Sample records for lighting motors refrigerators

  1. Refrigeration options for the Advanced Light Source Superbend Dipole Magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, M.A.; Hoyer, E.H.; Schlueter, R.D.; Taylor, C.E.; Zbasnik, J.; Wang, S.T.

    1999-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1.9 GeV Advance Light Source (ALS) at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) produces photons with a critical energy of about 3.1 kev at each of its thirty-six 1.3 T gradient bending magnets. It is proposed that at three locations around the ring the conventional gradient bending magnets be replaced with superconducting bending magnets with a maximum field of 5.6 T. At the point where the photons are extracted, their critical energy will be about 12 keV. In the beam lines where the SuperBend superconducting magnets are installed, the X ray brightness at 20 keV will be increased over two orders of magnitude. This report describes three different refrigeration options for cooling the three SuperBend dipoles. The cooling options include: (1) liquid helium and liquid nitrogen cryogen cooling using stored liquids, (2) a central helium refrigerator (capacity 70 to 100 W) cooling all of the SuperBend magnets, (3) a Gifford McMahon (GM) cryocooler on each of the dipoles. This paper describes the technical and economic reasons for selecting a small GM cryocooler as the method for cooling the SuperBend dipoles on the LBNL Advanced Light Source.

  2. Floating Loop System For Cooling Integrated Motors And Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W [Kingston, TN; Coomer, Chester [Knoxville, TN; Marlino, Laura D [Oak Ridge, TN

    2006-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A floating loop vehicle component cooling and air-conditioning system having at least one compressor for compressing cool vapor refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one condenser for condensing the hot vapor refrigerant into hot liquid refrigerant by exchanging heat with outdoor air; at least one floating loop component cooling device for evaporating the hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant; at least one expansion device for expanding the hot liquid refrigerant into cool liquid refrigerant; at least one air conditioning evaporator for evaporating the cool liquid refrigerant into cool vapor refrigerant by exchanging heat with indoor air; and piping for interconnecting components of the cooling and air conditioning system.

  3. Floating loop method for cooling integrated motors and inverters using hot liquid refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Ayers, Curtis W.; Coomer, Chester; Marlino, Laura D.

    2007-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for cooling vehicle components using the vehicle air conditioning system comprising the steps of: tapping the hot liquid refrigerant of said air conditioning system, flooding a heat exchanger in the vehicle component with said hot liquid refrigerant, evaporating said hot liquid refrigerant into hot vapor refrigerant using the heat from said vehicle component, and returning said hot vapor refrigerant to the hot vapor refrigerant line in said vehicle air conditioning system.

  4. Cryogenic refrigeration requirements for superconducting insertion devices in a light source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Green, Michael A.; Green, Michael A.

    2003-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses cryogenic cooling superconducting insertion devices for modern light sources. The introductory part of the report discusses the difference between wiggler and undulators and how the bore temperature may affect the performance of the magnets. The steps one would take to reduce the gap between the cold magnet pole are discussed. One section of the report is devoted to showing how one would calculate the heat that enters the device. Source of heat include, heat entering through the vacuum chamber, heating due to stray electrons and synchrotron radiation, heating due to image current on the bore, heat flow by conduction and radiation, and heat transfer into the cryostat through the magnet leads. A section of the report is devoted to cooling options such as small cryo-cooler and larger conventional helium refrigerators. This section contains a discussion as to when it is appropriate to use small coolers that do not have J-T circuits. Candidate small cryo-coolers are discussed in this section of the report. Cooling circuits for cooling with a conventional refrigerator are also discussed. A section of the report is devoted to vibration isolation and how this may affect how the cooling is attached to the device. Vibration isolation using straps is compared to vibration isolation using helium heat pipes. The vibration isolation of a conventional refrigeration system is also discussed. Finally, the cool down of an insertion device is discussed. The device can either be cooled down using liquid cryogenic nitrogen and liquid helium or by using the cooler used to keep the devices cold over the long haul.

  5. Industrial DSM: Beyond High Efficiency Lights and Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appelbaum, B.

    on behalf of electric utilities. These represent real-world solutions to problems in actual industrial plants in many different types of industries. DSM IN LOW TEMPERATURE REFRIGERAnON SYST M APPLICAnONS Industrial refrigeration equipment is highly... energy-intensive. In many dairy procl::."ing plants in particular, refrigeration systems are the largest electricity consumers, repre enting as much as 75 percent of plant peak demand. The availability of the refrigeration system is critical...

  6. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)] [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1996-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates. Citations in this report are divided into the following topics: thermophysical properties; materials compatibility; lubricants and tribology; application data; safety; test and analysis methods; impacts; regulatory actions; substitute refrigerants; identification; absorption and adsorption; research programs; and miscellaneous documents. Information is also presented on ordering instructions for the computerized version.

  7. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufactures and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on many refrigerants including propane, ammonia, water, carbon dioxide, propylene, ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  8. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alterative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on various refrigerants. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyolester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  9. Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure that there is no

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Robert E.

    LAB SAFETY Refrigerator: Refrigerators and freezers are not typically constructed to assure temperature of the refrigerator rises. This results in an increase in the concentration of flammable vapors within the refrigerator's interior. When power is restored, a spark generated by the refrigerator light

  10. Ontario Hydro Motor Efficiency Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dautovich, D. R.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric motors consume more than one-half of the electrical energy produced by Ontario Hydro. In the residential sector, the major motor load is for refrigerators and freezers while packaged equipment dominate the motor load in the commercial...

  11. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It's potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  12. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 4. Refrigeration process comparison;f g p p process equipment needs, reliability, ease of operation cture:http://1 6.11.2012 ┼bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow open screw Va Typical equipment and compressor type ranges (source: S90) -80 6.11.2012 ┼bo Akademi Univ

  13. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1992-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air- conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R- 717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents on compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. A computerized version is available that includes retrieval software.

  14. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cain, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1993-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  15. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G W

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical point, without evaporation, as working fluid in a refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling cycle. We discuss relevant properties of appropriate liquids, and describe two Malone refrigerators. The first completed several years ago, established the basic principles of use of liquids in such cycles. The second, now under construction, is a linear, free-piston machine.

  16. Malone refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malone refrigeration is the use of a liquid near its critical points without evaporations as working fluid in a regenerative or recuperative refrigeration cycle such as the Stirling and Brayton cycles. It`s potential advantages include compactness, efficiency, an environmentally benign working fluid, and reasonable cost. One Malone refrigerator has been built and studied; two more are under construction. Malone refrigeration is such a new, relatively unexplored technology that the potential for inventions leading to improvements in efficiency and simplicity is very high.

  17. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    on a vapour-compression cycle) /heat_pump.g Heat pumps make use of low- temperature (waste) heat, replacing indoor space, or 5) waste heat from a process or device http://www.fos device COPHP ~ TH / (THRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration coursecourse # 424503.0# 424503.0 v.v. 20122012 8. Heat pumps, heat pipes, cold thermal energy storage Ron

  18. Kylteknik ("KYL")Kylteknik ("KYL") RefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigerationRefrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    - compression cycle Sources for "cheap heat" could be waste heat from power generation or steamp g plants processes: i l ffi iexpensive, spacy, low efficiency, requires large cooling towers for waste heat, a refrigeration cycle can be driven by heat (preferably 100-200░C) The replaces the compressor in a vapour

  19. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, Richard I. (Santa Fe, NM); Edwards, Bradley C. (Los Alamos, NM); Buchwald, Melvin I. (Santa Fe, NM); Gosnell, Timothy R. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  20. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, William A. (Murrysville, PA); Young, Robert R. (Murrysville, PA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler 18 and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor 24 where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap 50 which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator 26 and then out to a multiplicity of holes 52 to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber 58 to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole 62 also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator 68 from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe 66 to the suction plenum 64 and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum 64.

  1. Oil cooled, hermetic refrigerant compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    English, W.A.; Young, R.R.

    1985-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigerant compressor having an electric motor and compressor assembly in a hermetic shell is cooled by oil which is first cooled in an external cooler and is then delivered through the shell to the top of the motor rotor where most of it is flung radially outwardly within the confined space provided by the cap which channels the flow of most of the oil around the top of the stator and then out to a multiplicity of holes to flow down to the sump and provide further cooling of the motor and compressor. Part of the oil descends internally of the motor to the annular chamber to provide oil cooling of the lower part of the motor, with this oil exiting through vent hole also to the sump. Suction gas with entrained oil and liquid refrigerant therein is delivered to an oil separator from which the suction gas passes by a confined path in pipe to the suction plenum and the separated oil drops from the separator to the sump. By providing the oil cooling of the parts, the suction gas is not used for cooling purposes and accordingly increase in superheat is substantially avoided in the passage of the suction gas through the shell to the suction plenum. 3 figs.

  2. Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

    2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

  3. Control method for mixed refrigerant based natural gas liquefier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kountz, Kenneth J. (Palatine, IL); Bishop, Patrick M. (Chicago, IL)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a natural gas liquefaction system having a refrigerant storage circuit, a refrigerant circulation circuit in fluid communication with the refrigerant storage circuit, and a natural gas liquefaction circuit in thermal communication with the refrigerant circulation circuit, a method for liquefaction of natural gas in which pressure in the refrigerant circulation circuit is adjusted to below about 175 psig by exchange of refrigerant with the refrigerant storage circuit. A variable speed motor is started whereby operation of a compressor is initiated. The compressor is operated at full discharge capacity. Operation of an expansion valve is initiated whereby suction pressure at the suction pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 30 psig and discharge pressure at the discharge pressure port of the compressor is maintained below about 350 psig. Refrigerant vapor is introduced from the refrigerant holding tank into the refrigerant circulation circuit until the suction pressure is reduced to below about 15 psig, after which flow of the refrigerant vapor from the refrigerant holding tank is terminated. Natural gas is then introduced into a natural gas liquefier, resulting in liquefaction of the natural gas.

  4. Fluorescent refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Epstein, R.I.; Edwards, B.C.; Buchwald, M.I.; Gosnell, T.R.

    1995-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement. 6 figs.

  5. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilities access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  6. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  7. ARTI refrigerant database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database is an information system on alternative refrigerants, associated lubricants, and their use in air conditioning and refrigeration. It consolidates and facilitates access to property, compatibility, environmental, safety, application and other information. It provides corresponding information on older refrigerants, to assist manufacturers and those using alternative refrigerants, to make comparisons and determine differences. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  8. Optimal refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Armen E. Allahverdyan; Karen Hovhannisyan; Guenter Mahler

    2010-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a refrigerator model which consists of two $n$-level systems interacting via a pulsed external field. Each system couples to its own thermal bath at temperatures $T_h$ and $T_c$, respectively ($\\theta\\equiv T_c/T_hrefrigerator functions in two steps: thermally isolated interaction between the systems driven by the external field and isothermal relaxation back to equilibrium. There is a complementarity between the power of heat transfer from the cold bath and the efficiency: the latter nullifies when the former is maximized and {\\it vice versa}. A reasonable compromise is achieved by optimizing the product of the heat-power and efficiency over the Hamiltonian of the two system. The efficiency is then found to be bounded from below by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}=\\frac{1}{\\sqrt{1-\\theta}}-1$ (an analogue of the Curzon-Ahlborn efficiency), besides being bound from above by the Carnot efficiency $\\zeta_{\\rm C} = \\frac{1}{1-\\theta}-1$. The lower bound is reached in the equilibrium limit $\\theta\\to 1$. The Carnot bound is reached (for a finite power and a finite amount of heat transferred per cycle) for $\\ln n\\gg 1$. If the above maximization is constrained by assuming homogeneous energy spectra for both systems, the efficiency is bounded from above by $\\zeta_{\\rm CA}$ and converges to it for $n\\gg 1$.

  9. ARTI Refrigerant Database

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M. [Calm (James M.), Great Falls, VA (United States)

    1994-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern.

  10. Plant Site Refrigeration Upgrade

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zdrojewski, R.; Healy, M.; Ramsey, J.

    Bayer Corporation operates a multi-division manufacturing facility in Bushy Park, South Carolina. Low temperature refrigeration (-4░F) is required by many of the chemical manufacturing areas and is provided by a Plant Site Refrigeration System...

  11. Save with Hybrid Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, C. W.

    SAVE WITH HYBRID REFRIGERATION Cheng-Wen (Wayne) Chung, P.E. Fluor Engineers, Inc. Irvine, California ABSTRACT Two level demand makes it possible to use two systems for refrigeration and save energy and money. An example of this type... of refrigeration, consisting of an ammonia absorption refrigeration (AAR) unit and a mechanical compression refrigera tion (MCR) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configur ation, advantages and utility consumption...

  12. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  13. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77389)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  14. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, Arnold R. (6006 Allentown Dr., Spring, TX 77379)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer (11) at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer (11) to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator (10) to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing he evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator.

  15. Chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vobach, A.R.

    1987-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a chemically assisted mechanical refrigeration process including the steps of: mechanically compressing a refrigerant stream which includes vaporized refrigerant; contacting the refrigerant with a solvent in a mixer at a pressure sufficient to promote substantial dissolving of the refrigerant in the solvent in the mixer to form a refrigerant-solvent solution while concurrently placing the solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to transfer energy to the working medium, said refrigerant-solvent solution exhibiting a negative deviation from Raoult's Law; reducing the pressure over the refrigerant-solvent solution in an evaporator to allow the refrigerant to vaporize and substantially separate from the solvent while concurrently placing the evolving refrigerant-solvent solution in heat exchange relation with a working medium to remove energy from the working medium to thereby form a refrigerant stream and a solvent stream; and passing the solvent and refrigerant stream from the evaporator. 5 figs.

  16. Small Commercial Refrigeration Incentive

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiency Vermont offers financial incentives to cover the incremental costs of energy efficient refrigeration for commercial, industrial, agricultural and institutional buildings. To receive the...

  17. Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form -Refrigerant Recovery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sin, Peter

    Asset Management Equipment Disposal Form - Refrigerant Recovery Safe Disposal Requirements Under refrigeration, cold storage warehouse refrigeration, chillers, and industrial process refrigeration) has to have the refrigerant recovered in accordance with EPA's requirements for servicing. However, equipment that typically

  18. COLD STORAGE DESIGN REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COLD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 1 \\ "..\\- ,,, T I Fishery Leaflet 427 Washington 25, D. C. June 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART em; COlD STORAGE DESIGN AND REFRIGERATION EQUIPMENT By Charles Butler (Section 1), Joseph W. Slavin (Sections 1, 2, and 3), Max Patashnik

  19. Stirling-cycle refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, K.

    1985-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A Stirling-cycle refrigerator comprises a plurality of Stirling-cycle refrigerator units each having a displacer defining an expansion chamber, a piston defining a compression chamber, and a circuit including a heater and a cooler and interconnecting the expansion chamber and the compression chamber, and a heat exchanger shared by the circuits and disposed between the coolers and the heaters for effecting heat exchange between working gases in the circuits. The heat exchanger may comprise a countercurrent heat exchanger, and the Stirling-cycle refrigerator units are operated in cycles which are 180/sup 0/ out of phase with each other.

  20. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510) July 20, 2012 DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an 8,000...

  1. Refrigerant Compliance Updated: July 12, 2012

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Holland, Jeffrey

    Refrigerant Compliance Policy Updated: July 12, 2012 #12;TABLE OF CONTENTS The official version ........................................................................................................ 3 A. Refrigerant Compliance Manager (RCM).................................................................. 3 B. Refrigerant Inventory Coordinator (RIC

  2. Save with Hybrid Refrigerationá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, C. W.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) unit, is presented in this article. This paper will briefly describe process configuration, advantages and utility consumption, equipment cost and direct field cost comparisons of such a hybrid refrigeration unit over its counterpart, a cascading MCR...

  3. Thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report is a transcript of a practice lecture given in preparation for a review lecture on the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. The author begins by a brief review of the thermodynamic principles underlying the operation of thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators. Remember from thermodynamics class that there are two kinds of heat engines, the heat engine or the prime mover which produces work from heat, and the refrigerator or heat pump that uses work to pump heat. The device operates between two thermal reservoirs at temperatures T{sub hot} and T{sub cold}. In the heat engine, heat flows into the device from the reservoir at T{sub hot}, produces work, and delivers waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub cold}. In the refrigerator, work flows into the device, lifting heat Q{sub cold} from reservoir at T{sub cold} and rejecting waste heat into the reservoir at T{sub hot}.

  4. Refrigerants in Transitioná

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stouppe, D. E.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    great that a meeting was held in 1987 to address the problem. A treaty was the result of this meeting. Legislation on the production and use of these chemicals followed. Industry has responded by testing replacement refrigerants. This paper describes...

  5. Helium dilution refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McKee, Thomas Raymond

    1968-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    13 13 Methods of dilution and recirculation. 14 3. L'. Successful refrigeration. . . , . 15 CONTINUOUS DILUTION CYCLE, . ~ , ~ ~ 17 0. 1. Important components. 4. 2. 4. 3. Add. ition of He to the concentrated phase Cooling, and removal of' 3... the dilution was to occur by the diffusion down a tube containing a concentration gradient and. the second by diffusion of the solvent thru a semipermeable membrane into the concentrated mixture. Two methods of refrigeration were thoroughly discussed...

  6. Refrigerants in Transition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stouppe, D. E.

    .E. Senior Engineer The Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection and Insurance Company Hartford,. Connecticut ABSTRACT The massive growth of air conditioning and refrigeration has been a direct result of the development of a class of chemicals called fluorocarbons..., Gordon, "Forty Years Research on Atmospheric Ozone at Oxford: A !Iistory," Applied Optics, March t968, pp. 387-405. 4. Downing, R., "Development of Chloro fluorocarbon Refrigerants," CFCs: Time of Transition, ASHRAE Publication, Atlanta, GA, 1989...

  7. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, H. Z.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat recovery from refrigeration machines is a concept which has great potential for implementation in many businesses. If a parallel requirement for refrigeration and hot water exists, the installation of a system to provide hot water as a by...

  8. IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFECTIVENESS OF DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS BY THE APPLICATION OF REFRIGERANT MIXTURES*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;IMPROVING THE ENERGY EFFECTIVENESS OF DOMESTIC REFRIGERATORS BY THE APPLICATION OF REFRIGERANT.S. and foreign literature on the use of a mixture of refrigerants rather than a single one in a refrigeration-evaporator refrigerator typical of domestic refrigerators showed an energy savings of 12 percent. By acceptance

  9. Refrigeration monitor and alarm system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Branz, M.A.; Renaud, P.F.

    1986-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A monitor is described for a refrigeration system including a heat reclaiming system coupled therewith, comprising: a sensor positioned to detect the level of liquid state refrigerant in the system and provide an electrical output signal therefrom; a digital display for displaying the refrigerant level; first circuit means coupling the digital display to the sensor for actuating the digital display; and lockout means coupled with the sensor for deactivating the heat reclaiming system when a preselected refrigerant level is reached.

  10. Magnetic refrigeration for spacecraft systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barclay, J.A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic refrigerators, i.e., those that use the magnetocaloric effect of a magnetic working material in a thermodynamic cycle, offer potentially reliable, and efficient refrigeration over a variety of temperature ranges and cooling powers. A descriptive analysis of magnetic refrigeration systems is performed with particular emphasis on more efficient infrared detector cooling. Three types of magnetic refrigerator designs are introduced to illustrate some of the possibilities.

  11. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  12. Ames Lab 101: Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vitalij Pecharsky, distinguished professor of materials science and engineering, discusses his research in magnetic refrigeration at Ames Lab.

  13. Model Based Control Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Model Based Control of Refrigeration Systems Ph.D. Thesis Lars Finn Sloth Larsen Central R & D University, Denmark. The work has been carried out at the Central R&D - Refrigeration and Air Conditioning The subject for this Ph.D. thesis is model based control of refrigeration systems. Model based control covers

  14. Exergy analysis of magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lucia, Umberto

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the main challenges of the industry today is to face its impact on global warming considering that the greenhouse effect problem is not be solved completely yet. Magnetic refrigeration represents an environment-safe refrigeration technology. The magnetic refrigeration is analysed using the second law analysis and introducing exergy in order to obtain a model for engineering application.

  15. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to magnetic refrigeration and more particularly to low temperature refrigeration between about 4 and about 20 K, with an apparatus and method utilizing a belt of magnetic material passed in and out of a magnetic field with heat exchangers within and outside the field operably disposed to accomplish refrigeration.

  16. Refrigeration system with a compressor-pump unit and a liquid-injection desuperheating line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J. (Thornton, CO)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The refrigeration system includes a compressor-pump unit and/or a liquid-injection assembly. The refrigeration system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system that includes an expansion device, an evaporator, a compressor, a condenser, and a liquid pump between the condenser and the expansion device. The liquid pump improves efficiency of the refrigeration system by increasing the pressure of, thus subcooling, the liquid refrigerant delivered from the condenser to the expansion device. The liquid pump and the compressor are driven by a single driving device and, in this regard, are coupled to a single shaft of a driving device, such as a belt-drive, an engine, or an electric motor. While the driving device may be separately contained, in a preferred embodiment, the liquid pump, the compressor, and the driving device (i.e., an electric motor) are contained within a single sealable housing having pump and driving device cooling paths to subcool liquid refrigerant discharged from the liquid pump and to control the operating temperature of the driving device. In another aspect of the present invention, a liquid injection assembly is included in a refrigeration system to divert liquid refrigerant from the discharge of a liquid pressure amplification pump to a compressor discharge pathway within a compressor housing to desuperheat refrigerant vapor to the saturation point within the compressor housing. The liquid injection assembly includes a liquid injection pipe with a control valve to meter the volume of diverted liquid refrigerant. The liquid injection assembly may also include a feedback controller with a microprocessor responsive to a pressure sensor and a temperature sensor both positioned between the compressor to operate the control valve to maintain the refrigerant at or near saturation.

  17. Development of Refrigerant Change Indicator and Dirty Air Filter Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mei, V.

    2003-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The most common problems affecting residential and light commercial heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems are slow refrigerant leaks and dirty air filters. Equipment users are usually not aware of a problem until most of the refrigerant has escaped or the air filter is clogged with dirt. While a dirty air filter can be detected with a technology based on the air pressure differential across the filter, such as a ''whistling'' indicator, it is not easy to incorporate this technology into existing HVAC diagnostic equipment. Oak Ridge National Laboratory is developing a low-cost, nonintrusive refrigerant charge indicator and dirty air filter detection sensor. The sensors, based on temperature measurements, will be inexpensive and easy to incorporate into existing heat pumps and air conditioners. The refrigerant charge indicator is based on the fact that when refrigerant starts to leak, the evaporator coil temperature starts to drop and the level of liquid subcooling drops. When the coil temperature or liquid subcooling drops below a preset reading, a signal, such as a yellow warning light, can be activated to warn the equipment user that the system is undercharged. A further drop of coil temperature or liquid subcooling below another preset reading would trigger a second warning signal, such as a red warning light, to warn the equipment user that the unit now detects a leak and immediate action should be taken. The warning light cannot be turned off until it is re-set by a refrigeration repairman. To detect clogged air filters, two additional temperature sensors can be applied, one each across the evaporator. When the air filter is accumulating buildup, the temperature differential across the evaporator will increase because of the reduced airflow. When the temperature differential reaches a pre-set reading, a signal will be sent to the equipment user that the air filter needs to be changed. A traditional refrigerant charge indicator requires intrusion into the system to measure the refrigerant high-side and low-side pressures. Once the pressures are known, based on the equipment's refrigerant charging chart? or in most cases, based on the technician's experience? the refrigerant charging status is determined. However, there is a catch: by the time a refrigeration technician is called, most of the refrigerant has already escaped into the atmosphere. The new technology provides a real-time warning so that when, say, 20% of the refrigerant has leaked, the equipment users will be warned, even though the equipment is still functioning properly at rated capacity. Temperature sensors are becoming very accurate and very low in cost, compared with pressure sensors. Using temperature sensors to detect refrigerant charge status is inherently nonintrusive, inexpensive, and accurate. With the addition of two temperature sensors for detecting dirty air filters, the capability of the diagnostic equipment is further enhanced with very little added cost. This report provides laboratory test data on the change of indoor coil refrigerant temperature and subcooling as a function of refrigerant charge for a 2-ton split heat pump system. The data can be used in designing the indicators for refrigerant loss and dirty air filter sensors.

  18. Comparison of Several Eco-Friendly Refrigeration Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tang, C.; Luo, Q.; Li, X.; Zhu, X.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the operation principles, thermodynamics characteristics, and technical practicability were compared between thermoelectric refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration and adsorption refrigeration. The TE refrigeration is the most well...

  19. China Refrigerator Information Label

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-246E China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact Jianhong Cheng China National Institute of Standardization Tomoyuki Sakamoto The Institute of Energy by the United States Gov- ernment. While this document is believed to contain correct information, neither

  20. A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF outdoor 08, 80░F DB167"F WB indoor) is generally acceptable depending upon the manufacturer's design specifications. TJess than this could result in a refrigerant floodback situation. More than this can cause premature com- pressor motor... best be defined as either a refrigerant overcharge or undercharge when compared with the manufacturer's charging specifications, at standard ARI rating conditions. Either condition will have a detrimental effect on the system, both in terms...

  1. BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Homes, Christopher C.

    BNL Refrigerant Overview Presentation to the BER and CAC Ed Murphy, PE Chief Engineer / Manager is a heating process. Refrigeration is an engineered "cycle" where the refrigerant is made to evaporate) to the cycle. Refrigerants are the "working fluids" in refrigeration, air conditioning and heat pumping systems

  2. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, G.A.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits, in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine includes first thermodynamic elements for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator includes second thermodynamic elements located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements. A resonator volume cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements, first heat pipes transfer heat from the heat load to the second thermodynamic elements and second heat pipes transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements to the borehole environment. 18 figs.

  3. Compact acoustic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bennett, Gloria A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact acoustic refrigeration system actively cools components, e.g., electrical circuits (22), in a borehole environment. An acoustic engine (12, 14) includes first thermodynamic elements (12) for generating a standing acoustic wave in a selected medium. An acoustic refrigerator (16, 26, 28) includes second thermodynamic elements (16) located in the standing wave for generating a relatively cold temperature at a first end of the second thermodynamic elements (16) and a relatively hot temperature at a second end of the second thermodynamic elements (16). A resonator volume (18) cooperates with the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to support the standing wave. To accommodate the high heat fluxes required for heat transfer to/from the first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16), first heat pipes (24, 26) transfer heat from the heat load (22) to the second thermodynamic elements (16) and second heat pipes (28, 32) transfer heat from first and second thermodynamic elements (12, 16) to the borehole environment.

  4. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, G.W.; Kotsubo, V.Y.

    1992-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of [sup 3]He in a single phase [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He solution. The [sup 3]He in superfluid [sup 4]He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid [sup 3]He at an initial concentration in superfluid [sup 4]He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of [sup 4]He while restricting passage of [sup 3]He. The [sup 3]He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K. 12 figs.

  5. Superfluid thermodynamic cycle refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Santa Fe, NM); Kotsubo, Vincent Y. (La Canada, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A cryogenic refrigerator cools a heat source by cyclically concentrating and diluting the amount of .sup.3 He in a single phase .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He solution. The .sup.3 He in superfluid .sup.4 He acts in a manner of an ideal gas in a vacuum. Thus, refrigeration is obtained using any conventional thermal cycle, but preferably a Stirling or Carnot cycle. A single phase solution of liquid .sup.3 He at an initial concentration in superfluid .sup.4 He is contained in a first variable volume connected to a second variable volume through a superleak device that enables free passage of .sup.4 He while restricting passage of .sup.3 He. The .sup.3 He is compressed (concentrated) and expanded (diluted) in a phased manner to carry out the selected thermal cycle to remove heat from the heat load for cooling below 1 K.

  6. Multilayer Thermionic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahan, G.D.

    1999-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A review is presented of our program to construct an efficient solid state refrigerator based on thermionic emission of electrons over periodic barriers in the solid. The experimental program is to construct a simple device with one barrier layer using a three layers: metal-semiconductor-metal. The theoretical program is doing calculations to determine: (i) the optimal layer thickness, and (ii) the thermal conductivity.

  7. Parametric electric motor study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, D. [Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Stahura, D. [GM-AC Delco Systems, Indianapolis, IN (United States)

    1995-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Technology for the axial gap motor was developed by DOE with an investment of approximately $15 million. This development effort is for motor technologies of high power density and high efficiency. Such motors that are also small and light-weight are not available on the commercial market because high-power motors have typically been used in large industrial applications where small size and light weight are not requirements. AC Delco has been developing motors since 1918 and is interested in leveraging its research and development dollars to produce an array of motor systems for vehicles and to develop a future line of propulsion products. The DOE focus of the study was applied to machining applications. The most attractive feature of this motor is the axial air gap, which may make possible the removal of the motor`s stationary component from a total enclosure of the remainder of the machine if the power characteristics are adequate. The objectives of this project were to evaluate alternative electric drive systems for machine tools and automotive electric drive systems and to select a best machine type for each of those applications. A major challenge of this project was to produce a small, light-weight, highly efficient motor at a cost-effective price. The project developed machine and machine drive systems and design criteria for the range of applications. The final results included the creation of a baseline for developing electric vehicle powertrain system designs, conventional vehicle engine support system designs, and advanced machine tool configurations. In addition, an axial gap permanent magnet motor was built and tested, and gave, said one engineer involved, a sterling performance. This effort will commercialize advanced motor technology and extend knowledge and design capability in the most efficient electric machine design known today.

  8. STATE OF CALIFORNIA REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CEC-RWH-INST (Revised 08 # BUILDING TYPE Refrigerated Warehouse PHASE OF CONSTRUCTION New Construction Addition Alteration If more By the Enforcement Agency #12;STATE OF CALIFORNIA REFRIGERATED WAREHOUSE INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CEC

  9. Magnetic Refrigeration | GE Global Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    temperature," said Frank Johnson, a materials scientist and project leader on GE's magnetic refrigeration project. Developed over the past decade, these new magnetocaloric...

  10. New Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Reduce Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Traditional supermarket refrigeration systems found in most grocery stores across the country are vulnerable to issues which can cause significant refrigerant leakage ľ especially with older...

  11. New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut Businesses' Energy Bills and Carbon Pollution New Energy Efficiency Standards for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment to Cut...

  12. Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Case Study: Transcritical Carbon Dioxide Supermarket Refrigeration Systems This case study documents one...

  13. Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Multi-stage Cascaded Stirling Refrigerator Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) researchers have developed a multi-stage...

  14. Ongoing Commissioning of a high efficiency supermarket with a ground coupled carbon dioxide refrigeration plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.; Kalz, D.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    developed a new supermarket concept combining several innovative solutions for the refrigeration, lighting and heating/ventilation with the goal to reduce the energy consumption by about 30% compared to a standard subsidiary. A highly insulated building...

  15. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, P.R.; Gray, K.E.

    1988-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation is disclosed. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains [sup 3]He and [sup 4]He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing [sup 3]He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a [sup 3]He rich liquid phase from a dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the [sup 3]He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute [sup 3]He-[sup 4]He liquid phase. 2 figs.

  16. Helium dilution refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roach, Patrick R. (Darien, IL); Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A helium dilution refrigeration system operable over a limited time period, and recyclable for a next period of operation. The refrigeration system is compact with a self-contained pumping system and heaters for operation of the system. A mixing chamber contains .sup.3 He and .sup.4 He liquids which are precooled by a coupled container containing .sup.3 He liquid, enabling the phase separation of a .sup.3 He rich liquid phase from a dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase which leads to the final stage of a dilution cooling process for obtaining low temperatures. The mixing chamber and a still are coupled by a fluid line and are maintained at substantially the same level with the still cross sectional area being smaller than that of the mixing chamber. This configuration provides maximum cooling power and efficiency by the cooling period ending when the .sup.3 He liquid is depleted from the mixing chamber with the mixing chamber nearly empty of liquid helium, thus avoiding unnecessary and inefficient cooling of a large amount of the dilute .sup.3 He-.sup.4 He liquid phase.

  17. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Refrigeration Cycle 1 Refrigeration Cycle Heat flows in direction a low-temperature to high-temperature requires a refrigerator and/or heat pump. Refrigerators and heat of refrigerators and heat pumps is expressed in terms of coefficient of performance (COP): innet H HP innet L R W Q

  18. Report of Refrigerated Medication Loss UConn Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Report of Refrigerated Medication Loss UConn Health Please complete form & return to John Dempsey Other (Specify): Phone: E-mail: Address: Location of Refrigerator Affected: Date/time refrigerator was out of temperature range: Describe the event below: How long was the refrigerator out of range (hours

  19. Energy consumption testing of innovative refrigerator-freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, M.T.; Howell, B.T.; Jones, W.R. [Ontario Hydro Technologies, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Long, D.L. [Statistical Solutions, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The high ambient temperature of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) and the AHAM/DOE Refrigerator-Freezer Energy Consumption Standards is intended to compensate for the lack of door openings and other heat loads. Recently published results by Meier and Jansky (1993) indicate labeled consumption overpredicting typical field consumption by 15%. In-house field studies on conventional models showed labeled consumption overpredicting by about 22%. The Refrigerator-Freezer Technology Assessment (RFTA) test was developed to more accurately predict field consumption. This test has ambient temperature and humidity, door openings, and condensation control set at levels intended to typify Canadian household conditions. It also assesses consumption at exactly defined compartment rating temperatures. Ten conventional and energy-efficient production models were laboratory tested. The RFTA results were about 30% lower than labeled. Similarly, the four innovative refrigerator-freezer models, when field tested, also had an average of 30% lower consumption than labeled. Thus, the results of the limited testing suggest that the RFTA test may be a more accurate predictor of field use. Further testing with a larger sample is recommended. Experimental results also indicated that some innovative models could save up to 50% of the energy consumption compared with similar conventional units. The technologies that contributed to this performance included dual compressors, more efficient compressors and fan motors, off-state refrigerant control valve, fuzzy logic control, and thicker insulation. The larger savings were on limited production models, for which additional production engineering is required for full marketability.

  20. Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systemsá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    schematic of a basic two-stage re frigeration system. It shows six of the seven basic components in a refrigeration system; the evaporator, booster or low-stage compressor, intercooler, com pressor or high-stage compressor, condenser and an expansion... the evaporator coils. Air from the refriger ated space is forced over the coils and loses thennal energy to the refrigerant The liquid refrigerant evaporates as it absorbs the them1al energy. The re frigerant leaves the evaporator and enters the booster as a...

  1. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract... Complex compound sorption reactions are ideally suited for use in refrigeration cycles as an economically viable alternative to CFC refrigerants. Complex compound refrigeration provides a number of energy-saving advantages over present refrigeration...

  2. Design of Industrial Process Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Witherell, W. D.

    of the study is discussed in terms of identifying refrigeration intensive processes. Specific and general conclusions are presented to help faci I itate proper industrial refrigeration system design throughout fhe industry. This paper presents the resul ts... custaner's specifications. Most systems fall into two broad categories: Vapor Canpression Refrigeration Cycles - Mechanical or Steam Jet Canpression Systems Absorption Refrigeration Cycles - Heat Operated Cycles As shown in Table I, refrigerations...

  3. The Quantum Absorption Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amikam Levy; Ronnie Kosloff

    2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A quantum absorption refrigerator driven by noise is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. The model consists of a working medium coupled simultaneously to hot, cold and noise baths. Explicit expressions for the cooling power are obtained for Gaussian and Poisson white noise. The quantum model is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. The third law is quantified, the cooling power J_c vanishes as J_c proportional to T_c^{alpha}, when T_c approach 0, where alpha =d+1 for dissipation by emission and absorption of quanta described by a linear coupling to a thermal bosonic field, where d is the dimension of the bath.

  4. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, J.A.

    1992-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling. 6 figs.

  5. Cryogenic refrigeration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crunkleton, James A. (Cambridge, MA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A technique for producing a cold environment in a refrigerant system in which input fluid from a compressor at a first temperature is introduced into an input channel of the system and is pre-cooled to a second temperature for supply to one of at least two stages of the system, and to a third temperature for supply to another stage thereof. The temperatures at such stages are reduced to fourth and fifth temperatures below the second and third temperatures, respectively. Fluid at the fourth temperature from the one stage is returned through the input channel to the compressor and fluid at the fifth temperature from the other stage is returned to the compressor through an output channel so that pre-cooling of the input fluid to the one stage occurs by regenerative cooling and counterflow cooling and pre-cooling of the input fluid to the other stage occurs primarily by counterflow cooling.

  6. Supplementary Figure S1. Light-associated motor responses of worms expressing (b)opsin in neurons. a, Vigorously crawling TG animals pre-incubated with 10 M 9-cis-retinal and expressing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Palczewski, Krzysztof

    responses to light were recorded and scored. Data represent three independent experiments with 3- 10 worms s and their motor responses were scored. Data represent three independent experiments with 3-7 animals each. Error bars indicate S.E.M. c, Day 1 TG animals expressing (b)opsin in neurons were pretreated with 10 ÁM 9

  7. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Overton, Jr., William C. (Los Alamos, NM); Stewart, Walter F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure relates to refrigeration through magnetizing and demagnitizing a body by rotating it within a magnetic field. Internal and external heat exchange fluids and in one embodiment, a regenerator, are used.

  8. Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; Dhooge, P. M.

    This paper describes a new family of safe, environmentally friendly, high performance substitute refrigerants for application in manufacturing and facilities operations. Due to the Montreal Protocol and subsequent environmental regulations, CFC...

  9. GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Fredrich

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    GEA Refrigeration Technologies / GEA Refrigeration Germany GmbH Wolfgang Dietrich / Dr. Ole Technologies3 Achema 2012 // heat pumps using ammonia Industrial demand on heat in Germany Heatdemandin

  10. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  11. Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 Residential Refrigerator-Freezer Appendix A1 - v2.8.xlsx More Documents & Publications Refrigerators and...

  12. Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei Hua

    Integrating giant microwave absorption with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional with magnetic refrigeration in one multifunctional material. This integration not only advances our-compression/expansion refrigeration, magnetic refrigeration exhibits the advantages of high energy efficiency and environment

  13. Superinsulation in refrigerators and freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.; Stovall, T.K.; Wilkes, K.E.; Childs, K.W.

    1998-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results presented here were obtained during Phase 4 of the first CRADA, which had the specific objective of determining the lifetime of superinsulations when installed in simulated refrigerator doors. The second CRADA was established to evaluate and test design concepts proposed to significantly reduce energy consumption in a refrigerator-freezer that is representative of approximately 60% of the US market. The stated goal of this CRADA is to demonstrate advanced technologies which reduce, by 50%, the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard energy consumption for a 20 ft{sup 3} (570 L) top-mount, automatic-defrost, refrigerator-freezer. For a unit this size, the goal translates to an energy consumption of 1.003 kWh/d. The general objective of the research is to facilitate the introduction of efficient appliances by demonstrating design changes that can be effectively incorporated into new products. In previous work on this project, a Phase 1 prototype refrigerator-freezer achieved an energy consumption of 1.413 kWh/d [Vineyard, et al., 1995]. Following discussions with an advisory group comprised of all the major refrigerator-freezer manufacturers, several options were considered for the Phase 2 effort, one of which was cabinet heat load reductions.

  14. IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P. Leblay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    3rd IIR Workshop on Refrigerant Charge Reduction in Refrigerating Systems Corresponding author: P on the refrigerant side and louver fins on the air side. The flat tubes are grouped within a header, to use the heat diameter implies a refrigerant distribution much more penalizing for these exchangers than for round tube

  15. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M. (Woodridge, IL)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  16. Loveland Water and Power- Refrigerator Recycling Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loveland Water and Power is providing an incentive for its customers to recycle their old refrigerators. Interested customers can call the utility to arrange a time to pick up the old refrigerator...

  17. Cospolich Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Cospolich Refrigerator had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  18. International Refrigeration: Order (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered International Refrigeration Products to pay an $8,000 civil penalty after finding International Refrigeration had failed to certify that certain room air conditioners comply with the applicable energy conservation standard.

  19. Energy Saving with Absorption Refrigeration Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, R. C.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption refrigeration technology can be an economical and cost effective means of reducing energy cost and/or improving the efficiency and output of your process. We believe the potential benefits of absorption refrigeration technology have...

  20. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Order (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Refrigerator Manufacturers had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. Frontiers in thermoacoustic refrigeration and mixture separation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and time phases, and isolate the refrigeration from waste heat rejection at the two ambient heat exchangers

  2. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy{sub 1{minus}x}Er{sub x})Al{sub 2} for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant. 29 figs.

  3. Ternary Dy-Er-Al magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Takeya, Hiroyuki (Ibaraki, JP)

    1995-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A ternary magnetic refrigerant material comprising (Dy.sub.1-x Er.sub.x)Al.sub.2 for a magnetic refrigerator using the Joule-Brayton thermodynamic cycle spanning a temperature range from about 60K to about 10K, which can be adjusted by changing the Dy to Er ratio of the refrigerant.

  4. Method and apparatus for desuperheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, James A. (Kelso, WA); Drost, M. Kevin (Richland, WA); Call, Charles J. (Richland, WA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim.

  5. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  6. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1982-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load.

  7. Wheel-type magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.

    1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a wheel-type magnetic refrigerator capable of cooling over a large temperature range. Ferromagnetic or paramagnetic porous materials are layered circumferentially according to their Curie temperature. The innermost layer has the lowest Curie temperature and the outermost layer has the highest Curie temperature. The wheel is rotated through a magnetic field perpendicular to the axis of the wheel and parallel to its direction of rotation. A fluid is pumped through portions of the layers using inner and outer manifolds to achieve refrigeration of a thermal load. 7 figs.

  8. Wellesley Municipal Light Plant- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Wellesley Municipal Light Plant (WMLP) offers a number of appliance rebates to residential customers who purchase and install energy efficient equipment. Rebates are available for refrigerators,...

  9. The China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program: A major national initiative to reduce motor system energy use in China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nadel, Steven; Wang, Wanxing; Liu, Peter; McKane, Aimee T.

    2001-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric motor systems are widely used in China to power fans, pumps, blowers, air compressors, refrigeration compressors, conveyers, machinery, and many other types of equipment. Overall, electric motor systems consume more than 600 billion kWh annually, accounting for more than 50 percent of China's electricity use. There are large opportunities to improve the efficiency of motor systems. Electric motors in China are approximately 2-4 percent less efficient on average than motors in the U.S. and Canada. Fans and pumps in China are approximately 3-5 percent less efficient than in developed countries. Even more importantly, motors, fans, pumps, air compressors and other motor-driven equipment are frequently applied with little attention to system efficiency. More optimized design, including appropriate sizing and use of speed control strategies, can reduce energy use by 20 percent or more in many applications. Unfortunately, few Chinese enterprises use or even know about these energy-saving practices. Opportunities for motor system improvements are probably greater in China than in the U.S. In order to begin capturing these savings, China is establishing a China Motor Systems Energy Conservation Program. Elements of this program include work to develop minimum efficiency standards for motors, a voluntary ''green motor'' labeling program for high-efficiency motors, efforts to develop and promote motor system management guidelines, and a training, technical assistance and financing program to promote optimization of key motor systems.

  10. 1. Check to make sure all electrical appliances, such as curling irons, toasters, etc. are unplugged. Exceptions are clocks and refrigerators. Keep your refrigerator plugged in!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    . are unplugged. Exceptions are clocks and refrigerators. Keep your refrigerator plugged in! 2. Secure windows

  11. Low-temperature magnetic refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The disclosure is directed to a low temperature 4 to 20 K. refrigeration apparatus and method utilizing a ring of magnetic material moving through a magnetic field. Heat exchange is accomplished in and out of the magnetic field to appropriately utilize the device to execute Carnot and Stirling cycles.

  12. Optimization of Industrial Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flack, P. J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L.

    A computer program designed to optimize the size of an evaporative condenser in a two-stage industrial refrigeration plant was created. The program sizes both the high-stage and low-stage compressors and an evaporative condenser. Once the initial...

  13. Direct condensation refrigerant recovery and restoration system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grant, D.C.H.

    1992-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a refrigerant recovery and purification system for removing gaseous refrigerant from a disabled refrigeration unit, cleaning the refrigerant of contaminants, and converting the gaseous refrigerant to a liquid state for storage. It comprises a low pressure inlet section; a high pressure storage section; the low pressure inlet section comprising: an oil and refrigerant gas separator, including a separated oil removal means, first conduit means for connecting an inlet of the separator to the disabled refrigerant unit, a slack-sided accumulator, second conduit means connecting the separator to the slack-sided accumulator, a reclaim condenser, third conduit means connecting the separator and the reclaim condenser in series, an evaporator coil in the reclaim condenser connectable to a conventional operating refrigeration system for receiving a liquid refrigerant under pressure for expansion therein, the evaporator coil forming a condensing surface for condensing the refrigerant gas at near atmospheric pressure in the condenser, a liquid receiver, a reclaimed refrigerant storage tank, fourth conduit means further connecting the liquid receiver in series with the reclaim condenser, downstream thereof, means between the reclaim condenser and the liquid receiver.

  14. Floating Refrigerant Loop Based on R-134a Refrigerant Cooling of High-Heat Flux Electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowe, K.T.

    2005-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Research Center (PEEMRC) have been developing technologies to address the thermal issues associated with hybrid vehicles. Removal of the heat generated from electrical losses in traction motors and their associated power electronics is essential for the reliable operation of motors and power electronics. As part of a larger thermal control project, which includes shrinking inverter size and direct cooling of electronics, ORNL has developed U.S. Patent No. 6,772,603 B2, ''Methods and Apparatus for Thermal Management of Vehicle Systems and Components'' [1], and patent pending, ''Floating Loop System for Cooling Integrated Motors and Inverters Using Hot Liquid Refrigerant'' [2]. The floating-loop system provides a large coefficient of performance (COP) for hybrid-drive component cooling. This loop (based on R-134a) is integrated with a vehicle's existing air-conditioning (AC) condenser, which dissipates waste heat to the ambient air. Because the temperature requirements for cooling of power electronics and electric machines are not as low as that required for passenger compartment air, this adjoining loop can operate on the high-pressure side of the existing AC system. This arrangement also allows the floating loop to run without the need for the compressor and only needs a small pump to move the liquid refrigerant. For the design to be viable, the loop must not adversely affect the existing system. The loop should also provide a high COP, a flat-temperature profile, and low-pressure drop. To date, the floating-loop test prototype has successfully removed 2 kW of heat load in a 9 kW automobile passenger AC system with and without the automotive AC system running. The COP for the tested floating-loop system ranges from 40-45, as compared to a typical AC system COP of about 2-4. The estimated required waste-heat load for future hybrid applications is 5.5 kW and the existing system could be easily scaleable for this larger load.

  15. ARTI Refrigerant Database. [Quarterly progress report, 1 July 1993--30 September 1993

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, J.M.

    1993-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Refrigerant Database consolidates and facilitates access to information to assist industry in developing equipment using alternative refrigerants. The underlying purpose is to accelerate phase out of chemical compounds of environmental concern. The database provides bibliographic citations and abstracts for publications that may be useful in research and design of air-conditioning and refrigeration equipment. The complete documents are not included, though some may be added at a later date. The database identifies sources of specific information on R-32, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R134a, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-227ea, R-245ca, R-290 (propane), R-717 (ammonia), ethers, and others as well as azeotropic and zeotropic blends of these fluids. It addresses lubricants including alkylbenzene, polyalkylene glycol, polyol ester, and other synthetics as well as mineral oils. It also references documents addressing compatibility of refrigerants and lubricants with metals, plastics, elastomers, motor insulation, and other materials used in refrigerant circuits. Incomplete citations or abstracts are provided for some documents. They are included to accelerate availability of the information and will be completed or replaced in future updates.

  16. Electric Motors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Section 313 of the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007 raised Federal minimum efficiency standards for general-purpose, single-speed, polyphase induction motors of 1 to 500 horsepower (hp). This new standard took effect in December 2010. The new minimum efficiency levels match FEMP's performance requirement for these motors.

  17. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, R.T.; Middleton, M.G.

    1983-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell. 5 figs.

  18. Suction muffler for refrigeration compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH); Middleton, Marc G. (West Jefferson, OH)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor includes a suction muffler formed from two pieces of plastic material mounted on the cylinder housing. One piece is cylindrical in shape with an end wall having an aperture for receiving a suction tube connected to the cylinder head. The other piece fits over and covers the other end of the cylindrical piece, and includes a flaring entrance horn which extends toward the return line on the sidewall of the compressor shell.

  19. University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log Specimen Refrigerator Log

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log ş Specimen Refrigerator Log Month / Year Clinical ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: 31 ___ Fac. Mgmt. Resolution: If the refrigerator temperature falls out refrigerator. This record must be kept for one year and then destroyed per State requirement

  20. Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Lynn

    Form Date 4/4/01 Refrigerant Service Order Form Service ID: Owner: Work Order #: Building: Date: Issued: Completed: Equipment ID: Technicians: Location: Model: Manufact: Serial #: Refrigerant Type Minor Maintenance Recovery Vacuum: __________Inches Dispose of Unit Refrigerant Conversion Major

  1. 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    445 16 Heat Transfer and Air Flow in a Domestic Refrigerator Onrawee Laguerre UMR GÚnie Industriel...............................................447 16.2.1 Studies in Domestic Refrigerators...................................................................................... 451 16.3 Cold Production System in Domestic Refrigerators

  2. Layer of protection analysis applied to ammonia refrigeration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuniga, Gerald Alexander

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Ammonia refrigeration systems are widely used in industry. Demand of these systems is expected to increase due to the advantages of ammonia as refrigerant and because ammonia is considered a green refrigerant. Therefore, it is important to evaluate...

  3. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ENERGY STAR product specification applies to new and remanufactured indoor (i.e., glass front) and indooroutdoor (i.e., solid front) refrigerated beverage vending machines....

  4. Covered Product Category: Commercial Refrigerators and Freezers

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) provides acquisition guidance for commercial refrigerators and freezers, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR program.

  5. Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLighting Sign In About | Careers |

  6. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressureá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Because the absorption refrigeration system uses the Lithium bromide- water solution as refrigerant, it is profitable for the environment that human beings are living since the values of ODP and GWP of the refrigerant almost are zero. However...

  7. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display Cases February 20, 2015 - 4:55pm Addthis New...

  8. Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Natural Refrigerant High-Performance Heat Pump for Commercial Applications Lead Performer: S-RAM -...

  9. Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) Regulatory Burden RFI These...

  10. High-Performance Refrigerator Using Novel Rotating Heat Exchanger...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    energy savings of 407 TBtuyear when implemented in both residential and commercial refrigeration. The first proof of concept will be in a residential refrigerator....

  11. Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate Filters Transportation Refrigeration Unit (TRU) Retrofit with HUSS Active Diesel Particulate...

  12. Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Transport Refrigeration Units Active Diesel Emission Control Technology for Transport Refrigeration Units This project discusses a CARB Level 2+ verified active regeneration...

  13. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Commercial Refrigeration Equipment; Final Rule This...

  14. 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    6 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Proposed Rulemaking 2014-11-26 Issuance: Test Procedures for Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products;...

  15. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review...

  16. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies...

  17. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various ômiscellaneousö refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administrationĺs Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3▒1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(ľ3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(ľ2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated that there were 3.6▒1.0 million hybrid refrigerator-wine/beverage coolers and 0.9▒0.5 million hybrid freezer-wine/beverage coolers in U.S. households. We also obtained estimates of miscellaneous refrigeration product capacities, lifetimes, purchase and installation costs, repair frequencies and costs, and maintenance costs. For wine/beverage coolers, we also obtained information on the penetration of built-in units, AC/DC operating capability, the use of internal lights, and distributions of door opening frequencies. This information is essential to develop detailed estimates of national energy usage and life-cycle costs, and would be helpful in obtaining information on other plug-load appliances. Additional information not highlighted in the main report was presented in Appendices.

  18. Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Natural Refrigerant, Geothermal Heating & Cooling Solutions Lalit Chordia, PhD, Marc Portnoff 150.thargeo.com Thar Geothermal, LLC ę 2013 All Rights Reserved CO2MFORT ADVANTAGE Nature's Talk Outline Ě Introduction to Thar Geothermal Ě Carbon Dioxide (R744) the Environmentally Exceptional Refrigerant Ě Thar

  19. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Order (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing had failed to certify that certain models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  20. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Order (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Commercial Refrigerator Door had failed to certify that a variety of models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  1. North Star Refrigerator: Order (2013-CE-5355)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding North Star Refrigerator had failed to certify that any basic models of walk-in cooler and freezer components comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  2. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit.

  3. Seven-effect absorption refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1989-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A seven-effect absorption refrigeration cycle is disclosed utilizing three absorption circuits. In addition, a heat exchanger is used for heating the generator of the low absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the medium absorption circuit. A heat exchanger is also provided for heating the generator of the medium absorption circuit with heat rejected from the condenser and absorber of the high absorption circuit. If desired, another heat exchanger can also be provided for heating the evaporator of the high absorption circuit with rejected heat from either the condenser or absorber of the low absorption circuit. 1 fig.

  4. Counterflow absorber for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An air-cooled, vertical tube absorber for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. Strong absorbent solution is supplied to the top of the absorber and refrigerant vapor is supplied to the bottom of the absorber to create a direct counterflow of refrigerant vapor and absorbent solution in the absorber. The refrigeration system is designed so that the volume flow rate of refrigerant vapor in the tubes of the absorber is sufficient to create a substantially direct counterflow along the entire length of each tube in the absorber. This provides several advantages for the absorber such as higher efficiency and improved heat transfer characteristics, and allows improved purging of non-condensibles from the absorber.

  5. McMinnville Water and Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    McMinnville Water and Light (MWL) offers rebates on energy efficient homes, appliances and equipment to residential customers. Rebates are valid on refrigerators, freezers, clothes washer,...

  6. Heat pump/refrigerator using liquid working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheatley, John C. (Del Mar, CA); Paulson, Douglas N. (Del Mar, CA); Allen, Paul C. (Solana Beach, CA); Knight, William R. (Corvallis, OR); Warkentin, Paul A. (San Diego, CA)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer device is described that can be operated as a heat pump or refrigerator, which utilizes a working fluid that is continuously in a liquid state and which has a high temperature-coefficient of expansion near room temperature, to provide a compact and high efficiency heat transfer device for relatively small temperature differences as are encountered in heating or cooling rooms or the like. The heat transfer device includes a pair of heat exchangers that may be coupled respectively to the outdoor and indoor environments, a regenerator connecting the two heat exchangers, a displacer that can move the liquid working fluid through the heat exchangers via the regenerator, and a means for alternately increasing and decreasing the pressure of the working fluid. The liquid working fluid enables efficient heat transfer in a compact unit, and leads to an explosion-proof smooth and quiet machine characteristic of hydraulics. The device enables efficient heat transfer as the indoor-outdoor temperature difference approaches zero, and enables simple conversion from heat pumping to refrigeration as by merely reversing the direction of a motor that powers the device.

  7. Optimal Performance of Quantum Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

    2009-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling to absolute zero. We find that if the energy spectrum of the working medium possesses an uncontrollable gap, then there is a minimum achievable temperature above zero. Such a gap, combined with a negligible amount of noise, prevents adiabatic following during the demagnetization stage which is the necessary condition for reaching $T_c \\to 0$. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy gap. For this system the external control Hamiltonian does not commute with the internal interaction. As a result during the demagnetization and magnetization segments of the operating cycle the system cannot follow adiabatically the temporal change in the energy levels. We connect the nonadiabatic dynamics to quantum friction. An adiabatic measure is defined characterizing the rate of change of the Hamiltonian. Closed form solutions are found for a constant adiabatic measure for all the cycle segments. We have identified a family of quantized frictionless cycles with increasing cycle times. These cycles minimize the entropy production. Such frictionless cycles are able to cool to $T_c=0$. External noise on the controls eliminates these frictionless cycles. The influence of phase and amplitude noise on the demagnetization and magnetization segments is explicitly derived. An extensive numerical study of optimal cooling cycles was carried out which showed that at sufficiently low temperature the noise always dominates restricting the minimum temperature.

  8. Refrigerator/freezer energy use: Measured values vs. simulation results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hakim, S.H.; Turiel, I. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The EPA Refrigerator Analysis (ERA) program was utilized in the engineering analysis performed to support the proposed refrigerator/freezer standards in the United States. In this paper the accuracy of the ERA program for predicting the energy consumption of domestic refrigerators, freezers, and refrigerator-freezers is studied by comparing the predicted energy consumption with the measured energy consumption.

  9. Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maranas, Costas

    Process Systems Engineering Optimal Synthesis of Refrigeration Cycles and Selection of Refrigerants, University Park, PA 16802 The optimal synthesis of the refrigeration configuration and the selection of the best refrigerants that satisfy a set of process cooling duties at different temperatures is ad- dressed

  10. Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol Doug Bruchs, The Cadmus Group, Inc.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Refrigerator Recycling Evaluation Protocol Doug Bruchs, The Cadmus Group, Inc. Refrigerator Description Refrigerator recycling programs are designed to save energy through the removal of old-but- operable refrigerators from service. By offering free pick-up, providing incentives, and disseminating

  11. USDA Food Safety News Alert Cleaning the Office Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Craig A.

    USDA Food Safety News Alert Cleaning the Office Refrigerator When it comes to safe food handling, everything that comes in contact with food must be kept clean -- including the refrigerator. You probably keep your refrigerator at home clean, but the office refrigerator may be a problem because it

  12. Dual-circuit, multiple-effect refrigeration system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dual circuit absorption refrigeration system comprising a high temperature single-effect refrigeration loop and a lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop separate from one another and provided with a double-condenser coupling therebetween. The high temperature condenser of the single-effect refrigeration loop is double coupled to both of the generators in the double-effect refrigeration loop to improve internal heat recovery and a heat and mass transfer additive such as 2-ethyl-1-hexanol is used in the lower temperature double-effect refrigeration loop to improve the performance of the absorber in the double-effect refrigeration loop.

  13. Refrigerant charge management in a heat pump water heater

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Jie; Hampton, Justin W.

    2014-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Heat pumps that heat or cool a space and that also heat water, refrigerant management systems for such heat pumps, methods of managing refrigerant charge, and methods for heating and cooling a space and heating water. Various embodiments deliver refrigerant gas to a heat exchanger that is not needed for transferring heat, drive liquid refrigerant out of that heat exchanger, isolate that heat exchanger against additional refrigerant flowing into it, and operate the heat pump while the heat exchanger is isolated. The heat exchanger can be isolated by closing an electronic expansion valve, actuating a refrigerant management valve, or both. Refrigerant charge can be controlled or adjusted by controlling how much liquid refrigerant is driven from the heat exchanger, by letting refrigerant back into the heat exchanger, or both. Heat pumps can be operated in different modes of operation, and segments of refrigerant conduit can be interconnected with various components.

  14. Premium Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moser, P. R.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Premium efficient motors are available which convert electrical energy into mechanical energy with fewer losses than the more standard motors. The fewer losses in these motors are due to changes in the motor design and improved manufacturing methods...

  15. ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants on climate change drive the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ginzel, Matthew

    ASHRAE/NIST Refrigerants Conference International concerns about the impact of refrigerants on climate change drive the need to look at new cooling and refrigeration options that are sustainable" refrigerants through papers, presentations and panel discussions. This is the fourth jointly sponsored

  16. Refrigerator Magnets It seems that, these days, the home refrigerator was invented primarily as a venue for displaying

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LŘ, James Jian-Qiang

    1 Refrigerator Magnets Ken Connor It seems that, these days, the home refrigerator was invented creativity, some very bright person conceived of the refrigerator magnet. Most homes have at least several. Refrigerator magnets and other simple applications of electromagnetic phenomena can be very helpful

  17. Magnetic refrigeration: Materials, design, and applications. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning cryogenics using magnetic refrigerants. Refrigerant properties, magnetic materials, and thermal characteristics are discussed. Magnetic refrigerators are used for helium liquefaction, cooling superconductors, and superfluid helium production. Carnot-cycle refrigerators, reciprocating refrigerators, parasitic refrigerators, Ericsson refrigerators, and Stirling cycle refrigerators are among the types of magnetic refrigerators evaluated. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  18. Magnetic refrigeration: Materials, design, and applications. (Latest citations from the INSPEC database). Published Search

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The bibliography contains citations concerning cryogenics using magnetic refrigerants. Refrigerant properties, magnetic materials, and thermal characteristics are discussed. Magnetic refrigerators are used for helium liquefaction, cooling superconductors, and superfluid helium production. Carnot-cycle refrigerators, reciprocating refrigerators, parasitic refrigerators, Ericsson refrigerators, and Stirling cycle refrigerators are among the types of magnetic refrigerators evaluated. (Contains a minimum of 118 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Quantum refrigerator driven by current noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yi-Xin Chen; Sheng-Wen Li

    2011-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We proposed a scheme to implement a self-contained quantum refrigerator system composed of three rf-SQUID qubits, or rather, flux-biased phase qubits. The three qubits play the roles of the target, the refrigerator and the heat engine respectively. We provide different effective temperatures for the three qubits, by imposing external current noises of different strengths. The differences of effective temperatures give rise to the flow of free energy and that drives the refrigerator system to cool down the target. We also show that the efficiency of the system approaches the Carnot efficiency.

  20. Rare-Earth-Free Traction Motor: Rare Earth-Free Traction Motor for Electric Vehicle Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACT Project: Baldor will develop a new type of traction motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs. Unlike todayĺs large, bulky EV motors which use expensive, imported rare-earth-based magnets, Baldorĺs motor could be light, compact, contain no rare earth materials, and have the potential to deliver more torque at a substantially lower cost. Key innovations in this project include the use of a unique motor design, incorporation of an improved cooling system, and the development of advanced materials manufacturing techniques. These innovations could significantly reduce the cost of an electric motor.

  1. Bearing construction for refrigeration compresssor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Middleton, Marc G. (Wyoming, MI); Nelson, Richard T. (Worthington, OH)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic refrigeration compressor has a cylinder block and a crankshaft rotatable about a vertical axis to reciprocate a piston in a cylinder on the cylinder block. A separate bearing housing is secured to the central portion of the cylinder block and extends vertically along the crankshaft, where it carries a pair of roller bearings to journal the crankshaft. The crankshaft has a radially extending flange which is journaled by a thrust-type roller bearing above the bearing housing to absorb the vertical forces on the crankshaft so that all three of the roller bearings are between the crankshaft and the bearing housing to maintain and control the close tolerances required by such bearings.

  2. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  3. Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Residential Refrigerator Recycling Ninth Year Retention Study Study ID Nos. 546B, 563 Prepared RECYCLING PROGRAMS Study ID Nos. 546B and 563 Prepared for Southern California Edison Rosemead, California

  4. Defrost Temperature Termination in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with implementing demand defrost strategies to defrost supermarket refrigerated display case evaporators, as compared to the widely accepted current practice of controlling display case defrost cycles with a preset timer. The defrost heater energy use of several representative display case types was evaluated. In addition, demand defrost strategies for refrigerated display cases as well as those used in residential refrigerator/freezers were evaluated. Furthermore, it is anticipated that future work will include identifying a preferred defrost strategy, with input from Retail Energy Alliance members. Based on this strategy, a demand defrost system will be designed which is suitable for supermarket refrigerated display cases. Limited field testing of the preferred defrost strategy will be performed in a supermarket environment.

  5. Refrigeration system having standing wave compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lucas, Timothy S. (Glen Allen, VA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compression-evaporation refrigeration system, wherein gaseous compression of the refrigerant is provided by a standing wave compressor. The standing wave compressor is modified so as to provide a separate subcooling system for the refrigerant, so that efficiency losses due to flashing are reduced. Subcooling occurs when heat exchange is provided between the refrigerant and a heat pumping surface, which is exposed to the standing acoustic wave within the standing wave compressor. A variable capacity and variable discharge pressure for the standing wave compressor is provided. A control circuit simultaneously varies the capacity and discharge pressure in response to changing operating conditions, thereby maintaining the minimum discharge pressure needed for condensation to occur at any time. Thus, the power consumption of the standing wave compressor is reduced and system efficiency is improved.

  6. Intra-molecular refrigeration in enzymes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hans J. Briegel; Sandu Popescu

    2009-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a simple mechanism for intra-molecular refrigeration, where parts of a molecule are actively cooled below the environmental temperature. We discuss the potential role and applications of such a mechanism in biology, in particular in enzymatic reactions.

  7. Elastic Metal Alloy Refrigerants: Thermoelastic Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: UMD is developing an energy-efficient cooling system that eliminates the need for synthetic refrigerants that harm the environment. More than 90% of the cooling and refrigeration systems in the U.S. today use vapor compression systems which rely on liquid to vapor phase transformation of synthetic refrigerants to absorb or release heat. Thermoelastic cooling systems, however, use a solid-state materialŚan elastic shape memory metal alloyŚas a refrigerant and a solid to solid phase transformation to absorb or release heat. UMD is developing and testing shape memory alloys and a cooling device that alternately absorbs or creates heat in much the same way as a vapor compression system, but with significantly less energy and a smaller operational footprint.

  8. Energy use of icemaking in domestic refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Energy and Environment Div.; Martinez, M.S. [ENVEST-SCE, Irwindale, CA (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study was designed to develop and test a procedure to measure the electrical consumption of ice making in domestic refrigerators. The Department of Energy (DOE) test procedure was modified to include the energy used for icemaking in conventional refrigerators and those equipped with automatic icemakers. The procedure assumed that 500 grams of ice would be produced daily. Using the new test procedure and the existing DOE test (as a benchmark), four refrigerators equipped with automatic icemakers were tested for ice-making energy use. With the revised test, gross electricity consumption increased about 10% (100 kWh/yr) due to automatic icemaking but about 5% (55 kWh/yr) could be attributed to the special features of the automatic icemaker. The test also confirmed the feasibility of establishing procedures for measuring energy use of specific loads and other activities related to domestic refrigerators. Field testing and subsequent retesting revealed a 14% increase in energy use.

  9. International Refrigeration: Proposed Penalty (2012-CE-1510)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that International Refrigeration Products failed to certify a various room air conditioners as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Refrigerator Manufacturers: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5341)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Refrigerator Manufacturers, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  11. Improving Industrial Refrigeration System Efficiency - Actual Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, T. L.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle cooling during winter operation, compressor intercooling, direct refrigeration vs. brine cooling, insulation of cold piping to reduce heat gain, multiple screw compressors for improved part load operation, evaporative condensers for reduced system...

  12. Cospolich Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5314)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Cospolich Refrigerator Co, Inc. failed to certify walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the energy conservation standards.

  13. Advanced Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knoth, Edward A.; Chelluri, Bhanumathi; Schumaker, Edward J.

    2012-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Project Summary Transportation energy usage is predicted to increase substantially by 2020. Hybrid vehicles and fuel cell powered vehicles are destined to become more prominent as fuel prices rise with the demand. Hybrid and fuel cell vehicle platforms are both dependent on high performance electric motors. Electric motors for transportation duty will require sizeable low-speed torque to accelerate the vehicle. As motor speed increases, the torque requirement decreases which results in a nearly constant power motor output. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM) are well suited for this duty. , , These rotor geometries are configured in straight lines and semi circular arc shapes. These designs are of limited configurations because of the lack of availability of permanent magnets of any other shapes at present. We propose to fabricate rotors via a novel processing approach where we start with magnet powders and compact them into a net shape rotor in a single step. Using this approach, widely different rotor designs can be implemented for efficiency. The current limitation on magnet shape and thickness will be eliminated. This is accomplished by co-filling magnet and soft iron powders at specified locations in intricate shapes using specially designed dies and automatic powder filling station. The process fundamentals for accomplishing occurred under a previous Applied Technology Program titled, ├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?Motors and Generators for the 21st Century├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ł. New efficient motor designs that are not currently possible (or cost prohibitive) can be accomplished by this approach. Such an approach to motor fabrication opens up a new dimension in motor design. Feasibility Results We were able to optimize a IPMSM rotor to take advantage of the powder co-filling and DMC compaction processing methods. The minimum low speed torque requirement of 5 N-m can be met through an optimized design with magnet material having a Br capability of 0.2 T. This level of magnetic performance can be met with a variety of bonded magnet compositions. The torque ripple was found to drop significantly by using thinner magnet segments. The powder co-filling and subsequent compaction processing allow for thinner magnet structures to be formed. Torque ripple can be further reduced by using skewing and pole shaping techniques. The techniques can be incorporated into the rotor during the powder co-filling process.

  14. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, D.P.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  15. Solid-Vapor Sorption Refrigeration Systemsá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graebel, W.; Rockenfeller, U.; Kirol, L.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER MR. LANCE KIROL Engineer President Chief Engineer Rocky Research Rocky Research Rocky Research Boulder city, NV Boulder city, NV Boulder City, NV Abstract.... Complex compounds have a number of advantages as working media, including: 43 SOLID-VAPOR SORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS DR. WILLIAM GRAEBEL Engineer Rocky Research Boulder city, NV DR. UWE ROCKENFELLER President Rocky Research Boulder city, NV MR...

  16. HVAC's Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Comfort by Design Steve Jones Commercial Sales Manager for Mitsubishi Southwest Business Unit HVAC?s Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF) Technology HVAC Industry Overview HVAC Market Dollar Volume $18 Billion Source:;NABH Research... Moveable Ductless 5 VRF Technology Overview 6 What is VRF Technology? Variable Refrigerant Flow More Comfort, Less Energy Usage 8 INVERTER-driven Compressor Time R oo m T em pe ra tur e ? Enables capacity operation as low as 4% ? Sizing...

  17. Combined cold compressor/ejector helium refrigerator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald P. (Southold, NY)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration apparatus having an ejector operatively connected with a cold compressor to form a two-stage pumping system. This pumping system is used to lower the pressure, and thereby the temperature of a bath of boiling refrigerant (helium). The apparatus as thus arranged and operated has substantially improved operating efficiency when compared to other processes or arrangements for achieving a similar low pressure.

  18. Energy Efficiency Evaluation of Refrigeration Technologies in Combined Cooling, Heating and Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuo, Z.; Hu, W.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With development of absorption refrigeration technology, the cooling requirement can be met using various optional refrigeration technologies in a CCHP system, including compression refrigeration, steam double-effect absorption refrigeration, steam...

  19. Barocaloric effect and the pressure induced solid state refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliveira, N. A. de [Instituto de Fisica Armando Dias Tavares Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua Sao Francisco Xavier 524, Rio de Janeiro, 20550-013, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The current refrigerators are based on the heating and cooling of fluids under external pressure variation. The great inconvenience of this refrigeration technology is the damage caused to the environment by the refrigerant fluids. In this paper, we discuss the magnetic barocaloric effect, i.e., the heating or cooling of magnetic materials under pressure variation and its application in the construction of refrigerators using solid magnetic compounds as refrigerant materials and pressure as the external agent. The discussion presented in this paper points out that such a pressure induced solid state refrigerator can be very interesting because it is not harmful to the environment and can exhibit a good performance.

  20. Implementing Motor Decision Plans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elliott, R. N.

    The first step to reducing energy costs and increasing reliability in motors is to establish a motor plan. A motor plan allows decisions to be made in advance of motor failure, and increases the options available. By contrast, most motor decisions...

  1. Quantum heat engines and refrigerators: Continuous devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ronnie Kosloff; Amikam Levy

    2013-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum thermodynamics supplies a consistent description of quantum heat engines and refrigerators up to the level of a single few level system coupled to the environment. Once the environment is split into three;a hot, cold and work reservoirs a heat engine can operate. The device converts the positive gain into power;where the gain is obtained from population inversion between the components of the device. Reversing the operation transforms the device into a quantum refrigerator. The quantum tricycle, a device connected by three external leads to three heat reservoirs is used as a template for engines and refrigerators. The equation of motion for the heat currents and power can be derived from first principle. Only a global description of the coupling of the device to the reservoirs is consistent with the first and second laws of thermodynamics. Optimisation of the devices leads to a balanced set of parameters where the couplings to the three reservoirs are of the same order and the external driving field is in resonance. When analysing refrigerators special attention is devoted to a dynamical version of the third law of thermodynamics. Bounds on the rate of cooling when approaching the absolute zero are obtained by optimising the cooling current. At low temperature all refrigerators show universal behavior. Restrictions on the system imposed by the dynamical version of the third law are studied.

  2. Potential Refrigerants for Power Electronics Cooling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, M.R.

    2005-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    In the past, automotive refrigerants have conventionally been used solely for the purpose of air conditioning. However, with the development of hybrid-electric vehicles and the incorporation of power electronics (PEs) into the automobile, automotive refrigerants are taking on a new role. Unfortunately, PEs have lifetimes and functionalities that are highly dependent on temperature and as a result thermal control plays an important role in the performance of PEs. Typically, PEs are placed in the engine compartment where the internal combustion engine (ICE) already produces substantial heat. Along with the ICE heat, the additional thermal energy produced by PEs themselves forces designers to use different cooling methods to prevent overheating. Generally, heat sinks and separate cooling loops are used to maintain the temperature. Disturbingly, the thermal control system can consume one third of the total volume and may weigh more than the PEs [1]. Hence, other avenues have been sought to cool PEs, including submerging PEs in automobile refrigerants to take advantage of two-phase cooling. The objective of this report is to explore the different automotive refrigerants presently available that could be used for PE cooling. Evaluation of the refrigerants will be done by comparing environmental effects and some thermo-physical properties important to two-phase cooling, specifically measuring the dielectric strengths of potential candidates. Results of this report will be used to assess the different candidates with good potential for future use in PE cooling.

  3. adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refrigeration, steam... Zuo, Z.; Hu, W. 2006-01-01 287 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  4. absorption-recompression refrigeration cycle: Topics by E-print...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    refrigeration, steam... Zuo, Z.; Hu, W. 2006-01-01 70 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  5. DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 (RIN) 1904-AC19 DOE EPCA Commercial Refrigeration Standards - EERE-2010-BT-STD-0003 (RIN) 1904-AC19 In today's...

  6. Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factoryá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to fully use the compression heat of refrigerator, reduces the pipeline, Saves the investment. The workshop best arrangement is take refrigeration workshop and the soft water workshop as the center, various workshops around them, chart 4 shows...

  7. Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    775 Fully portable, highly flexible dilution refrigerator systems for neutron scattering P. A systems developed specifically for neutron scattering environ- ments. The refrigerators are completely relatively recently however, the lowest temperatures available in almost all neutron scattering laboratories

  8. Waste Heat Powered Ammonia Absorption Refrigeration Unit for LPG Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donald C, Energy Concepts Co.; Lauber, Eric, Western Refining Co.

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An emerging DOE-sponsored technology has been deployed. The technology recovers light ends from a catalytic reformer plant using waste heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration. It is deployed at the 17,000 bpd Bloomfield, New Mexico refinery of Western Refining Company. The technology recovers approximately 50,000 barrels per year of liquefied petroleum gas that was formerly being flared. The elimination of the flare also reduces CO2 emissions by 17,000 tons per year, plus tons per year reductions in NOx, CO, and VOCs. The waste heat is supplied directly to the absorption unit from the Unifiner effluent. The added cooling of that stream relieves a bottleneck formerly present due to restricted availability of cooling water. The 350oF Unifiner effluent is cooled to 260oF. The catalytic reformer vent gas is directly chilled to minus 25oF, and the FCC column overhead reflux is chilled by 25oF glycol. Notwithstanding a substantial cost overrun and schedule slippage, this project can now be considered a success: it is both profitable and highly beneficial to the environment. The capabilities of directly-integrated waste-heat powered ammonia absorption refrigeration and their benefits to the refining industry have been demonstrated.

  9. Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS)á

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bak, Thomas

    2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Edinburgh Motor Assessment (EMAS) is a brief motor screening test, specifically designed for assessment of patients with dementia, aphasia and other cognitive disorders. It focuses, therefore, on those motor symptoms, ...

  10. Microcomputer Software for Refrigerant Property and Cycle Analysis Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierschenk, J. L.; Strohl, S. T.; Schmidt, P. S.

    the thermodynamic properties of ten fluorocarbon refrigerants, (Rll, R12, R13, R14, R22, R23, Rl13, Rl14, R500, R502) and ammonia in the sub-cooled, saturation, 2-phase, and superheat regions. In the sec tions which follow, the theoretical basis... for each fluorocarbon refrigerant, represent curve fits to existing tabular property data. For both ammonia and the fluorocarbon refrigerants, the equations for the following four basic properties of refrigerants are used. - Liquid density as a...

  11. Optimal performance of endoreversible quantum refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; JosÚ P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

    2014-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The derivation of general performance benchmarks is important in the design of highly optimized heat engines and refrigerators. To obtain them, one may model phenomenologically the leading sources of irreversibility ending up with results which are model-independent, but limited in scope. Alternatively, one can take a simple physical system realizing a thermodynamic cycle and assess its optimal operation from a complete microscopic description. We follow this approach in order to derive the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling rate for \\textit{any} endoreversible quantum refrigerator. At striking variance with the \\textit{universality} of the optimal efficiency of heat engines, we find that the cooling performance at maximum power is crucially determined by the details of the specific system-bath interaction mechanism. A closed analytical benchmark is found for endoreversible refrigerators weakly coupled to unstructured bosonic heat baths: an ubiquitous case study in quantum thermodynamics.

  12. Short Time Cycles of Purely Quantum Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tova Feldmann; Ronnie Kosloff

    2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Four stroke Otto refrigerator cycles with no classical analogue are studied. Extremely short cycle times with respect to the internal time scale of the working medium characterize these refrigerators. Therefore these cycles are termed sudden. The sudden cycles are characterized by the stable limit cycle which is the invariant of the global cycle propagator. During their operation the state of the working medium possesses significant coherence which is not erased in the equilibration segments due to the very short time allocated. This characteristic is reflected in a difference between the energy entropy and the Von Neumann entropy of the working medium. A classification scheme for sudden refrigerators is developed allowing simple approximations for the cooling power and coefficient of performance.

  13. Basics of Low-temperature Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alekseev, A

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This chapter gives an overview of the principles of low temperature refrigeration and the thermodynamics behind it. Basic cryogenic processes - Joule-Thomoson process, Brayton process as well as Claude process - are described and compared. A typical helium laboratory refrigerator based on Claude process is used as a typical example of a low-temperature refrigeration system. A description of the hardware components for helium liquefaction is an important part of this paper, because the design of the main hardware components (compressors, turbines, heat exchangers, pumps, adsorbers, etc.) provides the input for cost calculation, as well as enables to estimate the reliability of the plant and the maintenance expenses. All these numbers are necessary to calculate the economics of a low temperature application.

  14. Development of ultra efficient electric motors. Quarterly report, July-September 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Driscoll, David I.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There are four major tasks included in this project: (1) design, build and test a 1000 horsepower synchronous motor with high-temperature superconducting (HTS) coils operating in the 25 to 40 K temperature range; (2) design, build and test a 5000 horsepower synchronous motor with HTS coils operating in the 25 to 40 K temperature range; (3) develop and integrate closed-cycle cryogenic refrigeration systems with both motors; (4) develop the HTS wire and coil technology required for both motor demonstrations. The goal of the 1000 hp motor demonstration is to build an HTS motor which is comparable in size and efficiency to a conventional motor of the same rating. The goal of the 5000 hp motor demonstration is to build an HTS motor which is half the active volume and has half the losses of a conventional motor of the same rating, and to demonstrate continuous operation of the 5000 horsepower motor at a beta test site. The project represents a vital step in the development of HTS motors for commercial applications.

  15. Reducing the Carbon Footprint of Commercial Refrigeration Systems Using Life Cycle Climate Performance Analysis: From System Design to Refrigerant Options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) analysis is used to estimate lifetime direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent gas emissions of various refrigerant options and commercial refrigeration system designs, including the multiplex DX system with various hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants, the HFC/R744 cascade system incorporating a medium-temperature R744 secondary loop, and the transcritical R744 booster system. The results of the LCCP analysis are presented, including the direct and indirect carbon dioxide equivalent emissions for each refrigeration system and refrigerant option. Based on the results of the LCCP analysis, recommendations are given for the selection of low GWP replacement refrigerants for use in existing commercial refrigeration systems, as well as for the selection of commercial refrigeration system designs with low carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, suitable for new installations.

  16. page 1 of 5 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 5 TkF Vńrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven Exam 11-2-2009 4 questions. A two-stage vapour-compression process, using refrigerant R-22, operates between the temperatures 36 ░C and -58░C, with intermediate temperature 0░C. The refrigerant mass streams through the high temperature

  17. Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fominov, Yakov

    Cooling at the quantum limit and RF refrigeration Jukka Pekola Low Temperature Laboratory, Helsinki) Francesco Giazotto (SNS Pisa) Yuri Pashkin (NEC) #12;Outline Electronic refrigeration Classical vs quantum (electromagnetic) heat transport Cooling at the quantum limit: experiments RF refrigeration in a single

  18. HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH -PART 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    HANDLING FRESH FISH REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART 2 UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FISH 428 Washington 25, D, C. December 1956 REFRIGERATION OF FISH - PART TWO HANDLING FRESH FISH By Charles in a series of five on "Refrigeration of Fish." Titles of the other four leaflets are: - 38 - 84 Part 1

  19. REFRIGERATION OF FISH PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFRIGERATION OF FISHĚ PART 5 DISTRIBUTION AND MARKETING OF FROZEN FISHERY PRODUCTS UNITED STATES in a series of five on "Refrigeration of Fish." Titles of the other four leaflets are: Part 1 (Fishery Leaflet., and edited by Joseph W. Slavin, Refrigeration Engineer, Fishery Technological Laborator,y, East Boston

  20. A dilution refrigerator insert for standard ILL cryostats K. Neumaier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    773 A dilution refrigerator insert for standard ILL cryostats K. Neumaier WMI Garching, F.R.G. A-1.2 K) the sample stick was replaced by a dilution refrigerator insert with a minimum no temperatures, we replaced the sample stick by a dilution refrigerator insert (Fig. 1). The large cooling power

  1. page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 4 TkF Vńrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven, prof. Exam 240107 4 questions with methylchloride (CH3Cl, R-40) as refrigerant. The evaporator operates at Te = -20 ░C and exchanges heat the mixture quality x for state 5 in the T,s diagram. (2 p.) b. How much heat qin (kJ/kg refrigerant) is taken

  2. Development of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    Development of a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator M. Pierensa , J.-P. Thermeaua , T. Le, a thermoacoustic travelling-wave refrigerator has been developed. Its performances are presented in this paper the refrigerator, its instrumentation and its experimental test bench. Finally we give the results obtained from

  3. CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED CO2-TBPB HYDRATE FOR REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    CHARACTERIZATION OF MIXED CO2-TBPB HYDRATE FOR REFRIGERATION APPLICATIONS Pascal Clain , Anthony storage and distribution in refrigeration applications. Previous studies show that these hydrates are able.s] INTRODUCTION Secondary refrigeration is a method using a neutral fluid for cold distribution in order

  4. Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evaporative system for water and beverage refrigeration in hot countries A Saleh1 and MA Al-Nimr2 1 Abstract: The present study proposes an evaporative refrigerating system used to keep water or other are found to be consistent with the available literature data. Keywords: evaporative refrigeration, heat

  5. Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fast Nonconvex Model Predictive Control for Commercial Refrigeration Tobias Gybel Hovgard , Lars F multi-zone refrigeration system, consisting of several cooling units that share a common compressor. This corresponds roughly to 2% of the entire electricity consumption in the country. Refrigerated goods constitute

  6. DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    #12;DEVELOPMENT OF A HIGH EFFICIENCY, AUTOMATIC DEFROSTING REFRIGERATOR-FREEZER Richard F. Topping-efficient refrigerator- freezer prototype involving the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Arthur D. Little, Inc., and Amana Refrigeration, Inc. The project was initiated in 1977 by Oak Ridge National

  7. page 1 of 5 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 5 TkF Vńrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven, prof. Exam 17-12-2008 4 devices. 209. An ideal vapour-compression cycle heat pump with R-134a as the working fluid (refrigerant within 1 hour, calculate the minimum cooling/freezing capacity of the refrigerator (W) and the time

  8. Optimal Performance of a Reciprocating Demagnetization Quantum Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kosloff, Ronnie

    Optimal Performance of a Reciprocating Demagnetization Quantum Refrigerators Ronnie Kosloff A reciprocating quantum refrigerator is studied with the purpose of determining the limitations of cooling. The refrigerator is based on an Otto cycle where the working medium is an interacting spin system with an energy

  9. page 1 of 4 TkF Vrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    page 1 of 4 TkF Vńrmeteknik Refrigeration / Kylteknik Ron Zevenhoven, prof. Exam 280307 4 questions devices. 205. A vapour-compression system that uses refrigerant R-134a must be tested to determine optimal; the mass flow of refrigerant is 0.05 kg/s. a. Determine the values for evaporator and condenser heat loads

  10. Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reznik, Leon

    Embedded Smart Controller for an Industrial Reefer Refrigeration1 Leon Reznik and Shane Spiteri refrigeration control. The goal of this project is twofold: to design an efficient and economically feasible to a regulation problem in reefer refrigeration systems. By an application of the Motorola HC12 MCU with its

  11. Literature survey of heat transfer enhancement techniques in refrigeration applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, M.K.; Shome, B. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Aeronautical Engineering and Mechanics

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey has been performed of the technical and patent literature on enhanced heat transfer of refrigerants in pool boiling, forced convection evaporation, and condensation. Extensive bibliographies of the technical literature and patents are given. Many passive and active techniques were examined for pure refrigerants, refrigerant-oil mixtures, and refrigerant mixtures. The citations were categorized according to enhancement technique, heat transfer mode, and tube or shell side focus. The effects of the enhancement techniques relative to smooth and/or pure refrigerants were illustrated through the discussion of selected papers. Patented enhancement techniques also are discussed. Enhanced heat transfer has demonstrated significant improvements in performance in many refrigerant applications. However, refrigerant mixtures and refrigerant-oil mixtures have not been studied extensively; no research has been performed with enhanced refrigerant mixtures with oil. Most studies have been of the parametric type; there has been inadequate examination of the fundamental processes governing enhanced refrigerant heat transfer, but some modeling is being done and correlations developed. It is clear that an enhancement technique must be optimized for the refrigerant and operating condition. Fundamental processes governing the heat transfer must be examined if models for enhancement techniques are to be developed; these models could provide the method to optimize a surface. Refrigerant mixtures, with and without oil present, must be studied with enhancement devices; there is too little known to be able to estimate the effects of mixtures (particularly NARMs) with enhanced heat transfer. Other conclusions and recommendations are offered.

  12. Method and apparatus for de-superheating refrigerant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zess, J.A.; Drost, M.K.; Call, C.J.

    1997-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for de-superheating a primary refrigerant leaving a compressor wherein a secondary refrigerant is used between the primary refrigerant to be de-superheated. Reject heat is advantageously used for heat reclaim. 7 figs.

  13. Toxicity Data to Determine Refrigerant Concentration Limits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Calm, James M.

    2000-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report reviews toxicity data, identifies sources for them, and presents resulting exposure limits for refrigerants for consideration by qualified parties in developing safety guides, standards, codes, and regulations. It outlines a method to calculate an acute toxicity exposure limit (ATEL) and from it a recommended refrigerant concentration limit (RCL) for emergency exposures. The report focuses on acute toxicity with particular attention to lethality, cardiac sensitization, anesthetic and central nervous system effects, and other escape-impairing effects. It addresses R-11, R-12, R-22, R-23, R-113, R-114, R-116, R-123, R-124, R-125, R-134, R-134a, R-E134, R-141b, R-142b, R-143a, R-152a, R-218, R-227ea, R-236fa, R-245ca, R-245fa, R-290, R-500, R-502, R-600a, R-717, and R-744. It summarizes additional data for R-14, R-115, R-170 (ethane), R-C318, R-600 (n-butane), and R-1270 (propylene) to enable calculation of limits for blends incorporating them. The report summarizes the data a nd related safety information, including classifications and flammability data. It also presents a series of tables with proposed ATEL and RCL concentrations-in dimensionless form and the latter also in both metric (SI) and inch-pound (IP) units of measure-for both the cited refrigerants and 66 zerotropic and azeotropic blends. They include common refrigerants, such as R-404A, R-407C, R-410A, and R-507A, as well as others in commercial or developmental status. Appendices provide profiles for the cited single-compound refrigerants and for R-500 and R-502 as well as narrative toxicity summaries for common refrigerants. The report includes an extensive set of references.

  14. Helium refrigeration considerations for cryomodule design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the present day accelerators are based on superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities, packaged in cryo-modules (CM), which depend on helium refrigeration at sub-atmospheric pressures, nominally 2 K. These specialized helium refrigeration systems are quite cost intensive to produce and operate. Particularly as there is typically no work extraction below the 4.5-K supply, it is important that the exergy loss between this temperature level and the CM load temperature(s) be minimized by the process configuration choices. This paper will present, compare and discuss several possible helium distribution process arrangements to support the CM loads.

  15. PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachkov, Ivan

    PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2 as refrigerant The School of Industrial Engineering and Management at the Royal Institute of Technology seeks a PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically Commercial refrigeration systems with CO2

  16. SBIR Grant: ├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?No-Vibration Agile Cryogenic Optical Refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard

    2013-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical refrigeration is currently the only all-solid-state cryocooling technology that has been demonstrated. Optical cryocoolers are devices that use laser light to cool small crystal or glass cooling elements. The cooling element absorbs the laser light and reradiates it at higher energy, an example of anti-Stokes fluorescence. The dif-ference between the energy of the outgoing and incoming light comes from the thermal energy of the cooling element, which in turn becomes colder. Entitled ├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?No-Vibration Agile Cryocoolers using Optical Refrigeration,├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬ó├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬?├?┬Ł this Phase I proposal directly addressed the continued development of the optical refrigerator components necessary to transition this scientific breakthrough into National Nu-clear Security Administration (NNSA) sensor applications in line with the objectives of topic 50b. ThermoDynamic Films LLC (TDF), in collaboration with the University of New Mexico (UNM), cooled an optical-refrigerator cooling element comprised of an ytterbium-doped yttrium lithium fluoride (Yb:YLF) crystal from room tempera-ture to 123 K with about 2% efficiency. This is the world record in optical refrigera-tion and an important step toward revolutionizing cryogenic systems for sensor ap-plications. During this period, they also designed and analyzed the crucial elements of a prototype optical refrigerator including the thermal link that connects the cool-ing element with the load.

  17. 2014-04-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule regarding test procedures for residential refrigerators and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on April 10, 2014.

  18. Waste Heat Recapture from Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fricke, Brian A [ORNL

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this project was to determine the potential energy savings associated with improved utilization of waste heat from supermarket refrigeration systems. Existing and advanced strategies for waste heat recovery in supermarkets were analyzed, including options from advanced sources such as combined heat and power (CHP), micro-turbines and fuel cells.

  19. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigerationá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  20. The smallest refrigerators can reach maximal efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner; Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu

    2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate whether size imposes a fundamental constraint on the efficiency of small thermal machines. We analyse in detail a model of a small self-contained refrigerator consisting of three qubits. We show analytically that this system can reach the Carnot efficiency, thus demonstrating that there exists no complementarity between size and efficiency.

  1. Covered Product Category: Refrigerated Beverage Vending Machines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    FEMP provides acquisition guidance and Federal efficiency requirements across a variety of product categories, including refrigerated beverage vending machines, which are covered by the ENERGY STAR« program. Federal laws and requirements mandate that agencies meet these efficiency requirements in all procurement and acquisition actions that are not specifically exempted by law.

  2. Alternative Refrigerants for Building Air Conditioning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bivens, D. B.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The majority of building air conditioning has traditionally been achieved with vapor compression technology using CFC-I I or HCFC-22 as refrigerant fluids. CFC-11 is being successfully replaced by HCFC-123 (retrofit or new equipment) or by HFC- 134a...

  3. Ground Loops for Heat Pumps and Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braud, H. J.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ground loops are used for water source heat pumps. Refrigeration can be put on a ground loop. Water-cooled condensing units are more efficient than air-cooled, and they can be put indoors. Indoor location makes piping for desuperheater hot water...

  4. Dilution cycle control for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A dilution cycle control system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The control system includes a time delay relay for sensing shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system and for generating a control signal only after expiration of a preselected time period measured from the sensed shutdown of the absorption refrigeration system, during which the absorption refrigeration system is not restarted. A dilution cycle for the absorption refrigeration system is initiated in response to generation of a control signal by the time delay relay. This control system is particularly suitable for use with an absorption refrigeration system which is frequently cycled on and off since the time delay provided by the control system prevents needless dilution of the absorption refrigeration system when the system is turned off for only a short period of time and then is turned back on.

  5. MOTOR BIKES, MOPEDS, AND MOTOR SCOOTERS Registration and Operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lozano-Robledo, Alvaro

    6. 6.1 MOTOR BIKES, MOPEDS, AND MOTOR SCOOTERS Registration and Operation Motor Bikes, Mopeds, and Motor Scooters are defined as motor vehicles and are subject to all regulations governing motor vehicle operation on the grounds of the University. Such a motor vehicle owned and operated by a member

  6. IEA Annex 26: Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baxter, VAN

    2003-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    With increased concern about the impact of refrigerant leakage on global warming, a number of new supermarket refrigeration system configurations requiring significantly less refrigerant charge are being considered. In order to help promote the development of advanced systems and expand the knowledge base for energy-efficient supermarket technology, the International Energy Agency (IEA) established IEA Annex 26 (Advanced Supermarket Refrigeration/Heat Recovery Systems) under the ''IEA Implementing Agreement on Heat Pumping Technologies''. Annex 26 focuses on demonstrating and documenting the energy saving and environmental benefits of advanced systems design for food refrigeration and space heating and cooling for supermarkets. Advanced in this context means systems that use less energy, require less refrigerant and produce lower refrigerant emissions. Stated another way, the goal is to identify supermarket refrigeration and HVAC technology options that reduce the total equivalent warming impact (TEWI) of supermarkets by reducing both system energy use (increasing efficiency) and reducing total refrigerant charge. The Annex has five participating countries: Canada, Denmark, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The working program of the Annex has involved analytical and experimental investigation of several candidate system design approaches to determine their potential to reduce refrigerant usage and energy consumption. Advanced refrigeration system types investigated include the following: distributed compressor systems--small parallel compressor racks are located in close proximity to the food display cases they serve thus significantly shortening the connecting refrigerant line lengths; secondary loop systems--one or more central chillers are used to refrigerate a secondary coolant (e.g. brine, ice slurry, or CO2) that is pumped to the food display cases on the sales floor; self-contained display cases--each food display case has its own refrigeration unit; low-charge direct expansion--similar to conventional multiplex refrigeration systems but with improved controls to limit charge. Means to integrate store HVAC systems for space heating/cooling with the refrigeration system have been investigated as well. One approach is to use heat pumps to recover refrigeration waste heat and raise it to a sufficient level to provide for store heating needs. Another involves use of combined heating and power (CHP) or combined cooling, heating, and power (CCHP) systems to integrate the refrigeration, HVAC, and power services in stores. Other methods including direct recovery of refrigeration reject heat for space and water heating have also been examined.

  7. REA Refrigerated Display Case LED Lighting Performance Specification |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn April 23, 2014, an OHASeptember 2010In addition to 1 |D I S P U T E SBuilding

  8. Bifurcation and control of chaos in Induction motor drives

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnendu Chakrabarty; Urmila Kar

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The induction motor controlled by Indirect Field Oriented Control (IFOC) is known to have high performance and better stability. This paper reports the dynamical behavior of an indirect field oriented control (IFOC) induction motor drive in the light of bifurcation theory. The speed of high performance induction motor drive is controlled by IFOC method. The knowledge of qualitative change of the behavior of the motor such as equilibrium points, limit cycles and chaos with the change of motor parameters and load torque are essential for proper control of the motor. This paper provides a numerical approach to understand better the dynamical behavior of an indirect field oriented control of a current-fed induction motor. The focus is on bifurcation analysis of the IFOC motor, with a particular emphasis on the change that affects the dynamics and stability under small variations of Proportional Integral controller (PI) parameters, load torque and k, the ratio of the rotor time constant and its estimate etc. Bifurcation diagrams are computed. This paper also attempts to discuss various types of the transition to chaos in the induction motor. The results of the obtained bifurcation simulations give useful guidelines for adjusting both motor model and PI controller parameters. It is also important to ensure desired operation of the motor when the motor shows chaotic behavior. Infinite numbers of unstable periodic orbits are embedded in a chaotic attractor. Any unstable periodic orbit can be stabilized by proper control algorithm. The delayed feedback control method to control chaos has been implemented in this system.

  9. Development of Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerant Solutions for Commercial Refrigeration Systems using a Life Cycle Climate Performance Design Tool

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vineyard, Edward Allan [ORNL] [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems are known to be prone to high leak rates and to consume large amounts of electricity. As such, direct emissions related to refrigerant leakage and indirect emissions resulting from primary energy consumption contribute greatly to their Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP). In this paper, an LCCP design tool is used to evaluate the performance of a typical commercial refrigeration system with alternative refrigerants and minor system modifications to provide lower Global Warming Potential (GWP) refrigerant solutions with improved LCCP compared to baseline systems. The LCCP design tool accounts for system performance, ambient temperature, and system load; system performance is evaluated using a validated vapor compression system simulation tool while ambient temperature and system load are devised from a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). The LCCP design tool also accounts for the change in hourly electricity emission rate to yield an accurate prediction of indirect emissions. The analysis shows that conventional commercial refrigeration system life cycle emissions are largely due to direct emissions associated with refrigerant leaks and that system efficiency plays a smaller role in the LCCP. However, as a transition occurs to low GWP refrigerants, the indirect emissions become more relevant. Low GWP refrigerants may not be suitable for drop-in replacements in conventional commercial refrigeration systems; however some mixtures may be introduced as transitional drop-in replacements. These transitional refrigerants have a significantly lower GWP than baseline refrigerants and as such, improved LCCP. The paper concludes with a brief discussion on the tradeoffs between refrigerant GWP, efficiency and capacity.

  10. Performance bound for quantum absorption refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luis A. Correa; JosÚ P. Palao; Gerardo Adesso; Daniel Alonso

    2013-04-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An implementation of quantum absorption chillers with three qubits has been recently proposed, that is ideally able to reach the Carnot performance regime. Here we study the working efficiency of such self-contained refrigerators, adopting a consistent treatment of dissipation effects. We demonstrate that the coefficient of performance at maximum cooling power is upper bounded by 3/4 of the Carnot performance. The result is independent of the details of the system and the equilibrium temperatures of the external baths. We provide design prescriptions that saturate the bound in the limit of a large difference between the operating temperatures. Our study suggests that delocalized dissipation, which must be taken into account for a proper modelling of the machine-baths interaction, is a fundamental source of irreversibility which prevents the refrigerator from approaching the Carnot performance arbitrarily closely in practice. The potential role of quantum correlations in the operation of these machines is also investigated.

  11. An optimized magnet for magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bj°rk, R; Smith, A; Christensen, D V; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnet designed for use in a magnetic refrigeration device is presented. The magnet is designed by applying two general schemes for improving a magnet design to a concentric Halbach cylinder magnet design and dimensioning and segmenting this design in an optimum way followed by the construction of the actual magnet. The final design generates a peak value of 1.24 T, an average flux density of 0.9 T in a volume of 2 L using only 7.3 L of magnet, and has an average low flux density of 0.08 T also in a 2 L volume. The working point of all the permanent magnet blocks in the design is very close to the maximum energy density. The final design is characterized in terms of a performance parameter, and it is shown that it is one of the best performing magnet designs published for magnetic refrigeration.

  12. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W. (Sante Fe, NM); Olson, Jeffrey R. (San Mateo, CA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  13. Method of reducing chlorofluorocarbon refrigerant emissons to the atmosphere

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Fairchild, Phillip D. (Clinton, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is disclosed for reducing chloroflurocarbon (CFC) refrigerant emissions during removal or transfer or refrigerants from a vapor compression cooling system or heat pump which comprises contacting the refrigerant with a suitable sorbent material. The sorbent material allows for the storage and retention or the chlorofluorocarbon in non-gaseous form so that it does not tend to escape to the atmosphere where it would cause harm by contributing to ozone depletion. In other aspects of the invention, contacting of CFC refrigerants with sorbent material allows for purification and recycling of used refrigerant, and a device containing stored sorbent material can be employed in the detection of refrigerant leakage in a cooling system or heat pump.

  14. Air Conditioning with Magnetic Refrigeration : An Efficient, Green Compact Cooling System Using Magnetic Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    BEETIT Project: Astronautics is developing an air conditioning system that relies on magnetic fields. Typical air conditioners use vapor compression to cool air. Vapor compression uses a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb the heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. Astronauticsĺ design uses a novel property of certain materials, called ômagnetocaloric materialsö, to achieve the same result as liquid refrigerants. These magnetocaloric materials essentially heat up when placed within a magnetic field and cool down when removed, effectively pumping heat out from a cooler to warmer environment. In addition, magnetic refrigeration uses no ozone-depleting gases and is safer to use than conventional air conditioners which are prone to leaks.

  15. Hydrophilic structures for condensation management in refrigerator appliances

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuehl, Steven John; Vonderhaar, John J; Wu, Guolian; Wu, Mianxue

    2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigerator appliance that includes a freezer compartment having a freezer compartment door, and a refrigeration compartment having at least one refrigeration compartment door. The appliance further includes a mullion with an exterior surface. The mullion divides the compartments and the exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point. The appliance may also include a cabinet that houses the compartments and has two sides, each with an exterior surface. Further, at least one exterior surface directs condensation toward a transfer point.

  16. Process Options for Nominal 2-K Helium Refrigeration System Designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter Knudsen, Venkatarao Ganni

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nominal 2-K helium refrigeration systems are frequently used for superconducting radio frequency and magnet string technologies used in accelerators. This paper examines the trade-offs and approximate performance of four basic types of processes used for the refrigeration of these technologies; direct vacuum pumping on a helium bath, direct vacuum pumping using full or partial refrigeration recovery, cold compression, and hybrid compression (i.e., a blend of cold and warm sub-atmospheric compression).

  17. Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tan, C.; Liu, J.; Tang, F.; Liu, Y.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 Optimal Design Refrigeration System for a Mucilage Glue Fiber Factory Chaoyi Tan Jianlong Liu Fennan Tang Yang Liu Hunan University of Technology... fiber ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency Vol.IV-1-4 2. REFRIGERATION SYSTEM SUPERIOR DESIGN PROPOSAL IN MUCILAGE GLUE FIBER FACTORY 2.1 Refrigeration system superior design proposal in mucilage glue fiber factory...

  18. Efficient, High-Torque Electric Vehicle Motor: Advanced Electric Vehicle Motors with Low or No Rare Earth Content

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REACT Project: QM Power will develop a new type of electric motor with the potential to efficiently power future generations of EVs without the use of rare-earth-based magnets. Many of todayĺs EV motors use rare earth magnets to efficiently provide torque to the wheels. QM Powerĺs motors would contain magnets that use no rare earth minerals, are light and compact, and can deliver more power with greater efficiency and at reduced cost. Key innovations in this project include a new motor design with iron-based magnetic materials, a new motor control technique, and advanced manufacturing techniques that substantially reduce the cost of the motor. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a cost-effective EV motor that offers the rough peak equivalent of 270 horsepower.

  19. Implementing Motor Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colip, R. L.

    Electric motors account for sixty five percent of industrial energy consumed today. There are many opportunities to conserve electricity by using more energy efficient motors and drives. Proven technologies and practices can reduce energy...

  20. Stepping Motor Control System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Larson, Noble G.

    This paper describes a hardware system designed to facilitate position and velocity control of a group of eight stepping motors using a PDP-11. The system includes motor driver cards and other interface cards in addition ...

  1. TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Desialylation accelerates platelet clearance after refrigeration and initiates GPIb

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von Andrian, Ulrich H.

    TRANSFUSION MEDICINE Desialylation accelerates platelet clearance after refrigeration and initiates, Boston, MA When refrigerated platelets are rewarmed, they secrete active sialidases, including factor receptor (VWFR), specifically the GPIb subunit. The recovery and circulation of refrigerated

  2. Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Russell, Daniel A.

    Tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstrations Daniel A. Russell and Pontus Weibulla; accepted 22 April 2002 An inexpensive less than $25 tabletop thermoacoustic refrigerator for demonstration in the literature, this demonstration model effectively illustrates the behavior of a thermoacoustic refrigerator

  3. Design Principles and Performance Metrics for Magnetic Refrigerators Operating Near Room Temperature

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Design Principles and Performance Metrics for Magnetic Refrigerators Operating Near Room Principles and Performance Metrics for Magnetic Refrigerators Operating Near Room Temperature by Daniel Sean decade, active magnetic regenerative (AMR) refrigeration technology has progressed towards commercial

  4. The effect of distributed exchange parameters on magnetocaloric refrigeration capacity in amorphous and nanocomposite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McHenry, Michael E.

    of Physics. Related Articles High performance magnetocaloric perovskites for magnetic refrigeration Appl energy on interatomic spacing. The magnetic entropy curve revealed extra broadening with a refrigerationThe effect of distributed exchange parameters on magnetocaloric refrigeration capacity in amorphous

  5. Compressor calorimeter performance of refrigerant blends: Comparative methods and results for a refrigerator/freezer application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rice, C K; Sand, J R

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A protocol was developed to define calorimeter operating pressures for nonazeotropic refrigerant mixtures (NARMs) which corresponded with the saturated evaporator and condenser temperatures commonly used for pure refrigerants. Compressor calorimeter results were obtained using this equivalent-mean-temperature (EMT) approach and a generally applied Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers (AHAM) procedure at conditions characteristic of a domestic refrigerator-freezer application. Tests with R-12 and two NARMs indicate that compressor volumetric and isentropic efficiencies are nearly the same for refrigerants with similar capacities and pressure ratios. The liquid-line temperature conditions specified in the AHAM calorimeter rating procedure for refrigerator-freezer compressors were found to preferentially derate NARM performance relative to R-12. Conversion of calorimeter data taken with a fixed liquid-line temperature to a uniform minimal level of condenser subcooling is recommended as a fairer procedure when NARMs are involved. Compressor energy-efficiency-ratio (EER) and capacity data measured as a result of the EMT approach were compared to system performance calculated using an equivalent-heat-exchanger-loading (EHXL) protocol based on a Lorenz-Meutzner (L-M) refrigerator-freezer modeling program. The EHXL protocol was used to transform the calorimeter results into a more relevant representation of potential L-M cycle performance. The EMT method used to set up the calorimeter tests and the AHAM liquid-line conditions combined to significantly understate the cycle potential of NARMs relative to that predicted at the more appropriate EHXL conditions. Compressor conditions representative of larger heat exchanger sizes were also found to give a smaller L-M cycle advantage relative to R-12.

  6. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A. (Ames, IA); Pecharsky, Vitalij K. (Ames, IA)

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd.sub.5 (Si.sub.x Ge.sub.1-x).sub.4, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing.

  7. Active magnetic refrigerants based on Gd-Si-Ge material and refrigeration apparatus and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Pecharsky, V.K.

    1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or less than 0.5, as a magnetic refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/antiferromagnetic or ferromagnetic-II/ferromagnetic-I first order phase transition and extraordinary magneto-thermal properties, such as a giant magnetocaloric effect, that renders the refrigerant more efficient and useful than existing magnetic refrigerants for commercialization of magnetic regenerators. The reversible first order phase transition is tunable from approximately 30 K to approximately 290 K (near room temperature) and above by compositional adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for refrigerating, air conditioning, and liquefying low temperature cryogens with significantly improved efficiency and operating temperature range from approximately 10 K to 300 K and above. Also an active magnetic regenerator and method using Gd{sub 5} (Si{sub x} Ge{sub 1{minus}x}){sub 4}, where x is equal to or greater than 0.5, as a magnetic heater/refrigerant that exhibits a reversible ferromagnetic/paramagnetic second order phase transition with large magneto-thermal properties, such as a large magnetocaloric effect that permits the commercialization of a magnetic heat pump and/or refrigerant. This second order phase transition is tunable from approximately 280 K (near room temperature) to approximately 350 K by composition adjustments. The active magnetic regenerator and method can function for low level heating for climate control for buildings, homes and automobile, and chemical processing. 27 figs.

  8. arti refrigerant database: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    textbooks: Database Systems Alechina, Natasha 86 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  9. Mexico Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Identifying Reduction Potential and Implementing NAMAs Jump to: navigation, search Name Mexico-Sectoral Study on Climate and Refrigeration Technology in Developing Countries and...

  10. Energy Efficient Refrigerators Incentive Program Options for South Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Can, Stephane de la Rue du

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covary, Unlimited Energy, South Africa and Paul Waide, WaideCA 94720 Unlimited Energy 2 South Africa Waide Strategicof refrigerator energy efficiency for South Africa. The

  11. New Refrigerant Boosts Energy Efficiency of Supermarket Display...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Solstice N40 offer supermarkets an easy solution to reduce their refrigeration system's electricity consumption, save energy, and cut greenhouse gas emissions. The Building...

  12. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Integration Center. Life Cycle Climate Performance of supermarket refrigeration.
    Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab Life Cycle Climate Performance of...

  13. 2015-03-26: Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products; Notice of Intent...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on March 26, 2015. Though it is not intended or expected, should any...

  14. Thermodynamic Evaluation of Low-Global-Warming-Potential Refrigerants...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    fluids along with thermophysical properties that yield high energy efficiency in refrigeration equipment. NIST cannot make the determination of the optimal fluid for any given...

  15. Geothermal: Sponsored by OSTI -- Chapter 13. Absorption Refrigeration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3. Absorption Refrigeration Geothermal Technologies Legacy Collection HelpFAQ | Site Map | Contact Us HomeBasic Search About Publications Advanced Search New Hot Docs News...

  16. active magnetic refrigerator: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies on solid materials exhibiting the magnetocaloric effect, (more) Dikeos, John 2006-01-01 2 Design...

  17. Helium Refrigerator Design for Pulsed Heat Load in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuendig, A.; Schoenfeld, H. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2006-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear fusion reactors of the Tokamak type will be operated in a pulsed mode requiring the helium refrigerator to remove periodically large heat loads in time steps of approximately one hour. What are the necessary steps for a refrigerator to cope with such load variations?A series of numerical simulations has been performed indicating the possibility of an active refrigerator control with low exergetic losses. A basic comparison is made between the largest existing refrigerator sizes and the size required to service for example the ITER requirements.

  18. Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Impact Evaluation Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Energy Efficiency Standards for Refrigerators in Brazil: A Methodology for Impact Evaluation Focus...

  19. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, D.M.

    1983-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle. 18 figs.

  20. Economizer refrigeration cycle space heating and cooling system and process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jardine, Douglas M. (Colorado Springs, CO)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention relates to heating and cooling systems and more particularly to an improved system utilizing a Stirling Cycle engine heat pump in a refrigeration cycle.

  1. Sensorless, Online Motor Diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yazici, Birsen

    of faults or incipi- ent faults in electric motor drives: Sensorless torque measurement Direct detection as the motor. Exten- sive online monitoring of the motors can lead to greater plant availability, extended over the last several years, ade- quate data processing capability is now available on cost

  2. Quantum motor and future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evgeny G. Fateev

    2013-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In a popular language, the possibilities of the Casimir expulsion effect are presented, which can be the basis of quantum motors. Such motors can be in the form of a special multilayer thin film with periodic and complex nanosized structures. Quantum motors of the type of the Casimir platforms can be the base of transportation, energy and many other systems in the future.

  3. Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

    A newly designed crankshaft of a compressor for a side-by-side (SBS) refrigerator was studied. Using mass and energy conservation balances, a variety of compressor loads typically found in a refrigeration cycle were analyzed. The laboratory failure... vis-a┤-vis de la fiabilite┤ et e┤tude de casArticle history: Received 18 March 2008 Received in revised form 6 May 2008 Accepted 21 July 2008 Published online 31 July 2008 Keywords: Refrigeration system Compression system Reciprocating compressor...

  4. Motor Control STEVEN P. WISE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shadmehr, Reza

    Motor Control STEVEN P. WISE National Institute of Mental Health REZA SHADMEHR Johns Hopkins University I. What Controls Movement II. What the Motor System Controls III. Mechanisms of Motor Control IV. Motor Memory V. Flexibility in Motor Control VI. Evolution of the Motor System GLOSSARY agonist A muscle

  5. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 2: Air Conditioner System Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piotr A. Domanski; W. Vance Payne

    2002-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of conducting comprehensive measurements of thermophysical for refrigerant R125 and refrigerant blends R410A and R507A and developing new equation of state formulations and mixture models for predicting thermophysical properties of HFC refrigerant blends. Part 2 of this project conducted performance measurements of split-system, 3-ton R22 and R410A residential air conditioners in the 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C) outdoor temperature range and development of a system performance model. The performance data was used in preparing a beta version of EVAP-COND, a windows-based simulation package for predicting performance of finned-tube evaporators and condensers. The modeling portion of this project also included the formulation of a model for an air-conditioner equipped with a thermal expansion valve (TXV). Capacity and energy efficiency ratio (EER) were measured and compared. The R22 system's performance was measured over the outdoor ambient temperature range of 80 to 135 F (27.8 to 57.2 C). The same test range was planned for the R410A system. However, the compressor's safety system cut off the compressor at the 135.0 F (57.2 C) test temperature. The highest measurement on this system was at 130.0 F (54.4 C). Subsequently, a custom-manufactured R410A compressor with a disabled safety system and a more powerful motor was installed and performance was measured at outdoor temperatures up to 155.0 F (68.3 C). Both systems had similar capacity and EER performance at 82.0 F (27.8 C). The capacity and EER degradation of both systems were nearly linearly dependent with rising ambient outdoor ambient test temperatures. The performance degradation of R410A at higher temperatures was greater than R22. However, the R22 and R410A systems both operated normally during all tests. Visual observations of the R410A system provided no indication of vibrations or TXV hunting at high ambient outdoor test conditions with the compressor operating in the transcritical regime.

  6. Motor/generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale (Glasford, IL)

    2008-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A motor/generator is provided for connecting between a transmission input shaft and an output shaft of a prime mover. The motor/generator may include a motor/generator housing, a stator mounted to the motor/generator housing, a rotor mounted at least partially within the motor/generator housing and rotatable about a rotor rotation axis, and a transmission-shaft coupler drivingly coupled to the rotor. The transmission-shaft coupler may include a clamp, which may include a base attached to the rotor and a plurality of adjustable jaws.

  7. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motorsĺ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  8. Replacing Motors Counting Savings: Results from a 100 Motor Studyá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaufman, N. M.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REPLACING MOTORS, COUNTING SAVINGS: RESULTS FROM A 100 MOTOR STUDY Nicole M. Kaufman Motor Systems Engineer Advanced Energy Raleigh, NC ABSTRACT Software tools such as MotorMaster+ aid facility personnel in conducting payback... analyses for replacing motors. These tools make assumptions on the motorsĺ operational efficiency in their calculations. By observing 100 pre-EPCA (Energy Policy & Conservation Act) motors in operation, removing them from service and conducting IEEE...

  9. Lanthanide Al-Ni base Ericsson cycle magnetic refrigerants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.; Takeya, Hiroyuki

    1995-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerant for a magnetic refrigerator using the Ericsson thermodynamic cycle comprises DyAlNi and (Gd{sub 0.54}Er{sub 0.46})AlNi alloys having a relatively constant {Delta}Tmc over a wide temperature range. 16 figs.

  10. Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    1 Scroll compressor modelling for heat pumps using hydrocarbons as refrigerants Paul BYRNE prototype working with a scroll compressor was built and tested. A near-industrial prototype is today being regarding hydrocarbons as refrigerants, this article reviews scroll compressor modelling studies

  11. NBSIFI 86-3373 Impact of Refrigerant Property

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    of performance prediction to refrigerant properties for a residential, split heat pump operating in the cooling mode. The NBS steady-state heat pump model, HPSIM, was used in this study. The individual influence and refrigerant mass flow rate are also given in the report. iii #12;Discrepancy between heat pump laboratory test

  12. Feasibility of Solar-Assisted Refrigerated Transport in Australia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the fea- sibility of using photovoltaics to minimise the use of diesel generators in refrigerated) modules to minimise the use of diesel generation in refrigerated transport. Sub- sequently, UK supermarket, to fail over to the diesel generator when electrical power is cut. The major supermarket chains trading

  13. Microscopic model of a phononic refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liliana Arrachea; Eduardo Mucciolo; Claudio Chamon; Rodrigo Capaz

    2012-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a simple microscopic model to pump heat from a cold to a hot reservoir in a nanomechanical system. The model consists of a one-dimensional chain of masses and springs coupled to a back gate through which a time-dependent perturbation is applied. The action of the gate is to modulate the coupling of the masses to a substrate via additional springs that introduce a moving phononic barrier. We solve the problem numerically using non-equilibrium Green function techniques. For low driving frequencies and for sharp traveling barriers, we show that this microscopic model realizes a phonon refrigerator.

  14. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Prenger, F.C. Jr.

    1985-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  15. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with heat pipes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Los Alamos, NM); Prenger, Jr., F. Coyne (Madison, WI)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 4 to 20 K range utilizes heat pipes to transfer heat to and from the magnetic material at the appropriate points during the material's movement. In one embodiment circular disks of magnetic material can be interleaved with the ends of the heat pipes. In another embodiment a mass of magnetic material reciprocatingly moves between the end of the heat pipe of pipes that transmits heat from the object of cooling to the magnetic material and the end of the heat pipe or pipes that transmits heat from the magnetic material to a heat sink.

  16. Assessment of Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants for Window Air Conditioners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Shen, Bo [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents technical assessment of environmentally friendly refrigerants for window air conditioners that currently use refrigerant R410A for residential and commercial applications. The alternative refrigerants that are studied for its replacement include R32, R600a, R290, R1234yf, R1234ze and a mixture of R32 (90% molar concentration) and R125 (10% molar concentration). Baseline experiments were performed on a window unit charged with R410A. The ORNL Heat Pump Design Model was calibrated with the baseline data and was used to assess the comparative performance of the WAC with alternative refrigerants. The paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each refrigerants and their suitability for window air conditioners.

  17. Properties and Cycle Performance of Refrigerant Blends Operating Near and Above the Refrigerant Critical Point, Task 1: Refrigerant Properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark O. McLinden; Arno Laesecke; Eric W. Lemmon; Joseph W. Magee; Richard A. Perkins

    2002-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The main goal of this project was to investigate and compare the performance of an R410A air conditioner to that of an R22 air conditioner, with specific interest in performance at high ambient temperatures at which the condenser of the R410A system may be operating above the refrigerant's critical point. Part 1 of this project consisted of measuring thermodynamic properties R125, R410A and R507A, measuring viscosity and thermal conductivity of R410A and R507A and comparing data to mixture models in NIST REFPROP database. For R125, isochoric (constant volume) heat capacity was measured over a temperature range of 305 to 397 K (32 to 124 C) at pressures up to 20 MPa. For R410A, isochoric heat capacity was measured along 8 isochores with a temperature range of 303 to 397 K (30 to 124 C) at pressures up to 18 MPa. Pressure-density-temperature was also measured along 14 isochores over a temperature range of 200 to 400 K (-73 to 127 C) at pressures up to 35 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. For R507A, viscosity was measured along 5 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 421 K (28 to 148 C) at pressures up to 83 MPa and thermal conductivity along 6 isotherms over a temperature range of 301 to 404 K (28 to 131 C) with pressures to 38 MPa. Mixture models were developed to calculate the thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant mixtures containing R32, R125, R134a and/or R125. The form of the model is the same for all the blends considered, but blend-specific mixing functions are required for the blends R32/125 (R410 blends) and R32/134a (a constituent binary of R407 blends). The systems R125/134a, R125/143a, R134a/143a, and R134a/152a share a common, generalized mixing function. The new equation of state for R125 is believed to be the most accurate and comprehensive formulation of the properties for that fluid. Likewise, the mixture model developed in this work is the latest state-of-the-art for thermodynamic properties of HFC refrigerant blends. These models were incorporated into version 7 of NIST REFPROP database.

  18. An Evaluation of the Environmental Impact of Different Commercial Supermarket Refrigeration Systems Using Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beshr, Mohamed [University of Maryland, College Park; Aute, Vikrant [University of Maryland, College Park; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL; Fricke, Brian A [ORNL; Radermacher, Reinhard [University of Maryland, College Park

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Commercial refrigeration systems consumed 1.21 Quads of primary energy in 2010 and are known to be a major source for refrigerant charge leakage into the environment. Thus, it is important to study the environmental impact of commercial supermarket refrigeration systems and improve their design to minimize any adverse impacts. The system s Life Cycle Climate Performance (LCCP) was presented as a comprehensive metric with the aim of calculating the equivalent mass of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere throughout its lifetime, from construction to operation and destruction. In this paper, an open source tool for the evaluation of the LCCP of different air-conditioning and refrigeration systems is presented and used to compare the environmental impact of a typical multiplex direct expansion (DX) supermarket refrigeration systems based on three different refrigerants as follows: two hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants (R-404A, and R-407F), and a low global warming potential (GWP) refrigerant (N-40). The comparison is performed in 8 US cities representing different climates. The hourly energy consumption of the refrigeration system, required for the calculation of the indirect emissions, is calculated using a widely used building energy modeling tool (EnergyPlus). A sensitivity analysis is performed to determine the impact of system charge and power plant emission factor on the LCCP results. Finally, we performed an uncertainty analysis to determine the uncertainty in total emissions for both R-404A and N-40 operated systems. We found that using low GWP refrigerants causes a considerable drop in the impact of uncertainty in the inputs related to direct emissions on the uncertainty of the total emissions of the system.

  19. PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in New low GWP refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kazachkov, Ivan

    PhD student in Energy Technology, specifically in New low GWP refrigerants The School of Industrial, specifically New low GWP refrigerants. KTH is the largest technical university in Sweden. Education and Refrigeration The Division of Applied Thermodynamics and Refrigeration, part of the Department of Energy

  20. Refrigerated Warehouses Introduction Page 8-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Refrigerated Warehouses ş Introduction Page 8-1 2008 Nonresidential Compliance Manual August 2009 8 Refrigerated Warehouses 8.1 Introduction This section of the nonresidential compliance manual addresses refrigerated warehouses. Since regulation of refrigerated warehouses is new for the 2008 Standards (ž126

  1. Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 15901601 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 1590ş1601 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration February 2007 Abstract The paper focuses on operation of simple refrigeration cycles and considers refrigeration cycle and the other is a trans-critical CO2 refrigeration cycle. There is no fundamental

  2. Development and Validation of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigeration Cycle Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Development and Validation of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigeration Cycle Simulation by John of an Active Magnetic Regenerator Refrigeration Cycle Simulation by John Dikeos B.Sc., Queen's University, 2003 for refrigeration and gas liquefaction is active magnetic regenerator (AMR) refrigeration. This technology relies

  3. Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoffmeyer, W.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , and how to interpret efficiency data. A perspective is given from which to evaluate available energy efficient motor offerings for a given application....

  4. Hybrid vehicle motor alignment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Levin, Michael Benjamin (Ann Arbor, MI)

    2001-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A rotor of an electric motor for a motor vehicle is aligned to an axis of rotation for a crankshaft of an internal combustion engine having an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. A locator is provided on the crankshaft, a piloting tool is located radially by the first locator to the crankshaft. A stator of the electric motor is aligned to a second locator provided on the piloting tool. The stator is secured to the engine block. The rotor is aligned to the crankshaft and secured thereto.

  5. Neural correlates underlying motor map plasticity and skilled motor behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramanathan, Dhakshin

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of neurons within the motor cortex. Physiol Rev, 1975. 55(and S.P. Wise, The motor cortex of the rat: cytoarchitecturedelayed changes of rat motor cortical output representation

  6. Combined refrigeration system with a liquid pre-cooling heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gaul, Christopher J.

    2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compressor-pump unit for use in a vapor-compression refrigeration system is provided. The compressor-pump unit comprises a driving device including a rotatable shaft. A compressor is coupled with a first portion of the shaft for compressing gaseous refrigerant within the vapor-compression refrigeration system. A liquid pump is coupled with a second portion of the shaft for receiving liquid refrigerant having a first pressure and for discharging the received liquid refrigerant at a second pressure with the second pressure being higher than the first pressure by a predetermined amount such that the discharged liquid refrigerant is subcooled. A pre-cooling circuit is connected to the liquid pump with the pre-cooling circuit being exposed to the gaseous refrigerant whereby the gaseous refrigerant absorbs heat from the liquid refrigerant, prior to the liquid refrigerant entering the liquid pump.

  7. Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirschner, Denise

    Motor Vehicle Record Procedure Objective Outline the procedure for obtaining motor vehicle record (MVR) through Fleet Services. Vehicle Operator Policy 3. Operators with 7 or more points on their motor vehicle record

  8. New energy test procedures for refrigerators and other appliances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meier, Alan; Ernebrant, Stefan; Kawamoto, Kaoru; Wihlborg, Mats

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many innovations in refrigerator design rely on microprocessors, sensors, and algorithms to control automatic defrost, variable speed,and other features. Even though these features strongly influence energy consumption, the major energy test procedures presently test only a refrigerator's mechanical efficiency and ignore the ''software'' aspects. We describe a new test procedure where both ''hardware'' and ''software'' tests are fed into a dynamic simulation model. A wide range of conditions can be tested and simulated. This approach promotes international harmonization because the simulation model can also be programmed to estimate energy use for the ISO, DOE, or JIS test. The approach outlined for refrigerators can also be applied to other appliances.

  9. The refrigeration and cryogenic distribution system for the shortpulse x-ray source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, Michael A.; Corlett, John N.

    2002-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the essential elements of the cryogenic system. The cryogenic distribution system starts at the level of the linac superconducting RF cavities [1] and moves out through the cryogenic piping to the liquid helium refrigeration plant that will be used to cool the RF cavities and the undulator magnets. For this report, the cryogenic distribution system and cryogenic refrigerator includes the following elements: (1) The piping within the linac cryogenic modules will influence the heat transfer through the super-fluid helium from the outer surface of the TESLA niobium cavity and the liquid to gas interface within the horizontal header pipe where the superfluid helium boils. This piping determines the final design of the linac cryogenic module. (2) The acceptable pressure drops determine the supply and return piping dimensions. (3) The helium distribution system is determined by the need to cool down and warm up the various elements in the light source. (4) The size of the cryogenic plant is determined by the heat loads and the probable margin of error on those heat loads. Since the final heat loads are determined by the acceleration gradient in the cavities, a linac with five cryogenic modules will be compared to a linac with only four cryogenic modules. The design assumes that all cryogenic elements in the facility will be cooled using a common cryogenic plant. To minimize vibration effects on the beam lines, this plant is assumed to be located some distance from the synchrotron light beam lines. All of the cryogenic elements in the facility will be attached to the helium refrigeration system through cryogenic transfer lines. The largest single cryogenic load is the main linac, which consists of four or five cryogenic modules depending on the design gradient for the cavities in the linac section. The second largest heat load comes from the cryogenic modules that contain the transverse deflecting RF cavities. The injector linac is the third largest heat load. The seven superconducting undulator magnets in the hard x-ray production section are the smallest heat loads connected to the light source refrigeration plant. The linac and deflecting cavity sections require helium cooling at 1.9 K, 5 K and 40 K. The undulator magnets require two-phase helium cooling at 4.3 to 4.5 K.

  10. Stepping motor controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bourret, S.C.; Swansen, J.E.

    1982-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A stepping motor is microprocessor controlled by digital circuitry which monitors the output of a shaft encoder adjustably secured to the stepping motor and generates a subsequent stepping pulse only after the preceding step has occurred and a fixed delay has expired. The fixed delay is variable on a real-time basis to provide for smooth and controlled deceleration.

  11. Refrigerator with a clearance seal compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holland, N. J.

    1985-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    In a Stirling refrigeration system in which a displacer is driven in a reciprocating motion within a cold finger by a pressure differential between helium gas in the cold finger and helium gas in a gas spring volume, the reciprocating piston compressor for the working volume has a clearance seal between the working volume and a control volume. The only lubricant in that seal is the helium gas. The mean pressure of the working volume relative to the control volume can be controlled by varying the length of the clearance seal throughout the stroke of the piston. Preferably, the seal is between alumina ceramic sleeves. The clearance seal compressor may also be used in a Gifford-McMahon cycle.

  12. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, Martin S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies.

  13. Bipolar pulse field for magnetic refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lubell, M.S.

    1994-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigeration apparatus includes first and second steady state magnets, each having a field of substantially equal strength and opposite polarity, first and second bodies made of magnetocaloric material disposed respectively in the influence of the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, and a pulsed magnet, concentric with the first and second steady state magnets, and having a field which cycles between the fields of the first and second steady state magnets, thereby cyclically magnetizing and demagnetizing and thus heating and cooling the first and second bodies. Heat exchange apparatus of suitable design can be used to expose a working fluid to the first and second bodies of magnetocaloric material. A controller is provided to synchronize the flow of working fluid with the changing states of magnetization of the first and second bodies. 2 figs.

  14. Comprehensive Compressor Calorimeter Testing of Lower-GWP Alternative Refrigerants for Heat Pump and Medium Temperature Refrigeration Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL; Sharma, Vishaldeep [ORNL] [ORNL; Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In response to environmental concerns raised by the use of refrigerants with high Global Warming Potential (GWP), the Air-Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) has launched an industry-wide cooperative research program, referred to as the Low-GWP Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation Program (AREP), to identify and evaluate promising alternative refrigerants for major product categories. This paper reports one of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) contributions to AREP. It compares performance of alternative refrigerants to that of R-410A and R-404A for heat pump and medium temperature applications, respectively. The alternatives reported in this paper are: R-32, DR-5, and L-41a for R-410A and ARM-31a, D2Y-65, L-40, and a mixture of R-32 and R-134a for R-404A. All performance comparison tests were conducted using scroll compressors of ~1.85 tons (6.5 kW) cooling capacity. Tests were conducted over a range of combinations of saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures for both compressors. The tests showed that, in general, energy efficiency ratio (EER) and cooling capacity of R-410A alternative refrigerants were slightly lower than that of the baseline refrigerant with a moderate increases in discharge temperature. On the other hand, R-404A alternative refrigerants showed relative performance dependence on saturation suction and saturation discharge temperatures and larger increases in discharge temperature than for the R-410A alternatives. This paper summarizes the relative performance of all alternative refrigerants compared to their respective baseline.

  15. Asymptotic Analysis of Cooperative Molecular Motor System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Durrett, Richard

    Mesoscale Model for Collections of Molecular Motors Stochastic Asymptotic Techniques #12;Molecular Motors

  16. absorption refrigerator system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  17. amr refrigeration cycle: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Banerjee; Ralph E. Pudritz; Lindsay Holmes 2004-08-15 112 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  18. adsorption refrigeration system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    J.; Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 8 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  19. absorption refrigeration system: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  20. adsorption refrigerator powered: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    cycle T I. Jinshah B S; Ajith Krishnan R; Eep V S 71 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  1. absorption refrigeration systems: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sharp, M. K.; Case, M. E.; Gregory, R. W.; Case, P. L. 12 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  2. authority refrigerator replacement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    videos. Unlike prior work, it does not ... Dale, Kevin 52 Energy Savings from Floating Head Pressure in Ammonia Refrigeration Systems Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary:...

  3. Reliability of Heat Pumps Containing R410-A Refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McJimsey, B. A.; Cawley, D.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on alternate refrigerants. One major manufacturer announced a formation of black smudge on internal surfaces of field trial units using HFCs. Several causes were suggested but none were published. Reports of capillary tube plugging were wide spread. Polyol...

  4. Removing Odors from Refrigerators and Freezers after Food has Spoiled

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    FCS Project Team - FDRM UNIT

    2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    If food has spoiled in a refrigerator or freezer because of a power outage or some other reason, undesirable odors can result. This publication explains how to eliminate odors from these appliances....

  5. Availability of refrigerants for heat pumps in Europe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    grids Smart cities #12;8 Residential HPs Refrigerants Use of aero-geo- +hydrothermal renewable energy cooling and heating Residential Future: Heating of electric cars and cooling the batteries Future: Smart

  6. Extreme solid state refrigeration using nanostructured Bi-Te alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lima Sharma, Ana L. (San Jose State University, San Jose, CA); Spataru, Dan Catalin; Medlin, Douglas L.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Morales, Alfredo Martin

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Materials are desperately needed for cryogenic solid state refrigeration. We have investigated nanostructured Bi-Te alloys for their potential use in Ettingshausen refrigeration to liquid nitrogen temperatures. These alloys form alternating layers of Bi{sub 2} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} blocks in equilibrium. The composition Bi{sub 4}Te{sub 3} was identified as having the greatest potential for having a high Ettingshausen figure of merit. Both single crystal and polycrystalline forms of this material were synthesized. After evaluating the Ettingshausen figure of merit for a large, high quality polycrystal, we simulated the limits of practical refrigeration in this material from 200 to 77 K using a simple device model. The band structure was also computed and compared to experiments. We discuss the crystal growth, transport physics, and practical refrigeration potential of Bi-Te alloys.

  7. Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5342)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Duracold Refrigeration Manufacturing Company, LLC failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. North Star Refrigerator: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5355)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that North Star Refrigerator Co., Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  9. Commercial Refrigerator Door: Proposed Penalty (2013-CE-5351)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Commercial Refrigerator Door Company, Inc. failed to certify a variety of walk-in cooler or freezer components as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  10. Optimal Sequencing of Central Refrigeration Equipment in an Industrial Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fiorino, D. P.; Priest, J. W.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A model was developed to find a viable solution to the problem of selecting the optimal sequence of refrigeration equipment (chillers, cooling towers, pumps) to operate in a Central Utility Plant. The optimal equipment sequence is that sequence...

  11. Design and construction of the astronautics refrigerator magnet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dresner, L.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document reports on the design, construction, and testing of a 7-Tesla, 4-in. bore superconducting magnet for use in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment. The magnet is a single-strand, layer-wound, potted solenoid wound with Formvar-insulated SSC strands. The magnet was constructed by American Magnetics, Inc. of Oak Ridge and has been installed in the Astronautics Refrigerator Experiment at the Astronautics Technology Center in Madison, Wisconsin.

  12. Improving the energy efficiency of refrigerators in India

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sand, J.R.; Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Bohman, R.H. [Consulting Engineer, Cedar Rapids, IA (United States)

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Five state-of-the-art, production refrigerators from different manufacturers in India were subjected to a variety of appliance rating and performance evaluation test procedures in an engineering laboratory. Cabinet heat loss, compressor calorimeter, high-ambient pull-down, and closed-door energy consumption tests were performed on each unit to assess the current status of commercially available Indian refrigerators and refrigerator component efficiencies. Daily energy consumption tests were performed at nominal line voltages and at 85% and 115% of nominal voltage to assess the effect of grid voltage variations. These test results were also used to indicate opportunities for effective improvements in energy efficiency. A widely distributed ``generic`` computer model capable of simulating single-door refrigerators with a small interior freezer section was used to estimate cabinet heat loss rates and closed door energy consumption values from basic cabinet and refrigeration circuit inputs. This work helped verify the model`s accuracy and potential value as a tool for evaluating the energy impact of proposed design options. Significant differences ranging from 30 to 90% were seen in the measured performance criterion for these ``comparable`` refrigerators suggesting opportunities for improvements in individual product designs. Modeled cabinet heat loadings differed from experimentally extrapolated values in a range from 2--29%, and daily energy consumption values estimated by the model differed from laboratory data by as little as 3% or as much as 25%, which indicates that refinement of the model may be needed for this single-door refrigerator type. Additional comparisons of experimentally measured performance criteria such as % compressor run times and compressor cycling rates to modeled results are given. The computer model is used to evaluate the energy saving impact of several modest changes to the basic Indian refrigerator design.

  13. Applications Tests of Energy Efficient, Environmentally Friendly Refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nimitz, J.; Glass, S.; McCullough, E.; Dhooge, P.

    APPLICATIONS TESTS OF ENERGY EFFICIENT, ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY REFRIGERANTS JONATHAN NIMITZ SUZANNE GLASS EDWARD McCULLOUGH PATRICK DHOOGE PRESIDENT/CEO RESEARCH ASSOCIATE ENGINEER DIR.OF BUSINESS DEV. ENVIRON?v1ENTAL TECHNOLOGY AND EDUCAn.... This goal has been achieved. Additionally, the Ikon? refrigerants were designed to take advantage of the exceptional combustion suppression characteristics of trifluoroiodomethane (CF 3 I), a member of the chemical family known as fluoroiodocarbons...

  14. Refrigerator design for the ambulatory and wheelchair-using elderly

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Mary Sue

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of limitations snd their higher degree of dependence on products. An important arse in product design which has seldom been considered is that of kitchen appliances, and, more specifically, rafr igerators. Refrigerator design has changed little in the last... For the elderly or disabled is a relatively unexplored ares. The present research is an attempt to rectify this neglect. LITERATURE REVIEW Ther s is a striking lack of information in the literature specifically concerned with refrigerators. Those few studies...

  15. Demand Side Management (DSM) Through Absorption Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chao, P. Y.; Shukla, D.; Amarnath, A.; Mergens, E.

    DEMAND SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM) TIIROUGH ABSORPTION REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS Peter Y. Chao, PhD, Deepak Shukla, PhD, Sr. Process Engineers, TENSA Services, Inc. Ammi Amarnath, Sr. Project Manager, Electrical Power Research Institute Ed. Mergens.... They are Peak Clipping, Valley filling, Load Shifting, Strategic Conservation, Strategic Load Growth, and Flexible Load Shaping. Absorption Refrigeration from waste heat offers a viable option for DSM. This will either reduce the peak load (peak clipping...

  16. System and method for motor parameter estimation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luhrs, Bin; Yan, Ting

    2014-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A system and method for determining unknown values of certain motor parameters includes a motor input device connectable to an electric motor having associated therewith values for known motor parameters and an unknown value of at least one motor parameter. The motor input device includes a processing unit that receives a first input from the electric motor comprising values for the known motor parameters for the electric motor and receive a second input comprising motor data on a plurality of reference motors, including values for motor parameters corresponding to the known motor parameters of the electric motor and values for motor parameters corresponding to the at least one unknown motor parameter value of the electric motor. The processor determines the unknown value of the at least one motor parameter from the first input and the second input and determines a motor management strategy for the electric motor based thereon.

  17. Motor processes 1 Motor Processes in Mental Rotation1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    Motor processes 1 Motor Processes in Mental Rotation1 1 M.W. wishes to thank the LPPA for its are at least in part guided by motor processes, even in the case of images of abstract objects rather than of a specific motor action. We directly test the hypothesis by means of a dual-task paradigm in which subjects

  18. Heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat exchanger bypass system for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The bypass system operates to pass strong solution from the generator around the heat exchanger to the absorber of the absorption refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator above a selected level indicative of solidification of strong solution in the heat exchanger or other such blockage. The bypass system includes a bypass line with a gooseneck located in the generator for controlling flow of strong solution into the bypass line and for preventing refrigerant vapor in the generator from entering the bypass line during normal operation of the refrigeration system. Also, the bypass line includes a trap section filled with liquid for providing a barrier to maintain the normal pressure difference between the generator and the absorber even when the gooseneck of the bypass line is exposed to refrigerant vapor in the generator. Strong solution, which may accumulate in the trap section of the bypass line, is diluted, to prevent solidification, by supplying weak solution to the trap section from a purge system for the absorption refrigeration system.

  19. Heat pump employing optimal refrigerant compressor for low pressure ratio applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ecker, Amir L. (Dallas, TX)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    What is disclosed is a heat pump apparatus for conditioning a fluid characterized by a fluid handler for circulating the fluid in heat exchange relationship with a refrigerant fluid; two refrigerant heat exchangers; one for effecting the heat exchange with the fluid and a second refrigerant-heat exchange fluid heat exchanger for effecting a low pressure ratio of compression of the refrigerant; a rotary compressor for compressing the refrigerant with low power consumption at the low pressure ratio; at least one throttling valve connecting at the inlet side of heat exchanger in which liquid refrigerant is vaporized; a refrigerant circuit serially connecting the above elements; refrigerant in the circuit; a source of heat exchange fluid; heat exchange fluid circulating device and heat exchange fluid circuit for circulating the heat exchange fluid in heat exchange relationship with the refrigerant.

  20. Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigeration System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption Pressure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, G.; Sheng, G.; Li, G.; Pan, S.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC Technologies for Energy Efficiency, Vol. IV-10-4 Improvement of the Performance for an Absorption Refrigerating System with Lithium bromide-water as Refrigerant by Increasing Absorption... in order to lay a theoretical foundation of improving the performance of whole LBAC. 2. THE PRINCIPLE OF ENHANCING ABSORPTION EFFICIENCY OF THE ABSORBER It is well known that the absorption of ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China HVAC...

  1. Justification for Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buschart, R. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of a study of Energy Efficient (or EE) motors in NEMA frame sizes, (1-200 HP). It examines the economics of using EE motors for new motor requirements, as replacements for motors - instead of rewinding...

  2. New Regenerative Cycle for Vapor Compression Refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark J. Bergander

    2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objective of this project is to confirm on a well-instrumented prototype the theoretically derived claims of higher efficiency and coefficient of performance for geothermal heat pumps based on a new regenerative thermodynamic cycle as comparing to existing technology. In order to demonstrate the improved performance of the prototype, it will be compared to published parameters of commercially available geothermal heat pumps manufactured by US and foreign companies. Other objectives are to optimize the design parameters and to determine the economic viability of the new technology. Background (as stated in the proposal): The proposed technology closely relates to EERE mission by improving energy efficiency, bringing clean, reliable and affordable heating and cooling to the residential and commercial buildings and reducing greenhouse gases emission. It can provide the same amount of heating and cooling with considerably less use of electrical energy and consequently has a potential of reducing our nations dependence on foreign oil. The theoretical basis for the proposed thermodynamic cycle was previously developed and was originally called a dynamic equilibrium method. This theory considers the dynamic equations of state of the working fluid and proposes the methods for modification of T-S trajectories of adiabatic transformation by changing dynamic properties of gas, such as flow rate, speed and acceleration. The substance of this proposal is a thermodynamic cycle characterized by the regenerative use of the potential energy of two-phase flow expansion, which in traditional systems is lost in expansion valves. The essential new features of the process are: (1) The application of two-step throttling of the working fluid and two-step compression of its vapor phase. (2) Use of a compressor as the initial step compression and a jet device as a second step, where throttling and compression are combined. (3) Controlled ratio of a working fluid at the first and second step of compression. In the proposed system, the compressor compresses the vapor only to 50-60% of the final pressure, while the additional compression is provided by a jet device using internal potential energy of the working fluid flow. Therefore, the amount of mechanical energy required by a compressor is significantly reduced, resulting in the increase of efficiency (either COP or EER). The novelty of the cycle is in the equipment and in the way the multi-staging is accomplished. The anticipated result will be a new refrigeration system that requires less energy to accomplish a cooling task. The application of this technology will be for more efficient designs of: (1) Industrial chillers, (2) Refrigeration plants, (3) Heat pumps, (4) Gas Liquefaction plants, (5) Cryogenic systems.

  3. Markov Process of Muscle Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. Kondratiev; E. Pechersky; S. Pirogov

    2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We study a Markov random process describing a muscle molecular motor behavior. Every motor is either bound up with a thin filament or unbound. In the bound state the motor creates a force proportional to its displacement from the neutral position. In both states the motor spend an exponential time depending on the state. The thin filament moves at its velocity proportional to average of all displacements of all motors. We assume that the time which a motor stays at the bound state does not depend on its displacement. Then one can find an exact solution of a non-linear equation appearing in the limit of infinite number of the motors.

  4. MotorWeek

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

    In 2008, PBS's MotorWeek, television's original automotive magazine, visited Argonne's Transportation Technology R&D Center "to learn what it really takes to make clean power sources a viable reality."

  5. Linear Motor Powered Transportation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thornton, Richard D.

    This special issue on linear-motor powered transportation covers both supporting technologies and innovative transport systems in various parts of the World, as this technology moves from the lab to commercial operations. ...

  6. JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplment au n 8, Tome 39, aot 1978, page C6-1598 MAGNETIC REFRIGERATORS FOR USE AT ROOM TEMPERATURE AND BELOW+

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    spÚci- fiques de rÚseau peuvent ŕtre rendues petites. Abstract.- Magnetic Carnot cycle refrigerators. Four magnetic refrigerators have been built, but no economically viable unit is in operation. However, fundamental considera- tion indicates that magnetic refrigerators should eventually replace gas refrigerators

  7. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, Hans O. (Stockbridge, GA); Starr, Thomas L. (Roswell, GA)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed.

  8. The development of a proff of principle superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator for cooling below 1 Kelvin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Franklin K., 1970-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new type of sub-Kelvin refrigerator, the superfluid Joule-Thomson refrigerator, has been developed and its performance has been experimentally verified. This refrigerator uses a liquid superfluid mixture of He and 4He ...

  9. Mason County PUD 3- Commercial and Industrial Energy Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Mason County PUD 3 offers rebates to its non-residential customers for implementing energy efficient lighting, motor rewinds, refrigeration, commercial cooking equipment, and custom projects....

  10. Performance of HCFC22 alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, D.; Kim, C.B.; Song, Y.J.; Park, B.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, 14 refrigerant mixtures composed of R32, R125, R134a, R152a, R290(Propane) and R1270(Propylene) were tested in a breadboard heat pump in an attempt to replace R22 used in residential air-conditioners. The test heat pump was of 1 ton capacity with water as the secondary heat transfer fluids. All tests were conducted under ARI test A condition. Test results how that ternary mixtures composed of R32, R125, and R134a have 4 {approximately} 5% higher coefficient of performance(COP) and capacity than R22. Hence they seem to be promising alternatives for R22. On the other hand, ternary mixtures containing R125, R134a, and R152a have lower COPs and capacities than R22. R290/R134 azeotrope also shows 3--4% increases in COP and capacity. The compressor discharge and dome temperatures of all the mixtures tested are lower than those of R22 by 15.9--34.7 C and 5.5--14.3 C respectively, indicating that these mixtures would offer better system reliability and longer life time than R22. Finally, the test results with a suction line heat exchanger (SLHX) indicated that SLHX must be used with special care in air-conditioners since its effect is fluid dependent.

  11. Environmental assessment for proposed energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) on the candidate energy conservation standards for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers was prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), regulations of the Council on Environmental Quality, Title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 1500 through 1508. The proposed energy conservation standard (Level 1) and the alternative standards are being reviewed in an energy-efficiency standards rulemaking that the Department has undertaken pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended by the National Energy Conservation Policy Act and the National Appliance Energy Conservation Act. The EA presents the associated environmental impacts from four energy conservation standards for this type of household appliance. For purposes of this EA, each standard is an alternative action and is compared to what is expected to happen if no new standards for this type of product were finalized, i.e., the no action alternative. Of the four energy conservation standard levels considered, standard level 4 has the highest level of energy efficiency and the largest environmental impact. The proposed action implementing Standard Level 1 would have the least environmental impacts, through emission reductions, of the four alternatives. The description of the standards results from the appliance energy-efficiency analyses conducted for the rulemaking. The presentation of environmental impacts for each of the alternatives appears at Section 3 of the EA.

  12. Quantum Refrigerator and the III-law of Thermodynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amikam Levy; Robert Alicki; Ronnie Kosloff

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    The rate of temperature decrease of a cooled quantum bath is studied as its temperature is reduced to the absolute zero. The III-law of thermodynamics is then quantified dynamically by evaluating the characteristic exponent {\\zeta} of the cooling process dT(t)/dt \\sim -T^{\\zeta} when approaching the absolute zero, T \\rightarrow 0. A continuous model of a quantum refrigerator is employed consisting of a working medium composed either by two coupled harmonic oscillators or two coupled 2-level systems. The refrigerator is a nonlinear device merging three currents from three heat baths: a cold bath to be cooled, a hot bath as an entropy sink, and a driving bath which is the source of cooling power. A heat driven refrigerator (absorption refrigerator) is compared to a power driven refrigerator. When optimized both cases lead to the same exponent {\\zeta}, showing a lack of dependence on the form of the working medium and the characteristics of the drivers. The characteristic exponent is therefore determined by the properties of the cold reservoir and its interaction with the system. Two generic heat baths models are considered, a bath composed of harmonic oscillators and a bath composed from ideal Bose/Fermi gas. The restrictions on the interaction Hamiltonian imposed by the III-law are discussed. In the appendix the theory of periodicaly driven open systems and its implication to thermodynamics is outlined.

  13. Development of energy-efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhatia, P.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of advanced techniques in engineering simulation and economic analysis for the development of efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators is illustrated in this paper. A key feature of this methodology is refrigerator simulation to generate energy savings for a set of energy-efficient design options and life-cycle cost (LCC) analysis with these design options. The LCC of a refrigerator is analyzed as a function of five variables: nominal discount rate, fuel price, appliance lifetime, incremental price, and incremental energy savings. The frequency of occurrence of the LCC minimum at any design option indicates the optimum efficiency level or range. Studies carried out in the US and European Economic Community show that the location of the LCC minimum under different scenarios (e.g., variable fuel price, life-time, discount rate, and incremental price) is quite stable. Thus, an efficiency standard can be developed based on the efficiency value at the LCC minimum. This paper examines and uses this methodology in developing efficiency standards for Indian refrigerators. The potential efficiency standard value is indicated to be 0.65 kWh/day for a 165-liter, CFC-based, manual defrost, single-door refrigerator-freezer.

  14. MotorMaster+ International | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of the capabilities and features of MotorMaster+. However, users can evaluate repairreplacement options on a broader range of motors, including 60 hertz (Hz) motors tested under...

  15. Motor Control CTIO 60 inches CHIRON

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tokovinin, Andrei A.

    Motor Control CTIO 60 inches CHIRON CHI60HF8.1 La Serena, December 2010 #12;Contents..............................................................................................................................3 1. Image Slicer motor..............................................................................................................5 2. Focus motor

  16. Sensory-Motor Integration and Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Welch, Dan Bruce

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    spinal interneurons during motor pattern generation inStep, Swim, and Scratch Motor Patterns in the Turtle. JStep, Swim, and Scratch Motor Patterns in the Turtle. J

  17. Commercial Motor Vehicle Brake-Related Research

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commercial Motor Vehicle Brake-Related Research Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor Safety Technology Showcase October 14, 2010 Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor

  18. Brushless Motor Controller Report Spring 2010

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    Brushless Motor Controller Report Spring 2010 May 15, 2010 Brian Clementi MAE of 2010 322 Bogert ...................................................................................................... 5 A. Motor Description...................................................................................................... 5 B. The Motor Controller Board

  19. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 16 JANUARY 2011 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS1871 Piezoresistive heat engine and refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loss, Daniel

    and refrigerator P. G. Steeneken*, K. Le Phan, M. J. Goossens, G. E. J. Koops, G. J. A. M. Brom, C. van der Avoort to reduce these thermal fluctuations, therefore operating as a refrigerator. M ost heat engines operate

  20. Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farzad, Mohsen

    An experimental and analytical study concerned with the off-design refrigerant charging of air conditioners is presented. A series of experiments were conducted to characterize the effects of refrigerant charge and type of expansion device...

  1. Application Availability of Insulation Heat of the Terrace in a Rebuilt Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, C.; Sun, Y.; Chen, Z.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dealing with the terrace in rebuilt refrigerators influences the performance characteristics, performance safety and construction costs. This paper researches the heat transfer of the terrace of the rebuilt refrigerator by the numerical method...

  2. A Prediction Model for Adiabatic and Diabatic Capillary Tubes with Alternative Refrigerantsá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yupeng

    2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The capillary tube is a very common throttling device located between the condenser and evaporator in a refrigeration system. In some refrigerant systems, a section of the capillary tube is connected to a section of the ...

  3. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to investigate the film formation properties of refrigeration lubricants using the ultrathin film elastohydrodynamic (EHD) interferometry technique and to study the effects of refrigerants on film formation. Film thickness measurements were conducted as a function of lubricant viscosity, speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. Based on the EHD film thickness data, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated for the test fluids at different temperatures and the effects of refrigerants on pressure-viscosity properties were investigated.

  4. Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Butz, James R. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); Veatch, Bradley D. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107); O'Connor, Michael W. (ADA Technologies, Inc. 8100 Shaffer Pkwy., Suite 130, Littleton, CO 80127-4107)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

  5. The Hall D solenoid helium refrigeration system at JLab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Creel, Jonathan D. [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly d. [JLAB; Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Martin, Floyd D. [JLAB; Norton, Robert O. [JLAB; Radovic, Sasa [JLAB

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hall D, the new Jefferson Lab experimental facility built for the 12GeV upgrade, features a LASS 1.85 m bore solenoid magnet supported by a 4.5 K helium refrigerator system. This system consists of a CTI 2800 4.5 K refrigerator cold box, three 150 hp screw compressors, helium gas management and storage, and liquid helium and nitrogen storage for stand-alone operation. The magnet interfaces with the cryo refrigeration system through an LN2-shielded distribution box and transfer line system, both designed and fabricated by JLab. The distribution box uses a thermo siphon design to respectively cool four magnet coils and shields with liquid helium and nitrogen. We describe the salient design features of the cryo system and discuss our recent commissioning experience.

  6. Effects of refrigeration in a transportable cryogenic aerospace application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donovan, B.D.; Mahefkey, T. [Wright Lab., Wright-Patterson AFB, OH (United States); Ramalingam, M.L. [UES, Inc., Dayton, OH (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Preliminary feasibility studies, based on refrigeration thermodynamics, have been conducted for candidate power conditioning components in a 1MWe terrestrial/transportable cryogenic power system. The cryogenic power system being considered has a super conducting generator for high power applications such as the power source for a Ground Based Radar (GBR) System. While the superconducting generator operates at 77K or lower, the present analysis indicates that significant benefits cannot be derived by cooling the various components of the power conditioning system to such low temperatures. It was found that, by operating the power conditioning component at 150K instead of at 77K the overall system efficiency was not jeopardized by way of large input power requirements to dissipate small refrigerator loads. This is an acute problem as current cryogenic refrigeration systems allow for very low levels of energy dissipation while performing at about 7 to 10% of the Carnot coefficients of performance (COP) between 300K and 77K.

  7. Review and comparison of magnet designs for magnetic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bj°rk, R; Smith, A; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the key issues in magnetic refrigeration is generating the magnetic field that the magnetocaloric material must be subjected to. The magnet constitutes a major part of the expense of a complete magnetic refrigeration system and a large effort should therefore be invested in improving the magnet design. A detailed analysis of the efficiency of different published permanent magnet designs used in magnetic refrigeration applications is presented in this paper. Each design is analyzed based on the generated magnetic flux density, the volume of the region where this flux is generated and the amount of magnet material used. This is done by characterizing each design by a figure of merit magnet design efficiency parameter, $\\Lambda_\\mathrm{cool}$. The designs are then compared and the best design found. Finally recommendations for designing the ideal magnet design are presented based on the analysis of the reviewed designs.

  8. Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynein Motor Domain Shows Ring-Shaped Motor, Buttress Print Movement is fundamental to life. It takes place even at the cellular level where cargo is continually being transported...

  9. Design and prototyping methods for brushless motors and motor control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colton, Shane W. (Shane William)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this report, simple, low-cost design and prototyping methods for custom brushless permanent magnet synchronous motors are explored. Three case-study motors are used to develop, illustrate and validate the methods. Two ...

  10. Bent shaft motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benavides, G.L.

    1998-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotatable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor. 11 figs.

  11. Bent shaft motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benavides, Gilbert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A nonelectromagnetic motor comprising a base, a bent shaft which is rotable relative to the base wherein the bent shaft comprises a straight portion aligned with a main axis and an offset portion that is offset with respect to the main axis; and a drive means for driving the offset portion of the bent shaft along a generally circular path in a plane perpendicular to the main axis to rotate the bent shaft. The bent shaft and drive means for driving the bent shaft can be selected from piezoelectric, magnetostrictive, rheological and shape memory alloys. The drive means of the nonelectromagnetic motor can additionally comprise a shell which shell surrounds and houses the bent shaft and precesses or gyrates which in turn causes the bent drive shaft to rotate. The nonelectromagnetic motor does not rely on friction for the application of torque upon a rotor.

  12. Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 64 44.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN of the simulation model for the two-stage refrigeration system is presented. The model is based on the mathematical, it is #12;Chapter 4: Refrigeration Process Control: Simulation Model 65 translated into FORTRAN or C

  13. PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL CHANGES OF PINK SHRIMP, PANDALUS BOREALIS, HELD IN CARBON DIOXIDE MODIFIED REFRIGERATED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    REFRIGERATED SEAWATER COMPARED WITH PINK SHRIMP HELD IN ICE FERN A. BULLARD AND JEFF COLLINSl ABSTRACT Pink ahrimp,PandaluB borealis, were held in carbon dioxide modified refrigerated seawater for 12.5 days refrigerated seawater were acceptable up to 9.5 days and those held in ice up to 6.5 days. Data on weight

  14. Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    Two-phase refrigerant flow instability analysis and active control in transient electronics cooling Pressure-drop oscillation Refrigeration system Two-phase cooling Active control Transient heat load a b s t r a c t Two-loop refrigeration systems are being explored for two-phase cooling of ultra high power

  15. On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On the Trade-off between Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration refrigeration systems. Compared with the traditional operation with pressure control, a large poten- tial inside display cabinets. This paper discusses a dynamic optimization of commer- cial refrigeration

  16. Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12.5% of the nation's

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Electric equipment providing space conditioning, water heating, and refrigeration consumes 12 are the heart of air conditioners, heat pumps, chillers, supermarket refrigeration systems, and more. Global use-acceptable refrigerants. Whether involving design of specific new products or refriger- ants to which the entire industry

  17. M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 3 1 Assignment #3 (Refrigeration)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 461 (S 11) Assignment 3 1 MECH 461 Assignment #3 (Refrigeration) Assignment date: Tuesday Jan 29, 2011 Problem 1: Figure below shows a steam jet refrigeration system that produces chilled refrigeration) = 211 kJ/min. water Sat. vapor at 200 kPa Ejector nozzle Steam jet Sat. vapor P = 4 kPa Condenser

  18. DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    1 DYNAMIC MODEL OF AN INDUSTRIAL HEAT PUMP USING WATER AS REFRIGERANT CHAMOUN MARWAN as refrigerant is investigated. Technical problems restraining the feasibility of this industrial heat pump of Refrigeration 35, 4 (2012) 1080-1091" DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2011.12.007 #12;2 NOMENCLATURE A Cross sectional

  19. Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach 75 55.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Chapter 5: Refrigeration Process Control: A Pragmatic Design Approach 75 55-stage refrigeration system. Several control configurations are examined. These configurations were chosen An analysis of the relationships in the two-stage refrigeration system shows the availability of 5 degrees

  20. Page 1 of 4 Refrigerant Charge Verification: 70F Return Air Requirement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page 1 of 4 Refrigerant Charge Verification: 70░F Return Air Requirement This article describes refrigerant charge verification when the outdoor temperature is between 55 and 65░F, in accordance than 70░F has been an explicit requirement since the refrigerant charge verification protocol was first

  1. Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 712721 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration cycles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Computers and Chemical Engineering 31 (2007) 712ş721 Optimal operation of simple refrigeration online 16 January 2007 Abstract The paper focuses on the operation of simple refrigeration cycles of about 2%. In this paper, refrigeration (cooling) cycles are considered, but the same principles apply

  2. Evaporation and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Evaporation and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a Brazed Plate and Condensation Heat Transfer Performance of Flammable Refrigerants in a Brazed Plate Heat Exchanger Sheila C ........................................................... 8 3. Average relative difference (%) in calculated heat transfer rates for refrigerants and HTF

  3. Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air conditioning in the USA*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    FILE COPY DO NOT REMOVE Use of chlorofluorocarbons in refrigeration, insulation and mobile air in refrigeration equipment and mobile air conditioners, or as the blowing agent in foam insulations. When again accounted for _ 40 %of the potential risk to the environment. Refrigeration, mobile air

  4. RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    RHEOLOGICAL STUDY OF TWO-PHASE SECONDARY FLUIDS FOR REFRIGERATION AND AIR CONDITIONING. MylŔne have promising application in refrigeration thanks to their large cooling capacity and their storage Because it is nowadays necessary to phase out CFCs or HCFCs fluids from the refrigeration industry

  5. Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Balancing Energy Consumption and Food Quality Loss in Supermarket Refrigeration System J. Cai and J energy consumption and food quality loss, at varying ambient condition, in a supermarket refrigeration-designed optimal control scheme, continuously maintaining a commer- cial refrigeration system at its optimum

  6. Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN PPRROOCCEESSSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Chapter 3: Refrigeration Process Control: Case Study Model 42 33.. RREEFFRRIIGGEERRAATTIIOONN-stage refrigeration system case study. It describes in detail the mathematical model developed, highlighting.1. PROCESS DESCRIPTION The cycle considered here is a two-stage side-load refrigeration unit with propylene

  7. University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log for Unit Based Medication Refrigerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    University of Connecticut Daily Temperature Log for Unit Based Medication Refrigerators Month: If the refrigerator temperature falls out of the acceptable range of 36 to 46 degrees Fahrenheit or 2.2 to 7.7 degrees. * If the refrigerator temperature falls out of range please document your actions in the follow-up column. #12;

  8. Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Victoria, University of

    Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator by Armando Tura BEng Committee Design and Analysis of a Nested Halbach Permanent Magnet Magnetic Refrigerator by Armando Tura with the potential to create efficient and compact refrigeration devices is an active magnetic regenerative

  9. A Miniature Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator with compact shielded superconducting magnets.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    insulated from the bath. The refrigeration cycle exploits the interaction between the atomic magnetic a magnetic field is applied to a param- agnetic refrigerant, its magnetic spins are aligned and orderedA Miniature Continuous Adiabatic Demagnetization Refrigerator with compact shielded superconducting

  10. Proceedings of the 1993 non-fluorocarbon insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning technology workshop

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sessions included: HFC blown polyurethanes, carbon dioxide blown foam and extruded polystyrenes, plastic foam insulations, evacuated panel insulation, refrigeration and air conditioning, absorption and adsorption and stirling cycle refrigeration, innovative cooling technologies, and natural refrigerants. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  11. Mathematical Model of an Air-Filled Alpha Stirling Refrigerator Patrick McFarlane,1, a)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Mihir

    Mathematical Model of an Air-Filled Alpha Stirling Refrigerator Patrick McFarlane,1, a) Fabio for an alpha Stirling refrigerator with air as the working fluid and will be useful in optimizing Stirling refrigeration systems. a) Electronic mail: pmcfarla@nd.edu b) Electronic mail: Fabio.Semperlotti.1

  12. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goli, Sasank; McKane, Aimee; Olsen, Daniel

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Industrial refrigerated warehouses that implemented energy efficiency measures and have centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto-DR) due to equipment synergies, and receptivity of facility managers to strategies that control energy costs without disrupting facility operations. Auto-DR utilizes OpenADR protocol for continuous and open communication signals over internet, allowing facilities to automate their Demand Response (DR). Refrigerated warehouses were selected for research because: They have significant power demand especially during utility peak periods; most processes are not sensitive to short-term (2-4 hours) lower power and DR activities are often not disruptive to facility operations; the number of processes is limited and well understood; and past experience with some DR strategies successful in commercial buildings may apply to refrigerated warehouses. This paper presents an overview of the potential for load sheds and shifts from baseline electricity use in response to DR events, along with physical configurations and operating characteristics of refrigerated warehouses. Analysis of data from two case studies and nine facilities in Pacific Gas and Electric territory, confirmed the DR abilities inherent to refrigerated warehouses but showed significant variation across facilities. Further, while load from California's refrigerated warehouses in 2008 was 360 MW with estimated DR potential of 45-90 MW, actual achieved was much less due to low participation. Efforts to overcome barriers to increased participation may include, improved marketing and recruitment of potential DR sites, better alignment and emphasis on financial benefits of participation, and use of Auto-DR to increase consistency of participation.

  13. Efficient, Inexpensive Motors: A New Trend in The Motors Market

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wroblewksi, R. G.

    EFFICIENT, INEXPENSIVE MOTORS: A NEW TREND IN THE MOTORS MARKET Ronald G. Wroblewski, P.E. Trainer and Consultant ABSTRACT The Consortiwn for Energy Efficiency (CEE) has established criteria for premium-efficiency motors above the EPACf... standard. CEE has set a wrifonn efficiency benchmark that all market players (manufacturers, utilities, and end-users) can use. Some end-users however, have been reluctant to specify these motors because they think they are too expensive...

  14. Cooling an electron gas using quantum dot based electronic refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prance, Jonathan Robert

    2009-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Cooling an electron gas using quantum dot based electronic refrigeration Jonathan Robert Prance August 28, 2009 Downing College, University of Cambridge A thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Preface The work presented... dots. Conventionally, low temperature measurements of 2DEGs are made by cooling the sample to 1.5 K with liquid Helium-4, to 300 mK with liquid Helium-3, or even down to a few mK using a dilution refrigerator. However, at lower temperatures the electron...

  15. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are massive energy consumers [4] EnOB [5] Kauffeld 2009 ? Fraunhofer ISE 4 Global emissions of fluorinated greenhouse gases Source: UBA ? 12.2010 1,1% 7,9% F-gas contribution to greenhouse effect 1. Backgrounds ? Fraunhofer ISE 5 Energy breakdown... refrigeration remains the last big subsector and the strongest emission source of the fluorinated hydrocarbons (HFC) in Germany? - Kauffeld [4] About 65 % of the cooling needs in Germany for frozen and refrigerated food products ? over 50.000 GWh...

  16. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, John A. (Madison, WI); Stewart, Walter F. (Marshall, WI); Henke, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kalash, Kenneth E. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  17. Magnetic refrigeration apparatus with belt of ferro or paramagnetic material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barclay, J.A.; Stewart, W.F.; Henke, M.D.; Kalash, K.E.

    1986-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic refrigerator operating in the 12 to 77 K range utilizes a belt which carries ferromagnetic or paramagnetic material and which is disposed in a loop which passes through the center of a solenoidal magnet to achieve cooling. The magnetic material carried by the belt, which can be blocks in frames of a linked belt, can be a mixture of substances with different Curie temperatures arranged such that the Curie temperatures progressively increase from one edge of the belt to the other. This magnetic refrigerator can be used to cool and liquefy hydrogen or other fluids.

  18. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kueck, John D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Otaduy, Pedro J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques.

  19. Method for assessing motor insulation on operating motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kueck, J.D.; Otaduy, P.J.

    1997-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for monitoring the condition of electrical-motor-driven devices is disclosed. The method is achieved by monitoring electrical variables associated with the functioning of an operating motor, applying these electrical variables to a three phase equivalent circuit and determining non-symmetrical faults in the operating motor based upon symmetrical components analysis techniques. 15 figs.

  20. DIFFUSION MEDIATED TRANSPORT AND THE BROWNIAN MOTOR

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DIFFUSION MEDIATED TRANSPORT AND THE BROWNIAN MOTOR David Kinderlehrer Center for Nonlinear in small viscous systems and provide brief illustrations to brownian motor or molecular rachet situations which are found in intracellular transport. Keywords: Brownian motor, molecular rachet, motor protein

  1. Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, T. A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the petrochemical and refining Industries, and most manufacturing plants, the reliable operation of AC motors always has been crucial to the continuous operation of the process. Now, the cost of operating these motors has also become a...

  2. 2014-07-10 Issuance: Test Procedures for Refrigerators, Refrigerator-Freezers, and Freezers; Final Rule Correction

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document is a pre-publication Federal Register final rule correction regarding test procedures for refrigerators, refrigerator-freezers, and freezers, as issued by the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency on July 10, 2014. Though it is not intended or expected, should any discrepancy occur between the document posted here and the document published in the Federal Register, the Federal Register publication controls. This document is being made available through the Internet solely as a means to facilitate the public's access to this document.

  3. RMP Colloquia Modeling molecular motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    JŘlicher, Frank

    The authors present general considerations and simple models for the operation of isothermal motors at small structural differences from the usual Carnot engines. Turning to more explicit models for a single motorRMP Colloquia Modeling molecular motors Frank JuĘlicher,* Armand Ajdari, and Jacques Prost

  4. Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    over wider operating range with same size motor Uses up to 40% less electricity NREL Energy Forum;Annual Serviceable Addressable Market (SAM) for >1hp non-hermetic motors NREL Energy Forum November 2009Highly Efficient Electric Motor Systems NREL Energy Forum November 2009 www.novatorque.com Emily

  5. Kinematic Motor Learning Wolfram Schenck

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moeller, Ralf

    Kinematic Motor Learning Wolfram Schenck Computer Engineering Group Faculty of Technology Bielefeld-521-106-6440 mail: wschenck@ti.uni-bielefeld.de Abstract This paper focuses on adaptive motor control in the kinematic domain. Several motor learning strategies from the literature are adopted to kinematic problems

  6. Motor Speech Disorders in Neurodevelopmental

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shoubridge, Eric

    4/14/13 1 Motor Speech Disorders in Neurodevelopmental Syndromes Shelley Velleman University many graduate and undergraduate research assistants at UMass, U of Louisville, and UVM 2 Motor Speech difference/insult žSymptoms 3 Motor Speech Disorders Dysarthria: neurological bases žresult of damage

  7. Magazine R729 Motor prediction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flanagan, Randy

    Magazine R729 Primer Motor prediction Daniel M. Wolpert* and J. Randall Flanagan The concept of motor prediction was first considered by Helmholtz when trying to understand how we localise visual position of the eye, predicted the gaze position based on a copy of the motor command acting on the eye

  8. MotorMaster database of three-phase electric motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stickney, B.L.

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Selecting the right motor for a new or replacement application used to be a daunting task. Making an intelligent choice involved a search through a stack of motor catalogs for information on efficiency, voltage, speed, horsepower, torque, service factor, power factor, frame type, and cost. The MotorMaster software package, available from the Washington State Energy Office, takes the drudgery out of motor selection by enabling rapid analysis of the most efficient and cost-effective single-speed three-phase induction motors. It has a built-in motor database, easy to use comparison and analysis features, and can calculate utility rebates and simple paybacks. By speeding the selection process and providing comprehensive economic justification for the final equipment choice, software tools like MotorMaster can become an important component of utility DSM programs. And as a bonus, wide use of such software may lead to more systematic and consistent use of energy efficient equipment.

  9. Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-4837E Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California Sasank thereof or The Regents of the University of California. #12;Demand Response Opportunities in Industrial centralized control systems can be excellent candidates for Automated Demand Response (Auto- DR) due

  10. COMPUTER DESIGN AND OPTIMIZATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    green, M.A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and the assumed electrical energy cost is $0.04 per kWh.cost (the cost is given in US$ per kWh at 80.4┬░K) andThe cost of nitrogen refrigeration given in $ per kWh at

  11. Superefficient Refrigerators: Opportunities and Challenges for Efficiency Improvement Globally

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shah, Nihar; Park, Won Young; Bojda, Nicholas; McNeil, Michael A.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As an energy-intensive mainstream product, residential refrigerators present a significant opportunity to reduce electricity consumption through energy efficiency improvements. Refrigerators expend a considerable amount of electricity during normal use, typically consuming between 100 to 1,000 kWh of electricity per annum. This paper presents the results of a technical analysis done for refrigerators in support of the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) initiative. Beginning from a base case representative of the average unit sold in India, we analyze efficiency improvement options and their corresponding costs to build a cost-versus-efficiency relationship. We then consider design improvement options that are known to be the most cost effective and that can improve efficiency given current design configurations. We also analyze and present additional super-efficient options, such as vacuum-insulated panels. We estimate the cost of conserved electricity for the various options, allowing flexible program design for market transformation programs toward higher efficiency. We estimate ~;;160TWh/year of energy savings are cost effective in 2030, indicating significant potential for efficiency improvement in refrigerators in SEAD economies and China.

  12. Triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple loop heat exchanger for an absorption refrigeration system is disclosed. The triple loop heat exchanger comprises portions of a strong solution line for conducting relatively hot, strong solution from a generator to a solution heat exchanger of the absorption refrigeration system, conduit means for conducting relatively cool, weak solution from the solution heat exchanger to the generator, and a bypass system for conducting strong solution from the generator around the strong solution line and around the solution heat exchanger to an absorber of the refrigeration system when strong solution builds up in the generator to an undesirable level. The strong solution line and the conduit means are in heat exchange relationship with each other in the triple loop heat exchanger so that, during normal operation of the refrigeration system, heat is exchanged between the relatively hot, strong solution flowing through the strong solution line and the relatively cool, weak solution flowing through the conduit means. Also, the strong solution line and the bypass system are in heat exchange relationship in the triple loop heat exchanger so that if the normal flow path of relatively hot, strong solution flowing from the generator to an absorber is blocked, then this relatively, hot strong solution which will then be flowing through the bypass system in the triple loop heat exchanger, is brought into heat exchange relationship with any strong solution which may have solidified in the strong solution line in the triple loop heat exchanger to thereby aid in desolidifying any such solidified strong solution.

  13. Procurement and commissioning of the CHL refrigerator at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chronis, W.C.; Arenius, D.M.; Bevins, B.S.; Ganni, V.; Kashy, D.H.; Keesee, M.M.; Reid, T.R.; Wilson, J.D.

    1996-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CEBAF Central Helium Liquefier (CHL) provides 2K refrigeration to the 338 superconducting niobium cavities in two 400 MeV linacs and one 45 MeV injector. The CHL consists of three first stage and three second stage compressors, a 4.5K cold box, a 2K cold box, liquid and gaseous helium storage, liquid nitrogen storage, and transfer lines. Figure 1 presents a block diagram of the CHL refrigerator. The system was designed to provide 4.8 kW of primary refrigeration at 2K, 12 kW of shield refrigeration at 45K for the linac cryomodules, and 10 g/s of liquid flow for the end stations. In April 1994, stable 2K operation of the previously uncommissioned cold compressors was achieved. The cold compressors are a cold vacuum pump with an inlet temperature of circa 3.0K. These compressors operate on magnetic bearing,s and therefore eliminate the possibility of contamination due to any air leaks into the system. Operational data and commissioning experience as they relate to the warm gaseous helium compressors, turbines, instrumentation and control, and the cold compressors are presented.

  14. Dry dilution refrigerator with 4He-1K-loop

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uhlig, Kurt

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article we summarize experimental work on cryogen-free 3He/4He dilution refrigerators which, in addition to the dilution refrigeration circuit, are equipped with a 4He-1K-stage. This type of DR becomes worth considering when high cooling capacities are needed at T ~ 1 K to cool cold amplifiers and heat sink cables. In our application, the motivation for the construction of this type of cryostat was to do experiments on superconducting quantum circuits for quantum information technology and quantum simulations. In other work, DRs with 1K-stage were proposed for astro-physical cryostats. For neutron scattering research, a top-loading cryogen-free DR with 1K-stage was built which was equipped with a standard commercial dilution refrigeration insert. Cooling powers of up to 100 mW have been reached with our 1K-stage, but higher refrigeration powers were achieved with more powerful pulse tube cryocoolers and higher 4He circulation rates in the 1K-loop. Several different versions of a 1K-loop have been test...

  15. 1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Adsorption Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davies, Christopher

    the refrigerant into a solid rather than ABsorbing it into a liquid. It is a discontinuous (batch) process #12;1st;1st TECCS meeting, 26th April 2007 Rotor and stator of ammonia circulator #12;1st TECCS meeting, 26th

  16. Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, Galen

    Designing Augmented Refrigerator Magnets Rachel Eardley, Laurel Swan , Abi Sellen Alex S. Taylor In this poster we present the conceptual designs for several augmented fridge magnets, each illustrative artifacts. Specifically, it reso- nates with the manner in which fridge surfaces, magnets and the content

  17. Determining the minimum mass and cost of a magnetic refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bj°rk, R; Bahl, C R H; Pryds, N

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An expression is determined for the mass of the magnet and magnetocaloric material needed for a magnetic refrigerator and these are determined using numerical modeling for both parallel plate and packed sphere bed regenerators as function of temperature span and cooling power. As magnetocaloric material Gd or a model material with a constant adiabatic temperature change, representing a infinitely linearly graded refrigeration device, is used. For the magnet a maximum figure of merit magnet or a Halbach cylinder is used. For a cost of \\$40 and \\$20 per kg for the magnet and magnetocaloric material, respectively, the cheapest 100 W parallel plate refrigerator with a temperature span of 20 K using Gd and a Halbach magnet has 0.8 kg of magnet, 0.3 kg of Gd and a cost of \\$35. Using the constant material reduces this cost to \\$25. A packed sphere bed refrigerator with the constant material costs \\$7. It is also shown that increasing the operation frequency reduces the cost. Finally, the lowest cost is also found a...

  18. REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    3. REVIEW OF SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETOMETERS AND CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATION TECHNIQUES By W. S. GOREE to devices for shielding, stabilizing, measuring and producing magnetic fields. The zero resistance property of superconductors has been used to construct magnets capable of producing magnetic fields up to 140 kgauss

  19. Waste Heat Recovery from Refrigeration in a Meat Processing Facility

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, W. T.; Woods, B. E.; Gerdes, J. E.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A case study is reviewed on a heat recovery system installed in a meat processing facility to preheat water for the plant hot water supply. The system utilizes waste superheat from the facility's 1,350-ton ammonia refrigeration system. The heat...

  20. China Refrigerator Information Label: Specification Development and Potential Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fridley, David; Fridley, David; Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Aden, Nathaniel; Lin, Jiang; Jianhong, Cheng; Sakamoto, Tomoyuki

    2008-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the last five years, China's refrigerator market has grown rapidly, and now urban markets are showing signs of saturation, with ownership rates in urban households reaching 92%. Rural markets continue to grow from a much lower base. As a result of this growth, the Chinese government in 2006 decided to revise the refrigerator standards and its associated efficiency grades for the mandatory energy information label. In the Chinese standards process, the efficiency grades for the information label are tied to the minimum standards. Work on the minimum standards revision began in 2006 and continued through the first half of 2007, when the draft standard was completed under the direction of the China National Institute of Standardization (CNIS). Development of the information label grades required consideration of stakeholder input, continuity with the previous grade classification, ease of implementation, and potential impacts on the market. In this process, CLASP, with the support of METI/IEEJ, collaborated with CNIS to develop the efficiency grades, providing technical input to the process, comment and advice on particular technical issues, and evaluation of the results. After three months of effort and three drafts of the final grade specifications, this work was completed. In addition, in order to effectively evaluate the impact of the label on China's market, CLASP further provided assistance to CNIS to collect data on both the efficiency distribution and product volume distribution of refrigerators on the market. The new information label thresholds to be implemented in 2008 maintain the approach first adopted in 2005 of establishing efficiency levels relative to the minimum standard, but increased the related required efficiency levels by 20% over those established in 2003 and implemented in 2005. The focus of improvement was on the standard refrigerator/freezer (class 5), which constitutes the bulk of the Chinese market. Indeed, the new requirements to achieve grade 1 on the label are now virtually as stringent as those for US Energy Star-qualified or EU A-grade refrigerators. When the energy information label went into effect in March 2005, refrigerator manufacturers were required to display their declared level of efficiency on the label and report it to the China Energy Label Center (CELC), a newly established unit of CNIS responsible for label program management. Because of the visible nature of the label, it was found, through a METI/IEEJ-supported study, that MEPS non-compliance dropped from 4% to zero after the label became mandatory, and that the percentage of higher-grade refrigerators increased. This suggests that the label itself does have potential for shifting the market to higher-efficiency models (Lin 2007). One challenge, however, of assessing this potential impact is the lack of a comprehensive baseline of market efficiency and a program to evaluate the market impact on a yearly basis. As a result, the impact evaluation in this study draws upon the market transformation experience of the related EU energy information label, for which quantitative assessments of its market impact exist. By assuming a parallel process unfolding in China, it is possible to look at the potential impact of the label to 2020. The results of the analysis demonstrates that a robust market transformation program in China focused on the energy information label could save substantial amounts of electricity by 2020, totaling 16.4 TWh annually by that year, compared to a case in which the efficiency distribution of refrigerators was frozen at the 2007 level. Remarkably, the impact of a successful market transformation program with the label would essentially flatten the consumption of electricity for refrigerator use throughout most of the next decade, despite the expectations of continued growth in total stock by nearly 190 million units. At the end of this period, total consumption begins to rise again, as the least efficient of the units have been mostly removed from the market. Such a level of savings would reduce CO{sub

  1. Wind motor applications for transportation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lysenko, G.P.; Grigoriev, B.V.; Karpin, K.B. [Moscow Aviation Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Motion equation for a vehicle equipped with a wind motor allows, taking into account the drag coefficients, to determine the optimal wind drag velocity in the wind motor`s plane, and hence, obtain all the necessary data for the wind wheel blades geometrical parameters definition. This optimal drag velocity significantly differs from the flow drag velocity which determines the maximum wind motor power. Solution of the motion equation with low drag coefficients indicates that the vehicle speed against the wind may be twice as the wind speed. One of possible transportation wind motor applications is its use on various ships. A ship with such a wind motor may be substantially easier to steer, and if certain devices are available, may proceed in autonomous control mode. Besides, it is capable of moving within narrow fairways. The cruise speed of a sailing boat and wind-motored ship were compared provided that the wind velocity direction changes along a harmonic law with regard to the motion direction. Mean dimensionless speed of the wind-motored ship appears to be by 20--25% higher than that of a sailing boat. There was analyzed a possibility of using the wind motors on planet rovers in Mars or Venus atmospheric conditions. A Mars rover power and motor system has been assessed for the power level of 3 kW.

  2. DOE/AHAM advanced refrigerator technology development project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A.; Sand, J.R.; Rice, C.K.; Linkous, R.L.; Hardin, C.V.; Bohman, R.H.

    1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of the effort to improve residential energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse emissions from power plants, several design options were investigated for improving the energy efficiency of a conventionally designed domestic refrigerator-freezer. The program goal was to reduce the energy consumption of a 20-ft{sup 3} (570-L) top-mount refrigerator-freeze to 1.00 kWh/d, a 50% reduction from the 1993 National Appliance Energy Conservation Act (NAECA) standard. The options--such as improved cabinet and door insulation, a high-efficiency compressor, a low-wattage fan, a large counterflow evaporator, and adaptive defrost control--were incorporated into prototype refrigerator-freezer cabinets and refrigeration systems. The refrigerant HFC-134a was used as a replacement for CFC-12. The baseline energy performance of the production refrigerator-freezers, along with cabinet heat load and compressor calorimeter test results, were extensively documented to provide a firm basis for experimentally measured energy savings. The project consisted of three main phases: (1) an evaluation of energy-efficient design options using computer simulation models and experimental testing, (2) design and testing of an initial prototype unit, and (3) energy and economic analyses of a final prototype. The final prototype achieved an energy consumption level of 0.93 kWh/d--an improvement of 45% over the baseline unit and 54% over the 1993 NAECA standard for 20-fg{sup 3} (570-L) units. The manufacturer`s cost for those improvements was estimated at $134; assuming that cost is doubled for the consumer, it would take about 11.4 years to pay for the design changes. Since the payback period was thought to be unfeasible, a second, more cost-effective design was also tested. Its energy consumption level was 1.16 kWh/d, a 42% energy savings, at a manufacturer`s cost increase of $53. Again assuming a 100% markup, the payback for this unit would be 6.6 years.

  3. Using MotorMaster to Track Motor Inventory and Analyze Purchasing Decisions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.; Meffort, W.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    maintenance actions and to analyze motor replacement options. The approach used to secure and enter motor nameplate data along with examples of purchasing analyses completed will be presented. The success of the MotorMaster software with large motors has...

  4. Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

    1994-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

  5. Circulating heat exchangers for oscillating wave engines and refrigerators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Swift, Gregory W.; Backhaus, Scott N.

    2003-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    An oscillating-wave engine or refrigerator having a regenerator or a stack in which oscillating flow of a working gas occurs in a direction defined by an axis of a trunk of the engine or refrigerator, incorporates an improved heat exchanger. First and second connections branch from the trunk at locations along the axis in selected proximity to one end of the regenerator or stack, where the trunk extends in two directions from the locations of the connections. A circulating heat exchanger loop is connected to the first and second connections. At least one fluidic diode within the circulating heat exchanger loop produces a superimposed steady flow component and oscillating flow component of the working gas within the circulating heat exchanger loop. A local process fluid is in thermal contact with an outside portion of the circulating heat exchanger loop.

  6. The Quantum Refrigerator: The quest for absolute zero

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yair Rezek; Peter Salamon; Karl Heinz Hoffmann; Ronnie Kosloff

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    The scaling of the optimal cooling power of a reciprocating quantum refrigerator is sought as a function of the cold bath temperature as $T_c \\to 0$. The working medium consists of noninteracting particles in a harmonic potential. Two closed-form solutions of the refrigeration cycle are analyzed, and compared to a numerical optimization scheme, focusing on cooling toward zero temperature. The optimal cycle is characterized by linear relations between the heat extracted from the cold bath, the energy level spacing of the working medium and the temperature. The scaling of the optimal cooling rate is found to be proportional to $T_c^{3/2}$ giving a dynamical interpretation to the third law of thermodynamics.

  7. Heat powered refrigeration compressor. Semi-annual technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goad, R.R.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this program is to develop and improve the design of previously started prototypes of the Heat Powered Refrigeration Compressor. To build this prototype and ready it for testing by the University of Evansville is another goal. This prototype will be of similar capacity as the compressor that will eventually be commercially produced. This unit can operate on almost any moderate temperature water heat source. This heat source could include such applications as industrial waste heat, solar, wood burning stove, resistance electrical heat produced by a windmill, or even perhaps heat put out by the condenser of another refrigeration system. Work performed in the past four months has consisted of: engineering of HX-1; comparisons of specifications from different companies to ensure state of the art applications of parts for project; coordinating project requirements with machine shop; designing condenser; and partial assembly of HX-1.

  8. New age water chillers with water as refrigerant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    KŘhnl-Kinel, J

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vacuum-process technology producing chilled water needs no refrigerant of the conventional kind, but water from the process itself is used to generate cooling. This eye-catching novelty incorporates many of the considerations about the future of refrigerants: "ozone friendly", no extra demands for safety measures or for skilful operators, no special requirements concerning the installation's components, lower maintenance costs since leakages can be accommodated from the system. Vacuum-process technology may be used not only for production of chilled water but also for Binary Ice - pumpable suspension of minute ice crystals in an aqueous solution. This means that all the advantages related to a latent heat system may become available.

  9. Selection of regenerator geometry for magnetic refrigerator applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barclay, J.A.; Sarangi, S.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In our effort to develop magnetic regenerators of high efficiency we have looked at the following geometries: (1) tube channels in solid block; (2) stack of perforated plates normal to the fluid flow direction; (3) stack of solid plates parallel to fluid flow direction, and packed bed of spherical particles; (4) loose packed; and (5) sintered. Reported are computations of the overall efficiency of the regenerator, considering heat transfer, longitudinal conduction, and fluid pressure drop, for all the above arrangements as a function of geometrical variables, such as overall length and particle diameter or plate thickness. The results yield the optimum geometry for a given combination of other controlling parameters, such as frequency, porosity, and fluid properties. The different geometries are compared under the constraint that the mass of magnetic material is the same for all. This condition is peculiar to the magnetic refrigeration process because the net refrigeration and driving forces are proportional to the mass of magnetic material.

  10. Cryogenics for superconductors: Refrigeration, delivery, and preservation of the cold

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkatarao Ganni, James Fesmire

    2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Applications in superconductivity have become widespread, enabled by advancements in cryogenic engineering. In this paper, the history of cryogenic refrigeration, its delivery, its preservation and the important scientific and engineering advancements in these areas in the last 100 years will be reviewed, beginning with small laboratory dewars to very large scale systems. The key technological advancements in these areas that enabled the development of superconducting applications at temperatures from 4 to 77 K are identified. Included are advancements in the components used up to the present state-of-the-art in refrigeration systems design. Viewpoints as both an equipment supplier and the end-user with regard to the equipment design and operations will be presented. Some of the present and future challenges in these areas will be outlined. Most of the materials in this paper are a collection of the historical materials applicable to these areas of interest.

  11. Crystal-field effects in fluoride crystals for optical refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hehlen, Markus P [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of optical refrigeration of rare-earth-doped solids has recently seen an important breakthrough. The cooling of a YLiF{sub 4} (YLF) crystal doped with 5 mol% Yb3+ to 155 K by Seletskiy et al [NPhot] has surpassed the lowest temperatures ({approx}170 K for {approx}100 mW cooling capacity) that are practical with commercial multi-stage thermoelectric coolers (TEC) [Glaister]. This record performance has advanced laser cooling into an application relevant regime and has put first practical optical cryocoolers within reach. The result is also relevant from a material perspective since for the first time, an Yb3+-doped crystal has outperformed an Yb3+-doped glass. The record temperature of 208 K was held by the Yb3+-doped fluorozirconate glass ZBLAN. Advanced purification and glass fabrication methods currently under development are expected to also advance ZBLAN:Yb3+ to sub-TEC temperatures. However, recent achievements with YLF:Yb3+ illustrate that crystalline materials may have two potentially game-changing advantajes over glassy materials. First, the crystalline environment reduces the inhomogeneous broadening of the Yb3+ electronic transitions as compared to a glassy matrix. The respective sharpening of the crystal-field transitions increases the peak absorption cross section at the laser excitation wavelength and allows for more efficient pumping of the Yb3+ ions, particularly at low temperatures. Second, many detrimental impurities present in the starting materials tend to be excluded from the crystal during its slow growth process, in contrast to a glass where all impurities present in the starting materials are included in the glass when it is formed by temperature quenching a melt. The ultra high purity required for laser cooling materials [PRB] therefore may be easier to realize in crystals than in glasses. Laser cooling occurs by laser excitation of a rare-earth ion followed by anti-Stokes luminescence. Each such laser-cooling cycle extracts thermal energy from the solid and carries it away as high-entropy light, thereby cooling the material. In the ideal case, the respective laser-cooling power is given by the pump wavelength ({lambda}{sub p}), the mean fluorescence wavelength ({bar {lambda}}{sub L}), and the absorption coefficient (a{sub r}) of the pumped transition. These quantities are solely determined by crystal field interactions. On one hand, a large crystal-field splitting offers a favorably large difference of {lambda}{sub p} - {bar {lambda}}{sub L} and thus a high cooling efficiency {eta}{sub cool} = ({lambda}{sub p} - {bar {lambda}}{sub L})/{bar {lambda}}{sub L}. On the other hand, a small crystal-field splitting offers a high thermal population (n{sub i}) of the initial state of the pumped transition, giving a high pump absorption coefficient and thus high laser cooling power, particularly at low temperatures. A quantitative description of crystal-field interactions is therefore critical to the understanding and optimization of optical refrigeration. In the case of Yb3+ as the laser cooling ion, however, development of a crystal-field model is met with substantial difficulties. First, Yb3+ has only two 4/multiplets, {sup 2}F{sub 7/2} and {sup 2}F{sub 5/2}, which lead to at most 7 crystal-field levels. This makes it difficult, and in some cases impossible, to evaluate the crystal-field Hamiltonian, which has at least 4 parameters for any Yb3+ point symmety lower than cubic. Second, {sup 2}F{sub 7/2}{leftrightarrow}{sup 2}F{sub 5/2} transitions exhibit an exceptionally strong electron-phonon coupling compared to 4f transitions of other rare earths. This makes it difficult to distinguish electronic from vibronic transitions in the absorption and luminescence spectra and to reliably identify the crystal-field levels. Yb3+ crystal-field splittings reported in the literature should thus generally be viewed with caution. This paper explores the effects of crystal-field interactions on the laser cooling performance of Yb3+-doped fluoride crystals. It is shown that the total crystal-field splitting o

  12. How to Build a Motor

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motor Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects & Initiatives Finance & Rates Expand...

  13. Tesla Motors | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    465 million loan arrangement with Tesla Motors, Inc. to produce specially designed, all-electric plug-in vehicles; and to develop a manufacturing facility to produce battery...

  14. Evaluating High Efficiency Motor Retrofitá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, T. A.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OPERATING COST Although It would seem that most peoPlel un derstand the re I atlonsh I p beneen the fIrst cost and operating cost for motors, that's not the case. The purchase price of a standard efficIency 50 HP enclosed motor I s about $2000. Operatl...Ife, the energy efficIent motor will save about $7100 - assum f ng power costs grow as forecasted. That's why the co nom J cs of Energy $aver motors are so attractIve. The savIngs, assuming continuous operatIon at a 5i/kWh power cost, range from $300 per year...

  15. Supermarket with Ground Coupled Carbon Dioxide Refrigeration Plantá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rehault, N.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on supermarkets, energy and greenhouse gases 2. Energy efficient supermarket concept and goals 3. Results 4. Conclusion and outlook ? Fraunhofer ISE 3 Why do we need energy efficient supermarkets? ? Supermarkets create greenhouse gases ?Supermarket... - 42% - 33% ? Fraunhofer ISE 19 Lessons learned and outlook: ? New concept reached 20% energy savings after 1 year ? Greenhouse gas emissions cut by over 30% after 1 year through the use of CO2 as refrigerant ? Integrated concepts have future...

  16. Magnetic Refrigeration Technology for High Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boeder, A; Zimm, C

    2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic refrigeration was investigated as an efficient, environmentally friendly, flexible alternative to conventional residential vapor compression central air conditioning systems. Finite element analysis (FEA) models of advanced geometry active magnetic regenerator (AMR) beds were developed to minimize bed size and thus magnet mass by optimizing geometry for fluid flow and heat transfer and other losses. Conventional and magnetocaloric material (MCM) regenerator fabrication and assembly techniques were developed and advanced geometry passive regenerators were built and tested. A subscale engineering prototype (SEP) magnetic air conditioner was designed, constructed and tested. A model of the AMR cycle, combined with knowledge from passive regenerator experiments and FEA results, was used to design the regenerator beds. A 1.5 Tesla permanent magnet assembly was designed using FEA and the bed structure and plenum design was extensively optimized using FEA. The SEP is a flexible magnetic refrigeration platform, with individually instrumented beds and high flow rate and high frequency capability, although the current advanced regenerator geometry beds do not meet performance expectations, probably due to manufacturing and assembly tolerances. A model of the AMR cycle was used to optimize the design of a 3 ton capacity magnetic air conditioner, and the system design was iterated to minimize external parasitic losses such as heat exchanger pressure drop and fan power. The manufacturing cost for the entire air conditioning system was estimated, and while the estimated SEER efficiency is high, the magnetic air conditioning system is not cost competitive as currently configured. The 3 ton study results indicate that there are other applications where magnetic refrigeration is anticipated to have cost advantages over conventional systems, especially applications where magnetic refrigeration, through the use of its aqueous heat transfer fluid, could eliminate intermediate heat exchangers or oil distribution issues found in traditional vapor compression systems.

  17. Waste heat driven absorption refrigeration process and system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilkinson, William H. (Columbus, OH)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption cycle refrigeration processes and systems are provided which are driven by the sensible waste heat available from industrial processes and other sources. Systems are disclosed which provide a chilled water output which can be used for comfort conditioning or the like which utilize heat from sensible waste heat sources at temperatures of less than 170.degree. F. Countercurrent flow equipment is also provided to increase the efficiency of the systems and increase the utilization of available heat.

  18. Method of removing an immiscible lubricant from a refrigeration system and apparatus for same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spauschus, H.O.; Starr, T.L.

    1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating an immiscible lubricant from a liquid refrigerant in a refrigerating system including a compressor, a condenser, an expansion device and an evaporator, wherein the expansion device is connected to the condenser by a liquid refrigerant flow line for liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant. The method comprising slowing the rate of flow of the liquid refrigerant and immiscible lubricant between the condenser and the expansion device such that the liquid refrigerant and the immiscible lubricant separate based upon differences in density. The method also comprises collecting the separated immiscible lubricant in a collection chamber in fluid communication with the separated immiscible lubricant. Apparatus for performing the method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

  19. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C. (Oak Ridge, TN); Chen, Fang C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration system having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle.

  20. Liquid over-feeding refrigeration system and method with integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, V.C.; Chen, F.C.

    1997-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A refrigeration system is described having a vapor compression cycle utilizing a liquid over-feeding operation with an integrated accumulator-expander-heat exchanger. Hot, high-pressure liquid refrigerant from the condenser passes through one or more lengths of capillary tubing substantially immersed in a pool liquid refrigerant in the accumulator-expander-heat exchanger for simultaneously sub-cooling and expanding the liquid refrigerant while vaporizing liquid refrigerant from the pool for the return thereof to the compressor as saturated vapor. The sub-cooling of the expanded liquid provides for the flow of liquid refrigerant into the evaporator for liquid over-feeding the evaporator and thereby increasing the efficiency of the evaporation cycle. 4 figs.

  1. The LSST Camera 500 watt -130 degC Mixed Refrigerant Cooling System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowden, Gordon B.; Langton, Brian J.; /SLAC; Little, William A.; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA; Powers, Jacob R; Schindler, Rafe H.; /SLAC; Spektor, Sam; /MMR-Technologies, Mountain View, CA

    2014-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The LSST Camera has a higher cryogenic heat load than previous CCD telescope cameras due to its large size (634 mm diameter focal plane, 3.2 Giga pixels) and its close coupled front-end electronics operating at low temperature inside the cryostat. Various refrigeration technologies are considered for this telescope/camera environment. MMR-Technologyĺs Mixed Refrigerant technology was chosen. A collaboration with that company was started in 2009. The system, based on a cluster of Joule-Thomson refrigerators running a special blend of mixed refrigerants is described. Both the advantages and problems of applying this technology to telescope camera refrigeration are discussed. Test results from a prototype refrigerator running in a realistic telescope configuration are reported. Current and future stages of the development program are described. (auth)

  2. Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication with Polyolester Lubricants and HFC Refrigerants, Final Report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunsel, Selda; Pozebanchuk, Michael

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lubrication properties of refrigeration lubricants were investigated in high pressure nonconforming contacts under different conditions of temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration. The program was based upon the recognition that the lubrication regime in refrigeration compressors is generally elastohydrodynamic or hydrodynamic, as determined by the operating conditions of the compressor and the properties of the lubricant. Depending on the compressor design, elastohydrodynamic lubrication conditions exist in many rolling and sliding elements of refrigeration compressors such as roller element bearings, gears, and rotors. The formation of an elastohydrodynamic film separating rubbing surfaces is important in preventing the wear and failure of compressor elements. It is, therefore, important to predict the elastohydrodynamic (EHD) performance of lubricants under realistic tribocontact renditions. This is, however, difficult as the lubricant properties that control film formation are critically dependent upon pressure and shear, and cannot be evaluated using conventional laboratory instruments. In this study, the elastohydrodynamic behavior of refrigeration lubricants with and without the presence of refrigerants was investigated using the ultrathin film EHD interferometry technique. This technique enables very thin films, down to less than 5 nm, to be measured accurately within an EHD contact under realistic conditions of temperature, shear, and pressure. The technique was adapted to the study of lubricant refrigerant mixtures. Film thickness measurements were obtained on refrigeration lubricants as a function of speed, temperature, and refrigerant concentration. The effects of lubricant viscosity, temperature, rolling speed, and refrigerant concentration on EHD film formation were investigated. From the film thickness measurements, effective pressure-viscosity coefficients were calculated. The lubricants studied in this project included two naphthenic mineral oils (NMO), four polyolesters (POE), and two polyvinyl ether (PVE) fluids. These fluids represented viscosity grades of ISO 32 and ISO 68 and are shown in a table. Refrigerants studied included R-22, R-134a, and R-410A. Film thickness measurements were conducted at 23 C, 45 C, and 65 C with refrigerant concentrations ranging from zero to 60% by weight.

  3. International Journal of Thermophysics, Vol. 20, No. 1, 1999 Vapor-Liquid Equilibria of Alternative Refrigerants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lisal, Martin

    Refrigerants by Molecular Dynamics Simulations1 M. Lisal,2 R. Budinsky,3 V. Vacek,3 and K. Aim2, 4 Alternative refrigerants HFC-152a (CHF2CH3), HFC-143a (CF3CH3), HFC- 134a (CF3CH2F), and HCFC-142b (CF2ClCH3) are modeled Republic. 4 To whom correspondence should be addressed. KEY WORDS: alternative refrigerants; Gibbs

  4. A Variable Refrigerant Flow Heat Pump Computer Model in EnergyPlus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raustad, Richard A. [Florida Solar Energy Center

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper provides an overview of the variable refrigerant flow heat pump computer model included with the Department of Energy's EnergyPlusTM whole-building energy simulation software. The mathematical model for a variable refrigerant flow heat pump operating in cooling or heating mode, and a detailed model for the variable refrigerant flow direct-expansion (DX) cooling coil are described in detail.

  5. Development of Versatile Compressor Modeling using Approximation Techniques for Alternative Refrigerants Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdelaziz, Omar [ORNL] [ORNL; Shrestha, Som S [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Refrigerants are the life-blood of vapor compression systems that are widely used in Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning, and Refrigeration (HVAC&R) applications. The HVAC&R community is currently transitioning from main-stream refrigerants that have high Global Warming Potential (GWP) to alternative lower-GWP refrigerants. During this transition, it is important to account for the life cycle climate performance of alternative refrigerants since their performance will be different than that of higher-GWP refrigerants. This requires the evaluation of the system performance with the new refrigerants. Unfortunately, it is extremely difficult to predict the realistic performance of new alternative refrigerants without experimental validation. One of the main challenges in this regard is modeling the compressor performance with high fidelity due to the complex interaction of operating parameters, geometry, boundary conditions, and fluid properties. High fidelity compressor models are computationally expensive and require significant pre-processing to evaluate the performance of alternative refrigerants. This paper presents a new approach to modeling compressor performance when alternative refrigerants are used. The new modeling concept relies on using existing compressor performance to create an approximate model that captures the dependence of compressor performance on key operating parameters and fluid properties. The model can be built using a myriad of approximation techniques. This paper focuses on Kriging-based techniques to develop higher fidelity approximate compressor models. Baseline and at least one alternative refrigerant performance data are used to build the model. The model accuracy was evaluated by comparing the model results with compressor performance data using other refrigerants. Preliminary results show that the approximate model can predict the compressor mass flow rate and power consumption within 5%.

  6. Refrigerator Efficiency in Ghana: Tailoring an appliance market transformation program design for Africa

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ben Hagan, Essel; Van Buskirk, Robert; Ofosu-Ahenkorah, Alfred; McNeil, Michael A.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    McMahon J.E. (2005) Energy Efficiency Labels and Standards:the implementation of an efficient refrigerator marketequipment age, and efficiency of electricity generation 9.

  7. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Saving Strategies for Cold Storage Facilities." Process-Refrigeration Systems for Cold Storage. Pacific Gas andDR Strategies for Cold Storage - Barriers to Implementation.

  8. Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of low-global warming potential (GWP) refrigerants. DOE commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that...

  9. Electric, Gas, Water, Heating, Refrigeration, and Street Railways Facilities and Service (South Dakota)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This legislation contains provisions for facilities and service related to electricity, natural gas, water, heating, refrigeration, and street railways. The chapter addresses the construction and...

  10. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in significant energy and demand savings for refrigeratedbe modified to reduce energy demand during demand responsein refrigerated warehouse energy demand if they are not

  11. Developing a Motor Management Policy at BASF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zickefoose, B.; Theising, T. R.

    In early 1998 Thomas R. Theising, BASF Corporate Engineering initiated the formation of a motor management team. The goal of the team was to develop a Motor Management Guideline to better manage the purchase and repair of motors used throughout...

  12. Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor (CMVRTC)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology Corridor (CMVRTC) Oak Ridge National Laboratory Safety Security Vehicle Technologies Research Brief T he Commercial Motor Vehicle Roadside Technology in Tennessee to demonstrate, test, evaluation, and showcase innovative commercial motor vehicle (CMV) safety

  13. COMMERICAL MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATOR EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION SUPPLEMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilyugin, Sergei S.

    COMMERICAL MOTOR VEHICLE OPERATOR EMPLOYMENT APPLICATION SUPPLEMENT _________________________________________________________ Applicants for positions involving the operation of a commercial motor vehicle must comply with Title 49 CFR: _______________ Please list the following information for each unexpired commercial motor vehicle operator license

  14. Industrial motor repair in the United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schueler, V.; Leistner, P.; Douglass, J.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report characterizes the motor repair industry in the United States; summarizes current motor repair and testing practice; and identifies barriers to energy motor repair practice and recommends strategies for overcoming those barriers.

  15. Verification of Motor Repair Quality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Butler, K.

    Motor testing at Advanced Energy has shown that a motor that has not suffered irreparable damage as a result of failure can be repaired to perform as well as before the failure. But the only way to achieve the performance level of an energy...

  16. Dual capacity compressor with reversible motor and controls arrangement therefor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sisk, Francis J. (Washington Township, Fayette County, PA)

    1980-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A hermetic reciprocating compressor such as may be used in heat pump applications is provided for dual capacity operation by providing the crankpin of the crankshaft with an eccentric ring rotatably mounted thereon, and with the end of the connecting rod opposite the piston encompassing the outer circumference of the eccentric ring, with means limiting the rotation of the eccentric ring upon the crankpin between one end point and an opposite angularly displaced end point to provide different values of eccentricity depending upon which end point the eccentric ring is rotated to upon the crankpin, and a reversible motor in the hermetic shell of the compressor for rotating the crankshaft, the motor operating in one direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the one end point, and in the opposite direction effecting the angular displacement of the eccentric ring relative to the crankpin to the opposite end point, this arrangement automatically giving different stroke lengths depending upon the direction of motor rotation. The mechanical structure of the arrangement may take various forms including at least one in which any impact of reversal is reduced by utilizing lubricant passages and chambers at the interface area of the crankpin and eccentric ring to provide a dashpot effect. In the main intended application of the arrangement according to the invention, that is, in a refrigerating or air conditioning system, it is desirable to insure a delay during reversal of the direction of compressor operation. A control arrangement is provided in which the control system controls the direction of motor operation in accordance with temperature conditions, the system including control means for effecting operation in a low capacity direction or alternatively in a high capacity direction in response to one set, and another set, respectively, of temperature conditions and with timer means delaying a restart of the compressor motor for at least a predetermined time in response to a condition of the control means operative to initiate a change in the operating direction of the compressor when it restarts.

  17. Unique Lanthide-Free Motor Construction

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of rare-earth elements E: Efficiency Partners Ames Laboratory: improved magnet properties NREL: motor thermal management ORNL: motor testing 2 Relevance - Objectives Overall...

  18. Magnetically Coupled Adjustable Speed Motor Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This is one in a series of tip sheets to help manufacturers optimize their industrial motor and motor-driven systems.

  19. Journal of Asian Electric Vehicles, Volume 9, Number 1, June 2011 Uncontrolled Generation of Traciton Motors in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    magnet synchronous machines (PMSM) are provided with advantages of small size, light weight, and high power density, therefore PMSM are primary choice as traction motors in hybrid vehicles. In addition hybrid vehicles use PMSM [Kassakian , 2000]. However, interior permanent magnet synchronous motor (IPMSM

  20. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2003-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase-shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in the direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  1. Piezoelectric wave motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yerganian, Simon Scott (Lee's Summit, MO)

    2001-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric motor having a stator in which piezoelectric elements are contained in slots formed in the stator transverse to the desired wave motion. When an electric field is imposed on the elements, deformation of the elements imposes a force perpendicular to the sides of the slot, deforming the stator. Appropriate frequency and phase shifting of the electric field will produce a wave in the stator and motion in a rotor. In a preferred aspect, the piezoelectric elements are configured so that deformation of the elements in direction of an imposed electric field, generally referred to as the d.sub.33 direction, is utilized to produce wave motion in the stator. In a further aspect, the elements are compressed into the slots so as to minimize tensile stresses on the elements in use.

  2. Heat Transfer Reduction Across the Walls of Refrigerated Van Trailers by the Application of Phase Change Material

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Mashud

    2009-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this thesis is to present the results obtained by incorporating phase change materials (PCMs) into the conventional insulated walls of commercial refrigerated van trailers (herein referred to as "refrigerated trucks"). The idea...

  3. High efficiency, high capacity cooling and refrigeration. Semi-annual report for the period May-October 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCullough, Edward T.; Dhooge, Patrick M.; Nimitz, J. S.

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Tasks 1 through 3 (identify candidate refrigerants, construct bench-top test device, test candidate refrigerants in the bench-top device) are complete. The project is on budget and on schedule. Significant positive results have been obtained.

  4. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.

    1997-10-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixer pump is described used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump. 10 figs.

  5. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, Allegheny County, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA); Nyilas, Charles P. (Monroeville, PA); Denmeade, Timothy J. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A transfer pump used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank.

  6. Submersible canned motor mixer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, Richard F. (Ohio Township, PA); Pollick, Richard D. (Sarver, PA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A mixer pump used in a waste tank for mobilizing high-level radioactive liquid waste having a column assembly containing power cables, a motor housing with electric motor means which includes a stator can of a stator assembly and a rotor can of a rotor assembly, and an impeller assembly with an impeller connected to a shaft of the rotor assembly. The column assembly locates the motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to lubricate radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the impeller and electric motor means act to grind down large particles in the liquid waste flow. These larger particles are received in slots in the static bearing members of the radial bearing assemblies. Only solid waste particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass therethrough, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the mixer pump.

  7. 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-42 7-111 A Carnot heat engine is used to drive a Carnot refrigerator. The maximum rate of heat removal from the refrigerated space and the total rate of heat rejection to the ambient air are to be determined. Assumptions The heat engine and the refrigerator operate steadily. Analysis (a) The highest

  8. 7-58 A commercial refrigerator with R-134a as the working fluid is considered. The evaporator inlet and exit states are specified. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant and the rate of heat rejected are to be

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-22 7-58 A commercial refrigerator with R-134a as the working fluid is considered. The evaporator inlet and exit states are specified. The mass flow rate of the refrigerant and the rate of heat rejected are to be determined. Assumptions 1 The refrigerator operates steadily. 2 The kinetic and potential energy changes

  9. Overview of CFC replacement issues for household refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vineyard, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Roke, L. [Fisher and Paykel, Auckland (New Zealand); Hallett, F. [Frigidaire, Washington, DC (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1974, the famous ozone depletion theory of Rowland and Molina claimed that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) diffuse into the stratosphere where they are broken down by photolysis to release chlorine atoms that catalytically destroy ozone. Although the understanding of the science is still imperfect, there is little doubt that CFCs play a major role in the Antarctic ozone hole phenomenon and the decline in ozone observed in the rest of the world. Another issue that has become increasingly important is the potential of CFCs to change the earth`s temperature and to modify the climate. While the main impact in global warming is made by increased concentrations of carbon dioxide, CFCs and other trace gases also contribute to this effect. In an effort to respond to the global environmental threat, a CFC protocol was adopted during a diplomatic conference in Montreal. This document, known as the Montreal Protocol, was ratified in 1988 and put into effect on January 1, 1989. In accordance with Article 6 of the Montreal Protocol, the countries that signed the agreement shall periodically assess the control measures provided for in the Protocol. As part of that assessment process, household refrigeration was investigated to determine the status of CFC-12 replacements. The conclusion was that much progress has been made towards finding a suitable replacement. Compressors designed for HFC-134a have efficiencies comparable to those for CFC-12 and acceptable reliability tests have been obtained with ester lubricants. In addition, other replacements such as R-152a and refrigerant mixtures exist, but will require more study. Cycle options, such as the Stirling cycle, may be viable, but are further out in the future. The impact of new refrigerants is expected to result in elimination of CFC-12 consumption in developed countries by 1997 and in developing countries by 2005.

  10. Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    Exergy analysis of transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycle with an expander Jun Lan Yang Tianjin, People's Republic of China Received 1 June 2003 Abstract In this paper, a comparative study is performed for the transcritical carbon dioxide refrigeration cycles with a throttling valve

  11. Thermoelectric materials 1998 -- The next generation materials for small-scale refrigeration and power generation applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritt, T.M. (ed.) (Clemson Univ., SC (United States)); Kanatzidis, M.G. (ed.) (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)); Mahan, G.D. (ed.) (Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)); Lyon, H.B. Jr. (ed.) (Marlow Industries, Dallas, TX (United States))

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermoelectric materials are used in a wide variety of applications related to small-scale solid-state refrigeration or power generation. Over the past 30 years, alloys based on the Bi-Te compounds (refrigeration) [(Bi[sub 1[minus]x]Sb[sub x])[sub 2] (Te[sub 1[minus]x]Se[sub x])[sub 3

  12. Next Generation Low-Global Warming Potential Refrigerants R&D Roadmap

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE commissioned this roadmap to establish a set of high-priority research and development (R&D) activities that will accelerate the transition to low-GWP refrigerants across the entire heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and refrigeration (HVAC&R) industry.

  13. Minimal Self-Contained Quantum Refrigeration Machine Based on Four Quantum Dots

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davide Venturelli; Rosario Fazio; Vittorio Giovannetti

    2013-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical study of an electronic quantum refrigerator based on four quantum dots arranged in a square configuration, in contact with as many thermal reservoirs. We show that the system implements the basic minimal mechanism for acting as a self-contained quantum refrigerator, by demonstrating heat extraction from the coldest reservoir and the cooling of the nearby quantum-dot.

  14. Thermodynamic optimization of heat-driven refrigerators in the transient regime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vargas, J.V.C.; Parise, J.A.R.; Ledezma, G.A.; Bianchi, M.V.A.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present work introduces a transient endoreversible model of a heat-driven refrigeration plant, which is driven by a fuel-burning heater. The model consists of a combustion chamber with negligible heat loss to the ambient, a refrigerator with three finite-size heat exchangers, namely, the evaporator between the refrigeration load and refrigerant, the condenser between the refrigerant and the ambient, and the generator between the combustion chamber and the refrigerant, and finally the refrigerated space. The total thermal conductance of the three heat exchangers is fixed. A thermodynamic optimization of the absorption cycle is then performed, reporting the operating conditions for minimum time to reach a prescribed cold-space temperature, thus maximum refrigeration rate, specifically, the optimal mass fuel flow rate and the optimal way of allocating the thermal conductance inventory. Half of the total supply of thermal conductance has to be divided equally between the generator and evaporator and the other half allocated to the condenser, for optimal operation. A narrow range of fuel flow rates lead to the minimum time to achieve a prescribed cold-space temperature, thus stressing the importance of the transient analysis. Appropriate dimensionless groups were identified and the generalized results are reported in dimensionless charts.

  15. Edinburgh Research Explorer A stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edinburgh, University of

    Edinburgh Research Explorer A stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid stand-alone solar adsorption refrigerator for humanitarian aid' Solar energy, vol 100, pp. 172-178., 10 as postprint) Published In: Solar energy General rights Copyright for the publications made accessible via

  16. The effect of distributed exchange parameters on magnetocaloric refrigeration capacity in amorphous and nanocomposite materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    energy on interatomic spacing. The magnetic entropy curve revealed extra broadening with a refrigerationThe effect of distributed exchange parameters on magnetocaloric refrigeration capacity in amorphous of Physics. Related Articles Crystallography, magnetic, and magnetocaloric properties of Gd57.5Co20Al22

  17. CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    1 CORRELATING EVAPORATION HEAT TRANSFER COEFFICIENT OF REFRIGERANT R-134a IN A PLATE HEAT EXCHANGER for evaporation heat transfer coefficient of refrigerant R-134a flowing in a plate heat exchanger. Correlation schemes proposed by Yan and Lin (1999b) for modeling the heat transfer coefficient in both a single- phase

  18. Hydrodynamic cavitation and boiling in refrigerant (R-123) flow inside microchannels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    Hydrodynamic cavitation and boiling in refrigerant (R-123) flow inside microchannels Brandon cavitation has on heat transfer. The fluid medium is refrigerant R-123 flowing through 227 lm hydraulic diameter microchannels. The cavitation is instigated by the inlet orifice. Adiabatic tests were con- ducted

  19. Sample Self-Heating in the Portable Dilution Refrigerator Figure 1. Self-heating of a model sample in a dilution refrigerator. Sample temperature is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    1 Sample Self-Heating in the Portable Dilution Refrigerator Figure 1. Self-heating of a model ~ 6 pW, self heating begins to occur. The most dramatic result of this test was that a temperature

  20. Quantum bath refrigeration towards absolute zero: unattainability principle challenged

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michal Kolß?; David Gelbwaser-Klimovsky; Robert Alicki; Gershon Kurizki

    2012-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A minimal model of a quantum refrigerator (QR), i.e. a periodically phase-flipped two-level system permanently coupled to a finite-capacity bath (cold bath) and an infinite heat dump (hot bath), is introduced and used to investigate the cooling of the cold bath towards the absolute zero (T=0). Remarkably, the temperature scaling of the cold-bath cooling rate reveals that it does not vanish as T->0 for certain realistic quantized baths, e.g. phonons in strongly disordered media (fractons) or quantized spin-waves in ferromagnets (magnons). This result challenges Nernst's third-law formulation known as the unattainability principle.

  1. How small can thermal machines be? The smallest possible refrigerator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noah Linden; Sandu Popescu; Paul Skrzypczyk

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the fundamental dimensional limits to thermodynamic machines. In particular we show that it is possible to construct self-contained refrigerators (i.e. not requiring external sources of work) consisting of only a small number of qubits and/or qutrits. We present three different models, consisting of two qubits, a qubit and a qutrit with nearest-neighbour interactions, and a single qutrit respectively. We then investigate fundamental limits to their performance; in particular we show that it is possible to cool towards absolute zero.

  2. Retrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn'tOrigin ofEnergy at Waste-to-Energy usingofRetrofitting Doors on Open Refrigerated Cases

  3. Product Standards for Refrigerators (Japan) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to: navigation,Pillar Group BV Jump to: navigation,PowerInformation FluorescentRefrigerators

  4. ETME 422 -REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC -10:00 -10:50am M W F RH 312

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dyer, Bill

    10/31/2011 ETME 422 - REFRIGERATION & HVAC SYSTEMS FALL 2011 LEC - 10:00 - 10:50am M W F RH 312. -- Refrigeration and heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) for comfort and industrial applications, low temperature refrigeration cycles; air distribution and fan-duct analysis, design/selection of HVAC

  5. @ GW Regulatory Studies Center | www.RegulatoryStudies.gwu.edu | Follow us @RegStudies DOE's Proposed Commercial Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schmitt, William R.

    's Proposed Commercial Refrigeration Rule Claims to Save Retailers Money by Reducing their Choices Sofie E a proposed rule setting energy efficiency standards for 49 different types of commercial refrigeration equipment, establishing maximum allowable energy usage standards as a function of either refrigerated volume

  6. COFELY Refrigeration | Rdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 CopyrightCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    COFELY Refrigeration | RŘdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Seite 1 CopyrightęCOFELYDeutuschlandGmbH2009.AlleRechtevorbehalten. #12;COFELY Refrigeration | RŘdiger Roth | European Heat Pump Summit 2013 Campaign Spectrum: Heat pump with speed controlled screw compressor #12;COFELY Refrigeration | RŘdiger Roth

  7. JOURNAL OF MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS, VOL. 15, NO. 5, OCTOBER 2006 1319 Development of Cavitation in Refrigerant (R-123)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peles, Yoav

    of Cavitation in Refrigerant (R-123) Flow Inside Rudimentary Microfluidic Systems Chandan Mishra and Yoav Peles Abstract--The existence of hydrodynamic cavitation in the flow of refrigerant (R-123) through micro patterns observed in refrigerant (R-123) and water flows through a micro-Venturi system. [1575] Index Terms

  8. Pulse-tube dilution refrigeration below 10 mK T. Prouve, H. Godfrin, C. Gian`ese,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, UniversitÚ de

    Pulse-tube dilution refrigeration below 10 mK T. Prouv┤e, H. Godfrin, C. Gian`ese, S. Triqueneaux┤emenci`ere, 38360 Sassenage, France We report the design, realization and performance of dilution refrigerators makes this new type of refrigerators particularly versatile. The system provides relatively high cooling

  9. Magnetic refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric ef-fect, has great promise for domestic and industrial use and is at-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Canet, L├ęonie

    Magnetic refrigeration, based on the magnetocaloric ef- fect, has great promise for domestic the magnetization phase, and heat is withdrawn from the volume to be refrigerated during the demagnetization phase but these LaFeSi ma- terials seem to have the best properties in view of magnetic refrigeration applications

  10. STEPS IN SLOW FLAGELLAR MOTOR ROTATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leake, Mark C.

    STEPS IN SLOW FLAGELLAR MOTOR ROTATION Alexander D. Rowe1 , Yoshiyuki Sowa2, Mark C. Leake1+ -specific motors. Torque is generated by the interaction between stator complexes and FliG proteins revolution. CHIMERIC MOTOR: The stator units comprising the flagellar motors of the YS34 strain - used

  11. Total Economics of Energy Efficient Motorsá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nester, A. T.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    priced energy-efficient motor or a standard electric motor. It will also address the question of whether it is cost-effective to rewind an old motor which has failed or to replace it with a new energy-efficient motor....

  12. Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Motor Control Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease Pietro Mazzoni, Britne Shabbott, and Juan Camilo Corte┤s Motor Performance Laboratory, The Neurological Institute, Columbia University, New York, New. Motor symptoms can also be described in terms of motor control, a level of description that explains how

  13. Recover Power with Hydraulic Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brennan, J. R.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    displacement device, the HPRM torque and speed are almost completely independent - unlike hydraulic power recovery turbines (centrifugal motors). Three screw HPRM's have low moments of inertia, operate at low vibration and noise levels and extract power...

  14. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  15. Direct drive field actuator motors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, A.R.

    1998-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A positive-drive field actuator motor is described which includes a stator carrying at least one field actuator which changes in dimension responsive to application of an energy field, and at least one drive shoe movable by the dimensional changes of the field actuator to contact and move a rotor element with respect to the stator. Various embodiments of the motor are disclosed, and the rotor element may be moved linearly or arcuately. 62 figs.

  16. RECENT PROGRESS IN DYNAMIC PROCESS SIMULATION OF CRYOGENIC REFRIGERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuendig, A. [Linde Kryotechnik AG, Dattlikonerstrasse 5, CH-8422 Pfungen (Switzerland)

    2008-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

    At the CEC 2005 a paper with the title 'Helium refrigerator design for pulsed heat load in Tokamaks' was presented. That paper highlighted the control requirements for cryogenic refrigerators to cope with the expected load variations of future nuclear fusion reactors. First dynamic computer simulations have been presented.In the mean time, the computer program is enhanced and a new series of process simulations are available. The new program considers not only the heat flows and the temperature variations within the heat exchangers, but also the variation of mass flows and pressure drops. The heat transfer numbers now are calculated in dependence of the flow speed and the gas properties. PI-controllers calculate the necessary position of specific valves for maintaining pressures, temperatures and the rotation speed of turbines.Still unsatisfactory is the fact, that changes in the process arrangement usually are attended by adjustments in the program code. It is the main objective of the next step of development a more flexible code which enables that any user defined process arrangements can be assembled by input data.

  17. Smart lighting: New Roles for Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    Smart lighting: New Roles for Light in the Solid State Lighting World Robert F. Karlicek, Jr. Director, Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center Professor, Electrical, Systems and Computer Lighting Ě What is Smart Lighting Ě Technology Barriers to Smart Lighting Ě Visible Light Communications

  18. Commercial Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial lighting accounts for more than 20 percent of total commercial building energy use. The Energy Department works to reduce lighting energy use through research and deployment.

  19. 9.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering -Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/65 2. Vapour-compression refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    . Vapour-compression refrigeration processes Ron Zevenhoven ┼bo Akademi University Thermal and Flow") Refrigeration course # 424503.0 v. 2014 ┼A 424503 Refrigeration / Kylteknik 9.11.2014┼bo Akademi Univ - Thermal of a refrigerant fluid Picture: ăB98 liquid-vapour saturation dome 1-2 and 3-4: reversible and isothermal 2-3 and 4

  20. Cash for Clunkers Refrigerator Reimbursement Program To receive a financial incentive for replacing an OSU-owned old, inefficient, in-use and food-only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Cash for Clunkers Refrigerator Reimbursement Program To receive a financial incentive for replacing an OSU-owned old, inefficient, in-use and food-only refrigerator, please follow the steps below 1) Email (building and room #) of existing refrigerator c. Make and model # of existing refrigerator d. Make

  1. 12.11.2014bo Akademi Univ -Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 1/32 4. Refrigeration process comparison;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zevenhoven, Ron

    . Refrigeration process comparison; process equipment Ron Zevenhoven ┼bo Akademi University Themal and Flow") Refrigeration course # 424503.0 v. 2014 ┼A 424503 Refrigeration / Kylteknik 12.11.2014┼bo Akademi Univ - Thermal and Flow Engineering Piispankatu 8, 20500 Turku 2/32 4.1 Refrigeration process comparison #12;12.11.2014┼bo

  2. Cash for Clunkers Refrigerator Retirement Program To receive a financial incentive for retiring an OSU-owned old, inefficient, in-use and food-only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Escher, Christine

    Cash for Clunkers Refrigerator Retirement Program To receive a financial incentive for retiring an OSU-owned old, inefficient, in-use and food-only refrigerator, please follow the steps below 1) Email (building and room #) of existing refrigerator c. Make and model # of refrigerator 2) Within 3 business days

  3. 7-46E The COP and the refrigeration rate of an ice machine are given. The power consumption is to be determined.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bahrami, Majid

    7-15 7-46E The COP and the refrigeration rate of an ice machine are given. The power consumption consumption of a refrigerator are given. The time it will take to cool 5 watermelons is to be determined. Assumptions 1 The refrigerator operates steadily. 2 The heat gain of the refrigerator through its walls, door

  4. Efficient Motor System Tools Sponsored by the DOE Motor Challenge Programá

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blazewicz, S.; McCoy, G. A.; Olszewski, M.; Scheihing, P.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    motors and motor-dri ven equipment that wi 11 improve indus! ri al energy effic iency, producti vi ty and environmental performance. The overall goal is to increase the market penetration of energy-efficient industrial electric motor systems...

  5. Investigation of pressure drop in capillary tube for mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson cryocooler

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ardhapurkar, P. M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 India and S. S. G. M. College of Engineering Shegaon, MS 444 203 (India); Sridharan, Arunkumar; Atrey, M. D. [Mechanical Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Mumbai, MS 400 076 (India)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A capillary tube is commonly used in small capacity refrigeration and air-conditioning systems. It is also a preferred expansion device in mixed refrigerant Joule-Thomson (MR J-T) cryocoolers, since it is inexpensive and simple in configuration. However, the flow inside a capillary tube is complex, since flashing process that occurs in case of refrigeration and air-conditioning systems is metastable. A mixture of refrigerants such as nitrogen, methane, ethane, propane and iso-butane expands below its inversion temperature in the capillary tube of MR J-T cryocooler and reaches cryogenic temperature. The mass flow rate of refrigerant mixture circulating through capillary tube depends on the pressure difference across it. There are many empirical correlations which predict pressure drop across the capillary tube. However, they have not been tested for refrigerant mixtures and for operating conditions of the cryocooler. The present paper assesses the existing empirical correlations for predicting overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the MR J-T cryocooler. The empirical correlations refer to homogeneous as well as separated flow models. Experiments are carried out to measure the overall pressure drop across the capillary tube for the cooler. Three different compositions of refrigerant mixture are used to study the pressure drop variations. The predicted overall pressure drop across the capillary tube is compared with the experimentally obtained value. The predictions obtained using homogeneous model show better match with the experimental results compared to separated flow models.

  6. Submersible canned motor transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guardiani, R.F.; Pollick, R.D.; Nyilas, C.P.; Denmeade, T.J.

    1997-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A transfer pump is described which is used in a waste tank for transferring high-level radioactive liquid waste from a waste tank and having a column assembly, a canned electric motor means, and an impeller assembly with an upper impeller and a lower impeller connected to a shaft of a rotor assembly. The column assembly locates a motor housing with the electric motor means adjacent to the impeller assembly which creates an hydraulic head, and which forces the liquid waste, into the motor housing to cool the electric motor means and to cool and/or lubricate the radial and thrust bearing assemblies. Hard-on-hard bearing surfaces of the bearing assemblies and a ring assembly between the upper impeller and electric motor means grind large particles in the liquid waste flow. Slots in the static bearing member of the radial bearing assemblies further grind down the solid waste particles so that only particles smaller than the clearances in the system can pass there through, thereby resisting damage to and the interruption of the operation of the transfer pump. The column assembly is modular so that sections can be easily assembled, disassembled and/or removed. A second embodiment employs a stator jacket which provides an alternate means for cooling the electric motor means and lubricating and/or cooling the bearing assemblies, and a third embodiment employs a variable level suction device which allows liquid waste to be drawn into the transfer pump from varying and discrete levels in the waste tank. 17 figs.

  7. Final Scientific/Technical Report for DOE/EERE project Advanced Magnetic Refrigerant Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Francis

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A team led by GE Global Research developed new magnetic refrigerant materials needed to enhance the commercialization potential of residential appliances such as refrigerators and air conditioners based on the magnetocaloric effect (a nonvapor compression cooling cycle). The new magnetic refrigerant materials have potentially better performance at lower cost than existing materials, increasing technology readiness level. The performance target of the new magnetocaloric material was to reduce the magnetic field needed to achieve 4 ░C adiabatic temperature change from 1.5 Tesla to 0.75 Tesla. Such a reduction in field minimizes the cost of the magnet assembly needed for a magnetic refrigerator. Such a reduction in magnet assembly cost is crucial to achieving commercialization of magnetic refrigerator technology. This project was organized as an iterative alloy development effort with a parallel material modeling task being performed at George Washington University. Four families of novel magnetocaloric alloys were identified, screened, and assessed for their performance potential in a magnetic refrigeration cycle. Compositions from three of the alloy families were manufactured into regenerator components. At the beginning of the project a previously studied magnetocaloric alloy was selected for manufacturing into the first regenerator component. Each of the regenerators was tested in magnetic refrigerator prototypes at a subcontractor at at GE Appliances. The property targets for operating temperature range, operating temperature control, magnetic field sensitivity, and corrosion resistance were met. The targets for adiabatic temperature change and thermal hysteresis were not met. The high thermal hysteresis also prevented the regenerator components from displaying measurable cooling power when tested in prototype magnetic refrigerators. Magnetic refrigerant alloy compositions that were predicted to have low hysteresis were not attainable with conventional alloy processing methods. Preliminary experiments with rapid solidification methods showed a path towards attaining low hysteresis compositions should this alloy development effort be continued.

  8. United States Industrial Electric Motor Systems Market Opportunities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    for Industry MotorMaster+ User Manual New Motor Systems Market Assessment AMO and LBNL are currently developing an update to the original Motor Systems Market Assessment. The...

  9. Mechanisms of motor activity regulation in axonal transport

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reis, Gerald Feliz

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    emerging principles of kinesin motor utilization." Annu Revopposite-polarity microtubule motors." J Cell Biol 156( 4):Kinesin mutations cause motor neuron disease phenotypes by

  10. ADVANCED UNDERGROUND GAS STORAGE CONCEPTS REFRIGERATED-MINED CAVERN STORAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Limited demand and high cost has prevented the construction of hard rock caverns in this country for a number of years. The storage of natural gas in mined caverns may prove technically feasible if the geology of the targeted market area is suitable; and economically feasible if the cost and convenience of service is competitive with alternative available storage methods for peak supply requirements. It is believed that mined cavern storage can provide the advantages of high delivery rates and multiple fill-withdrawal cycles in areas where salt cavern storage is not possible. In this research project, PB-KBB merged advanced mining technologies and gas refrigeration techniques to develop conceptual designs and cost estimates to demonstrate the commercialization potential of the storage of refrigerated natural gas in hard rock caverns. Five regions of the U.S.A. were studied for underground storage development and PB-KBB reviewed the literature to determine if the geology of these regions was suitable for siting hard rock storage caverns. Area gas market conditions in these regions were also studied to determine the need for such storage. Based on an analysis of many factors, a possible site was determined to be in Howard and Montgomery Counties, Maryland. The area has compatible geology and a gas industry infrastructure for the nearby market populous of Baltimore and Washington D.C.. As Gas temperature is lowered, the compressibility of the gas reaches an optimum value. The compressibility of the gas, and the resultant gas density, is a function of temperature and pressure. This relationship can be used to commercial advantage by reducing the size of a storage cavern for a given working volume of natural gas. This study looks at this relationship and and the potential for commercialization of the process in a storage application. A conceptual process design, and cavern design were developed for various operating conditions. Potential site locations were considered and a typical plant layout was developed. In addition a geomechanical review of the proposed cavern design was performed, evaluating the stability of the mine rooms and shafts, and the effects of the refrigerated gas temperatures on the stability of the cavern. Capital and operating cost estimates were also developed for the various temperature cases considered. The cost estimates developed were used to perform a comparative market analysis of this type of gas storage system to other systems that are commercially used in the region of the study.

  11. Lab 4 -Motor Constants and Sensor Calibration Consider a DC servo motor which is connected to a power supply. The motor inertia is Jm. The rotational

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Lab 4 - Motor Constants and Sensor Calibration PRE-LAB Consider a DC servo motor which is connected to a power supply. The motor inertia is Jm. The rotational damping in the motor is bm. The motor produces a torque Tm = Kmi where Km is the motor's torque constant and i is the current from the power supply. a

  12. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, R.C.; Biermann, W.J.

    1993-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  13. Triple-effect absorption refrigeration system with double-condenser coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN); Biermann, Wendell J. (Fayetteville, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple effect absorption refrigeration system is provided with a double-condenser coupling and a parallel or series circuit for feeding the refrigerant-containing absorbent solution through the high, medium, and low temperature generators utilized in the triple-effect system. The high temperature condenser receiving vaporous refrigerant from the high temperature generator is double coupled to both the medium temperature generator and the low temperature generator to enhance the internal recovery of heat within the system and thereby increase the thermal efficiency thereof.

  14. Application of JLab 12GeV helium refrigeration system for the FRIB accelerator at MSU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Casagrande, F. [MSU-FRIB, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The planned approach to have a turnkey helium refrigeration system for the MSU-FRIB accelerator system, encompassing the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the 4.5-K refrigerator cold box(es), cold compression system, warm compression system, gas management, oil removal and utility/ancillary systems, was found to be cost prohibitive. Following JLabĺs suggestion, MSU-FRIB accelerator management made a formal request to evaluate the applicability of the recently designed 12GeV JLab cryogenic system for this application. The following paper will outline the findings and the planned approach for the FRIB helium refrigeration system.

  15. Application of JLab 12GeV helium refrigeration system for the FRIB accelerator at MSU

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State University

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planned approach to have a turnkey helium refrigeration system for the MSU-FRIB accelerator system, encompassing the design, fabrication, installation and commissioning of the 4.5-K refrigerator cold box(es), cold compression system, warm compression system, gas management, oil removal and utility/ancillary systems, was found to be cost prohibitive. Following JLabĺs suggestion, MSU-FRIB accelerator management made a formal request to evaluate the applicability of the recently designed 12GeV JLab cryogenic system for this application. The following paper will outline the findings and the planned approach for the FRIB helium refrigeration system.

  16. Regeneration tests of a room temperature magnetic refrigerator and heat pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, G V

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic heat pump apparatus consisting of a solid magnetic refrigerant, gadolinium, and a liquid regenerator column of ethanol and water has been tested. Utilizing a 7T field, it produced a maximum temperature span of 80 K, and in separate tests, a lowest temperature of 241 K and a highest temperature of 328 K. Thermocouples, placed at intervals along the regenerator tube, permitted measurement of the temperature distribution in the regenerator fluid. No attempt was made to extract refrigeration from the device, but analysis of the temperature distributions shows that 34 watts of refrigeration was produced.

  17. Three phase AC motor controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vuckovich, Michael (Elizabeth, PA); Wright, Maynard K. (Bethel Park, PA); Burkett, John P. (South Huntington Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1984-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A motor controller for a three phase AC motor (10) which is adapted to operate bidirectionally from signals received either from a computer (30) or a manual control (32). The controller is comprised of digital logic circuit means which implement a forward and reverse command signal channel (27, 29) for the application of power through the forward and reverse power switching relays (16, 18, 20, 22). The digital logic elements are cross coupled to prevent activation of both channels simultaneously and each includes a plugging circuit (65, 67) for stopping the motor upon the removal of control signal applied to one of the two channels (27, 29) for a direction of rotation desired. Each plugging circuit (65, 67) includes a one-shot pulse signal generator (88, 102) which outputs a single pulse signal of predetermined pulsewidth which is adapted to inhibit further operation of the application of power in the channel which is being activated and to apply a reversal command signal to the other channel which provides a reversed phase application of power to the motor for a period defined by the pulse-width output of the one-shot signal generator to plug the motor (10) which will then be inoperative until another rotational command signal is applied to either of the two channels.

  18. Case Histories of Energy Efficient Motors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Riley, J. C.; Comiskey, W. T

    should be the value read from a reputable manufactur er I s data sheet. COOLING TOWER MOTORS The plant is now replacing 25 hp cooling tower motors with EE motors as the old ones burn out. An adapter base for changing from the old frame size 365... volts and amps from an EE motor and comparing this to readings from an old motor in service on the tower. This was based on an assumption of identical loads and motor power factors. This calculation showed yearly savings very close to the cost...

  19. A small quantum absorption refrigerator with reversed couplings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ralph Silva; Paul Skrzypczyk; Nicolas Brunner

    2015-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Small quantum absorption refrigerators have recently attracted renewed attention. Here we present a missing design of a two-qubit fridge, the main feature of which is that one of the two machine qubits is itself maintained at a temperature colder than the cold bath. This is achieved by 'reversing' the couplings to the baths compared to previous designs, where only a transition is maintained cold. We characterize the working regime and the efficiency of the fridge. We demonstrate the soundness of the model by deriving and solving a master equation. Finally, we discuss the performance of the fridge, in particular the heat current extracted from the cold bath. We show that our model performs comparably to the standard three-level quantum fridge, and thus appears appealing for possible implementations of nano thermal machines.

  20. Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) evaluation. Volume 1: Process evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandahl, L.J.; Ledbetter, M.R.; Chin, R.I.; Lewis, K.S.; Norling, J.M.

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted this study for the US Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the Super Efficient Refrigerator Program (SERP) Evaluation. This report documents the SERP formation and implementation process, and identifies preliminary program administration and implementation issues. The findings are based primarily on interviews with those familiar with the program, such as utilities, appliance manufacturers, and SERP administrators. These interviews occurred primarily between March and April 1995, when SERP was in the early stages of program implementation. A forthcoming report will estimate the preliminary impacts of SERP within the industry and marketplace. Both studies were funded by DOE at the request of SERP Inc., which sought a third-party evaluation of its program.