National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lighting control sensors

  1. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal ...

  2. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An ...

  3. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Federal Facility Managers | Department of Energy Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers This fact sheet provides federal facility managers with an overview of the energy savings potential of wireless lighting occupancy sensors for room types, cost considerations, key steps to successful installation of wireless sensors, pros and cons of

  4. Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Occupancy Sensor Lighting Energy Savings 2 Breakroom 29% Classroom 40-46% Conference Room Corridor 30-80% Office, Private 13-50% Office, Open Restroom 30-90% Storage Area 45-80% Warehouse 35-54% 45% 10% How Much Can You Expect to Save When You Install Occupancy Sensor Lighting Controls in These Rooms? Occupancy sensors increase lighting energy savings by turning off or turning down the lights when rooms are unoccupied. Lighting energy savings of 10% to 90% are possible depending on room usage.

  5. Promising Technology: Wireless Lighting Occupancy Sensors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Occupancy sensors and controls detect human presence, and modulate light settings accordingly. When there is no human presence detected, the system can dim or turn off lights. This technology ensures that lights are not used when there are no occupants present, which can lead to significant energy savings.

  6. Sensors and Controls Reports | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emerging Technologies » Sensors and Controls » Sensors and Controls Reports Sensors and Controls Reports Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide (PNNL, April 2013) Energy Savings for Occupancy-Based Control (OBC) of Variable-Air-Volume (VAV) Systems (PNNL, Jan 2013) Small- and Medium-Sized Commercial Building Monitoring and Controls Needs: A Scoping Study (PNNL, Oct 2012) Buildings Home About Emerging Technologies HVAC, Water Heating, & Appliances Windows and Building Envelope Lighting

  7. Lighting Control Energy Savings

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1985-01-01

    CONTROLITE 1.0 is a lighting energy analysis program designed to calculate the energy savings and cost benefits obtainable using lighting controls in buildings. The program can compute the lighting energy reductions that result from using daylighting, scheduling, and other control strategies. When modeling daylight control systems, the program uses QUICKLITE to compute the daylight illuminances at specified points 5 times a day, 12 days a year (the 21st of each month), and for two skymore » conditions (clear and overcast skies). Fourier series techniques are used to fit a continuous curve through the computed illuminance points. The energy use for each of the 12 days is then computed given user-specified power-in/light-out characteristics of the modeled control system. The monthly and annual energy usage for overcast and clear conditions are found separately by fitting two long-term Fourier series curves to the energy use computed for each of the 12 days. Finally, the monthly energy use is calculated by taking a weighted average for the monthly energy use computed for the overcast and clear sky conditions. The program only treats the energy use directly attributable to lighting. The impact of lighting control strategies on building thermal loads is not computed. The program allows input of different control schedules (i.e., on/off times for the lighting system) for each day of the week, but every week of the year is treated the same; thus, holidays cannot be modeled explicitly. When used for daylighting purposes, CONTROLITE1.0 understands only clear and overcast conditions. User-supplied values for the proportion of clear and overcast hours for each month of the year are required to accommodate different climatic conditions.« less

  8. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Lighting Controls Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Use lighting controls to automatically turn lights on and off as needed, and save energy. Of course you can save energy by turning off lights when they're not needed, but sometimes we forget or don't notice that we've left them on. The most common types of lighting controls include: Dimmers

  9. Wireless Sensor Networks: Monitoring and Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastbacka, Mildred; Ponoum, Ratcharit; Bouza, Antonio

    2013-05-31

    The article discusses wireless sensor technologies for building energy monitoring and control. This article, also, addresses wireless sensor networks as well as benefits and challenges of using wireless sensors. The energy savings and market potential of wireless sensors are reviewed.

  10. How to Select Lighting Controls for Offices and Public Buildings |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Select Lighting Controls for Offices and Public Buildings How to Select Lighting Controls for Offices and Public Buildings Fact sheet details agency guidelines for selecting lighting controls for offices and public buildings to save operating costs and energy. Download the fact sheet. (91.23 KB) More Documents & Publications Wireless Occupancy Sensors for Lighting Controls: An Applications Guide for Federal Facility Managers Exterior LED Lighting Projects at

  11. In situ calibration of a light source in a sensor device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat; Serkland, Darwin k.; Merchant, Bion J.

    2015-12-29

    A sensor device is described herein, wherein the sensor device includes an optical measurement system, such as an interferometer. The sensor device further includes a low-power light source that is configured to emit an optical signal having a constant wavelength, wherein accuracy of a measurement output by the sensor device is dependent upon the optical signal having the constant wavelength. At least a portion of the optical signal is directed to a vapor cell, the vapor cell including an atomic species that absorbs light having the constant wavelength. A photodetector captures light that exits the vapor cell, and generates an electrical signal that is indicative of intensity of the light that exits the vapor cell. A control circuit controls operation of the light source based upon the electrical signal, such that the light source emits the optical signal with the constant wavelength.

  12. Lighting Control Types | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Control Types Lighting Control Types Characteristics of the most common lighting controls for offices and other public buildings are outlined below. Also provided is a ...

  13. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Credit: Northeast Energy Efficiency...

  14. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies A virtual O2 sensor for ...

  15. Sensors and Controls Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of plug loads, reduction of standby losses, detection of faulty devices, and demand response management CBERD: Integrated Sensors and Controls Lead Performer: Lawrence ...

  16. Controlling Light | Photosynthetic Antenna Research Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Controlling Light June 29, 2016 Controlling Light New protection for photosynthetic organisms VIEW ARTICLE HERE https://source.wustl.edu/2016/06/controlling-light-new-protection-photosynthetic...

  17. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; Dave Watson; Steve Purdy

    2005-10-01

    The high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multi-sensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the installation cost of a wireless advanced lighting control system for a retrofit application is at least 30% lower than a comparable wired system for

  18. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROJECT OBJECTIVE NEEP's Commercial Advanced Lighting Control (CALC) project is designed to address market barriers and enable widespread adoption of Advanced Lighting Control ...

  19. Lighting Control Design | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Control Design Jump to: navigation, search Name: Lighting Control & Design Place: Glendale, California Zip: CA 91201 Product: California-based manufacturer of digital lighting...

  20. Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited). Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanophotonic Architectures for Nanoscale Light Control (invited). ...

  1. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, Raoul; Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You

    1997-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor (50). An optical fiber micro-light source (50) is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors (22) in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material (60). This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source (50). Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material (60) enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  2. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

    1997-05-06

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a fiber optic micro-light source and sensor. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 10 figs.

  3. Advanced Sensors, Control, Platforms, and Modeling

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Sensors, Control, Platforms, and Modeling 1 for Manufacturing (Smart Manufacturing): 2 Technology Assessment 3 Contents 4 1. Introduction to the Technology/System ............................................................................................... 2 5 1.1 Overview ....................................................................................................................................... 2 6 1.2 Challenges and opportunities

  4. Adaptive Street Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Information Resources » Webcasts » Adaptive Street Lighting Controls Adaptive Street Lighting Controls This two-part DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium webinar focused on LED street lighting equipped with adaptive control components. In Part I, presenters Amy Olay of the City of San Jose, CA, and Kelly Cunningham of the California Lighting Technology Center at UC Davis discussed their experiences as early adopters of these smart street lighting systems. In Part II, presenters

  5. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, Raoul; Tan, Weihong; Shi, Zhong-You

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications.

  6. Micro optical fiber light source and sensor and method of fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kopelman, R.; Tan, W.; Shi, Z.Y.

    1994-11-01

    This invention relates generally to the development of and a method of fabricating a micro optical fiber light source. An optical fiber micro-light source is presented whose aperture is extremely small yet able to act as an intense light source. Light sources of this type have wide ranging applications, including use as micro-sensors in NSOM. Micro-sensor light sources have excellent detection limits as well as photo stability, reversibility, and millisecond response times. Furthermore, a method for manufacturing a micro optical fiber light source is provided. It involves the photo-chemical attachment of an optically active material onto the end surface of an optical fiber cable which has been pulled to form an end with an extremely narrow aperture. More specifically, photopolymerization has been applied as a means to photo-chemically attach an optically active material. This process allows significant control of the size of the micro light source. Furthermore, photo-chemically attaching an optically active material enables the implementation of the micro-light source in a variety of sensor applications. 4 figs.

  7. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale Tiller; D. Phil; Gregor Henze; Xin Guo

    2007-09-30

    This project investigated the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point could improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. During the initial project phase, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. Phase II of the project demonstrated that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. This phase also established that analysis algorithms could be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications. In Phase III of the project, the sensor network from Phase I was complemented by a control strategy developed based on the results from the first two project phases: this controller was implemented in a small sample of work areas, and applied to lighting control. Two additional technologies were developed in the course of completing the project. A prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy was designed and implemented. A new capability that enables occupancy sensors in a sensor network to dynamically set the 'time delay' interval based on ongoing occupant behavior in the space was also designed and implemented.

  8. Networked Lighting Power and Control Platform for Solid State Lighting in Commercial Office Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Covaro, Mark

    2012-08-15

    Redwood Systems' objective is to further accelerate the acceptance of solid state lighting (SSL) with fine grain and easy-to-use control. In addition, increased and improved sensor capability allows the building owner or user to gather data on the environment within the building. All of this at a cost equal to or less than that of code-compliant fluorescent lighting. The grant we requested and received has been used to further enhance the system with power conversion efficiency improvements and additional features. Some of these features, such as building management system (BMS) control, allow additional energy savings in non-lighting building systems.

  9. Commercial Lighting and LED Lighting Incentives | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Schools Institutional Savings Category Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Other EE LED Lighting Maximum Rebate Up to 100% of cost; incentives that exceed 5,000 should be...

  10. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls Credit: Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships Credit: Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships Lead Performer: Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships, Lexington, MA Partners: -- Burlington Electric Department -- Cape Light Compact -- Connecticut Light and Power -- Efficiency Vermont -- National Grid -- NSTAR Electric and Gas --

  11. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    fluorescent lighting fixtures rather than replace them. Dimmers and LEDs Some light-emitting diode (LED) lightbulbs can be used with dimmers. LED bulbs and fixtures must be...

  12. 2D Wavefront Sensor Analysis and Control

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-02-19

    This software is designed for data acquisition and analysis of two dimensional wavefront sensors. The software includes data acquisition and control functions for an EPIX frame grabber to acquire data from a computer and all the appropriate analysis functions necessary to produce and display intensity and phase information. This software is written in Visual Basic for windows.

  13. Adapting Wireless Technology to Lighting Control and Environmental Sensing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dana Teasdale; Francis Rubinstein; David S. Watson; Steve Purdy

    2006-04-30

    Although advanced lighting control systems offer significant energy savings, the high cost of retrofitting buildings with advanced lighting control systems is a barrier to adoption of this energy-saving technology. Wireless technology, however, offers a solution to mounting installation costs since it requires no additional wiring to implement. To demonstrate the feasibility of such a system, a prototype wirelessly-controlled advanced lighting system was designed and built. The system includes the following components: a wirelessly-controllable analog circuit module (ACM), a wirelessly-controllable electronic dimmable ballast, a T8 3-lamp fixture, an environmental multi-sensor, a current transducer, and control software. The ACM, dimmable ballast, multi-sensor, and current transducer were all integrated with SmartMesh{trademark} wireless mesh networking nodes, called motes, enabling wireless communication, sensor monitoring, and actuator control. Each mote-enabled device has a reliable communication path to the SmartMesh Manager, a single board computer that controls network functions and connects the wireless network to a PC running lighting control software. The ACM is capable of locally driving one or more standard 0-10 Volt electronic dimmable ballasts through relay control and a 0-10 Volt controllable output, in addition to 0-24 Volt and 0-10 Volt inputs. The mote-integrated electronic dimmable ballast is designed to drive a standard 3-lamp T8 light fixture. The environmental multisensor measures occupancy, light level and temperature. The current transducer is used to measure the power consumed by the fixture. Control software was developed to implement advanced lighting algorithms, including open and closed-loop daylight ramping, occupancy control, and demand response. Engineering prototypes of each component were fabricated and tested in a bench-scale system. Based on standard industry practices, a cost analysis was conducted. It is estimated that the

  14. Lighting Controls/Sensors | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Contact needs updating Image needs updating Reference needed Missing content Broken link Other Additional Comments Cancel Submit Category: Articles with outstanding TODO tasks...

  15. NOx Sensor for Direct Injection Emission Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Betteridge, William J

    2006-02-28

    The Electricore/Delphi team continues to leverage the electrochemical planar sensor technology that has produced stoichiometric planar and wide range oxygen sensors as the basis for development of a NOx sensor. Zirconia cell technology with an integrated heater will provide the foundation for the sensor structure. Proven materials and packaging technology will help to ensure a cost-effective approach to the manufacture of this sensor. The electronics technique and interface is considered to be an area where new strategies need to be employed to produce higher S/N ratios of the NOx signal with emphasis on signal stability over time for robustness and durability Both continuous mode and pulse mode control techniques are being evaluated. Packaging the electronics requires careful design and circuit partitioning so that only the necessary signal conditioning electronics are coupled directly in the wiring harness, while the remainder is situated within the ECM for durability and costs reasons. This task continues to be on hold due to the limitation that the definition of the interface electronics was unavailable until very late in the project. The sense element is based on the amperometric method utilizing integrated alumina and zirconia ceramics. Precious metal electrodes are used to form the integrated heater, the cell electrodes and leads. Inside the actual sense cell structure, it is first necessary to separate NOx from the remaining oxygen constituents of the exhaust, without reducing the NOx. Once separated, the NOx will be measured using a measurement cell. Development or test coupons have been used to facilitate material selection and refinement, cell, diffusion barrier, and chamber development. The sense element currently requires elaborate interconnections. To facilitate a robust durable connection, mechanical and metallurgical connections are under investigation. Materials and process refinements continue to play an important role in the development of the

  16. Lighting Controls | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    LED bulbs and fixtures must be designed for dimming, and you may need to replace existing dimmer switches with ones that are compatible with an LED lighting product. The packaging ...

  17. Controls for Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis

    2007-06-22

    This study predicts new hybrid lighting applications for LEDs. In hybrid lighting, LEDs provide a low-energy 'standby' light level while another, more powerful, efficient light source provides light for occupied periods. Lighting controls will allow the two light sources to work together through an appropriate control strategy, typically motion-sensing. There are no technical barriers preventing the use of low through high CRI LEDs for standby lighting in many interior and exterior applications today. The total luminous efficacy of LED systems could be raised by increasing the electrical efficiency of LED drivers to the maximum practically achievable level (94%). This would increase system luminous efficacy by 20-25%. The expected market volumes for many types of LEDs should justify the evolution of new LED drivers that use highly efficient ICs and reduce parts count by means of ASICs. Reducing their electronics parts count by offloading discrete components onto integrated circuits (IC) will allow manufacturers to reduce the cost of LED driver electronics. LED luminaire manufacturers will increasingly integrate the LED driver and thermal management directly in the LED fixture. LED luminaires of the future will likely have no need for separable lamp and ballast because the equipment life of all the LED luminaire components will all be about the same (50,000 hours). The controls and communications techniques used for communicating with conventional light sources, such as dimmable fluorescent lighting, are appropriate for LED illumination for energy management purposes. DALI has been used to control LED systems in new applications and the emerging ZigBee protocol could be used for LEDs as well. Major lighting companies are already moving in this direction. The most significant finding is that there is a significant opportunity to use LEDs today for standby lighting purposes. Conventional lighting systems can be made more efficient still by using LEDs to provide a low

  18. Portable lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2001-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) arranged vertically with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum insures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  19. Building Controls and Lighting Systems

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presentation to State Energy Advisory Board (STEAB) February 22, 2011 Francis Rubinstein Lead, Lighting Group Environmental Energy Technologies Division Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory fmrubinstein@lbl.gov Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory U.S. Building End Use Energy Consumption Buildings consume 40% of Building
sector
has:
 total U.S. energy Largest
Energy
Use!
 * 71% of electricity *54% of natural gas No Single End Use Dominates Fastest
growth
rate!
 Lawrence

  20. Sensor-based demand controlled ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Almeida, A.T.; Fisk, W.J.

    1997-07-01

    In most buildings, occupancy and indoor pollutant emission rates vary with time. With sensor-based demand-controlled ventilation (SBDCV), the rate of ventilation (i.e., rate of outside air supply) also varies with time to compensate for the changes in pollutant generation. In other words, SBDCV involves the application of sensing, feedback and control to modulate ventilation. Compared to ventilation without feedback, SBDCV offers two potential advantages: (1) better control of indoor pollutant concentrations; and (2) lower energy use and peak energy demand. SBDCV has the potential to improve indoor air quality by increasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are high and occupants are present. SBDCV can also save energy by decreasing the rate of ventilation when indoor pollutant generation rates are low or occupants are absent. After providing background information on indoor air quality and ventilation, this report provides a relatively comprehensive discussion of SBDCV. Topics covered in the report include basic principles of SBDCV, sensor technologies, technologies for controlling air flow rates, case studies of SBDCV, application of SBDCV to laboratory buildings, and research needs. SBDCV appears to be an increasingly attractive technology option. Based on the review of literature and theoretical considerations, the application of SBDCV has the potential to be cost-effective in applications with the following characteristics: (a) a single or small number of dominant pollutants, so that ventilation sufficient to control the concentration of the dominant pollutants provides effective control of all other pollutants; (b) large buildings or rooms with unpredictable temporally variable occupancy or pollutant emission; and (c) climates with high heating or cooling loads or locations with expensive energy.

  1. Sensors and Controls Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review Sensors and Controls Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review Presenter: Marina Sofos, U.S. Department of Energy This presentation at the 2016 Peer Review provided an overview of the Building Technologies Office's Sensors and Controls Subprogram. Through robust feedback, the BTO Program Peer Review enhances existing efforts and improves future designs. 2016 BTO Peer Review Presentation-Sensors and Controls Subprogram Overview

  2. DOE Seeking Information on Sensor and Control Technologies | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Seeking Information on Sensor and Control Technologies DOE Seeking Information on Sensor and Control Technologies September 23, 2015 - 12:06pm Addthis The Building Technologies Office (BTO) has released a Request for Information (RFI) to gather information from the public on sensor and control technologies that can be used within buildings, both residential and commercial, to monitor and optimize energy performance and comfort, as well as support energy-related transactions outside

  3. Sensors and Controls Overview - 2015 BTO Peer Review | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensors and Controls Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless ...

  4. Advanced Laser-Based Sensors for Industrial Process Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Fact Sheet About Increased Efficiency and Reduced Emissions Using Advanced Laser-Based Sensors for Process Control Monitoring in Electric Arc Furnaces

  5. Evaluation of Alternative Field Buses for Lighting ControlApplications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koch, Ed; Rubinstein, Francis

    2005-03-21

    The Subcontract Statement of Work consists of two major tasks. This report is the Final Report in fulfillment of the contract deliverable for Task 1. The purpose of Task 1 was to evaluate existing and emerging protocols and standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The detailed task description follows: Task 1. Evaluate alternative sensor/field buses. The objective of this task is to evaluate existing and emerging standards for interfacing sensors and controllers for communicating with integrated lighting control systems in commercial buildings. The protocols to be evaluated will include at least: (1) 1-Wire Net, (2) DALI, (3) MODBUS (or appropriate substitute such as EIB) and (4) ZigBee. The evaluation will include a comparative matrix for comparing the technical performance features of the different alternative systems. The performance features to be considered include: (1) directionality and network speed, (2) error control, (3) latency times, (4) allowable cable voltage drop, (5) topology, and (6) polarization. Specifically, Subcontractor will: (1) Analyze the proposed network architecture and identify potential problems that may require further research and specification. (2) Help identify and specify additional software and hardware components that may be required for the communications network to operate properly. (3) Identify areas of the architecture that can benefit from existing standards and technology and enumerate those standards and technologies. (4) Identify existing companies that may have relevant technology that can be applied to this research. (5) Help determine if new standards or technologies need to be developed.

  6. Commercial Advanced Lighting Control Demonstration and Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercial Advanced Lighting Control Demonstration and Deployment 2015 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Gabe Arnold, garnold@neep.org NEEP & DesignLights Consortium Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2014 Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones: 1. Recommended EE Program Offerings; October 30, 2015 2. Completed Curricula and Training Implementation Plan; December 30, 2015 3. All Demonstration Project Installations Complete; June 30, 2016 Budget: Total DOE $

  7. Commercial Advanced Lighting Control Demonstration and Deployment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Lighting Control Demonstration and Deployment 2016 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Gabe Arnold, garnold@neep.org, NEEP & DesignLights Consortium Jeff McCullough, jeff.mccullough@pnnl.gov, PNNL 2 Project Summary Timeline: Start date: October 1, 2014 Planned end date: September 30, 2017 Key Milestones 1. Recommended EE Program Offerings; date 2. Completed Curricula and Training Implementation Plan; date 3. All Demonstration Project Installations Complete; date Budget: Total

  8. Innovative, Lower Cost Sensors and Controls Yield Better Energy Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Innovative, Lower Cost Sensors and Controls Yield Better Energy Efficiency Innovative, Lower Cost Sensors and Controls Yield Better Energy Efficiency March 23, 2015 - 1:05pm Addthis ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors. ORNL’s Pooran Joshi shows how the process enables electronics components to be printed on flexible plastic substrates. Credit: Oak Ridge National Lab ORNL

  9. Sandia Energy - Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using the Capacitance of Metamaterial Nanocavities Home Highlights - Energy Research Control of Strong Light-Matter Coupling Using the...

  10. Emission Control Strategy for Downsized Light-Duty Diesels |...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategy for Downsized Light-Duty Diesels Emission Control Strategy for Downsized Light-Duty Diesels This poster discusses the combustion aspects and control challenges of a high ...

  11. Design criteria for lighting and controls modifications OSW, CTF, COS buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1991-08-01

    This project will retrofit the lighting systems in three (3) buildings at the Mound Plant. The buildings are Central Operational Support (COS), Component Test Facility (CTF) and operational Support West (OSW). This project consists of the installation of occupancy sensors in private offices, break areas and laboratories, automatic control lighting, (occupied/unoccupied) with the existing DDC system, removing selected light fixtures, replacing incandescent lighting and reprogramming some of the software controlling the operation of the air handling units in the a forementioned buildings.

  12. Controlling X-rays With Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glover, Ernie; Hertlein, Marcus; Southworth, Steve; Allison, Tom; van Tilborg, Jeroen; Kanter, Elliot; Krassig, B.; Varma, H.; Rude, Bruce; Santra, Robin; Belkacem, Ali; Young, Linda

    2010-08-02

    Ultrafast x-ray science is an exciting frontier that promises the visualization of electronic, atomic and molecular dynamics on atomic time and length scales. A largelyunexplored area of ultrafast x-ray science is the use of light to control how x-rays interact with matter. In order to extend control concepts established for long wavelengthprobes to the x-ray regime, the optical control field must drive a coherent electronic response on a timescale comparable to femtosecond core-hole lifetimes. An intense field is required to achieve this rapid response. Here an intense optical control pulse isobserved to efficiently modulate photoelectric absorption for x-rays and to create an ultrafast transparency window. We demonstrate an application of x-ray transparencyrelevant to ultrafast x-ray sources: an all-photonic temporal cross-correlation measurement of a femtosecond x-ray pulse. The ability to control x-ray/matterinteractions with light will create new opportunities at current and next-generation x-ray light sources.

  13. Sensor and Control Technologies R&D Program Overview

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensor and Control Technologies R&D Program Overview Marina Sofos, Ph.D. BTO Peer Review April 6, 2016 Marina.sofos@ee.doe.gov 2 Sensors and Controls are Everywhere * Automotive * Aerospace * Industrial control of machines and processes * Biomedical uses, including robotic surgery and drug discovery and development * Electronics and communication networks 3 Optimizing Energy Use and Reducing Losses 4 Achieving BTO R&D Goals ET 2020 - ET Multi-year Program Plan Targets for 2020

  14. CBERD: Integrated Sensors and Controls | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Integrated Sensors and Controls CBERD: Integrated Sensors and Controls Left: 12600 data samples collected to identify the power consumption signatures of nine categories of devices Right: Prototype of smart plugstrip with device identification capability that can be used for application such as efficient monitoring and controlling of plug loads, reduction of standby losses, detection of faulty devices, and demand response management Left: 12600 data samples collected to identify the power

  15. Sensors, Controls, & Transactional Network Projects | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lead Performer: Lawrence Berkeley National Lab -- U.S. India Joint Center for Building ... Hyderabad (IIIT-H) - Andhra Pradesh, India -- enLighted - Sunnyvale, California and ...

  16. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode Parking Structure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Parking Structure Lighting at U.S. Department of Labor Headquarters Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael solid-state lighting; LEDs; occupancy sensor controls; parking facility lighting...

  17. The Advantage of Highly Controlled Lighting for Offices and Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Bolotov, Dmitriy; Levi, Mark; Powell, Kevin; Schwartz, Peter

    2008-08-17

    The paper presents results from pilot studies of new 'workstation-specific' luminaires that are designed to provide highly, efficient, customized lighting for open-office cubicles. Workstation specific luminaires have the following characteristics: (1) they provide separate, dimming control of the cubicle's 'ambient' and 'task' lighting components, (2) occupancy sensors and control photosensors are integrated into the fixture's design and operation, (3) luminaires can be networked using physical cabling, microcontrollers and a PC running control software. The energy savings, demand response capabilities and quality of light from the two WS luminaires were evaluated and compared to the performance of a static, low-ambient lighting system that is uncontrolled. Initial results from weeks of operation provide strong indication that WS luminaires can largely eliminate the unnecessary lighting of unoccupied cubicles while providing IESNA-required light levels when the cubicles are occupied. Because each cubicle's lighting is under occupant sensor control, the WS luminaires can capitalize on the fact cubicles are often unoccupied during normal working hours and reduce their energy use accordingly.

  18. Structurally Integrated Photoluminescence-Based Lactate Sensor Using Organic Light Emitting Devices (OLEDs) as the Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chengliang Qian

    2006-08-09

    Multianalyte bio(chemical) sensors are extensively researched for monitoring analytes in complex systems, such as blood serum. As a step towards developing such multianalyte sensors, we studied a novel, structurally integrated, organic light emitting device (OLED)-based sensing platform for detection of lactate. Lactate biosensors have attracted numerous research efforts, due to their wide applications in clinical diagnosis, athletic training and food industry. The OLED-based sensor is based on monitoring the oxidation reaction of lactate, which is catalyzed by the lactate oxidase (LOX) enzyme. The sensing component is based on an oxygen-sensitive dye, Platinum octaethyl porphyrin (PtOEP), whose photoluminescence (PL) lifetime {tau} decreases as the oxygen level increases. The PtOEP dye was embedded in a thin film polystyrene (PS) matrix; the LOX was dissolved in solution or immobilized in a sol-gel matrix. {tau} was measured as a function of the lactate concentration; as the lactate concentration increases, {tau} increases due to increased oxygen consumption. The sensors performance is discussed in terms of the detection sensitivity, dynamic range, and response time. A response time of {approx}32 sec was achieved when the LOX was dissolved in solution and kept in a closed cell. Steps towards development of a multianalyte sensor array using an array of individually addressable OLED pixels were also presented.

  19. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Alendorf; D. K. Ottensen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1999-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  20. Optical sensors for process control and emissions monitoring in industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. W. Allendorf; D. K. Ottesen; D. W. Hahn; T. J. Kulp; U. B. Goers

    1998-11-02

    Sandia National Laboratories has a number of ongoing projects developing optical sensors for industrial environments. Laser-based sensors can be attractive for relatively harsh environments where extractive sampling is difficult, inaccurate, or impractical. Tools developed primarily for laboratory research can often be adapted for the real world and applied to problems far from their original uses. Spectroscopic techniques, appropriately selected, have the potential to impact the bottom of line of a number of industries and industrial processes. In this paper the authors discuss three such applications: a laser-based instrument for process control in steelmaking, a laser-induced breakdown method for hazardous metal detection in process streams, and a laser-based imaging sensor for evaluating surface cleanliness. Each has the potential to provide critical, process-related information in a real-time, continuous manner. These sensor techniques encompass process control applications and emissions monitoring for pollution prevention. They also span the range from a field-tested pre-commercial prototype to laboratory instrumentation. Finally, these sensors employ a wide range of sophistication in both the laser source and associated analytical spectroscopy. In the ultimate applications, however, many attributes of the sensors are in common, such as the need for robust operation and hardening for harsh industrial environments.

  1. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Wednesday, 27 January 2010 00:00 Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning

  2. Appraisers Project Plan: Wireless Controls and Retrofit LED Lighting Demonstration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Appraisers Project Plan: Wireless Controls and Retrofit LED Lighting Demonstration Measurement and Verification Report This report details the measurement and verification tools and methods used to evaluate the effectiveness of wireless lighting controls and LED lighting at the Appraisers Building, a federal office building in San Francisco, CA.

  3. Converging Redundant Sensor Network Information for Improved Building Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale K. Tiller; Gregor P. Henze

    2005-12-01

    This project is investigating the development and application of sensor networks to enhance building energy management and security. Commercial, industrial and residential buildings often incorporate systems used to determine occupancy, but current sensor technology and control algorithms limit the effectiveness of these systems. For example, most of these systems rely on single monitoring points to detect occupancy, when more than one monitoring point would improve system performance. Phase I of the project focused on instrumentation and data collection. In Phase I, a new occupancy detection system was developed, commissioned and installed in a sample of private offices and open-plan office workstations. Data acquisition systems were developed and deployed to collect data on space occupancy profiles. In phase II of the project, described in this report, we demonstrate that a network of several sensors provides a more accurate measure of occupancy than is possible using systems based on single monitoring points. We also establish that analysis algorithms can be applied to the sensor network data stream to improve the accuracy of system performance in energy management and security applications, and show that it may be possible to use sensor network pulse rate to distinguish the number of occupants in a space. Finally, in this phase of the project we also developed a prototype web-based display that portrays the current status of each detector in a sensor network monitoring building occupancy. This basic capability will be extended in the future by applying an algorithm-based inference to the sensor network data stream, so that the web page displays the likelihood that each monitored office or area is occupied, as a supplement to the actual status of each sensor.

  4. Model Specification for Networked Outdoor Lighting Control Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium's Model Specification for Networked Outdoor Lighting Control Systems is a tool designed to help cities, utilities, and other local agencies...

  5. Finite Energy and Bounded Attacks on Control System Sensor Signals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Djouadi, Seddik M; Melin, Alexander M; Ferragut, Erik M; Laska, Jason A

    2014-01-01

    Control system networks are increasingly being connected to enterprise level networks. These connections leave critical industrial controls systems vulnerable to cyber-attacks. Most of the effort in protecting these cyber-physical systems (CPS) has been in securing the networks using information security techniques and protection and reliability concerns at the control system level against random hardware and software failures. However, besides these failures the inability of information security techniques to protect against all intrusions means that the control system must be resilient to various signal attacks for which new analysis and detection methods need to be developed. In this paper, sensor signal attacks are analyzed for observer-based controlled systems. The threat surface for sensor signal attacks is subdivided into denial of service, finite energy, and bounded attacks. In particular, the error signals between states of attack free systems and systems subject to these attacks are quantified. Optimal sensor and actuator signal attacks for the finite and infinite horizon linear quadratic (LQ) control in terms of maximizing the corresponding cost functions are computed. The closed-loop system under optimal signal attacks are provided. Illustrative numerical examples are provided together with an application to a power network with distributed LQ controllers.

  6. Thermal control system for SSF sensor/electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akau, R.L.; Lee, D.E.

    1992-12-31

    As part of the Defense Meteorological Support Program (DMSP) with Martin Marieta Astro-Space Division, a thermal control system was designed for the SSF (Special Sensor F) sensor/electronics box (SSTACK) located on the precision mounting platform of the DMSP satellite. Multi-layer insulation and heaters are used to maintain the temperatures of the critical components within their operating and survival temperature limits. Detailed and simplified SSTACK thermal models were developed and temperatures were calculated for worst-case orbital conditions. A comparison between the two models showed very good agreement. Temperature predictions were also compared to measured temperatures from a thermal-vacuum test

  7. Sensors and Controls Sub-Program Logic Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    technologies, control systems & transactive communication platforms are regularly innovated & widely used to enhance building performance, increase energy savings, facilitate use of distributed renewables, & improve demand response, while lowering overall costs to building owners & occupants. The Sensors and Controls Sub-Program develops cost-effective building energy management solutions to optimize energy performance, increase energy savings and reduce costs, as well as

  8. Sensors and Controls Subprogram Overview - 2016 BTO Peer Review...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Self-Powering Wireless Sensors and Sensor Networks ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors. ...

  9. Moisture sensor based on evanescent wave light scattering by porous sol-gel silica coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tao, Shiquan; Singh, Jagdish P.; Winstead, Christopher B.

    2006-05-02

    An optical fiber moisture sensor that can be used to sense moisture present in gas phase in a wide range of concentrations is provided, as well techniques for making the same. The present invention includes a method that utilizes the light scattering phenomenon which occurs in a porous sol-gel silica by coating an optical fiber core with such silica. Thus, a porous sol-gel silica polymer coated on an optical fiber core forms the transducer of an optical fiber moisture sensor according to an embodiment. The resulting optical fiber sensor of the present invention can be used in various applications, including to sense moisture content in indoor/outdoor air, soil, concrete, and low/high temperature gas streams.

  10. Controlling the Polarization of Light with Bilayer Subwavelength...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Controlling the Polarization of Light with Bilayer Subwavelength Metallic Apertures Authors: Chan, Ho Bun 1 ; Marset, zsolt 2 ; Carr, D. W. 3 ; Bower, J. E. 4 ; ...

  11. Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates Light-Duty Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition Drive Cycle Fuel Economy and Emissions Estimates Vehicle ...

  12. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambley, M. R.; Haves, P.; McDonald, S. C.; Torcellini, P.; Hansen, D.; Holmberg, D. R.; Roth, K. W.

    2005-04-01

    This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies.

  13. Shedding light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory light on Nature's nanoscale control of solar energy July 30, 2012 Tweet EmailPrint Across billions of years of evolution, nature has retained a common light-absorbing hexameric cofactor core for carrying out the very first chemical reaction of photosynthesis, the light-induced electron transfer across approximately 3 nanometers. This process has direct analogies to light-driven charge separation in photovoltaic devices. A team of users from the Notre Dame Radiation

  14. Frost sensor for use in defrost controls for refrigeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    French, Patrick D.; Butz, James R.; Veatch, Bradley D.; O'Connor, Michael W.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the total thermal resistance to heat flow from the air to the evaporative cooler fins of a refrigeration system. The apparatus is a frost sensor that measures the reduction in heat flow due to the added thermal resistance of ice (reduced conduction) as well as the reduction in heat flow due to the blockage of airflow (reduced convection) from excessive ice formation. The sensor triggers a defrost cycle when needed, instead of on a timed interval. The invention is also a method for control of frost in a system that transfers heat from air to a refrigerant along a thermal path. The method involves measuring the thermal conductivity of the thermal path from the air to the refrigerant, recognizing a reduction in thermal conductivity due to the thermal insulation effect of the frost and due to the loss of airflow from excessive ice formation; and controlling the defrosting of the system.

  15. CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS MEETING

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a lot of buzz today about the Internet of Things and the convergence of intelligent controllable light sources, communication networks, sensors, and data exchange in future lighting...

  16. Connected Lighting Systems Meeting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There is a lot of buzz today about the Internet of Things and the convergence of intelligent controllable light sources, communication networks, sensors, and data exchange in future lighting...

  17. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  18. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  19. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  20. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  1. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter Print Schemes that use one light pulse to manipulate interactions of another with matter are well developed in the visible-light regime where an optical control pulse influences how an optical probe pulse interacts with a medium. This approach has opened new research directions in fields like quantum computing and nonlinear optics, while also spawning entirely new research areas, such as electromagnetically induced transparency and slow

  2. List of Lighting Controls/Sensors Incentives | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Solid Waste Renewable Fuels Small Hydroelectric Wind Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Yes Alternative and Clean Energy State Grant Program (Pennsylvania) State Grant...

  3. Estes Park Light and Power Department - Commercial and Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Virtualization: 250 Office Lighting: 5 - 20 SensorsControls: 7 - 90 Summary Estes Park Power & Light, in conjunction with the Platte River Power Authority provides businesses...

  4. Alliant Energy Interstate Power and Light (Electric) - Business...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Water Heaters Lighting Lighting ControlsSensors Chillers Heat Pumps Air conditioners Programmable Thermostats CaulkingWeather-stripping DuctAir sealing Building Insulation...

  5. EGR Control for Emisson Reduction Using Fast Response Sensors - Phase 1A

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gravel, Roland; Conley, Jason; Kittelson, David

    2008-09-30

    The overall objective of this project was to develop exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) control strategies using fast-response Particulate Matter (PM) sensors and NOx sensors to improve the quality of particulate and gaseous emissions from diesel engines. This project initially comprised three phases: (1) Phase IA - sensor requirements to meet PM sensor specifications, NOx sensor assessment, and initial model development for EGR control; (2) Phase IB - continue development on PM and NOx sensors, integrate the sensor signals into the control simulations, and finalize model development for control strategies; and (3) Phase II - validation testing of the control strategies. Only Phase 1A was funded by DOE and executed by Honeywell. The major objectives of Phase 1A of the project included: (1) Sensor validation and operation of fast-response PM and NOx sensors; (2) Control system modeling of low-pressure EGR controls, development of control strategies, and initial evaluation of these models and strategies for EGR control in diesel engines; (3) Sensor testing to understand applicability of fast-response PM sensors in determining loading rates of the particle trap; and (4) Model validation and sensor testing under steady-state and transient operational conditions of actual engines. In particular, specific objectives included demonstration of: (1) A PM sensor response time constant (T10 - T90) of better than 100 milliseconds (msec); (2) The ability to detect PM at concentrations from 0.2 to 2 Bosch smoke number (BSN) or equivalent; (3) PM sensor accuracy to within 20% BSN over the entire range of operation; and (4) PM sensor repeatability to within 10% over the PM entire sensor range equivalent to a BSN of 0.2 to 2.

  6. Building Technologies Office (BTO) Sensors and Controls Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Sensors and Controls Technologies Emerging Technologies R&D Program Marina Sofos, Ph.D. marina.sofos@ee.doe.gov 2 BTO Emerging Technologies R&D Goals As a result of ET sponsored research, cost effective technologies will be introduced into the marketplace by 2020 that will be capable of reducing a building's energy use by 25% relative to 2010 cost effective technologies, and 35% by 2030. Technology-specific targets relative to the 2030 primary energy consumption projected by the 2010

  7. Development of a process control sensor for the glass industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, M.; Candee, A.; Kramlich, J.; Koppang, R.

    1991-05-01

    This project was initiated to fill a need in the glass industry for a non-contact temperature sensor for glass melts. At present, the glass forming industry (e.g., bottle manufacture) consumes significant amounts of energy. Careful control of temperature at the point the bottle is molded is necessary to prevent the bottle from being rejected as out-of-specification. In general, the entire glass melting and conditioning process is designed to minimize this rejection rate, maximize throughput and thus control energy and production costs. This program focuses on the design, development and testing of an advanced optically based pyrometer for glass melts. The pyrometer operates simultaneously at four wavelengths; through analytical treatment of the signals, internal temperature profiles within the glass melt can be resolved. A novel multiplexer alloys optical signals from a large number of fiber-optic sensors to be collected and resolved by a single detector at a location remote from the process. This results in a significant cost savings on a per measurement point basis. The development program is divided into two phases. Phase 1 involves the construction of a breadboard version on the instrument and its testing on a pilot-scale furnace. In Phase 2, a prototype analyzer will be constructed and tested on a commercial forehearth. This report covers the Phase 1 activities.

  8. Achieving Energy Savings with Highly-Controlled Lighting in an Open-Plan Office

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Enscoe, Abby

    2010-04-19

    An installation in a Federal building tested the effectiveness of a highly-controlled, workstation-specific lighting retrofit. The study took place in an open-office area with 86 cubicles and low levels of daylight. Each cubicle was illuminated by a direct/indirectpendant luminaire with three 32 watt lamps, two dimmable DALI ballasts, and an occupancy sensor. A centralized control system programmed all three lamps to turn on and off according to occupancy on a workstation-by-workstation basis. Field measurements taken over the course of several monthsdemonstrated 40% lighting energy savings compared to a baseline without advanced controls that conforms to GSA's current retrofit standard. A photometric analysis found that the installation provided higher desktop light levels than the baseline, while an occupant survey found that occupants in general preferred the lighting system to thebaseline.Simple payback is fairly high; projects that can achieve lower installation costs and/or higher energy savings and those in which greenhouse gas reduction and occupant satisfaction are significant priorities provide the ideal setting for workstation-specific lighting retrofits.

  9. Multifunctional potentiometric gas sensor array with an integrated temperature control and temperature sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blackburn, Bryan M; Wachsman, Eric D

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the subject invention relate to a gas sensor and method for sensing one or more gases. An embodiment incorporates an array of sensing electrodes maintained at similar or different temperatures, such that the sensitivity and species selectivity of the device can be fine tuned between different pairs of sensing electrodes. A specific embodiment pertains to a gas sensor array for monitoring combustion exhausts and/or chemical reaction byproducts. An embodiment of the subject device related to this invention operates at high temperatures and can withstand harsh chemical environments. Embodiments of the device are made on a single substrate. The devices can also be made on individual substrates and monitored individually as if they were part of an array on a single substrate. The device can incorporate sensing electrodes in the same environment, which allows the electrodes to be coplanar and, thus, keep manufacturing costs low. Embodiments of the device can provide improvements to sensitivity, selectivity, and signal interference via surface temperature control.

  10. Why Lighting Systems Need to Evolve

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting Systems Need to Evolve DOE Connected Lighting Systems Meeting November 16, 2015 Lighting Controls - A Lost Opportunity 1 18% 16% 7% 2% 4% 4% Light scheduling Occupancy sensors Multi-level lighting or dimming Daylight harvesting Demand responsive lighting Building automation system (BAS) for lighting2 Percent of Buildings with Control Strategy Source: 2012 Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey, US Energy Information Administration Lighting Controls - A Lost Opportunity 2 Source:

  11. Clementine sensor suite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ledebuhr, A.G.

    1994-11-15

    LLNL designed and built the suite of six miniaturized light-weight space-qualified sensors utilized in the Clementine mission. A major goal of the Clementine program was to demonstrate technologies originally developed for Ballistic Missile Defense Organization Programs. These sensors were modified to gather data from the moon. This overview presents each of these sensors and some preliminary on-orbit performance estimates. The basic subsystems of these sensors include optical baffles to reject off-axis stray light, light-weight ruggedized optical systems, filter wheel assemblies, radiation tolerant focal plane arrays, radiation hardened control and readout electronics and low mass and power mechanical cryogenic coolers for the infrared sensors. Descriptions of each sensor type are given along with design specifications, photographs and on-orbit data collected.

  12. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josten, Nicholas E.; Svoboda, John M.

    1999-01-01

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency.

  13. Remotely controlled sensor apparatus for use in dig-face characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josten, N.E.; Svoboda, J.M.

    1999-05-25

    A remotely controlled sensor platform apparatus useful in a dig-face characterization system is deployed from a mobile delivery device such as standard heavy construction equipment. The sensor apparatus is designed to stabilize sensors against extraneous motions induced by heavy equipment manipulations or other outside influences, and includes a terrain sensing and sensor elevation control system to maintain the sensors in close ground proximity. The deployed sensor apparatus is particularly useful in collecting data in work environments where human access is difficult due to the presence of hazardous conditions, rough terrain, or other circumstances that prevent efficient data collection by conventional methods. Such work environments include hazardous waste sites, unexploded ordnance sites, or construction sites. Data collection in these environments by utilizing the deployed sensor apparatus is desirable in order to protect human health and safety, or to assist in planning daily operations to increase efficiency. 13 figs.

  14. Improved Engine Control Strategies Enabled by Digital Signal-Processing Method for Zirconia Exhaust Sensors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A new approach for wideband O2 sensor control that treats a pump-cell sensor not as a feedback controlled system, but as the analogŽ front-end of a modified Delta-Sigma analog-to-Digital Converter

  15. A smart sensor system for trace organic vapor detection using a temperature-controlled array of surface acoustic wave vapor sensors, automated preconcentrator tubes, and pattern recognition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grate, J.W.; Rose-Pehrsson, S.L.; Klusty, M.; Wohltjen, H.

    1993-05-01

    A smart sensor system for the detection, of toxic organophosphorus and toxic organosulfur vapors at trace concentrations has been designed, fabricated, and tested against a wide variety of vapor challenges. The key features of the system are: An array of four surface acoustic wave (SAW) vapor sensors, temperature control of the vapor sensors, the use of pattern recognition to analyze the sensor data, and an automated sampling system including thermally-desorbed preconcentrator tubes (PCTs).

  16. Tank monitor and control system sensor acceptance test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willingham, W.E.

    1997-09-26

    This ATR documents the testing of sensors connected to the TMACS. This revision adds test data sheets for 241-TX farm and individual tanks 241-A-101, 241-AX-102 and 241-B-103.

  17. Innovative, Lower Cost Sensors and Controls Yield Better Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Efficiency March 23, 2015 - 1:05pm Addthis ORNL researchers are experimenting with additive roll-to-roll manufacturing techniques to develop low-cost wireless sensors. ...

  18. Sensor and Control Technologies R&D Program Overview

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... S&C Roadmap Priority Research Areas * Multi-functional, wireless plug-and play sensors Key ... > 10 years (b) Mean time between charging (for energy harvesters) > 72 hours 4.1.2 ...

  19. Light Duty Utility Arm interface control document plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engstrom, J.W.

    1994-12-27

    This document describes the interface control documents that will be used to identify and control interface features throughout all phases of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) development and design. After the system is built, delivered and installed in the Cold Test Facility and later at the tank farm, the Interface Control Documents can be used in maintaining the configuration control process. The Interface Control Document will consist of Interface Control Drawings and a data base directly tied to the Interface Control Drawings. The data base can be used as an index to conveniently find interface information. Design drawings and other text documents that contain interface information will appear in the database. The Interface Control Drawings will be used to document and control the data and information that define the interface boundaries between systems, subsystems and equipment. Also, the interface boundaries will define the areas of responsibility for systems and subsystems. The drawing will delineate and identify all the physical and functional interfaces that required coordination to establish and maintain compatibility between the co-functioning equipment, computer software, and the tank farm facilities. An appendix contains the Engineering interface control database system riser manual.

  20. Control of light diffusion in a disordered photonic waveguide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarma, Raktim; Cao, Hui; Golubev, Timofey; Yamilov, Alexey

    2014-07-28

    We control the diffusion of light in a disordered photonic waveguide by modulating the waveguide geometry. In a single waveguide of varying cross-section, the diffusion coefficient changes spatially in two dimensions due to localization effects. The intensity distribution inside the waveguide agrees with the prediction of the self-consistent theory of localization. Our work shows that wave diffusion can be efficiently manipulated without modifying the structural disorder.

  1. Control of Light-matter Interaction Using Dispersion Engineered Photonic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Structures | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics Control of Light-matter Interaction Using Dispersion Engineered Photonic Structures March 8, 2011 at 3pm/36-428 Vinod M. Menon Queens College of the City University of New York (CUNY) menon_000 abstract: Coherent interaction of an ensemble of dipole active atoms or excitons with vacuum electromagnetic field has been studied extensively since its initial conception by Dicke in 1954. However, when the emitters are not only periodically arranged,

  2. Reading Municipal Light Department - Business Lighting Rebate...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    with Electronic Ballasts: 100fixture De-lamping: 4 - 9lamp Lighting Sensors: 20sensor LED Exit Signs: 20fixture Summary Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers...

  3. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Photosynthetic Light (PAR) with 3m cable Smart...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Radiation (Solar) (1) Solar Radiation Sensor ... further results Also made by Onset Computer Corporation HOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring SystemHOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring...

  4. Time varying voltage combustion control and diagnostics sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Thornton, Jimmy D.; Huckaby, E. David; Fincham, William

    2011-04-19

    A time-varying voltage is applied to an electrode, or a pair of electrodes, of a sensor installed in a fuel nozzle disposed adjacent the combustion zone of a continuous combustion system, such as of the gas turbine engine type. The time-varying voltage induces a time-varying current in the flame which is measured and used to determine flame capacitance using AC electrical circuit analysis. Flame capacitance is used to accurately determine the position of the flame from the sensor and the fuel/air ratio. The fuel and/or air flow rate (s) is/are then adjusted to provide reduced flame instability problems such as flashback, combustion dynamics and lean blowout, as well as reduced emissions. The time-varying voltage may be an alternating voltage and the time-varying current may be an alternating current.

  5. Intelligent sensor and controller framework for the power grid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme Nathan; Craig, Jr., Philip Allen; Tews, Cody William; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Maiden, Wendy M.; Ciraci, Selim

    2015-07-28

    Disclosed below are representative embodiments of methods, apparatus, and systems for monitoring and using data in an electric power grid. For example, one disclosed embodiment comprises a sensor for measuring an electrical characteristic of a power line, electrical generator, or electrical device; a network interface; a processor; and one or more computer-readable storage media storing computer-executable instructions. In this embodiment, the computer-executable instructions include instructions for implementing an authorization and authentication module for validating a software agent received at the network interface; instructions for implementing one or more agent execution environments for executing agent code that is included with the software agent and that causes data from the sensor to be collected; and instructions for implementing an agent packaging and instantiation module for storing the collected data in a data container of the software agent and for transmitting the software agent, along with the stored data, to a next destination.

  6. Multifunctional (NOx/CO/O2) Solid-State Sensors For Coal Combustion Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2006-12-31

    Solid-state sensors were developed for coal combustion control and the understanding of sensing mechanisms was advanced. Several semiconducting metal oxides (p-type and n-type) were used to fabricate sensor electrodes. The adsorption/desorption characteristics and catalytic activities of these materials were measured with Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD) and Temperature Programmed Reaction (TPR) experiments. The sensitivity, selectivity, and response time of these sensors were measured for steps of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O vapor in simple N{sub 2}-balanced and multi-component, simulated combustion-exhaust streams. The role of electrode microstructure and fabrication parameters on sensing performance was investigated. Proof for the proposed sensing mechanism, Differential Electrode Equilibria, was demonstrated by relating the sensing behavior (sensitivities and cross-sensitivities) of the various electrode materials to their gas adsorption/desorption behaviors and catalytic activities. A multifunctional sensor array consisting of three sensing electrodes and an integrated heater and temperature sensors was fabricated with tape-casting and screen-printing and its NO{sub x} sensing performance was measured. The multifunctional sensor demonstrated it was possible to measure NO{sub 2} independent of NO by locally heating one of the sensing electrodes. The sensor technology was licensed to Fuel FX International, Inc. Fuel FX has obtained investor funding and is developing prototype sensors as a first step in their commercialization strategy for this technology.

  7. Innovative Sensors and Controls to Support Efficient Operation...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of DOE funding and 1 million in recipients' cost-sharing. ... Mass., will develop a theoretic sensing and control framework that will use connections between control, estimation, ...

  8. Final Report - ADVANCED LASER-BASED SENSORS FOR INDUSTRIAL PROCESS CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Manish; Baer, Douglas

    2013-09-30

    The objective of this work is to capture the potential of real-time monitoring and overcome the challenges of harsh industrial environments, Los Gatos Research (LGR) is fabricating, deploying, and commercializing advanced laser-based gas sensors for process control monitoring in industrial furnaces (e.g. electric arc furnaces). These sensors can achieve improvements in process control, leading to enhanced productivity, improved product quality, and reduced energy consumption and emissions. The first sensor will utilize both mid-infrared and near-infrared lasers to make rapid in-situ measurements of industrial gases and associated temperatures in the furnace off-gas. The second sensor will make extractive measurements of process gases. During the course of this DOE project, Los Gatos Research (LGR) fabricated, tested, and deployed both in-situ tunable diode laser absorption spectrometry (TDLAS) analyzers and extractive Off-Axis Integrated Cavity Output Spectroscopy (Off-Axis ICOS) analyzers.

  9. Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor to Support Industrial Control Network Awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos; Linda, Ondrej

    2013-06-01

    The proliferation of digital devices in a networked industrial ecosystem, along with an exponential growth in complexity and scope, has resulted in elevated security concerns and management complexity issues. This paper describes a novel architecture utilizing concepts of Autonomic computing and a SOAP based IF-MAP external communication layer to create a network security sensor. This approach simplifies integration of legacy software and supports a secure, scalable, self-managed framework. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: 1) A flexible two level communication layer based on Autonomic computing and Service Oriented Architecture is detailed and 2) Three complementary modules that dynamically reconfigure in response to a changing environment are presented. One module utilizes clustering and fuzzy logic to monitor traffic for abnormal behavior. Another module passively monitors network traffic and deploys deceptive virtual network hosts. These components of the sensor system were implemented in C++ and PERL and utilize a common internal D-Bus communication mechanism. A proof of concept prototype was deployed on a mixed-use test network showing the possible real world applicability. In testing, 45 of the 46 network attached devices were recognized and 10 of the 12 emulated devices were created with specific Operating System and port configurations. Additionally the anomaly detection algorithm achieved a 99.9% recognition rate. All output from the modules were correctly distributed using the common communication structure.

  10. Real-time combustion controls and diagnostics sensors (CCADS)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornton, Jimmy D.; Richards, George A.; Dodrill, Keith A.; Nutter, Jr., Roy S.; Straub, Douglas

    2005-05-03

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus for the monitoring of the combustion process within a combustion system. The apparatus comprises; a combustion system, a means for supplying fuel and an oxidizer, a device for igniting the fuel and oxidizer in order to initiate combustion, and a sensor for determining the current conducted by the combustion process. The combustion system comprises a fuel nozzle and an outer shell attached to the combustion nozzle. The outer shell defines a combustion chamber. Preferably the nozzle is a lean premix fuel nozzle (LPN). Fuel and an oxidizer are provided to the fuel nozzle at separate rates. The fuel and oxidizer are ignited. A sensor positioned within the combustion system comprising at least two electrodes in spaced-apart relationship from one another. At least a portion of the combustion process or flame is between the first and second electrodes. A voltage is applied between the first and second electrodes and the magnitude of resulting current between the first and second electrodes is determined.

  11. Autonomic Intelligent Cyber Sensor to Support Industrial Control Network Awareness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vollmer, Todd; Manic, Milos; Linda, Ondrej

    2013-06-01

    The proliferation of digital devices in a networked industrial ecosystem, along with an exponential growth in complexity and scope, has resulted in elevated security concerns and management complexity issues. This paper describes a novel architecture utilizing concepts of Autonomic computing and a SOAP based IF-MAP external communication layer to create a network security sensor. This approach simplifies integration of legacy software and supports a secure, scalable, self-managed framework. The contribution of this paper is two-fold: 1) A flexible two level communication layer based on Autonomic computing and Service Oriented Architecture is detailed and 2) Three complementary modules that dynamically reconfiguremore » in response to a changing environment are presented. One module utilizes clustering and fuzzy logic to monitor traffic for abnormal behavior. Another module passively monitors network traffic and deploys deceptive virtual network hosts. These components of the sensor system were implemented in C++ and PERL and utilize a common internal D-Bus communication mechanism. A proof of concept prototype was deployed on a mixed-use test network showing the possible real world applicability. In testing, 45 of the 46 network attached devices were recognized and 10 of the 12 emulated devices were created with specific Operating System and port configurations. Additionally the anomaly detection algorithm achieved a 99.9% recognition rate. All output from the modules were correctly distributed using the common communication structure.« less

  12. Glass-based confined structures enabling light control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiappini, Andrea; Normani, Simone; Chiasera, Alessandro; Vasilchenko, Iustyna; Ristic, Davor; Boulard, Brigitte; Dorosz, Dominik; Scotognella, Francesco; Vaccari, Alessandro; Taccheo, Stefano; Pelli, Stefano; Righini, Giancarlo C.; Conti, Gualtiero Nunzi; Ramponi, Roberta; and others

    2015-04-24

    When a luminescent ion is confined in a system characterized by one or more specific properties such as spatial size, geometrical dimension and shape, refractive index, local crystal field, cut-off vibrational energy and so on, it's possible to control its emission. The control of branching ratios as a function of the composition, the luminescence enhancement induced by a photonic crystal, or the laser action in a microresonator, are well known examples of light control. Photonic glass-based structures are extremely viable systems to exploit the above mentioned properties and in our research team we have successfully fabricated luminescent photonic structures by different techniques, including sol-gel, rf sputtering, drawing, melting, and physical vapour deposition. Here we will discuss some of them with the aim to make the reader aware of the chemical-physical properties related to each specific system. We will demonstrate that glass ceramic waveguides in some cases present superior spectroscopic properties in respect to the parent glass, that compositional properties can play a positive role in reducing luminescence quenching and in developing novel planar waveguides and fibers, that colloids allow to obtain high internal quantum efficiency and that photonic crystals, microcavities and microresonators can enable the handling of the rare earth luminescence. Finally, the pros and cons of the systems and of the different techniques employed for their fabrication will be discussed and some perspectives concerning the glass photonics will be proposed looking at both possible applications and investigation of physical properties.

  13. Philips Lighting Research North America Develops Innovative Patient Room Lighting System with Spectrally Adaptive Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    With the help of DOE funding, Philips Lighting Research North America is developing an innovative LED patient-suite lighting system solution that is energy-efficient and will meet the visual and...

  14. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    powerful visible-light lasers to render a nominally opaque material transparent to x rays. ... In a dramatic demonstration, researchers used powerful visible-light lasers to render a ...

  15. Fiber-Optic Sensor for Industrial Process Measurement and Control...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation of solid-fuel vehicles, and in leak detection for pharmaceutical production. ... in coal-fired power plants by precisely controlling furnace temperature and startups. ...

  16. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This document provides a framework for measurement and verification (M&V) of energy savings, performance, and user satisfaction from lighting retrofit projects involving occupancy-sensor-based, daylighting, and/or other types of automatic lighting. It was developed to provide site owners, contractors, and other involved organizations with the essential elements of a robust M&V plan for retrofit projects and to assist in developing specific project M&V plans.

  17. Advanced Sensors and Controls for Building Applications: Market Assessment and Potential R&D Pathways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brambley, Michael R.; Haves, Philip; McDonald, Sean C.; Torcellini, Paul; Hansen, David G.; Holmberg, David; Roth, Kurt

    2005-04-13

    Significant energy savings can be achieved in commercial building operation, along with increased comfort and control for occupants, through the implementation of advanced technologies. This document provides a market assessment of existing building sensors and controls and presents a range of technology pathways (R&D options) for pursuing advanced sensors and building control strategies. This paper is actually a synthesis of five other white papers: the first describes the market assessment including estimates of market potential and energy savings for sensors and control strategies currently on the market as well as a discussion of market barriers to these technologies. The other four cover technology pathways: (1) current applications and strategies for new applications, (2) sensors and controls, (3) networking, security, and protocols and standards, and (4) automated diagnostics, performance monitoring, commissioning, optimal control and tools. Each technology pathway chapter gives an overview of the technology or application. This is followed by a discussion of needs and the current status of the technology. Finally, a series of research topics is proposed.

  18. Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the simplest ways to save energy and money is to switch to energy-efficient lights. Learn about your lighting choices that can save you money.

  19. Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDS) and OLED-based structurally integrated optical sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Yuankun

    2010-05-16

    General introduction to OLED basics and OLED-based structurally integrated sensors was provided in chapter 1 and chapter 2. As discussed in chapter 3, OLEDs were developed or improved using novel engineering methods for better charge injection (increased by over 1 order of magnitude) and efficiency. As the excitation sources, these OLEDs have preferred characteristics for sensor applications, including narrowed emission, emission at desired wavelength, and enhanced output for reduced EL background, higher absorption and improved device lifetime. In addition to OLEDs with desired performance, sensor integration requires oxidase immobilization with the sensor film for O{sub 2}-based biological and chemical sensing. Nanoparticles such as ZnO have large surface area and high isoelectric point ({approx}9.5), which favors enzyme immobilization via physical adsorption as well as Coulombic bonding. In chapter 4, it was demonstrated that ZnO could be used for this purpose, although future work is needed to further bond the ZnO to the sensor film. In chapter 5, single unit sensor was extended to multianalyte parallel sensing based on an OLED platform, which is compact and integrated with silicon photodiodes and electronics. Lactate and glucose were simultaneously monitored with a low limit of detection 0.02 mM, fast response time ({approx} 1 minute) and dynamic range from 0-8.6 ppm of dissolved oxygen. As discovered in previous work, the dynamic range covers 0-100% gas phase O{sub 2} or 0-40 ppm dissolved oxygen at room temperature. PL decay curve, which is used to extract the decay time, is usually not a simple exponential at high O{sub 2} concentration, which indicates that O{sub 2} is not equally accessible for different luminescent sites. This creates a challenge for data analysis, which however was successfully processed by stretched exponential as shown in chapter 6. This also provides an insight about the distribution of O{sub 2}:dye collisional quenching rate due to

  20. Improving Control System Cyber-State Awareness using Known Secure Sensor Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ondrej Linda; Milos Manic; Miles McQueen

    2012-09-01

    Abstract—This paper presents design and simulation of a low cost and low false alarm rate method for improved cyber-state awareness of critical control systems - the Known Secure Sensor Measurements (KSSM) method. The KSSM concept relies on physical measurements to detect malicious falsification of the control systems state. The KSSM method can be incrementally integrated with already installed control systems for enhanced resilience. This paper reviews the previously developed theoretical KSSM concept and then describes a simulation of the KSSM system. A simulated control system network is integrated with the KSSM components. The effectiveness of detection of various intrusion scenarios is demonstrated on several control system network topologies.

  1. Sensor Driven Intelligent Control System For Plasma Processing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, G.; Campbell, V.B.

    1998-02-23

    This Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) between Innovative Computing Technologies, Inc. (IC Tech) and Martin Marietta Energy Systems (MMES) was undertaken to contribute to improved process control for microelectronic device fabrication. Process data from an amorphous silicon thin film deposition experiment was acquired to validate the performance of an intelligent, adaptive, neurally-inspired control software module designed to provide closed loop control of plasma processing machines used in the microelectronics industry. Data acquisition software was written using LabView The data was collected from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) source, which was available for this project through LMES's RF/Microwave Technology Center. Experimental parameters measured were RF power, RF current and voltage on the antenna delivering power to the plasma, hydrogen and silane flow rate, chamber pressure, substrate temperature and H-alpha optical emission. Experimental results obtained were poly-crystallin silicon deposition rate, crystallinity, crystallographic orientation and electrical conductivity. Owing to experimental delays resulting from hardware failures, it was not possible to assemble a complete data for IC Tech use within the time and resource constraints of the CRADA. IC Tech was therefore not able to verify the performance of their existing models and control structures and validate model performance under this CRADA.

  2. Optical displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin W.

    2008-04-08

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  3. Closed loop control of the induction heating process using miniature magnetic sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Anthony E.; Kelley, John Bruce; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-05-20

    A method and system for providing real-time, closed-loop control of the induction hardening process. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  4. Using Light to Control How X Rays Interact with Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    While x-ray transparency will have immediate applications at x-ray light sources, the important result is that the findings lay a foundation for a broader spectrum of applications. ...

  5. Controlling Light to Make the Most Energy From the Sun

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callahan, Dennis; Corcoran, Chris; Eisler, Carissa; Flowers, Cris; Goodman, Matt; Hofmann, Carrie; Sadtler, Bryce

    2013-07-18

    Representing the Light-Material Interactions in Energy Conversion (LMI), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of LMI to tailor the morphology, complex dielectric structure, and electronic properties of matter so as to sculpt the flow of sunlight and heat, enabling light conversion to electrical and chemical energy with unprecedented efficiency.

  6. All-Optically Prepared and Controlled Nematic Liquid Crystal Light Valve -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Innovation Portal All-Optically Prepared and Controlled Nematic Liquid Crystal Light Valve Colorado School of Mines Contact CSM About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryThis device acts as an optical switch that controls the intensity of a light beam through the action of a second control beam. This behavior is achieved through photo-induced anisotropy that develops in a monomolecular layer coating the inside surfaces of a liquid crystal cell.DescriptionOne of these surfaces

  7. Application of Odor Sensors to Ore Sorting and Mill Feed Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael G. Nelson

    2005-08-01

    Control of the feed provided to mineral processing facilities is a continuing challenge. Much effort is currently being devoted to overcoming these problems. These projects are usually described under the general headings of Mine-to-Mill Integration or Mine-Mill Optimization. It should be possible to combine the knowledge of ore type, mineralogy, and other characteristics (located in the mine modeling system), with the advanced capabilities of state-of-the-art mill control systems, to achieve an improved level of control in mineral processing that will allow optimization of the mill processes on an almost real-time basis. This is not happening because mill feed it is often treated as a uniform material, when in reality it varies in composition and characteristics. An investigation was conducted to assess the suitability of odor sensors for maintaining traceability in ore production and processing. Commercially available sensors are now used in food processing, environmental monitoring, and other applications and can detect the presence of very small amounts (0.1-500 ppm) of some molecules. An assortment of such molecules could be used to ''tag'' blocks of ore as they are mined, according to their respective characteristics. Then, as the ore came into the mill, an array of ''electronic noses'' could be used to assess its characteristics in real time. It was found that the Cyranose 320{trademark}, a commercially available odor sensor, can easily distinguish among samples of rock marked with almond, cinnamon, citronella, lemon, and orange oils. Further, the sensor could detect mixtures of rocks marked with various combinations of these oils. Treatment of mixtures of galena and silica with odorant compounds showed no detrimental effects on flotation response in laboratory tests. Additional work is recommended to determine how this concept can be extended to the marking of large volumes of materials.

  8. Neutron economic reactivity control system for light water reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, Robert G.; McCoy, Daniel F.; Merriman, Floyd C.; Gregurech, Steve

    1989-01-01

    A neutron reactivity control system for a LWBR incorporating a stationary seed-blanket core arrangement. The core arrangement includes a plurality of contiguous hexagonal shaped regions. Each region has a central and a peripheral blanket area juxapositioned an annular seed area. The blanket areas contain thoria fuel rods while the annular seed area includes seed fuel rods and movable thoria shim control rods.

  9. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Bench-scale Testbed Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Drira, Anis; Reed, Frederick K.

    2015-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging due to restrictions on sensors and materials. As a part of the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology cross-cutting technology development programs Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic, this report details the design of a bench-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed. The design goal of the bench-scale testbed is to build a re-configurable system that can rapidly deploy and test advanced control algorithms in a hardware in the loop setup. The bench-scale testbed will be designed as a fluid pump analog that uses active magnetic bearings to support the shaft. The testbed represents an application that would improve the efficiency and performance of high temperature (700 C) pumps for liquid salt reactors that operate in an extreme environment and provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design, electromagnetic design, geometry optimization, power electronics design, and initial control system design.

  10. Evaluation of Miniaturized Infrared Sensors for Process Control of the Palladium Membrane Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lascola, R. J.; Howard, D. W.

    2005-07-31

    We have tested the suitability of a miniaturized infrared sensor for measurements of CO and H{sub 2}O in the inlet stream to the Palladium Membrane Reactor (PMR). We demonstrated that both analytes can be measured with absolute accuracies of 2-4% at the process inlet conditions of 120-140 C and approximately 1 atm of each gas. This accuracy must be improved to 1-1.5% for effective PMR process control. The use of a reference detector and independent temperature and pressure measurements to correct the raw signals will improve the accuracy to a level that will approach, if not meet, this goal. With appropriate bandpass filters, the infrared sensors may be used for other gas analysis applications.

  11. Millimeter-wave radar sensor for automotive intelligent cruise control (ICC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, M.E.; Crain, A.; Curran, A.; Campbell, R.A.; Drubin, C.A.; Miccioli, W.F.

    1997-12-01

    If automotive intelligent cruise-control (ICC) systems are to be successful in the marketplace, they must provide robust performance in a complex roadway environment. Inconveniences caused by reduced performance during inclement weather, interrupted performance due to dropped tracks, and annoying nuisance alarms will not be tolerated by the consumer, and would likely result in the rejection of this technology in the marketplace. An all-weather automotive millimeter-wave (MMW) radar sensor is described that uses a frequency-modulation coplanar-wave (FMCW) radar design capable of acquiring and tracking all obstacles in its field of view. Design tradeoffs are discussed and radar-sensor test results are presented along with the applicability of the radar to collision-warning systems.

  12. Intelligent Control via Wireless Sensor Networks for Advanced Coal Combustion Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aman Behal; Sunil Kumar; Goodarz Ahmadi

    2007-08-05

    Numerical Modeling of Solid Gas Flow, System Identification for purposes of modeling and control, and Wireless Sensor and Actor Network design were pursued as part of this project. Time series input-output data was obtained from NETL's Morgantown CFB facility courtesy of Dr. Lawrence Shadle. It was run through a nonlinear kernel estimator and nonparametric models were obtained for the system. Linear and first-order nonlinear kernels were then utilized to obtain a state-space description of the system. Neural networks were trained that performed better at capturing the plant dynamics. It is possible to use these networks to find a plant model and the inversion of this model can be used to control the system. These models allow one to compare with physics based models whose parameters can then be determined by comparing them against the available data based model. On a parallel track, Dr. Kumar designed an energy-efficient and reliable transport protocol for wireless sensor and actor networks, where the sensors could be different types of wireless sensors used in CFB based coal combustion systems and actors are more powerful wireless nodes to set up a communication network while avoiding the data congestion. Dr. Ahmadi's group studied gas solid flow in a duct. It was seen that particle concentration clearly shows a preferential distribution. The particles strongly interact with the turbulence eddies and are concentrated in narrow bands that are evolving with time. It is believed that observed preferential concentration is due to the fact that these particles are flung out of eddies by centrifugal force.

  13. Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing | Advanced Sensors, Controls, Platforms and Modeling for Manufacturing Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Advanced Sensors, Controls, Platforms and Modeling for Manufacturing Chapter 6: Technology Assessments NOTE: This technology assessment is available as an appendix to the 2015 Quadrennial Technology Review (QTR). Advanced Sensors, Controls, Platforms and Modeling for Manufacturing is one of fourteen manufacturing-focused technology assessments prepared in support of Chapter 6: Innovating Clean Energy Technologies in Advanced Manufacturing. For context within the 2015 QTR, key connections between

  14. Tunable Diode Laser Sensor for Monitoring and Control of Harsh Combustion Environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VonDrasek, William; Melsio-Pubill, Anna

    2006-05-30

    This work represents the collaborative effort between American Air Liquide and Physical Sciences, Inc. for developing a sensor based on near-IR tunable diode lasers (TDL). The multi-species capability of the sensor for simultaneous monitoring of CO, O2, and H2O concentration as well as gas temperature is ideal for in-situ monitoring on industrial furnaces. The chemical species targeted are fundamental for controlling the combustion space for improved energy efficiency, reduced pollutants, and improved product quality, when coupling the measurement to a combustion control system. Several add-on modules developed provide flexibility in the system configuration for handling different process monitoring applications. For example, the on-Demand Power Control system for the 1.5 ?m laser is used for high particle density exhaust streams where laser transmission is problematic. For long-distance signal collection a fiber optic communication system is used to reduce noise pick-up. Finally, hardened modules to withstand high ambient temperatures, immune to EMF interference, protection from flying debris, and interfaced with pathlength control laser beam shielding probes were developed specifically for EAF process monitoring. Demonstration of these different system configurations was conducted on Charter Steel's reheat furnace, Imco Recycling, Inc. (now Aleris International, Inc.) aluminum reverberatory furnace, and Gerdau Ameristeel's EAF. Measurements on the reheat furnace demonstrated zone monitoring with the measurement performed close to the steel billet. Results from the aluminum furnace showed the benefit of measuring in-situ near the bath. In this case, low-level furnace optimization was performed and demonstrated 5% fuel savings. Monitoring tests on the EAF off-gas demonstrated the level of industrialization of the sensor to survive the harsh EAF environment. Long-term testing on the EAF has been on-going for over 6 months with essentially zero maintenance

  15. Municipal Consortium Releases Updated Model Specification for Networked Outdoor Lighting Control Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium (MSSLC) has released an update to its Model Specification for Adaptive Control and Remote Monitoring of LED Roadway...

  16. Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SA-25222 Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls February 2016 EE Richman PNNL-SA-25222 Measurement and Verification of Energy Savings and Performance from Advanced Lighting Controls EE Richman February 2016 Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program under Contract DE-AC05-76RL01830 Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington 99352 iii Contacts Project Manager Linda Sandahl Pacific Northwest

  17. CIA sheds new light on nuclear control in CIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lockwood, D.

    1993-03-01

    In a wide-ranging presentation to the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee February 24, 1993, newly installed CIA director James Woolsey and one of his senior aides provided a great deal of new information on nuclear weapons issues and how they are controlled in the former USSR. The main topics covered in the briefing are briefly discussed.

  18. Diesel Exhaust Emissions Control for Light-Duty Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mital, R.; Li, J.; Huang, S. C.; Stroia, B. J.; Yu, R. C.; Anderson, J.A.; Howden, Kenneth C.

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the results of diesel exhaust aftertreatment testing and analysis done under the FreedomCAR program. Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) adsorber technology was selected based on a previous investigation of various NOx aftertreatment technologies including non-thermal plasma, NOx adsorber and active lean NOx. Particulate Matter (PM) emissions were addressed by developing a catalyzed particulate filter. After various iterations of the catalyst formulation, the aftertreatment components were integrated and optimized for a light duty vehicle application. This compact exhaust aftertreatment system is dual leg and consists of a sulfur trap, NOx adsorbers, and catalyzed particulate filters (CPF). During regeneration, supplementary ARCO ECD low-sulfur diesel fuel is injected upstream of the adsorber and CPF in the exhaust. Steady state and transient emission test results with and without the exhaust aftertreatment system (EAS) are presented. Results of soot filter regeneration by injecting low-sulfur diesel fuel and slip of unregulated emissions, such as NH3, are discussed. Effects of adsorber size and bypass strategy on NOx conversion efficiency and fuel economy penalty are also presented in this paper. The results indicate that if the supplementary fuel injection is optimized, NH3 slip is negligible. During the FTP cycle, injection of low sulfur diesel fuel can create temperature exotherms high enough to regenerate a loaded CPF. With the optimized NOx adsorber regeneration strategies the fuel injection penalty can be reduced by 40 to 50%. Results for various other issues like low temperature light off, reductant optimization, exhaust sulfur management, system integration and design trade-off, are also presented and discussed in this paper. (SAE Paper SAE-2003-01-0041 © 2003 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on

  19. Controlling of grid connected photovoltaic lighting system with fuzzy logic

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saglam, Safak; Ekren, Nazmi; Erdal, Hasan

    2010-02-15

    In this study, DC electrical energy produced by photovoltaic panels is converted to AC electrical energy and an indoor area is illuminated using this energy. System is controlled by fuzzy logic algorithm controller designed with 16 rules. Energy is supplied from accumulator which is charged by photovoltaic panels if its energy would be sufficient otherwise it is supplied from grid. During the 1-week usage period at the semester time, 1.968 kWh energy is used from grid but designed system used 0.542 kWh energy from photovoltaic panels at the experiments. Energy saving is determined by calculations and measurements for one education year period (9 months) 70.848 kWh. (author)

  20. Outdoor performance stability and controlled light-soak testing of amorphous silicon multijunction modules at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.; Burdick, J.; Luft, W.; Kroposki, B.

    1994-12-31

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been testing amorphous silicon (a-Si) Photovoltaic (PV) modules for more than a decade. NREL has been conducting controlled light-soak testing of multijunction a-Si modules to characterize their performance for stability evaluation as well as to benchmark the technology status. Some of the test modules, after controlled light-soak testing, have been installed outdoors. The authors have observed that under outdoor exposure, the modules further degrade in performance, possibly due to lower outdoor temperatures and varying spectra. The paper presents data on the light-induced degradation for the third controlled light-soak test on multijunction a-Si modules as well as outdoor performance data on single- and multijunction modules under prevailing conditions.

  1. Outdoor performance stability and controlled light-soak testing of amorphous silicon multijunction modules at NREL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mrig, L.; Burdick, J.; Luft, W.; Kroposki, B.

    1995-10-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been testing amorphous silicon (a-Si) Photovoltaic (PV) modules for more than a decade. NREL has been conducting controlled light-soak testing of multifunction a-Si modules to characterize their performance for stability evaluation as well as to benchmark the technology status. Some of the test modules, after controlled light-soak testing, have been installed outdoors. The authors have observed that under outdoor exposure, the modules further degrade in performance, possibly due to lower outdoor temperatures and varying spectra. The paper presents data on the light-induced degradation for the third controlled light-soak test on multijunction a-Si modules as well as outdoor performance data on single and multijunction modules under prevailing conditions.

  2. MULTIFUNCTIONAL (NOx/CO/O2) SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR COAL COMBUSTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2005-05-29

    We have made great progress in both developing solid state sensors for coal combustion control and understanding the mechanism by which they operate. We have fabricated and tested numerous sensors and identified the role electrode microstructure plays in sensor response. We have developed both p-type (La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}) and n-type (WO{sub 3}) semiconducting NO{sub x} sensing electrodes. We have demonstrated their respective sensing behavior (sensitivities and cross-sensitivities), related this behavior to their gas adsorption/desorption behavior and catalytic activity, and in so doing verified that our proposed Differential Electrode Equilibria is a more comprehensive sensing mechanism. These investigations and their results are summarized below. The composition and microstructure of the sensing electrode is the key parameters that influence the sensing performance. We investigated the effect of electrode microstructure on the NO{sub x} sensitivity and response time using a La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}-based potentiometric sensor. Temperature dependence, cross-sensitivity and selectivities of a La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}- and WO{sub 3}-based potentiometric NO{sub x} sensor were investigated both in N{sub 2} and in a simulated exhaust gas. We performed temperature programmed reaction (TPR) and desorption (TPD) experiments to determine the reaction and adsorption characteristics of O{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and their mixtures on the electrodes, and related the results to sensor performance. In order to optimize the sensor electrode microstructure, powders were prepared using four different powder synthesis routes, resulting in different particle size distributions and BET surface areas. Different sintering conditions were also applied. The microstructure of electrodes, synthesized with the same composition, has a dramatic effect on both sensitivity and response time of potentiometric NO sensors, showing that large surface areas generate a porous morphology with smaller

  3. Vibration suppression in cutting tools using collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators with an adaptive control algorithm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radecki, Peter P; Farinholt, Kevin M; Park, Gyuhae; Bement, Matthew T

    2008-01-01

    The machining process is very important in many engineering applications. In high precision machining, surface finish is strongly correlated with vibrations and the dynamic interactions between the part and the cutting tool. Parameters affecting these vibrations and dynamic interactions, such as spindle speed, cut depth, feed rate, and the part's material properties can vary in real-time, resulting in unexpected or undesirable effects on the surface finish of the machining product. The focus of this research is the development of an improved machining process through the use of active vibration damping. The tool holder employs a high bandwidth piezoelectric actuator with an adaptive positive position feedback control algorithm for vibration and chatter suppression. In addition, instead of using external sensors, the proposed approach investigates the use of a collocated piezoelectric sensor for measuring the dynamic responses from machining processes. The performance of this method is evaluated by comparing the surface finishes obtained with active vibration control versus baseline uncontrolled cuts. Considerable improvement in surface finish (up to 50%) was observed for applications in modern day machining.

  4. Table lamp with dynamically controlled lighting distribution and uniformly illuminated luminous shade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siminovitch, Michael J.; Page, Erik R.

    2002-01-01

    A double lamp table or floor lamp lighting system has a pair of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs) or other lamps arranged vertically, i.e. one lamp above the other, with a reflective septum in between. By selectively turning on one or both of the CFLs, down lighting, up lighting, or both up and down lighting is produced. The control system can also vary the light intensity from each CFL. The reflective septum ensures that almost all the light produced by each lamp will be directed into the desired light distribution pattern which is selected and easily changed by the user. In a particular configuration, the reflective septum is bowl shaped, with the upper CFL sitting in the bowl, and a luminous shade hanging down from the bowl. The lower CFL provides both task lighting and uniform shade luminance. Planar compact fluorescent lamps, e.g. circular CFLs, particularly oriented horizontally, are preferable. CFLs provide energy efficiency. However, other types of lamps, including incandescent, halogen, and LEDs can also be used in the fixture. The lighting system may be designed for the home, hospitality, office or other environments.

  5. Diffracted light from latent images in photoresist for exposure control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bishop, Kenneth P.; Brueck, Steven R. J.; Gaspar, Susan M.; Hickman, Kirt C.; McNeil, John R.; Naqvi, S. Sohail H.; Stallard, Brian R.; Tipton, Gary D.

    1997-01-01

    In microelectronics manufacturing, an arrangement for monitoring and control of exposure of an undeveloped photosensitive layer on a structure susceptible to variations in optical properties in order to attain the desired critical dimension for the pattern to be developed in the photosensitive layer. This is done by ascertaining the intensities for one or more respective orders of diffracted power for an incident beam of radiation corresponding to the desired critical dimension for the photosensitive layer as a function of exposure time and optical properties of the structure, illuminating the photosensitive layer with a beam of radiation of one or more frequencies to which the photosensitive layer is not exposure-sensitive, and monitoring the intensities of the orders of diffracted radiation due to said illumination including at least the first order of diffracted radiation thereof, such that when said predetermined intensities for the diffracted orders are reached during said illumination of photosensitive layer, it is known that a pattern having at least approximately the desired critical dimension can be developed on the photosensitive layer.

  6. System and Battery Charge Control for PV-Powered AC Lighting Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kern, G.

    1999-04-01

    This report reviews a number of issues specific to stand-alone AC lighting systems. A review of AC lighting technology is presented, which discusses the advantages and disadvantages of various lamps. The best lamps for small lighting systems are compact fluorescent. The best lamps for intermediate-size systems are high- or low-pressure sodium. Specifications for battery charging and load control are provided with the goal of achieving lamp lifetimes on the order of 16,000 to 24,000 hours and battery lifetimes of 4 to 5 years. A rough estimate of the potential domestic and global markets for stand-alone AC lighting systems is presented. DC current injection tests were performed on high-pressure sodium lamps and the test results are presented. Finally, a prototype system was designed and a prototype system controller (with battery charger and DC/AC inverter) was developed and built.

  7. Virtual Oxygen Sensor for Innovative NOx and PM Emission Control Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A virtual O2 sensor for the intake manifold of a diesel engine equipped with EGR, along with a virtual intake manifold O2 sensor, show good accuracy with stationary measurements

  8. lighting controls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Search Policy & Reporting Expand Policy & Reporting EE Sectors Expand EE Sectors Technology & Innovation Expand Technology & Innovation Utility Resources Expand...

  9. Method and system for controlling the position of a beam of light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F.; Johnson, Gary W.; Ruggiero, Anthony J.

    2011-08-09

    An method and system for laser beam tracking and pointing is based on a conventional position sensing detector (PSD) or quadrant cell but with the use of amplitude-modulated light. A combination of logarithmic automatic gain control, filtering, and synchronous detection offers high angular precision with exceptional dynamic range and sensitivity, while maintaining wide bandwidth. Use of modulated light enables the tracking of multiple beams simultaneously through the use of different modulation frequencies. It also makes the system resistant to interfering light sources such as ambient light. Beam pointing is accomplished by feeding back errors in the measured beam position to a beam steering element, such as a steering mirror. Closed-loop tracking performance is superior to existing methods, especially under conditions of atmospheric scintillation.

  10. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, Emil F.

    1991-01-01

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects.

  11. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, Stanley E.

    1998-01-01

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiberoptic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences.

  12. Thin-film fiber optic hydrogen and temperature sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nave, S.E.

    1998-07-21

    The invention discloses a sensor probe device for monitoring of hydrogen gas concentrations and temperatures by the same sensor probe. The sensor probe is constructed using thin-film deposition methods for the placement of a multitude of layers of materials sensitive to hydrogen concentrations and temperature on the end of a light transparent lens located within the sensor probe. The end of the lens within the sensor probe contains a lens containing a layer of hydrogen permeable material which excludes other reactive gases, a layer of reflective metal material that forms a metal hydride upon absorbing hydrogen, and a layer of semi-conducting solid that is transparent above a temperature dependent minimum wavelength for temperature detection. The three layers of materials are located at the distal end of the lens located within the sensor probe. The lens focuses light generated by broad-band light generator and connected by fiber-optics to the sensor probe, onto a reflective metal material layer, which passes through the semi-conducting solid layer, onto two optical fibers located at the base of the sensor probe. The reflected light is transmitted over fiber optic cables to a spectrometer and system controller. The absence of electrical signals and electrical wires in the sensor probe provides for an elimination of the potential for spark sources when monitoring in hydrogen rich environments, and provides a sensor free from electrical interferences. 3 figs.

  13. Phase-controllable spin wave generation in iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoshimine, Isao; Iida, Ryugo; Shimura, Tsutomu; Satoh, Takuya; Stupakiewicz, Andrzej; Maziewski, Andrzej

    2014-07-28

    A phase-controlled spin wave was non-thermally generated in bismuth-doped rare-earth iron garnet by linearly polarized light pulses. We controlled the initial phase of the spin wave continuously within a range of 180 by changing the polarization azimuth of the excitation light. The azimuth dependences of the initial phase and amplitude of the spin wave were attributed to a combination of the inverse Cotton-Mouton effect and photoinduced magnetic anisotropy. Temporally and spatially resolved spin wave propagation was observed with a CCD camera, and the waveform was in good agreement with calculations. A nonlinear effect of the spin excitation was observed for excitation fluences higher than 100 mJ/cm{sup 2}.

  14. Low-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple low-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Low-wattage T8 lighting retrofit, T12 to T8 lighting retrofit, LED Exit signs retrofit, Occupancy sensors, Screw-in lighting retrofit, and central lighting controls. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cooling load reduction, heating load increases, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: Simple payback, discounted payback,more » net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.« less

  15. Control of the positional relationship between a sample collection instrument and a surface to be analyzed during a sampling procedure using a laser sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Berkel, Gary J.; Kertesz, Vilmos

    2012-02-21

    A system and method utilizes distance-measuring equipment including a laser sensor for controlling the collection instrument-to-surface distance during a sample collection process for use, for example, with mass spectrometric detection. The laser sensor is arranged in a fixed positional relationship with the collection instrument, and a signal is generated by way of the laser sensor which corresponds to the actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface. The actual distance between the laser sensor and the surface is compared to a target distance between the laser sensor and the surface when the collection instrument is arranged at a desired distance from the surface for sample collecting purposes, and adjustments are made, if necessary, so that the actual distance approaches the target distance.

  16. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications: Early Experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.; Sullivan, Greg P.

    2012-11-07

    Occupancy sensor systems are gaining traction as an effective technological approach to reducing energy use in exterior commercial lighting applications. Done correctly, occupancy sensors can substantially enhance the savings from an already efficient lighting system. However, this technology is confronted by several potential challenges and pitfalls that can leave a significant amount of the prospective savings on the table. This report describes anecdotal experiences from field installations of occupancy sensor controlled light-emitting diode (LED) lighting at two parking structures and two parking lots. The relative levels of success at these installations reflect a marked range of potential outcomes: from an additional 76% in energy savings to virtually no additional savings. Several issues that influenced savings were encountered in these early stage installations and are detailed in the report. Ultimately, care must be taken in the design, selection, and commissioning of a sensor-controlled lighting installation, else the only guaranteed result may be its cost.

  17. Optical Sensors for Post Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking (TRP 9851)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarah W. Allendorf; David K. Ottesen; Robert W. Green; Donald R. Hardesty; Robert Kolarik; Howard Goodfellow; Euan Evenson; Marshall Khan; Ovidiu Negru; Michel Bonin; Soren Jensen

    2003-12-31

    Working in collaboration with Stantec Global Technologies, Process Metrix Corporation, and The Timken Company, Sandia National Laboratories constructed and evaluated a novel, laser-based off-gas sensor at the electric arc furnace facility of Timken's Faircrest Steel Plant (Canton, Ohio). The sensor is based on a mid-infrared tunable diode laser (TDL), and measures the concentration and temperature of specific gas species present in the off-gas emanating from the EAF. The laser beam is transmitted through the gas stream at the fourth hole of the EAF, and provides a real-time, in situ measurement that can be used for process optimization. Two sets of field tests were performed in parallel with Stantec's extractive probe off-gas system, and the tests confirm the TDL sensor's operation and applicability for electric steel making. The sensor measures real-time, in situ line-of-sight carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations between 5% and 35% CO, and measures off-gas temperature in the range of 1400 to 1900 K. In order to achieve commercial-ready status, future work is required to extend the sensor for simultaneous CO and CO{sub 2} concentration measurements. In addition, long-term endurance tests including process optimization must be completed.

  18. Use of miniature magnetic sensors for real-time control of the induction heating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bentley, Anthony E. (Tijeras, NM); Kelley, John Bruce (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    A method of monitoring the process of induction heating a workpiece. A miniature magnetic sensor located near the outer surface of the workpiece measures changes in the surface magnetic field caused by changes in the magnetic properties of the workpiece as it heats up during induction heating (or cools down during quenching). A passive miniature magnetic sensor detects a distinct magnetic spike that appears when the saturation field, B.sub.sat, of the workpiece has been exceeded. This distinct magnetic spike disappears when the workpiece's surface temperature exceeds its Curie temperature, due to the sudden decrease in its magnetic permeability. Alternatively, an active magnetic sensor can also be used to measure changes in the resonance response of the monitor coil when the excitation coil is linearly swept over 0-10 MHz, due to changes in the magnetic permeability and electrical resistivity of the workpiece as its temperature increases (or decreases).

  19. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program A Reference Plan for Control Room Modernization: Planning and Analysis Phase

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacques Hugo; Ronald Boring; Lew Hanes; Kenneth Thomas

    2013-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) program is collaborating with a U.S. nuclear utility to bring about a systematic fleet-wide control room modernization. To facilitate this upgrade, a new distributed control system (DCS) is being introduced into the control rooms of these plants. The DCS will upgrade the legacy plant process computer and emergency response facility information system. In addition, the DCS will replace an existing analog turbine control system with a display-based system. With technology upgrades comes the opportunity to improve the overall human-system interaction between the operators and the control room. To optimize operator performance, the LWRS Control Room Modernization research team followed a human-centered approach published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. NUREG-0711, Rev. 3, Human Factors Engineering Program Review Model (O’Hara et al., 2012), prescribes four phases for human factors engineering. This report provides examples of the first phase, Planning and Analysis. The three elements of Planning and Analysis in NUREG-0711 that are most crucial to initiating control room upgrades are: • Operating Experience Review: Identifies opportunities for improvement in the existing system and provides lessons learned from implemented systems. • Function Analysis and Allocation: Identifies which functions at the plant may be optimally handled by the DCS vs. the operators. • Task Analysis: Identifies how tasks might be optimized for the operators. Each of these elements is covered in a separate chapter. Examples are drawn from workshops with reactor operators that were conducted at the LWRS Human System Simulation Laboratory HSSL and at the respective plants. The findings in this report represent generalized accounts of more detailed proprietary reports produced for the utility for each plant. The goal of this LWRS report is to disseminate the technique and provide examples sufficient to

  20. Hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang; Jia, Quanxi; Cao, Wenqing

    2010-11-23

    A hydrogen sensor for detecting/quantitating hydrogen and hydrogen isotopes includes a sampling line and a microplasma generator that excites hydrogen from a gas sample and produces light emission from excited hydrogen. A power supply provides power to the microplasma generator, and a spectrometer generates an emission spectrum from the light emission. A programmable computer is adapted for determining whether or not the gas sample includes hydrogen, and for quantitating the amount of hydrogen and/or hydrogen isotopes are present in the gas sample.

  1. Fiber optic geophysical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Homuth, E.F.

    1991-03-19

    A fiber optic geophysical sensor is described in which laser light is passed through a sensor interferometer in contact with a geophysical event, and a reference interferometer not in contact with the geophysical event but in the same general environment as the sensor interferometer. In one embodiment, a single tunable laser provides the laser light. In another embodiment, separate tunable lasers are used for the sensor and reference interferometers. The invention can find such uses as monitoring for earthquakes, and the weighing of objects. 2 figures.

  2. Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) Combustion on a Multi-Cylinder Light-Duty Diesel Engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Hanson, Reed M; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    Reactivity controlled compression ignition is a low-temperature combustion technique that has been shown, both in computational fluid dynamics modeling and single-cylinder experiments, to obtain diesel-like efficiency or better with ultra-low nitrogen oxide and soot emissions, while operating primarily on gasoline-like fuels. This paper investigates reactivity controlled compression ignition operation on a four-cylinder light-duty diesel engine with production-viable hardware using conventional gasoline and diesel fuel. Experimental results are presented over a wide speed and load range using a systematic approach for achieving successful steady-state reactivity controlled compression ignition combustion. The results demonstrated diesel-like efficiency or better over the operating range explored with low engine-out nitrogen oxide and soot emissions. A peak brake thermal efficiency of 39.0% was demonstrated for 2600 r/min and 6.9 bar brake mean effective pressure with nitrogen oxide emissions reduced by an order of magnitude compared to conventional diesel combustion operation. Reactivity controlled compression ignition emissions and efficiency results are compared to conventional diesel combustion operation on the same engine.

  3. Multifuctional integrated sensors (MFISES).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Homeijer, Brian D.; Roozeboom, Clifton

    2015-10-01

    Many emerging IoT applications require sensing of multiple physical and environmental parameters for: completeness of information, measurement validation, unexpected demands, improved performance. For example, a typical outdoor weather station measures temperature, humidity, barometric pressure, light intensity, rainfall, wind speed and direction. Existing sensor technologies do not directly address the demand for cost, size, and power reduction in multi-paramater sensing applications. Industry sensor manufacturers have developed integrated sensor systems for inertial measurements that combine accelerometers, gyroscopes, and magnetometers, but do not address environmental sensing functionality. In existing research literature, a technology gap exists between the functionality of MEMS sensors and the real world applications of the sensors systems.

  4. MULTIFUNCTIONAL (NOx/CO/O2) SOLID-STATE SENSORS FOR COAL COMBUSTION CONTROL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric D. Wachsman

    2005-03-21

    Sensing properties of a La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}- and WO{sub 3}-based potentiometric NO{sub x} sensor were investigated both in N{sub 2} and in a simulated exhaust gas. We performed temperature programmed reaction (TPR) and desorption (TPD) experiments to determine the reaction and adsorption characteristics of O{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and their mixtures on the electrodes, and related the results to sensor performance. The relative responses of the La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}-based sensor under varied concentrations of NO, NO{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} were studied. The results showed a very high sensitivity to CO and NO{sub 2} at 450 C in 3% O{sub 2}, whereas the response to O{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} gases was negligible. The NO response at 400-500 C agreed with the NO adsorption behavior. The high NO{sub 2} sensitivity at 450 C was probably related to heterogeneous catalytic activity of La{sub 2}CuO{sub 4}. The adsorption of NO was not affected by the change of O{sub 2} concentration and thus the sensor showed selective detection of NO over O{sub 2}. However, the NO sensitivity was strongly influenced by the existence of CO, H{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}, as the adsorption behavior of NO was influenced by these gases. The WO{sub 3}-based sensor was able to selectively detect NO in the presence of CO{sub 2} in 3% O{sub 2} and at 650 C. The NO sensitivity, however, was affected by the variation of the NO{sub 2}, CO, and H{sub 2}O concentration. No gas-solid reactions were observed using TPR in the NO containing gas mixture, indicating that the NO response was not obtained by the conventionally accepted mixed-potential mechanism. At the same condition the sensor had high sensitivity to {approx}10 ppm NO{sub 2} and selectivity in the presence of CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O, showing it to be applicable to the monitoring of NO{sub 2}. Significantly different sensing properties of NO in simulated exhaust gas suggested the occurrence of gas composition change

  5. Sensor Switch's Bright Manufacturing Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The switch helps with cost effective energy savings by turning off the lights when an occupancy sensor says the room is empty.

  6. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability - System Dynamics Modeling and Control System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melin, Alexander M.; Kisner, Roger A.; Fugate, David L.

    2013-10-01

    This report documents the current status of the modeling, control design, and embedded control research for the magnetic bearing canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating instrumentation and controls (I{\\&}C) into nuclear power plant components. This pump is a highly inter-connected thermo/electro/mechanical system that requires an active control system to operate. Magnetic bearings are inherently unstable system and without active, moment by moment control, the rotor would contact fixed surfaces in the pump causing physical damage. This report details the modeling of the pump rotordynamics, fluid forces, electromagnetic properties of the protective cans, active magnetic bearings, power electronics, and interactions between different dynamical models. The system stability of the unforced and controlled rotor are investigated analytically. Additionally, controllers are designed using proportional derivative (PD) control, proportional integral derivative (PID) control, voltage control, and linear quadratic regulator (LQR) control. Finally, a design optimization problem that joins the electrical, mechanical, magnetic, and control system design into one problem to balance the opposing needs of various design criteria using the embedded system approach is presented.

  7. Autonomic Intelligent Cyber-Sensor to Support Industrial Control Network Awareness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denis T. Vollmer; Milos Manic; O. Linda

    2014-05-01

    The proliferation of digital devices in a networked industrial ecosystem, along with an exponential growth in complexity and scope, has resulted in elevated security concerns and management complexity issues. This paper describes a novel architecture utilizing concepts of autonomic computing and a simple object access protocol (SOAP)-based interface to metadata access points (IF-MAP) external communication layer to create a network security sensor. This approach simplifies integration of legacy software and supports a secure, scalable, and self-managed framework. The contribution of this paper is twofold: 1) A flexible two-level communication layer based on autonomic computing and service oriented architecture is detailed and 2) three complementary modules that dynamically reconfigure in response to a changing environment are presented. One module utilizes clustering and fuzzy logic to monitor traffic for abnormal behavior. Another module passively monitors network traffic and deploys deceptive virtual network hosts. These components of the sensor system were implemented in C++ and PERL and utilize a common internal D-Bus communication mechanism. A proof of concept prototype was deployed on a mixed-use test network showing the possible real-world applicability. In testing, 45 of the 46 network attached devices were recognized and 10 of the 12 emulated devices were created with specific operating system and port configurations. In addition, the anomaly detection algorithm achieved a 99.9% recognition rate. All output from the modules were correctly distributed using the common communication structure.

  8. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-03

    The objective of this scoping study is: (1) to identify current market drivers and technology trends that can improve the demand responsiveness of commercial building lighting systems and (2) to quantify the energy, demand and environmental benefits of implementing lighting demand response and energy-saving controls strategies Statewide. Lighting systems in California commercial buildings consume 30 GWh. Lighting systems in commercial buildings often waste energy and unnecessarily stress the electrical grid because lighting controls, especially dimming, are not widely used. But dimmable lighting equipment, especially the dimming ballast, costs more than non-dimming lighting and is expensive to retrofit into existing buildings because of the cost of adding control wiring. Advances in lighting industry capabilities coupled with the pervasiveness of the Internet and wireless technologies have led to new opportunities to realize significant energy saving and reliable demand reduction using intelligent lighting controls. Manufacturers are starting to produce electronic equipment--lighting-application specific controllers (LAS controllers)--that are wirelessly accessible and can control dimmable or multilevel lighting systems obeying different industry-accepted protocols. Some companies make controllers that are inexpensive to install in existing buildings and allow the power consumed by bi-level lighting circuits to be selectively reduced during demand response curtailments. By intelligently limiting the demand from bi-level lighting in California commercial buildings, the utilities would now have an enormous 1 GW demand shed capability at hand. By adding occupancy and light sensors to the remotely controllable lighting circuits, automatic controls could harvest an additional 1 BkWh/yr savings above and beyond the savings that have already been achieved. The lighting industry's adoption of DALI as the principal wired digital control protocol for dimming ballasts and

  9. Market transformation opportunities for emerging dynamic facade and dimmable lighting control systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Eleanor S.; Selkowitz, Stephen E.; Hughes, Glenn D.; Thurm, David A.

    2004-06-04

    Automated shading and daylighting control systems have been commercially available for decades. The new challenge is to provide a fully functional and integrated fagade and lighting system that operates appropriately for all environmental conditions and meets a range of occupant subjective desires and objective performance requirements. These rigorous performance goals must be achieved with solutions that are cost effective and can operate over long periods with minimal maintenance. It will take time and effort to change the marketplace for these technologies and practices, particularly in building a series of documented success stories, and driving costs and risks to much lower levels at which their use becomes the norm. In recent years, the architectural trend toward highly-transparent all-glass buildings presents a unique challenge and opportunity to advance the market for emerging, smart, dynamic window and dimmable daylighting control technologies. We believe it is possible to accelerate product market transformation by developing projects where technical advances and the interests of motivated manufacturers and innovative owners converge. In this paper we present a case study example that explains a building owner's decision-making process to use dynamic window and dimmable daylighting controls. The case study project undertaken by a major building owner in partnership with a buildings R&D group was designed explicitly to use field test data in conjunction with the market influence of a major landmark building project in New York City to stimulate change in manufacturers' product offerings. Preliminary observations on the performance of these systems are made. A cost model that was developed with the building owner is explained.

  10. Use of Occupancy Sensors in LED Parking Lot and Garage Applications...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Experiences Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael; Royer, Michael P.; Sullivan, Greg P. LED lighting; parking lot lighting; occupancy sensors LED lighting; parking lot lighting;...

  11. Raman Scattering Sensor for Control of the Acid Alkylation Process in Gasoline Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uibel, Rory, H.; Smith, Lee M.; Benner, Robert, E.

    2006-04-19

    Gasoline refineries utilize a process called acid alkylation to increase the octane rating of blended gasoline, and this is the single most expensive process in the refinery. For process efficiency and safety reasons, the sulfuric acid can only be used while it is in the concentration range of 98 to 86 %. The conventional technique to monitor the acid concentration is time consuming and is typically conducted only a few times per day. This results in running higher acid concentrations than they would like to ensure that the process proceeds uninterrupted. Maintaining an excessively high acid concentration costs the refineries millions of dollars each year. Using SBIR funding, Process Instruments Inc. has developed an inline sensor for real time monitoring of acid concentrations in gasoline refinery alkylation units. Real time data was then collected over time from the instrument and its responses were matched up with the laboratory analysis. A model was then developed to correlate the laboratory acid values to the Raman signal that is transmitted back to the instrument from the process stream. The instrument was then used to demonstrate that it could create real-time predictions of the acid concentrations. The results from this test showed that the instrument could accurately predict the acid concentrations to within ~0.15% acid strength, and this level of prediction proved to be similar or better then the laboratory analysis. By utilizing a sensor for process monitoring the most economic acid concentrations can be maintained. A single smaller refinery (50,000 barrels/day) estimates that they should save over $120,000/year, with larger refineries saving considerably more.

  12. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading, by a single spectrophotometer.

  13. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, B.R.; Prather, W.S.

    1992-10-06

    An apparatus and method are described for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer. 4 figs.

  14. Fiber optic hydrogen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buchanan, Bruce R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting a chemical substance by exposing an optic fiber having a core and a cladding to the chemical substance so that the chemical substance can be adsorbed onto the surface of the cladding. The optic fiber is coiled inside a container having a pair of valves for controlling the entrance and exit of the substance. Light from a light source is received by one end of the optic fiber, preferably external to the container, and carried by the core of the fiber. Adsorbed substance changes the transmissivity of the fiber as measured by a spectrophotometer at the other end, also preferably external to the container. Hydrogen is detected by the absorption of infrared light carried by an optic fiber with a silica cladding. Since the adsorption is reversible, a sensor according to the present invention can be used repeatedly. Multiple positions in a process system can be monitored using a single container that can be connected to each location to be monitored so that a sample can be obtained for measurement, or, alternatively, containers can be placed near each position and the optic fibers carrying the partially-absorbed light can be multiplexed for rapid sequential reading by a single spectrophotometer.

  15. 2011 Quantum Control of Light & Matter Gordon Research Conference (July 31-August 5, 2011, Mount Holyoke College, South Hadley, MA)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas Weinacht

    2011-08-05

    Quantum control of light and matter is the quest to steer a physical process to a desirable outcome, employing constructive and destructive interference. Three basic questions address feasibility of quantum control: (1) The problem of controllability, does a control field exist for a preset initial and target state; (2) Synthesis, constructively finding the field that leads to the target; and (3) Optimal Control Theory - optimizing the field that carries out this task. These continue to be the fundamental theoretical questions to be addressed in the conference. How to realize control fields in the laboratory is an ongoing challenge. This task is very diverse viewing the emergence of control scenarios ranging from attoseconds to microseconds. How do the experimental observations reflect on the theoretical framework? The typical arena of quantum control is an open environment where much of the control is indirect. How are control scenarios realized in dissipative open systems? Can new control opportunities emerge? Can one null decoherence effects? An ideal setting for control is ultracold matter. The initial and final state can be defined more precisely. Coherent control unifies many fields of physical science. A lesson learned in one field can reflect on another. Currently quantum information processing has emerged as a primary target of control where the key issue is controlling quantum gate operation. Modern nonlinear spectroscopy has emerged as another primary field. The challenge is to unravel the dynamics of molecular systems undergoing strong interactions with the environment. Quantum optics where non-classical fields are to be generated and employed. Finally, coherent control is the basis for quantum engineering. These issues will be under the limelight of the Gordon conference on Quantum Control of Light and Matter.

  16. Desulfurization Effects on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle NOx Adsorber Exhaust Emission Control System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Tomazic, D.; Tyrer, H.; Thornton, M.; Kubsh, J.

    2006-05-01

    Analyzes the effects on gaseous emissions, before and after desulfurization, on a light-duty diesel vehicle with a NOx adsorber catalyst.

  17. LIGHT WATER REACTOR SUSTAINABILITY PROGRAM ADVANCED INSTRUMENTATION, INFORMATION, AND CONTROL SYSTEMS TECHNOLOGIES TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN FOR 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-07-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  18. Light Water Reactor Sustainability Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technologies Technical Program Plan for 2013

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallbert, Bruce; Thomas, Ken

    2014-09-01

    Reliable instrumentation, information, and control (II&C) systems technologies are essential to ensuring safe and efficient operation of the U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fleet. These technologies affect every aspect of nuclear power plant (NPP) and balance-of-plant operations. In 1997, the National Research Council conducted a study concerning the challenges involved in modernization of digital instrumentation and control systems in NPPs. Their findings identified the need for new II&C technology integration.

  19. Fiber optic coupled optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, Kevin J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A displacement sensor includes a first optical fiber for radiating light to a target, and a second optical fiber for receiving light from the target. The end of the first fiber is adjacent and not axially aligned with the second fiber end. A lens focuses light from the first fiber onto the target and light from the target onto the second fiber.

  20. Working Group Report: Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M.; et al.,

    2013-10-18

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  1. An Optical Sensor for Post-Combustion Control in Electric Arc Furnace Steelmaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2005-09-01

    Real-time measurement of off-gas composition could enable dynamic control of electric arc furnaces (EAFs), optimizing steelmaking electrical energy input and reducing carbon monoxide (CO) emissions. However, offgas measurement is very difficult due to the extremely dusty, hot, and gas-laden steelmaking environment.

  2. Light-controlled electric Freedericksz threshold in dye doped liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lucchetti, L.; Catani, L.; Simoni, F.

    2014-05-28

    We report the results of measurements of the threshold of Freedericksz transition in a nematic liquid crystal doped by Methyl-red. We show that in case of dc field the threshold voltage can decrease or increase depending on the light dose, due to the light-induced desorption and adsorption of charge complexes from and on the irradiated surface, that has been recently demonstrated. This effect has the potential to be exploited in optical devices such as liquid crystal microlenses and spatial light modulators.

  3. Topical viscosity control for light hydrocarbon displacing fluids in petroleum recovery and in fracturing fluids for well stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heller, John P.; Dandge, Dileep K.

    1986-01-01

    Solvent-type flooding fluids comprising light hydrocarbons in the range of ethane to hexane (and mixtures thereof) are used to displace crude oil in formations having temperatures of about 20 degrees to about 150 degrees Centigrade and pressures above about 650 psi, the light hydrocarbons having dissolved therein from about 0.05% to about 3% of an organotin compound of the formula R.sub.3 SnF where each R is independently an alkyl, aryl or alkyaryl group from 3 to 12 carbon atoms. Under the pressures and temperatures described, the organotin compounds become pentacoordinated and linked through the electronegative bridges, forming polymers within the light hydrocarbon flooding media to render them highly viscous. Under ambient conditions, the viscosity control agents will not readily be produced from the formation with either crude oil or water, since they are insoluble in the former and only sparingly soluble in the latter.

  4. Technology Development: Wireless Sensors and Controls BT0201 Review of Energy Scavenging Schemes and Recommended Order of Investigation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeSteese, John G.; Olsen, Larry C.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.

    2004-09-01

    This report reviews the characteristics of four candidate concepts that extract and convert ambient energy to provide electrical power for wireless sensors.

  5. Report from the Light Water Reactor Sustainability Workshop on Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems and Human-System Interface Technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bruce P. Hallbert; J. J. Persensky; Carol Smidts; Tunc Aldemir; Joseph Naser

    2009-08-01

    The Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program is a research and development (R&D) program sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The program is operated in close collaboration with industry R&D programs to provide the technical foundations for licensing and managing the long-term, safe, and economical operation of Nuclear Power Plants that are currently in operation. The LWRS Program focus is on longer-term and higher-risk/reward research that contributes to the national policy objectives of energy and environmental security. Advanced instruments and control (I&C) technologies are needed to support the safe and reliable production of power from nuclear energy systems during sustained periods of operation up to and beyond their expected licensed lifetime. This requires that new capabilities to achieve process control be developed and eventually implemented in existing nuclear assets. It also requires that approaches be developed and proven to achieve sustainability of I&C systems throughout the period of extended operation. The strategic objective of the LWRS Program Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control Systems Technology R&D pathway is to establish a technical basis for new technologies needed to achieve safety and reliability of operating nuclear assets and to implement new technologies in nuclear energy systems. This will be achieved by carrying out a program of R&D to develop scientific knowledge in the areas of: • Sensors, diagnostics, and prognostics to support characterization and prediction of the effects of aging and degradation phenomena effects on critical systems, structures, and components (SSCs) • Online monitoring of SSCs and active components, generation of information, and methods to analyze and employ online monitoring information • New methods for visualization, integration, and information use to enhance state awareness and leverage expertise to achieve safer, more readily available electricity generation

  6. Acoustic sensor for real-time control for the inductive heating process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kelley, John Bruce; Lu, Wei-Yang; Zutavern, Fred J.

    2003-09-30

    Disclosed is a system and method for providing closed-loop control of the heating of a workpiece by an induction heating machine, including generating an acoustic wave in the workpiece with a pulsed laser; optically measuring displacements of the surface of the workpiece in response to the acoustic wave; calculating a sub-surface material property by analyzing the measured surface displacements; creating an error signal by comparing an attribute of the calculated sub-surface material properties with a desired attribute; and reducing the error signal below an acceptable limit by adjusting, in real-time, as often as necessary, the operation of the inductive heating machine.

  7. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, R.; Melin, A.; Burress, T.; Fugate, D.; Holcomb, D.; Wilgen, J.; Miller, J.; Wilson, D.; Silva, P.; Whitlow, L.; Peretz, F.

    2012-09-15

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant (NPP) components and systems. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration platform. I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the system; treating I&C as an integral part of the system design is innovative and will allow significant improvement in capabilities and performance. As systems become more complex and greater performance is required, traditional I&C design techniques become inadequate and more advanced I&C needs to be applied. New I&C techniques enable optimal and reliable performance and tolerance of noise and uncertainties in the system rather than merely monitoring quasistable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in NPP components after the design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. By incorporating I&C at the beginning of the design phase, the control system can provide superior performance and reliability and enable designs that are otherwise impossible. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the platform to demonstrate the performance and reliability improvements enabled by advanced embedded I&C.

  8. Reading Municipal Light Department- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers incentives for non-residential customers to install energy-efficient lighting and sensors in existing facilities. Rebates are limited to $20,000 per...

  9. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, Arthur D.; Smartt, Herschel B.; Taylor, Paul L.

    1994-01-01

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties.

  10. Integrated optical sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watkins, A.D.; Smartt, H.B.; Taylor, P.L.

    1994-01-04

    An integrated optical sensor for arc welding having multifunction feedback control is described. The sensor, comprising generally a CCD camera and diode laser, is positioned behind the arc torch for measuring weld pool position and width, standoff distance, and post-weld centerline cooling rate. Computer process information from this sensor is passed to a controlling computer for use in feedback control loops to aid in the control of the welding process. Weld pool position and width are used in a feedback loop, by the weld controller, to track the weld pool relative to the weld joint. Sensor standoff distance is used in a feedback loop to control the contact tip to base metal distance during the welding process. Cooling rate information is used to determine the final metallurgical state of the weld bead and heat affected zone, thereby controlling post-weld mechanical properties. 6 figures.

  11. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability: Conceptual Design Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Melin, Alexander M; Burress, Timothy A; Fugate, David L; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilgen, John B; Miller, John M; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Whitlow, Lynsie J; Peretz, Fred J

    2012-10-01

    The overall project objective is to demonstrate improved reliability and increased performance made possible by deeply embedding instrumentation and controls (I&C) in nuclear power plant components. The project is employing a highly instrumented canned rotor, magnetic bearing, fluoride salt pump as its I&C technology demonstration vehicle. The project s focus is not primarily on pump design, but instead is on methods to deeply embed I&C within a pump system. However, because the I&C is intimately part of the basic millisecond-by-millisecond functioning of the pump, the I&C design cannot proceed in isolation from the other aspects of the pump. The pump will not function if the characteristics of the I&C are not embedded within the design because the I&C enables performance of the basic function rather than merely monitoring quasi-stable performance. Traditionally, I&C has been incorporated in nuclear power plant (NPP) components after their design is nearly complete; adequate performance was obtained through over-design. This report describes the progress and status of the project and provides a conceptual design overview for the embedded I&C pump.

  12. Real-time combustion control and diagnostics sensor-pressure oscillation monitor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Thornton, Jimmy; Huckaby, E. David; Richards, George A.

    2009-07-14

    An apparatus and method for monitoring and controlling the combustion process in a combustion system to determine the amplitude and/or frequencies of dynamic pressure oscillations during combustion. An electrode in communication with the combustion system senses hydrocarbon ions and/or electrons produced by the combustion process and calibration apparatus calibrates the relationship between the standard deviation of the current in the electrode and the amplitudes of the dynamic pressure oscillations by applying a substantially constant voltage between the electrode and ground resulting in a current in the electrode and by varying one or more of (1) the flow rate of the fuel, (2) the flow rate of the oxidant, (3) the equivalence ratio, (4) the acoustic tuning of the combustion system, and (5) the fuel distribution in the combustion chamber such that the amplitudes of the dynamic pressure oscillations in the combustion chamber are calculated as a function of the standard deviation of the electrode current. Thereafter, the supply of fuel and/or oxidant is varied to modify the dynamic pressure oscillations.

  13. Evaluation of Manufacturability of Embedded Sensors and Controls with Canned Rotor Pump System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kisner, Roger A; Fugate, David L; Melin, Alexander M; Holcomb, David Eugene; Wilson, Dane F; Silva, Pamela C; Cruz Molina, Carola

    2013-07-01

    This report documents the current status of fabrication and assembly planning for the magnetic bearing, canned rotor pump being used as a demonstration platform for deeply integrating I&C into nuclear power plant components. The report identifies material choices and fabrication sequences for all of the required parts and the issues that need to be either resolved or accommodated during the manufacturing process. Down selection between material options has not yet been performed. Potential suppliers for all of the necessary materials have also been identified. The assembly evaluation begins by logically subdividing the pump into modules, which are themselves decomposed into individual parts. Potential materials and fabrication processes for each part in turn are then evaluated. The evaluation process includes assessment of the environmental compatibility requirements and the tolerances available for the selected fabrication processes. A description of the pump power/control electronics is also provided. The report also includes exploded views of the modules that show the integration of the various parts into modules that are then assembled to form the pump. Emphasis has been placed on thermal environment compatibility and the part dimensional changes during heat-up. No insurmountable fabrication or assembly challenges have been identified.

  14. Force sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, A.R.

    1993-05-11

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components is described. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  15. Force sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grahn, Allen R.

    1993-01-01

    A force sensor and related method for determining force components. The force sensor includes a deformable medium having a contact surface against which a force can be applied, a signal generator for generating signals that travel through the deformable medium to the contact surface, a signal receptor for receiving the signal reflected from the contact surface, a generation controller, a reception controller, and a force determination apparatus. The signal generator has one or more signal generation regions for generating the signals. The generation controller selects and activates the signal generation regions. The signal receptor has one or more signal reception regions for receiving signals and for generating detections signals in response thereto. The reception controller selects signal reception regions and detects the detection signals. The force determination apparatus measures signal transit time by timing activation and detection and, optionally, determines force components for selected cross-field intersections. The timer which times by activation and detection can be any means for measuring signal transit time. A cross-field intersection is defined by the overlap of a signal generation region and a signal reception region.

  16. CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES CONNECTED LIGHTING SYSTEMS RESOURCES The following resources provide information about outdoor lighting control systems. 2014 Presentation:...

  17. Development of a Density Sensor for In-Line Real-Time Process Control and Monitoring of Slurries during Radioactive Waste Retrieval and Transport Operations at DOE Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bamberger, Judith A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.

    2001-11-19

    A density sensor (densimeter) to monitor and control slurries in-line real-time during radioactive waste retrieval and transport and detect conditions leading to degraded transport and line plugging is described. Benefits over baseline grab samples and off line analysis include: early detection and prevention of pipeline plugging, real-time density through the transfer process, elimination of grab sampling and off-line analysis, and reduced worker radiation exposure. The sensor is small, robust and could be retrofitted into existing pump pit manifolds and transfer lines. The probe uses ultrasonic signal reflection at the fluid-pipe wall interface to quantify density and features include: a non-intrusive sensing surface located flush with the pipeline wall; performance that is not affected by entrained air or by electromagnetic noise from nearby pumps and other equipment and is compact. Components were tested for chemical and radiation resistance and the spool piece was pressure tested in accordance with ASME Process Piping Code B31.3 and approved by the Hanford Site Flammable Gas Equipment Advisory Board for installation. During pipeline tests, the sensor predicted density within + 2% oriented in vertical and horizontal position. The densimeter is installed in the modified process manifold that is installed in the prefabricated pump pit at Hanford tank SY-101 site. In FY-2002 the density sensor performance will be evaluated during transfers of both water and waste through the pipeline. A separate project developed an ultrasonic sensor that: 1) can be attached permanently to a pipeline wall, possibly as a spool piece inserted into the line or 2) can clamp onto an existing pipeline wall and be movable to another location. This method is attractive for radioactive fluids transport applications because the sensors could be applied to existing equipment without the need to penetrate the pipe pressure boundary or to open the system to install new equipment.

  18. An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control ...

  19. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, Jeffrey A.

    1987-01-01

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors.

  20. Optical humidity sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarvin, J.A.

    1987-02-10

    An optical dielectric humidity sensor is disclosed which includes a dielectric mirror having multiple alternating layers of two porous water-adsorbent dielectric materials with differing indices of refraction carried by a translucent substrate. A narrow-band polarized light source is positioned to direct light energy onto the mirror, and detectors are positioned to receive light energy transmitted through and reflected by the mirror. A ratiometer indicates humidity in the atmosphere which surrounds the dielectric mirror as a function of a ratio of light energies incident on the detectors. 2 figs.

  1. Comparative urban drive cycle simulations of light-duty hybrid vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines and emissions controls

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Smith, David E

    2013-01-01

    Electric hybridization is a very effective approach for reducing fuel consumption in light-duty vehicles. Lean combustion engines (including diesels) have also been shown to be significantly more fuel efficient than stoichiometric gasoline engines. Ideally, the combination of these two technologies would result in even more fuel efficient vehicles. However, one major barrier to achieving this goal is the implementation of lean-exhaust aftertreatment that can meet increasingly stringent emissions regulations without heavily penalizing fuel efficiency. We summarize results from comparative simulations of hybrid electric vehicles with either stoichiometric gasoline or diesel engines that include state-of-the-art aftertreatment emissions controls for both stoichiometric and lean exhaust. Fuel consumption and emissions for comparable gasoline and diesel light-duty hybrid electric vehicles were compared over a standard urban drive cycle and potential benefits for utilizing diesel hybrids were identified. Technical barriers and opportunities for improving the efficiency of diesel hybrids were identified.

  2. Daylight control system device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paton, John Douglas

    2009-12-01

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  3. Daylight control system device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paton, John Douglas

    2007-03-13

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  4. Daylight control system, device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paton, John Douglas

    2012-08-28

    A system and device for and a method of programming and controlling light fixtures is disclosed. A system in accordance with the present invention includes a stationary controller unit that is electrically coupled to the light fixtures. The stationary controller unit is configured to be remotely programmed with a portable commissioning device to automatically control the lights fixtures. The stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device include light sensors, micro-computers and transceivers for measuring light levels, running programs, storing data and transmitting data between the stationary controller unit and the portable commissioning device. In operation, target light levels selected with the portable commissioning device and the controller unit is remotely programmed to automatically maintain the target level.

  5. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  6. Multi-dimensional position sensor using range detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vann, Charles S.

    2000-01-01

    A small, non-contact optical sensor uses ranges and images to detect its relative position to an object in up to six degrees of freedom. The sensor has three light emitting range detectors which illuminate a target and can be used to determine distance and two tilt angles. A camera located between the three range detectors senses the three remaining degrees of freedom, two translations and one rotation. Various range detectors, with different light sources, e.g. lasers and LEDs, different collection options, and different detection schemes, e.g. diminishing return and time of flight can be used. This sensor increases the capability and flexibility of computer controlled machines, e.g. it can instruct a robot how to adjust automatically to different positions and orientations of a part.

  7. MHK ISDB/Sensors/Solar Radiation Sensor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Light (PAR) with 3m cable Smart Sensor ... further results Also made by Onset Computer Corporation HOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring SystemHOBO RX3000 Remote Monitoring...

  8. Functionalized Nanoparticles and Surfaces for Controlled Chemical Catalysis and Effective Light Harvesting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marye Anne Fox, James K. Whitesell

    2012-11-02

    We have prepared a range of such arrays as key components for biotechnology and photonic applications. These involve self-assembled arrays of increasing complexity with three-dimensionally disposed multilayer interactions. These arrays also include dendrimers as the distinguishing structural building blocks. These photoactive integrated systems have a regular, highly-branched, three-dimensional architecture. Structural modifications of these units include variation of the core, bridging layers, and terminal groups. These modifications result in a large array of dendritic molecules with potential applications for light harvesting.

  9. Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A.

    2012-06-07

    Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity

  10. Current sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Brubaker, Michael Allen; Yakymyshyn, Pamela Jane

    2007-01-16

    A current sensor is described that uses a plurality of magnetic field sensors positioned around a current carrying conductor. The sensor can be hinged to allow clamping to a conductor. The current sensor provides high measurement accuracy for both DC and AC currents, and is substantially immune to the effects of temperature, conductor position, nearby current carrying conductors and aging.

  11. Effects of Biodiesel Operation on Light-Duty Tier 2 Engine and Emission Control Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatur, M.; Nanjundaswamy, H.; Tomazic, D.; Thornton, M.

    2008-08-01

    This paper documents the impact of biodiesel blends on engine-out emissions as well as overall system performance in terms of emissions control system calibration and overall system efficiency.

  12. SensorNet Node Suite

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-09-01

    The software in the SensorNet Node adopts and builds on IEEE 1451 interface principles to read data from and control sensors, stores the data in internal database structures, and transmits it in adapted Web Feature Services protocol packets to the SensorNet database. Failover software ensures that at least one available mode of communication remains alive.

  13. Morphology-controlled synthesis of Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide with superior photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Shixiong; Yang, Xiangjun; Wang, Yapeng; Liu, Lixiang; Guo, Yuanyuan; Guo, Hong

    2014-05-01

    Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates are fabricated through an environmental template-free route and the reduction reaction at low temperature subsequently. After the Ti{sup 3+} doping, the reduced TiO{sub 2} sample exhibits a wide visible-light absorption ranged from 400 nm to 800 nm. The intrinsic hollow core–shell microstructure can make multiple reflections of light within the chamber, and thus results in more efficient use of the light source compared with solid structure. Besides, the large surface area can render the sample with a high activity. Therefore, Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide exhibits a superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. This strategy is simple, cheap and mass-productive, which may shed light on a new avenue for large scale production of self-doped yolk–shell structural nano functional materials for catalyst, sensors, energy storage and other new applications. - Graphical abstract: A facile generic strategy is employed to prepare Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide nanoparticle aggregates with the superior photocatalytic activity under visible light. - Highlights: • Yolk–shell TiO{sub 2} mesospheres are synthesized by solvothermal alcoholysis. • Ti{sup 3+} self-doped yolk–shell structure titanium oxide is obtained at low temperature. • It exhibits a remarkable photocatalytic activity.

  14. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S.; Michelotti, Roy A.

    1991-01-01

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  15. Reimagining Building Sensing and Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polese, L.

    2014-06-01

    Buildings are responsible for 40% of US energy consumption, and sensing and control technologies are an important element in creating a truly sustainable built environment. Motion-based occupancy sensors are often part of these control systems, but are usually altered or disabled in response to occupants' complaints, at the expense of energy savings. Can we leverage commodity hardware developed for other sectors and embedded software to produce more capable sensors for robust building controls? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) 'Image Processing Occupancy Sensor (IPOS)' is one example of leveraging embedded systems to create smarter, more reliable, multi-function sensors that open the door to new control strategies for building heating, cooling, ventilation, and lighting control. In this keynote, we will discuss how cost-effective embedded systems are changing the state-of-the-art of building sensing and control.

  16. FEMTOSECOND TIMING DISTRIBUTION AND CONTROL FOR NEXT GENERATION ACCELERATORS AND LIGHT SOURCES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Li-Jin

    2014-03-31

    Femtosecond Timing Distribution At LCLS Free-electron-lasers (FEL) have the capability of producing high photon flux from the IR to the hard x-ray wavelength range and to emit femtosecond and eventually even at-tosecond pulses. This makes them an ideal tool for fundamental as well as applied re-search. Timing precision at the Stanford Linear Coherent Light Source (LCLS) between the x-ray FEL (XFEL) and ultrafast optical lasers is currently no better than 100 fs RMS. Ideally this precision should be much better and could be limited only by the x-ray pulse duration, which can be as short as a few femtoseconds. An increasing variety of science problems involving electron and nuclear dynamics in chemical and material systems will become accessible as the timing improves to a few femtoseconds. Advanced methods of electron beam conditioning or pulse injection could allow the FEL to achieve pulse durations less than one femtosecond. The objec-tive of the work described in this proposal is to set up an optical timing distribution sys-tem based on modelocked Erbium doped fiber lasers at LCLS facility to improve the timing precision in the facility and allow time stamping with a 10 fs precision. The primary commercial applications for optical timing distributions systems are seen in the worldwide accelerator facilities and next generation light sources community. It is reasonable to expect that at least three major XFELs will be built in the next decade. In addition there will be up to 10 smaller machines, such as FERMI in Italy and Maxlab in Sweden, plus the market for upgrading already existing facilities like Jefferson Lab. The total market is estimated to be on the order of a 100 Million US Dollars. The company owns the exclusive rights to the IP covering the technology enabling sub-10 fs synchronization systems. Testing this technology, which has set records in a lab environment, at LCLS, hence in a real world scenario, is an important corner stone of bringing the

  17. Building structure and building panel and method of controlling appearance and lighting of a building

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGlew, J. J.; McGlew Jr., J. J. B.

    1985-05-07

    A construction device comprises a panel which may be used for a structural member in either an interior or exterior wall and which has a side with a transparent wall. The transparent wall forms an exposed exterior surface. A chamber is defined behind the exterior surface either directly adjacent it or spaced therefrom. A fluid is positioned in the space and is selected for the characteristic that is to be imparted to the space, for example it may be of a particular color, insulation characteristic, heat transfer characteristic, reflection characteristic, light absorption characteristic, strength characteristic, shielding characteristic either in respect to magnetic, electronic or heat conditions, etc. The arrangement is such that when the fluid is behind the transparent wall it permits the wall to be used for example as a solar panel or as a transparent window panel if desired. In addition the fluid may contain a color which may change the appearance of the wall as visible through the transparent face and in fact many desirable characteristics may be imparted to the surface and these characteristics may be readily changed. By constructing the panel so that it is connected to a pump for circulating the fluid through it the constructional device may be used either as a sun shield or sun heat absorber or it may be used as a decorative interior wall or as an exterior building surface which may have its color characteristic changed regularly.

  18. Light-dependent controlled synthesis and photocatalytic properties of stable Ag{sub 3} nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Jian-Dong; Liu, Jin-Ku; Luo, Chong-Xiao; Yang, Xiao-Hong

    2014-12-15

    The silver phosphate (Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) is applied in organic matter photodegradation as a novel catalyst materials, however, its instability reduces the photocatalytic life and limits its further applications. In this work, a series of Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} crystalline nanoparticle clusters have been synthesized by a photocontrol method. By comparing their sunlight photocatalytic properties, the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles with dominant (2 2 0) facets have a lower surface energy (1.05 J m{sup ?2}) than existing Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} crystals which can offer a longer catalyst service life. The photodegradation rate of the Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles is about 3 times that of common Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} bulk materials and the sunlight is used as the power source instead of high cost artificial visible light sources in this catalytic system. An effective continuous photodegradation reactor using Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} nanoparticles is successfully fabricated to degrade rhodamine B solution. At the same time, this work provides an example for how oxidation photocatalyst works without extra adding sacrificial reagent.

  19. Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, Howard M.; Crandall, Richard S.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1994-01-01

    A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer.

  20. Electrochromic-photovoltaic film for light-sensitive control of optical transmittance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Branz, H.M.; Crandall, R.S.; Tracy, C.E.

    1994-12-27

    A variable transmittance optical component includes an electrochromic material and a photovoltaic device-type thin film solar cell deposited in a tandem type, monolithic single coating over the component. A bleed resistor of a predetermined value is connected in series across the electrochromic material and photovoltaic device controlling the activation and deactivation of the electrochromic material. The electrical conductivity between the electrochromic material and the photovoltaic device is enhanced by interposing a transparent electrically conductive layer. 5 figures.

  1. Complex pendulum biomass sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoskinson, Reed L.; Kenney, Kevin L.; Perrenoud, Ben C.

    2007-12-25

    A complex pendulum system biomass sensor having a plurality of pendulums. The plurality of pendulums allow the system to detect a biomass height and density. Each pendulum has an angular deflection sensor and a deflector at a unique height. The pendulums are passed through the biomass and readings from the angular deflection sensors are fed into a control system. The control system determines whether adjustment of machine settings is appropriate and either displays an output to the operator, or adjusts automatically adjusts the machine settings, such as the speed, at which the pendulums are passed through the biomass. In an alternate embodiment, an entanglement sensor is also passed through the biomass to determine the amount of biomass entanglement. This measure of entanglement is also fed into the control system.

  2. Control of light polarization using optically spin-injected vertical external cavity surface emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frougier, J. Jaffrs, H.; Deranlot, C.; George, J.-M.; Baili, G.; Dolfi, D.; Alouini, M.; Sagnes, I.; Garnache, A.

    2013-12-16

    We fabricated and characterized an optically pumped (100)-oriented InGaAs/GaAsP multiple quantum well Vertical External Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VECSEL). The structure is designed to allow the integration of a Metal-Tunnel-Junction ferromagnetic spin-injector for future electrical injection. We report here the control at room temperature of the electromagnetic field polarization using optical spin injection in the active medium of the VECSEL. The switching between two highly circular polarization states had been demonstrated using an M-shaped extended cavity in multi-modes lasing. This result witnesses an efficient spin-injection in the active medium of the LASER.

  3. Membrane-Based Air Composition Control for Light-Duty Diesel Vehicles: A Benefit and Cost Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Stork; R. Poola

    1998-10-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of a study conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to assess the benefits and costs of several membrane-based technologies. The technologies evaluated will be used in automotive emissions-control and performance-enhancement systems incorporated into light-duty diesel vehicle engines. Such engines are among the technologies that are being considered to power vehicles developed under the government-industry Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV). Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) from diesel engines have long been considered a barrier to use of diesels in urban areas. Recently, particulate matter (PM) emissions have also become an area of increased concern because of new regulations regarding emissions of particulate matter measuring 2.5 micrometers or less (PM{sub 2.5}). Particulates are of special concern for diesel engines in the PNGV program; the program has a research goal of 0.01 gram per mile (g/mi) of particulate matter emissions under the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) cycle. This extremely low level (one-fourth the level of the Tier II standard) could threaten the viability of using diesel engines as stand-alone powerplants or in hybrid-electric vehicles. The techniques analyzed in this study can reduce NO{sub x} and particulate emissions and even increase the power density of the diesel engines used in light-duty diesel vehicles.

  4. Assessment Study on Sensors and Automation in the Industries of the Future. Reports on Industrial Controls, Information Processing, Automation, and Robotics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Bonnie; Boddy, Mark; Doyle, Frank; Jamshidi, Mo; Ogunnaike, Tunde

    2004-11-01

    This report presents the results of an expert study to identify research opportunities for Sensors & Automation, a sub-program of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Industrial Technologies Program (ITP). The research opportunities are prioritized by realizable energy savings. The study encompasses the technology areas of industrial controls, information processing, automation, and robotics. These areas have been central areas of focus of many Industries of the Future (IOF) technology roadmaps. This report identifies opportunities for energy savings as a direct result of advances in these areas and also recognizes indirect means of achieving energy savings, such as product quality improvement, productivity improvement, and reduction of recycle.

  5. Sensor Compendium - A Snowmass Whitepaper-

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artuso, M.; Battaglia, M.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Caberera, B.; Carlstrom, J E; Chang, C. L.; Cooper, W.; Da Via, C.; Demarteau, M.; Fast, J.; Frisch, H.

    2013-10-01

    Sensors play a key role in detecting both charged particles and photons for all three frontiers in Particle Physics. The signals from an individual sensor that can be used include ionization deposited, phonons created, or light emitted from excitations of the material. The individual sensors are then typically arrayed for detection of individual particles or groups of particles. Mounting of new, ever higher performance experiments, often depend on advances in sensors in a range of performance characteristics. These performance metrics can include position resolution for passing particles, time resolution on particles impacting the sensor, and overall rate capabilities. In addition the feasible detector area and cost frequently provides a limit to what can be built and therefore is often another area where improvements are important. Finally, radiation tolerance is becoming a requirement in a broad array of devices. We present a status report on a broad category of sensors, including challenges for the future and work in progress to solve those challenges.

  6. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  7. Controlled synthesis of mesoporous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods and visible light photocatalytic property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Guo-Ying; Feng, Yan; Xu, Yan-Yan; Gao, Dong-Zhao; Sun, Ya-Qiu

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods were prepared by a facile hydrothermal process of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O in NaOH aqueous solution combined with calcination method. The rod structure can be well controlled via NaOH quantity and exhibits a high BET surface area of 105.1 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}. The as-obtained porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods show good reusability and superior visible-light photocatalytic activity in degradation of MB compared to hematite nanoparticles and microplates. Considering the excellent photocatalytic activity, recycling stability, and facile preparation method, the porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods are believed to have potential application in the field of photocatalysis. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods with typical pore size of 2-4 nm were controlled prepared. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods exhibit a high BET surface area of 105.1 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and a pore volume of 0.13 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It exhibits excellent visible-light photocatalytic activity and reusability in degradation of MB, in comparison to {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and platelets. -- Abstract: Porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods with typical pore size of 2-4 nm were controlled prepared by a facile hydrothermal process of Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}{center_dot}9H{sub 2}O aqueous solution in the presence of NaOH, followed by a calcination treatment. Contrast experiments indicate that the morphology and crystalline structure of the hydrothermal products depend greatly on the quantity of NaOH. Hematite nanoparticles and microplates were respectively obtained under conditions without or with excess NaOH. The porous {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanorods exhibit a high BET surface area of 105.1 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and a pore volume of 0.13 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}. UV-vis measurement shows wide

  8. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information.

  9. Simulating Study of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Light-Duty Diesel Fuel Economy and Emissions Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Zhiming; Daw, C Stuart; Wagner, Robert M

    2012-01-01

    We utilize the Powertrain Systems Analysis Toolkit (PSAT) combined with transient engine and aftertreatment component models to simulate the impact of premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI) on the fuel economy and emissions of light-duty (LD) diesel-powered conventional and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Our simulated aftertreatment train consists of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC), lean NOx trap (LNT), and catalyzed diesel particulate filter (DPF). The results indicate that utilizing PCCI combustion significantly reduces fuel consumption and tailpipe emissions for the conventional diesel-powered vehicle with NOx and particulate emissions controls. These benefits result from a favorable engine speed-load distribution over the cycle combined with a corresponding reduction in the need to regenerate the LNT and DPF. However, the current PCCI technology appears to offer less potential benefit for diesel HEVs equipped with similar emissions controls. This is because PCCI can only be activated over a relatively small part of the drive cycle. Thus we conclude that future utilization of PCCI in diesel HEVs will require significant extension of the available speed-load range for PCCI and revision of current HEV engine management strategies before significant benefits can be realized.

  10. Controlled preparation of Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs and their enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Siyuan; Zhang, Shengsen; Wang, Hongjuan; Yu, Hao; Fang, Yueping; Peng, Feng

    2015-10-15

    Graphical abstract: The corncob-like Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanostructure with suitably exposed Ag surface exhibited much higher photocatalytic activity than Ag@Cu{sub 2}O nanocables and Cu{sub 2}O nanowires. - Highlights: • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs have been controllably prepared by a simple synthesis. • The possible formation mechanism of Ag–Cu{sub 2}O has been studied. • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O exhibits noticeable improved photocurrent compared with the pure Cu{sub 2}O NWs. • Ag–Cu{sub 2}O with suitably exposed Ag surface shows much higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Novel corncob-like nano-heterostructured Ag–Cu{sub 2}O photocatalyst has been controllably prepared by adjusting the synthetic parameters, and the possible formation mechanism has been also studied. The photoelectrochemical and photocatalytic performances demonstrated that the as-prepared Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs exhibited higher photocatalytic activity than both pure Cu{sub 2}O nanowires and cable-like Ag@Cu{sub 2}O nano-composites. It was concluded that Ag–Cu{sub 2}O nanocorncobs with suitably exposed Ag surface not only effectively inhibit the recombination of electron–hole pairs but also suitably increase the active sites of electronic conduction, and thus increasing the photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation.

  11. Characterization and visible light photocatalytic mechanism of size-controlled BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Jian; Guo, Renqing; Fang, Liang; Dong, Wen; Zheng, Fengang; Shen, Mingrong

    2013-09-01

    Graphical abstract: BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed the size-dependent photocatalytic properties, and the corresponding photocatalytic mechanism for the pollutant degradation was proposed. - Highlights: Size-controlled BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles were prepared by solgel method. The hydroxyl radicals were the main reactive species responsible for the pollutant degradation. BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles showed the size-dependent photocatalytic properties. - Abstract: BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles with controlled particle size were synthesized via solgel method. The samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscope, Raman spectra, nitrogen adsorption technique and UVvis diffuse reflectance spectra. Photocatalytic activity of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles was further examined by monitoring the degradation of Rhodamine B dye in an aqueous solution under visible light irradiation. Through the calculation of band position and a number of diagnostic experiments, the photocatalytic mechanism of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles was proposed in this study. It was found that the hydroxyl radicals originated from the photogenerated electrons were the main reactive species responsible for the pollutant degradation. Moreover, with the variations of annealing temperature and time, the average crystallite size, specific surface area and crystallinity of BiFeO{sub 3} nanoparticles could be changed, which thus affected the photocatalytic activity of the corresponding samples.

  12. The resilient hybrid fiber sensor network with self-healing function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Shibo Liu, Tiegen; Ge, Chunfeng; Chen, Qinnan; Zhang, Hongxia

    2015-03-15

    This paper presents a novel resilient fiber sensor network (FSN) with multi-ring architecture, which could interconnect various kinds of fiber sensors responsible for more than one measurands. We explain how the intelligent control system provides sensors with self-healing function meanwhile sensors are working properly, besides each fiber in FSN is under real-time monitoring. We explain the software process and emergency mechanism to respond failures or other circumstances. To improve the efficiency in the use of limited spectrum resources in some situations, we have two different structures to distribute the light sources rationally. Then, we propose a hybrid sensor working in FSN which is a combination of a distributed sensor and a FBG (Fiber Bragg Grating) array fused in a common fiber sensing temperature and vibrations simultaneously with neglectable crosstalk to each other. By making a failure to a working fiber in experiment, the feasibility and effectiveness of the network with a hybrid sensor has been demonstrated, hybrid sensors could not only work as designed but also survive from destructive failures with the help of resilient network and smart and quick self-healing actions. The network has improved the viability of the fiber sensors and diversity of measurands.

  13. Adaptive compensation of atmospheric turbulence utilizing an interferometric wave-front sensor and a high-resolution MEMS-based spatial light modulator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, K; Stappaerts, E; Gavel, D; Tucker, J; Silva, D; Wilks, S; Olivier, S; Olsen, J

    2004-08-12

    Horizontal path correction of optical beam propagation presents a severe challenge to adaptive optics systems due to the short transverse coherence length and the high degree of scintillation incurred by propagation along these paths. The system presented operates with nearly monochromatic light. It does not require a global reconstruction of the phase, thereby eliminating issues with branch points and making its performance relatively unaffected by scintillation. The systems pixel count, 1024, and relatively high correction speed, in excess of 800 Hz, enable its use for correction of horizontal path beam propagation. We present results from laboratory and field tests of the system in which we have achieved Strehl ratios greater than 0.5.

  14. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallenbach, Gene A.; Noda, Frank T.; Mitchell, Dean J.; Etzkin, Joshua L.

    2007-02-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  15. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1995-11-07

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground. 3 figs.

  16. Two terminal micropower radar sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A simple, low power ultra-wideband radar motion sensor/switch configuration connects a power source and load to ground. The switch is connected to and controlled by the signal output of a radar motion sensor. The power input of the motion sensor is connected to the load through a diode which conducts power to the motion sensor when the switch is open. A storage capacitor or rechargeable battery is connected to the power input of the motion sensor. The storage capacitor or battery is charged when the switch is open and powers the motion sensor when the switch is closed. The motion sensor and switch are connected between the same two terminals between the source/load and ground.

  17. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Bur, James A.

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  18. Thermal microphotonic sensor and sensor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Watts, Michael R.; Shaw, Michael J.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Lentine, Anthony L.

    2010-02-23

    A thermal microphotonic sensor is disclosed for detecting infrared radiation using heat generated by the infrared radiation to shift the resonant frequency of an optical resonator (e.g. a ring resonator) to which the heat is coupled. The shift in the resonant frequency can be determined from light in an optical waveguide which is evanescently coupled to the optical resonator. An infrared absorber can be provided on the optical waveguide either as a coating or as a plate to aid in absorption of the infrared radiation. In some cases, a vertical resonant cavity can be formed about the infrared absorber to further increase the absorption of the infrared radiation. The sensor can be formed as a single device, or as an array for imaging the infrared radiation.

  19. Chemical sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowell, J.R. Jr.; Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.; Rayfield, G.W.

    1991-07-02

    Sensors responsive to small changes in the concentration of chemical species are disclosed. The sensors comprise a mechanochemically responsive polymeric film capable of expansion or contraction in response to a change in its chemical environment. They are operatively coupled to a transducer capable of directly converting the expansion or contraction to a measurable electrical response. 9 figures.

  20. Lighting system combining daylight concentrators and an artificial source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bornstein, Jonathan G.; Friedman, Peter S.

    1985-01-01

    A combined lighting system for a building interior includes a stack of luminescent solar concentrators (LSC), an optical conduit made of preferably optical fibers for transmitting daylight from the LSC stack, a collimating lens set at an angle, a fixture for receiving the daylight at one end and for distributing the daylight as illumination inside the building, an artificial light source at the other end of the fixture for directing artifical light into the fixture for distribution as illumination inside the building, an automatic dimmer/brightener for the artificial light source, and a daylight sensor positioned near to the LSC stack for controlling the automatic dimmer/brightener in response to the daylight sensed. The system also has a reflector positioned behind the artificial light source and a fan for exhausting heated air out of the fixture during summer and for forcing heated air into the fixture for passage into the building interior during winter.

  1. Chapter 3, Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol: The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3: Commercial and Industrial Lighting Controls Evaluation Protocol Stephen Carlson, DNV KEMA Subcontract Report NREL/SR-7A30-53827 April 2013 The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures 3 - 1 Chapter 3 - Table of Contents 1 Measure Description .............................................................................................................. 2 2 Application Conditions of Protocol

  2. Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cree, Johnathan V.; Dansu, A.; Fuhr, P.; Lanzisera, Steven M.; McIntyre, T.; Muehleisen, Ralph T.; Starke, M.; Banerjee, Pranab; Kuruganti, T.; Castello, C.

    2013-04-01

    The Buildings Technologies Office (BTO), within the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), is initiating a new program in Sensor and Controls. The vision of this program is: • Buildings operating automatically and continuously at peak energy efficiency over their lifetimes and interoperating effectively with the electric power grid. • Buildings that are self-configuring, self-commissioning, self-learning, self-diagnosing, self-healing, and self-transacting to enable continuous peak performance. • Lower overall building operating costs and higher asset valuation. The overarching goal is to capture 30% energy savings by enhanced management of energy consuming assets and systems through development of cost-effective sensors and controls. One step in achieving this vision is the publication of this Sensor Characteristics Reference Guide. The purpose of the guide is to inform building owners and operators of the current status, capabilities, and limitations of sensor technologies. It is hoped that this guide will aid in the design and procurement process and result in successful implementation of building sensor and control systems. DOE will also use this guide to identify research priorities, develop future specifications for potential market adoption, and provide market clarity through unbiased information

  3. Detroit Public Lighting Department - Commercial and Industrial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PublicLightingEnergyWis... Expiration Date 11302012 State Michigan Program Type Rebate Program Rebate Amount Light Fixtures: 2-130 Lighting Controls: 0.10-65...

  4. Small, Inexpensive Combined NOx Sensor and O2 Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. N. Lawless; C. F. Clark, Jr.

    2008-09-08

    electronic control units were designed and built. One control unit provides independent constant voltages to the NOx and oxygen sensors and reads the current from them (that is, detects the amount of test gas present). The second controller holds the fully-assembled sensor at the desired operating temperature and controllably pumps excess oxygen from the test chamber. While the development of the sensor body was a complete success, the development of the packaging was only partially successful. All of the basic principles were demonstrated, but the packaging was too complex to optimize the operation within the resources of the program. Thus, no fully-assembled sensors were sent to outside labs for testing of cross-sensitivities, response times, etc. Near the end of the program, Sensata Technologies of Attleboro, MA tested the sensor bodies and confirmed the CeramPhysics measurements as indicated in the following attached letter. Sensata was in the process of designing their own packaging for the sensor and performing cross-sensitivity tests when they stopped all sensor development work due to the automotive industry downturn. Recently Ceramatec Inc. of Salt Lake City has expressed an interest in testing the sensor, and other licensing opportunities are being pursued.

  5. Picture of the Week: Circuits of light

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 Circuits of light This artistic conceptualization of circuits made of light represents a new capability that could lead to advanced sensor systems, quantum information processing technology, and more. March 25, 2016 circuits of light artist's conception Circuits of light: artist's conception View a super-large 300 dpi version of this image on our Lab Flickr site. Circuits of light This artistic conceptualization of circuits made of light represents a new capability that could lead to advanced

  6. Frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallman, Jeffrey S.

    2000-01-01

    A frustrated total internal reflection acoustic field sensor which allows the acquisition of the acoustic field over an entire plane, all at once. The sensor finds use in acoustic holography and acoustic diffraction tomography. For example, the sensor may be produced by a transparent plate with transparent support members tall enough to support one or more flexible membranes at an appropriate height for frustrated total internal reflection to occur. An acoustic wave causes the membrane to deflect away from its quiescent position and thus changes the amount of light that tunnels through the gap formed by the support members and into the membrane, and so changes the amount of light reflected by the membrane. The sensor(s) is illuminated by a uniform tight field, and the reflection from the sensor yields acoustic wave amplitude and phase information which can be picked up electronically or otherwise.

  7. Vibration welding system with thin film sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cai, Wayne W; Abell, Jeffrey A; Li, Xiaochun; Choi, Hongseok; Zhao, Jingzhou

    2014-03-18

    A vibration welding system includes an anvil, a welding horn, a thin film sensor, and a process controller. The anvil and horn include working surfaces that contact a work piece during the welding process. The sensor measures a control value at the working surface. The measured control value is transmitted to the controller, which controls the system in part using the measured control value. The thin film sensor may include a plurality of thermopiles and thermocouples which collectively measure temperature and heat flux at the working surface. A method includes providing a welder device with a slot adjacent to a working surface of the welder device, inserting the thin film sensor into the slot, and using the sensor to measure a control value at the working surface. A process controller then controls the vibration welding system in part using the measured control value.

  8. Wireless sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lamberti, Vincent E.; Howell, JR, Layton N.; Mee, David K.; Sepaniak, Michael J.

    2016-02-09

    Disclosed is a sensor for detecting a target material. The sensor includes a ferromagnetic metal and a molecular recognition reagent coupled to the ferromagnetic metal. The molecular recognition reagent is operable to expand upon exposure to vapor or liquid from the target material such that the molecular recognition reagent changes a tensile stress upon the ferromagnetic metal. The target material is detected based on changes in the magnetic switching characteristics of the ferromagnetic metal caused by the changes in the tensile stress.

  9. An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Closed-loop Control | Department of Energy Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control An Innovative Pressure Sensor Glow Plug Offers Improved Diesel Engine Closed-loop Control Describes glow plug with integrated pressure sensor for closed-loop control of diesel engine combustion p-20_ramond.pdf (459.53 KB) More Documents & Publications Glow Plug Integrated Piezo-Ceramic Combustion Sensor for Diesel Engines Diesel Combustion Control with

  10. Maximizing Energy Savings with New Technologies in Lighting and...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... Without Lighting Controls* *Lighting power base on typical lighting load profile according to ASHRAE lighting schedules. Cooling power based on a minimum coefficient of performance ...