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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

2

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

3

Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Because the absorption refrigeration system uses the Lithium bromide- water solution as refrigerant, it is profitable for the environment that human beings are living since the values of ODP and GWP of the refrigerant almost are zero. However...

Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigerator Recycling Program Refrigerator Recycling Program Loveland Water and Power - Refrigerator Recycling Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate Limit one rebate per account per year Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator and Freezer Recycling: $35 Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator. The old refrigerator should be brought outside but remain plugged in so the utility can make it is in working condition. the utility will then take the refrigerator to a recycling facility and issue a $35 bill credit. Other Information

5

Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Light Water Reactor Sustainability  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

4 Light Water Reactor Sustainability ACCOMPLISHMENTS REPORT 2014 Accomplishments Report | Light Water Reactor Sustainability 2 T he mission of the Light Water Reactor...

7

City Water Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

City Water Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate City Water Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs City Water Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate Refrigerator Recycling: 2 units Insulation: $1,000 Program Info State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washer: $150 Central Air Conditioner: $9 per kBTUh Air-Source Heat Pumps: $300/ton Geothermal Heat Pump: $500 Refrigerator Recycling: $50 per appliance Insulation: 30% Provider Energy Services Office City Water Light and Power (CWLP) offers rebates to Springfield residential

8

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use of vapor compression system configurations including multi-functional integrated heat pumps, multi

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

9

Thermal performance of an ammonia-water refrigeration system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The conservation and efficient use of energy has led to alternate methods for air conditioning in buildings. Presently, two types of absorption air conditioning systems are widely used: the lithium-bromide-water system and the ammonia-water system. The first type is typically a water fired absorption chiller while the second one is a gas fired chiller. Some of the lithium-bromide-water systems use as a source of heat a stream of hot water supplied from solar collectors at a temperature level of the order of 95-100 {degrees}C. The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibilities to use solar energy to operate an ammonia-water system and to predict its thermodynamic performance. The results indicate that it is feasible to use solar energy to operate an ammonia-water absorption-refrigeration system.

Manrique, J.A. (Inst. Tecnologico y de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Dept. of Thermal Engineering, Monterrey, NL (MX))

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

11

DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN to improve industrial energy efficiency, the development of a high temperature heat pump using water vapor as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

12

Analysis of a commercial absorption-refrigeration water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle using Aspen Plus simulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Robur absorption-refrigeration-water-ammonia (ARWA) cycle is analyzed using Aspen Plus flowsheet simulator. The results are compared with experimental and some manufacturer data reported in the open literature. Among performance parameters analyzed ... Keywords: Aspen, COP, absorption, ammonia, refrigeration, simulation, water

N. A. Darwish; S. H. Al-Hashimi; A. S. Al-Mansoori

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program Memphis Light, Gas and Water (Electric) - Commercial Efficiency Advice and Incentives Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Manufacturing Other Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Commercial Weatherization Maximum Rebate 70% of project cost Program Info State Tennessee Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Commercial Dishwashers: $400 - $1500 Commercial Refrigerator: $60 - $100 Ice Machines: $100 - $400 Insulated Holding Cabinets: $250 - $600 Electric Steam Cookers: $400 Electric Convection Ovens: $200 Electric Griddles: $200 Electric Combination Ovens: $2,000

14

A refrigerator-heat-pump desalination scheme for fresh-water and salt recovery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study concerns a refrigerator-heat-pump desalination scheme (RHPDS), which allows energy-efficient recovery of fresh water and salt from the sea. In this scheme, a salt-water chamber is continuously refilled with sea water via atmospheric pressure. Sea water is evaporated into a vacuum chamber and the water vapor is condensed on top of a fresh-water chamber. A refrigerator-heat-pump circuit maintains the two water chambers at suitably different operating temperatures and allows efficient recovery of the latent heat of condensation. The scheme is analyzed with special consideration to potential exploitation of renewable energy sources such as solar and wind energy.

M. Reali

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

2014-04-28 Issuance: Certification of Commercial HVAC, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding the certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC), water heating (WH), and refrigeration (CRE) equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 28, 2014.

16

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

hydraulics software RELAP-7 (which is under development in the Light Water Reactor Sustainability LWRS Program). A novel interaction between the probabilistic part (i.e., RAVEN)...

17

McMinnville Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

McMinnville Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate McMinnville Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program McMinnville Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Water Heating Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Star Homes: up to $1,180 Energy Star Manufactured Homes: $850 Clothes Washer: $20 - $70 Refrigerator: $15 Freezer: $15 Refrigerator/Freezer Decommissioning: $100 Electric Water Heater: $25 - $50, varies by warranty Heat Pump PTCS Tune-up: contact utility Weatherization Measures: contact utility Provider McMinnville Water and Light

18

LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM: INTRODUCTION  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM: INTRODUCTION The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1...

19

Columbia Water and Light - HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Columbia Water and Light - HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates Columbia Water and Light - HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates Columbia Water and Light - HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Lighting: 50% of invoiced cost up to $22,500 Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount HVAC Replacements: $570 - $3,770 Lighting: $300/kW reduction or half of project cost Provider Columbia Water and Light Columbia Water and Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain measures are based upon the

20

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

Jackson, H. Z.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Login Instructions go here. User ID: Password: Log In Forgot your password?...

22

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Contact Information  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Program Organization LWRS Program Management Richard Reister Federal Project Director Light Water Reactor Deployment Office of Nuclear Energy U.S. Department of Energy...

23

Development of minimum efficiency standards for large capacity air conditioners, and commercial water heaters, refrigerators, and freezers. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission has promulgated appliance energy efficiency standards and energy conservation standards for new construction with the objective of reducing energy consumption in the State of California. The following appliance categories are specifically addressed: large capacity air conditioners; commercial water heaters; and commercial refrigerators and freezers. The tasks that have been performed include: an energy use pattern study for the subject equipment; an examination of the size distribution of commercial air conditioning equipment; an examination of the different types of commercial air conditioning systems; an evaluation of the effectiveness of economizers in reducing commercial air conditioning system energy consumption in California; an examination of the effects of oversizing commercial air conditioners; a detailed study of supermarket refrigeration and air conditioning equipment; an evaluation of the economic feasibility of utilizing air conditioner waste heat to heat water; an assessment of the applicability of existing test procedures for small water heaters to large water heaters; and a brief investigation of the marketing and distribution systems for air conditioning and refrigeration equipment. Results of the efforts are described.

Merrill, P.S.; Rettberg, R.J.; Erickson, R.C.; Toor, J.S.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Columbia Water and Light- Solar Rebates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Columbia Water and Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and residential customers for the purchase of solar water heaters and solar photovoltaic systems. These rebates are available for...

25

Integration of an Ammonia-water Absorption Refrigeration System with a Marine Diesel Engine: A Thermodynamic Study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper examines through a thermodynamic analysis the feasibility of using waste heat from marine Diesel engines to drive an ammonia-water absorption refrigeration system. An energy balance of a diesel engine shows that sufficient waste heat is provided. The results illustrate that higher performance of the system is obtained at high generator and evaporator temperatures and also at low condenser and absorber temperatures.

Ahmed Ouadha; Youcef El-Gotni

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Dynamic Exergy Analysis of a Solar Ejector Refrigeration System with Hot Water Storage Tank  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A dynamic model is proposed to use in investigating the exergy analysis of a solar ejector refrigeration system using R141, for office ... in Tehran. Classical hourly outdoor temperature and solar radiation model...

Hooman Golchoobian; Ali Behbahaninia…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

and nuclear waste disposal. Dr. Corradini has extensive research experience in the phenomenology of beyond design basis Meet the New LWRS Program Pathway Lead accidents in light...

28

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance- Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants all Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

OPTIMIZING COOLING TOWER PERFORMANCE REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS, CHEMICAL PLANTS, AND POWER PLANTS ALL HAVE A RESOURCE QUIETLY AWAITING EXPLOITATION - COLD WATER!! ROBERT BURGER President Burger and Associates, Inc. Dallas, Texas Cooling... towers, because of their seeming simplicity, are usually orphans of the facilities operation. We are all aware that cooling towers are the step-children of the chemical process plant, electric power generating station, and refrigeration system...

Burger, R.

29

Lansing Board of Water and Light - Hometown Energy Savers® Residential  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savers® Savers® Residential Rebates Lansing Board of Water and Light - Hometown Energy Savers® Residential Rebates < Back Eligibility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Construction Heating Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Other Program Info State Michigan Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Small Business Direct Install Program: No cost or purchase necessary for participation Custom $0.08/kWh Commercial Cooking Equipment: Varies Commercial Refrigeration Equipment: Varies Lighting Compact Fluorescent Lamps: $1.50-$8 Compact Fluorescent Lamp Fixtures: $20 LED Lamps: $5-$15 LED Fixtures: $20 LED Exit Signs: $12.50

30

Corrosion aspects in indirect systems with secondary refrigerants.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Aqueous solutions of organic or inorganic salts are used as secondary refrigerants in indirect refrigeration systems to transport and transfer heat. Water is known… (more)

Ignatowicz, Monika

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Engineering computer models for refrigerators, freezers, furnaces, water heaters, room and central air conditioners  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This User's Guide provides the necessary information for understanding and using a computer model developed for the US Department of Energy which predicts the performance (energy consumption) of household refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The model is capable of simulating various cabinet configurations (top-mount, bottom-mount, side-by-side, single-door) and refrigeration unit combinations (back-mounted static condenser with single forced convection evaporator, hot wall condenser with cooled wall panels, etc.). The program is comprised of two main subroutines: a cabinet heat-load submodel and a refrigeration unit submodel; they can be used separately for preliminary design analysis or together for performance evaluations. A technical description of the model and information on how to structure input parameters are provided. The user is provided with specific guidance for running the model on a computer. Specific instructions are given in the Appendices for changing and running the model using the operating language compatible with the DOE computer terminal system. Other users will have to modify the procedures in these sections as necessary for different computers.

Not Available

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron on a vapour-compression cycle) /heat_pump.g Heat pumps make use of low- temperature (waste) heat, replacing/vcmfiles/ electricity!) for heating and air conditioning purposes Heat pumps became popular in ://www.bge.c Heat pumps

Zevenhoven, Ron

33

Light Water Reactors Technology Development - Nuclear Reactors  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Light Water Reactors Light Water Reactors About Director's Welcome Organization Achievements Highlights Fact Sheets, Brochures & Other Documents Multimedia Library Visit Argonne Work with Argonne Contact us Nuclear Energy Why Nuclear Energy? Why are some people afraid of Nuclear Energy? How do nuclear reactors work? Cheaper & Safer Nuclear Energy Helping to Solve the Nuclear Waste Problem Nuclear Reactors Nuclear Reactors Early Exploration Training Reactors Basic and Applied Science Research LWR Technology Development BORAX-III lighting Arco, Idaho (Press Release) Heavy Water and Graphite Reactors Fast Reactor Technology Integral Fast Reactor Argonne Reactor Tree CP-1 70th Anniversary CP-1 70th Anniversary Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy Argonne's Nuclear Science and Technology Legacy

34

Cedarburg Light & Water Utility - Commercial Shared Savings Loan Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cedarburg Light & Water Utility - Commercial Shared Savings Loan Cedarburg Light & Water Utility - Commercial Shared Savings Loan Program (Wisconsin) Cedarburg Light & Water Utility - Commercial Shared Savings Loan Program (Wisconsin) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Cooling Appliances & Electronics Manufacturing Home Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Commercial Weatherization Ventilation Construction Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate $50,000 Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount $2,500 - $50,000 Provider Cedarburg Light and Water Utility Cedarburg Light and Water Utility (CLWU) provides loans for commercial,

35

2014-02-07 Issuance: Certification of Commercial Heating, Ventilation, and Air-conditioning, Water Heating, and Refrigeration Equipment; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register notice of proposed rulemaking regarding certification of commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning, water-heating, and refrigeration equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on February 7, 2014.

36

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

vending machines are equipped with controls or software that put the lighting andor refrigeration systems into a low power state at night, on weekends, or other periods of...

37

Cedarburg Light and Water Utility - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cedarburg Light and Water Utility - Commercial Energy Efficiency Cedarburg Light and Water Utility - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cedarburg Light and Water Utility - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Unspecified ($250,000 per bid cycle) Program Info State Wisconsin Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Varies by measure Provider Cedarburg Light and Water Utility Cedarburg Light and Water Utility provides incentives for commercial,

38

L&E: Refrigerated Display Case | The Better Buildings Alliance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Lighting & Electrical » Adopt the Lighting & Electrical » Adopt the refrigerated display case lighting performance specification and start saving on your case lighting costs Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Adopt the refrigerated display case lighting performance specification and start saving on your case lighting costs The LED Refrigerated Display Case Lighting Specification delivers nearly 50% energy savings compared to typical display case lighting. If all retail refrigerated display cases switched today to LED systems, over 2.1 TWh of electricity could be saved annually. LED Refrigerated Display Case Lighting Specification

39

Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Sun Prairie Water & Light Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 18312 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Area Lighting 1000w Halide existing poles Lighting Area Lighting 1000w Halide provided poles Lighting Area Lighting 100w HPS existing poles Lighting Area Lighting 100w HPS provided poles Lighting Area Lighting 150w HPS existing poles Lighting

40

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Light Water Reactor Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is developing the scientific basis to extend existing nuclear power plant operating life beyond the current 60-year licensing period and ensure long-term reliability, productivity, safety, and security. The program is conducted in collaboration with national laboratories, universities, industry, and international partners. Idaho National Laboratory serves as the Technical Integration Office and coordinates the research and development (R&D) projects in the following pathways: Materials Aging and Degradation Assessment, Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reactor Technologies » Light Water Reactor Reactor Technologies » Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program » Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents April 30, 2013 LWRS Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program - Joint R&D Plan To address the challenges associated with pursuing commercial nuclear power plant operations beyond 60 years, the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) have established separate but complementary research and development programs: DOE-NE's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program and EPRI's Long-Term Operations (LTO) Program. April 30, 2013 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and

42

Parkland Light & Water Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Parkland Light & Water Company Parkland Light & Water Company Jump to: navigation, search Name Parkland Light & Water Company Place Washington Utility Id 14505 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Large Commercial (Over 50kVA) Commercial Residential Rate Residential Security Lights-100 WATT HP SODIUM Lighting Security Lights-200 WATT HP SODIUM Lighting Security Lights-250 WATT HP SODIUM Lighting Security Lights-400 WATT HP SODIUM Lighting Small Commercial (Under 50kVA) Commercial Average Rates

43

Albany Water Gas & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Gas & Light Comm Water Gas & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Albany Water Gas & Light Comm Place Georgia Utility Id 230 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SERC NERC SERC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Demand Commercial Commercial Non-Demand Commercial Large Commercial Demand Commercial Residential Residential Security Lights 1000 Watt Metal Halide Metal Pole Lighting Security Lights 1000 Watt Metal Halide Wooden Pole Lighting Security Lights 150 HPSV Fixtures Metal Pole Lighting Security Lights 150 HPSV Fixtures Wooden Pole Lighting

44

List of Refrigerators Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigerators Incentives Refrigerators Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 657 Refrigerators Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-657) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial Custom Project Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Nonprofit Schools State Government Tribal Government Boilers Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Furnaces Heat pumps Heat recovery Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Processing and Manufacturing Equipment Refrigerators Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Fed. Government Industrial

45

Zircaloy performance in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Zircaloy has been successfully used as the primary light water reactor (LWR) core structural material since its introduction in the early days of the US naval nuclear program. Its unique combination of low neutron absorption cross section, fabricability, mechanical strength, and corrosion resistance in water and steam near 300{degrees}C has resulted in remarkable reliability of operation of pressurized and boiling water reactor (PWR, BWR) fuel through the years. At present time, BWRs use Zircaloy-2 and PWRs use Zircaloy-4 for fuel cladding. In BWRs, both Zircaloy-2 and -4 have been successfully used for spacer grids and channels, and in PWRs Zircaloy-4 is used for spacer grids and control rod guide tubes. Performance of fuel rods has been excellent thus far. The current trend for utilities worldwide is to expect both higher fuel reliability in the future. Fuel suppliers have already achieved extended exposures in lead use assemblies, and have demonstrated excellent performance in all areas; therefore unsuspected problems are not likely to arise. However, as exposure and expectations continue to increase, Zircaloy is being taken toward the limits of its known capabilities. This paper reviews Zircaloy performance capabilities in areas related to environmentally affected microstructure, mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and dimensional stability. The effects of radiation and reactor environment on each property is illustrated with data, micrographs, and analysis.

Adamson, R.B.; Cheng, B.C.; Kruger, R.M. [GE Nuclear Energy, Pleasanton, CA (United States)

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

46

Columbia Water and Light - Commercial Super Saver Loans | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Columbia Water and Light - Commercial Super Saver Loans Columbia Water and Light - Commercial Super Saver Loans Columbia Water and Light - Commercial Super Saver Loans < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Nonprofit State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Heating Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Solar Maximum Rebate $30,000 Program Info Start Date 06/01/2010 State Missouri Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Up to $30,000 Provider Columbia Water and Light Columbia Water and Light (CWL) provides Commercial Super Saver Loans, which allow C&I rate customers to replace a furnace along with a new central air conditioner or heat pump with an efficiency rating 11 EER or greater for units 6 tons or larger. No prepayment penalties are enforced through the

47

Light water reactor lower head failure analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)] [and others

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

McMinnville Water and Light - Conservation Service Loan Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

McMinnville Water and Light - Conservation Service Loan Program McMinnville Water and Light - Conservation Service Loan Program McMinnville Water and Light - Conservation Service Loan Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Construction Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Manufacturing Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate $10,000 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount $500-$10,000 Provider McMinnville Water and Light McMinnville Water and Light offers financing to residential and commercial customers to make energy efficient improvements to eligible facilities and homes. Financing is available for pre-approved conservation measures only.

49

City Water Light and Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Light and Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Water Light and Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs City Water Light and Power - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Nonprofit Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Insulation: $3,000 Retro-Commissioning: $50,000 Lighting: $15,000 Program Info State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air-Source Heat Pumps: $300/ton Geothermal Heat Pump: $500/ton Insulation: 30% Retro-Commissioning Study: $0.30 per sq. ft. of conditioned space Retro-Commissioning EMC: varies Lighting: $3 - $35/unit Lighting (Custom): $0.28/Watt reduced Water Loop Heat Pump: Contact CWLP

50

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Initiatives » Nuclear Reactor Technologies » Light Water Reactor Initiatives » Nuclear Reactor Technologies » Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program » Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents Light Water Reactor Sustainability Technical Documents September 30, 2011 Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR licenses are now being extended from 40y to 60y by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with intentions to extend licenses to 80y and beyond. The RPV materials exhibit varying degrees of sensitivity to irradiation-induced embrittlement

51

ACKLESON, STEVEN G. Light in shallow waters: A brief research ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Office of Naval Research, 800 N. Quincy Street, Arlington, Virginia 22043 ... ecosystems, such as coral reefs or seagrasses, the in-water light field is often ...

2003-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

52

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter Rebecca Smith-Kevern  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Rebecca Smith-Kevern Director, Office of Light Water Reactor Technologies. I am often asked why the Federal Government should fund a program that supports the continued operation...

53

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter Thomas M. Rosseel  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy's (DOE) Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC (a...

54

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Newsletter By John Gaertner  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Year 2011 LWRS Program funding is very clear: "Regarding the Light Water Reactor Sustainability program, (Congress) expects a high cost share from industry." Cost sharing is...

55

Light Water Reactors A DOE Energy Innovation Hub for Modeling...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors A DOE Energy Innovation Hub for Modeling and Simulation of Nuclear Reactors CASL is focused on three issues for nuclear...

56

Moose Lake Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lake Water & Light Comm Lake Water & Light Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Moose Lake Water & Light Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 12897 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png 2-250HPS-FRO Lighting 250 HPS ELEOLY Lighting 3-250 HPS Lighting 4-250 HPS Lighting 400 HPS Rent Lighting BEST OIL CO Commercial BIKE TRAIL Commercial CIP Commercial Commercial Demand Commercial Commercial Electricity Commercial Demand 1 Phase Industrial

57

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

58

Two Rivers Water & Light | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water & Light Water & Light Jump to: navigation, search Name Two Rivers Water & Light Place Wisconsin Utility Id 19324 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Business District Lighting- 150W HPS Lighting Business District Lighting- 200W HPS Lighting General Service- Single-Phase Commercial General Service- Single-Phase- Time-of-Day- 7am-7pm Commercial General Service- Single-Phase- Time-of-Day- 8am-8pm Commercial

59

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Solar Water Heating Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Solar Water Heating Program Info Start Date 11/30/2009 Expiration Date 03/31/2013 State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $286/system Provider Duquesne Light Company Duquesne Light provides rebates to its residential customers for purchasing and installing qualifying solar water heating systems. Eligible systems may receive a flat rebate of $286 per qualifying system. Various equipment, installation, contractor, and warranty requirements apply, as summarized above and described in more detail in program documents. Customers must

60

Azusa Light and Water - Solar Partnership Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Azusa Light and Water - Solar Partnership Program Azusa Light and Water - Solar Partnership Program Azusa Light and Water - Solar Partnership Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate 50% of system cost Program Info Expiration Date 12/31/2016 State California Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Program is fully subscribed for fiscal year 2013-2014. New applicants will be placed on a wait list. $1.55/W-DC Provider Azusa Light and Water '''''This program is fully subscribed through fiscal year 2013/2014. New applicants will be placed on a wait list in the order they were received. ''''' Azusa Light and Water provides rebates to customers who install photovoltaic (PV) systems through the utility's Solar Partnership Program.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

2014-12-22 Issuance: Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, refrigeration, and water heating equipment , as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on December 22, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

62

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive < Back Eligibility Agricultural Commercial Industrial Institutional Nonprofit Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Incentives over $5,000 must be pre-approved Program Info Funding Source Efficiency Vermont Public Benefit Fund Expiration Date 06/30/2013 State Vermont Program Type State Rebate Program Rebate Amount Outside Air Economizers: $1,250 Evaporator Fan Motors: $20 - $100 Evaporator Fan Motor Controls: $550 Door/Frame Heater Controls: $50 per door Case Light Occupancy Controls: $40 LED Refrigerator and Freezer Case Light Fixtures: $6 - $15 per foot Energy Star Ice Machines: $50 - $75 Efficient Compressors: $200 Display Case Strip-Curtain and Continuous Covers: $6 per foot

63

Clarksville Light & Water Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Clarksville Light & Water Co Clarksville Light & Water Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Clarksville Light & Water Co Place Arkansas Utility Id 3705 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Large Commercial (Rate schedule p) Commercial Large Industrial (Rate schedule p) Industrial Residential (R1) Residential Residential Rate Schedule R-2 Residential Security Light Service (Rate schedule L)HPS 100 W Commercial Security Light Service 1000 W MH Commercial Security light service 150 W HPS Commercial

64

North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program North Branch Municipal Water and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Lighting: See program website Room A/C: $25, plus $25 for recycling an old, working unit Central A/C: $100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Air Source Heat Pump:$100 - $200, plus additional rebate for efficiency ratings above 14.5 SEER Geothermal Heat Pump:$200/ton, plus $25/ton for every 1 EER above minimum

65

Columbia Water and Light - Residential Super Saver Loans | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Residential Super Saver Loans Residential Super Saver Loans Columbia Water and Light - Residential Super Saver Loans < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Ventilation Heating Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Solar Maximum Rebate $15,000 Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Loan Program Rebate Amount Home Performance Super Saver Loan: up to $15,000 Provider Columbia Water and Light The Columbia Water and Light (CWL) Home Performance Super Saver Loan allows Columbia residents to finance energy improvements to homes with affordable, low interest loans with five to ten year terms. If a Water and Light

66

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

Calm, J.M.

1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Light-water breeder reactors: preliminary safety and environmental information document. Volume III  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented concerning prebreeder and breeder reactors based on light-water-breeder (LWBR) Type 1 modules; light-water backfit prebreeder supplying advanced breeder; light-water backfit prebreeder/seed-blanket breeder system; and light-water backfit low-gain converter using medium-enrichment uranium, supplying a light-water backfit high-gain converter.

Not Available

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Paragould Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Paragould Light & Water Comm Paragould Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Paragould Light & Water Comm Place Arkansas Utility Id 14446 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Wholesale Marketing Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Single Phase Commercial General Three Phase Commercial Industrial Industrial Residential Residential Security Lighting 100 W HPS Lighting

69

Light Water Reactors [Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials] - Nuclear  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Light Water Reactors Light Water Reactors Capabilities Materials Testing Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC) of Reactor Materials Corrosion Performance/Metal Dusting Overview Light Water Reactors Fatigue Testing of Carbon Steels and Low-Alloy Steels Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Ni-Base Alloys Irradiation-Induced Stress Corrosion Cracking of Austenitic Stainless Steels Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program Air Oxidation Kinetics for Zr-based Alloys Fossil Energy Fusion Energy Metal Dusting Publications List Irradiated Materials Steam Generator Tube Integrity Other Facilities Work with Argonne Contact us For Employees Site Map Help Join us on Facebook Follow us on Twitter NE on Flickr Corrosion and Mechanics of Materials Light Water Reactors Bookmark and Share To continue safe operation of current LWRs, the aging degradation of the

70

Lockwood Water & Light Company | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Lockwood Water & Light Company Lockwood Water & Light Company Jump to: navigation, search Name Lockwood Water & Light Company Place Missouri Utility Id 11121 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes Activity Retail Marketing Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Demand Industrial Industrial Residential Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1060/kWh Commercial: $0.1110/kWh Industrial: $0.0926/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Lockwood_Water_%26_Light_Company&oldid=410998

71

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR licenses are now being extended from 40y to 60y by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with intentions to extend licenses to 80y and beyond. The RPV materials exhibit varying degrees of sensitivity to irradiation-induced embrittlement (decreased toughness) , as shown in Fig. 1.1, and extending operation from

72

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Integrated Program Plan The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U. S. Department of Energy (DOE), performed in close collaboration and cooperation with related industry R&D programs. The LWRS Program provides technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of current nuclear power plants, utilizing the unique capabilities of the national laboratory system. Sustainability is defined as the ability to maintain safe and economic operation of the existing fleet of nuclear power plants for a longer than-initially-licensed lifetime. It has two facets

73

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2 Experiment Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Milestone Report on Materials and Machining of Specimens for the ATR-2 Experiment The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations, which govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants, require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including

74

Columbia Water and Light- Residential HVAC Rebate Program  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Columbia Water and Light (CWL) provides an HVAC incentive for residential customers that are replacing an older heating and cooling system. Customers should submit the mechanical permit from a...

75

Plasmonic Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting with Visible Light  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Plasmonic Photoanodes for Solar Water Splitting with Visible Light ... The contribution of X.J. was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and by National Science Foundation grant no. ...

Joun Lee; Syed Mubeen; Xiulei Ji; Galen D. Stucky; Martin Moskovits

2012-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

76

Salt and Light Water Purification System.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The need for a proposed solution to help mitigate the world’s water crisis is presented. This need is not a new development in the 21st… (more)

Ewing, Emile

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Modeling supermarket refrigeration energy use and demand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computer model has been developed that can predict the performance of supermarket refrigeration equipment to within 3% of field test measurements. The Supermarket Refrigeration Energy Use and Demand Model has been used to simulate currently available refrigerants R-12, R-502 and R-22, and is being further developed to address alternative refrigerants. This paper reports that the model is expected to be important in the design, selection and operation of cost-effective, high-efficiency refrigeration systems. It can profile the operation and performance of different types of compressors, condensors, refrigerants and display cases. It can also simulate the effects of store humidity and temperature on display cases; the efficiency of various floating head pressure setpoints, defrost alternatives and subcooling methods; the efficiency and amount of heat reclaim from refrigeration systems; and the influence of other variables such as store lighting and building design. It can also be used to evaluate operational strategies such as variable-speed drive or cylinder unloading for capacity control. Development of the model began in 1986 as part of a major effort, sponsored by the U.S. electric utility industry, to evaluate energy performance of then conventional single compressor and state-of-the-art multiplex refrigeration systems, and to characterize the contribution of a variety of technology enhancement features on system energy use and demand.

Blatt, M.H.; Khattar, M.K. (Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (US)); Walker, D.H. (Foster Miller Inc., Waltham, MA (US))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Chapter 19 - Nanostructured Visible-Light Photocatalysts for Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Titanium oxide (TiO,) photocatalysts have been widely studied for both solar energy conversion and environmental applications in the past several decades because of their high chemical stability, good photoactivity, relatively low cost, and nontoxicity. However, the photocatalytic capability of TiO, is limited to only ultraviolet light (wavelength, A,water disinfection and removal of organic contaminants in water.

Qi Li; Pinggui Wu; Jian Ku Shang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Characterization of light gluten and light steep water from a corn wet milling plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Characterization of light gluten and light steep water from a corn wet milling plant K.D. Rausch March 2003; accepted 10 March 2003 Abstract The primary commodity of corn wet milling is starch, but two Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Coproducts; Corn gluten meal; Corn gluten feed; Corn wet milling

80

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Materials Degradation in Light Water Reactors: Life After 60 Nuclear reactors present a very harsh environment for components service. Components within a reactor core must tolerate high temperature water, stress, vibration, and an intense neutron field. Degradation of materials in this environment can lead to reduced performance, and in some cases, sudden failure. A recent EPRI-led study interviewed 47 US nuclear utility executives to gauge perspectives on long-term operation of nuclear reactors. Nearly 90% indicated that extensions of reactor lifetimes to beyond 60 years were likely. When polled on the most challenging issues facing further life extension, two-thirds cited plant reliability as the

82

Conservation Division regiulations for appliance-efficiency standards relating to refrigerators and freezers, room air conditioners, central air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The text of the appliance efficiency standards for certain types of new appliances sold in California is presented. Specifications and test methods to identify complying refrigerators, freezers, air conditioners, gas space heaters, water heaters, plumbing fittings, gas clothes dryers, and gas cooking appliances are covered.

Not Available

1981-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

83

Save with Hybrid Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SAVE WITH HYBRID REFRIGERATION Cheng-Wen (Wayne) Chung, P.E. Fluor Engineers, Inc. Irvine, California ABSTRACT Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type... of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption...

Chung, C. W.

84

Refrigerants in Transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

component of ternary blends and as a blowing agent. Further testing is ongoing to determine its performance characteristics. Since CFC-114 chillers constitute an estimated 1% of the more than 80,000 centrifugal chillers, testing has not been a high..., commercial refrigerators, ice makers, etc. Some commercial chillers. Some commercial refrigeration. Marine refrigeration, stationery chillers, ternary blends, blowing agents. 51 RESULTS OF TESTING The testing programs undertaken by the refrigerant...

Stouppe, D. E.

85

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power (Electric) - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Program Info State Wyoming Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Home Energy Audit: Contact Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power CFL Bulbs: Up to 10 CFL bulbs at reduced cost Water Heater: $75 Refrigerator Recycling: $30 Cheyenne Light, Fuel and Power offers incentives to electric customers who wish to install energy efficient equipment in participating homes. Incentives are available for home energy audits, CFL light bulbs, tank water heaters and refrigerator recycling. Water heater purchases and

86

List of Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Refrigeration Equipment Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 103 Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Incentives. CSV (rows 1 - 103) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Appalachian Power - Commercial and Industrial Rebate Programs (West Virginia) Utility Rebate Program West Virginia Commercial Industrial Central Air conditioners Chillers Custom/Others pending approval Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Programmable Thermostats Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Ground Source Heat Pumps Yes AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility

87

Cedarburg Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Cedarburg Light & Water Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 3208 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service - Regular Rate - Single Phase Commercial General Service - Regular rate - Three Phase Commercial General Service Optional Time-of-Day Rate - Single Phase 7am-7pm Commercial General Service Optional Time-of-Day Rate - Single Phase 8am-8pm Commercial

88

Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Brodhead Water & Lighting Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 2273 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service - GS-1 - Single Phase Commercial General Service - GS-1 Three Phase Commercial General-OTD 1-Three Phase Commercial General-OTD- Single Phase Commercial Industrial Power Time of day CP-3 above 1,000kW Demand Primary Metering and Transformer Discount Industrial Industrial Power Time of day CP-3 above 1,000kW Demand Industrial

89

Waterloo Light & Water Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Waterloo Light & Water Comm Waterloo Light & Water Comm Jump to: navigation, search Name Waterloo Light & Water Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 20182 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service Three Phase Commercial General Service Single Phase Commercial General Service TOU Single Phase Commercial General Service TOU Three Phase Commercial Industrial TOU Industrial Large Power TOU Industrial Renewable Energy Rider 1 Commercial Renewable Energy Rider 2 Industrial

90

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Nondestructive Evaluation for Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap Light Water Reactor Sustainability Nondestructive Evaluation for Concrete Research and Development Roadmap Materials issues are a key concern for the existing nuclear reactor fleet as material degradation can lead to increased maintenance, increased downtown, and increased risk. Extending reactor life to 60 years and beyond will likely increase susceptibility and severity of known forms of degradation. Additionally, new mechanisms of materials degradation are also possible. The purpose of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is to develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend

91

Superior Water, Light and Power Co | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water, Light and Power Co Water, Light and Power Co Jump to: navigation, search Name Superior Water, Light and Power Co Place Wisconsin Utility Id 18336 Utility Location Yes Ownership I NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] Energy Information Administration Form 826[2] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png No rate schedules available. Average Rates Residential: $0.1050/kWh Commercial: $0.0835/kWh Industrial: $0.0674/kWh The following table contains monthly sales and revenue data for Superior Water, Light and Power Co (Wisconsin). Month RES REV (THOUSAND $) RES SALES (MWH) RES CONS COM REV (THOUSAND $) COM SALES (MWH) COM CONS IND_REV (THOUSAND $) IND SALES (MWH) IND CONS OTH REV (THOUSAND $) OTH SALES (MWH) OTH CONS TOT REV (THOUSAND $) TOT SALES (MWH) TOT CONS

92

Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Near-infrared light scattering by particles in coastal waters David Doxaran* , Marcel Babin extend over the near-infrared spectral region to up to 870 nm. The measurements were conducted in three in the near-infrared very closely matched a - spectral dependence, which is expected when the particle size

Babin, Marcel

93

Monitoring refrigeration energy useage.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refrigerators use more energy than any other kitchen appliance -- an unsurprising fact considering that refrigerators operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year to keep food at a safe temperature. In many low-income households, refrigerators eat up more than half the electricity consumed in one year. And if the refrigerator in a family's home is functioning poorly, the cost to the consumer can be enormous. Discovering whether an existing refrigerator is operating inefficiently enough to warrant replacing it is an extremely difficult task for a resident who sees only a monthly electric bill. Only by knowing the approximate usage of the existing unit can anyone tell whether it would pay to buy a new, energy-efficient refrigerator. The savings from replacing older refrigerators can be substantial, and collecting the data needed to determine when refrigerators should be replaced is easier and less costly than one might think. In both Chicago and New York City, replacing existing units cut refrigerator electricity usage by more than 50%. Monitoring to develop an average usage for the existing stock of refrigerators is a task that can be completed by maintenance staff in a reasonably short time -- and identifying poorly performing units that should be immediately replaced can take just two hours of monitoring.

Cavallo, J.; Mapp, J.; Energy Systems; Wisconsin Energy Bureau

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

ARTI refrigerant database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

95

Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

+ moisture a_Falls.jpg For the range -10 ~ +50°C, dry air can be treated as an ideal gas with c i 1 005 kJ/(kg· K) _Mist-Niagara cp,air 1.005 kJ/(kg K) The saturation pressure of water at 50°C is 12.3 k.3 kJ/kg c t 1.82 kJ/(kg· K) Picture:http:// 8.11.2012 �bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow

Zevenhoven, Ron

96

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Assessment of High Value Surveillance Materials Assessment of High Value Surveillance Materials Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Assessment of High Value Surveillance Materials The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) in a light-water reactor (LWR) represents the first line of defense against a release of radiation in case of an accident. Thus, regulations that govern the operation of commercial nuclear power plants require conservative margins of fracture toughness, both during normal operation and under accident scenarios. In the unirradiated condition, the RPV has sufficient fracture toughness such that failure is implausible under any postulated condition, including pressurized thermal shock (PTS) in pressurized water reactors (PWR). In the irradiated condition, however, the fracture toughness of the RPV may be severely

97

Large passive pressure tube light water reactor with voided calandria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A reactor concept has been developed that can survive loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) without scram and without replenishing primary coolant inventory while maintaining safe temperature limits on the fuel and pressure tube. The proposed concept is a pressure tube reactor of similar design to Canada deuterium uranium reactors but differing in three key aspects. First, a solid silicon carbide-coated graphite fuel matrix is used in place of fuel pin bundles to enable the dissipation of decay heat from the fuel in the absence of primary coolant. Second, the heavy water coolant in the pressure tubes is replaced by light water, which also serves as the moderator. Finally, the calandria tank, surrounded by a graphite reflector, contains a low-pressure gas instead of heavy water moderator, and this normally voided calandria is connected to a light water heat sink. The cover gas displaces the light water from the calandria during normal operation while during a LOCA or loss of heat sink accident, it allows passive calandria flooding. Calandria flooding also provides redundant and diverse reactor shutdown. The fuel elements can operate under post-critical-heat-flux conditions even at full power without exceeding fuel design limits. The heterogeneous arrangement of the fuel and moderator ensures a negative void coefficient under all circumstances. Although light water is used as both coolant and moderator, the reactor exhibits a high degree of neutron thermalization and a large prompt neutron lifetime, similar to D{sub 2}O-moderated cores. Moreover, the extremely large neutron migration length results in a strongly coupled core with a flat thermal flux profile and inherent stability against xenon spatial oscillations.

Hejzlar, P.; Todreas, N.E.; Driscoll, M.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Paper No. 206 IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands, 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

outside the buildings for devices having the refrigerant charge of small heat pumps for space heatingPaper No. 206 10th IIR Gustav Lorentzen Conference on Natural Refrigerants, Delft, The Netherlands by subcooling of the refrigerant in the cold water tank (not used for cooling during winter). The water tank

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

99

Manufacture of refrigeration oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Lubricating oils suitable for use in refrigeration equipment in admixture with fluorinated hydrocarbon refrigerants are produced by solvent extraction of naphthenic lubricating oil base stocks, cooling the resulting extract mixture, optionally with the addition of a solvent modifier, to form a secondary raffinate and a secondary extract, and recovering a dewaxed oil fraction of lowered pour point from the secondary raffinate as a refrigeration oil product. The process of the invention obviates the need for a separate dewaxing operation, such as dewaxing with urea, as conventionally employed for the production of refrigeration oils.

Chesluk, R.P.; Platte, H.J.; Sequeira, A.J.

1981-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

100

Energy-efficiency directory of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Information is presented about the energy costs of operating refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers and includes the type of refrigerator or refrigerator-freezer, the fresh food volume, the freezer volume, the total volume, and the yearly energy cost. The directory lists all currently marketed electric refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers that have Energy Guide labels. The Federal Trade Commission requires manufacturers who distribute refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers to attach Energy Guide labels to appliances manufactured on or after May 19, 1980. The data have been measured by manufacturers and/or their agents according to US Government standard test procedures.

Statt, T.G.; Coggins, J.L.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

102

Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

Vobach, A.R.

1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

103

Commercial Water Heaters | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Water Heaters Commercial Water Heaters Standardized DOE Testing Templates commercialwaterheater v1.0.xlsx More Documents & Publications Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers...

104

McMinnville Water and Light - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

McMinnville Water and Light - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate McMinnville Water and Light - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs McMinnville Water and Light - Commercial Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount McMinnville Water and Light Company Provider McMinnville Water and Light McMinnville Water and Light Company offers a variety of rebates for commercial and industrial customers to make energy efficient improvements to eligible facilities. MW&L offers rebates in three categories: Lighting retrofits, motor replacements, and process efficiency. Past lighting projects have included fluorescent lighting retrofits, mercury vapor

105

LBLOCA in CANDU-NG cooled by light water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The purpose of this work is to develop methodologies for the evaluation of LBLOCA in CANDU-NG reactors with the codes DONJON and DRAGON. CANDU-NG reactor differ from traditional CANDU reactors in being cooled by light water, using enriched fuel and burnable poisons, having significantly lesser quantity of heavy water moderator. The evaluation shows that methodology developed for CANDU-NG LBLOCA properly detects positive reactivity introduced in the core by initial voiding in checkerboard pattern, peaking at 143 pcm. Such reactivity quickly becomes negative, however, bottoming at ?804 pcm and the reactor shuts down by itself without the intervention of any engineered system.

Alexi V. Popov; Andrei Olekhnovitch; Majid Fassi Fehri

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

North Branch Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

North Branch Water & Light Comm North Branch Water & Light Comm Place Minnesota Utility Id 13681 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes Activity Bundled Services Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Commercial Large General Service Industrial Residential Residential Residential- Seasonal Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1250/kWh Commercial: $0.1140/kWh Industrial: $0.0750/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a"

107

An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water Reactor Fuel with the Potential for Recycle in the United States An Evaluation of the Proliferation Resistant Characteristics of Light Water Reactor Fuel with the Potential for Recycle in the United States The Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) of the Department of Energy has been formulated to perform research leading to advanced fuels and fuel cycles for advanced nuclear power systems. One of the objectives of AFCI is to determine if partitioning and transmutation of spent nuclear fuel will reduce the burden on the geologic repository. The AFCI program is periodically reviewed by the Advanced Nuclear Transmutation Technology (ANTT) subcommittee of the Nuclear Energy Research Advisory Committee

108

Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program:  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges Reactor Pressure Vessel Task of Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Initial Assessment of Thermal Annealing Needs and Challenges The most life-limiting structural component in light-water reactors (LWR) is the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) because replacement of the RPV is not considered a viable option at this time. LWR licenses are now being extended from 40y to 60y by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with intentions to extend licenses to 80y and beyond. The RPV materials exhibit varying degrees of sensitivity to irradiation-induced embrittlement (decreased toughness) , as shown in Fig. 1.1, and extending operation from 40y to 80y implies a doubling of the neutron exposure for the RPV. Thus,

109

Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Oconto Falls Water & Light Comm Place Wisconsin Utility Id 13965 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cp-1 Small Power Service Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service Primary Metering Discount Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 TOD Small Power Optional Time-of-Day Service Primary Metering Discount

110

Newberry Water & Light Board | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Board Board Jump to: navigation, search Name Newberry Water & Light Board Place Michigan Utility Id 13525 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location RFC NERC RFC Yes ISO MISO Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial Electric Commercial Residential Electric Residential Average Rates Residential: $0.1100/kWh Commercial: $0.1030/kWh Industrial: $0.1390/kWh References ↑ "EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a" Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Newberry_Water_%26_Light_Board&oldid=411182

111

City Water and Light Plant | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

and Light Plant and Light Plant Jump to: navigation, search Name City Water and Light Plant Place Arkansas Utility Id 9879 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location SPP NERC SPP Yes RTO SPP Yes Operates Generating Plant Yes Activity Generation Yes Activity Buying Transmission Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png General Service- Large Industrial General Service- Large(Primary Metering) Industrial General Service- Small Electric Rate Commercial General service (Residential Electric Rate) Residential

112

Lansing Board of Water and Light - Hometown Energy Savers Commercial  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Savers Savers Commercial Rebates Lansing Board of Water and Light - Hometown Energy Savers Commercial Rebates < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Manufacturing Other Construction Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Incentives for Prescriptive measures may not exceed 100% of the total project cost, or $50,000 per electric meter per year. Incentives for Custom measures may not exceed 40% of the total project cost, or $20,000. Program Info Expiration Date 11/30/2013 State Michigan Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Small Business Direct Install Program: No cost or purchase necessary for participation Custom $0.08/kWh Commercial Cooking Equipment: Varies

113

ARTI Refrigerant Database  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R- 125, R-134a, R-141b, R142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses polyalkylene glycol (PAG), ester, and other lubricants. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits.

Calm, J.M.

1992-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

114

Lake Mills Light & Water | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Water Water Jump to: navigation, search Name Lake Mills Light & Water Place Wisconsin Utility Id 10605 Utility Location Yes Ownership M NERC Location MRO NERC MRO Yes ISO MISO Yes Activity Distribution Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle Yes Alt Fuel Vehicle2 Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand Primary Metering and Transformer Ownership Discount with Parallel Generation(20kW or less) Industrial Cp-1 Small Power Service between 50kW and 200kW Demand Primary Metering and Transformer Ownership Discount Industrial

115

Cryogenic optical refrigeration.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis compiles recent achievements in optical refrigeration, cooling a 5 wt. % ytterbium doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb+3:YLF) crystal through anti-Stokes fluorescence to a… (more)

Melgaard, Seth

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Accident Performance of Light Water Reactor Cladding Materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

During a loss of coolant accident as experienced at Fukushima, inadequate cooling of the reactor core forces component temperatures ever higher where they must withstand aggressive chemical environments. Conventional zirconium cladding alloys will readily oxidize in the presence of water vapor at elevated temperatures, rapidly degrading and likely failing. A cladding breach removes the critical barrier between actinides and fission products and the coolant, greatly increasing the probability of the release of radioactivity in the event of a containment failure. These factors have driven renewed international interest in both study and improvement of the materials used in commercial light water reactors. Characterization of a candidate cladding alloy or oxidation mitigation technique requires understanding of both the oxidation kinetics and hydrogen production as a function of temperature and atmosphere conditions. Researchers in the MST division supported by the DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development program are working to evaluate and quantify these parameters across a wide range of proposed cladding materials. The primary instrument employed is a simultaneous thermal analyzer (STA) equipped with a specialized water vapor furnace capable of maintaining temperatures above 1200 C in a range of atmospheres and water vapor contents. The STA utilizes thermogravimetric analysis and a coupled mass spectrometer to measure in situ oxidation and hydrogen production of candidate materials. This capability is unprecedented in study of materials under consideration for reactor cladding use, and is currently being expanded to investigate proposed coating techniques as well as the effect of coating defects on corrosion resistance.

Nelson, Andrew T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

117

Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage refrigerator,...

118

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had...

119

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Materials Aging and Degradation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Materials Aging and Materials Aging and Degradation Technical Program Plan Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Materials Aging and Degradation Technical Program Plan Components serving in a nuclear reactor plant must withstand a very harsh environment including extended time at temperature, neutron irradiation, stress, and/or corrosive media. The many modes of degradation are complex and vary depending on location and material. However, understanding and managing materials degradation is a key for the continued safe and reliable operation of nuclear power plants. Extending reactor service to beyond 60 years will increase the demands on materials and components. Therefore, an early evaluation of the possible effects of extended lifetime is critical. The recent NUREG/CR-6923 gives a

120

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Program - Non-Destructive Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program - Non-Destructive Evaluation R&D Roadmap for Determining Remaining Useful Life of Aging Cables in Nuclear Power Plants The purpose of the non-destructive evaluation (NDE) R&D Roadmap for Cables is to support the Materials Aging and Degradation (MAaD) R&D pathway. A workshop was held to gather subject matter experts to develop the NDE R&D Roadmap for Cables. The focus of the workshop was to identify the technical gaps in detecting aging cables and predicting their remaining life expectancy. The workshop was held in Knoxville, Tennessee, on July 30, 2012, at Analysis and Measurement Services Corporation (AMS) headquarters.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Integrated Program Plan Integrated Program Plan Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program: Integrated Program Plan Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas- emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to grow by more than 30% from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license, for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power

122

2014-09-18 Issuance: Energy Conservation Standard for Alternative Efficiency Determination Methods, Basic Model Definition, and Compliance for Commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment; Supplemental Notice of Proposed Rulemaking  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register supplemental notice of proposed rulemaking regarding energy conservation standards for alternative efficiency determination methods, basic model definition, and compliance for commercial HVAC, Refrigeration, and Water Heating Equipment, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on September 18, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

123

Materials Inventory Database for the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Scientific research involves the purchasing, processing, characterization, and fabrication of many sample materials. The history of such materials can become complicated over their lifetime – materials might be cut into pieces or moved to various storage locations, for example. A database with built-in functions to track these kinds of processes facilitates well-organized research. The Material Inventory Database Accounting System (MIDAS) is an easy-to-use tracking and reference system for such items. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program (LWRS), which seeks to advance the long-term reliability and productivity of existing nuclear reactors in the United States through multiple research pathways, proposed MIDAS as an efficient way to organize and track all items used in its research. The database software ensures traceability of all items used in research using built-in functions which can emulate actions on tracked items – fabrication, processing, splitting, and more – by performing operations on the data. MIDAS can recover and display the complete history of any item as a simple report. To ensure the database functions suitably for the organization of research, it was developed alongside a specific experiment to test accident tolerant nuclear fuel cladding under the LWRS Advanced Light Water Reactor Nuclear Fuels Pathway. MIDAS kept track of materials used in this experiment from receipt at the laboratory through all processes, test conduct and, ultimately, post-test analysis. By the end of this process, the database proved to be right tool for this program. The database software will help LWRS more efficiently conduct research experiments, from simple characterization tests to in-reactor experiments. Furthermore, MIDAS is a universal tool that any other research team could use to organize their material inventory.

Kazi Ahmed; Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Downhole pulse tube refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report summarizes a preliminary design study to explore the plausibility of using pulse tube refrigeration to cool instruments in a hot down-hole environment. The original motivation was to maintain Dave Reagor`s high-temperature superconducting electronics at 75 K, but the study has evolved to include three target design criteria: cooling at 30 C in a 300 C environment, cooling at 75 K in a 50 C environment, cooling at both 75 K and 30 C in a 250 C environment. These specific temperatures were chosen arbitrarily, as representative of what is possible. The primary goals are low cost, reliability, and small package diameter. Pulse-tube refrigeration is a rapidly growing sub-field of cryogenic refrigeration. The pulse tube refrigerator has recently become the simplest, cheapest, most rugged and reliable low-power cryocooler. The authors expect this technology will be applicable downhole because of the ratio of hot to cold temperatures (in absolute units, such as Kelvin) of interest in deep drilling is comparable to the ratios routinely achieved with cryogenic pulse-tube refrigerators.

Swift, G.; Gardner, D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Condensed Matter and Thermal Physics Group

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Proceedings: Commercial Refrigeration Research Workshop  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Improving refrigeration systems for commercial use can enhance both utility load factors and supermarket profits. This workshop has pinpointed research needs in commercial refrigeration and systems integration for a supermarket environment.

None

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

Refrigerator recycling and CFCs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Utility-sponsored refrigerator and freezer pick-up programs have removed almost 900,000 inefficient appliances from the North American electric grid to date. While the CFC-12 refrigerant from the discarded appliances is typically removed and recycled, in all but a few programs the CFC-11 in the foam insulation is not. About a quarter-billion pounds of CFC-11 are banked in refrigerator foam in the United States. Release of this ``bank`` of CFC, combined with that from foam insulation used in buildings, will be the largest source of future emissions if preventive measures are not taken. Methods exist to recover the CFC for reuse or to destroy it by incineration. The task of recycling or destroying the CFCs and other materials from millions of refrigerators is a daunting challenge, but one in which utilities can play a leadership role. E Source believes that utilities can profitably serve as the catalyst for public-private partnerships that deliver comprehensive refrigerator recycling. Rather than treating such efforts solely as a DSM resource acquisition, utilities could position these programs as a multifaceted service delivery that offers convenient appliance removal for homeowners, a solid waste minimization service for landfills, a source of recycled materials for industry, and a CFC recovery and/or disposal service in support of the HVAC industry and society`s atmospheric protection goals and laws. Financial mechanisms could be developed through these public-private enterprises to ensure that utilities are compensated for the extra cost of fully recycling refrigerators, including the foam CFC.

Shepard, M.; Hawthorne, W.; Wilson, A.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

127

Refrigeration monitor and alarm system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

128

Helium dilution refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. 1875" OD exchanger Qu ID copper cap Fig. 6. Assembled view of 3He - He dilution refrigerator. 26 The joint thru the tubing wall and the joining of the two sizes of capillary were silver soldered (35/ silver content). A 0. 250" OD tube... the inert atmosphere inside the refrigerator. After removal from the nitrogen atmosphere the graphite support, was 'attached to the still and mixing chamber using Stycast 2850 GT with catalyst g9 ). The mass of the graphite 26 support 1s 11. 62 grams...

McKee, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

129

Northern Lights Inc. - Energy Conservation Rebate Program | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Northern Lights Inc. - Energy Conservation Rebate Program Northern Lights Inc. - Energy Conservation Rebate Program Northern Lights Inc. - Energy Conservation Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Construction Industrial Installer/Contractor Multi-Family Residential Nonprofit Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State Idaho Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator/Freezer: $15 each Clothes Washer: $30 Energy Star Manufactured Home: $1,000 Water Heater: $25 - $100 Window Replacement: $6/sq ft Insulation: Varies Duct Sealing: Free Ductless Heat Pumps: $1,500

130

Fuel Performance Code Benchmark for Uncertainty Analysis in Light Water Reactor Modeling.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Fuel performance codes are used in the design and safety analysis of light water reactors. The differences in the physical models and the numerics of… (more)

Blyth, Taylor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY13 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary report for Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) activities related to the R. E. Ginna and Nine Mile Point Unit 1 for FY13.

R. Johansen

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY12 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary report for Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) activities related to the R. E. Ginna and Nine Mile Point Unit 1 for FY12.

R. Johansen

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

133

Characterization of light gluten and light steep water from a corn wet milling plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The primary commodity of corn wet milling is starch, but two coproducts (corn gluten feed, CGF and corn gluten meal, CGM) also are produced. CGM and CGF are marketed as animal foodstuffs and are important economically; however, variation in composition reduces quality. There are few data on the effect of composition of the parent process streams, light steep water (LSW) and light gluten (LG), respectively, on composition of CGF and CGM. The objective was to characterize LG and LSW. Samples of LG and LSW were collected: (1) hourly for one day, (2) every 3 h for 3 days, and (3) daily for 3 weeks. Dry matter, N and ash were determined. Variation in composition of LG and LSW was greatest during longer periods of time (days and weeks) rather than shorter (hourly or every 3 h). There was significant variation in DM (solids) content, which directly affected the concentration of other components. Variation in N (protein) of LG and LSW accounted for much of the variation in CGF and CG. Processes that modify processing and reduce variation could increase the quality of CGF and CGM.

K.D Rausch; C.I Thompson; R.L Belyea; M.E Tumbleson

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils for household refrigerator systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to industry concerns about the successful employment of hydrofluorocarbon-immiscible hydrocarbon oils in refrigeration systems, enhanced naphthenic refrigeration oils have been developed. These products have been designed to be more dispersible with hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, such as R-134a, in order to facilitate lubricant return to the compressor and to ensure proper energy efficiency of the system. Bench tests and system performance evaluations indicate the feasibility of these oils for use in household refrigeration applications. Results of these evaluations are compared with those obtained with polyol esters and typical naphthenic mineral oils employed in chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) refrigeration applications.

Reyes-Gavilan, J.L.; Flak, G.T.; Tritcak, T.R. [Witco Corp., Oakland, NJ (United States); Barbour, C.B. [Americold, Cullman, AL (United States)

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

135

Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

136

Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Journal Article: Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from the raft river geothermal area and environs, Cassia County, Idaho, Box Elder county, Utah Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Chemical and light-stable isotope data are presented for water samples from the Raft River geothermal area and environs. On the basis of chemical character, as defined by a trilinear plot of per cent milliequivalents, and light-stable isotope data, the waters in the geothermal area can be divided into waters that have and have not mixed

137

A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light Water  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light Water Reactor Cooling System Components A Review of Stress Corrosion Cracking/Fatigue Modeling for Light Water Reactor Cooling System Components In the United States currently there are approximately 104 operating light water reactors. Of these, 69 are pressurized water reactors (PWRs) and 35 are boiling water reactors (BWRs). In 2007, the 104 light-water reactors (LWRs) in the United States generated approximately 100 GWe, equivalent to 20% of total US electricity production. Most of the US reactors were built before 1970 and the initial design lives of most of the reactors are 40 years. It is expected that by 2030, even those reactors that have received 20-year life extension license from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission

138

Sustainability Considerations in Spent Light-water Nuclear Fuel Retrievability  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper examines long-term cost differences between two competing Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels: Uranium Oxide (UOX) and Mixed Uranium Oxide-Plutonium Oxide (MOX). Since these costs are calculated on a life-cycle basis, expected savings from lower future MOX fuel prices can be used to value the option of substituting MOX for UOX, including the value of maintaining access to the used UOX fuel that could be reprocessed to make MOX. The two most influential cost drivers are the price of natural uranium and the cost of reprocessing. Significant and sustained reductions in reprocessing costs and/or sustained increases in uranium prices are required to give positive value to the retrievability of Spent Nuclear Fuel. While this option has positive economic value, it might not be exercised for 50 to 200 years. Therefore, there are many years for a program during which reprocessing technology can be researched, developed, demonstrated, and deployed. Further research is required to determine whether the cost of such a program would yield positive net present value and/or increases the sustainability of LWR energy systems.

Wood, Thomas W.; Rothwell, Geoffrey

2012-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

139

Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program Duquesne Light Company - Commercial and Industrial Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Fed. Government Industrial Institutional Local Government Schools State Government Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Weatherization Manufacturing Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Custom: Varies Lighting: Varies widely by type Controls and Sensors: $10-$75 VFD for Chilled Water Loop $150/hp VFD for HVAC Fans: $80/hp Packaged Terminal AC: $45-$75/ton Food Service Equipment: Varies widely by type Refrigeration Equipment: Varies widely by type

140

Chemical and light-stable isotope characteristics of waters from...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

water; (2) there is a single deep hot water, and the range of chloride concentrations is produced by the water passing through a zone of highly soluble materials (most likely in...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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141

Water, Light and Heat Stress Effects on Fremont Cottonwood Photosynthesis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? Seedlings of Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii), a California native riparian foundation species, are vulnerable to water stress from rapid water-table declines and the interactions… (more)

Tozzi, Emily Sharp

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Columbia Water and Light - New Home Energy Star Rebate | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Columbia Water and Light - New Home Energy Star Rebate Columbia Water and Light - New Home Energy Star Rebate Columbia Water and Light - New Home Energy Star Rebate < Back Eligibility Construction Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Other Program Info State Missouri Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount 1,000 Provider Columbia Water and Light Columbia Water and Light offers a $1,000 rebate to customers for the construction of new homes that achieve certification as Energy Star homes. The Energy Star designation is given to homes that receive an 85 or less on the Home Energy Rating System (HERS) index, meaning that they can be expected to use 15% less energy on average than a standard home (i.e., the

143

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

Kathryn McCarthy; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Shannon Bragg-Sitton; Curtis Smith; Cathy Barnard

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline—even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration’s energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program’s plans.

McCarthy, Kathryn A [INL; Busby, Jeremy [ORNL; Hallbert, Bruce [INL; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon [INL; Smith, Curtis [INL; Barnard, Cathy [INL

2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Integrated Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear power has safely, reliably, and economically contributed almost 20% of electrical generation in the United States over the past two decades. It remains the single largest contributor (more than 70%) of non-greenhouse-gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Domestic demand for electrical energy is expected to experience a 31% growth from 2009 to 2035. At the same time, most of the currently operating nuclear power plants will begin reaching the end of their initial 20-year extension to their original 40-year operating license for a total of 60 years of operation. Figure E-1 shows projected nuclear energy contribution to the domestic generating capacity. If current operating nuclear power plants do not operate beyond 60 years, the total fraction of generated electrical energy from nuclear power will begin to decline - even with the expected addition of new nuclear generating capacity. The oldest commercial plants in the United States reached their 40th anniversary in 2009. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy's Research and Development Roadmap (Nuclear Energy Roadmap) organizes its activities around four objectives that ensure nuclear energy remains a compelling and viable energy option for the United States. The four objectives are as follows: (1) develop technologies and other solutions that can improve the reliability, sustain the safety, and extend the life of the current reactors; (2) develop improvements in the affordability of new reactors to enable nuclear energy to help meet the Administration's energy security and climate change goals; (3) develop sustainable nuclear fuel cycles; and (4) understand and minimize the risks of nuclear proliferation and terrorism. The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is the primary programmatic activity that addresses Objective 1. This document summarizes the LWRS Program's plans.

George Griffith; Robert Youngblood; Jeremy Busby; Bruce Hallbert; Cathy Barnard; Kathryn McCarthy

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

An ammonia refrigerator with an absorption circuit as economizer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental results of a compression refrigerator with an integrated solution circuit, a so-called compression-absorption cycle, are presented. The compression refrigerator operates with ammonia (NH3) as refrigerant. The cycle is improved by two-stage throttling of the condensate and an absorption circuit which replaces the economizer compressor. The absorption circuit operates on the working pair ammonia/water (NH3/H2O). It is driven by superheat of the compressor without additional heat input from an external source. By this means the benefit of two-stage throttling, namely a reduction in compression work or an increase in refrigeration capacity, can be doubled. In the experiments an improvement of up to 9% in the efficiency of the NH3-refrigeration cycle has been attained. Compared to a simple compression refrigerator, the presented compression-absorption cycle has a payback time of only several months. Compared to a conventional economizer refrigeration cycle, the payback can be expected within the range of several months to about four years.

F Ziegler; U Spindler

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

enters the waste stream with the charge intact (e.g., motor vehicle air conditioners, refrigeratorsAsset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have

Sin, Peter

148

Waverly Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Energy Efficiency Rebates Energy Efficiency Rebates Waverly Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Design & Remodeling Heat Pumps Water Heating Maximum Rebate Appliance Recycling: $150 Program Info State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Star New Home: $1,300 Heat Pump Water Heater: $500 LED Lighting: 50% of cost, up to $200 Central AC: $150 Air-Source Heat Pump: $150 Geothermal Heat Pump: $450 Clothes Washer: $75 Refrigerator: $50 Appliance Recycling: $75 Provider Waverly Light and Power Waverly Light and Power (WL&P) offers rebates for the purchase and

149

Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

Mahan, G.D.

1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

150

Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric) - Farm  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Gas and Electric) - Farm Gas and Electric) - Farm Equipment Energy Efficiency Incentives Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Gas and Electric) - Farm Equipment Energy Efficiency Incentives < Back Eligibility Agricultural Savings Category Other Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Home Weatherization Sealing Your Home Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Commercial Heating & Cooling Heating Commercial Lighting Lighting Manufacturing Water Heating Program Info Start Date 1/1/2012 State Iowa Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit: Free Clothes Washer: $100 Refrigerator Replacement: $50 Dishwasher Replacement: $20 Freezer: $25 Room Air Conditioner: $25 Water Heater: $50 Electric Heat Pump Water Heaters: $100 Circulating Fans: $25 - $75

151

Miniature liquid?3He refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of a cryopump and high?pressure internal storage of the cryogen makes it possible to miniaturize a one?shot recyclable 3He refrigerator while at the same time improving its performance. Because of their simplified interface requirements such refrigerators are readily incorporated into existing 4He cryostats allowing a convenient extension of their operating range down to 0.3 K. An analysis of the parameters describing refrigerator performance (condensation time heat transfer to the 4He bath lifetime and refrigeration power) leads to the definition of an optimized refrigerator. Measured performance characteristics of a miniature [2?l standard temperature and pressure (STP) of 3He] refrigerator used in laboratory and stratospheric balloon?borne experiments are given.

J. P. Torre; G. Chanin

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Vaccine refrigerator testing. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For the Central American Health Clinic Project initiated in 1986, Sandia National Laboratories and the Florida Solar Energy Center recognized the need for a test and evaluation program for vaccine refrigeration systems. At the Florida Solar Energy Center, side-by-side testing of three photovoltaic powered vaccine refrigerators began in 1987. The testing was expanded in 1988 to include a kerosene absorption refrigerator. This report presents observations, conclusions, and recommendations derived from testing the four vaccine refrigeration systems. Information is presented pertaining to the refrigerators, photovoltaic arrays, battery subsystems, charge controllers, and user requirements. This report should be of interest to designers, manufacturers, installers, and users of photovoltaic-powered vaccine refrigeration systems and components.

Ventre, G.G. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Kilfoyle, D.; Marion, B. [Florida Solar Energy Center, Cape Canaveral, FL (United States)

1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

An electric utility's adventures in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article provides a look at the history of energy conservation efforts in supermarket refrigeration from World War II to the present and a goal for the future. A supermarket is a low profit margin business, typically netting 1 percent on annual sales. The typical supermarket's annual electric bill equals or exceeds the annual profits. With all of these data, it looked like energy conservation in the supermarket industry was going to be an easy task. Change the lighting to a more energy-efficient system and lower the head pressure and raise the suction pressure in the refrigeration. Any owner, CEO, or general manager who could easily increase his bottom-line profit by 10 to 30 percent would jump at the opportunity, especially when the electric utility was willing to support a portion of the cost for the changes.

Flannick, J.A. (Wisconsin Electric Co., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Stamm, R.H. (Industrial Refrigeration, Sandy, OR (United States)); Calle, M.M. (Technical Resources, Inc., Milwaukee, WI (United States)); Gomolla, J.C. (Gomolla (Jerry C.), Milwaukee, WI (United States))

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Cross section generation strategy for high conversion light water reactors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High conversion water reactors (HCWR), such as the Resource-renewable Boiling Water Reactor (RBWR), are being designed with axial heterogeneity of alternating fissile and blanket zones to achieve a conversion ratio of ...

Herman, Bryan R. (Bryan Robert)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

NICE3: Industrial Refrigeration System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Energy Concepts has developed an absorption-augmented system as a cost-effective means of achieving more cooling capacity with a substantial reduction in energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions for industrial refrigeration. It cuts fuel consumption by 30% by combining an internal combustion engine with a mechanical compression refrigeration system and an absorption refrigeration system. The absorption system is powered by engine waste heat. Conventional industrial refrigeration uses mechanical vapor compression, powered by electric motors, which results in higher energy costs. By the year 2010, the new system could cut fuel consumption by 19 trillion Btu and greenhouse emissions by more than 1 million tons per year.

Simon, P.

1999-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

156

Sustained Recycle in Light Water and Sodium-Cooled Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

From a physics standpoint, it is feasible to sustain recycle of used fuel in either thermal or fast reactors. This paper examines multi-recycle potential performance by considering three recycling approaches and calculating several fuel cycle parameters, including heat, gamma, and neutron emission of fresh fuel; radiotoxicity of waste; and uranium utilization. The first recycle approach is homogeneous mixed oxide (MOX) fuel assemblies in a light water reactor (LWR). The transuranic portion of the MOX was varied among Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. (All-TRU means all isotopes through Cf-252.) The Pu case was allowed to go to 10% Pu in fresh fuel, but when the minor actinides were included, the transuranic enrichment was kept below 8% to satisfy the expected void reactivity constraint. The uranium portion of the MOX was enriched uranium. That enrichment was increased (to as much as 6.5%) to keep the fuel critical for a typical LWR irradiation. The second approach uses heterogeneous inert matrix fuel (IMF) assemblies in an LWR - a mix of IMF and traditional UOX pins. The uranium-free IMF fuel pins were Pu, NpPu, NpPuAm, or all-TRU. The UOX pins were limited to 4.95% U-235 enrichment. The number of IMF pins was set so that the amount of TRU in discharged fuel from recycle N (from both IMF and UOX pins) was made into the new IMF pins for recycle N+1. Up to 60 of the 264 pins in a fuel assembly were IMF. The assembly-average TRU content was 1-6%. The third approach uses fast reactor oxide fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor with transuranic conversion ratio of 0.50 and 1.00. The transuranic conversion ratio is the production of transuranics divided by destruction of transuranics. The FR at CR=0.50 is similar to the CR for the MOX case. The fast reactor cases had a transuranic content of 33-38%, higher than IMF or MOX.

Steven J. Piet; Samuel E. Bays; Michael A. Pope; Gilles J. Youinou

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Conservation  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Conservation Services Program Wakefield Municipal Gas and Light Department - Residential Conservation Services Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Design & Remodeling Windows, Doors, & Skylights Manufacturing Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Maximum Rebate Energy Audit Recommended Measures: $300 Programmable Thermostats: 2 units Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Audit Recommended Measures: 25% of total cost Refrigerators: $50 Clothes Washer: $50 Dishwasher: $50 Room AC: $50

158

DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter DOE Reaches Agreement with LG Electronics, USA, On Refrigerator Energy Matter November 14, 2008 - 4:47pm Addthis ENERGY STAR® Program Continues to Help American Consumers Make Energy Efficient Choices WASHINGTON - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced an agreement with LG Electronics, USA, Inc. (LG), resolving concerns related to energy usage measurements reported on LG French Door refrigerators with through-the-door ice and water service. The ENERGY STAR® program helps American consumers make energy efficient choices, saving billions of dollars while protecting the environment by using identified energy efficient products and practices. "DOE believes that the actions LG plans to take will benefit consumers and

159

E-Print Network 3.0 - adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

refrigerator Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator...

160

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must be resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability. In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results are presented for an 18 cubic foot (0.51 cubic meter), top-mount refrigerator-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R12, R500, R12/Dimethyl-ether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12 /DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. 12 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Miller, W.A.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Light emission from water irradiated with high energy electrons.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Luminescence has been observed from water Irradiated with an intense pulse of high energy electrons. The angular dependence, electron energy dependence, visible spectrum, lifetime and… (more)

Shaede, Eric Albert

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Modular thermoacoustic refrigerator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A thermoacousticrefrigerator was built to explore scaling to large heat flux. The refrigerator was constructed according to a modular design so that various stack heat exchanger and resonator sections are easily interchangeable. The resonator is driven by a commercial 10?in. woofer. Initial tests using pure helium gas as the working fluid and steel honeycomb (0.8?mm cell) for the stack pumped 60 W of heat against a 10?°C temperature gradient. Measurements of heat flux and efficiency will be reported as functions of stack structure (e.g. pore size and shape) and will be compared with theoretical predictions.

Steven R. Murrell; George Mozurkewich

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

The refrigerator revolution  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article discusses how a simple, new technology threw the best-laid plans of the chemical and refrigerator industries into disarray-and provided a new perspective on how future environmental agreements can be reached. In recent years, a series of massive business mergers has mesmerized the industrial world. However in the early 1990s a German environmentalist, triggered global reprocussions in the wake of the mandate to phase out the use of ozone depleting substances. The economic and political background of this is explained in detail.

Ayres, E.; French, H.

1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Visible Light Water Splitting Using Dye-Sensitized Oxide Semiconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- ical energy in the form of fuels. Hydrogen is a key solar fuel because it can be used directly. This Account describes our approach to two problems in solar water splitting: the organization of molecules in photochemistry.1,2 Efficient photocatalytic water-splitting systems could have practical value for solar energy

165

EIS-0288: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

288: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor 288: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor EIS-0288: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor SUMMARY This Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR EIS) evaluates the environmental impacts associated with producing tritium at one or more of the following five CLWRs: (1) Watts Bar Nuclear Plant Unit 1 (Spring City, Tennessee); (2) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Unit 1 (Soddy Daisy, Tennessee); (3) Sequoyah Nuclear Plant Unit 2 (Soddy Daisy, Tennessee); (4) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant Unit 1 (Hollywood, Alabama); and (5) Bellefonte Nuclear Plant Unit 2 (Hollywood, Alabama). Specifically, this EIS analyzes the potential environmental impacts associated with fabricating tritium-producing

166

EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

8-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water 8-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Readiness Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement EIS-0288-S1: Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR) Tritium Readiness Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement Summary This Supplemental EIS updates the environmental analyses in DOE's 1999 EIS for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR EIS). The CLWR EIS addressed the production of tritium in Tennessee Valley Authority reactors in Tennessee using tritium-producing burnable absorber rods. Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities at this time. Documents Available for Download September 28, 2011 EIS-0288-S1: Notice of Intent to Prepare a Supplemental Environmental

167

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap for  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Fatigue Damage in Piping Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Fatigue Damage in Piping Light water reactor sustainability (LWRS) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) Workshops were held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during July 30th to August 2nd, 2012. This activity was conducted to help develop the content of the NDE R&D roadmap for the materials aging and degradation (MAaD) pathway of the LWRS program. The workshops focused on identifying NDE R&D needs in four areas: cables, concrete, reactor pressure vessel, and piping. A selected group of subject matter experts (SMEs) from DOE national

168

City Water Light and Power - Solar Rewards Program | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » City Water Light and Power - Solar Rewards Program City Water Light and Power - Solar Rewards Program < Back Eligibility Commercial Residential Savings Category Solar Buying & Making Electricity Maximum Rebate $15,000 per account Program Info Start Date 01/23/2012 State Illinois Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount $1,500/kW Provider City Water Light and Power '''''Note: Funding for the Solar Rewards program has been exhausted. Check the program web site for more information regarding additional funding, expected March 2013.''''' City Water, Light and Power (CWLP) is now offering residential and commercial customers a $1,500 per kilowatt (kW) rebate for installing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Rebates are limited to $15,000 per customer

169

Pseudomorphic Mid-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes for Water Purification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

UVC light output of 66 mW at 300 mA CW has been achieved from LEDs on AlN substrates with extensive photon extraction. Proper vessel design allows for efficient irradiation of a water...

Moe, Craig; Chen, Jianfeng; Grandusky, James R; Mendrick, Mark C; Randive, Rajul; Rodak, Lee E; Sampath, Anand V; Wraback, Michael; Schowalter, Leo

170

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced light-water nuclear Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nuclear Search Powered by Explorit Topic List Advanced Search Sample search results for: advanced light-water nuclear Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 1 Managed by UT-Battelle for the...

171

Assessment of light water reactor power plant cost and ultra-acceleration depreciation financing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although in many regions of the U.S. the least expensive electricity is generated from light-water reactor (LWR) plants, the fixed (capital plus operation and maintenance) cost has increased to the level where the cost ...

El-Magboub, Sadek Abdulhafid.

172

Conceptual Design of a Large, Passive Pressure-Tube Light Water Reactor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A design for a large, passive, light water reactor has been developed. The proposed concept is a pressure tube reactor of similar design to CANDU reactors, but differing in three key aspects. First, a solid SiC-coated ...

Hejzlar, P.

173

INL/EXT-14-33257 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

57 Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program 3D J-Integral Capability in Grizzly September 2014 DOE Office of Nuclear Energy DISCLAIMER This information was prepared as an account...

174

Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Smart Grid Project | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Light, Gas and Water Division Smart Grid Project Light, Gas and Water Division Smart Grid Project Jump to: navigation, search Project Lead Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Country United States Headquarters Location Memphis, Tennessee Recovery Act Funding $5,063,469.00 Total Project Value $13112363 Coverage Area Coverage Map: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Smart Grid Project Coordinates 35.1495343°, -90.0489801° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[]}

175

Semiconductor-based optical refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Optical refrigerators using semiconductor material as a cooling medium, with layers of material in close proximity to the cooling medium that carries away heat from the cooling material and preventing radiation trapping. In addition to the use of semiconducting material, the invention can be used with ytterbium-doped glass optical refrigerators.

Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Nekoosa, WI); Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor (Albuquerque, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present ThesisLoad Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration Lisa Buth Rasmussen Kongens Lyngby 2013 M.Sc.-2013

177

Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Cool energy savings opportunities in commercial refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The commercial sector consumes over 13 quads of primary energy annually. Most of this consumption (two-thirds) meets the energy needs of lighting and heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning. The largest consuming group of the remaining one-third is commercial refrigeration at about one quad annually (990 trillion Btu), valued at over $7 billion per year to the commercial sector consumer. Potential energy savings are estimated to be about 266 trillion Btu, with consumer savings valued at about $2 billion. This study provides the first known estimates of these values using a bottom-up approach. The authors evaluated numerous self-contained and engineered commercial refrigeration systems in this study, such as: supermarket central systems, beverage merchandisers, ice machines, and vending machines. Typical physical characteristics of each equipment type were identified at the component level for energy consumption. This information was used to form a detailed database from which they arrived at the estimate of 990 trillion Btu energy consumption for the major equipment types used in commercial refrigeration. Based on the implementation of the most cost-effective technology improvements for the seven major equipment types, they estimated an annual potential energy savings of 266 trillion Btu. Much of the savings can be realized with the implementation of high-efficiency fan motors and compressors. In many cases, payback can be realized within three years.

Westphalen, D.; Brodrick, J.; Zogg, R.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Malone cycle refrigerator development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the progress made in demonstrating a Malone Cycle Refrigerator/Freezer. The Malone cycle is similar to the Stirling cycle but uses a supercritical fluid in place of real gas. In the approach, solid-metal diaphragms are used to seal and sweep the working volumes against the high working fluid pressures required in Malone cycle machines. This feature eliminates the friction and leakage that accounted for nearly half the losses in the best piston-defined Malone cycle machines built to date. The authors successfully built a Malone cycle refrigerator that: (1) used CO{sub 2} as the working fluid, (2) operated at pressures up to 19.3 Mpa (2,800 psi), (3) achieved a cold end metal temperatures of {minus}29 C ({minus}20 F), and (4) produced over 400 Watts of cooling at near ambient temperatures. The critical diaphragm components operated flawlessly throughout characterization and performance testing, supporting the conclusion of high reliability based on analysis of fatigue date and actual strain measurements.

Shimko, M.A.; Crowley, C.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Helium dilution refrigeration system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Inland Power and Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Inland Power and Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Inland Power and Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Inland Power and Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Heating & Cooling Home Weatherization Construction Commercial Weatherization Commercial Heating & Cooling Design & Remodeling Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heat Pumps Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerators/Freezers Recycling: $30 Electric Water Heaters: $25 Refrigerators/Freezers: $25 Clothes Washers: $20 - $50 Energy Star Site Built Home: $1,000 Northwest Energy Efficient Manufactured Home: $1,000 Air-source Heat Pumps (Installed in an All-Electric Home): $1,000

182

Fatigue and environmentally assisted cracking in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fatigue and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) for low-alloy steel used in piping and in steam generator and reactor pressure vessels have been investigated. Fatigue data were obtained on medium-sulfur-content A533-Gr B and A106-Gr B steels in high-purity (HP) deoxygenated water, in simulated pressurized water reactor water, and in air. Analytical studies focused on the behavior of carbon steels in boiling water reactor (BWR) environments. Crack-growth rates of composite fracture-mechanics specimens of A533-Gr B/Inconel-182/Inconel-600 (plated with nickel) and homogeneous specimens of A533-Gr B steel were determined under small-amplitude cyclic loading in HP water with {approx}300 pbb dissolved oxygen. Radiation-induced segregation and irradiation-assisted SCC of Type 304 SS after accumulation of relatively high fluence also have been investigated. Microchemical and microstructural changes in HP and commercial-purity Type 304 SS specimens from control-blade absorber tubes used in two operating BWRs were studied by Auger electron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, and slow-strain-rate tensile tests were conducted on tubular specimens in air and in simulated BWR water at 289{degrees}C.

Kassner, T.F.; Ruther, W.E.; Chung, H.M.; Hicks, P.D.; Hins, A.G.; Park, J.Y.; Shack, W.J.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

The growth rate of gas hydrate from refrigerant R12  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental and theoretical investigations were presented dealing with three phase direct-contact heat transfer by evaporation of refrigerant drops in an immiscible liquid. Refrigerant R12 was used as the dispersed phase, while water and brine were the immiscible continuous phase. A numerical solution is presented to predict the formation rate of gas hydrates in test column. The solution provided an acceptable agreement when compared with experimental results. The gas hydrate growth rate increased with time. It increased with increasing dispersed phase flow rate. The presence of surface-active sodium chloride in water had a strong inhibiting effect on the gas hydrate formation rate. (author)

Kendoush, Abdullah Abbas; Jassim, Najim Abid [Centre of Engineering Physics, Ministry of Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 765, Baghdad (Iraq); Joudi, Khalid A. [Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad (Iraq)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

COPs OF R718 IN COMPARISION WITH OTHER MODERN REFRIGERANTS A.Kilicarslan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condenser and evaporator, and polytropic efficiency are also investigated. It is shown that for evaporator of polytropic efficiency INTRODUCTION Water as a refrigerant is one of the oldest refrigerants being used and chemical properties. Beside these advantages, there are technical challenges that result from its high

MĂĽller, Norbert

185

Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

2011-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

187

Synopsis of residential refrigerator/freezer alternative refrigerants evaluation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The experimental testing on residential refrigerator/freezers (R/Fs) is summarized in this paper. R/F testing focused on two areas: alternative refrigerants and equipment configurations. The refrigerants evaluated consisted of single components, azeotropes, and zeotropes derived from hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and hydrocarbons (HCs). These refrigerants were evaluated in conventional and unconventional R/F designs. Major and minor design modifications were studied. Minor modifications consisted of various capillary tube lengths, door insulations, and compressors, while major modifications included two-evaporator and two-cycle R/F systems. Results obtained from testing the two-cycle system will be discussed in a later paper. This paper presents the experimental results of alternative technologies evaluated as replacements for ozone depleting chemicals.

Baskin, E. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States)

1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

188

Refrigerator-freezer energy testing with alternative refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the Montreal Protocol (UNEP 1987) that limits the production of ozone-depleting refrigerants, manufacturers are searching for alternatives to replace the R12 that is presently used in residential refrigerator-freezers. Before an alternative can be selected, several issues must resolved. Among these are energy impacts, system compatibility, cost, and availability, In an effort to determine the energy impacts of some of the alternatives, energy consumption tests were performed in accordance with section 8 of the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) standard for household refrigerators and household freezers (AHAM 1985). The results are presented for an 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}), top mount refrigerators-freezer with a static condenser using the following refrigerants: R 12, R500, R12/dimethylether (DME), R22/R142b, and R134a. Conclusions from the AHAM test are that R500 and R12/DME have a reduced energy consumption relative to R12 when replaced in the test unit with no modifications to the refrigeration system. Run times were slightly lower than R12 for both refrigerants, indicating a higher capacity. While the R134a and R22/R142b results were less promising (6.8% and 8.5% higher energy consumption, respectively), changes to the refrigeration system, such as a different capillary tube or compressor, may improve their performance. It is noted that the test results are only an initial step in determining a replacement for R12.

Sand, J.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, TN (US)); Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Impact of Pilot Light Modeling on the Predicted Annual Performance of Residential Gas Water Heaters: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Modeling residential water heaters with dynamic simulation models can provide accurate estimates of their annual energy consumption, if the units? characteristics and use conditions are known. Most gas storage water heaters (GSWHs) include a standing pilot light. It is generally assumed that the pilot light energy will help make up standby losses and have no impact on the predicted annual energy consumption. However, that is not always the case. The gas input rate and conversion efficiency of a pilot light for a GSWH were determined from laboratory data. The data were used in simulations of a typical GSWH with and without a pilot light, for two cases: 1) the GSWH is used alone; and 2) the GSWH is the second tank in a solar water heating (SWH) system. The sensitivity of wasted pilot light energy to annual hot water use, climate, and installation location was examined. The GSWH used alone in unconditioned space in a hot climate had a slight increase in energy consumption. The GSWH with a pilot light used as a backup to an SWH used up to 80% more auxiliary energy than one without in hot, sunny locations, from increased tank losses.

Maguire, J.; Burch, J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Physics characteristics of a large, passive, pressure tube light water reactor with voided calandria  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A light water cooled and moderated pressure tube reactor concept has been developed that can survive loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) without scram and without replenishing primary coolant inventory, while maintaining safe temperature limits on the fuel and pressure tube. The reactor employs a solid SiC-coated graphite fuel matrix in the pressure tubes and a calandria tank containing a low-pressure gas, surrounded by a graphite reflector. This normally voided calandria is connected to a light water heat sink. The cover gas displaces light water from the calandria during normal operation, while during LOCAs it allows passive calandria flooding. It is shown that such a system, with high void fraction in the core region, exhibits a high degree of neutron thermalization and a large prompt neutron lifetime, similar to D{sub 2}O moderated cores, although light water is used as both coolant and moderator. Moreover, the extremely large neutron migration length results in a strongly coupled core with a flat thermal flux profile and inherent stability against xenon spatial oscillations. The heterogeneous arrangement of the fuel and moderator ensures a negative void coefficient under all circumstances. Flooding of the calandria space with light water results in redundant reactor shutdown. Use of particle fuel allows attainment of high burnups.

Hejzlar, P.; Driscoll, M.J.; Todreas, N.E. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

MagLab - Dilution Refrigerator  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

in science. Using a condensationevaporation cycle not unlike that of a kitchen refrigerator, a dil fridge takes 4.2 K liquid helium way down to 1.5 K. The animation below...

192

Analysis of simultaneous cooling and heating in supermarket refrigeration systems.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? In this master thesis project, conventional supermarket refrigeration systems using R404A are compared with refrigeration system solutions using natural refrigerants such as carbon dioxide… (more)

Marigny, Johan

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

years. About 20% of refrigerators and freezers sold in 2000energy efficiency of refrigerators and freezers, Directiveof Energy, for refrigerators and freezers are base unit

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program - Joint Research and Development Plan DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program - Joint Research and Development Plan Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation's

195

DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program - Joint Research and Development Plan DOE-NE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program and EPRI Long-Term Operations Program - Joint Research and Development Plan Nuclear power has contributed almost 20% of the total amount of electricity generated in the United States over the past two decades. High capacity factors and low operating costs make nuclear power plants (NPPs) some of the most economical power generators available. Further, nuclear power remains the single largest contributor (nearly 70%) of non-greenhouse gas-emitting electric power generation in the United States. Even when major refurbishments are performed to extend operating life, these plants continue to represent cost-effective, low-carbon assets to the nation's

196

Light Water Reactor Fuel Cladding Research and Testing | ornl.gov  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Light Water Reactor Fuel Cladding Research Light Water Reactor Fuel Cladding Research June 01, 2013 Severe Accident Test Station ORNL is the focus point for Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuel cladding research and testing. The purpose of this research is to furnish U.S. industry (EPRI, Areva, Westinghouse), and regulators (NRC) with much-needed data supporting safe and economical nuclear power generation and used fuel management. LWR fuel cladding work is tightly integrated with ORNL accident tolerant fuel development and used fuel disposition programs thereby providing a powerful capability that couples basic materials science research with the nuclear applications research and development. The ORNL LWR fuel cladding program consists of five complementary areas of research: Accident tolerant fuel and cladding material testing under design

197

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ANALYSES Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Conference Proceedings: ORGANIC SPECIES IN GEOTHERMAL WATERS IN LIGHT OF FLUID INCLUSION GAS ANALYSES Details Activities (1) Areas (1) Regions (0) Abstract: Measurement of organic compounds in Karaha- Telaga Bodas and Coso fluid inclusions shows there are strong relationships between H2 concentrations and alkane/alkene ratios and benzene concentrations. Inclusion analyses that indicate H2 concentrations > 0.001 mol % typically have ethane > ethylene, propane > propylene, and butane > butylene. There are three end member fluid compositions: type 1 fluids in which alkane compounds predominate, type 2 fluids that have ethane and propylene and no

198

Analysis of heat recovery in supermarket refrigeration system using carbon dioxide as refrigerant.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

?? The aim of this study is to investigate the heat recovery potential in supermarket refrigeration systems using CO2 as refrigerants. The theoretical control strategy… (more)

Abdi, Amir

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

200

Environmentally assisted cracking of light-water reactor materials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Environmentally assisted cracking (EAC) of lightwater reactor (LWR) materials has affected nuclear reactors from the very introduction of the technology. Corrosion problems have afflicted steam generators from the very introduction of pressurized water reactor (PWR) technology. Shippingport, the first commercial PWR operated in the United States, developed leaking cracks in two Type 304 stainless steel (SS) steam generator tubes as early as 1957, after only 150 h of operation. Stress corrosion cracks were observed in the heat-affected zones of welds in austenitic SS piping and associated components in boiling-water reactors (BRWs) as early as 1965. The degradation of steam generator tubing in PWRs and the stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of austenitic SS piping in BWRs have been the most visible and most expensive examples of EAC in LWRs, and the repair and replacement of steam generators and recirculation piping has cost hundreds of millions of dollars. However, other problems associated with the effects of the environment on reactor structures and components am important concerns in operating plants and for extended reactor lifetimes. Cast duplex austenitic-ferritic SSs are used extensively in the nuclear industry to fabricate pump casings and valve bodies for LWRs and primary coolant piping in many PWRs. Embrittlement of the ferrite phase in cast duplex SS may occur after 10 to 20 years at reactor operating temperatures, which could influence the mechanical response and integrity of pressure boundary components during high strain-rate loading (e.g., seismic events). The problem is of most concern in PWRs where slightly higher temperatures are typical and cast SS piping is widely used.

Chopra, O.K.; Chung, H.M.; Kassner, T.F.; Shack, W.J.

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Residential Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 - v2.8.xlsx More Documents & Publications Refrigerators and...

202

Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Household Refrigerator Market and Energy Conservation Regulations in Japan.Household Refrigerator Market and Energy Conservation Regulations in Japan

Fridley, David

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Sample geometry effects on incoherent small-angle scattering of light water  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown that the scattering intensities of light water collected with different ratios of sample-to-beam dimension present large differences as a function of sample thickness. In particular, ratios smaller and larger than unity are considered and the results are discussed and compared with Monte Carlo simulations.

Carsughi, F.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Constellation Pilot Project FY11 Summary Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Summary report for Fiscal Year 2011 activities associated with the Constellation Pilot Project. The project is a joint effor between Constellation Nuclear Energy Group (CENG), EPRI, and the DOE Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. The project utilizes two CENG reactor stations: R.E. Ginna and Nine Point Unit 1. Included in the report are activities associate with reactor internals and concrete containments.

R. Johansen

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

You are here You are here Home » Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program Reading Municipal Light Department - Residential ENERGY STAR Appliance Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Water Heating Maximum Rebate One rebate per Energy Star appliance or two rebates on the purchase of programmable thermostats Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Electric Heat Pump Water Heater: $250 Air Source Heat Pump: $100 Central AC: $100 Refrigerator: $50 Washing Machine: $50 Dishwasher: $50 Room A/C: $25 Dehumidifier: $25 Programmable Thermostat:$15 (limit 2) Ceiling Fan: $10

207

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Program | Department  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duquesne Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Program Duquesne Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Program < Back Eligibility Multi-Family Residential Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heating Commercial Lighting Lighting Heat Pumps Water Heating Program Info State Pennsylvania Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Energy Star Dehumidifier: $24 Energy Star Freezer: $10 Energy Star Refrigerator: $24 Energy Star Room A/C: $24 Energy Star Dishwasher with Electric Water Heater: $24 Energy Star Clothes Washer - (Electric Water Heating Only): $24 Electric Clothes Dryer with Moisture Sensor: $24 Swimming Pool Pump, Two-Speed or Variable Speed: $57

208

Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

210

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

211

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

212

Thermophysical properties of saturated light and heavy water for advanced neutron source applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Neutron Source is an experimental facility being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As a new nuclear fission research reactor of unprecedented flux, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MW/L] will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at high velocities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport property correlations for saturated light and heavy water were developed. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source Reactor's nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for light water were 20--300[degrees]C and 0.0025--8.5 MPa, respectively, while those for heavy water were 50--250[degrees]C and 0.012--3.9 MPa. Deviations between the correlation predictions and data from the various sources did not exceed 1.0%. Light water vapor density was the only exception, with an error of 1.76%. The physical property package consists of analytical correlations, SAS codes, and FORTRAN subroutines incorporating these correlations, as well as an interactive, easy-to-use program entitled QuikProp.

Crabtree, A.; Siman-Tov, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Thermophysical properties of saturated light and heavy water for Advanced Neutron Source applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Neutron Source is an experimental facility being developed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. As a new nuclear fission research reactor of unprecedented flux, the Advanced Neutron Source Reactor will provide the most intense steady-state beams of neutrons in the world. The high heat fluxes generated in the reactor [303 MW(t) with an average power density of 4.5 MW/L] will be accommodated by a flow of heavy water through the core at high velocities. In support of this experimental and analytical effort, a reliable, highly accurate, and uniform source of thermodynamic and transport property correlations for saturated light and heavy water were developed. In order to attain high accuracy in the correlations, the range of these correlations was limited to the proposed Advanced Neutron Source Reactor`s nominal operating conditions. The temperature and corresponding saturation pressure ranges used for light water were 20--300{degrees}C and 0.0025--8.5 MPa, respectively, while those for heavy water were 50--250{degrees}C and 0.012--3.9 MPa. Deviations between the correlation predictions and data from the various sources did not exceed 1.0%. Light water vapor density was the only exception, with an error of 1.76%. The physical property package consists of analytical correlations, SAS codes, and FORTRAN subroutines incorporating these correlations, as well as an interactive, easy-to-use program entitled QuikProp.

Crabtree, A.; Siman-Tov, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration and Liquefaction Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration and Liquefaction Systems ... Current Status and Perspectives of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plant Design ...

Francisco J. Barnés; C. Judson King

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

Interactive Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Interactive Synthesis of Cascade Refrigeration Systems ... Current Status and Perspectives of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Plant Design ...

Wai Biu Cheng; Richard S. H. Mah

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

An experimental study of waste heat recovery from a residential refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the design, construction, and testing of an integrated heat recovery system which has been designed both to enhance the performance of a residential refrigerator and simultaneously to provide preheated water for an electric hot water heater. A commercial, indirect-heated hot water tank was retrofitted with suitable tubing to permit it to serve as a water cooled condenser for a residential refrigerator. This condenser operates in parallel with the air-cooled condenser tubing of the refrigerator so that either one or the other is active when the refrigerator is running. The refrigerator was housed in a controlled-environment chamber, and it was instrumented so that its performance could be monitored carefully in conjunction with the water pre-heating system. The system has been tested under a variety of hot water usage protocols, and the resulting data set has provided significantly insight into issues associated with commercial implementation of the concept. For the case of no water usage, the system was able to provide a 35 C temperature rise in the storage tank after about 100 hours of continuous operation, with no detectable deterioration of the refrigerator performance. Preliminary tests with simulations of high water usage, low water usage, and family water usage indicate a possible 18--20% energy savings for hot water over a long period of operation. Although the economic viability for such a system in a residential environment would appear to be sub-marginal, the potential for such a system associated with commercial-scale refrigeration clearly warrants further study, particularly for climates for which air conditioning heat rejection is highly seasonal.

Clark, R.A.; Smith, R.N.; Jensen, M.K. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

217

Optimizing Cooling Tower Performance Refrigeration Systems, Chemical Plants, and Power Plants All Have A Resource Quietly Awaiting Exploitation-Cold Water!!  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cooling water rate could be used to proquce approximately 1000 additional bbl (159 m 3 ) Iday of lead-free. high-octane gasoline. The savings in plot area and new construction would more than offset the labor and materials invoived in excavating.... This rejected heat must be continuously removed at the same rate it is generated or the compressor will overheat and shut down. Reducing the operating temperature of the compressor will proportionately reduce the energy input requirements. In other words...

Burger, R.

218

Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

Barclay, J.A.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

219

A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A RESEARCH INTO A NEW METHOD OF REFRIGERATION CHARGING AND THE EFFECTS OF IMPROPER CHARGING John Houcek Principal The Houcek Company Dallas, Texas Marvin Thedford Supervisor of Technical Services Research rexas Power & Light Company Dallas... conditioning and refrigeration equipment utilizing capillary tube or other fixed-orifice meter- ing devices at other than optimum conditions has long been a seriouri problem. With the advent of high ef- ficiency coo1:lng equipment this problem has become...

Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Lighting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The lighting section of ASHRAE standard 90.1 is discussed. It applies to all new buildings except low-rise residential, while excluding specialty lighting applications such as signage, art exhibits, theatrical productions, medical and dental tasks, and others. In addition, lighting for indoor plant growth is excluded if designed to operate only between 10 p.m. and 6 a.m. Lighting allowances for the interior of a building are determined by the use of the system performance path unless the space functions are not fully known, such as during the initial stages of design or for speculative buildings. In such cases, the prescriptive path is available. Lighting allowances for the exterior of all buildings are determined by a table of unit power allowances. A new addition the exterior lighting procedure is the inclusion of facade lighting. However, it is no longer possible to trade-off power allotted for the exterior with the interior of a building or vice versa. A significant change is the new emphasis on lighting controls.

McKay, H.N. (Hayden McKay Lighting Design, New York, NY (US))

1990-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap for  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

(LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Fatigue Damage in Piping Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program - R&D Roadmap for Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) of Fatigue Damage in Piping Light water reactor sustainability (LWRS) nondestructive evaluation (NDE) Workshops were held at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during July 30th to August 2nd, 2012. This activity was conducted to help develop the content of the NDE R&D roadmap for the materials aging and degradation (MAaD) pathway of the LWRS program. The workshops focused on identifying NDE R&D needs in four areas: cables, concrete, reactor pressure vessel, and piping. A selected group of subject matter experts (SMEs) from DOE national laboratories, academia, vendors, EPRI, and NRC were invited to each

223

Effects of light water reactor coolant environment on the fatigue lives of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Effects of light water reactor coolant environment on the fatigue lives of Effects of light water reactor coolant environment on the fatigue lives of reactor materials July 8, 2013 A metal component can become progressively degraded, and its structural integrity can be adversely impacted when it is subjected to repeated fluctuating loads, or fatigue loading. Fatigue loadings on nuclear reactor pressure vessel components can occur because of changes in pressure and temperature caused by transients during operation, such as reactor startup or shutdown and turbine trip events. The American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code recognizes fatigue as a possible cause of failure of reactor materials and provides rules for designing nuclear power plant components to avoid fatigue failures. For various materials, the ASME Code defines the

224

Regeneration tests of a room temperature magnetic refrigerator and heat pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A magnetic heat pump apparatus consisting of a solid magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium, and a liquid regenerator column of ethanol and water has been tested. Utilizing a 7T field, it produced a maximum temperature span of 80 K, and in separate tests, a lowest temperature of 241 K and a highest temperature of 328 K. Thermocouples, placed at intervals along the regenerator tube, permitted measurement of the temperature distribution in the regenerator fluid. No attempt was made to extract refrigeration from the device, but analysis of the temperature distributions shows that 34 watts of refrigeration was produced.

Brown, G V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Overview of the US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is focused on the long-term operation of US commercial power plants. It encompasses two facets of long-term operation: (1) manage the aging of plant systems, structures, and components so that nuclear power plant lifetimes can be extended and the plants can continue to operate safely, efficiently, and economically; and (2) provide science-based solutions to the nuclear industry that support implementation of performance improvement technologies. An important aspect of the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program is partnering with industry and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to support and conduct the long-term research needed to inform major component refurbishment and replacement strategies, performance enhancements, plant license extensions, and age-related regulatory oversight decisions. The Department of Energy research, development, and demonstration role focuses on aging phenomena and issues that require long-term research and/or unique Department of Energy laboratory expertise and facilities and are applicable to all operating reactors. This paper gives an overview of the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program, including vision, goals, and major deliverables.

K. A. McCarthy; D. L. Williams; R. Reister

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

End-of-life destructive examination of light water breeder reactor fuel rods (LWBR Development Program)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Destructive examination of 12 representative Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods was performed following successful operation in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station for 29,047 effective full power hours, about five years. Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rods were unique in that the thorium oxide and uranium-233 oxide fuel was contained within Zircaloy-4 cladding. Destructive examinations included analysis of released fission gas; chemical analysis of the fuel to determine depletion, iodine, and cesium levels; chemical analysis of the cladding to determine hydrogen, iodine, and cesium levels; metallographic examination of the cladding, fuel, and other rod components to determine microstructural features and cladding corrosion features; and tensile testing of the irradiated cladding to determine mechanical strength. The examinations confirmed that Light Water Breeder Reactor fuel rod performance was excellent. No evidence of fuel rod failure was observed, and the fuel operating temperature was low (below 2580/sup 0/F at which an increased percentage of fission gas is released). 21 refs., 80 figs., 20 tabs.

Richardson, K.D.

1987-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Gas-liquid-liquid equilibria in mixtures of water, light gases, and hydrocarbons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Phase equilibrium in mixtures of water + light gases and water + heavy hydrocarbons has been investigated with the development of new local composition theory, new equations of state, and new experimental data. The preferential segregation and orientation of molecules due to different energies of molecular interaction has been simulated with square well molecules. Extensive simulation has been made for pure square well fluids and mixtures to find the local composition at wide ranges of states. A theory of local composition has been developed and an equation of state has been obtained for square well fluids. The new local composition theory has been embedded in several equations of state. The pressure of water is decoupled into a polar pressure and non-polar pressure according to the molecular model of water of Jorgensen et al. The polar pressure of water is combined with the BACK equation for the general description of polar fluids and their mixtures. Being derived from the steam table, the Augmented BACK equation is particularly suited for mixtures of water + non-polar substances such as the hydrocarbons. The hydrophobic character of the hydrocarbons had made their mixtures with water a special challenge. A new group contribution equation of state is developed to describe phase equilibrium and volumetric behavior of fluids while requiring only to know the molecular structure of the components. 15 refs., 1 fig.

Chao, K.C.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Alexandria Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Alexandria Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Alexandria Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Alexandria Light and Power - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Construction Heat Pumps Commercial Lighting Lighting Water Heating Program Info State Minnesota Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washer: $50 - $75 Refrigerator: $50, with recycling of old, working model Dishwasher: $25 Dehumidifier: $10 Room Air Conditioner: $15 Heat Pump Water Heater: $300 Central A/C: $200 Mini-Split Ductless A/C: $100 ECM in New Furnace/Air Handler/Fan Coil: $150 Air-Source Heat Pump: $250 - $350 Programmable Thermostat: $25 Geothermal Heat Pump: $200/ton

229

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of supercritical temperature and pressure light water as the coolant in a direct-cycle nuclear reactor offers potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to 46%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type recirculation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed. If a tight fuel rod lattice is adopted, it is possible to significantly reduce the neutron moderation and attain fast neutron energy spectrum conditions. In this project a supercritical water reactor concept with a simple, blanket-free, pancake-shaped core will be developed. This type of core can make use of either fertile or fertile-free fuel and retain the hard spectrum to effectively burn plutonium and minor actinides from LWR spent fuel while efficiently generating electricity.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth; Buongiorno, Jacopo; Davis, Cliff Bybee; Weaver, Kevan Dean

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) April 25, 2013 DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342) More Documents & Publications Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355) Schott Gemtron: Order (2013-CE-5358

231

Quantum-enhanced absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Thermodynamics is a branch of science blessed by an unparalleled combination of generality of scope and formal simplicity. Based on few natural assumptions together with the four laws, it sets the boundaries between possible and impossible in macroscopic aggregates of matter. This triggered groundbreaking achievements in physics, chemistry and engineering over the last two centuries. Close analogues of those fundamental laws are now being established at the level of individual quantum systems, thus placing limits on the operation of quantum-mechanical devices. Here we study quantum absorption refrigerators, which are driven by heat rather than external work. We establish thermodynamic performance bounds for these machines and investigate their quantum origin. We also show how those bounds may be pushed beyond what is classically achievable, by suitably tailoring the environmental fluctuations via quantum reservoir engineering techniques. Such superefficient quantum-enhanced cooling realises a promising step towards the technological exploitation of autonomous quantum refrigerators.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Daniel Alonso; Gerardo Adesso

2013-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

232

HFC supermarket refrigeration demonstration. Phases 1 and 2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The HFC Supermarket Refrigeration Demonstration tested and evaluated HFC refrigerants in a new Shop `n Save supermarket in Glens Falls, New York. This project included laboratory testing of HFC refrigerants for medium- and low-temperature application, the design of a supermarket refrigeration system to accommodate the new refrigerants, installation, start-up, and field monitoring.

Borhanian, H.; Rafuse, L.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

234

Solar sorption refrigeration in Africa  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Solar sorption refrigeration technologies are regarded as a promising way to meet the growing refrigeration needs in Africa, for thermal comfort, foods and crops, vaccines and medicines conservation. Sorption technologies projects and studies have been reported in Africa since the late 1970s. This paper describes the most representative reported research activities and projects in various African climatic conditions. An emphasis is put on demonstrative plants involving absorption, adsorption or desiccant cooling applications. From this overview, it appears that a lot of achievements have been made, though applications are mainly focused on small-size cold boxes for foods and vaccines preservation; no direct building air conditioning based on adsorption or absorption has been reported. Mediterranean countries seems to offer the best weather conditions for solar sorption refrigeration applications and plenty of related activities could be identified in these countries. A more adequate design for each of other climatic zones in Africa may then be relevant. As anywhere, the high cost of these technologies remains the main the biggest brake to their diffusion in Africa.

Kokouvi Edem N’Tsoukpoe; Daniel Yamegueu; Justin Bassole

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Waste-heat-driven refrigeration plants for freezer trawlers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An analysis is made of the possibility of utilizing waste heat from a proposed gas-turbine fishing-vessel propulsion engine to power a refrigeration plant. On the basis of superior volume, maintenance and reliability, and cost and availability, the ammonia-water absorption system is chosen over the other waste-heat-driven option considered. It is found to be comparable in volume and in maintenance and reliability to the conventional vapor-compression system.

Kellen, A.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption and desorption. 3. Heat flows and composition changes occur at constant temperature. The advantages of complex compounds... 2. Useable refrigerant densities. Summarizing, complex compound exhibit inherent characteristics which make them ideal adsorbents in heat pump cycles: 1. A high usable refrigerant mass per unit mass of adsorbent. 2. A high energy of adsorption...

Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

237

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Status of Silicon Carbide Joining Technology Development  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Advanced, accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems are currently being investigated for potential application in currently operating light water reactors (LWR) or in reactors that have attained design certification. Evaluation of potential options for accident tolerant nuclear fuel systems point to the potential benefits of silicon carbide (SiC) relative to Zr-based alloys, including increased corrosion resistance, reduced oxidation and heat of oxidation, and reduced hydrogen generation under steam attack (off-normal conditions). If demonstrated to be applicable in the intended LWR environment, SiC could be used in nuclear fuel cladding or other in-core structural components. Achieving a SiC-SiC joint that resists corrosion with hot, flowing water, is stable under irradiation and retains hermeticity is a significant challenge. This report summarizes the current status of SiC-SiC joint development work supported by the Department of Energy Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program. Significant progress has been made toward SiC-SiC joint development for nuclear service, but additional development and testing work (including irradiation testing) is still required to present a candidate joint for use in nuclear fuel cladding.

Shannon M. Bragg-Sitton

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Natural Refrigerant (R-729) Heat Pump  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Manufactured in the U.S. 2 Problem Statement * Current commercial and industrial heat pumps - Poor coefficient of performance (COP) at low temperatures * HFC refrigerant...

239

Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

240

Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DESIGN OF INDUSTRIAL PROCESS REfRIGERATION SYSTEMS W.O. WITHERELL AOVENTg Technolog1st Un10n Carb1de Corporat1on South Charleston, West V1rg~n1a ABSTRACT ~hen considering electric driven refrigeration compressors, proper integration... to several canple~ processes that ut iii ze refr igerat ion systems. In IOClSt cases the design of a cOOlllex refrigeration system in isolation (i.e., without considering process integration) generallv results in non-ptilTUll refrigeration levels...

Witherell, W. D.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat exchangers with round tubes, such as charge reduction and higher heat transfer efficiency. But a reduced

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

242

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Requirements for Determining Refrigerant Charge Residential Air Conditioning Measures Improved Refrigerant Charge Purpose Component packages require in some climate zones that split system air refrigerant charge. For the performance method, the proposed design is modeled with less efficiency

243

Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate...

Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

244

General features of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of direct-cycle, supercritical-pressure, light-water-cooled reactors is developed. Breeding is possible in the tight lattice core. The power output can be maximized in the fast converter reactor. The gross thermal efficiency of the high temperature reactor adopting Inconel as fuel cladding is expected to be 44.8%. The plant system is similar to the supercritical-fossil-fired power plant which adopts once-through type coolant circulation system. The volume and height of the containment are approximately half of the BWR. The basic safety principles follows those of LWRs. The reactor will solve the economic problems of LWR and LMFBR.

Oka, Y.; Koshizuka, S. [Univ. of Tokyo (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Chicopee Electric Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Chicopee Electric Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Chicopee Electric Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Chicopee Electric Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Heat Pumps Water Heating Maximum Rebate Insulation: $300 maximum rebate Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Clothes Washer: $50 Refrigerator: $50 Freezer: $50 Dishwasher: $25 Heat Pump Water Heater: $300 Central A/C: Up to $500 Ductless Mini-Split AC: Up to $500 Air Source Heat Pump: Up to $500 Insulation: 30% of installed cost Provider EFI Municipal Rebates Chicopee Electric Light (CEL) offers a variety of incentives for its

246

Orcas Power and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Orcas Power and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Orcas Power and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Orcas Power and Light - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Air Source Heat Pump: $300 - $1,900 Ductless Heat Pump: $1,500 Insulation: $0.05 - $0.85 per square foot Duct Sealing: $400 - $500 Window Replacement: $6 per square foot Clothes Washer: $20 - $70 Refrigerator/Freezer: $15 Water Heaters: $25 Provider Orcas Power and Light Cooperative

247

Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines to someone by E-mail Share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Facebook Tweet about Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Twitter Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Google Bookmark Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Delicious Rank Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on Digg Find More places to share Federal Energy Management Program: Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines on AddThis.com...

248

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm...

249

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration....

250

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

251

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm...

252

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

0 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This document...

253

Chapter 7, Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

of refrigerators recycled through the program EXISTINGUEC The average annual unit energy consumption of participating refrigerators PARTUSE The portion of the year the...

254

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review...

255

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

256

Depolarized light scattering and dielectric response of a peptide dissolved in water  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The density and orientational relaxation of bulk water can be separately studied by depolarized light scattering (DLS) and dielectric spectroscopy (DS), respectively. Here, we ask the question of what are the leading collective modes responsible for polarization anisotropy relaxation (DLS) and dipole moment relaxation (DS) of solutions involving mostly hydrophobic solute-water interfaces. We study, by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations, the dynamics and structure of hydration water interfacing N-Acetyl-leucine-methylamide dipeptide. The DLS response of the solution is consistent with three relaxation processes: bulk water, rotations of single solutes, and collective dipole-induced-dipole polarizability of the solutes, with the time-scale of 130–200 ps. No separate DLS response of the hydration shell has been identified by our simulations. Density fluctuations of the hydration layer, which largely contribute to the response, do not produce a dynamical process distinct from bulk water. We find that the structural perturbation of the orientational distribution of hydration waters by the dipeptide solute is quite significant and propagates ?3?5 hydration layers into the bulk. This perturbation is still below that produced by hydrated globular proteins. Despite this structural perturbation, there is little change in the orientational dynamics of the hydration layers, compared to the bulk, as probed by both single-particle orientational dynamics and collective dynamics of the dipole moment of the shells. There is a clear distinction between the perturbation of the interfacial structure by the solute-solvent interaction potential and the perturbation of the interfacial dynamics by the corresponding forces.

Martin, Daniel R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, PO Box 871604, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, PO Box 871604, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States); Fioretto, Daniele [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Perugia, via Pascoli, 06123 Perugia (Italy); Matyushov, Dmitry V., E-mail: dmitrym@asu.edu [Department of Physics and Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Arizona State University, PO Box 871604, Tempe, Arizona 85287-1604 (United States)

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

257

Commercial Light Water Reactor -Tritium Extraction Facility Process Waste Assessment (Project S-6091)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Savannah River Site (SRS) has been tasked by the Department of Energy (DOE) to design and construct a Tritium Extraction Facility (TEF) to process irradiated tritium producing burnable absorber rods (TPBARs) from a Commercial Light Water Reactor (CLWR). The plan is for the CLWR-TEF to provide tritium to the SRS Replacement Tritium Facility (RTF) in Building 233-H in support of DOE requirements. The CLWR-TEF is being designed to provide 3 kg of new tritium per year, from TPBARS and other sources of tritium (Ref. 1-4).The CLWR TPBAR concept is being developed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The TPBAR assemblies will be irradiated in a Commercial Utility light water nuclear reactor and transported to the SRS for tritium extraction and processing at the CLWR-TEF. A Conceptual Design Report for the CLWR-TEF Project was issued in July 1997 (Ref. 4).The scope of this Process Waste Assessment (PWA) will be limited to CLWR-TEF processing of CLWR irradiated TPBARs. Although the CLWR- TEF will also be designed to extract APT tritium-containing materials, they will be excluded at this time to facilitate timely development of this PWA. As with any process, CLWR-TEF waste stream characteristics will depend on process feedstock and contaminant sources. If irradiated APT tritium-containing materials are to be processed in the CLWR-TEF, this PWA should be revised to reflect the introduction of this contaminant source term.

Hsu, R.H.; Delley, A.O.; Alexander, G.J.; Clark, E.A.; Holder, J.S.; Lutz, R.N.; Malstrom, R.A.; Nobles, B.R. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Carson, S.D. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States); Peterson, P.K. [Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, NM (United States)

1997-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

Closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We have developed closed cycle liquid helium refrigerators using a Joule Thomson circuit precooled by commercially available two staged Gifford Mac Mahon cryocoolers. The Joule Thomson counterflow heat exchangers are modular and have been thermo-hydraulically characterized. Fully automatic cool down and operation are achieved by two pneumatically driven by pass and expansion valves. Several apparatus have been built or are under assembly with cooling power ranging from 100 mW up to 5 Watt, for temperature ranging from 2.8 K up to 4.5 K. A trouble free operation with several warm up and cool down cycles has been proven over 7000 hours.

G. Claudet; R. Lagnier; A. Ravex

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

260

Seven-effect absorption refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

262

Dynamic simulation of a reverse Brayton refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A test refrigerator based on the modified Reverse Brayton cycle has been developed in the Chinese Academy of Sciences recently. To study the behaviors of this test refrigerator, a dynamic simulation has been carried out. The numerical model comprises the typical components of the test refrigerator: compressor, valves, heat exchangers, expander and heater. This simulator is based on the oriented-object approach and each component is represented by a set of differential and algebraic equations. The control system of the test refrigerator is also simulated, which can be used to optimize the control strategies. This paper describes all the models and shows the simulation results. Comparisons between simulation results and experimental data are also presented. Experimental validation on the test refrigerator gives satisfactory results.

Peng, N.; Xiong, L. Y.; Dong, B.; Liu, L. Q. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 (China); Lei, L. L.; Tang, J. C. [State Key Laboratory of Technologies in Space Cryogenic Propellants, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS, Beijing, 100190 China and Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100190 (China)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

263

Light  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Sunlight contains energy which can be directly converted into electricity in solar cells of various types. This is an example of what is called 'direct conversion', involving no moving parts or heat conversion processes. This chapter looks at photovoltaic and photoelectric devices and also at other ideas for using light energy, some of which operate in the infrared part of the spectrum. Solar electric power is a rapidly developing field, opening up many opportunities for novel applications, as well as requirements, including for storage, with one idea being solar-powered hydrogen production and then direct conversion to electricity in fuel cells. Direct conversion is not always efficient, and this chapter introduces the concept of 'energy return on energy invested'. In speculative mood this chapter also looks at the idea of a global grid, allowing daytime solar generation to be used on the night side of the planet.

David Elliott ? Pages 4-1 to 4-20

264

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(–2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated that there were 3.6±1.0 million hybrid refrigerator-wine/beverage coolers and 0.9±0.5 million hybrid freezer-wine/beverage coolers in U.S. households. We also obtained estimates of miscellaneous refrigeration product capacities, lifetimes, purchase and installation costs, repair frequencies and costs, and maintenance costs. For wine/beverage coolers, we also obtained information on the penetration of built-in units, AC/DC operating capability, the use of internal lights, and distributions of door opening frequencies. This information is essential to develop detailed estimates of national energy usage and life-cycle costs, and would be helpful in obtaining information on other plug-load appliances. Additional information not highlighted in the main report was presented in Appendices.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

265

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

267

The 3rd International Conference of IIR on Magnetic Refrigeration at Room Temperature, Des Moines, Iowa, U.S.A, 11-15 May 2009  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS USING DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS J. ROUDAUT1,2,* , H. BOUCHEKARA1 , A. KEDOUS-LEBOUC1 , J Refrigeration (AMRR) system. The heat transfer fluid is water, the regenerator consists of stacked gadolinium avoid using greenhouse gases and lower energy consumption by 20-30% over conventional technology

Boyer, Edmond

268

Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.

Bailey, W.J.

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

Collins, Emory D.; Delcul, Guillermo D.; Hunt, Rodney D.; Johnson, Jared A.; Spencer, Barry B.

2014-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

270

Chemical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction in light water reactor fuel elements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In contrast to the extensive literature on the mechanical aspects of pellet-cladding interaction (PCI) in light water reactor fuel elements, the chemical features of this phenomenon are so poorly understood that there is still disagreement concerning the chemical agent responsible. Since the earliest work by Rosenbaum, Davies and Pon, laboratory and in-reactor experiments designed to elucidate the mechanism of PCI fuel rod failures have concentrated almost exclusively on iodine. The assumption that this is the reponsible chemical agent is contained in models of PCI which have been constructed for incorporation into fuel performance codes. The evidence implicating iodine is circumstantial, being based primarily upon the volatility and significant fission yield of this element and on the microstructural similarity of the failed Zircaloy specimens exposed to iodine in laboratory stress corrosion cracking (SCC) tests to cladding failures by PCI.

Olander, D.R.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Vibrational spectra of light and heavy water with application to neutron cross section calculations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The design of nuclear reactors and neutron moderators require a good representation of the interaction of low energy (E < 1 eV) neutrons with hydrogen and deuterium containing materials. These models are based on the dynamics of the material, represented by its vibrational spectrum. In this paper, we show calculations of the frequency spectrum for light and heavy water at room temperature using two flexible point charge potentials: SPC-MPG and TIP4P/2005f. The results are compared with experimental measurements, with emphasis on inelastic neutron scattering data. Finally, the resulting spectra are applied to calculation of neutron scattering cross sections for these materials, which were found to be a significant improvement over library data.

Damian, J. I. Marquez; Granada, J. R. [Neutron Physics Department and Instituto Balseiro, Centro Atomico Bariloche, CNEA (Argentina); Malaspina, D. C. [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)

2013-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

272

Advanced dry head-end reprocessing of light water reactor spent nuclear fuel  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from a light water reactor includes the step of reacting spent nuclear fuel in a voloxidation vessel with an oxidizing gas having nitrogen dioxide and oxygen for a period sufficient to generate a solid oxidation product of the spent nuclear fuel. The reacting step includes the step of reacting, in a first zone of the voloxidation vessel, spent nuclear fuel with the oxidizing gas at a temperature ranging from 200-450.degree. C. to form an oxidized reaction product, and regenerating nitrogen dioxide, in a second zone of the voloxidation vessel, by reacting oxidizing gas comprising nitrogen monoxide and oxygen at a temperature ranging from 0-80.degree. C. The first zone and the second zone can be separate. A voloxidation system is also disclosed.

Collins, Emory D; Delcul, Guillermo D; Hunt, Rodney D; Johnson, Jared A; Spencer, Barry B

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

273

Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water Heating, Appliances, and Low-GWP Refrigerants Energy Department Releases Roadmaps on HVAC Technologies, Water...

274

Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles and Selection of Refrigerants, University Park, PA 16802 The optimal synthesis of the refrigeration configuration and the selection of the best refrigerants that satisfy a set of process cooling duties at different temperatures is ad- dressed

Maranas, Costas

275

DOE Publishes Supplemental Proposed Determination for Miscellaneous Residential Refrigeration Products  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Energy has published a supplemental proposed determination regarding miscellaneous residential refrigeration products.

276

Refrigerator/freezer energy use: Measured values vs. simulation results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The EPA Refrigerator Analysis (ERA) program was utilized in the engineering analysis performed to support the proposed refrigerator/freezer standards in the United States. In this paper the accuracy of the ERA program for predicting the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers is studied by comparing the predicted energy consumption with the measured energy consumption.

Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

277

Direct Water Splitting under Visible Light with a Nanostructured Photoanode and GaInP2 Photocathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Thin films of hematite nanorod and GaInP2 were used for direct water splitting under visible light. In open circuit conditions, the potential of hematite shifted cathodically and that of GaInP2 anodically, which generated an open circuit voltage between the two electrodes. In short circuit condition, the combination of the two photoelectrodes can split water under visible light illumination, though with a very low current of {micro}A/cm2 level even at 1 W/cm2 light. By means of chopped light, we found that hematite nanorod has a low photocurrent, which is responsible for the low short circuit current of the 2-electrode combination. The low photoresponse of hematite nanorods is due to the recombination of photo- generated charges, low holes mobility, and short diffusion length.

Wang, H.; Deutsch, T.; Turner, J.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

FS: heat pump water heaters | The Better Buildings Alliance  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Food Service » Install a heat pump Food Service » Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specificat Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a heat pump water heaterand reduce water heating energy up to 70% using the commercial heat pump water heater specification The Food Service team developed a Commercial Heat Pump Water Heater Specification that can be used to reduce water heating energy by 70%. An older, electric resistance water heater (operated in a building with a hot water demand of 500 gallons a day) can cost more than $3,500 each year

279

Proceedings: commercial refrigeration research workshop. Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this workshop was to identify the state-of-the-art and determine research needs for improving energy use and demand in commercial refrigeration applications. Workshop attendees included research and development, technical operations and marketing people from manufacturers of supermarket refrigeration, space conditioning, and energy management systems equipment, and from supermarket chains and electric utilities. Presentations were given on best current practice and research needs from the perspective of each of these industry segments. Working groups identified ten important research, development and equipment demonstration projects to improve the efficiency of refrigerating equipment, heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment, and other energy-using systems in supermarkets.

Blatt, M.H.

1984-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the use of carbon dioxide as refrigerant in supermarket refrigeration systems. The work includes fieldPhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

Kazachkov, Ivan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Evolution of isotopic composition of reprocessed uranium during the multiple recycling in light water reactors with natural uranium feed  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A complex approach based on the consistent modeling of neutron-physics processes and processes of cascade separation of isotopes is applied for analyzing physical problems of the multiple usage of reprocessed uranium in the fuel cycle of light water reactors. A number of scenarios of multiple recycling of reprocessed uranium in light water reactors are considered. In the process, an excess absorption of neutrons by the {sup 236}U isotope is compensated by re-enrichment in the {sup 235}U isotope. Specific consumptions of natural uranium for re-enrichment of the reprocessed uranium depending on the content of the {sup 232}U isotope are obtained.

Smirnov, A. Yu., E-mail: a.y.smirnoff@rambler.ru; Sulaberidze, G. A. [National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russian Federation); Alekseev, P. N.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A., E-mail: neva@dhtp.kiae.ru; Proselkov, V. N.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

282

Performance of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer using HFC refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A two-cycle 18 ft{sup 3} (0.51 m{sup 3}) refrigerator/freezer was tested utilizing American National Standards Institute/Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (ANSI/AHAM) standards for energy consumption testing. A 34.9% energy consumption reduction was realized for a 1984 model refrigerator/freezer (1020 kWh original energy use). This paper presents a proven method of reducing the current Department of Energy (DOE) minimum energy-efficiency standards for refrigerator/freezers to the proposed year 2001 standards utilizing existing technology. For a top-mount, frost-free refrigerator/freezer having the above volume, the current DOE minimum energy standard is 770 kWh/year, and the proposed DOE year 2001 standard is 530 kWh/year (a 31% reduction). Therefore, some significant reductions may be obtained by implementing the modifications discussed in this paper into newer refrigerator/freezer models. The paper gives an overview of the modifications implemented by a Danish university on a US refrigerator/freezer and presents experimental performance testing results of the refrigerator/freezer. The modifications will cause the refrigerator/freezer to be more expensive, but the performance enhancements should offset cost. No cost analysis is presented in this paper, but a detailed cost analysis of a two-cycle refrigerator/freezer is contained in a 1993 US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) report (EPA 1993). The refrigerator/freezer was tested using four refrigerants and compressors. Two compressors and refrigerants were tested in the freezer cycle, and four were tested in the fresh food cycle.

Baskin, E.; Delafield, F.R.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Peninsula Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Peninsula Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Peninsula Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Peninsula Light Company - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Appliances & Electronics Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Windows: $1,000 Program Info State District of Columbia Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Windows: $6/sq. ft. Water Heaters: $50 Duct Sealing: Free Refrigerator/Freezer Recycling: $20 Ductless Heat Pumps: $1,500 Heat Pumps (Upgrade): $400 - $800 Heat Pumps (Conversion) $1,000 - $1,500 Simple Steps Smart Savings: Reduced prices on energy saving products at

284

Forest Grove Light and Power - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Forest Grove Light and Power - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Forest Grove Light and Power - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs Forest Grove Light and Power - Energy Efficiency Rebate Programs < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Residential Savings Category Home Weatherization Commercial Weatherization Appliances & Electronics Sealing Your Home Ventilation Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Heat Pumps Water Heating Windows, Doors, & Skylights Maximum Rebate Air Sealing: $400 Duct Sealing: $500 Program Info State Oregon Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Heat Pump with Central Ducts (Replacement): $300 - $1,000 Heat Pump with Central Ducts (Furnace Conversion): $1,400 - $1,900 Heat Pump with Ductless System: $1,500 Clothes Washer: $20 - $70 Refrigerator: $25 Freezer: $25 Electric Water Heater: $25

285

Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state material—an elastic shape memory metal alloy—as a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

None

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Intra-molecular refrigeration in enzymes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a simple mechanism for intra-molecular refrigeration, where parts of a molecule are actively cooled below the environmental temperature. We discuss the potential role and applications of such a mechanism in biology, in particular in enzymatic reactions.

Hans J. Briegel; Sandu Popescu

2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

287

Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Air Conditioning Heating and Refrigeration Institute Comment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These comments are submitted by the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) in response to the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) notice in the July 3, 2014 Federal Register...

289

Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

290

Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

291

Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

White, T. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

292

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

293

Energy use of US residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivation based on household and climate characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

residential refrigerators and freezers: function derivationsecond most-used) refrigerators, and freezers, and residualfor more efficient refrigerators and freezers, as well as

Greenblatt, Jeffery

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along withthe number of refrigerators and freezers in a home alongcompression refrigerators and freezers) in U.S. households.

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

296

Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Working Fluids Low GWP Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs

297

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Uninterrupted power supply for autonomous small refrigerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to describe salient features of a small refrigerator powered by a field of photovoltaic panels backed up by a petrol-start, kerosene-run portable generator set. Such units find applications in medical shops, veterinary applications and storage of vaccines in primary health centers. The modular arrangement allows use of certain components as a part of an uninterrupted power supply system for such refrigerators. Some preliminary results on temperature distributions and performance data are also presented.

Thomachan A. Kattakayam; K. Srinivasan

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

Brown, D.P.

1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Global warming impacts of ozone-safe refrigerants and refrigeration, heating, and air-conditioning technologies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

International agreements mandate the phase-out of many chlorine containing compounds that are used as the working fluid in refrigeration, air-conditioning, and heating equipment. Many of the chemical compounds that have been proposed, and are being used in place of the class of refrigerants eliminated by the Montreal Protocol are now being questioned because of their possible contributions to global warming. Natural refrigerants are put forth as inherently superior to manufactured refrigerants because they have very low or zero global warming potentials (GWPs). Questions are being raised about whether or not these manufactured refrigerants, primarily hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), should be regulated and perhaps phased out in much the same manner as CFCs and HCFCs. Several of the major applications of refrigerants are examined in this paper and the results of an analysis of their contributions to greenhouse warming are presented. Supermarket refrigeration is shown to be an application where alternative technologies have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) significantly with no clear advantage to either natural or HFC refrigerants. Mixed results are presented for automobile air conditioners with opportunities to reduce GHG emissions dependent on climate and comfort criteria. GHG emissions for hermetic and factory built systems (i.e. household refrigerators/freezers, unitary equipment, chillers) are shown to be dominated by energy use with much greater potential for reduction through efficiency improvements than by selection of refrigerant. The results for refrigerators also illustrate that hydrocarbon and carbon dioxide blown foam insulation have lower overall effects on GHG emissions than HFC blown foams at the cost of increased energy use.

Fischer, S.; Sand, J.; Baxter, V.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Ferritic Alloys as Accident Tolerant Fuel Cladding Material for Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the GE project is to demonstrate that advanced steels such as iron-chromium-aluminum (FeCrAl) alloys could be used as accident tolerant fuel cladding material in commercial light water reactors. The GE project does not include fuel development. Current findings support the concept that a FeCrAl alloy could be used for the cladding of commercial nuclear fuel. The use of this alloy will benefit the public since it is going to make the power generating light water reactors safer. In the Phase 1A of this cost shared project, GE (GRC + GNF) teamed with the University of Michigan, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to study the environmental and mechanical behavior of more than eight candidate cladding material both under normal operation conditions of commercial nuclear reactors and under accident conditions in superheated steam (loss of coolant condition). The main findings are as follows: (1) Under normal operation conditions the candidate alloys (e.g. APMT, Alloy 33) showed excellent resistance to general corrosion, shadow corrosion and to environmentally assisted cracking. APMT also showed resistance to proton irradiation up to 5 dpa. (2) Under accident conditions the selected candidate materials showed several orders of magnitude improvement in the reaction with superheated steam as compared with the current zirconium based alloys. (3) Tube fabrication feasibility studies of FeCrAl alloys are underway. The aim is to obtain a wall thickness that is below 400 µm. (4) A strategy is outlined for the regulatory path approval and for the insertion of a lead fuel assembly in a commercial reactor by 2022. (5) The GE team worked closely with INL to have four rodlets tested in the ATR. GE provided the raw stock for the alloys, the fuel for the rodlets and the cost for fabrication/welding of the rodlets. INL fabricated the rodlets and the caps and welded them to provide hermetic seal. The replacement of a zirconium alloy using a ferritic material containing chromium and aluminum appears to be the most near term implementation for accident tolerant nuclear fuels.

Rebak, Raul B. [General Electric] (ORCID:0000000280704475)

2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

303

EIS-0071: Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuels Gas Demonstration Plant, Memphis, Shelby County, Tennessee  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The U.S. Department of Energy developed this EIS to assesses the potential environmental impacts associated with the construction and operation of a 3,155-ton-per-day capacity facility, which will demonstrate the technical operability, economic viability, and environmental acceptability of the Memphis Division of Light, Gas and Water coal gasification plant at Memphis, Tennessee.

304

Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Emerging Technologies » Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project Low-GWP Refrigerants Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy is currently conducting research into low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. As concerns about climate change intensify, it is becoming increasingly clear that suitable low-GWP refrigerants will be needed for both new and existing residential and commercial heating, ventilation, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) equipment. Project Description This project seeks to develop alternative refrigerants for HVAC&R equipment. The overall environmental impacts of alternative refrigerants will be assessed using a life cycle climate performance model that accounts for direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and indirect

305

Adaptation of gas tagging for failed fuel identification in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper discusses experience with noble gas tagging and its adaptation to commercial reactors. It reviews the recent incidence of fuel failures in light water reactors, and methods used to identify failures, and concludes that the on-line technique of gas tagging could significantly augment present flux tilting, sipping and ultrasonic testing of assemblies. The paper describes calculations on tag gas stability in-reactor, and tag injection tests that were carried out collaboratively with Commonwealth Edison Company in the Byron-2 pressurized water reactor (P%a) and with Duke Power Company and Babcock and Wilcox Fuel Company in the Oconee-2 PWM. The tests gave information on: (a) noble gas concentration dynamics as the tag gases were dissolved in and eventually removed from subsystems of the RCS; and (b) the suitability of candidate Ar, Ne, Kr and Xe isotopes for tagging PWR fuel. It was found that the activity of Xe{sup 125} (the activation product of the tag isotope Xe{sup 124}) acted as a ``tag of a tag`` and tracked gas through the reactor; measured activities are being used to model gas movement in the RCS. Several interference molecules (trace contaminants normally present at sub-ppM concentrations in RCS samples) and entrained air in the RCS were found to affect mass spectrometer sensitivity for tag isotopes. In all instances the contaminants could be differentiated from the tag isotopes by operating the mass spectrometer at high resolution (2500). Similarly, it was possible to distinguish all the candidate tag gases against a high background of air. The test results suggested, however, that for routine analysis a high resolution static mass spectrometer will be preferable to the dynamic instrument used for the present analyses.

Lambert, J.D.B.; Gross, K.C.; Depiante, E.V. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Callis, E.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Egebrecht, P.M. [Commonwealth Edison Company, Downers Grove, IL (United States)

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Feasibility Study of Supercritical Light Water Cooled Fast Reactors for Actinide Burning and Electric Power Production, 3rd Quarterly Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of light water at supercritical pressures as the coolant in a nuclear reactor offers the potential for considerable plant simplification and consequent capital and O&M cost reduction compared with current light water reactor (LWR) designs. Also, given the thermodynamic conditions of the coolant at the core outlet (i.e. temperature and pressure beyond the water critical point), very high thermal efficiencies of the power conversion cycle are possible (i.e. up to about 45%). Because no change of phase occurs in the core, the need for steam separators and dryers as well as for BWR-type re-circulation pumps is eliminated, which, for a given reactor power, results in a substantially shorter reactor vessel and smaller containment building than the current BWRs. Furthermore, in a direct cycle the steam generators are not needed.

Mac Donald, Philip Elsworth

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Qualification Requirements of Guided Ultrasonic Waves for Inspection of Piping in Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) are being increasingly used for both NDT and monitoring of piping. GUW offers advantages over many conventional NDE technologies due to the ability to inspect large volumes of piping components without significant removal of thermal insulation or protective layers. In addition, regions rendered inaccessible to more conventional NDE technologies may be more accessible using GUW techniques. For these reasons, utilities are increasingly considering the use of GUWs for performing the inspection of piping components in nuclear power plants. GUW is a rapidly evolving technology and its usage for inspection of nuclear power plant components requires refinement and qualification to ensure it is able to achieve consistent and acceptable levels of performance. This paper will discuss potential requirements for qualification of GUW techniques for the inspection of piping components in light water reactors (LWRs). The Nuclear Regulatory Commission has adopted ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code requirements in Sections V, III, and XI for nondestructive examination methods, fabrication inspections, and pre-service and in-service inspections. A Section V working group has been formed to place the methodology of GUW into the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code but no requirements for technique, equipment, or personnel exist in the Code at this time.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics Executive Summary  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Research and development (R&D) activities on advanced, higher performance Light Water Reactor (LWR) fuels have been ongoing for the last few years. Following the unfortunate March 2011 events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in Japan, the R&D shifted toward enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs. Qualitative attributes for fuels with enhanced accident tolerance, such as improved reaction kinetics with steam resulting in slower hydrogen generation rate, provide guidance for the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. A common set of technical metrics should be established to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs on a more quantitative basis. “Metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. This report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to evaluate the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed toward qualification.

Shannon Bragg-Sitton

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Analysis of assembly serial number usage in domestic light-water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Domestic light-water reactor (LWR) fuel assemblies are identified by a serial number that is placed on each assembly. These serial numbers are used as identifiers throughout the life of the fuel. The uniqueness of assembly serial numbers is important in determining their effectiveness as unambiguous identifiers. The purpose of this study is to determine what serial numbering schemes are used, the effectiveness of these schemes, and to quantify how many duplicate serial numbers occur on domestic LWR fuel assemblies. The serial numbering scheme adopted by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) ensures uniqueness of assembly serial numbers. The latest numbering scheme adopted by General Electric (GE), was also found to be unique. Analysis of 70,971 fuel assembly serial numbers from permanently discharged fuel identified 11,948 serial number duplicates. Three duplicate serial numbers were found when analysis focused on duplication within the individual fuel inventory at each reactor site, but these were traced back to data entry errors and will be corrected by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). There were also three instances where the serial numbers used to identify assemblies used for hot cell studies differed from the serial numbers reported to the EIA. It is recommended that fuel fabricators and utilities adhere to the ANSI serial numbering scheme to ensure serial number uniqueness. In addition, organizations collecting serial number information, should request that all known serial numbers physically attached or associated with each assembly be reported and identified by the corresponding number scheme. 10 refs., 5 tabs.

Reich, W.J. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Moore, R.S. (Automated Sciences Group, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Assessment of the use of extended burnup fuel in light water power reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the environmental and economic impacts associated with the use of extended burnup nuclear fuel in light water power reactors. It has been proposed that current batch average burnup levels of 33 GWd/t uranium be increased to above 50 GWd/t. The environmental effects of extending fuel burnup during normal operations and during accident events and the economic effects of cost changes on the fuel cycle are discussed in this report. The physical effects of extended burnup on the fuel and the fuel assembly are also presented as a basis for the environmental and economic assessments. Environmentally, this burnup increase would have no significant impact over that of normal burnup. Economically, the increased burnup would have favorable effects, consisting primarily of a reduction: (1) total fuel requirements; (2) reactor downtime for fuel replacement; (3) the number of fuel shipments to and from reactor sites; and (4) repository storage requirements. 61 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.

Baker, D.A.; Bailey, W.J.; Beyer, C.E.; Bold, F.C.; Tawil, J.J.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Electrolytic Reduction of Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel Bench-Scale Experiment Results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of experiments were performed to demonstrate the electrolytic reduction of spent light water reactor fuel at bench-scale in a hot cell at the Idaho National Laboratory Materials and Fuels Complex. The process involves the conversion of oxide fuel to metal by electrolytic means, which would then enable subsequent separation and recovery of actinides via existing electrometallurgical technologies, i.e., electrorefining. Four electrolytic reduction runs were performed at bench scale using ~500 ml of molten LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O electrolyte at 650 şC. In each run, ~50 g of crushed spent oxide fuel was loaded into a permeable stainless steel basket and immersed into the electrolyte as the cathode. A spiral wound platinum wire was immersed into the electrolyte as the anode. When a controlled electric current was conducted through the anode and cathode, the oxide fuel was reduced to metal in the basket and oxygen gas was evolved at the anode. Salt samples were extracted before and after each electrolytic reduction run and analyzed for fuel and fission product constituents. The fuel baskets following each run were sectioned and the fuel was sampled, revealing an extent of uranium oxide reduction in excess of 98%.

Steven D. Herrmann

2007-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Survey of Worldwide Light Water Reactor Experience with Mixed Uranium-Plutonium Oxide Fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US and the Former Soviet Union (FSU) have recently declared quantities of weapons materials, including weapons-grade (WG) plutonium, excess to strategic requirements. One of the leading candidates for the disposition of excess WG plutonium is irradiation in light water reactors (LWRs) as mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) fuel. A description of the MOX fuel fabrication techniques in worldwide use is presented. A comprehensive examination of the domestic MOX experience in US reactors obtained during the 1960s, 1970s, and early 1980s is also presented. This experience is described by manufacturer and is also categorized by the reactor facility that irradiated the MOX fuel. A limited summary of the international experience with MOX fuels is also presented. A review of MOX fuel and its performance is conducted in view of the special considerations associated with the disposition of WG plutonium. Based on the available information, it appears that adoption of foreign commercial MOX technology from one of the successful MOX fuel vendors will minimize the technical risks to the overall mission. The conclusion is made that the existing MOX fuel experience base suggests that disposition of excess weapons plutonium through irradiation in LWRs is a technically attractive option.

Cowell, B.S.; Fisher, S.E.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Improved growth and water use efficiency of cherry saplings under reduced light intensity  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Cherry (Prunus avium...L.) saplings were grown under natural sunlight (controls) or moderate shading (up to 30%, depending on the incident light intensity and the hour of the day). Reduced light intensity increas...

Mauro Centritto; Francesco Loreto; Angelo Massacci…

2000-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Arcelik's Blomberg Refrigerator September 1, 2010 - 4:37pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Arcelik's Blomberg refrigerator-freezer model # BRFB1450. The Department opened this investigation based on a complaint. DOE subpoenaed information from Arcelik, reviewed Arcelik's response, and performed its own testing of this model. Based on our investigation and test results, DOE has determined this model to be compliant with federal energy conservation standards. Notice of Compliance Determination Addthis Related Articles DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator

315

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project High Efficiency Low Emission Supermarket Refrigeration Research Project The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is currently conducting research into high efficiency, low emission supermarket refrigeration technologies. Project Description The project involves the development of a supermarket refrigeration system that can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption when compared to existing systems. The challenge is to design a system that is capable of achieving low refrigerant leak rates while significantly reducing both the energy consumption and the refrigerant charge size. Project Partners Research is being undertaken between DOE and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Project Goals

316

Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Thermal links for the implementation of an optical refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical refrigeration has been demonstrated by several groups of researchers, but the cooling elements have not been thermally linked to realistic heat loads in ways that achieve the desired temperatures. The ideal thermal link will have minimal surface area, provide complete optical isolation for the load, and possess high thermal conductivity. We have designed thermal links that minimize the absorption of fluoresced photons by the heat load using multiple mirrors and geometric shapes including a hemisphere, a kinked waveguide, and a tapered waveguide. While total link performance is dependent on additional factors, we have observed net transmission of photons with the tapered link as low as 0.04%. Our optical tests have been performed with a surrogate source that operates at 625 nm and mimics the angular distribution of light emitted from the cooling element of the Los Alamos solid state optical refrigerator. We have confirmed the optical performance of our various link geometries with computer simulations using CODE V optical modeling software. In addition we have used the thermal modeling tool in COMSOL MULTIPHYSICS to investigate other heating factors that affect the thermal performance of the optical refrigerator. Assuming an ideal cooling element and a nonabsorptive dielectric trapping mirror, the three dominant heating factors are (1) absorption of fluoresced photons transmitted through the thermal link, (2) blackbody radiation from the surrounding environment, and (3) conductive heat transfer through mechanical supports. Modeling results show that a 1 cm{sup 3} load can be chilled to 107 K with a 100 W pump laser. We have used the simulated steady-state cooling temperatures of the heat load to compare link designs and system configurations.

Epsteiin, Richard I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Greenfield, Scott R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Parker, John [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Mar, David [HARVEY MUDD GOLLEGE; Von Der Porten, Steven [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Hankinson, John [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Byram, Kevin [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Lee, Chris [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Mayeda, Kai [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Haskell, Richard [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE; Yang, Qimin [HARVEY MUDD COLLEGE

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Advanced Fuels Campaign Light Water Reactor Accident Tolerant Fuel Performance Metrics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The safe, reliable and economic operation of the nation’s nuclear power reactor fleet has always been a top priority for the United States’ nuclear industry. As a result, continual improvement of technology, including advanced materials and nuclear fuels, remains central to industry’s success. Decades of research combined with continual operation have produced steady advancements in technology and yielded an extensive base of data, experience, and knowledge on light water reactor (LWR) fuel performance under both normal and accident conditions. In 2011, following the Great East Japan Earthquake, resulting tsunami, and subsequent damage to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant complex, enhancing the accident tolerance of LWRs became a topic of serious discussion. As a result of direction from the U.S. Congress, the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy (DOE-NE) initiated an Accident Tolerant Fuel (ATF) Development program. The complex multiphysics behavior of LWR nuclear fuel makes defining specific material or design improvements difficult; as such, establishing qualitative attributes is critical to guide the design and development of fuels and cladding with enhanced accident tolerance. This report summarizes a common set of technical evaluation metrics to aid in the optimization and down selection of candidate designs. As used herein, “metrics” describe a set of technical bases by which multiple concepts can be fairly evaluated against a common baseline and against one another. Furthermore, this report describes a proposed technical evaluation methodology that can be applied to assess the ability of each concept to meet performance and safety goals relative to the current UO2 – zirconium alloy system and relative to one another. The resultant ranked evaluation can then inform concept down-selection, such that the most promising accident tolerant fuel design option(s) can continue to be developed for lead test rod or lead test assembly insertion into a commercial reactor within the desired timeframe (by 2022).

Brad Merrill; Melissa Teague; Robert Youngblood; Larry Ott; Kevin Robb; Michael Todosow; Chris Stanek; Mitchell Farmer; Michael Billone; Robert Montgomery; Nicholas Brown; Shannon Bragg-Sitton

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Fuel Cycle Economic Analysis of Symbiotic Light-Water Reactor and Fast Burner Reactor Systems, prepared to support the U.S. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) systems analysis, provides a technology-oriented baseline system cost comparison between the open fuel cycle and closed fuel cycle systems. The intent is to understand their overall cost trends, cost sensitivities, and trade-offs. This analysis also improves the AFCI Program’s understanding of the cost drivers that will determine nuclear power’s cost competitiveness vis-a-vis other baseload generation systems. The common reactor-related costs consist of capital, operating, and decontamination and decommissioning costs. Fuel cycle costs include front-end (pre-irradiation) and back-end (post-iradiation) costs, as well as costs specifically associated with fuel recycling. This analysis reveals that there are large cost uncertainties associated with all the fuel cycle strategies, and that overall systems (reactor plus fuel cycle) using a closed fuel cycle are about 10% more expensive in terms of electricity generation cost than open cycle systems. The study concludes that further U.S. and joint international-based design studies are needed to reduce the cost uncertainties with respect to fast reactor, fuel separation and fabrication, and waste disposition. The results of this work can help provide insight to the cost-related factors and conditions needed to keep nuclear energy (including closed fuel cycles) economically competitive in the U.S. and worldwide. These results may be updated over time based on new cost information, revised assumptions, and feedback received from additional reviews.

D. E. Shropshire

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite photoanode for visible light induced water splitting  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films with different MWCNT’s weight percentages were prepared by sol–gel method as visible light induced photoanode in water splitting reaction. Weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films was confirmed by TGA/DSC analysis. According to XPS analysis, oxygenated groups at the surface of the MWCNT and stoichiometric formation of WO{sub 3} thin films were determined, while the crystalline structure of the nanocomposite samples was studied by XRD indicating (0 0 2) peak of MWCNT in the monoclinic phase of WO{sub 3}. The influence of different weight percentage (wt%) of MWCNT on WO{sub 3} photoactivity showed that the electron conductivity, charge transfer and electron life time had improved as compared with the pure WO{sub 3}. Based on linear sweep voltammetry and chronoamperometry measurements, the (1 wt%) MWCNT/WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films photoanode has a maximum photocurrent density of ?4.5 A/m{sup 2} and electron life time of about 57 s. - Graphical abstract: Photocurrent density versus time at constant potential (0.7 V) for the WO{sub 3} films containing different MWCNT weight percentages annealed at 400 °C under 1000 Wm{sup ?2} visible photo-illumination. Display Omitted - Highlights: • MWCNT/ WO{sub 3} nanocomposite thin films were synthesized using sol–gel derived method. • TGA/DSC confirmed the weight percentage of MWCNT in the all nanocomposite thin films. • XPS analysis revealed that WO{sub 3} was attached on the oxygenated group of MWCNT surface. • The Highest Photoelectrochemical activity is achieved for (1 wt%)MWCNT/WO{sub 3} thin film.

Yousefzadeh, Samira [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Reyhani, Ali [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Imam Khomeini International University, P.O. Box 34149-16818, Qazvin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Naseri, Naimeh [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moshfegh, Alireza Z., E-mail: moshfegh@sharif.edu [Physics Department, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11155-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 14588-89694, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Pyroprocessing of Light Water Reactor Spent Fuels Based on an Electrochemical Reduction Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A concept of pyroprocessing light water reactor (LWR) spent fuels based on an electrochemical reduction technology is proposed, and the material balance of the processing of mixed oxide (MOX) or high-burnup uranium oxide (UO{sub 2}) spent fuel is evaluated. Furthermore, a burnup analysis for metal fuel fast breeder reactors (FBRs) is conducted on low-decontamination materials recovered by pyroprocessing. In the case of processing MOX spent fuel (40 GWd/t), UO{sub 2} is separately collected for {approx}60 wt% of the spent fuel in advance of the electrochemical reduction step, and the product recovered through the rare earth (RE) removal step, which has the composition uranium:plutonium:minor actinides:fission products (FPs) = 76.4:18.4:1.7:3.5, can be applied as an ingredient of FBR metal fuel without a further decontamination process. On the other hand, the electroreduced alloy of high-burnup UO{sub 2} spent fuel (48 GWd/t) requires further decontamination of residual FPs by an additional process such as electrorefining even if RE FPs are removed from the alloy because the recovered plutonium (Pu) is accompanied by almost the same amount of FPs in addition to RE. However, the amount of treated materials in the electrorefining step is reduced to {approx}10 wt% of the total spent fuel owing to the prior UO{sub 2} recovery step. These results reveal that the application of electrochemical reduction technology to LWR spent oxide fuel is a promising concept for providing FBR metal fuel by a rationalized process.

Ohta, Hirokazu; Inoue, Tadashi; Sakamura, Yoshiharu; Kinoshita, Kensuke

2005-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

322

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Energy Consumption of Refrigerators in Ghana - Outcomes of Household Surveys Speaker(s): Essel Ben Hagan Date: July 12, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Robert Van Buskirk Galen Barbose As part of activities to develop refrigerator efficiency standards regulations in Ghana, a national survey on the energy consumption of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers has been conducted. The survey covered 1000 households in urban, peri-urban and rural communities in various parts of the country. The survey found that, on average, refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers in Ghana use almost three times what is allowed by minimum efficiency standards in the U.S., and a few refrigerators had energy use at levels almost ten times the U.S.

323

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions Refrigerator Standards Save Consumers $ Billions March 5, 2013 - 10:35am Addthis Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator Standards Refrigerator technology has come a long way since Dr. John Gorrie (1803 - 1855), a forward-looking inventor, was granted U. S. Patent #8080 for mechanical refrigeration in 1851. In those days, ice was expensive, if it was even available: Blocks of natural ice were carved from frozen lakes and rivers and stored in special warehouses under layers of sawdust for insulation. By the 1890s, pollution and sewage dumping caused by population growth compromised sources of pure, natural ice, threatening the brewing, meat-packing, and dairy industries. As these and other industries sought better solutions, modern refrigeration technology started to evolve.

324

Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a mucilage glue fiber factory, the design of the refrigeration system takes into account the characteristics of mucilage glue fiber production and fully uses the refrigeration compressor heat to economize energy and reduce the production cost...

Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

VEE-0079- In the Matter of Diversified Refrigeration, Inc.  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Diversified Refrigeration, Inc. (DRI) requests a six-month exception from the 2001 energy appliance efficiency standards for built-in refrigerators that become effective July 1, 2001. As explained...

326

Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

Boyer, Edmond

327

Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper presents case studies of two moderately sized ammonia refrigeration systems retrofitted for floating head pressure control. It also presents a parametric analysis to assist in selecting appropriate pressures in an ammonia refrigeration...

Barrer, P. J.; Jones, S. M.

328

DOE Resolves Avanti Refrigerator and Freezer Civil Penalty Case  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Today, the Department of Energy announced that it has resolved the civil penalty action against Mackle Company for its failure to certify that refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers sold under the...

329

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

International Refrigeration Products International Refrigeration Products (room air conditioners) ) ) ) ) ) Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 NOTICE OF PROPOSED CIVIL PENALTY Date issued: July 9, 2012 Number of alleged violations: 5475 (365 days, 15 models) Maximum possible assessment: $1,095,000 Proposed civil penalty: $109,500 The U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") Office of the General Counsel, Office of Enforcement, alleges that International Refrigeration Products ("IRP") has violated cettain provisions of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, 42 U.S.C. § 6291 et seq. ("the Act"), and 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. Specifically, DOE alleges: 1. IRP has manufactured 1 a variety of Sea Breeze brand room air conditioners, including basic models WA46YR, WA48YRX, WA410YRX, WA412YRX, WH418ZRX,

330

Of Refrigerators & Regulations | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations Of Refrigerators & Regulations February 8, 2011 - 9:29am Addthis Jesse Lee White House Director of Online Affairs Editor's Note: This entry has been cross-posted from The White House Blog. For those interested in the President's remarks to the U.S. Chamber of Commerce and his views on the shared responsibilities of government and business to the American people, our post earlier will give a suitable overview. For those interested in the details of the President's Executive Order on reviewing regulations and their impacts on the economy, Cass Sunstein's post this morning will also be of value. But the President also took a moment during his speech to put the debate over regulation in a different perspective, and to break through the false dichotomy so often

331

Optimal performance of endoreversible quantum refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The derivation of general performance benchmarks is important in the design of highly optimized heat engines and refrigerators. To obtain them, one may model phenomenologically the leading sources of irreversibility ending up with results which are model-independent, but limited in scope. Alternatively, one can take a simple physical system realizing a thermodynamic cycle and assess its optimal operation from a complete microscopic description. We follow this approach in order to derive the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling rate for \\textit{any} endoreversible quantum refrigerator. At striking variance with the \\textit{universality} of the optimal efficiency of heat engines, we find that the cooling performance at maximum power is crucially determined by the details of the specific system-bath interaction mechanism. A closed analytical benchmark is found for endoreversible refrigerators weakly coupled to unstructured bosonic heat baths: an ubiquitous case study in quantum thermodynamics.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

332

Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Semiannual report, October 1990--March 1991: Volume 13  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to the Regulatory and ASME Code requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties.

Doctor, S.R.; Good, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR-  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY ASSESSMENT FOR THE PROPOSED ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARD FOR REFRIGERATORS, REFRIGERATOR- , AND FREEZERS - 1. INTRODUCTION AND NEED FOR PROPOSED ACTION ental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation stand licy Act. of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmentd Qu refrigerators, re€iigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National ' ederal Regulations, Parts 1500 through. 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy- efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Consehation Act

334

Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Retrofitting Doors on Open Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases William Goetzler Navigant Consulting, Inc. wgoetzler@navigant.com (781) 270-8351 April 4, 2013 BBA Refrigeration Project Team Images courtesy of REMIS AMERICA, LLC. 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Technology Overview Image from Investigation of Energy- Efficient Supermarket Display Cases. 2004, Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Background and Motivation * Adding doors to open cases (retrofits) greatly reduces cold air loss - 50-80% load reduction - Load reduction = system energy savings

335

Development of a prototype optical refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The authors have carried out a range of tasks directed toward the construction and testing of a proof-of-principle optical refrigerator prototype. They procured and tested new cooling elements that are at the heart of an optical refrigerator. The cooling element absorbs pump radiation and then fluoresces with nearly unity quantum efficiency. They constructed and tested a cooling chamber with low thermal emissivity walls that reduces the parasitic heating.

Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Sigel, G.H.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Phase boundary detection for dilution refrigerators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We describe a device to conveniently measure the positions of the phase boundaries in a dilution refrigerator. We show how a simple modification of a standard capacitive level gauge (segmentation of one of the electrodes) permits a direct calibration of the capacitance versus phase boundary position. We compare this direct calibration with the indirect procedure that must be adopted for a conventional capacitive level gauge. The device facilitates the correct adjustment of the {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He fraction in the dilution refrigerator.

Haar, E. ter; Martin, R.V. [DFMT, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, C.P. 66.318, 05315-970 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

338

Pipeline gas pressure reduction with refrigeration generation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The high pressure of pipeline gas is reduced to the low pressure of a distribution system with simultaneous generation of refrigeration by passing the gas through two successive centrifugal compressors driven by two turbo-expanders in which the compressed gas is expanded to successively lower pressures. Refrigeration is recovered from the gas as it leaves each turbo-expander. Methanol is injected into the pipeline gas before it is expanded to prevent ice formation. Aqueous methanol condensate separated from the expanded gas is distilled for the recovery and reuse of methanol.

Markbreiter, S. J.; Schorr, H. P.

1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

339

LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, INFORMATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR 2013  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

Bruce Hallbert; Ken Thomas

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

342

Feasibility of Solar-Assisted Refrigerated Transport in Australia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

systems. Keywords: refrigeration, transport, photovoltaics, economics. 1 #12;B. Elliston, M. Dennis) modules to minimise the use of diesel generation in refrigerated transport. Sub- sequently, UK supermarket. This report investigates the merit of retrofitting a PV system to assist refrigerated trailers in Australian

343

Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Recovery Unit ID # : Added Lbs oz Lbs oz Lbs oz Startup Charge Net Refrigerant Added: Lbs oz Parts UsedForm Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form Service ID: Owner: Work Order #: Building: Date: Issued: Completed: Equipment ID: Technicians: Location: Model: Manufact: Serial #: Refrigerant Type

Russell, Lynn

344

Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

346

Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

its capabil- ity to minimize the total cost of energy for a commercial refrigeration system while multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor. This corresponds roughly to 2% of the entire electricity consumption in the country. Refrigerated goods constitute

347

Experimental investigation of an advanced adsorption refrigeration cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Experimental measurements are made for a silica gel-water advanced absorption refrigeration chiller (1.2-kW [4,095-Btu/h] cooling capacity) to evaluate its performance under different temperature and adsorption/desorption cycle time conditions. This paper describes the operating principle of the chiller, outlines the experimental hardware, and discusses results obtained by varying the cooling and hot water inlet temperatures and adsorption/desorption cycle times, as well as their agreement with the simulated results given by a lumped parameter model. The chiller performance is analyzed in terms of cooling capacity and coefficient of performance (COP). Excellent qualitative agreement was obtained between the experimental data and simulated results. The results showed the advanced three-stage cycle to be particularly well suited for operation with low-grade-temperature waste heat as the driving source, since it worked with small regenerating temperature lifts (heat source-heat sink temperature) of 10 to 30 K.

Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Mechanical Systems Engineering Dept.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

348

3D Simulation of Missing Pellet Surface Defects in Light Water Reactor Fuel Rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The cladding on light water reactor (LWR) fuel rods provides a stable enclosure for fuel pellets and serves as a first barrier against fission product release. Consequently, it is important to design fuel to prevent cladding failure due to mechanical interactions with fuel pellets. Cladding stresses can be effectively limited by controlling power increase rates. However, it has been shown that local geometric irregularities caused by manufacturing defects known as missing pellet surfaces (MPS) in fuel pellets can lead to elevated cladding stresses that are sufficiently high to cause cladding failure. Accurate modeling of these defects can help prevent these types of failures. Nuclear fuel performance codes commonly use a 1.5D (axisymmetric, axially-stacked, one-dimensional radial) or 2D axisymmetric representation of the fuel rod. To study the effects of MPS defects, results from 1.5D or 2D fuel performance analyses are typically mapped to thermo-mechanical models that consist of a 2D plane-strain slice or a full 3D representation of the geometry of the pellet and clad in the region of the defect. The BISON fuel performance code developed at Idaho National Laboratory employs either a 2D axisymmetric or 3D representation of the full fuel rod. This allows for a computational model of the full fuel rod to include local defects. A 3D thermo-mechanical model is used to simulate the global fuel rod behavior, and includes effects on the thermal and mechanical behavior of the fuel due to accumulation of fission products, fission gas production and release, and the effects of fission gas accumulation on thermal conductivity across the fuel-clad gap. Local defects can be modeled simply by including them in the 3D fuel rod model, without the need for mapping between two separate models. This allows for the complete set of physics used in a fuel performance analysis to be included naturally in the computational representation of the local defect, and for the effects of the local defect to be coupled with the global fuel rod model. This approach for modeling fuel with MPS defects is demonstrated and compared with alternative techniques. The effects of varying parameters of the MPS defect are studied using this technique and presented here.

B.W. Spencer; J.D. Hales; S.R. Novascone; R.L. Williamson

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

350

Poudre Valley REA - Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) Poudre Valley REA - Commercial Lighting Rebate Program (Colorado) < Back Eligibility Commercial Savings Category Appliances & Electronics Commercial Lighting Lighting Maximum Rebate Commercial Lighting Retrofit: 50% of equipment cost, $20,000 LED Street Lighting/Induction Street Lighting: $20,000 Program Info State Colorado Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount LED Refrigerated Case Lighting (Top Lighting): $60 per ln ft LED Refrigerated Case Lighting (Case Lighting): $60 per door LED Street Lighting: $44 - $475 per fixture Induction Street Lighting: $33 - $355 per fixture Commercial Lighting Retrofit: $250 per kW saved Provider Poudre Valley REA Poudre Valley Rural Electric Association (PVREA), a Touchstone Energy

351

APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mobile equipment. (c) Central air conditioning heat pumps, regardless of capacity, except that requirements for central air conditioning heat pumps with cooling capacity of 135,000 Btu per hour or more#12;#12;APPLIANCE EFFICIENCY REGULATIONS FOR REFRIGERATORS AND FREEZERS ROOM AIR CONDITIONERS

352

Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

Bivens, D. B.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR® program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

355

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) | Department  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) July 9, 2012 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510) More Documents & Publications

356

Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This case study documents one year of operating experience with a transcritical carbon dioxide (TC CO2) booster refrigeration system at Delhaize America’s Hannaford supermarket location in Turner, Maine. This supermarket, which began operation in June 2013, is the first supermarket installation in the U.S. of a TC CO2 booster refrigeration system. We compare refrigeration system performance to that for a supermarket having nearly identical layout and refrigeration loads, in a similar climate and of similar vintage, that uses a conventional hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerant. Delhaize provided the submetered and utility data used to generate the performance summaries herein.

357

Special dilution refrigerator systems of Milli-Kelvin detector experiments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several hundred ultra low temperature systems have been designed and built for a variety of applications. One common application is the refrigeration of low temperature detectors. Although many of the requirements are satisfied by standard designs, Oxford Instruments has often built special refrigerators to suit specific detector requirements. A few of the most interesting of these systems will be discussed. (1) dilution refrigerators to cool gravitational wave antennae to 65 mK; (2) rotating dilution refrigerator for cosmic ray detector experiments; (3) compact dilution refrigerator to cool large bolometer arrays within the SCUBA telescope; (4) side access systems for beam line experiments

Batey, G.; Balshaw, N. (Oxford Instruments Ltd., Old Station Way (United Kingdom))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Retail refrigeration systems -- The use of ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The concept of a secondary refrigeration system for high-temperature use as investigated in 1991, and a design for a full high-temperature system was completed the following year. In late 1992, a supermarket chain commissioned a study of the feasibility of turning the design into a practical application and assisted the project in 1993 by commissioning a test facility for single-temperature secondary refrigeration at one of the company`s factory sites. Results and conclusions from this trial work pointed toward the need for a total secondary refrigeration system, including a low-temperature system for frozen food display cases, and the possibility of utilizing environmentally friendly ammonia as the primary refrigerant. Therefore, in late 1993/early 1994, a low-temperature system was developed and commissioned at the test facility. Full collaboration between the supermarket company and the contractor resulted in the funding of practical trial work and feasibility studies for both secondary refrigeration and a fully detailed proposal for the use of ammonia in a public retail environment. In May 1995, the first UK ammonia and two-level secondary refrigeration system began operation in a supermarket in Horsham, Sussex England.

Thomas, A.S. [Westward Refrigeration, Gloucester (United Kingdom)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Muscatine Power and Water- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebates  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Muscatine Power and Water (MP&W) offers rebates on certain energy efficiency appliances to residential customers. Rebates for new electric refrigerators, freezers, dishwashers, clothes washers,...

360

Research and Development of High Temperature Light Water Cooled Reactor Operating at Supercritical-Pressure in Japan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the status and future plans of research and development of the high temperature light water cooled reactor operating at supercritical-pressure in Japan. It includes; the concept development; material for the fuel cladding; water chemistry under supercritical pressure; thermal hydraulics of supercritical fluid; and the conceptual design of core and plant system. Elements of concept development of the once-through coolant cycle reactor are described, which consists of fuel, core, reactor and plant system, stability and safety. Material studies include corrosion tests with supercritical water loops and simulated irradiation tests using a high-energy transmission electron microscope. Possibilities of oxide dispersion strengthening steels for the cladding material are studied. The water chemistry research includes radiolysis and kinetics of supercritical pressure water, influence of radiolysis and radiation damage on corrosion and behavior on the interface between water and material. The thermal hydraulic research includes heat transfer tests of single tube, single rod and three-rod bundles with a supercritical Freon loop and numerical simulations. The conceptual designs include core design with a three-dimensional core simulator and sub-channel analysis, and balance of plant. (authors)

Yoshiaki Oka [Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 112-0006 (Japan); Katsumi Yamada [Isogo Nuclear Engineering Center, Toshiba Corporation, 8, Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama, 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Low-Global Warming Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project to someone by E-mail Share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Facebook Tweet about Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Twitter Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Google Bookmark Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Delicious Rank Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on Digg Find More places to share Building Technologies Office: Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants Research Project on AddThis.com... About Take Action to Save Energy

362

SBIR Grant: Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?Ă?Â?No-Vibration Agile Cryogenic Optical Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Optical refrigeration is currently the only all-solid-state cryocooling technology that has been demonstrated. Optical cryocoolers are devices that use laser light to cool small crystal or glass cooling elements. The cooling element absorbs the laser light and reradiates it at higher energy, an example of anti-Stokes fluorescence. The dif-ference between the energy of the outgoing and incoming light comes from the thermal energy of the cooling element, which in turn becomes colder. Entitled �������¢����������������No-Vibration Agile Cryocoolers using Optical Refrigeration,�������¢��������������� this Phase I proposal directly addressed the continued development of the optical refrigerator components necessary to transition this scientific breakthrough into National Nu-clear Security Administration (NNSA) sensor applications in line with the objectives of topic 50b. ThermoDynamic Films LLC (TDF), in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), cooled an optical-refrigerator cooling element comprised of an ytterbium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb:YLF) crystal from room tempera-ture to 123 K with about 2% efficiency. This is the world record in optical refrigera-tion and an important step toward revolutionizing cryogenic systems for sensor ap-plications. During this period, they also designed and analyzed the crucial elements of a prototype optical refrigerator including the thermal link that connects the cool-ing element with the load.

Epstein, Richard

2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

363

E-Print Network 3.0 - abb-ce light water Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Supplier Beginning in 1999... , community water supply systems must provide an annual report describ- ing the quality of their drinking Source: Fernndez-Juricic, Esteban -...

364

Refrigeration options for the Advanced Light Source Superbend Dipole Magnets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The photon energy in selected ports can be increased byenergy is 1.9 GeV. These photons can be delivered to users through forty-eight ports

Green, M.A.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Influence of air humidity and lighting period on growth, vase life and water relations of 14 rose cultivars  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of three relative air humidities (RH) (75, 83 and 91% RH corresponding to vapour pressure deficits of 550, 390 and 200 Pa, respectively) and two lighting periods (18 and 24 h day?1) on growth, vase life and leaf–water relations was studied in 14 rose cultivars. Air humidity had no effect on the number of flowering shoots while shoot fresh weight decreased by 11% as a mean of all cultivars when RH was raised from 83 to 91%. An increase in the lighting period (LP) enhanced the number of flowering shoots by 12% and fresh weight per shoot by 5%. A rise in air humidity from 75 to 91% RH reduced the vase life by 30% (varying from 12 to 75% in the different cultivars) at 18 h LP and by 44% (varying from 31 to 78% in the different cultivars) at 24 h LP, while an increase in LP reduced vase life by 23 and 38% at 75 and 91% RH, respectively. The magnitude of the responses differed significantly among cultivars. Generally, a close relationship was found between reduction in vase life and rate of water loss of detached leaves from all cultivars. It is concluded that high air humidity and continuous lighting in general should be avoided in the production of greenhouse roses.

Leiv M Mortensen; Hans R Gislerřd

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Grizzly Year-End Progress Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Grizzly software application is being developed under the Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program to address aging and material degradation issues that could potentially become an obstacle to life extension of nuclear power plants beyond 60 years of operation. Grizzly is based on INL’s MOOSE multiphysics simulation environment, and can simultaneously solve a variety of tightly coupled physics equations, and is thus a very powerful and flexible tool with a wide range of potential applications. Grizzly, the development of which was begun during fiscal year (FY) 2012, is intended to address degradation in a variety of critical structures. The reactor pressure vessel (RPV) was chosen for an initial application of this software. Because it fulfills the critical roles of housing the reactor core and providing a barrier to the release of coolant, the RPV is clearly one of the most safety-critical components of a nuclear power plant. In addition, because of its cost, size and location in the plant, replacement of this component would be prohibitively expensive, so failure of the RPV to meet acceptance criteria would likely result in the shutting down of a nuclear power plant. The current practice used to perform engineering evaluations of the susceptibility of RPVs to fracture is to use the ASME Master Fracture Toughness Curve (ASME Code Case N-631 Section III). This is used in conjunction with empirically based models that describe the evolution of this curve due to embrittlement in terms of a transition temperature shift. These models are based on an extensive database of surveillance coupons that have been irradiated in operating nuclear power plants, but this data is limited to the lifetime of the current reactor fleet. This is an important limitation when considering life extension beyond 60 years. The currently available data cannot be extrapolated with confidence further out in time because there is a potential for additional damage mechanisms (i.e. late blooming phases) to become active later in life beyond the current operational experience. To develop a tool that can eventually serve a role in decision-making, it is clear that research and development must be perfomed at multiple scales. At the engineering scale, a multiphysics analysis code that can capture the thermomechanical response of the RPV under accident conditions, including detailed fracture mechanics evaluations of flaws with arbitrary geometry and orientation, is needed to assess whether the fracture toughness, as defined by the master curve, including the effects of embrittlement, is exceeded. At the atomistic scale, the fundamental mechanisms of degradation need to be understood, including the effects of that degradation on the relevant material properties. In addition, there is a need to better understand the mechanisms leading to the transition from ductile to brittle fracture through improved continuum mechanics modeling at the fracture coupon scale. Work is currently being conducted at all of these levels with the goal of creating a usable engineering tool informed by lower length-scale modeling. This report summarizes progress made in these efforts during FY 2013.

Benjamin Spencer; Yongfeng Zhang; Pritam Chakraborty; S. Bulent Biner; Marie Backman; Brian Wirth; Stephen Novascone; Jason Hales

2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Reorganization of the cluster state in a C60/N-Methylpyrrolidone/water solution: Comparative characteristics of dynamic light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Data on dynamic light scattering from cluster solutions of C60 fullerenes in N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP) and its mixture with water are analyzed. Initial C60.../NMP solutions kept for two weeks (i.e., fresher than ...

A. A. Kaznacheevskaya; O. A. Kizima…

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Visible Light-Driven Water Oxidation by Ir oxide Clusters Coupledto Single Cr Centers in Mesoporous Silica  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Visible light-induced water oxidation has been demonstrated at an Ir oxide nanocluster coupled to a single Cr{sup VI} site on the pore surface of MCM-41 mesoporous silica. The photocatalytic unit was assembled by the reaction of surface Cr=O groups with Ir(acac){sub 3} precursor followed by calcination at 300 C and bond formation monitored by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectroscopy. High-resolution Z-contrast electron micrographs of the calcined material combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spot analysis confirmed the occlusion of Ir oxide nanoparticles inside the mesopores. Oxygen evolution of an aqueous suspension of the Ir{sub x}O{sub y}-CrMCM-41 upon visible light irradiation of the Cr{sup VI}-O ligand-to-metal charge-transfer absorption was monitored mass-spectrometrically. Comparison of the product yields for samples with low Cr content (Cr/Si {le} 0.02) and high Cr content (Cr/Si = 0.05) indicates that only isolated Cr centers are capable of extracting electrons from Ir oxide clusters, while di- or polychromate species are not. Water oxidation at a multielectron-transfer catalyst coupled to a single metal center has not been demonstrated before. The ability to drive water oxidation with a single metal center as electron pump offers opportunities for coupling the oxygen-evolving photocatalytic unit to reducing sites in the nanoporous scaffold.

Nakamura, Ryuhei; Frei, Heinz

2006-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

369

Cogeneration of electricity and refrigeration by work-expanding pipeline gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process for the cogeneration of electricity and commercially saleable refrigeration by expanding pressurized pipeline gas with the performance of work is described which comprises: injecting methanol into the pipeline gas; passing the pipeline gas containing the methanol through a turbo-expander coupled to an electrical generator to reduce the pressure of the pipeline gas at least 100 psi but not reducing the pressure enough to drop the temperature of the resulting cold expanded gas below about - 100/sup 0/F; separating aqueous methanol condensate from the cold expanded gas and introducing the condensate into a distillation column for separation into discard water and recycle methanol for injection into the pipeline gas; recovering the saleable refrigeration from the cold expanded gas; adding reboiler heat to the distillation column in an amount required to warm the expanded gas after the recovery of the saleable refrigeration therefrom to a predetermined temperature above 32/sup 0/F; and passing the expanded gas after the recovery of the saleable refrigeration therefrom in heat exchange with methanol vapor rising to the top of the distillation column to condense the methanol vapor so that liquid methanol is obtained partly for reflux in the distillation column and partly for the recycle methanol and simultaneously the expanded gas is warmed to the predetermined temperature above 32/sup 0/F.

Markbreiter, S.J.; Dessanti, D.J.

1987-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

370

Light hydrocarbons in the surface water of the mid-Atlantic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

During a cruise of RV Polarstern over the Atlantic in September/October 1988, C2?C4 hydrocarbons were measured in surface sea water. The ship passed through three different ocean ... at 8° N and 3° S. Hydrocarbon

C. Plass; R. Koppmann; J. Rudolph

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

The alternative refrigerant dilemma for refrigerator-freezers: Truth or consequences  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to select a refrigerant that has minimal impact on energy consumption and the environment, a screening analysis of potential refrigerants was performed that resulted in the selection of six candidates. The screening results show that R-134a, R-134, R-152a, R-134a/R-152a, R-22/R-152a/R-124, and R-134a/R-152a/R-124 are the most promising refrigerants based on the following criteria: ozone depletion potential, greenhouse warming potential, coefficient of performance, and safety. Energy consumption tests were performed for the three pure refrigerants in accordance with the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers standard for household refrigerators and household freezers. The results indicate an increased energy consumption of 6.8%, 7.3%, and 7.3%, respectively for R-134, R-152a, and R-134a in the most efficient oil. However, when the effects of compressor efficiency are taken into account, the normalized energy consumption results in an increase of only 2.7% for R-152a and 5.5% for both R-134a and R-134. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

Vineyard, E.A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 WASHINGTON, D.C. 20585 Case Number: 2012-CE-1510 International Refrigeration Products, Respondent ) ) ) ) ) ) ORDER Issued: July 20, 2012 By the General Counsel, U.S. Department of Energy: 1. In this Order, I adopt the attached Compromise Agreement entered into between the U.S. Department of Energy ("DOE") and International Refrigeration Products ("Respondent"). The Compromise Agreement resolves the case initiated to pursue a civil penalty for violations of the compliance certification requirements located at 10 C.P.R. § 429.12. 2. DOE and Respondent have negotiated the terms of the Compromise Agreement that resolve this matter. A copy of the Compromise Agreement is attached hereto and incorporated by reference. 3. After reviewing the terms of the Compromise Agreement and evaluating the facts

373

Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

Luis A. Correa; José P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

2012-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

374

The application of Stirling cooler to refrigeration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The application field of the free-piston Stirling Cooler, Model 100A of Global Cooling BV in the refrigeration has been studied. The cooling effectiveness of the free-piston Stirling Cooler which means small capacity with better efficiency, large range of temperature and capacity modulated operation is of much use to cool a space insulated well. One practicable application is suggested here, in which FPSC and secondary heat transfer fluid are used to the single temperature refrigerator (60 liter) instead of conventional vapor compression machines. In the freezer operation at {minus}20 C inside cabinet, the steady-state test results show 25% improvement in energy consumption over original one. The application of free-piston Stirling Cooler to a freezer at lower temperature shows great potentials also.

Kim, S.Y.; Chung, W.S.; Shin, D.K.; Cho, K.S. [LG Electronics Inc., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Living System Lab.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Process for the production of refrigerator oil  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for producing a high quality refrigerator oil from an oil fraction boiling at a temperature within boiling point of lubricating oil by contacting said oil fraction with a solvent to extract undesirable components thereby lowering % C..cap alpha.. of said oil fraction, hydrogenating said solvent extracted fraction under the specific conditions, and then contacting said hydrogenated oil with a solid absorbant to remove impurities; said oil fraction being obtained from a low grade naphthenic crude oil.

Kunihiro, T.; Tsuchiya, K.

1985-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

376

Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

Swift, Gregory W. (Sante Fe, NM); Olson, Jeffrey R. (San Mateo, CA)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

HVAC's Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Comfort by Design Steve Jones Commercial Sales Manager for Mitsubishi Southwest Business Unit HVAC?s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology HVAC Industry Overview HVAC Market Dollar Volume $18 Billion Source:;NABH Research....2M Systems Ductless is a small percent of the U.S. HVAC market but current building and energy usage trends indicate a large growth opportunity Determining the Proper Application Worldwide Usage-Opportunity Window Unitary Chillers...

Jones, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

379

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

380

DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations April 12, 2010 - 7:27pm Addthis The Department of Energy has issued one subpoena and two data requests to three companies in response to allegations that the companies are selling refrigerator-freezers that failed to meet federal energy efficiency standards. Under the subpoena, Arçelik A.S, a Turkish Company is required to submit detailed information about the design, marketing and U.S. sales of its Blomberg brand refrigerator-freezer, model "BRFB1450." The Department also requested testing data from Whirlpool Corporation and Viking Range Corporation for two refrigerator-freezers that the companies

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? Could You Save Money on Your Refrigerator? July 20, 2012 - 4:35pm Addthis Earlier this week, Amanda wrote about how you can save energy by choosing the right refrigerator and using it efficiently. These tips explain all sorts of ways you can ensure your refrigerator uses as little energy as possible to keep itself cool. So this week, we're curious: Could you save money with your refrigerator? You have the chance to share your thoughts on a question about energy efficiency or renewable energy for consumers. E-mail your responses to the Energy Saver team at consumer.webmaster@nrel.gov. Addthis Related Articles How Do You Save Money on Summer Holidays? Have You Seen Energy Efficiency Improvements in Your Neighborhood?

382

A GASFLOW analysis of a steam explosion accident in a typical light-water reactor confinement building  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Steam over-pressurization resulting from ex-vessel steam explosion (fuel-coolant interaction) may pose a serious challenge to the integrity of a typical light-water reactor confinement building. If the steam generation rate exceeds the removal capacity of the Airborne Activity Confinement System, confinement over pressurization occurs. Thus, there is a large potential for an uncontrolled and unfiltered release of fission products from the confinement atmosphere to the environment at the time of the steam explosion. The GASFLOW computer code was used to analyze the effects of a hypothetical steam explosion and the transport of steam and hydrogen throughout a typical light-water reactor confinement building. The effects of rapid pressurization and the resulting forces on the internal structures and the heat exchanger service bay hatch covers were calculated. Pressurization of the ventilation system and the potential damage to the ventilation fans and high-efficiency particulate air filters were assessed. Because of buoyancy forces and the calculated confinement velocity field, the hydrogen diffuses and mixes in the confinement atmosphere but tends to be transported to its upper region.

Travis, J.R. [ESSI Inc. (United States); Wilson, T.L.; Spore, J.W.; Lam, K.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Rao, D.V. [SEA Inc. (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Volume 14, Semiannual report, April 1991--September 1991  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWR`s); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to the Regulatory and ASME Code requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel, and other components inspected in accordance with Section XI of the ASME Code. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from April 1991 through September 1991.

Doctor, S.R.; Diaz, A.A.; Friley, J.R.; Good, M.S.; Greenwood, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Hockey, R.L.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Taylor, T.T.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Volume 15, Semiannual report: October 1991--March 1992  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs); using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to ASME Code and Regulatory requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel, and other components inspected in accordance with Section XI of the ASME Code. This is a progress report covering the programmatic work from October 1991 through March 1992.

Doctor, S.R.; Diaz, A.A.; Friley, J.R. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Nondestructive Examination (NDE) Reliability for Inservice Inspection of Light Water Reactors. Semiannual report, April 1992--September 1992: Volume 16  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Evaluation and Improvement of NDE Reliability for Inservice inspection of Light Water Reactors (NDE Reliability) Program at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to determine the reliability of current inservice inspection (ISI) techniques and to develop recommendations that will ensure a suitably high inspection reliability. The objectives of this program include determining the reliability of ISI performed on the primary systems of commercial light-water reactors (LWRs);using probabilistic fracture mechanics analysis to determine the impact of NDE unreliability on system safety; and evaluating reliability improvements that can be achieved with improved and advanced technology. A final objective is to formulate recommended revisions to the Regulatory and ASME Code requirements, based on material properties, service conditions, and NDE uncertainties. The program scope is limited to ISI of the primary systems including the piping, vessel and other components inspected in accordance with Section XI of the ASME Code. This is a programs report covering the programmatic work from April 1992 through September 1992.

Doctor, S.R.; Diaz, A.A.; Friley, J.R.; Greenwood, M.S.; Heasler, P.G.; Kurtz, R.J.; Simonen, F.A.; Spanner, J.C.; Vo, T.V. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

Rice, C K; Sand, J R

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

388

Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

389

Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

391

Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

cost, a large component of which is energy-related. Existing system operation must be analyzed to optimize energy consumption while still meeting cooling load requirements. Refrigerant properties, which form the basis for such calculations, have... to illustrate the application of the program to problems in design and operation of refrigeration systems. INTRODUCTION Thermodynamic analysis of refrigeration systems is important in a variety. of industrial; commercial, and building-related applications...

Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

392

Helium Refrigerator Design for Pulsed Heat Load in Tokamaks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Nuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak type will be operated in a pulsed mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time steps of approximately one hour. What are the necessary steps for a refrigerator to cope with such load variations?A series of numerical simulations has been performed indicating the possibility of an active refrigerator control with low exergetic losses. A basic comparison is made between the largest existing refrigerator sizes and the size required to service for example the ITER requirements.

Kuendig, A.; Schoenfeld, H. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

393

Supermarket refrigeration assessment for the New England Electric System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to assess the impact of energy efficient supermarket refrigeration on the electric capacity requirements of the New England Electric System (NEES) service territories. The leading supermarket chains in the NEES service territories were contacted and the number of supermarkets and the types of refrigeration systems employed were established. Estimates were then made of the potential demand and energy savings that NEES and the supermarkets could realize if energy efficient refrigeration systems were employed. On the basis of this analysis, possible incentives to accelerate the implementation of energy efficient refrigeration equipment in NEES service territories were recommended. 4 refs., 10 figs., 27 tabs.

Tsaros, T.L.; Walker, D.H. (Foster-Miller, Inc., Waltham, MA (United States))

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Impact This will provide the heating, venting, air conditioning, and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industries and policymakers with definitive information regarding the available...

395

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

Jardine, D.M.

1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

396

Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

South Africa Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name South Africa-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and the...

398

Polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerants and refrigerant oils colored with fluorescent dyes and method for their use as leak detectors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leak detectable refrigeration composition is described comprising: (A) a refrigeration liquid selection from the group consisting of: (1) a polyhalogenated hydrocarbon refrigerant; (2) a refrigeration oil selected from the group consisting of naphthenic oils, paraffinic oils, alkylated benzenes, silicones, polyglycols, diesters or triesters of dicarboxylic or tricarboxylic acids, and polyalkyl silicate oils, and (3) a mixture of A(1) and A(2), and (B) a fluorescent dye compound or composition comprising the dye selected from the group consisting of: (1) a fluorescent dye selected from the group consisting of perylene, naphthoxanthene, monocyclic aromatic compounds having an organometallic compound, (2) a solution of fluorescent dye in a solvent, and (3) a mixture of B(1) and B(2). The fluorescent dye compound or composition is soluble in the refrigeration liquid. The concentration of the dye being at least 0.001 grams per 100 grams of the refrigeration liquid.

Parekh, M.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

399

Exergy analysis and experimental study of a vapor compression refrigeration cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article presents a detailed experimental analysis of 2TR (ton of refrigeration) vapor compression refrigeration cycle for different percentage of refrigerant charge using exergy analysis. An experimental set...

S. Anand; S. K. Tyagi

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Laser light scattering by bubbles in water: Fundamentals and applications to acoustics.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser light scattering is sometimes used as an alternative to acoustical methods for monitoring bubbles in seawater. There has also been interest in using lasers to investigate bubbles in wakes. In some cases light scattering by bubbles has been used in conjunction with acoustical measurements to characterize dynamics of bubbles radiating sound [J. S. Stroud and P. L. Marston J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 94 2788–2792 (1993)]. In applications such as these it is important to understand the optical properties of bubbles that differ significantly from drops and particles. Examples include critical angle scattering and the transition to total reflection [D. S. Langley and P. L. Marston Appl. Opt. 23 1044–1054 (1984)] forward scattering and extinction [D. S. Langley and P. L. Marston Appl. Opt. 30 3452–3458 (1991); J. S. Stroud and P. L. Marston cited previously] glory back?scattering enhancements and shape effects [W. P. Arnott and P. L. Marston J. Opt. Soc. Am. A5 496–506 (1988); Appl. Opt. 30 3429–3442 (1991)] and Brewster angle scattering. Some optical effects of coatings on bubbles (which can occur naturally) have also been modeled [P. L. Marston Appl. Opt. 30 3479–3484 (1991)]. [Research supported by ONR between 1980 and 1995.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

FEASIBILITY OF RECYCLING PLUTONIUM AND MINOR ACTINIDES IN LIGHT WATER REACTORS USING HYDRIDE FUEL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this DOE NERI program sponsored project was to assess the feasibility of improving the plutonium (Pu) and minor actinide (MA) recycling capabilities of pressurized water reactors (PWRs) by using hydride instead of oxide fuels. There are four general parts to this assessment: 1) Identifying promising hydride fuel assembly designs for recycling Pu and MAs in PWRs 2) Performing a comprehensive systems analysis that compares the fuel cycle characteristics of Pu and MA recycling in PWRs using the promising hydride fuel assembly designs identified in Part 1 versus using oxide fuel assembly designs 3) Conducting a safety analysis to assess the likelihood of licensing hydride fuel assembly designs 4) Assessing the compatibility of hydride fuel with cladding materials and water under typical PWR operating conditions Hydride fuel was found to offer promising transmutation characteristics and is recommended for further examination as a possible preferred option for recycling plutonium in PWRs.

Greenspan, Ehud; Todreas, Neil; Taiwo, Temitope

2009-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

402

Advanced light water reactor plants System 80+{trademark} design certification program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide the status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1995 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design covers an essentially complete plant. It is based on EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD) improvements to the Standardized System 80 Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3. The NSSS is a traditional two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs, each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard design houses the NSSS in a spherical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual barrier to radioactivity release. Other major features include an all-digital, human-factors-engineered control room, an alternate electrical AC power source, an In-Containment Refueling Water Storage Tank (IRWST), and plant arrangements providing complete separation of redundant trains in safety systems.

NONE

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

1991 & 1992 trade-in refrigerator metering project  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under SMUD`s Equipment Efficiency Improvement Program the District offers an incentive of $100 to customers who trade in an older refrigerator in conjunction with the purchase of a new model. More than 40,000 refrigerators have been traded in this program as of January 1993. This program has provided 36.5% of the total reported savings from all SMUD`s conservation programs through April 1993. Of this 36.5% reported savings, 84.7% is attributed to the trading in of an old refrigerator for a new model, and only 15.3% to purchases of a new refrigerators without trading in their older model. In 1992 two laboratory studies were undertaken to quantify energy use of older, close to retirement, domestic residential refrigerators from participants in SMUD`s refrigerator trade-in program. One study focused on annual energy use from older model refrigerators received from this program, and the second study focused on potential energy savings from condenser coil cleaning from this same stock of refrigerators. To determine the performance of these refrigerators, a sample of 79 units was randomly selected for testing. Each unit was tested to obtain annual energy use (kWh/yr) and to document physical and operational conditions. A subset of 28 units from this sample was also tested to determine energy savings as a result of cleaning condenser coils. This was done by comparing test results of annual energy use before and after coil cleaning. These refrigerators were tested to the same conventional procedures (commonly called the {open_quotes}DOE{close_quotes} test, or AHAM test procedures) used to arrive at annual energy use labeled on all new refrigerators. Although laboratory results do not exactly replicate field (in-home) results, they have been found to still be a reasonably good predictor of energy use as reported in a Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory study , discussed in the following section.

Bos, W.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

404

Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure that there is no  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and unstable chemicals only be stored in a lab-safe refrigeration unit that meets National Fire Protection Association 45 ­ Standard on Fire Protection for Laboratories Using Chemicals. #12;Hearing conservation protection which will be furnished by the Institute. Samples of various types of ear muffs, ear caps, and ear

Cohen, Robert E.

405

Parametric study of a silica gel-water adsorption refrigeration cycle -- The influence of thermal capacitance and heat exchanger UA-values on cooling capacity, power density, and COP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The influence of heat exchanger UA-values (adsorber/desorber, evaporator, and condenser) is investigated for an adsorption chiller, with consideration given to the thermal capacitance of the adsorber/desorber by means of a lumped-parameter cycle simulation model developed by the authors and co-workers for the single-stage silica gel-water adsorption chiller. The closed-cycle-type chiller, for use in air conditioning, is driven by low-grade waste heat (85 C [185 F]) and cooled by water at 31 C (88 F) and operates on relatively short cycle times (420 seconds adsorption/desorption; 30 second adsorber/desorber sensible cooling and heating). The results showed cycle performance to be considerably affected by the thermal capacitance and UA-value of the adsorber/desorber, which is attributed to the severe sensible cooling/heating requirements resulting from batched cycle operation. The model is also sensitive to the evaporator UA-value--but to a lesser extent. The condenser UA-value is the least sensitive parameter due to the working pair adsorption behavior in the temperature range defined for desorption and condensation.

Boelman, E.C.; Saha, B.B.; Kashiwagi, Takao [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan). Dept. of Mechanical Systems Engineering

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Cascade and secondary coolant supermarket refrigeration systems : modelling and new frost correlations.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Nowadays traditional (direct expansion) supermarket refrigeration systems are mostly employed in supermarket establishments for refrigerating food products and beverages in the store. However, the installations… (more)

Haile-Michael, Getu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

HgCdTe superlattices for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for solid-state cryogenic refrigeration Daryoosh Vashaee a?merit ?ZT max ? 3? at cryogenic temperatures. Calculationstemperature, 1–6 for cryogenic refrigeration the situation

Vashaee, D; Shakouri, A

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

refrigerator operate with propane as well as electricity?refrigerator operate with propane as well as electricity? [freezer operate with propane as well as electricity? [

Greenblatt, Jeffery B.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Advanced Computational Thermal Fluid Physics (CTFP) and Its Assessment for Light Water Reactors and Supercritical Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Background: The ultimate goal of the study is the improvement of predictive methods for safety analyses and design of Generation IV reactor systems such as supercritical water reactors (SCWR) for higher efficiency, improved performance and operation, design simplification, enhanced safety and reduced waste and cost. The objective of this Korean / US / laboratory / university collaboration of coupled fundamental computational and experimental studies is to develop the supporting knowledge needed for improved predictive techniques for use in the technology development of Generation IV reactor concepts and their passive safety systems. The present study emphasizes SCWR concepts in the Generation IV program.

D.M. McEligot; K. G. Condie; G. E. McCreery; H. M. McIlroy; R. J. Pink; L.E. Hochreiter; J.D. Jackson; R.H. Pletcher; B.L. Smith; P. Vukoslavcevic; J.M. Wallace; J.Y. Yoo; J.S. Lee; S.T. Ro; S.O. Park

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Application of steam injector to improved safety of light water reactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Steam injector (SI) is a simply designed passive jet pump which does not require external power source or internal mechanical parts. The SI utilizes direct contact condensation between steam and water as an operational mechanism and is capable of producing higher pressure water than the inlet fluid pressures. The accident in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant caused setback to the credibility and reliability of nuclear power. One way to regain its trust from the global community, it is suggested to develop and install passive coolant injection systems that are operable even during the station black out. In this review paper, thorough and complete review of the SI system was completed and applicability of the SI system as the passive core cooling system is discussed in details. Due to its high heat removal capability, the system can possibly be applied as a high efficiency heat exchanger as well. Its design and operational mechanisms, and fundamental thermal-hydraulic theory utilized in the analysis and experimental work are reviewed. In addition, its possible application towards existing nuclear power plant systems is reviewed.

Yuto Takeya; Shuichiro Miwa; Takashi Hibiki; Michitsugu Mori

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

An Estimate of the Cost of Electricity from Light Water Reactors and Fossil Plants with Carbon Capture and Sequestration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As envisioned in this report, LIFE technology lends itself to large, centralized, baseload (or 'always on') electrical generation. Should LIFE plants be built, they will have to compete in the electricity market with other generation technologies. We consider the economics of technologies with similar operating characteristics: significant economies of scale, limited capacity for turndown, zero dependence on intermittent resources and ability to meet environmental constraints. The five generation technologies examined here are: (1) Light Water Reactors (LWR); (2) Coal; (3) Coal with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS); (4) Natural Gas; and (5) Natural Gas with Carbon Capture and Sequestration. We use MIT's cost estimation methodology (Du and Parsons, 2009) to determine the cost of electricity at which each of these technologies is viable.

Simon, A J

2009-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

412

Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Project Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage System [OCRWM PER REV2  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As part of the decommissioning of the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cells there is a need to remove commercial Light Water Reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) presently stored in these hot cells. To enable fuel removal from the hot cells, the commercial LWR SNF will be packaged and shipped to the 200 Area Interim Storage Area (ISA) in a manner that satisfies site requirements for SNF interim storage. This document identifies the criteria that the 324 Building Radiochemical Engineering Cell Clean-out Project must satisfy for acceptance of the LWR SNF by the SNF Project at the 200 Area ISA. In addition to the acceptance criteria identified herein, acceptance is contingent on adherence to applicable Project Hanford Management Contract requirements and procedures in place at the time of work execution.

JOHNSON, D.M.

2000-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

413

Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Risk-Informed Safety Margins Characterization (RISMC) PathwayTechnical Program Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Safety is central to the design, licensing, operation, and economics of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). As the current Light Water Reactor (LWR) NPPs age beyond 60 years, there are possibilities for increased frequency of Systems, Structures, and Components (SSCs) degradations or failures that initiate safety-significant events, reduce existing accident mitigation capabilities, or create new failure modes. Plant designers commonly “over-design” portions of NPPs and provide robustness in the form of redundant and diverse engineered safety features to ensure that, even in the case of well-beyond design basis scenarios, public health and safety will be protected with a very high degree of assurance. This form of defense-in-depth is a reasoned response to uncertainties and is often referred to generically as “safety margin.” Historically, specific safety margin provisions have been formulated, primarily based on “engineering judgment.”

Curtis Smith; Cristian Rabiti; Richard Martineau

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Acoustic Emission and Guided Ultrasonic Waves for Detection and Continuous Monitoring of Cracks in Light Water Reactor Components  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Acoustic emission (AE) and guided ultrasonic waves (GUW) are considered for continuous monitoring and detection of cracks in Light Water Reactor (LWR) components. In this effort, both techniques are applied to the detection and monitoring of fatigue crack growth in a full scale pipe component. AE results indicated crack initiation and rapid growth in the pipe, and significant GUW responses were observed in response to the growth of the fatigue crack. After initiation, the crack growth was detectable with AE for approximately 20,000 cycles. Signals associated with initiation and rapid growth where distinguished based on total rate of activity and differences observed in the centroid frequency of hits. An intermediate stage between initiation and rapid growth was associated with significant energy emissions, though few hits. GUW exhibit a nearly monotonic trend with crack length with an exception of measurements obtained at 41 mm and 46 mm.

Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Watson, Bruce E.; Cumblidge, Stephen E.; Doctor, Steven R.; Bond, Leonard J.

2012-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

415

Computerized operating procedures for shearing and dissolution of segments from LWBR (Light Water Breeder Reactor) fuel rods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents two detailed computerized operating procedures developed to assist and control the shearing and dissolution of irradiated fuel rods. The procedures were employed in the destructive analysis of end-of-life fuel rods from the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) that was designed by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. Seventeen entire fuel rods from the end-of-life core of the LWBR were sheared into 169 precisely characterized segments, and more than 150 of these segments were dissolved during execution of the LWBR Proof-of-Breeding (LWBR-POB) Analytical Support Project at Argonne National Laboratory. The procedures illustrate our approaches to process monitoring, data reduction, and quality assurance during the LWBR-POB work.

Osudar, J.; Deeken, P.G.; Graczyk, D.G.; Fagan, J.E.; Martino, F.J.; Parks, J.E.; Levitz, N.M.; Kessie, R.W.; Leddin, J.M.

1987-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

EIS-0288; Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

iii iii COVER SHEET Responsible Agency: United States Department of Energy Cooperating Agency: Tennessee Valley Authority Title: Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Production of Tritium in a Commercial Light Water Reactor Contact: For additional information on this Final Environmental Impact Statement, write or call: Jay Rose Office of Defense Programs U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 Attention: CLWR EIS Telephone: (202) 586-5484 For copies of the CLWR Final EIS call: 1-800-332-0801 | For general information on the DOE National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) process, write or call: Carol M. Borgstrom, Director Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance (EH-42) U.S. Department of Energy 1000 Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585

417

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

418

1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption refrigerators and heat pumps These machines ADsorb cycles for: Heat pumps Refrigerators Air conditioning Driven by heat from: Fossil fuels Bio fuels Waste of concept forced convection adsorption machine [#1] · Generating temperature 225° C · Heat rejection

Davies, Christopher

419

Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd.sub.0.54 Er.sub.0.46)AlNi alloys having a relatively constant .DELTA.Tmc over a wide temperature range.

Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

420

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Control of Refrigeration Systems for Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss Ph and Technology (DMST) under Grant: 2002-603/4001-93. CMBC consists of seven industrial companies, three academic of the three academic partners in the center. The refrigeration research activities within CMBC were initiated

Skogestad, Sigurd

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

NEW DESIGN OF NEON REFRIGERATOR FOR HTS POWER MACHINES  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In 2007 we developed a prototype refrigerator with a small turbo?expander to provide adequate cooling power (2 kW at 70 K) for HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) power machines. The reverse?Brayton cycle with neon gas as a working fluid was adopted in the refrigerator. The prototype refrigerator does not have enough COP (Coefficient of Performance) for practical HTS applications and the purpose of this study is to research the information required for designing a new neon refrigerator with improved performance. We take the same refrigeration cycle and working fluid as the prototype one adopted but a lower process pressure of 1 MPa/0.5 MPa is chosen instead of 2 MPa/1 MPa. The lower process pressure is required by the turbo?compressor design and the refrigeration process is analyzed by using a newly developed process simulator. Also a heat?exchanger configuration is studied to make the refrigerator size small. The new refrigerator will have a cooling power of 2.5 kW at 65 K and a COP of 0.06 at 80 K.

S. Yoshida; H. Hirai; A. Takaike; M. Hirokawa; Y. Aizawa; Y. Kamioka; H. Okamoto; H. Hayashi; Y. Shiohara

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Experimental results of a household automatic icemaker in a refrigerator/freezer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper describes the performance test results of an automatic icemaker refrigerator under various modes of icemaker operation. The tests were conducted on a 20-ft{sup 3} (0.566-m{sup 3}) household refrigerator that had a single forced convection evaporator and was charged with R-12. The focus of the research was to ascertain the effect of icemaker operation on the refrigerator`s daily energy consumption. Thus, three different types of tests were conducted, depending upon the icemaker`s operating mode. In the first test type, the baseline, the automatic icemaker was turned off and no ice was made. In the second test type, the ice-making mode (test A), the icemaker was turned on and ice was continuously made. Compared to the baseline, additional power was intermittently consumed by a mold heater that melts the ice cubes` interface with the tray, a solenoid valve that supplies water to the icemaker tray, and a motor that rotates the ejector blades to press the crescent-shaped ice cubes out of the mold and unload them into an ice bin. In the third test type, the failure mode (test B), the water supply was manually disconnected but the icemaker was left turned on. Even though no ice was made, additional power was still consumed by the mold heater, the solenoid valve, and the motorized ejector. In tests A and B, the energy consumed by the icemaker`s components increases the cooling load, which raises the compressor power consumption. The present study shows that at the AHAM-specified test conditions, uninterrupted icemaking increased the daily energy consumption by 22.5% to 27.2%.

Haider, I.; Feng, H.; Radermacher, R. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Center for Environmental Energy Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

423

Wellesley Municipal Light Plant - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Wellesley Municipal Light Plant - Residential Energy Efficiency Wellesley Municipal Light Plant - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program Wellesley Municipal Light Plant - Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program < Back Eligibility Residential Savings Category Heating & Cooling Commercial Heating & Cooling Cooling Appliances & Electronics Maximum Rebate Two equipment rebates per customer per calendar year Program Info State Massachusetts Program Type Utility Rebate Program Rebate Amount Refrigerator: $100 Clothes Washing Machine: $75 Central AC: $100 Room AC Unit: $50 Dishwasher: $75 Dehumidifier: $50 Provider Appliance Rebate Program Wellesley Municipal Light Plant (WMLP) offers a number of appliance rebates to residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available for refrigerators, dishwashers, clothes

424

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

425

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

426

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: The Greenhouse Gas Protocol Initiative: GHG Emissions from Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Agency/Company /Organization: World Resources Institute, World Business Council for Sustainable Development Sector: Energy, Climate Focus Area: Greenhouse Gas Phase: Determine Baseline, Evaluate Effectiveness and Revise as Needed Resource Type: Software/modeling tools User Interface: Spreadsheet Website: www.ghgprotocol.org/calculation-tools/all-tools Cost: Free References: Refrigerant Guide[1] The Greenhouse Gas Protocol tool for refrigeration is a free Excel spreadsheet calculator designed to calculate GHG emissions specifically

427

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) |  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342) February 21, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

428

DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator DOE Closes Investigation of Whirlpool's Maytag Refrigerator July 8, 2010 - 3:12pm Addthis The Department of Energy has closed its investigation into the energy efficiency of Whirlpool's Maytag refrigerator-freezer model "MSD2578VE." The Department opened this investigation and requested testing data from Whirlpool based on a complaint (April 12, 2010, "DOE Opens Three Investigations into Alleged Refrigerator Efficiency Violations"). After reviewing the data and testing this model, the Department has found the model to be compliant with the applicable efficiency standards and has closed the investigation. The Department takes credible allegations seriously and will continue to initiate investigations on products that are

429

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators DOE Proposes Higher Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators September 28, 2010 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC - U.S. Energy Secretary Steven Chu today announced the release of a new proposed energy efficiency standard for residential refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers. The standard, as proposed, could save consumers as much as $18.6 billion over thirty years. The Obama Administration has made efficiency standards a major priority as a way to save energy and money for American families and businesses. Since January 2009, the Department of Energy has finalized new efficiency standards for more than twenty household and commercial products, which will cumulatively save consumers between $250 billion and

430

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) | Department of  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) March 26, 2013 DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards. DOE regulations require a manufacturer (which includes importers) to submit reports certifying that its products have been tested and meet the applicable energy conservation standards. This civil penalty notice advises the company of the potential penalties and DOE's administrative process, including the company's right to a hearing. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355) More Documents & Publications

431

Modeling Supermarket Refrigeration Systems with EnergyPlus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Supermarket refrigeration capabilities were first added to EnergyPlus in 2004. At that time, it was possible to model a direct expansion (DX) rack system with multiple refrigerated cases. The basic simulation software handles all the building energy uses, typically on a 5 to 10 minute time step throughout the period of interest. The original refrigeration module included the ability to model the sensible and latent interactions between the refrigerated cases and the building HVAC system, along with some basic heat recovery capabilities. Over the last few years, the refrigeration module has been expanded to handle more complex systems, such as secondary loops, shared condensers, cascade condensers, subcoolers, and walk-in coolers exchanging energy with multiple conditioned zones.

Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Baxter, Van D [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Energy and Economic Impacts of U.S. Federal Energy and Water Conservation Standards Adopted From 1987 through 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Refrigerator-Freezers .Refrigerators and Refrigerator-Freezers NAECA 1987 Freezers2005 Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers 2010,

Meyers, Stephen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

433

Direct Water Splitting under Visible Light with Nanostructured Hematite and WO3 Photoanodes and a GaInP2 Photocathode  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A p-GaInP{sub 2} photocathode was paired with nanostructured hematite and tungsten trioxide photoanodes to investigate the utility of these systems for direct water splitting under visible light illumination. For the hematite system, under illumination at open-circuit conditions, the potential of hematite shifts cathodically and that of the GaInP{sub 2} shifts anodically. Under short-circuit condition and visible light illumination, the combination of the two photoelectrodes can split water, though with a very low rate of a few {micro}A/cm{sup 2} even at an intensity of 1 W/cm{sup 2}. It was determined that the very low photocurrent from the hematite nanorod photoelectrode limits the short-circuit current of the two-photoelectrode combination. Similar potential shifts were observed with the nanostructured WO{sub 3}/GaInP{sub 2} combination. However, at light intensities below 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}, the short-circuited combination would not split water due to an insufficient potential difference. Above 0.2 W/cm{sup 2}, the combination can split water under visible light, with {approx}20 {micro}A/cm{sup 2} obtained at 1 W/cm{sup 2}. A linear photocurrent-light intensity relationship was observed and was attributed to efficient charge transfer and a low recombination of the charge carriers. The bandgap and the associated absorption limit of WO{sub 3} remain a challenge for a higher efficiency system.

Wang, H.; Deutsch, T.; Turner, J. A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training Date | 2Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Date | 1Refrigeration and Air Conditioning EMA Education and Training #12;Date | 2Refrigeration operating pressure (MOP) 5. De-humidifying (Te control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC control) 6. Defrost funtions 7. Loss of charge detection (LOC) 8. Bleed function 9. Sensor placement tips

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

435

A MELCOR Application to Two Light Water Reactor Nuclear Power Plant Core Melt Scenarios with Assumed Cavity Flooding Action  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The MELCOR 1.8.4 code Bottom Head package has been applied to simulate two reactor cavity flooding scenarios for when the corium material relocates to the lower-plenum region in postulated severe accidents. The applications were preceded by a review of two main physical models, which highly impacted the results. A model comparison to available bibliography models was done, which allowed some code modifications on selected default assumptions to be undertaken. First, the corium convective heat transfer to the wall when it becomes liquid was modified, and second, the default nucleate boiling regime curve in a submerged hemisphere was replaced by a new curve (and, to a much lesser extent, the critical heat flux curve was slightly varied).The applications were devoted to two prototypical light water reactor nuclear power plants, a 2700-MW(thermal) pressurized water reactor (PWR) and a 1381-MW(thermal) boiling water reactor (BWR). The main conclusions of the cavity flooding simulations were that the PWR lower-head survivability is extended although it is clearly not guaranteed, while in the BWR sequence the corium seems to be successfully arrested in the lower plenum.Three applications of the CFX 4.4 computational fluid dynamics code were carried out in the context of the BWR scenario to support the first modification of the aforementioned two scenarios for MELCOR.Finally, in the same BWR context, a statistic predictor of selected output parameters as a function of input parameters is presented, which provides reasonable results when compared to MELCOR full calculations in much shorter CPU processing times.

Martin-Fuertes, Francisco; Martin-Valdepenas, Juan Manuel; Mira, Jose; Sanchez, Maria Jesus [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain)

2003-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

436

List of Water Heaters Incentives | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heaters Incentives Heaters Incentives Jump to: navigation, search The following contains the list of 973 Water Heaters Incentives. CSV (rows 1-500) CSV (rows 501-973) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active AEP Ohio - Commercial New Construction Energy Efficiency Rebate Program (Ohio) Utility Rebate Program Ohio Commercial Industrial Local Government Municipal Utility Nonprofit Schools State Government Central Air conditioners Chillers Comprehensive Measures/Whole Building Custom/Others pending approval Energy Mgmt. Systems/Building Controls Heat pumps Lighting Lighting Controls/Sensors Motor VFDs Motors Water Heaters Commercial Cooking Equipment Commercial Refrigeration Equipment Room Air Conditioners Yes AEP Public Service Company of Oklahoma - Residential Efficiency Rebate Program (Oklahoma) Utility Rebate Program Oklahoma Residential Building Insulation

437

Effects of refrigerant charge and structural parameters on the performance of a direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The direct-expansion solar-assisted heat pump (DX-SAHP) is widely studied as a refrigeration system, which can supply hot water for domestic use during the whole year. The system refrigerant charge and structure parameters are believed to have a great effect on the cycling thermal performance. The refrigerant mass charge including two-phase and single-phase in heat exchangers and pipes is calculated with distributed and lumped parameter approach mathematical models, respectively. Based on the system simulation program, the refrigerant distribution characteristics and system performance under varied structural parameters are obtained. The mathematical calculation results show that the 70%–80% refrigerant charge exists in the condenser and collector; the optimum refrigerant charge, solar collector area, condenser pipe length and condenser internal diameter for the system are 1.65–1.75 kg, 6.0 m2, 70 m and 9 mm, respectively. In the optimum parameters, the better system performance and feasible cost can be achieved.

D. Zhang; Q.B. Wu; J.P. Li; X.Q. Kong

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Mechanism of Irradiation Assisted Cracking of Core Components in Light Water Reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The overall goal of the project is to determine the mechanism of irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). IASCC has been linked to hardening, microstructural and microchemical changes during irradiation. Unfortunately, all of these changes occur simultaneously and at similar rates during irradiation, making attribution of IASCC to any one of these features nearly impossible to determine. The strategy set forth in this project is to develop means to separate microstructural from microchemical changes to evaluate each separately for their effect on IASCC. In the first part, post irradiation annealing (PIA) treatments are used to anneal the irradiated microstructure, leaving only radiation induced segregation (RIS) for evaluation for its contribution to IASCC. The second part of the strategy is to use low temperature irradiation to produce a radiation damage dislocation loop microstructure without radiation induced segregation in order to evaluate the effect of the dislocation microstructure alone. A radiation annealing model was developed based on the elimination of dislocation loops by vacancy absorption. Results showed that there were indeed, time-temperature annealing combinations that leave the radiation induced segregation profile largely unaltered while the dislocation microstructure is significantly reduced. Proton irradiation of 304 stainless steel irradiated with 3.2 MeV protons to 1.0 or 2.5 dpa resulted in grain boundary depletion of chromium and enrichment of nickel and a radiation damaged microstructure. Post irradiation annealing at temperatures of 500 ? 600°C for times of up to 45 min. removed the dislocation microstructure to a greater degree with increasing temperatures, or times at temperature, while leaving the radiation induced segregation profile relatively unaltered. Constant extension rate tensile (CERT) experiments in 288°C water containing 2 ppm O2 and with a conductivity of 0.2 mS/cm and at a strain rate of 3 x 10-7 s-1 showed that the IASCC susceptibility, as measured by the crack length per unit strain, decreased with very short anneals and was almost completely removed by an anneal at 500°C for 45 min. This annealing treatment removed about 15% of the dislocation microstructure and the irradiation hardening, but did not affect the grain boundary chromium depletion or nickel segregation, nor did it affect the grain boundary content of other minor impurities. These results indicate that RIS is not the sole controlling feature of IASCC in irradiated stainless steels in normal water chemistry. The isolation of the irradiated microstructure was approached using low temperature irradiation or combinations of low and high temperature irradiations to achieve a stable, irradiated microstructure without RIS. Experiments were successful in achieving a high degree of irradiation hardening without any evidence of RIS of either major or minor elements. The low temperature irradiations to doses up to 0.3 dpa at T<75°C were also very successful in producing hardening to levels considerably above that for irradiations conducted under nominal conditions of 1 dpa at 360°C. However, the microstructure consisted of an extremely fine dispersion of defect clusters of sizes that are not resolvable by either transmission electron microscopy (TEM) or small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The microstructure was not stable at the 288°C IASCC test temperature and resulted in rapid reduction of hardening and presumably, annealing of the defect clusters at this temperature as well. Nevertheless, the annealing studies showed that treatments that resulted in significant decreases in the hardening produced small changes in the dislocation microstructure that were confined to the elimination of the finest of loops (~1 nm). These results substantiate the importance of the very fine defect microstructure in the IASCC process. The results of this program provide the first definitive evidence that RIS is not the sole controlling factor in the irradiation assisted stress corrosion cracking of austenitic stain

Gary S. Was; Michael Atzmon; Lumin Wang

2003-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

439

An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Refrigeration Recovery for Experiment Hall High Target Loads  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Qweak experiment at Jefferson Lab (JLab) is a 3000 W hydrogen target scheduled for the summer of 2010 and running for two years until the planned shut-down for 12GeV. The End Station Refrigerator (ESR) supports the three experiment halls, two of which may normally have a hydrogen target. The refrigerator for the ESR is a CTI/Helix 1500 W 4.5-K refrigerator nominally capable of supporting a 1250 W target load at 12 bar and 15-K (plus 1100 W of 4.5-K refrigeration). As such, this refrigerator is not capable of supporting the Qweak experiment target load in its present condition. Additionally, since the installation of an ambient air vaporizer for a single use, two week run duration of a high target load in the summer of 2003 there has been a consistent usage of the Central Helium Liquefier’s (CHL’s) 3 bar 4.5-K helium, supplied via an existing transfer-line to the ESR, for other high target loads. By the fall of 2004, it was apparent that this continued use of CHL’s supercritical helium was routinely being sought by the hall experimenters. As such, a method of refrigeration recovery was proposed to reduce the support required of CHL for these high target loads, including the anticipated Qweak experiment, while utilizing the recovered CHL refrigeration from the target to increase ESR’s 12 bar 15-K capacity.

Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni, Errol Yuksek, Jonathan Creel

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Energy Efficiency and Environmental Impact Analyses of Supermarket Refrigeration Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents energy and life cycle climate performance (LCCP) analyses of a variety of supermarket refrigeration systems to identify designs that exhibit low environmental impact and high energy efficiency. EnergyPlus was used to model refrigeration systems in a variety of climate zones across the United States. The refrigeration systems that were modeled include the traditional multiplex DX system, cascade systems with secondary loops and the transcritical CO2 system. Furthermore, a variety of refrigerants were investigated, including R-32, R-134a, R-404A, R-1234yf, R-717, and R-744. LCCP analysis was used to determine the direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the operation of the various refrigeration systems over their lifetimes. Our analysis revealed that high-efficiency supermarket refrigeration systems may result in up to 44% less energy consumption and 78% reduced carbon dioxide emissions compared to the baseline multiplex DX system. This is an encouraging result for legislators, policy makers and supermarket owners to select low emission, high-efficiency commercial refrigeration system designs for future retrofit and new projects.

Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Zha, Shitong [Hillphoenix] [Hillphoenix

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Effect of parasitic refrigeration on the efficiency of magnetic liquefiers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Our studies have shown that magnetic refrigerators have the potential to liquefy cryogens very efficiently. High efficiency is especially important for liquid hydrogen and natural gas applications where the liquefaction costs are a significant fraction of the total liquid cost. One of the characteristics of magnetic refrigerators is the requirement for a high-field superconducting magnet. Providing a 4.2-K bath for this magnet will require a small amount of parasitic refrigeration at 4.2 K even though the rest of the liquefier may be at 110 K (liquid natural gas) or higher. For several different refrigeration power levels at 4.2 K, we have calculated the efficiency of the magnetic liquefier as a function of power, temperature and the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency. The results show that if the ratio of the thermal load at 4.2 K to the main refrigerator power is 0.001 or less, the effect on the efficiency of the liquefier is negligible at all temperatures below room temperature provided the 4.2-K refrigerator efficiency is high.

Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, analyzes the temperature distribution of the terrace, and supplies guidance for rebuilding refrigerators....

Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Product Refrigerator Freezer Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Product Refrigerator Freezer Eggs Fresh, in shell 4 to 5 weeks Don't freeze Raw yolks, whites 2 recommended storage times are for quality only. Refrigerator & Freezer Storage Chart Product Refrigerator, opened 3 days Don't freeze unopened 10 days 1 year Mayonnaise, commercial Refrigerate after opening 2

Burke, Peter

445

Review of experiments to evaluate the ability of electrical heater rods to simulate nuclear fuel rod behavior during postulated loss-of-coolant accidents in light water reactors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Issues related to using electrical fuel rod simulators to simulate nuclear fuel rod behavior during postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) conditions in light water reactors are summarized. Experimental programs which will provide a data base for comparing electrical heater rod and nuclear fuel rod LOCA responses are reviewed.

McPherson, G D; Tolman, E L

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Evaluation of weapons-grade mixed oxide fuel performance in U.S. Light Water Reactors using COMETHE 4D release 23 computer code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The COMETHE 4D Release 23 computer code was used to evaluate the thermal, chemical and mechanical performance of weapons-grade MOX fuel irradiated under U.S. light water reactor typical conditions. Comparisons were made to and UO? fuels exhibited...

Bellanger, Philippe

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

447

New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

SCIENTIFIC REPORT SCIENTIFIC REPORT Title Page Project Title: New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration DOE Award Number: DE-FG36-04GO14327 Document Title: Final Scientific Report Period Covered by Report: September 30, 2004 to September 30, 2005 Name and Address of Recipient Organization: Magnetic Development, Inc., 68 Winterhill Road, Madison, CT 06443, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Contact Information: Mark J. Bergander, Ph.D., P.E., Principal Investigator, phone: 203-214-7247, fax: 203-421-7948, e-mail: mjb1000@aol.com Project Objective (as stated in the proposal): The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient

448

Simple thermodynamic diagrams for real refrigeration systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermodynamic performance of real irreversible cooling and refrigeration systems (chillers) can be summarized in simple rectangular temperature-entropy diagrams in analogy to classic pedagogical examples for idealized reversible devices. The key to translating complex dissipative losses into this graphical framework is the process average temperature—a factor that can be calculated from nonintrusive experimental measurements for converting entropy production into lost work. An uncomplicated thermodynamic model is used to transform the governing chiller performance equations into an easily-interpreted graph. Examples based upon actual data from commercial work-driven (reciprocating) and heat-driven (absorption) chillers are presented and are used to highlight the predominance of internal dissipation in determining chiller efficiency. With the thermodynamic diagram representation the relative roles of each irreversibility source as well as the reversible and endoreversible limits become transparent.

J. M. Gordon; K. C. Ng; H. T. Chua

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Isothermally heatsunk diffusion cloud chamber refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a diffusion cloud chamber isothermally heatsunk refrigerator which comprises: a heatsink consisting of two phases of a saturated substance existing in thermodynamic equilibrium at constant pressure and therefore at constant temperature, contained in a reservoir; a means of pressure damping to maintain constant pressure, as the ratio of the two phases present changes and introduces volumetric changes in the substance; a cooling member which transfer heat from vapor in contact with the cooling member surface to the ''cold side'' of a Peltier thermoelectric element with which the cooling member is in thermal contact; a Peltier thermoelectric element which removes the heat supplied by the cooling member from its ''cold side'' and pumps it to the ''hot side'' when driven by an electric current; and a means of transferring heat from the ''hot side'' of the Peltier thermoelectric element to the two-phase isothermal substance in the reservoir.

Menocal, S.G.

1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

450

Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

Lubell, M.S.

1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

451

Advanced Light Water Reactor Plants System 80+{trademark} Design Certification Program. Annual progress report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide a status of the progress that was made towards Design Certification of System 80+{trademark} during the US government`s 1993 fiscal year. The System 80+ Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) is a 3931 MW{sub t} (1350 MWe) Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). The design consists of an essentially complete plant. It is based on evolutionary improvements to the Standardized System 80 nuclear steam supply system in operation at Palo Verde Units 1, 2, and 3, and the Duke Power Company P-81 balance-of-plant (BOP) that was designed and partially constructed at the Cherokee plant site. The System 80/P-81 original design has been substantially enhanced to increase conformance with the EPRI ALWR Utility Requirements Document (URD). Some design enhancements incorporated in the System 80+ design are included in the four units currently under construction in the Republic of Korea. These units form the basis of the Korean standardization program. The full System 80+ standard design has been offered to the Republic of China, in response to their recent bid specification. The ABB-CE Standard Safety Analysis Report (CESSAR-DC) was submitted to the NRC and a Draft Safety Evaluation Report was issued by the NRC in October 1992. CESSAR-DC contains the technical basis for compliance with the EPRI URD for simplified emergency planning. The Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) is the standard ABB-Combustion Engineering two-loop arrangement with two steam generators, two hot legs and four cold legs each with a reactor coolant pump. The System 80+ standard plant includes a sperical steel containment vessel which is enclosed in a concrete shield building, thus providing the safety advantages of a dual containment.

Not Available

1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

452

Transmutation Performance Analysis for Inert Matrix Fuels in Light Water Reactors and Computational Neutronics Methods Capabilities at INL  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The urgency for addressing repository impacts has grown in the past few years as a result of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) accumulation from commercial nuclear power plants. One path that has been explored by many is to eliminate the transuranic (TRU) inventory from the SNF, thus reducing the need for additional long term repository storage sites. One strategy for achieving this is to burn the separated TRU elements in the currently operating U.S. Light Water Reactor (LWR) fleet. Many studies have explored the viability of this strategy by loading a percentage of LWR cores with TRU in the form of either Mixed Oxide (MOX) fuels or Inert Matrix Fuels (IMF). A task was undertaken at INL to establish specific technical capabilities to perform neutronics analyses in order to further assess several key issues related to the viability of thermal recycling. The initial computational study reported here is focused on direct thermal recycling of IMF fuels in a heterogeneous Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) bundle design containing Plutonium, Neptunium, Americium, and Curium (IMF-PuNpAmCm) in a multi-pass strategy using legacy 5 year cooled LWR SNF. In addition to this initial high-priority analysis, three other alternate analyses with different TRU vectors in IMF pins were performed. These analyses provide comparison of direct thermal recycling of PuNpAmCmCf, PuNpAm, PuNp, and Pu. The results of this infinite lattice assembly-wise study using SCALE 5.1 indicate that it may be feasible to recycle TRU in this manner using an otherwise typical PWR assembly without violating peaking factor limits.

Michael A. Pope; Samuel E. Bays; S. Piet; R. Ferrer; Mehdi Asgari; Benoit Forget

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

TEE-0074 - In the Matter of GE Appliances & Lighting | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

74 - In the Matter of GE Appliances & Lighting 74 - In the Matter of GE Appliances & Lighting TEE-0074 - In the Matter of GE Appliances & Lighting This Decision and Order considers an Application for Exception filed by GE Appliances & Lighting (GE) seeking exception relief from the provision of 10 C.F.R. Part 430, Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Energy Conservation Standards for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers and Freezers (Refrigerator Efficiency Standards). In its exception request, GE asserts that the firm would suffer a gross inequity if required to adhere to the Refrigerator Efficiency Standards codified at 10 C.F.R. § 430.32. If GE's Application for Exception were granted, GE would receive exception relief from the energy efficiency standard applicable to a new

454

Prospects for and problems of using light-water supercritical-pressure coolant in nuclear reactors in order to increase the efficiency of the nuclear fuel cycle  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Trends in the development of the power sector of the Russian and world power industries both at present time and in the near future are analyzed. Trends in the rise of prices for reserves of fossil and nuclear fuels used for electricity production are compared. An analysis of the competitiveness of electricity production at nuclear power plants as compared to the competitiveness of electricity produced at coal-fired and natural-gas-fired thermal power plants is performed. The efficiency of the open nuclear fuel cycle and various versions of the closed nuclear fuel cycle is discussed. The requirements on light-water reactors under the scenario of dynamic development of the nuclear power industry in Russia are determined. Results of analyzing the efficiency of fuel utilization for various versions of vessel-type light-water reactors with supercritical coolant are given. Advantages and problems of reactors with supercritical-pressure water are listed.

Alekseev, P. N.; Semchenkov, Yu. M.; Sedov, A. A., E-mail: sedov@dhtp.kial.ru; Subbotin, S. A.; Chibinyaev, A. V. [Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

455

A global approach of the representativity concept: Application on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The development of new types of reactor and the increase in the safety specifications and requirements induce an enhancement in both nuclear data knowledge and a better understanding of the neutronic properties of the new systems. This enhancement is made possible using ad hoc critical mock-up experiments. The main difficulty is to design these experiments in order to obtain the most valuable information. Its quantification is usually made by using representativity and transposition concepts. These theories enable to extract some information about a quantity of interest (an integral parameter) on a configuration, but generally a posteriori. This paper presents a more global approach of this theory, with the idea of optimizing the representativity of a new experiment, and its transposition a priori, based on a multiparametric approach. Using a quadratic sum, we show the possibility to define a global representativity which permits to take into account several quantities of interest at the same time. The maximization of this factor gives information about all quantities of interest. An optimization method of this value in relation to technological parameters (over-clad diameter, atom concentration) is illustrated on a high-conversion light water reactor MOX lattice case. This example tackles the problematic of plutonium experiment for the plutonium aging and a solution through the optimization of both the over-clad and the plutonium content. (authors)

Santos, N. D.; Blaise, P.; Santamarina, A. [CEA, DEN/DER/SPRC Cadarache, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France)

2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Separation and Recovery of Uranium Metal from Spent Light Water Reactor Fuel via Electrolytic Reduction and Electrorefining  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of bench-scale experiments was performed in a hot cell at Idaho National Laboratory to demonstrate the separation and recovery of uranium metal from spent light water reactor (LWR) oxide fuel. The experiments involved crushing spent LWR fuel to particulate and separating it from its cladding. Oxide fuel particulate was then converted to metal in a series of six electrolytic reduction runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl – 1 wt% Li2O at 650 °C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrolytic reduction runs identified the diffusion of select fission products from the spent fuel to the molten salt electrolyte. The extents of metal oxide conversion in the post-test fuel were also quantified, including a nominal 99.7% conversion of uranium oxide to metal. Uranium metal was then separated from the reduced LWR fuel in a series of six electrorefining runs that were performed in succession with a single salt loading of molten LiCl-KCl-UCl3 at 500 °C. Analysis of salt samples following the series of electrorefining runs identified additional partitioning of fission products into the molten salt electrolyte. Analyses of the separated uranium metal were performed, and its decontamination factors were determined.

S. D. Herrmann; S. X. Li

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

2014-10-06 DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement Overview for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation provides an overview of DOE Certification, Compliance, and Enforcement for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, Freezers, Dehumidifiers, Room Air Conditioners, Clothes Washers, Clothes Dryers, and Dishwashers. It was presented via webinar on October 6, 2014.

458

DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements DOE Testing Reveals Samsung Refrigerator Does Not Meet Energy Star Requirements March 16, 2010 - 4:28pm Addthis DOE-initiated testing has revealed that a Samsung refrigerator (model RF26VAB), which the company had claimed was Energy Star compliant, consumed more energy than permitted by the Energy Star program. Test results for the Samsung model at issue show that, when tested in accordance with DOE's test procedure, it consumed between 7 and 11.4 percent more energy than the Energy Star requirement. Samsung is no longer manufacturing this model, although it may still be available from some retail outlets. Based on this testing, DOE is referring Samsung Model RF26VAB to the U.S.

459

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Residential Refrigerators Residential Refrigerators Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators October 7, 2013 - 11:19am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

460

Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) Focus Area: Appliances & Equipment Topics: Policy Impacts Website: www.eccj.or.jp/top_runner/pdf/tr_re-freez_Jul.2006.pdf Equivalent URI: cleanenergysolutions.org/content/product-standards-refrigerators-japan Language: English Policies: "Deployment Programs,Regulations" is not in the list of possible values (Deployment Programs, Financial Incentives, Regulations) for this property. DeploymentPrograms: Industry Codes & Standards Regulations: Appliance & Equipment Standards and Required Labeling This Energy Conservation Center Japan (ECCJ) document was created as a guide in response to its newly established set of standards and labelling

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "lighting refrigerators water" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Refrigerators Refrigerators Covered Product Category: Residential Refrigerators October 7, 2013 - 11:19am Addthis ENERGY STAR Qualified Products FEMP provides acquisition guidance across a variety of product categories, including residential refrigerators, which are an ENERGY STAR®-qualified product category. Federal laws and executive orders mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law. Most manufacturers display the ENERGY STAR label on complying models. For a model not displaying this label, check the manufacturer's literature to determine if it meets the efficiency requirements outlined by ENERGY STAR. Performance Requirements for Federal Purchases For the most up-to-date efficiency levels required by ENERGY STAR, look for

462

Property:Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type String. Refrigeration Pages using the property "Building/SPElectrtyUsePercRefrigeration" Showing 25 pages using this property. (previous 25) (next 25) S Sweden Building 05K0001 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0002 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0003 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0004 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0005 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0006 + 4.24846345193 + Sweden Building 05K0007 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0008 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0009 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0010 + 24.6944086225 + Sweden Building 05K0011 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0012 + 0.0 + Sweden Building 05K0013 + 1.29913989581 + Sweden Building 05K0014 + 7.46645043826 + Sweden Building 05K0015 + 0.0 +

463

Application of Cryocoolers to a Vintage Dilution Refrigerator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dilution refrigerator is required for 50mK detector operation of CDMS (Cryogenic Dark Matter Search). Besides shielding the dilution refrigerator itself, the liquid nitrogen shield and liquid helium bath in the refrigerator cool the detector cryostat heat shields and cool electronics, resulting in significant external heat loads at 80K and at 4K. An Oxford Instruments Kelvinox 400 has served this role for ten years but required daily transfers of liquid nitrogen and liquid helium. Complicating the cryogen supply is the location 800 meters below ground in an RF shielded, class 10000 clean room at Soudan, MN. Nitrogen and helium re-liquefiers using cryocoolers were installed outside the clean room and continuously condense room temperature gas and return the liquids to the dilution refrigerator through a transfer line. This paper will describe the design, installation, controls and performance of liquefaction systems.

Schmitt, Richard; Smith, Gary; Ruschman, Mark; /Fermilab; Beaty, Jim; /Minnesota U.

2011-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

464

Energy Department Announces More Stringent Criteria for ENERGY STAR® Refrigerators  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced increased energy efficient criteria for refrigerators carrying the ENERGY STAR® label.  In order to qualify, full-size...

465

High-Efficiency, Low-Emission Refrigeration System | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2 refrigeration system.
Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Image of the compressor rack and system diagram for the CO2...

466

Supermarket refrigeration modeling and field demonstration: Interim report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has undertaken a project to investigate supermarket refrigeration. The objectives of this project are (1) to develop an energy use and demand model of supermarket refrigeration systems and (2) to carry out an extensive field test of such systems in an operating supermarket. To accomplish these goals, a supermarket owned by Safeway Stores, Inc., and located in Menlo Park, CA, with an existing conventional refrigeration system utilizing single compressor units, was equipped with a state-of-the-art system with multiplexed parallel compressors. The store and both refrigeration systems were thoroughly instrumented and a test schedule was prepared and executed. Presented in this report are the preliminary results of this field test along with the initial validation of the energy use and demand model. 62 figs., 47 tabs.

Walker, D.H.; Deming, G.I.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Speed Control in Industrial Refrigeration: Theory, Application & Case Studies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It is often standard practice in the field of industrial refrigeration to design and operate systems with little regard toward part-load performance. This approach is understandable, whether viewed from the standpoint of the design engineer, plant...

Wilcox, M. H.

468

Applications Tests of Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper describes performance demonstrations of two members of the Ikon® family of safe, environmentally friendly, high performance substitute refrigerants for replacement of R-12 and R-134a in manufacturing and facilities operations. Preliminary...

Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; McCullough, E.; Dhooge, P.

469

Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...

Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan , Abi Sellen Alex S. Taylor philosophy. As such, they are designed to operate as a modular based system so that their various functions

Hunt, Galen

471

6 Energy Saving Tips for Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

To help businesses save energy and money, the Energy Department today announced new standards aimed at making commercial refrigerators and freezers. Here are just a few more tips to increase the energy efficiency of these appliances.

472

Combined Cold Compressor/Ejector Helium Refrigerator Cycle  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In recent years there has been increasing interest in raising refrigeration efficiency and capacity in cycles which produce cooling below 4.2 K. It is, of course, desirable to be able to produce the required s...

A. P. Schlafke; D. P. Brown; K. C. Wu

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

474

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Thermodynamic Evaluation of Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-GWP Refrigerants Mark O. McLinden National Institute of Standards and Technology markm@boulder.nist.gov; 303-497-3580 April 3, 2013 Optimization Fluid Modeling Cycle Modeling Final Candidates Optimum Thermo Parameters 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: HFC refrigerants face restrictions: U.S./Canada/Mexico proposal to Montreal Protocol (85 % cut) EU regulations likely on all application areas (79 % cut)

475

Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Refrigerator design for the ambulatory and wheelchair-using elderly  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REFRIGERATOR DESIGN FOR THE AMBULATORY ANO WHEELCHAIR-USING ELDERLY A Thesis by MARY SUE MILLS Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A S M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements f or the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May... 198S Major Subject: Industrial Engineering REFRIGERATOR DESIGN FOR THE AMBULATORY AND WHEELCHAIR-USING ELDERLY A Thesis by MARY SUE MILLS Approved as to style and content by: )7 Rodg Koppa (Chair of Committee) rome . Co leton ( ember...

Mills, Mary Sue

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

477

ARI delegation to Japan on Alternative Refrigerants. [Foreign Trip Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Researchers from ARI member companies spoke at the International Conference on Alternative Refrigerants in Tokyo and visited several Japanese organizations for the purpose of exchanging information on alternative refrigerants. The specific purpose of the meetings was to review the methods being utilized to screen alternatives to CFCs and HCFCs: materials compatibility screening methods, lubricant testing techniques, as well as flammability studies. A list of papers presented at the conference is included.

Not Available

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

A review of lubrication and preformance issues in refrigeration systems using an HFC (R-134a) refrigerant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It has been considered critical for refrigerant and compressor lubricant to be miscible with each other over part of the range of operating conditions of refrigerant systems. Adequate miscibility, many believe, provides oil return to the compressor. Presently, synthetic polyol esters have been selected for use with HFC refrigerants, such as R-134a, which are considered appropriate alternatives to CFCs. The authors will review the mechanical issues in miscible vs non-miscible naphthenic hydrocarbon oil-based lubricants. Extensive lab, test stand and cabinet testing has been conducted and data will be presented which show responsible and predictable performance based on the chemical and physical properties of the lubricant and refrigerant. Many non-miscible systems show satisfactory performance with the p