued to become more stringent as blast-furnace productivity and coke rate have been rapidly improved during the last decade. In addition, the age and deterioration of the North American coke batteries, the lack of capital to sufficiently rebuild them, and the threat of increasingly more stringent environmental controls for the coke batteries has forced North American ironmakers to begin implementing pulverized coal injection to minimize the coke requirements for the blast furnace and to seriously investigate developing other ironmaking processes that use coal instead of coke. Therefore, the next major step in North American ironmaking has included injecting pulverized coal (PC) at 200 kilograms per ton of hot metal (kg/ton) [400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM)] or greater which will result in the coke rate decreasing to less than 300 kg/ton (600 lb/NTHM) or less. As a result, the pellets will spend more time in the furnace and will be required to support more total weight. Pellets can also be a major iron unit source for other cokeless ironmaking processes such as the COREX process or the AISI direct ironmaking process. This paper will explore the pellet property requirements for future blast-furnace operations and cokeless ironmaking processes.

  5. Graphite having improved thermal stress resistance and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennedy, Charles R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for fabricating a graphite article comprises the steps of impregnating a coke article by first heating the coke article in contact with a thermoplastic pitch at a temperature within the range of 250.degree.-300.degree. C. at a pressure within the range of 200-2000 psig for at least 4-10 hours and then heating said article at a temperature within the range of 450.degree.-485.degree. C. at a pressure of 200-2000 psig for about 16-24 hours to provide an impregnated article; heating the impregnated article for sufficient time to carbonize the impregnant to provide a second coke article, and graphitizing the second coke article. A graphite having improved thermal stress resistance results when the coke to be impregnated contains 1-3 wt.% sulfur and no added puffing inhibitors. An additional improvement in thermal stress resistance is achieved when the second coke article is heated above about 1400.degree. C. at a rate of at least 10.degree. C./minute to a temperature above the puffing temperature.

  6. PULSE COMBUSTOR DESIGN QUALIFICATION TEST AND CLEAN COAL FEEDSTOCK TEST - VOLUME I AND VOLUME II

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unknown

    2002-02-08

    For this Cooperative Agreement, the pulse heater module is the technology envelope for an indirectly heated steam reformer. The field of use of the steam reformer pursuant to this Cooperative Agreement with DOE is for the processing of sub-bituminous coals and lignite. The main focus is the mild gasification of such coals for the generation of both fuel gas and char--for the steel industry is the main focus. An alternate market application for the substitution of metallurgical coke is also presented. This project was devoted to qualification of a 253-tube pulse heater module. This module was designed, fabricated, installed, instrumented and tested in a fluidized bed test facility. Several test campaigns were conducted. This larger heater is a 3.5 times scale-up of the previous pulse heaters that had 72 tubes each. The smaller heater has been part of previous pilot field testing of the steam reformer at New Bern, North Carolina. The project also included collection and reduction of mild gasification process data from operation of the process development unit (PDU). The operation of the PDU was aimed at conditions required to produce char (and gas) for the Northshore Steel Operations. Northshore Steel supplied the coal for the process unit tests.

  7. A review of the global emissions, transport and effects of heavy metals in the environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, J.R.; Ashton, W.B.; Rapoport, R.D.

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the sources and quantities of heavy metal emissions, their transport and fate, their potential health and environmental effects, and strategies to control them. The approach is to review the literature on this topic and to consult with experts in the field. Ongoing research activities and research needs are discussed. Estimates of global anthropogenic and natural emissions indicate that anthropogenic emissions are responsible for most of the heavy metals released into the atmosphere and that industrial activities have had a significant impact on the global cycling of trace metals. The largest anthropogenic sources of trace metals are coal combustion and the nonferrous metal industry. Atmospheric deposition is an important pathway by which trace metals enter the environment. Atmospheric deposition varies according to the solubility of the element and the length of time it resides in the atmosphere. Evidence suggests that deposition is influenced by other chemicals in the atmosphere, such as ozone and sulfur dioxide. Trace metals also enter the environment through leaching. Existing emissions-control technologies such as electrostatic precipitators, baghouses, and scrubbers are designed to remove other particulates from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants and are only partially effective at removing heavy metals. Emerging technologies such as flue gas desulfurization, lignite coke, and fluidized bed combustion could further reduce emissions. 108 refs.

  8. Trace element partitioning in Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acevedo, Lillian Esther

    1989-01-01

    to their enrichment factors and the relationship between their concentrations and particle size. Class I elements show no enrichment in fly ash and no tendency to be more concentrated in the smallest fly ash particles (Au, K, Rb, Ba, Si, Sr, Cs, Na, Fe, Mg, La, Ce... Neutron Activation Analysis. Gamma Rays Used for Neutron Activation Analysis Elements Studied That Present Possible Interferences in NAA . 33 43 VI VII Elemental Average Concentrations of Samples Collected at the Gibbons Creek SES. Comparison...

  9. Trace element analysis of Texas lignite 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahar, Sean

    1982-01-01

    , were discharged as gases. As, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mo, Pb, Se, and Zn were concentrated in the fly ash no't collected by the pre- cipitator and discharged through the stack. Al, Ba, CA, Ce. Co, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sc, Si, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Ti..., Ge, Hf, I, K, La, Li, Na, Nb, P, Pd, Pt, S, Sc, Si, Sr, Ta, Te, Th, Ti, H, W, and Zr are included in Tables 15-19. These elements are extra, as they were not desired for the intended research, but analysis was made as a matter of course, so...

  10. ccpi-lignite | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorkingLos Alamos verifiesValidationENCOAL®AprilGilberton

  11. A cleaning energy area conception on Fenhe river valley

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan, C. [Shanxi Environmental Protection Bureau (China)

    1997-12-31

    Fenhe river valley has a dense population, abundant resources and coal mining, coke making, metallurgy industry concentration. Therefore, it is a seriously pollute area. The paper puts forward a concept of building up a clean energy area through process improvement and change of energy structure to realize ecological economy. The analysis shows that the indigenous method used for coking produces serious pollution, the resource cannot be used comprehensively, the regular machinery coke has a high investment in capital construction, but not much economic benefit. All are disadvantages for health and sustainable economic development. Also, this paper describes a LJ-95 machinery coke oven which has lower investment, higher product quality, less pollution, and higher economical benefit. LJ-95 coke oven will be the technical basis for construction of a clean energy area. The clean energy area concept for the Fenhe river valley consists of a coal gas pipeline network during the first phase and building electricity generation using steam turbines in the second phase.

  12. Ironmaking conference proceedings. Volume 54

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    The technical presentations at this conference displayed a renewed sense of viability of the coke and ironmaking community. In addition, many of the papers show that the environmental aspects of ironmaking are being integrated into day-to-day operations rather than being thought of as separate responsibilities. This volume contains 68 papers divided into the following sections: Blast furnace injection; Blast furnace fundamental studies; Blast furnace general; Blast furnace repairs/rebuilds/modernization; Process control techniques for blast furnaces; Cokemaking general; Cokemaking environmental; Coke--by-products--plant operations; Coal and coke research; Battery operations; Pelletizing; Direct reduction and smelting; and Sintering. Most of the papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  13. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van [Sidmar N.V., Gent (Belgium)

    1996-12-31

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  14. Gary No. 13 blast furnace achieves 400 lbs/THM coal injection in 9 months

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sherman, G.J.; Schuett, K.J.; White, D.G.; O`Donnell, E.M. [U.S. Steel Group, Gary, IN (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Number 13 Blast Furnace at Gary began injecting Pulverized Coal in March 1993. The injection level was increased over the next nine months until a level off 409 lbs/THM was achieved for the month of December 1993. Several major areas were critical in achieving this high level of Pulverized coal injection (PCI) including furnace conditions, lance position, tuyere blockage, operating philosophy, and outages. The paper discusses the modifications made to achieve this level of injection. This injection level decreased charged dry coke rate from 750 lbs/THM to about 625 lbs/THM, while eliminating 150 lbs/THM of oil and 20 lbs/THM of natural gas. Assuming a 1.3 replacement ratio for an oil/natural gas mixture, overall coke replacement for the coal is about 0.87 lbs coke/lbs coal. Gary Works anticipates levels of 500 lbs/THM are conceivable.

  15. Synthesis and Understanding of Novel Catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stair, Peter C. [Northwestern University] [Northwestern University

    2013-07-09

    The research took advantage of our capabilities to perform in-situ and operando Raman spectroscopy on complex systems along with our developing expertise in the synthesis of uniform, supported metal oxide materials to investigate relationships between the catalytically active oxide composition, atomic structure, and support and the corresponding chemical and catalytic properties. The project was organized into two efforts: 1) Synthesis of novel catalyst materials by atomic layer deposition (ALD). 2) Spectroscopic and chemical investigations of coke formation and catalyst deactivation. ALD synthesis was combined with conventional physical characterization, Raman spectroscopy, and probe molecule chemisorption to study the effect of supported metal oxide composition and atomic structure on acid-base and catalytic properties. Operando Raman spectroscopy studies of olefin polymerization leading to coke formation and catalyst deactivation clarified the mechanism of coke formation by acid catalysts.

  16. New coal-derived catalyst for transfer hydrocracking of vacuum residue

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Ikusei; Fujimoto, Kaoru [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Liquid phase hydrocracking of Arabian Heavy vacuum residue conducted in the presence of metal supported active carbon catalyst gave large amount of distillates (70%) with small hydrogen consumption. Especially the Yallourn coal derived active carbon catalyst showed high activity for the cracking of Arabian Heavy vacuum residue. The yield of asphaltene in the product oil was very low, whereas the coke yield was relatively high (about 4 wt%). In the metal-free active carbon system, the coke yield and the content of olefins, sulfur compounds, and asphaltene in the product oil were higher than those of the metal-supported active carbon system. These results suggest that asphaltene in feed oil was adsorbed on the metal supported active carbon catalyst and was decomposed or dehydrogenated on it to form coke and hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atoms formed migrated on the carbon surface to reach the metal site and transferred to free radicals, olefins, or organo sulfur compounds.

  17. The relationship between the thermoplastic behavior of blends and their component coals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sakurovs, R.

    1999-07-01

    The thermoplastic behaviors of a number of coking coal blends were measured using proton magnetic resonance thermal analysis (PMRTA) to determine to what extent they were affected by interactions between the component coals. Most blends showed evidence that at temperatures near their temperatures of maximum fluidity the extent to which they fused was different to that expected if the coals did not interact. Only blends of coking coals of different rank fused to a greater extent than expected in the absence of interactions. Semi-anthracite, low rank coals and charcoal reduced the extent of fusion of coking coals to values below those expected if they were acting as inert diluents. These interactions are interpreted as being mediated by transfer of volatile material between the coals on heating.

  18. Market integration in the international coal industry: A cointegration approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warell, L. [University of Lulea, Lulea (Sweden). Dept. of Business Administration & Social Science

    2006-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to test the hypothesis of the existence of a single economic market for the international coal industry, separated for coking and steam coal, and to investigate market integration over time. This has been conducted by applying cointegration and error-correction models on quarterly price series data in Europe and Japan over the time period 1980-2000. Both the coking and the steam coal markets show evidence of global market integration, as demonstrated by the stable long-run cointegrating relationship between the respective price series in different world regions. This supports the hypothesis of a globally integrated market. However, when analyzing market integration over time it is not possible to confirm cointegration in the 1990s for steam coal. Thus, compared to the coking coal market, the steam coal market looks somewhat less global in scope.

  19. Evaluation of ground-water quality impacts of lignite waste disposal at a Texas lignite mine 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Deborah Joan

    1984-01-01

    to be responsible for the high degree of selen1um attenuation 1s adsorption of the element by amorphous iron and alum1num ox1des and organic matter abundant in the clay soils of the study area. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to thank the members of my thes1s... at the study site for a 1984, and c. comparison lines cations in the sludge ls anions in the sludge ls. concentration (mg/I) January 1983, b. June of contour map center 47 . 48 51 Figure 14 Log-log adsorption relat1on for preliminary evaluation...

  20. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Pingping; Siddiqi, Georges; Vining, William C.; Chi, Miaofang; Bell, Alexis T.

    2011-10-28

    Catalysts for the dehydrogenation of light alkanes were prepared by dispersing Pt on the surface of a calcined hydrotalcite-like support containing indium, Mg(In)(Al)O. Upon reduction in H{sub 2} at temperatures above 673 K, bimetallic particles of PtIn are observed by TEM, which have an average diameter of 1 nm. Analysis of Pt LIII-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) data shows that the In content of the bimetallic particles increases with increasing bulk In/Pt ratio and reduction temperature. Pt LIII-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) indicates that an increasing donation of electronic charge from In to Pt occurs with increasing In content in the PtIn particles. The activity and selectivity of the Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants, maximum activity was achieved for a bulk In/Pt ratio of 0.48, and at this In/Pt ratio, the selectivity to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane dehydrogenation, and it was observed that the alloying of Pt with In greatly reduced the amount of coke deposited. Characterization of the deposit by Raman spectroscopy indicates that the coke is present as highly disordered graphite particles <30 nm in diameter. While the amount of coke deposited during ethane and propane dehydrogenation are comparable, the effects on activity are dependent on reactant composition. Coke deposition had no effect on ethane dehydrogenation activity, but caused a loss in propane dehydrogenation activity. This difference is attributed to the greater ease with which coke produced on the surface of PtIn nanoparticles migrates to the support during ethane dehydrogenation versus propane dehydrogenation.

  1. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  2. Continuous measurement of blast furnace burden profile at SSAB Tunnplat AB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Virtala, J.; Edberg, N.; Hallin, M. (SSAB Tunnplat AB, Lulea (Sweden). Ironmaking Division)

    1993-01-01

    A unique profile meter system is installed on Blast Furnace No. 2 in SSAB - Swedish Steel AB, Lulea, Sweden. This system measures the charge material burden profile across the furnace top diameter before and after each charge. The system generates real-time data, which is graphically presented by the system on a monitor and includes burden descent speed, layer thickness of the coke and ore (corrected for descent), ore to coke ratio, and burden skewing. The system is described along with operational results.

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page| Open Energy Informationmonthly gasoline price to fall to $3.43U.S. Coke Exports" "(shortCoal U.S. Coke

  4. Life Cycle Inventory of CO2 in a EOR System Supporting Information

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaramillo, Paulina

    /MJ) Combustion (g CO2e/MJ) Coal [1] 4.99 88 LPG-NGL [2, 3] 17.5 58.4 Pet-Coke [2, 3] 17.5 95.9 Other Pet Natural Gas (m3/bbl) 7.08 Coal (metric ton/bbl) 6.3-06 Electricity (kWh/bbl) 7.6 LPG (bbl/bbl) 4.8E-04-04 Petroleum Coke (bbl/bbl) 1.6E-02 Results Figure S1 shows the sources of these emissions

  5. Rank enhancement of Permian Barakar and Raniganj coal measures in the western part of the Sohagpur coalfield, Madhya Pradesh, India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warwick, P.D.; Milici, R.C.; Mukhopadyay, A.; Adhikari, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Geological Survey of India (GSI) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) are engaged in a study of the coking coal deposits in the Sohagpur coalfield, near Shahdol, Madhya Pradesh. The major occurrences of coking coal in the Sohagpur coalfield are on the northern, down-thrown side of the regional Bamhani-Chilpa fault, where depths to the coking coal range generally from 100 to 500 m. These coal deposits are within the Permian Barakar Formation, which comprises the lower coal measures of the Gondwana Supergroup. Equivalent coal beds on the south side of the fault are generally non-coking, and are currently being mined in open-cast and underground mines, for use as fuel for electric power generation. In this paper, new data are presented which expands on data and ideas originally presented in Mukhopadyay and others. The purpose of this paper is to integrate thermal signatures (vitrinite reflectance and volatile matter) of the principal coal beds of the Sohagpur coalfield with stratigraphic and structural data. In order to characterize the coking coal deposits, the authors have collected more than 100 coal samples from both the Barakar and Raniganj Formations for analyses. The occurrence of coking coal in the Sohagpur coalfield is related primarily to the thermal alteration of the coal beds in the different geologic settings within the coalfield. In addition, differences in the maceral content of the various coal beds and in the chemical and physical composition within each bed depending upon location, play an important role in determining the existence of coking properties for a particular coal deposit. Potential heat sources for thermal alteration include the abundant dolerite intrusives in the region, and greater depth of burial of the coking coal beds on the down-thrown side of the Bamhani-Chilpa fault. Offset along the Bamhani-Chilpa system has been suggested to greater than 400 m. Hot water, similar to that found in other Permian coalfields in India, may have been the agent that metamorphosed the coal in some places but not in others.

  6. Guidelines for Company Reporting on Greenhouse Gas Emissions Annexes updated July 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    0.32 LPG kWh x 0.214 therms x 6.27 litres x 1.49 Coking Coal tonnes x 2736 kWh x 0.331 Aviation.63 Petrol tonnes x 3135 kWh x 0.24 litres x 2.30 Fuel Oil tonnes x 3223 kWh x 0.27 Coal2 tonnes x 2548 kWh xWh x 0.25 Petroleum Coke tonnes x 3410 kWh x 0.34 Refinery Miscellaneous kWh x 0.24 therms x 7

  7. Guidelines to Defra's GHG conversion factors for company reporting Annexes updated June 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    .498 Coking Coal tonnes x 2810 x 2810 kWh x 0.349 x 0.332 Aviation Spirit tonnes x 3128 x 3128 kWh x 0.250 x 0.281 x 0.267 Burning Oil1 tonnes x 3150 x 3150 kWh x 0.258 x 0.245 litres x 2.518 x 2.518 Coal 2 tonnes xWh x 0.249 x 0.237 Lubricants tonnes x 3171 x 3171 kWh x 0.263 x 0.250 Petroleum Coke tonnes x 3410 x

  8. Effectiveness of environmental policies at OAO Koks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Zubitskii; S.N. D'yakov; V.Ya. Krasnukhin; S.V. Kozyreva [Kuznetsk Basin State Technical University, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    OAO Koks has introduced a comprehensive program for more stable plant operation and reduced environmental impact in the period 2004 2010. Methods of group relining of the coking-furnace chambers and hot repair of coke furnaces with complete relining of the heating walls have been adopted. Water-protection measures include the construction of an additional water-circulation cycle for the chemical shops, completion of the first stage of wastewater treatment, and reconstruction of the biochemical processing system for phenolic and oily water. A mobile environmental station has been acquired for air-quality monitoring.

  9. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorogood, Robert M. (Macungie, PA); Yeh, Chung-Liang (Bethlehem, PA); Donath, Ernest E. (St. Croix, VI)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  10. Advanced High-Temperature, High-Pressure Transport Reactor Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swanson; Daniel Laudal

    2008-03-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory Office of Coal and Environmental Systems has as its mission to develop advanced gasification-based technologies for affordable, efficient, zero-emission power generation. These advanced power systems, which are expected to produce near-zero pollutants, are an integral part of DOE's Vision 21 Program. DOE has also been developing advanced gasification systems that lower the capital and operating costs of producing syngas for chemical production. A transport reactor has shown potential to be a low-cost syngas producer compared to other gasification systems since its high-throughput-per-unit cross-sectional area reduces capital costs. This work directly supports the Power Systems Development Facility utilizing the KBR transport reactor located at the Southern Company Services Wilsonville, Alabama, site. Over 2800 hours of operation on 11 different coals ranging from bituminous to lignite along with a petroleum coke has been completed to date in the pilot-scale transport reactor development unit (TRDU) at the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC). The EERC has established an extensive database on the operation of these various fuels in both air-blown and oxygen-blown modes utilizing a pilot-scale transport reactor gasifier. This database has been useful in determining the effectiveness of design changes on an advanced transport reactor gasifier and for determining the performance of various feedstocks in a transport reactor. The effects of different fuel types on both gasifier performance and the operation of the hot-gas filter system have been determined. It has been demonstrated that corrected fuel gas heating values ranging from 90 to 130 Btu/scf have been achieved in air-blown mode, while heating values up to 230 Btu/scf on a dry basis have been achieved in oxygen-blown mode. Carbon conversions up to 95% have also been obtained and are highly dependent on the oxygen-coal ratio. Higher-reactivity (low-rank) coals appear to perform better in a transport reactor than the less reactive bituminous coals. Factors that affect TRDU product gas quality appear to be coal type, temperature, and air/coal ratios. Testing with a higher-ash, high-moisture, low-rank coal from the Red Hills Mine of the Mississippi Lignite Mining Company has recently been completed. Testing with the lignite coal generated a fuel gas with acceptable heating value and a high carbon conversion, although some drying of the high-moisture lignite was required before coal-feeding problems were resolved. No ash deposition or bed material agglomeration issues were encountered with this fuel. In order to better understand the coal devolatilization and cracking chemistry occurring in the riser of the transport reactor, gas and solid sampling directly from the riser and the filter outlet has been accomplished. This was done using a baseline Powder River Basin subbituminous coal from the Peabody Energy North Antelope Rochelle Mine near Gillette, Wyoming.

  11. Blast-furnace ironmaking -- Existing capital and continued improvements are a winning formula for a bright future

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oshnock, T.W.; Colinear, J.A. [U.S. Steel, Monroeville, PA (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Throughout the years the blast-furnace process has been improved upon significantly. Increases to the hot-blast temperature, improvements to the physical, chemical, and metallurgical properties of coke and burden materials, the use of more fuel injectants, and improvements to the design of the furnace facilities have led to significant decreases in furnace coke rate, increases in productivity, and increases in furnace campaign life. As a result, many of the alternative cokeless reduction processes have not replaced blast-furnace hot-metal production in North America. In the future, these continued blast-furnace improvements will potentially result in coke rates decreasing to 400 pounds per net ton of hot metal (lb/NTHM) as more pulverized coal is injected. These improvements, coupled with the fact that existing blast furnaces and coke plants can be refurbished for approximately $110 per annual ton of hot metal [$100 per annual net ton of hot metal (NTHM)], will result in extending the life of the North American blast furnaces well into the twenty-first century.

  12. Operation of dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Shigemi; Okanishi, Kazuya; Kikuchi, Akio; Yamamura, Yuichi

    1997-12-31

    In order to reduce the manufacturing cost of coke, it is necessary to reduce mainly (1) the material cost and (2) operating cost. Both of these costs can be reduced by lowering the moisture of charging coal. Because dust generation increases with decreasing moisture of charging coal, however, the lower limit of charging coal moisture in the existing coke-oven equipment was about 5%, which yielded good results in coal moisture control (CMC) equipment. Nippon Steel has furthered the development of techniques for lowering the moisture of charging coal as far as possible in the existing coke ovens and has recently succeeded in developing a dry-cleaned and agglomerated precompaction system (DAPS) and incorporating this system in commercial production equipment. In this system, a coal preparation process is undertaken that involves separating coal fines, which cause dust generation, from dried charging coal and agglomerating them. The equipment incorporating this system was installed in the No. 3 and No. 4 coke batteries at Oita Works and brought into full-scale operation in September 1992. The equipment has since been operating smoothly.

  13. The potential for reducing energy utilization in the refining industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrick, M.; Pellegrino, J.

    1999-10-08

    The paper first discusses energy use in petroleum refineries and CO{sub 2} emissions because of the fuels used. Then the paper looks at near-, mid-, and long-term opportunities for energy reduction. Some of the options are catalysts, cooling water recycling, steam system efficiency, and the use of coke and petroleum residues.

  14. Issues Impacting Refractory Service Life in Biomass/Waste Gasification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, J.P.; Kwong, K.-S.; Powell, C.A.

    2007-03-01

    Different carbon sources are used, or are being considered, as feedstock for gasifiers; including natural gas, coal, petroleum coke, and biomass. Biomass has been used with limited success because of issues such as ash impurity interactions with the refractory liner, which will be discussed in this paper.

  15. Atmos. Chem. Phys., 11, 931954, 2011 www.atmos-chem-phys.net/11/931/2011/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meskhidze, Nicholas

    for the brick and coke industries, as well as for coal- burning stoves and biofuel usage in the residential impact the climate system directly by enhancing the scattering and absorption of solar radiation and indi et al., 2003; Huang et al., 2006), changes in surface solar radiation trends (Kaiser and Qian, 2002

  16. Looped carbon capturing and environmental remediation: case study of magnetic polypropylene nanocomposites{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, John Zhanhu

    *a Received 21st November 2011, Accepted 21st March 2012 DOI: 10.1039/c2ra01150f A waste-free process as a feedstock in petrochemical industry. The magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are found to have an effective applying the same pyrolytic conditions. The coked solid waste from the conventional process has been

  17. Virtual Center for Supernetworks For Immediate Release -January 2, 2007

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nagurney, Anna

    . She will examine the industrial energy efficiency and pollution and the global effects of China and the Kimball Medal. His first book, "Urban Police Patrol Analysis," MIT Press (1972) received the Lanchester of the Department of Urban Studies and Planning (DUSP) at MIT will speak on "Coke and Steel: The Strategic

  18. The role of CO2 as a soft oxidant for dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene to styrene over a high-surface-area ceria catalyst

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Li; Wu, Zili; Nelson, Nicholas; Sadow, Aaron D.; Slowing, Igor I.; Overbury, Steven H.

    2015-09-22

    Catalytic performance and the nature of surface adsorbates were investigated for high-surface-area ceria during ethylbenzene oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) reaction using CO2 as a soft oxidant. A template assisted method was used to synthesize the high-surface-area ceria. The interactions between ethylbenzene, styrene and CO2 on the surface of ceria and the role of CO2 for the ethylbenzene ODH reaction have been investigated in detail by using activity test, in situ Diffuse Reflectance Infrared and Raman spectroscopy. Not only did CO2 as an oxidant favor the higher yield of styrene, but it also inhibited the deposition of coke during the ethylbenzene ODHmore »reaction. Ethylbenzene ODH reaction over ceria followed a two-step pathway: Ethylbenzene is first dehydrogenated to styrene with H2 formed simultaneously, and then CO2 reacts with H2 via the reverse water gas shift. The styrene produced can easily polymerize to form polystyrene, a key intermediate for coke formation. In the absence of CO2, the polystyrene transforms into graphite-like coke at temperatures above 500 °C, which leads to catalyst deactivation. While in the presence of CO2, the coke deposition can be effectively removed via oxidation with CO2.« less

  19. EIS-0428: Department of Energy Loan Guarantee for Mississippi Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Moss Point, Mississippi

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS evaluates the environmental impacts of a petroleum coke-to-substitute natural gas facility proposed to be built by Mississippi Gasification. The facility would be designed to produce 120 million standard cubic feet of gas per day. Other products would be marketable sulfuric acid, carbon dioxide, argon, and electric power. This project is inactive.

  20. 932--VOLUME 29B, AUGUST 1998 METALLURGICAL AND MATERIALS TRANSACTIONS B In summary, a re-examination of the influence of the gas-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DuPont, John N.

    . On the other hand, when coke is used, the considerably lower reactivity of this carbonaceous material to CO2, respectively, and VI is the arc power. The melting power is simply the fraction of arc power utilized deposition efficiency is the fraction of total powder that is melted and deposited as part of the weld

  1. Alternative descriptions of catalyst deactivation in aromatization of propane and butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koshelev, Yu.N.; Vorob`ev, B.L.; Khvorova, E.P.

    1995-08-20

    Deactivation of a zeolite-containing catalyst has been studied in aromatization of propane and butane. Various descriptions of the dependence of the alkane conversion on the coke concentration on the catalyst have been considered, and using a statistical method of estimating the model validity, the most preferable form of the deactivation function has been proposed.

  2. Prevention of deleterious deposits in a coal liquefaction system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Norman L. (Allison Park, PA); Prudich, Michael E. (Pittsburgh, PA); King, Jr., William E. (Gibsonia, PA); Moon, William G. (Cheswick, PA)

    1984-07-03

    A process for preventing the formation of deleterious coke deposits on the walls of coal liquefaction reactor vessels involves passing hydrogen and a feed slurry comprising feed coal and recycle liquid solvent to a coal liquefaction reaction zone while imparting a critical mixing energy of at least 3500 ergs per cubic centimeter of reaction zone volume per second to the reacting slurry.

  3. This article appeared in a journal published by Elsevier. The attached copy is furnished to the author for internal non-commercial research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leu, Tzong-Shyng "Jeremy"

    gas (COG) from the ironmaking process can be used for H2 production in association with carbon capture of carbon dioxide emissions, as a result of using coke as a raw materialto reduce iron oxides [1 emissions, the reduction of carbon dioxide formation has been considered as a vital countermeasure to lessen

  4. China Energy Databook -- User Guide and Documentation, Version 7.0

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fridley, Ed., David

    2008-01-01

    20 Diesel Fuel Use Nationally Regulated Single Price, Prices (US dollars/t) [1] Product Gasoline Grade 90# unleaded 93# unleaded 95# unleaded Diesel Jet fuelPrices for Fuels in 35 Major Cities (yuan/t) Anthracite Bituminous Coal Bituminous Coal Coke Gasoline Diesel

  5. ENHANCED HYDROGEN ECONOMICS VIA COPRODUCTION OF FUELS AND CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kennel, Elliot B; Bhagavatula, Abhijit; Dadyburjor, Dady; Dixit, Santhoshi; Garlapalli, Ravinder; Magean, Liviu; Mukkha, Mayuri; Olajide, Olufemi A; Stiller, Alfred H; Yurchick, Christopher L

    2011-03-31

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored research effort to develop environmentally cleaner projects as a spin-off of the FutureGen project, which seeks to reduce or eliminate emissions from plants that utilize coal for power or hydrogen production. New clean coal conversion processes were designed and tested for coproducing clean pitches and cokes used in the metals industry as well as a heavy crude oil. These new processes were based on direct liquefaction and pyrolysis techniques that liberate volatile liquids from coal without the need for high pressure or on-site gaseous hydrogen. As a result of the research, a commercial scale plant for the production of synthetic foundry coke has broken ground near Wise, Virginia under the auspices of Carbonite Inc. This plant will produce foundry coke by pyrolyzing a blend of steam coal feedstocks. A second plant is planned by Quantex Energy Inc (in Texas) which will use solvent extraction to coproduce a coke residue as well as crude oil. A third plant is being actively considered for Kingsport, Tennessee, pending a favorable resolution of regulatory issues.

  6. Ethane dehydrogenation on Pt/Mg(Al)O and PtSn/Mg(Al)O catalysts Vladimir Galvita, Georges Siddiqi, Pingping Sun, Alexis T. Bell *

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Alexis

    Ethane dehydrogenation on Pt/Mg(Al)O and PtSn/Mg(Al)O catalysts Vladimir Galvita, Georges Siddiqi(Al)O Dehydrogenation Alkanes Alkenes a b s t r a c t The dehydrogenation of ethane to ethene on Sn-promoted Pt for dehydrogenation, and the formation of coke. The origins of methane, the primary byproduct of ethane

  7. Worldwide refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williamson, M.

    1994-12-19

    The paper consists of several tables compiling data on refinery capacities by country, by state, and by company. The capacity data are given by process as well as by final product. Processes include vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Products include alkylates, polymers, and dimers; aromatics and isomers; oxygenates; hydrogen; asphalts; and coke.

  8. Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-11-01

    The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

  9. Good operating techniques improve coker yield, increase gas-oil production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lieberman, N.P.

    1986-03-10

    Methods to reduce the production of low-valued sponge coke and increase the volume of hydrocracker and fluid catalytic cracker unit (FCCU) plant feeds are of high interest to refiners. This article contains some ideas of the author and representatives of ten major refineries on the subject. The observations were presented at an experience exchange last May in New Orleans.

  10. Petroleum refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gary, J.H. (Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)); Handwerk, G.E.

    1991-01-01

    This report is on the following topics: Refinery Products; Refinery Feedstocks; Crude Distillation; Coking and Thermal Processes; Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization; Catalytic Cracking; Hydrotreating Catalytic Hydrocracking and Hydroprocessing Alkylation and Polymerization; Product Blending; Supporting Processes; Lubricating Oils; Petrochemical Feedstocks; Cost Estimation; and Economic Evaluation.

  11. Worldwide refining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-18

    Data are presented on refining capacity by country and by company within each country. Capacity data are divided into the following processes: vacuum distillation, thermal operations, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, catalytic hydrocracking, catalytic hydrorefining, and catalytic hydrotreating. Production capacity is divided into: alkylation/polymerization/dimerization; aromatics/isomerization; lubricants; oxygenates; hydrogen; petroleum coke; and asphalts.

  12. China Energy Primer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Chun Chun

    2010-01-01

    natural gas consumption, consumption in the North, East, and Southern ChinaConsumption Unit: (Mtce) Heat Natural Gas Total Petroleum Electricity Coke Total Coal Source: ChinaConsumption (Shares) Coal Crude Oil Natural Gas Electricity Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Electricity Source: China

  13. REMEDIAT1NG AT MANUFACTURED GAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Catherine A.

    , comhusti- hle gas manufactured Pfrom coke, coal, and oil 1 served as the major gas- eous fuel for urban for the three primary gas production meth- ods: coal carbonization, carbureted water gas production, and oil gas carbonization, from the resi- due of gasifying oils in oil gas pro- cesses, and from the cracking of en- riching

  14. Catalytic conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into olefins and aromatics with ZSM-5: the hydrogen to carbon effective ratio

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Huiyan [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing, (China); Cheng, Yu-Ting [University of Massachusetts-Amherst, (United States); Vispute, Tushar P. [University of Massachusetts-Amherst, (United States); Xiao, Rui [School of Energy and Environment, Southeast University, Nanjing, (China); Huber, George W. [University of Massachusetts-Amherst, (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Catalytic conversion of ten biomass-derived feedstocks, i.e.glucose, sorbitol, glycerol, tetrahydrofuran, methanol and different hydrogenated bio-oil fractions, with different hydrogen to carbon effective (H/C{sub eff}) ratios was conducted in a gas-phase flow fixed-bed reactor with a ZSM-5 catalyst. The aromatic + olefin yield increases and the coke yield decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed. There is an inflection point at a H/C{sub eff} ratio = 1.2, where the aromatic + olefin yield does not increase as rapidly as it does prior to this point. The ratio of olefins to aromatics also increases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. CO and CO? yields go through a maximum with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. The deactivation rate of the catalyst decreases significantly with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Coke was formed from both homogeneous and heterogeneous reactions. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) for the ten feedstocks showed that the formation of coke from homogeneous reactions decreases with increasing H/C{sub eff} ratio. Feedstocks with a H/C{sub eff} ratio less than 0.15 produce large amounts of undesired coke (more than 12 wt%) from homogeneous decomposition reactions. This paper shows that the conversion of biomass-derived feedstocks into aromatics and olefins using zeolite catalysts can be explained by the H/C{sub eff} ratio of the feed.

  15. Diffusion and Reactivity of Gas Oil in FCC Catalysts SULAIMAN Al-KHATTAF, HUGO I. de LASA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Khattaf, Sulaiman

    developed in a novel CREC Simulator, is employed to estimate the unconverted gas oil, the gasoline and secondary cracking reactions and the yields of gasoline, coke and light gas yields. Key words: FCC, cracking in FCC units has become more prevalent due to the declining availability and as a result higher prices

  16. Emerging Energy-efficiency and Carbon Dioxide Emissions-reduction Technologies for the Iron and Steel Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hasanbeigi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    rate, oxygen concentration, coal type, PCI rate, and tuyeretype of vessel: H 2 , natural gas, or synthetic gas produced from partial combustion of coal and/coal or coke, which are reduced in the solid state using a rotary hearth or similar type

  17. Invariant solutions of two models of evolution of turbulent bursts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bath, University of

    -known equation of such type is the b{l model of the propagation of turbulent bursts from a horizontally uniform) represents a version arising in the so-called coal-coke problem. In the latter model, let us present a short]. Consider the heat wave propagation in a plane thin coal layer in R 2 generated by the initial amount

  18. PSYCHO? LOGICAL? BULLETIN December 2003 Volume 2, No. 12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advice from Your Friendly Health Psychologist #12;3 PsyCOKE TURNS TO MARKET RESEARCH Here's your big Annual Pub Quiz! Come play a very "questionable game" ...we're going to simulate a British Pub who have made distinguished theoretical or empirical contributions to basic research in psychology

  19. Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iglesia, Enrique

    Novel Pt/Mg(In)(Al)O catalysts for ethane and propane dehydrogenation Pingping Sun a , Georges and propane dehydrogenation reactions are strongly dependent on the bulk In/Pt ratio. For both reactants to alkene was nearly 100%. Coke deposition was observed after catalyst use for either ethane or propane

  20. Health-hazard evaluation report HETA 82-341-1682, Great Lakes Carbon, Wilmington, California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S.A.; Lipscomb, J.A.; Neumeister, C.E.

    1986-04-01

    An evaluation of environmental conditions and possible health effects among workers exposed to coke dust was conducted. Personal breathing-zone (PBZ) concentrations of total airborne dust ranged from 0.1 to 12 milligrams/cubic meter (mg/m3) with a median of 1.6 mg/m3; mass median particle diameter was about 8 micrometers. Very high PBZ concentrations of coke dust occurred during a semimonthly cleanup of underground coke pits; levels ranged from 98 to 190mg/m3 with a mean of 140mg/m3. Oil mists were not detected. Exposures to polynuclear aromatic compounds were below the analytical limit of detection among workers for routine jobs. Abnormal pulmonary function tests were found in 12% of those tested. Five cases of chronic bronchitis and seven of chronic cough, 10 and 13% respectively, were identified among those interviewed. The authors conclude that there were potentially hazardous exposures to high dust levels during semimonthly coke-pit cleaning jobs.

  1. CAS No Agent Group 000075070 Acetaldehyde (ingestion) 1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Hue Sun

    or vermiculite) that contain asbestos should also be regarded as carcinogenic to humans.) 1 Auramine production 1 distillation 1 065996932 Coaltar pitch 1 Coke production 1 000050180006055192 Cyclophosphamide 1 000075218 Ethylene oxide 1 033419420 Etoposide 1 000050000 Formaldehyde 1 Leather dust 1 000148823 Melphalan

  2. Peanut oil as an emergency diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodrum, J.W.

    1983-06-01

    Two elements of an emergency fuel system are discussed. A CeCoCo mechanical oil expeller's efficiency is related to temperature, moisture, and pressure conditions. Durability test on 20:80 and 80:20 peanut oil: diesel blends show injector coking and effects on exhaust temperature, specific fuel, and crankcase oil.

  3. Study of physical and chemical properties of vitrinites. Inferences on depositional and coalification controls

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , textural and coking properties was carried out on vitrains from the Puertollano, Blanzy­Montçeau, Asturias (subbituminous/high volatile C bituminous coals). The characteristics of the Puertollano vitrains described here can also be attributed to the telocollinite (>80% vol.) for the high volatile C bituminous coal

  4. Could energy intensive industries be powered by carbon-free electricity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKay, David J.C.

    chemical services ­ for example, coal, converted to coke, acts as a reducing agent in blast furnaces.) (a comes from coal, oil, and natural gas. What infrastructure would be required to deliver the same amount to Royal Society TEX Paper #12;2 David J C MacKay FRS Primary energy consumption: 2740TWh/y Coal: 475 TWh

  5. Managing in a Commodity World University of Alberta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boisvert, Jeff

    Copper Aluminum Iron Potash Oil Coking Coal Uranium Gold Average Source: USGS Mineral Information, LME Resources Limited Jim Popowich, Mining Guy at Large January 2011 Teck Coal Safety Culture Growth and Safety · The met coal industry ­ a case study on price increases and cost pressures · DCF Examples 4 A look back

  6. Acknowledgments: UNEP/WMO, IIASA, JRC, US EPA, SEI, Scripps, Middlebury, U York,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    (particle filters+) ­ Replacing coal in residential stoves ­ Replacing residential wood burning in Industrialized countries ­ Clean-burning cookstoves in developing countries ­ Modern brick kilns ­ Modern coke + Sri Lanka South East Asia China Rice paddies Livestock manure Wastewater Municipal waste Coal mines

  7. Investigation of the relationship between chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particles by partial least

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanier, Charlie

    combustion sources, secondary aerosol, and coal-fired power plants. The size distribution, particle identified: secondary nitrate 1 and 2, remote traffic, secondary sulfate, lead, diesel traffic, coal-fired power plant, steel mill, nucleation, local traffic, and coke plant. Citation: Zhou, L., P. K. Hopke, C

  8. Water-Gas Shift Membrane Reactor Studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coal, Petroleum coke, Biomass, Waste, etc. Gasifier Particulate Removal Air Separator Oxygen Air Steam - Transition to the Hydrogen Economy - CO2 capture and sequestration #12;Coal Gasification Technology Options&D Plan · Project falls within the Technical Objective to develop technology to produce pure H2 from coal

  9. PREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    ). The upper group consists of a bituminous soft coal, the lower coke coal. The field is sharply folded alongPREVENTTVE FACILITIES AND EMERGENCY OPERATIONS IN CASE OFFIRES IN CdF COAL MINES J.P. AMARTIN HJSJL a stricl methodology. It has been possjble then to resume coal winning, which has cor.tmued until

  10. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 2010, v. 80, 943954 Research Article

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    González, Luis A.

    boreholes advanced to depths of 400­450 cm (top of limestone bedrock) from the Chattanooga Coke Plant (CCP of anthropogenically remolded clay soil fill containing coal clinker, cinder grains, and limestone gravel; most layers of coarse fill were impregnated with creosote and coal tar. Most undisturbed soil (below 1 m depth

  11. After record sales and production, international met markets plummet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchsbaum, L.

    2009-03-15

    After surging in 2007 and most of 2008, both the demand and the pricing for coal collapsed in 2008's final quarter. The article discusses last year's market and gives some predictions on 2009's production and prices. The National Mining Association predicts that production of coking coal will fall 11% due to plunging demand for steel. 4 photos.

  12. CONTACT INFORMATION (as of 01/01/2010) Marty W. Irwin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fernández-Juricic, Esteban

    Indiana Total Consumption Electricity 59,664 Coke 4,716 Industrial 3,493 Major Coal- red power plantsCONTACT INFORMATION (as of 01/01/2010) Marty W. Irwin Director, Indiana Center for Coal Technology-7037 Email: barb@purdue.edu Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research (CCTR) 203 S Martin Jischke Drive

  13. Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    in the coal without chemical decomposition and pyrolysis converts dry coal into gas and coke [1]. The final1 Modeling of Coal Drying before Pyrolysis Damintode Kolani1, a , Eric Blond1, b , Alain Gasser1 Forbach, France a damintode.kolani@univ-orleans.fr, b eric.blond@univ-orleans.fr Keywords: coal, drying

  14. Parking Lot Sealcoat: An Unrecognized Source of Urban

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    structures stemming from their origins: coal tar is a byproduct of the production of coke from coal, whereas,maydominateloadingofPAHstourbanwaterbodies in the United States. Particles in runoff from parking lots with coal-tar emulsion sealcoat had mean and cement lots. Diagnostic ratios of individual PAHs indicating sources are similar for particles from coal

  15. Could energy intensive industries be powered by carbonfree electricity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacKay, David J.C.

    chemical services -- for example, coal, converted to coke, acts as a reducing agent in blast furnaces.) (a comes from coal, oil, and natural gas. What infrastructure would be required to deliver the same amount to Royal Society T E X Paper #12; 2 David J C MacKay FRS Primary energy consumption: 2740TWh/y Coal: 475TWh

  16. 36 BOSTONIA Fall 2010 PHOTOGRAPH BY ASIA KEPKA to make the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spence, Harlan Ernest

    to optimize the conver- sion and allow it to turn coal, coke, and other carbon-based fuel into pipeline Ways to Get There Getting the Dirt Out A new and improved way to turn coal into clean fuel 1 BY ART-sided industrial building. In the shadow of Brayton, the largest coal burning plant in New England, it looks like

  17. -A Sciende ScrWt& Released upon receipt

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    produce a blanket O f smoke, dates only from tho yoar 1897, when the uBe of coal baskots was b o ps now o i l , while the favorite e o l i d fuel is petroloum coke. (All righta roserved by Scioiico

  18. U.S. Department of the Interior June 2013 U.S. Geological Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    materials such as aluminum fluoride, cryolite, and petroleum coke owing to financial problems. CVG planned that it had shut down 115,000 t/yr of its 460,000-t/yr Angul smelter in early May. A shortage of coal for its

  19. Optimiziing the laboratory monitoring of biological wastewater-purification systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S.V. Gerasimov [OAO Koks, Kemerovo (Russian Federation)

    2009-05-15

    Optimization of the laboratory monitoring of biochemical wastewater-treatment systems at coke plants is considered, for the example of OAO Koks. By adopting a methodological approach to determine the necessary data from chemical analysis, it is possible to reduce the time, labor, and materials required for monitoring, without impairing the purification process or compromising the plant's environmental policies.

  20. Engi 9601, In Class Assignment, 25 Sept. 2012 Shindell et al., 2012, Simultaneously Mitigating Near-Term Climate Change and Improving Human

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coles, Cynthia

    ) Coal mining, oil and gas production, long distance gas transmission, municipal waste and landfills, wastewater, livestock manure, rice paddies, diesel vehicles, clean-burning biomass stoves, brick kilns, coke Change. (3 marks) coal mining in China, oil and gas production in Central Africa, the Middle East