Sample records for lighting average rates

  1. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility company? I'm seeing an inconsistency between the OpenEI website and EIA 861 data set. Home > Groups > Utility...

  2. THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    THE UNIVERSITY OF RHODE ISLAND FRINGE BENEFIT AVERAGE RATE FY 2015 Allocation Cost or Classified.2% URI Budget & Financial Planning Office 9.17.14 Office:fringebenefits:office of sponsored projects: FY2015 Allocation #12;

  3. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    light trucks. Source: Used vehicles - Ward's Automotive, New cars - Bureau of Economic Analysis, National Income and Product Accounts (NIPA) Underlying Detail Tables, Table 7.2.5S...

  4. System average rates of U.S. investor-owned electric utilities : a statistical benchmark study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berndt, Ernst R.

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Using multiple regression methods, we have undertaken a statistical "benchmark" study comparing system average electricity rates charged by three California utilities with 96 other US utilities over the 1984-93 time period. ...

  5. Seasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hansen, René Rydhof

    of indoor air pollution sources. Concurrently, great efforts are made to make buildings energy efficient 1970s, while less attention has been paid to IAQ. Insufficient venting of indoor air pollutantsSeasonal Variation in Monthly Average Air Change Rates Using Passive Tracer Gas Measurements Marie

  6. Average discharge rate representation of voice onset time in the chinchilla auditory nerve

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinex, D.G.; McDonald, L.P.

    1988-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Responses of chinchilla auditory-nerve fibers to synthesized stop consonants differing in voice onset time (VOT) were obtained. The syllables, heard as /ga/--/ka/ or /da/--/ta/, were similar to those previously used by others in psychophysical experiments with human and with chinchilla subjects. Average discharge rates of neurons tuned to the frequency region near the first formant generally increased at the onset of voicing, for VOTs longer than 20 ms. These rate increases were closely related to spectral amplitude changes associated with the onset of voicing and with the activation of the first formant; as a result, they provided accurate information about VOT. Neurons tuned to frequency regions near the second and third formants did not encode VOT in their average discharge rates. Modulations in the average rates of these neurons reflected spectral variations that were independent of VOT. The results are compared to other measurements of the peripheral encoding of speech sounds and to psychophysical observations suggesting that syllables with large variations in VOT are heard as belonging to one of only two phonemic categories.

  7. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, J.M.; Lindner, G.M.; Rowe, J.C.

    1981-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  8. Flowmeter for determining average rate of flow of liquid in a conduit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kennerly, John M. (Knoxville, TN); Lindner, Gordon M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Rowe, John C. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a compact, precise, and relatively simple device for use in determining the average rate of flow of a liquid through a conduit. The liquid may be turbulent and contain bubbles of gas. In a preferred embodiment, the flowmeter includes an electrical circuit and a flow vessel which is connected as a segment of the conduit conveying the liquid. The vessel is provided with a valved outlet and is partitioned by a vertical baffle into coaxial chambers whose upper regions are vented to permit the escape of gas. The inner chamber receives turbulent downflowing liquid from the conduit and is sized to operate at a lower pressure than the conduit, thus promoting evolution of gas from the liquid. Lower zones of the two chambers are interconnected so that the downflowing liquid establishes liquid levels in both chambers. The liquid level in the outer chamber is comparatively calm, being to a large extent isolated from the turbulence in the inner chamber once the liquid in the outer chamber has risen above the liquid-introduction zone for that chamber. Lower and upper probes are provided in the outer chamber for sensing the liquid level therein at points above its liquid-introduction zone. An electrical circuit is connected to the probes to display the time required for the liquid level in the outer chamber to successively contact the lower and upper probes. The average rate of flow through the conduit can be determined from the above-mentioned time and the vessel volume filled by the liquid during that time.

  9. Spatial distribution of average charge state and deposition rate in high power impulse magnetron sputtering of copper

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Horwat, David; Anders, Andre

    2008-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The spatial distribution of copper ions and atoms in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharges was determined by (i) measuring the ion current to electrostatic probes and (ii) measuring the film thickness by profilometry. A set of electrostatic and collection probes were placed at different angular positions and distances from the target surface. The angular distribution of the deposition rate and the average charge state of the copper species (including ions and neutrals) were deduced.The discharge showed a distinct transition to a high current mode dominated by copper self-sputtering when the applied voltage exceeded the threshold of 535 V. For a lower voltage, the deposition rate was very low and the average charge state was found to be less than 0.4. For higher voltage (and average power), the absolute deposition rates were much higher, but they were smaller than the corresponding direct current (DC) rates if normalized to the same average power. At the high voltage level, the spatial distribution of the average charge state showed some similarities with the distribution of the magnetic field, suggesting that the generation and motion of copper ions is affected by magnetized electrons. At higher voltage, the average charge state increases with the distance from the target and locally may exceed unity, indicating the presence of significant amounts of doubly charged copper ions.

  10. Sliding Mode Pulsed Averaging IC Drivers for High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Anatoly Shteynberg, PhD

    2006-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This project developed new Light Emitting Diode (LED) driver ICs associated with specific (uniquely operated) switching power supplies that optimize performance for High Brightness LEDs (HB-LEDs). The drivers utilize a digital control core with a newly developed nonlinear, hysteretic/sliding mode controller with mixed-signal processing. The drivers are flexible enough to allow both traditional microprocessor interface as well as other options such as “on the fly” adjustment of color and brightness. Some other unique features of the newly developed drivers include • AC Power Factor Correction; • High power efficiency; • Substantially fewer external components should be required, leading to substantial reduction of Bill of Materials (BOM). Thus, the LED drivers developed in this research : optimize LED performance by increasing power efficiency and power factor. Perhaps more remarkably, the LED drivers provide this improved performance at substantially reduced costs compared to the present LED power electronic driver circuits. Since one of the barriers to market penetration for HB-LEDs (in particular “white” light LEDs) is cost/lumen, this research makes important contributions in helping the advancement of SSL consumer acceptance and usage.

  11. High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reagan, Brendon [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Berrill, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Wernsing, Keith [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Baumgarten, Cory [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Woolston, Mark [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Rocca, Jorge [Colorado State University, Fort Collins] [Colorado State University, Fort Collins

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

  12. Final Report, Photocathodes for High Repetition Rate Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan [Stony Brook University

    2014-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    This proposal brought together teams at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and Stony Brook University (SBU) to study photocathodes for high repetition rate light sources such as Free Electron Lasers (FEL) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). The work done under this grant comprises a comprehensive program on critical aspects of the production of the electron beams needed for future user facilities. Our program pioneered in situ and in operando diagnostics for alkali antimonide growth. The focus is on development of photocathodes for high repetition rate Free Electron Lasers (FELs) and Energy Recovery Linacs (ERLs), including testing SRF photoguns, both normal-conducting and superconducting. Teams from BNL, LBNL and Stony Brook University (SBU) led this research, and coordinated their work over a range of topics. The work leveraged a robust infrastructure of existing facilities and the support was used for carrying out the research at these facilities. The program concentrated in three areas: a) Physics and chemistry of alkali-antimonide cathodes b) Development and testing of a diamond amplifier for photocathodes c) Tests of both cathodes in superconducting RF photoguns and copper RF photoguns

  13. An investigation of the effect of pore scale flow on average geochemical reaction rates using direct numerical simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafa, S. Molins; Trebotich, D.; Steefel, C. I.; Shen, C.

    2012-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The scale-dependence of geochemical reaction rates hinders their use in continuum scale models intended for the interpretation and prediction of chemical fate and transport in subsurface environments such as those considered for geologic sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Processes that take place at the pore scale, especially those involving mass transport limitations to reactive surfaces, may contribute to the discrepancy commonly observed between laboratory-determined and continuum-scale or field rates. Here, the dependence of mineral dissolution rates on the pore structure of the porous media is investigated by means of pore scale modeling of flow and multicomponent reactive transport. The pore scale model is comprised of high performance simulation tools and algorithms for incompressible flow and conservative transport combined with a general-purpose multicomponent geochemical reaction code. The model performs direct numerical simulation of reactive transport based on an operator-splitting approach to coupling transport and reactions. The approach is validated with a Poiseuille flow single-pore experiment and verified with an equivalent 1D continuum-scale model of a capillary tube packed with calcite spheres. Using the case of calcite dissolution as an example, the high resolution model is used to demonstrate that non-uniformity in the flow field at the pore scale has the effect of decreasing the overall reactivity of the system, even when systems with identical reactive surface area are considered. The effect becomes more pronounced as the heterogeneity of the reactive grain packing increases, particularly where the flow slows sufficiently such that the solution approaches equilibrium locally and the average rate becomes transport-limited.

  14. Labeling energy cost on light bulbs lowers implicit discount rates Jihoon Min a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalek, Jeremy J.

    Analysis Labeling energy cost on light bulbs lowers implicit discount rates Jihoon Min a , Inês L considerably. To quantify the influence of factors that drive consumer choices for light bulbs, we conducted incandescent bulbs. About half of the total lighting service (in terms of lumens) was provided by incandes

  15. Gain dispersion in Visible Light Photon Counters as a function of counting rate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bross, A.; /Fermilab; Buscher, V.; /Freiburg U.; Estrada, J.; /Fermilab; Ginther, G.; /Rochester U.; Molina, J.; /Rio de Janeiro State U.

    2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of light signals using Visible Light Photon Counters (VLPC), that indicate an increase in gain dispersion as the counting rate increases. We show that this dispersion can be understood on the basis of a recent observation of localized field reduction in VLPCs at high input rates.

  16. Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Since 1975, the fuel economy of passenger cars and light trucks has been regulated by the corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, established during the energy crises of the 1970s. Calls to increase fuel economy are usually met by a fierce debate on the effectiveness of the CAFE standards

  17. Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond pulses with high repetition rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reilly, Anne

    Pulsed laser deposition with a high average power free electron laser: Benefits of subpicosecond average power Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility Free Electron Laser. The combination of the free electron laser leads to very different plasma emission and produces films with high quality

  18. Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at the upper Negro River based on satellite altimeter data and modeled discharges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Rating curves and estimation of average water depth at the upper Negro River based on satellite for 21 ``virtual gauge stations'' located at the upper Negro River (Amazon Basin, Brazil). A virtual station can be defined as any crossing of water body surface (i.e., large rivers) by radar altimeter

  19. Field propagation in a stochastic background space: The rate of light incoherence in stellar interferometry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Maziashvili

    2012-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present Hilbert space representation for a relatively broad class of minimum-length deformed quantum mechanical models obtained by incorporating a space-time uncertainty relation into quantum mechanics. The correspondingly modified field theory is used for estimating the deviation of the light incoherence rate from distant astrophysical sources from the standard case.

  20. Scaling of three microwave exposure systems on the basis of averaged whole-body specific absorption rate. Final report, 1 June 1983-1 June 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Connor, M.E.

    1987-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Three systems for exposing small laboratory animals to 2450-MHz microwave radiation were compared using whole-body averaged specific absorption rate (SAR). The three systems were a plane wave propogated in an anechoic chamber, a circularly polarized waveguide, and a multimode cavity. Following calibration of the three systems, a temperature-profile study assessing brain and colonic temperature in rat carcasses was performed. A third study investigated seizures in young mouse pups. There were statistically significant differences between the three systems regarding heat distribution as indicated by brain and colonic temperatures. Exposure in the circularly polarized waveguide resulted in lower temperatures at both sites. However, when young mouse pups were placed in the chambers and exposed at levels calculated to produce whole-body averaged SARs of 90 W/kg, the seizures produced by the plane wave exposures required nearly twice the amount of time as those in the waveguide or multimode cavity. The results suggest that average whole-body SAR should not be used for making comparisons of effects obtained in different exposure systems.

  1. SLUG - Stochastically Lighting Up Galaxies. II: Quantifying the Effects of Stochasticity on Star Formation Rate Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    da Silva, Robert L; Krumholz, Mark R

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The integrated light of a stellar population, measured through photometric filters that are sensitive to the presence of young stars, is often used to infer the star formation rate (SFR) for that population. However, these techniques rely on an assumption that star formation is a continuous process, whereas in reality stars form in discrete spatially- and temporally-correlated structures. This discreteness causes the light output to undergo significant time-dependent fluctuations, which, if not accounted for, introduce errors and biases in the inferred SFRs. We use SLUG (a code that Stochastically Lights Up Galaxies) to simulate galaxies undergoing stochastic star formation. We then use these simulations to present a quantitative analysis of these effects and provide tools for calculating probability distribution functions of SFRs given a set of observations. We show that, depending on the SFR tracer used, stochastic fluctuations can produce non-trivial errors at SFRs as high as 1 Msun/yr, and we suggest meth...

  2. Lighting Electricity Rates on OpenEI | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2,AUDIT REPORTEnergyFarmsPower Co LtdTNLianyungangLighting Electricity Rates

  3. Effect of mono- and dichromatic light quality on growth rates and photosynthetic performance of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bernstein, Hans C.; Konopka, Allan; Melnicki, Matthew R.; Hill, Eric A.; Kucek, Leo A.; Zhang, Shuyi; Shen, Gaozhong; Bryant, Donald A.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2014-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 was grown to steady state in optically thin turbidostat cultures under conditions for which light quantity and quality was systematically varied by modulating the output of narrow-band LEDs. Cells were provided photons absorbed primarily by chlorophyll (680 nm) or phycocyanin (630 nm) as the organism was subjected to four distinct mono- and dichromatic regimes. During cultivation with dichromatic light, growth rates displayed by Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 were generally proportional to the total incident irradiance at values < 275 µmol photons m-2 s-1 and were not affected by the ratio of 630:680 nm wavelengths. Notably, under monochromatic light conditions, cultures exhibited similar growth rates only when they were irradiated with 630 nm light; cultures irradiated with only 680 nm light grew at rates that were 60 – 70% of those under other light quality regimes at equivalent irradiances. The functionality of photosystem II and associated processes such as maximum rate of photosynthetic electron transport, rate of cyclic electron flow, and rate of dark respiration generally increased as a function of growth rate. Nonetheless, some of the photophysiological parameters measured here displayed distinct patterns with respect to growth rate of cultures adapted to a single wavelength including phycobiliprotein content, which increased under severely light-limited growth conditions. Additionally, the ratio of photosystem II to photosystem I increased approximately 40% over the range of growth rates, although cells grown with 680 nm light only had the highest ratios. These results suggest the presence of effective mechanisms which allow acclimation of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002 acclimation to different irradiance conditions.

  4. Comments on the Joint Proposed Rulemaking to Establish Light-Duty Vehicle Greenhouse Gas Emission Standards and Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenzel, Thomas P

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    on occupant safety than fuel economy standards that arethe automobile fuel economy standards program, NHTSA docketCorporate Average Fuel Economy Standards Docket No. NHTSA–

  5. Commissioning of the Electron Line of the Linac Coherent Light Source. Dose Rate Measurements and Simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Santana Leitner, M; Bauer, J.M.; Fasso, A.; Liu, J.C.; Mao, X.S.; Prinz, A.; Rokni, H.; /SLAC; Sanami, T.; /SLAC /KEK, Tsukuba; Vollaire, J.; /SLAC

    2009-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory (operated by Stanford University for the US Department of Energy) is the world's first hard X-ray Free Electron Laser machine. It uses high energy electrons delivered by a linac to create ultrafast and brilliant X-ray pulses that can be used as a 'high-speed' camera to obtain images of atoms and molecules. LCLS is a pioneer machine and, as such, its design has encountered unprecedented challenges, the solutions to which will benefit future facilities of its kind across the globe. This article describes the radiation protection aspects of LCLS electron beamlines. Special emphasis is put on the successful commissioning of the LCLS electron line, where, for all examined loss sources, the measured prompt and residual dose rates are in agreement with or below the values predicted through detailed Monte Carlo simulations, used earlier to design the shielding.

  6. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates You are here: SN Home page > Power Marketing > RATES Rates and Repayment Services Rates Current Rates FY 15 PRR worksheet (PDF - 31K) FY...

  7. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    RATES Rates Document Library SNR Rates Process Calendar (PDF - 171K) Procedures Informal Process Transmission Action Items List (PDF - 144K) Power Action Item List updated on...

  8. RATES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Marketing > RATES RATES Current Rates Past Rates 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 Rates Schedules Power CV-F13 CPP-2 Transmissions CV-T3 CV-NWT5 PACI-T3 COTP-T3 CV-TPT7 CV-UUP1...

  9. Comparison of Average Heart Rates Determined by Surface ECG and 24-Hour Ambulatory ECG (Holter) in Dogs with Spontaneous Atrial Fibrillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perea Lugo, Adriana

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study was to compare the heart rates of dogs presenting with spontaneous atrial fibrillation (AF) by a surface electrocardiogram (ECG) and a 24 hour ambulatory ECG (Holter recording) in order to determine if there was a...

  10. Left-right models with light neutrino mass prediction and dominant neutrinoless double beta decay rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. K. Parida; Sudhanwa Patra

    2013-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In TeV scale left-right symmetric models, new dominant predictions to neutrinoless double beta decay and light neutrino masses are in mutual contradiction because of large contribution to the latter through popular seesaw mechanisms. We show that in a class of left-right models with high-scale parity restoration, these results coexist without any contravention with neutrino oscillation data and the relevant formula for light neutrino masses is obtained via gauged inverse seesaw mechanism. The most dominant contribution to the double beta decay is shown to be via $W^-_L- W^-_R$ mediation involving both light and heavy neutrino exchanges, and the model predictions are found to discriminate whether the Dirac neutrino mass is of quark-lepton symmetric origin or without it. We also discuss associated lepton flavor violating decays.

  11. Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLighting Sign In About | Careers |

  12. Historical Average Priority Firm Power Rates (rates/previous)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh School football High SchoolBundles toHiring-TP59.01 C5;44 4

  13. Evaluation of surfactants as steam diverters/mobility control agents in light oil steamfloods: Effect of oil composition, rates and experimental conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mahmood, S.M.; Olsen, D.K.; Ramzel, E.B.

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of experiments was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of commercially available surfactants for steam-foam EOR applications in light oil reservoirs. The experiments were performed in a 3-ft long, 1-1/2 in.-diameter cylindrical sandpack of about 1 darcy permeability. The sandpack and injected fluids were preheated to 430{degree}F at 155 psi. The main objective of these tests was to investigate the effectiveness of several surfactants in providing mobility control under a variety of conditions expected in light-oil steamfloods. Thus, maximum pressure-rise and foam-bank buildup/decay were noted as operating conditions were changed in a test or in various tests. Tests were performed with various oil types, sacrificial salts, injection rates, injection strategies, vapor-to-liquid fractions (VLF), and steam/N{sub 2} ratios (SNR).

  14. Extragalactic Transients in the Era of Wide-Field Radio Surveys. I. Detection Rates and Light Curve Characteristics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metzger, Brian D; Berger, Edo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The impending era of wide-field radio surveys has the potential to revolutionize our understanding of astrophysical transients. Here we evaluate the prospects of a wide range of planned and hypothetical radio surveys using the properties and volumetric rates of known and hypothetical classes of extragalactic synchrotron radio transients (e.g., on- and off-axis gamma-ray bursts [GRB], supernovae, tidal disruption events [TDE], compact object mergers). Utilizing these sources and physically motivated considerations we assess the allowed phase-space of radio luminosity and peak timescale for extragalactic transients. We also include for the first time effects such as redshift evolution of the rates, K-corrections, and non-Euclidean luminosity distance, which affect the detection rates of the most sensitive surveys. The number of detected events is calculated by means of a Monte Carlo method, using the various survey properties (depth, cadence, area) and realistic detection criteria that include a cut on the mini...

  15. Light Stops, Light Staus and the 125 GeV Higgs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carena, Marcela; Gori, Stefania; Shah, Nausheen R.; Wagner, Carlos E.M.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ATLAS and CMS experiments have recently announced the discovery of a Higgs-like resonance with mass close to 125 GeV. Overall, the data is consistent with a Standard Model (SM)-like Higgs boson. Such a particle may arise in the minimal supersymmetric extension of the SM with average stop masses of the order of the TeV scale and a sizable stop mixing parameter. In this article we discuss properties of the SM-like Higgs production and decay rates induced by the possible presence of light staus and light stops. Light staus can affect the decay rate of the Higgs into di-photons and, in the case of sizable left-right mixing, induce an enhancement in this production channel up to $\\sim$ 50% of the Standard Model rate. Light stops may induce sizable modifications of the Higgs gluon fusion production rate and correlated modifications to the Higgs diphoton decay. Departures from SM values of the bottom-quark and tau-lepton couplings to the Higgs can be obtained due to Higgs mixing effects triggered by light third generation scalar superpartners. We describe the phenomenological implications of light staus on searches for light stops and non-standard Higgs bosons. Finally, we discuss the current status of the search for light staus produced in association with sneutrinos, in final states containing a $W$ gauge boson and a pair of $\\tau$s.

  16. Averaging Hypotheses in Newtonian Cosmology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Buchert

    1995-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Average properties of general inhomogeneous cosmological models are discussed in the Newtonian framework. It is shown under which circumstances the average flow reduces to a member of the standard Friedmann--Lema\\^\\i tre cosmologies. Possible choices of global boundary conditions of inhomogeneous cosmologies as well as consequences for the interpretation of cosmological parameters are put into perspective.

  17. Electron Beam Collimation for the Next Generation Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steier, C.; Emma, P.; Nishimura, H.; Papadopoulos, C.; Sannibale, F.

    2013-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Light Source will deliver high (MHz) repetition rate electron beams to an array of free electron lasers. Because of the significant average current in such a facility, effective beam collimation is extremely important to minimize radiation damage to undulators, prevent quenches of superconducting cavities, limit dose rates outside of the accelerator tunnel and prevent equipment damage. This paper describes the early conceptual design of a collimation system, as well as initial results of simulations to test its effectiveness.

  18. Evaluations of average level spacings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liou, H.I.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average level spacing for highly excited nuclei is a key parameter in cross section formulas based on statistical nuclear models, and also plays an important role in determining many physics quantities. Various methods to evaluate average level spacings are reviewed. Because of the finite experimental resolution, to detect a complete sequence of levels without mixing other parities is extremely difficult, if not totally impossible. Most methods derive the average level spacings by applying a fit, with different degrees of generality, to the truncated Porter-Thomas distribution for reduced neutron widths. A method that tests both distributions of level widths and positions is discussed extensivey with an example of /sup 168/Er data. 19 figures, 2 tables.

  19. average glandular dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    doses and cancer rates to the workers m the first Soviet atom-bomb facility, near 2 Chelyabinsk and 4,600 at the plutonium sep- aration plant. If we allow for an average work...

  20. The Frame Potential, on Average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingemar Bengtsson; Helena Granstrom

    2008-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A SIC consists of N^2 equiangular unit vectors in an N dimensional Hilbert space. The frame potential is a function of N^2 unit vectors. It has a unique global minimum if the vectors form a SIC, and this property has been made use of in numerical searches for SICs. When the vectors form an orbit of the Heisenberg group the frame potential becomes a function of a single fiducial vector. We analytically compute the average of this function over Hilbert space. We also compute averages when the fiducial vector is placed in certain special subspaces defined by the Clifford group.

  1. 4, 22832300, 2004 Hemispheric average

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2283­2300, 2004 Hemispheric average Cl atom concentration U. Platt et al. Title Page U. Platt1 , W. Allen2 , and D. Lowe2 1 Institut f¨ur Umweltphysik, University of Heidelberg, INF 229 February 2004 ­ Accepted: 9 March 2004 ­ Published: 4 May 2004 Correspondence to: U. Platt (ulrich.platt

  2. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms. Sufficient light for egress is provided by existing lights located in the hallways.

  3. Average transverse momentum quantities approaching the lightfront

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Boer

    2014-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

    In this contribution to Light Cone 2014, three average transverse momentum quantities are discussed: the Sivers shift, the dijet imbalance, and the $p_T$ broadening. The definitions of these quantities involve integrals over all transverse momenta that are overly sensitive to the region of large transverse momenta, which conveys little information about the transverse momentum distributions of quarks and gluons inside hadrons. TMD factorization naturally suggests alternative definitions of such integrated quantities, using Bessel-weighting and rapidity cut-offs, with the conventional definitions as limiting cases. The regularized quantities are given in terms of integrals over the TMDs of interest that are well-defined and moreover have the advantage of being amenable to lattice evaluations.

  4. Seasonal Average Temperature - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOE Office of ScienceandMesa del Sol HomeFacebook TwitterSearch-Comments Sign In About | CareersAverage Temperature

  5. Rates & Repayment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Environmental Review-NEPA Financial Data Operations Planning & Projects Power Marketing Rates Rate Adjustments Transmission Ancillary Services Rates WAPA-137 Rate Order Rates and...

  6. Optimization Online - Dual Averaging Methods for Regularized ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin Xiao

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Apr 15, 2010 ... ... simple minimization problem that involves the running average of all past subgradients of the loss function and the whole regularization term, ...

  7. Smart lighting: New Roles for Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    Smart lighting: New Roles for Light in the Solid State Lighting World Robert F. Karlicek, Jr. Director, Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center Professor, Electrical, Systems and Computer Lighting · What is Smart Lighting · Technology Barriers to Smart Lighting · Visible Light Communications

  8. Commercial Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Commercial lighting accounts for more than 20 percent of total commercial building energy use. The Energy Department works to reduce lighting energy use through research and deployment.

  9. Averages in vector spaces over finite fields 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright J.; Carbery A.; Stones B.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the analogues of the problems of averages and maximal averages over a surface in R-n when the euclidean structure is replaced by that of a vector space over a finite field, and obtain optimal results in a number ...

  10. MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Martin

    MESOSCALE AVERAGING OF NUCLEATION AND GROWTH MODELS MARTIN BURGER , VINCENZO CAPASSO , AND LIVIO-Kolmogorov relations for the degree of crystallinity. By relating the computation of expected values to mesoscale averaging, we obtain a suitable description of the process at the mesoscale. We show how the variance

  11. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wiser, Ryan; Mills, Andrew; Barbose, Galen; Golove, William

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    differences in average electricity costs are most prominentAverage Cost of Electricityincluding: the average cost of electricity on each rate, the

  12. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION level of each multi-tier garage. · General lighting must have occupant sensing controls with at least one control step between 20% and 50% of design lighting power · No more than 500 watts of rated

  13. MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES OUTDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.2) #12;SECTION 5 Additions and Alterations Any alteration that increases the connected lighting load must meet all No measures required OUTDOOR LIGHTING11/20/2014 #12;SECTION 5 BACKLIGHT, UPLIGHT, AND GLARE (BUG) RATINGS

  14. Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baumann, O.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . An Enterprise of the Ebert-Consulting Group 1004 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE Washington, D.C. 20003, USA 00 12 02/ 6 08 - 13 34 o.baumann@eb-engineers.com Better than Average? - Green Building Certification in International Projects Green Building..., green building rating systems focus on sustainability for the entire life-cycle of buildings and therefore offer great opportunities for enhancing building operation, when applied and used appropriately. This presentation gives an overview...

  15. average brightness of moonlight as a function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peletier, Reynier

    figures from Roach & Gordon: `The Light of the Night Sky' (1973) #12;many different reactions contribute to nightglow: tables from Roach & Gordon: `The Light of the Night Sky' (1973) nightglow lines can be very upper atmosphere emissions (Roach & Gordon 1973) aurora is transient emission driven by high

  16. A light diet for a giant appetite: An assessment of China's proposed fluorescent lamp standard

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Jiang

    2002-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting has been one of the fastest growing electric end-uses in China over the last twenty years, with an average annual growth rate of 14%. Fluorescent lighting provides a significant portion of China's lighting need. In 1998, China produced 680 million fluorescent lamps, of which 420 million were linear fluorescent lamps of various diameters (T8 to T12). There are substantial variations both in energy efficiency and lighting performance among locally produced fluorescent lamps. Such variations present a perfect opportunity for policy intervention through efficiency standards to promote the adoption of more efficient fluorescent lamps in China. This paper analyzes China's proposed minimum efficiency standard for fluorescent lamps and presents an assessment of its likely impacts on China's lighting energy consumption and GHG emissions.

  17. Thermal ghost imaging with averaged speckle patterns

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    We present theoretical and experimental results showing that a thermal ghost imaging system can produce images of high quality even when it uses detectors so slow that they respond only to intensity-averaged (that is, ...

  18. STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION STAFF FORECAST: AVERAGE RETAIL ELECTRICITY PRICES 2005 TO 2018 Mignon Marks Principal Author Mignon Marks Project Manager David Ashuckian Manager ELECTRICITY ANALYSIS OFFICE Sylvia Bender Acting Deputy Director ELECTRICITY SUPPLY DIVISION B.B. Blevins Executive Director

  19. Selling Geothermal Systems The "Average" Contractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Selling Geothermal Systems #12;The "Average" Contractor · History of sales procedures · Manufacturer Driven Procedures · What makes geothermal technology any harder to sell? #12;"It's difficult to sell a geothermal system." · It should

  20. Distributed Averaging Via Lifted Markov Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jung, Kyomin

    Motivated by applications of distributed linear estimation, distributed control, and distributed optimization, we consider the question of designing linear iterative algorithms for computing the average of numbers in a ...

  1. Self-averaging characteristics of spectral fluctuations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Braun; Fritz Haake

    2014-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The spectral form factor as well as the two-point correlator of the density of (quasi-)energy levels of individual quantum dynamics are not self-averaging. Only suitable smoothing turns them into useful characteristics of spectra. We present numerical data for a fully chaotic kicked top, employing two types of smoothing: one involves primitives of the spectral correlator, the second a small imaginary part of the quasi-energy. Self-averaging universal (like the CUE average) behavior is found for the smoothed correlator, apart from noise which shrinks like $1\\over\\sqrt N$ as the dimension $N$ of the quantum Hilbert space grows. There are periodically repeated quasi-energy windows of correlation decay and revival wherein the smoothed correlation remains finite as $N\\to\\infty$ such that the noise is negligible. In between those windows (where the CUE averaged correlator takes on values of the order ${1\\over N^2}$) the noise becomes dominant and self-averaging is lost. We conclude that the noise forbids distinction of CUE and GUE type behavior. Surprisingly, the underlying smoothed generating function does not enjoy any self-averaging outside the range of its variables relevant for determining the two-point correlator (and certain higher-order ones). --- We corroborate our numerical findings for the noise by analytically determining the CUE variance of the smoothed single-matrix correlator.

  2. Load rating of light pavement structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chua, Koon Meng

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deflectometer C) tY u I/s LU u I ? I I- vs FSTFI - Initial Stiffness FSTFO - Overall Stiffness FSTFI = -109. 663 e 1. 31393 x FSTFO 250 500 750 1000 1250 1500 OVERALL STIFFNESS [FROM FWDj (KIP/IN) FIGURE 18. Determination of Initial Slope... LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION TABLE OF CONTENTS Page vii 1X RELATED TECHNICAL BACKGROUND Non-Destructive Testing Techniques Computer Proarams Modelling of Pavement Materials DATA COI LEC, ION Location of Test Sites Test...

  3. Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    LIGHT!! #12;Light Properties Light travels at the speed of light `c' C = 3 x 108 m/s Or 190,000 miles/second!! Light could travel around the world about 8 times in one second #12;What is light?? Light is a "wave packet" A photon is a "light particle" #12;Electromagnetic Radiation and You Light is sometimes

  4. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, Matthew [JLAB

    2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today's CEBAF polarized source operating at ~ 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  5. Light-Induced Atomic Desorption (LIAD)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Budker, Dmitry

    in density n0=the initial density more intense higher density!! #12;Light Friquency Low light power (0.56m, polysiloxane, etc) #12;Time Dependence exposed to 514-nm desorbing light at room temperature (~20) density increase in density!! coating is replenished #12;Light Intensity 0=relative rate of increase of the vapor

  6. Extracting gluon condensate from the average plaquette

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Taekoon

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The perturbative contribution in the average plaquette is subtracted using Borel summation and the remnant of the plaquette is shown to scale as a dim-4 condensate. A critical review is presented of the renormalon subtraction scheme that claimed a dim-2 condensate. The extracted gluon condensate is compared with the latest result employing high order (35-loop) calculation in the stochastic perturbation theory.

  7. Sandia National Laboratories: increasing average wind turbine...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    wind turbine power rating Latest Version of the Composite Materials Database Available for Download On December 3, 2014, in Energy, Materials Science, News, News & Events,...

  8. Smart Lighting Controller!! Smart lighting!

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anderson, Betty Lise

    1! Smart Lighting Controller!! #12;2! Smart lighting! No need to spend energy lighting the room if://blogs.stthomas.edu/realestate/2011/01/24/residential-real-estate-professionals-how-do-you- develop feedback! There is a connection between the output and the input! Therefore forces inputs to same voltage

  9. 2006 Texas High Plains Cotton Variety Ratings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mukhtar, Saqib

    Average Incidence of Wilt Date of Wilt Rating Earth 0.0 0.0 Sept. 8 Brownfield 5.5 1.8 Aug. 28 Petersburg

  10. Strobe Light Testing and Kokanee Population Monitoring : Dworshak Dam Impacts Assessment and Fisheries Investigation Project, 97-99 : annual Progress Report for 1998.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maiolie, Melo A.; Harryman, Bill; Ament, William J.

    1999-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We tested the response of kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka to strobe lights. Testing was conducted on wild, free-ranging fish in their natural environment (i.e., the pelagic region of two large Idaho lakes). Split-beam hydroacoustics were used to record the distance kokanee moved away from the lights as well as the density of kokanee in the area near the lights. In control tests, where the strobe lights were lowered into the lake but kept turned off, kokanee remained within a few meters of the lights. Once the lights began flashing, kokanee quickly moved away from the light source. Kokanee were found to move an average of 30 to 136 m away from the lights in waters with Secchi transparencies from 2.8 to 17.5 m (p=0.00 to p=0.04). Kokanee densities near the lights were significantly lower (p=0.00 to p=0.07) when the lights were turned on than in control samples with no lights flashing. Flash rates of 300, 360, and 450 flashes/min elicited strong avoidance responses from the fish. Kokanee remained at least 24 m away from the lights during our longest test that lasted for 5 h 50 min. Kokanee appeared to be responding to flashes that were well less than 0.00016 lux above background lighting.

  11. The Impact of Retail Rate Structures on the Economics of Commercial Photovoltaic Systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including: the average cost of electricity on each rate, thein the overall average cost of electricity on each rate.in the median cost of electricity will, on average, yield an

  12. The impact of retail rate structures on the economics of commercial photovoltaic systems in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Andrew D.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    including: the average cost of electricity on each rate, thein the overall average cost of electricity on each rate.in the median cost of electricity will, on average, yield an

  13. Polarized electron beams at milliampere average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poelker, M. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, Virginia 23606 (United States)

    2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This contribution describes some of the challenges associated with developing a polarized electron source capable of uninterrupted days-long operation at milliAmpere average beam current with polarization greater than 80%. Challenges will be presented in the context of assessing the required level of extrapolation beyond the performance of today’s CEBAF polarized source operating at ? 200 uA average current. Estimates of performance at higher current will be based on hours-long demonstrations at 1 and 4 mA. Particular attention will be paid to beam-related lifetime-limiting mechanisms, and strategies to construct a photogun that operate reliably at bias voltage > 350kV.

  14. A Next Generation Light Source Facility at LBNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corlett, J.N.; Austin, B.; Baptiste, K.M.; Byrd, J.M.; Denes, P.; Donahue, R.; Doolittle, L.; Falcone, R.W.; Filippetto, D.; Fournier, S.; Li, D.; Padmore, H.A.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pappas, C.; Penn, G.; Placidi, M.; Prestemon, S.; Prosnitz, D.; Qiang, J.; Ratti, A.; Reinsch, M.; Sannibale, F.; Schlueter, R.; Schoenlein, R.W.; Staples, J.W.; Vecchione, T.; Venturini, M.; Wells, R.; Wilcox, R.; Wurtele, J.; Charman, A.; Kur, E.; Zholents, A.A.

    2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The Next Generation Light Source (NGLS) is a design concept, under development at LBNL, for a multibeamline soft x-ray FEL array powered by a ~;;2 GeV superconducting linear accelerator, operating with a 1 MHz bunch repetition rate. The CW superconducting linear accelerator is supplied by a high-brightness, highrepetition- rate photocathode electron gun. Electron bunches are distributed from the linac to the array of independently configurable FEL beamlines with nominal bunch rates up to 100 kHz in each FEL, and with even pulse spacing. Individual FELs may be configured for EEHG, HGHG, SASE, or oscillator mode of operation, and will produce high peak and average brightness x-rays with a flexible pulse format, with pulse durations ranging from sub-femtoseconds to hundreds of femtoseconds.

  15. Cerenkov Light

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2014-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  16. Cerenkov Light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slifer, Karl

    2013-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The bright blue glow from nuclear reactors is Cerenkov light. Karl Slifer describes how nuclear physicists can use this phenomenon to study the nucleus of the atom.

  17. Lighting Renovations

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    When undertaking a lighting renovation in a Federal building, daylighting is the primary renewable energy opportunity. Photovoltaics (PV) also present an excellent opportunity. While this guide...

  18. Rate Schedules

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    One of the major responsibilities of Southeastern is to design, formulate, and justify rate schedules. Repayment studies prepared by the agency determine revenue requirements and appropriate rate...

  19. Campus Outdoor Lighting Standards The following standards provide for minimum safe lighting standards for outdoor area of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Lijser, Peter

    Campus Outdoor Lighting Standards The following standards provide for minimum safe lighting with a minimum of 3 foot candles. This lighting level is for daytime and at night. Public Streets Streets must have a minimum of one foot candles average with a minimum of .6 foot candles. Augmented lighting should

  20. Is dark energy an effect of averaging?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nan Li; Marina Seikel; Dominik J. Schwarz

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present standard model of cosmology states that the known particles carry only a tiny fraction of total mass and energy of the Universe. Rather, unknown dark matter and dark energy are the dominant contributions to the cosmic energy budget. We review the logic that leads to the postulated dark energy and present an alternative point of view, in which the puzzle may be solved by properly taking into account the influence of cosmic structures on global observables. We illustrate the effect of averaging on the measurement of the Hubble constant.

  1. Plant Ecology -Chapter 2 Photosynthesis & Light: part 3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cochran-Stafira, D. Liane

    1 Plant Ecology - Chapter 2 Photosynthesis & Light: part 3 Rates of Photosynthesis Basic limiting) Rates of Photosynthesis Strong light - respiration plus photosynthesis - giving off and taking up CO2, up to a point Maximum rate of photosynthesis, despite further increase in light energy Ecological

  2. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 The Corporate Average Fuel...

  3. Utility-Based Wireless Resource Allocation for Variable Rate Transmission

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Ng, Chun Sum

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For most wireless services with variable rate transmission, both average rate and rate oscillation are important performance metrics. The traditional performance criterion, utility of average transmission rate, boosts the average rate but also results in high rate oscillations. We introduce a utility function of instantaneous transmission rates. It is capable of facilitating the resource allocation with flexible combinations of average rate and rate oscillation. Based on the new utility, we consider the time and power allocation in a time-shared wireless network. Two adaptation policies are developed, namely, time sharing (TS) and joint time sharing and power control (JTPC). An extension to quantized time sharing with limited channel feedback (QTSL) for practical systems is also discussed. Simulation results show that by controlling the concavity of the utility function, a tradeoff between the average rate and rate oscillation can be easily made.

  4. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and the average track width of the vehicle. The upcoming Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) Standards have fuel economy targets based on the vehicle footprint. The...

  5. average atom model: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (chemical potential, average ionic charge, free electron density, bound and continuum wave-functions and occupation numbers) are obtained from the average-atom model. The...

  6. REVISITING THE SOLAR TACHOCLINE: AVERAGE PROPERTIES AND TEMPORAL VARIATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Antia, H. M. [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Basu, Sarbani, E-mail: antia@tifr.res.in, E-mail: sarbani.basu@yale.edu [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520-8101 (United States)

    2011-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The tachocline is believed to be the region where the solar dynamo operates. With over a solar cycle's worth of data available from the Michelson Doppler Imager and Global Oscillation Network Group instruments, we are in a position to investigate not merely the average structure of the solar tachocline, but also its time variations. We determine the properties of the tachocline as a function of time by fitting a two-dimensional model that takes latitudinal variations of the tachocline properties into account. We confirm that if we consider the central position of the tachocline, it is prolate. Our results show that the tachocline is thicker at latitudes higher than the equator, making the overall shape of the tachocline more complex. Of the tachocline properties examined, the transition of the rotation rate across the tachocline, and to some extent the position of the tachocline, show some temporal variations.

  7. Average System Cost Methodology : Administrator's Record of Decision.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1984-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant features of average system cost (ASC) methodology adopted are: retention of the jurisdictional approach where retail rate orders of regulartory agencies provide primary data for computing the ASC for utilities participating in the residential exchange; inclusion of transmission costs; exclusion of construction work in progress; use of a utility's weighted cost of debt securities; exclusion of income taxes; simplification of separation procedures for subsidized generation and transmission accounts from other accounts; clarification of ASC methodology rules; more generous review timetable for individual filings; phase-in of reformed methodology; and each exchanging utility must file under the new methodology within 20 days of implementation by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission of the ten major participating utilities, the revised ASC will substantially only affect three. (PSB)

  8. Yearly average performance of the principal solar collector types

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabl, A.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results of hour-by-hour simulations for 26 meteorological stations are used to derive universal correlations for the yearly total energy that can be delivered by the principal solar collector types: flat plate, evacuated tubes, CPC, single- and dual-axis tracking collectors, and central receiver. The correlations are first- and second-order polynomials in yearly average insolation, latitude, and threshold (= heat loss/optical efficiency). With these correlations, the yearly collectible energy can be found by multiplying the coordinates of a single graph by the collector parameters, which reproduces the results of hour-by-hour simulations with an accuracy (rms error) of 2% for flat plates and 2% to 4% for concentrators. This method can be applied to collectors that operate year-around in such a way that no collected energy is discarded, including photovoltaic systems, solar-augmented industrial process heat systems, and solar thermal power systems. The method is also recommended for rating collectors of different type or manufacturer by yearly average performance, evaluating the effects of collector degradation, the benefits of collector cleaning, and the gains from collector improvements (due to enhanced optical efficiency or decreased heat loss per absorber surface). For most of these applications, the method is accurate enough to replace a system simulation.

  9. APPENDIX A: MONTHLY AVERAGED DATA In many instances monthly averaged data are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    for solar energy and climatic applications. Click on the buttons on the left to find out more about the lab for preliminary estimates of solar system performance. This section provides a summary of monthly averaged data for all sites in watt hours/meter2 per hour or day. For each site and each solar measurement the data

  10. High average power magnetic modulator for copper lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cook, E.G.; Ball, D.G.; Birx, D.L.; Branum, J.D.; Peluso, S.E.; Langford, M.D.; Speer, R.D.; Sullivan, J.R.; Woods, P.G.

    1991-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Magnetic compression circuits show the promise of long life for operation at high average powers and high repetition rates. When the Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (AVLIS) Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory needed new modulators to drive their higher power copper lasers in the Laser Demonstration Facility (LDF), existing technology using thyratron switched capacitor inversion circuits did not meet the goal for long lifetimes at the required power levels. We have demonstrated that magnetic compression circuits can achieve this goal. Improving thyratron lifetime is achieved by increasing the thyratron conduction time, thereby reducing the effect of cathode depletion. This paper describes a three stage magnetic modulator designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper laser at a 4. 5 kHz repetition rate. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power and has exhibited MTBF of {approx}1000 hours when using thyratrons and even longer MTBFs with a series of stack of SCRs for the main switch. Within this paper, the electrical and mechanical designs for the magnetic compression circuits are discussed as are the important performance parameters of lifetime and jitter. Ancillary circuits such as the charge circuit and reset circuit are shown. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Fact #622: May 10, 2010 Average Length of Light Vehicle Ownership |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment of EnergyEnergy 5: March 22,Department

  12. Fact #693: September 19, 2011 Average Vehicle Footprint for Cars and Light

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartment of Energy 0:| Department

  13. Fact #715: February 20, 2012 The Average Age of Light Vehicles Continues to

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartment of EnergyVehicle?Energy 4:Rise |

  14. Fact #744: September 10, 2012 Average New Light Vehicle Price Grows Faster

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport in RepresentativeDepartment ofDepartment ofof EnergyNew Vehicle Sales |than

  15. Does anyone have access to 2012 average residential rates by utility

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnualPropertyd8c-a9ae-f8521cbb8489 No revision| Open EnergyProject Project

  16. Light Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon Chalmers

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A configuration of light pulses is generated, together with emitters and receptors, that allows computing. The computing is extraordinarily high in number of flops per second, exceeding the capability of a quantum computer for a given size and coherence region. The emitters and receptors are based on the quantum diode, which can emit and detect individual photons with high accuracy.

  17. Reduce growth rate of light-duty vehicle travel to meet 2050 global climate goals This article has been downloaded from IOPscience. Please scroll down to see the full text article.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    and light trucks) should complement fuel efficiency and carbon intensity improvements in order to meet international greenhouse gas emission and climate targets for the year 2050. Keywords: transportation systems require fundamental change to meet greenhouse gas (GHG) emission and climate reduction goals

  18. Residential Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's PossibleRadiation Protection Technical squestionnairesquestionnaires AgreementLighting

  19. Light and electron microscopic studies of the nanobenthic diatom, Nitzschia ovalis Arnott, Section Lanceolatae, as compared to related forms, and the effect of temperature and salinity on its growth rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medlin, Linda Karen

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Selection and Maintenance of Diatoms to be Studied . 13 Preparation of Glassware and Culture Media. Preparation and Examination of Cells. Determination of Temperature and Salinity Tolerances and Optima for the growth of Nitzschia ovalis Arnott RESULTS... Light Microscopy. Electron Microscopy Salinity and Temperature Tolerances and Optima. DISCUSSION. Morphological Studies Physiological Studies SUMMARy LITERATURE. APPENDIX A. VITA. 15 18 20 24 24 46 110 124 124 131 139 141 149 BIST...

  20. Fact #624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    4: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 Fact 624: May 24, 2010 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Standards, Model Years 2012-2016 The final...

  1. Fact #870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    70: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Fact 870: April 27, 2015 Corporate Average Fuel Economy Progress, 1978-2014 - Dataset Excel file...

  2. Fact #849: December 1, 2014 Midsize Hybrid Cars Averaged 51%...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    For the 2014 model year, midsize hybrid cars averaged 43.4 miles per gallon (mpg) while midsize non-hybrid cars averaged 28.7 mpg; the difference between the two has narrowed due...

  3. Lighting Inventory Lighting Theatre and Drama

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Indiana University

    Lighting Inventory Lighting Theatre and Drama Description Totals R.Halls Wells- Metz Light ERS ETC SourceFour 25 25 50 degree ERS Strand Lighting 64 14 24 12 14 36 degree ERS ETC Source Four 15 15 36 degree ERS Strand Lighting 124 60 58 2 4 26 degree ERS ETC SourceFour 2 2 26 degree ERS Strand

  4. Nonequilibrium lighting plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dakin, J.T. (GE Lighting, Nela Park, Cleveland, OH (US))

    1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper the science of a variety of devices employing nonequilibrium lighting plasmas is reviewed. The devices include the fluorescent lamp, the low-pressure sodium lamp, the neon sign, ultraviolet lamps, glow indicators, and a variety of devices used by spectroscopists, such as the hollow cathode light source. The plasma conditions in representative commercial devices are described. Recent research on the electron gas, the role of heavy particles, spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, and new electrodeless excitation schemes is reviewed. Areas of future activity are expected to be in new applications of high-frequency electronics to commercial devices, new laser-based diagnostics of plasma conditions, and more sophisticated models requiring more reliable and extensive rate coefficient data.

  5. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tariff Rates FY 2015 Rates and Rate Schedules **Effective October 1, 2014** FY 2014 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2013 Rates and Rate Schedules FY 2012 Rates and Rate Schedules FY...

  6. LED Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Light-Emitting diodes (LEDs) efficiently produce light in a fundamentally different way than any legacy or traditional source of light.

  7. Light Source

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us count theLienertLift Forces in a Light

  8. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Customer Letter - Preliminary Review of Drought Adder Component for 2011 Firm Power Rates 2015 Rates and Rate Schedule - Current * 2010 Rates and Rate Schedule 2009 Rates and...

  9. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2015 Consolidated Rate Schedules FY 2014 Rates BCP Annual Rate Process Central Arizona Project Transmission Rate Process...

  10. Predicting dissolution patterns in variable aperture fractures: 1. Development and evaluation of an enhanced depth-averaged computational model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detwiler, R L; Rajaram, H

    2006-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Water-rock interactions within variable-aperture fractures can lead to dissolution of fracture surfaces and local alteration of fracture apertures, potentially transforming the transport properties of the fracture over time. Because fractures often provide dominant pathways for subsurface flow and transport, developing models that effectively quantify the role of dissolution on changing transport properties over a range of scales is critical to understanding potential impacts of natural and anthropogenic processes. Dissolution of fracture surfaces is controlled by surface-reaction kinetics and transport of reactants and products to and from the fracture surfaces. We present development and evaluation of a depth-averaged model of fracture flow and reactive transport that explicitly calculates local dissolution-induced alterations in fracture apertures. The model incorporates an effective mass transfer relationship that implicitly represents the transition from reaction-limited dissolution to transport-limited dissolution. We evaluate the model through direct comparison to previously reported physical experiments in transparent analog fractures fabricated by mating an inert, transparent rough surface with a smooth single crystal of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP), which allowed direct measurement of fracture aperture during dissolution experiments using well-established light transmission techniques [Detwiler, et al., 2003]. Comparison of experiments and simulations at different flow rates demonstrate the relative impact of the dimensionless Peclet and Damkohler numbers on fracture dissolution and the ability of the computational model to simulate dissolution. Despite some discrepancies in the small-scale details of dissolution patterns, the simulations predict the evolution of large-scale features quite well for the different experimental conditions. This suggests that our depth-averaged approach to simulating fracture dissolution provides a useful approach for extending laboratory results that are often limited in scale to scales that are more representative of geologic processes of interest.

  11. Slow-Rate Utility-Based Resource Allocation in Wireless Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    is to maximize the time-averaged utility rate subject to a stochastic total power constraint at the transmitter the time average utility rate, given a constraint on the total power transmitted by the base station. Since

  12. Sustainable Office Lighting Options

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Sustainable Office Lighting Options Task Lighting: Task lighting is a localized method of lighting a workspace so that additional, unnecessary lighting is eliminated, decreasing energy usage and costs. Illumination levels in the targeted work areas are higher with task lighting than with the ambient levels

  13. Chapter 21: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol. Uniform...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of use HVAC heating, ventilation, and air conditioning ISR in-service rate LED light-emitting diode TRM Technical Reference Manual W Watt v This report is available at no cost...

  14. average power femtosecond: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 52 On the Peak-to-Average...

  15. average power ratio: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 60 High average power,...

  16. average power semiconductor: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stirling refrigerator1 that abrupt changes in geometry are ubiquitous in Stirling engines, thermoacoustics, and res- piratory flows Smith, Barton L. 56 High average power,...

  17. average resonance neutron: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nader Haghighipour 1999-02-03 4 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  18. LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ENERGY INFORMATION ADMINISTRATION LOW-HIGH VALUES FOR PETROLEUM AVERAGE INVENTORY RANGES (MILLION BARRELS) FILE UPDATED April 2004 Line Month Low High Number Product Name Geography...

  19. average daily traffic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 April 2014 Annual Average DailyTraffic (AADT) is a key input in operations and transportation planning Environmental Sciences and Ecology...

  20. average wind shear: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    by uncompensated voids. Maria Mattsson; Teppo Mattsson 2010-07-17 7 Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging Mathematics Websites Summary:...

  1. average state iq: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6 STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization Websites Summary: STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA...

  2. average high energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  3. average kinetic energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    energy by kinetic averaging Pierre-Emmanuel Jabin Ecole Normale Sup-Landau energy for two dimensional divergence free fields ap- pearing in the gradient theory of...

  4. average beta energy: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged null (ANEC) energy conditions, and quantum inequality restrictions on negative energy for free massless scalar fields. In a two-dimensional compactified Minkowski...

  5. average power high: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Simultaneous Power Fluctuation and Average Power Minimization during Nano-CMOS Behavioral Synthesis Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: conversion 6....

  6. Fact #739: August 6, 2012 Light Vehicle Dealership Sales Trends...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    In 2007, almost 60% of sales from an average light vehicle dealership were new cars. New car sales declined to 52.3% of a dealership's sales in 2009, when serviceparts rose to...

  7. Microsoft Word - News Release -- Rates Initial Proposal Dec ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    utilities, the Bonneville Power Administration today proposed a 6.7 percent average wholesale power rate increase for the fiscal year 2016-2017 rate period. BPA is also proposing...

  8. Rates and Repayment Services

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates and Repayment Services Rates Loveland Area Projects Firm Power Rates Open Access Transmission Tariff Rates Chart of Loveland Area Projects Historical Transmission Rates...

  9. Orcas Power & Light- Residential Energy Efficiency Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Orcas Power and Light Cooperative offers incentives for residential customers to pursue energy efficiency upgrades in eligible homes. Rebates are offered for Energy Star rated appliances, water...

  10. On average sampling restoration of Piranashvilitype harmonizable processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ; time shifted sam- pling; Piranashvili­, Lo`eve­, Karhunen­ harmonizable stochastic process; weakly.olenko@latrobe.edu.au, poganj@pfri.hr Abstract: The harmonizable Piranashvili ­ type stochastic pro- cesses are approximated stationary stochastic process; local averages; average sampling reconstruction. 1. Introduction

  11. averaged energy minimization: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged energy minimization First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Averaged Energy...

  12. THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    , control systems, small control, optimal control, Finsler geometry. AMS subject classifications. 34C29, 34H used for design. The use of averaging in optimal control of oscillating systems [10, 13, 14, 7THE AVERAGED CONTROL SYSTEM OF FAST OSCILLATING CONTROL SYSTEMS ALEX BOMBRUN AND JEAN

  13. Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moura, José

    Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures Soummya Kar Department: soummyakgandrew.cmu.edu Abstract We study the impact of the topology of a sensor network on distributed average in terms of a moment of the distribution of the norm of a function of the network graph Laplacian matrix L

  14. The global warming signal is the average of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Peter JS

    , uncertainty in the isopycnal diffusivity causes uncertainty of up to 50% in the global warming signalThe global warming signal is the average of years 70-80 in the increasing CO2 run minus the average represent significant uncertainty in the global warming signal (Fig. 5). The differences at high latitudes

  15. Development of a high average current polarized electron source with long cathode operational lifetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. K. Sinclair; P. A. Adderley; B. M. Dunham; J. C. Hansknecht; P. Hartmann; M. Poelker; J. S. Price; P. M. Rutt; W. J. Schneider; M. Steigerwald

    2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantially more than half of the electromagnetic nuclear physics experiments conducted at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility of the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (Jefferson Laboratory) require highly polarized electron beams, often at high average current. Spin-polarized electrons are produced by photoemission from various GaAs-based semiconductor photocathodes, using circularly polarized laser light with photon energy slightly larger than the semiconductor band gap. The photocathodes are prepared by activation of the clean semiconductor surface to negative electron affinity using cesium and oxidation. Historically, in many laboratories worldwide, these photocathodes have had short operational lifetimes at high average current, and have often deteriorated fairly quickly in ultrahigh vacuum even without electron beam delivery. At Jefferson Lab, we have developed a polarized electron source in which the photocathodes degrade exceptionally slowly without electron emission, and in which ion back bombardment is the predominant mechanism limiting the operational lifetime of the cathodes during electron emission. We have reproducibly obtained cathode 1/e dark lifetimes over two years, and 1/e charge density and charge lifetimes during electron beam delivery of over 2?105???C/cm2 and 200 C, respectively. This source is able to support uninterrupted high average current polarized beam delivery to three experimental halls simultaneously for many months at a time. Many of the techniques we report here are directly applicable to the development of GaAs photoemission electron guns to deliver high average current, high brightness unpolarized beams.

  16. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing four years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirements loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2), (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average Program Case rate is greater than the average 7(b)(2) Case rate, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average Program Case rate and the average 7(b)(2) Case rate determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate proposal test period.

  17. Lighting Options for Homes.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  18. The Effect of Reflectors and Delamping Upon Light Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pashkevich, P. A.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    raging from 52 percent between rows to 80 percent under rows for an average of nearly 70 percent. Light levels in rooms with fixtures on an even grid spacing ranged from 73 percent between fixtures to 86 percent under fixtures for room averages of 75...

  19. Mobile lighting apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  20. Light disappears rapidly (exponentially)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kudela, Raphael M.

    #12;#12;#12;#12;Light disappears rapidly (exponentially) with depth At the same time, the color of the light shifts #12;#12;#12;#12;· Euphotic zone ­ plentiful light ­ 0-100 m (about) · Dysphotic zone ­ very, very little light ­ 100-1000 m (about) · Aphotic zone ­ no light ­ below 1000 m #12;Sunlight in Water

  1. New Light Sources for Tomorrow's Lighting Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krailo, D. A.

    can ever be saved on that monthly energy bill. During the past several years, many new light sources have been developed and introduced. These product introductions have not been limited to anyone lamp type, but instead may be found in fila ment..., fluorescent and high intensity discharge lamp families. Man , ufacturers of light sources have two basic goals for new product development. These goals are high efficiency lighting and improved colo'r rendering properties. High efficiency lighting may take...

  2. A light scattering study of colloid-polymer mixtures 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pirie, Angus D

    A detailed light scattering study of non-equilibrium states found in a model colloid-polymer mixture is presented. Conventional light scattering is used to examine the average structure of the phase, over a wide range of wavevectors. For all non...

  3. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting at the I-35W Bridge, Minneapolis, MN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology conducted in 2009 at the recently reconstructed I-35W bridge in Minneapolis, MN. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid-State Lighting GATEWAY Technology Demonstration Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT), Federal Highways Administration (FHWA), and BetaLED™ (a division of Ruud Lighting). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. DOE has implemented a three-year evaluation of the LED luminaires in this installation in order to develop new longitudinal field data on LED performance in a challenging, real-world environment. This document provides information through the initial phase of the I-35W bridge project, up to and including the opening of the bridge to the public and the initial feedback received on the LED lighting installation from bridge users. Initial findings of the evaluation are favorable, with minimum energy savings level of 13% for the LED installation relative to the simulated base case using 250W high-pressure sodium (HPS) fixtures. The LEDs had an average illuminance level of 0.91 foot candles compared to 1.29 fc for the HPS lamps. The LED luminaires cost $38,000 more than HPS lamps, yielding a lengthy payback period, however the bridge contractor had offered to include the LED luminaires as part of the construction package at no additional cost. One potentially significant benefit of the LEDs in this installation is avoiding rolling lane closures on the heavily-traveled interstate bridge for the purpose of relamping the HPS fixtures. Rolling lane closures involve multiple crew members and various maintenance and safety vehicles, diversion of traffic, as well as related administrative tasks (e.g., approvals, scheduling, etc.). Mn/DOT records show an average cost of relamping fixtures along interstate roadways of between $130-150 per pole. The previous bridge saw a lamp mortality rate of approximately 50% every two years, though the new bridge was designed to minimize many of the vibration issues. A voluntary Web-based feedback survey of nearly 500 self-described bridge users showed strong preference for the LED lighting - positive comments outnumbered negative ones by about five-to-one.

  4. EK101 Engineering Light Smart Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    EK101 Engineering Light Smart Lighting Homework for 9/10 1. Make an estimate (using if the patent is granted.) 3. What is a lumen? A lux? How are the two related? How would you use a lux meter, (Lux, Lumens/m2) Luminous Flux: Perceivable light power from a source, (Lumens) Use the lux meter

  5. Specific light in sculpture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Powell, John William

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Specific light is defined as light from artificial or altered natural sources. The use and manipulation of light in three dimensional sculptural work is discussed in an historic and contemporary context. The author's work ...

  6. Direct estimation of decoherence rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vladimír Bužek; Peter Rapcan; Jochen Rau; Mario Ziman

    2012-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The decoherence rate is a nonlinear channel parameter that describes quantitatively the decay of the off-diagonal elements of a density operator in the decoherence basis. We address the question of how to experimentally access such a nonlinear parameter directly without the need of complete process tomography. In particular, we design a simple experiment working with two copies of the channel, in which the registered mean value of a two-valued measurement directly determines the value of the average decoherence rate. No prior knowledge of the decoherence basis is required.

  7. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and...

  8. INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colorado at Boulder, University of

    INDIVIDUAL REFORM ELEMENTS .63Average course exam score .11In class clicker score .02Lecture: · Correlations with effort/curricular elements are positive but not high, indicating no individual course reform

  9. areally averaged heat: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chulwoo Jung; Christoph Lehner 2014-02-18 56 The Fallacy of Averages University of Kansas - KU ScholarWorks Summary: of component variables as well, we found that ignoring...

  10. STATE OF CALIFORNIA AREA WEIGHTED AVERAGE CALCULATION WORKSHEET: RESIDENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of a building feature, material, or construction assembly occur in a building, a weighted average there is more than one level of floor, wall, or ceiling insulation in a building, or more than one type

  11. From average case complexity to improper learning [Extended Abstract

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linial, Nathan "Nati"

    is that the standard reduc- tions from NP-hard problems do not seem to apply in this context. There is essentially only.1145/2591796.2591820. Keywords Hardness of improper learning, DNFs, Halfspaces, Average Case complexity, CSP problems, Resolution

  12. average neutronic properties: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    M. H. van Kerkwijk 2004-03-20 2 Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: Using semiclassical...

  13. average power optical: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    systems, Multiple Subcarrier Strohmer, Thomas 3 June 1, 2000 Vol. 25, No. 11 OPTICS LETTERS 859 16.2-W average power from a diode-pumped Materials Science Websites...

  14. Fact #835: August 25, 2014 Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    35: Average Annual Gasoline Pump Price, 1929-2013 fotw835web.xlsx More Documents & Publications Offshore Wind Market and Economic Analysis Report 2013 Response to several FOIA...

  15. On the Choice of Average Solar Zenith Angle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cronin, Timothy W.

    Idealized climate modeling studies often choose to neglect spatiotemporal variations in solar radiation, but doing so comes with an important decision about how to average solar radiation in space and time. Since both ...

  16. average neck flexion: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    profiles including the singular isothermal sphere, the Navarro-Frenk-White... Retana-Montenegro, E; Baes, M 2012-01-01 13 Fast Averaging MIT - DSpace Summary: We are interested in...

  17. averaged cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  18. averaged cross section: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  19. average cross sections: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Relations between fusion cross sections and average angular momenta Nuclear Theory (arXiv) Summary: We study...

  20. average effective dose: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    field theory, Chern-Simons theory is discussed in detail. M. Reuter 1996-02-04 2 Is dark energy an effect of averaging? CERN Preprints Summary: The present standard model of...

  1. Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.

  2. Exciting White Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Windows that emit light and are more energy efficient? Universal Display’s PHOLED technology enables windows that have transparent light-emitting diodes in them.

  3. Partial Averaging Near a Resonance in Planetary Dynamics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nader Haghighipour

    1999-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Following the general numerical analysis of Melita and Woolfson (1996), I showed in a recent paper that a restricted, planar, circular planetary system consisting of Sun, Jupiter and Saturn would be captured in a near (2:1) resonance when one would allow for frictional dissipation due to interplanetary medium (Haghighipour, 1998). In order to analytically explain this resonance phenomenon, the method of partial averaging near a resonance was utilized and the dynamics of the first-order partially averaged system at resonance was studied. Although in this manner, the finding that resonance lock occurs for all initial relative positions of Jupiter and Saturn was confirmed, the first-order partially averaged system at resonance did not provide a complete picture of the evolutionary dynamics of the system and the similarity between the dynamical behavior of the averaged system and the main planetary system held only for short time intervals. To overcome these limitations, the method of partial averaging near a resonance is extended to the second order of perturbation in this paper and a complete picture of dynamical behavior of the system at resonance is presented. I show in this study that the dynamics of the second-order partially averaged system at resonance resembles the dynamical evolution of the main system during the resonance lock in general, and I present analytical explanations for the evolution of the orbital elements of the main system while captured in resonance.

  4. The Rise and Fall of Type Ia Supernova Light Curves in the SDSS-II Supernova Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hayden, Brian T.; /Notre Dame U.; Garnavich, Peter M.; /Notre Dame U.; Kessler, Richard; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U., EFI; Frieman, Joshua A.; /KICP, Chicago /Chicago U. /Fermilab; Jha, Saurabh W.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Bassett, Bruce; /Cape Town U., Dept. Math. /South African Astron. Observ.; Cinabro, David; /Wayne State U.; Dilday, Benjamin; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Kasen, Daniel; /UC, Santa Cruz; Marriner, John; /Fermilab; Nichol, Robert C.; /Portsmouth U., ICG /Baltimore, Space Telescope Sci. /Johns Hopkins U.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze the rise and fall times of Type Ia supernova (SN Ia) light curves discovered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey-II (SDSS-II) Supernova Survey. From a set of 391 light curves k-corrected to the rest-frame B and V bands, we find a smaller dispersion in the rising portion of the light curve compared to the decline. This is in qualitative agreement with computer models which predict that variations in radioactive nickel yield have less impact on the rise than on the spread of the decline rates. The differences we find in the rise and fall properties suggest that a single 'stretch' correction to the light curve phase does not properly model the range of SN Ia light curve shapes. We select a subset of 105 light curves well observed in both rise and fall portions of the light curves and develop a '2-stretch' fit algorithm which estimates the rise and fall times independently. We find the average time from explosion to B-band peak brightness is 17.38 {+-} 0.17 days, but with a spread of rise times which range from 13 days to 23 days. Our average rise time is shorter than the 19.5 days found in previous studies; this reflects both the different light curve template used and the application of the 2-stretch algorithm. The SDSS-II supernova set and the local SNe Ia with well-observed early light curves show no significant differences in their average rise-time properties. We find that slow-declining events tend to have fast rise times, but that the distribution of rise minus fall time is broad and single peaked. This distribution is in contrast to the bimodality in this parameter that was first suggested by Strovink (2007) from an analysis of a small set of local SNe Ia. We divide the SDSS-II sample in half based on the rise minus fall value, t{sub r} - t{sub f} {approx}< 2 days and t{sub r} - t{sub f} > 2 days, to search for differences in their host galaxy properties and Hubble residuals; we find no difference in host galaxy properties or Hubble residuals in our sample.

  5. Diversity of Decline-Rate-Corrected Type 1a Supernova Rise times:One Mode or Two?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strovink, Mark

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    B-band light-curve rise times for eight unusually well-observed nearby Type Ia supernova (SNe) are fitted by a newly developed template-building algorithm, using light-curve functions that are smooth, flexible, and free of potential bias from externally derived templates and other prior assumptions. From the available literature, photometric BVRI data collected over many months, including the earliest points, are reconciled, combined, and fitted to a unique time of explosion for each SN. On average, after they are corrected for light-curve decline rate, three SNe rise in 18.81 {+-} 0.36 days, while five SNe rise in 16.64 {+-} 0.21 days. If all eight SNe are sampled from a single parent population (a hypothesis not favored by statistical tests), the rms intrinsic scatter of the decline-rate-corrected SN rise time is 0.96{sub -0.25}{sup +0.52} days--a first measurement of this dispersion. The corresponding global mean rise time is 17.44 {+-} 0.39 days, where the uncertainty is dominated by intrinsic variance. This value is {approx}2 days shorter than two published averages that nominally are twice as precise, though also based on small samples. When comparing high-z to low-z SN luminosities for determining cosmological parameters, bias can be introduced by use of a light-curve template with an unrealistic rise time. If the period over which light curves are sampled depends on z in a manner typical of current search and measurement strategies, a two-day discrepancy in template rise time can bias the luminosity comparison by {approx}0.03 magnitudes.

  6. average fuel enrichment: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ray upon decay. We find that pressurized light-water-reactors fueled with LEU-thorium fuel at high burnup (70 MWdkg) produce U-233 with U-232 contamination levels of about 0.4...

  7. Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, Chu-Lin [ORNL; Perfect, Edmund [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Kang, Misun [ORNL; Voisin, Sophie [ORNL; Bilheux, Hassina Z [ORNL; Horita, Juske [Texas Tech University (TTU); Hussey, Dan [NIST Center for Neutron Research (NCRN), Gaithersburg, MD

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.

  8. Exploring Light's Interactions with Bubbles and Light Absorbers in Photoelectrochemical Devices using Ray Tracing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, John

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ray tracing was used to perform optical optimization of arrays of photovoltaic microrods and explore the interaction between light and bubbles of oxygen gas on the surface of the microrods. The incident angle of light was varied over a wide range. The percent of incident light absorbed by the microrods and reflected by the bubbles was computed over this range. It was found that, for the 10 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO{sub 3} microrods simulated in the model, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m for a square grid. This geometry produced 75% average and 90% maximum absorbance. For a triangular grid using the same microrods, the optimal center-­?to-­?center spacing was 14 ?m. This geometry produced 67% average and 85% maximum absorbance. For a randomly laid out grid of 5 ?m diameter, 100 ?m tall SrTiO! microrods with an average center-­?to-­?center spacing of 20 ?m, the average absorption was 23% and the maximum absorption was 43%. For a 50% areal coverage fraction of bubbles on the absorber surface, between 2%-­?20% of the incident light energy was reflected away from the rods by the bubbles, depending upon incident angle and bubble morphology.

  9. Lighting and Daylight Harvesting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bos, J.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    exposing us to the latest products and technologies. Daylight Harvesting A system of controlling the direction and the quantity of light both natural and artificial within a given space. This implies: Control of fenestration in terms of size..., transmission and direction. Control of reflected light within a space. Control of electric light in terms of delivery and amount Daylight harvesting systems are typically designed to maintain a minimum recommended light level. This light level...

  10. EK101 Engineering Light Project: Evaluate Residential Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bifano, Thomas

    EK101 Engineering Light Project: Evaluate Residential Lighting Compare technical and economic characteristics of three sources of residential light. Two teams of four complete the same project Engineering Light Project: Evaluate Residential Lighting Project Assignment: Evaluate current options

  11. Gallium Lighting, LLC, Accepts Inaugural Position on the Industry Advisory Board of UC-Light Center to Help Bring Wireless Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Light Center to Help Bring Wireless Data Communications Capabilities to LED Lights Fayetteville, GA ­ February for their Energy Star rated products and produce some of the most energy efficient, environmentally friendly on the Industry Advisory Board for the Center for Ubiquitous Communication by Light (UC-Light Center) based

  12. Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mensinger, Allen F.

    Light intensity, prey detection and foraging mechanisms of age 0 year yellow perch H. E. RICHMOND feeding trials at varying light intensities. Perch were highly effective predators and captured Daphnia pulicaria with 94% overall foraging success at light levels ranging from 0 to 3400lx. Maximum average

  13. averaged lorentz dynamics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    averaged lorentz dynamics First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Dynamics on Lorentz manifolds...

  14. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  15. HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.

  16. Probabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    the chance of winds high enough to pose dangers for boats or aircraft. In situations calling for a cost/loss analysis, the probabilities of different outcomes need to be known. For wind speed, this issue often arisesProbabilistic Wind Speed Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. Mc

  17. The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages The Scientist

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heller, Eric

    /8/2009 7:02:24 PM] #12;The Scientist : Surpassing the Law of Averages "Single-cell genomics appears to be the most straightforward, and at the moment the only way we can assemble the genomes of the uncultured and pushing technological limitations to bring their studies of genomics, genetics, RNA transcription

  18. Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murray, Richard M.

    Optimal Control with Weighted Average Costs and Temporal Logic Specifications Eric M. Wolff Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125 Email: ewolff@caltech.edu Ufuk Topcu Control and Dynamical Systems California Institute of Technology Pasadena, California 91125

  19. Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Navy Estimated Average Hourly Load Profile by Month (in MW) MONTH HE1 HE2 HE3 HE4 HE5 HE6 HE7 HE8 HE9 HE10 HE11 HE12 HE13 HE14 HE15 HE16 HE17 HE18 HE19 HE20 HE21 HE22 HE23 HE24...

  20. Paleosecular variation and the average geomagnetic field at 20 latitude

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Catherine Louise

    -averaged field (TAF) for a two-parameter longitudinally symmetric (zonal) model. Values for our model parameters rocks, and oceanic sediments, but consistent with that from reversed polarity continental and igneous to paleosecular variation (PSV). We examine PSV at ±20° using virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) dispersion

  1. Probabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    February 24, 2006 1J. McLean Sloughter is Graduate Research Assistant, Adrian E. Raftery is BlumsteinProbabilistic Quantitative Precipitation Forecasting Using Bayesian Model Averaging J. McLean Sloughter, Adrian E. Raftery and Tilmann Gneiting 1 Department of Statistics, University of Washington

  2. Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Raftery, Adrian

    : J. McLean Sloughter, Department of Mathematics, Seattle University, 901 12th Ave., P.O. Box 222000Probabilistic Wind Vector Forecasting Using Ensembles and Bayesian Model Averaging J. MCLEAN SLOUGHTER Seattle University, Seattle, Washington TILMANN GNEITING Heidelberg University, Heidelberg

  3. average specific absorption: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average specific absorption First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Original Research Specific...

  4. Spectrally Enhanced Lighting Program Implementation for Energy Savings: Field Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gordon, Kelly L.; Sullivan, Gregory P.; Armstrong, Peter R.; Richman, Eric E.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2006-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides results from an evaluation PNNL conducted of a spectrally enhanced lighting demonstration project. PNNL performed field measurements and occupant surveys at three office buildings in California before and after lighting retrofits were made in August and December 2005. PNNL measured the following Overhead lighting electricity demand and consumption, Light levels in the workspace, Task lighting use, and Occupant ratings of satisfaction with the lighting. Existing lighting, which varied in each building, was replaced with lamps with correlated color temperature (CCT) of 5000 Kelvin, color rendering index (CRI) of 85, of varying wattages, and lower ballast factor electronic ballasts. The demonstrations were designed to decrease lighting power loads in the three buildings by 22-50 percent, depending on the existing installed lamps and ballasts. The project designers hypothesized that this reduction in electrical loads could be achieved by the change to higher CCT lamps without decreasing occupant satisfaction with the lighting.

  5. Microstructural effects on capacity-rate performance of vanadium oxide cathodes in lithium-ion batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Robin M. (Robin Manes)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vanadium oxide thin film cathodes were analyzed to determine whether smaller average grain size and/or a narrower average grain size distribution affects the capacity-rate performance in lithium-ion batteries. Vanadium ...

  6. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Final Proposal : Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study and Documentation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Section 7(b)(2) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act (Northwest Power Act), 16 U.S.C. {section} 839e(b)(2), directs the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to conduct, after July 1, 1985, a comparison of the projected rates to be charged its preference and Federal agency customers for their firm power requirements, over the rate test period plus the ensuing 4 years, with the costs of power (hereafter called rates) to those customers for the same time period if certain assumptions are made. The effect of this rate test is to protect BPA's preference and Federal agency customers wholesale firm power rates from certain specified costs resulting from certain provisions of the Northwest Power Act. The rate test can result in a reallocation of costs from the general requirements loads of preference and Federal agency customers to other BPA loads. The rate test involves the projection and comparison of two sets of wholesale power rates for the general requirement loads of BPA's public body, cooperative, and Federal agency customers (collectively, the 7(b)(2) Customers). The two sets of rates are: (1) a set for the test period and the ensuing four years assuming that Section 7(b)(2) is not in effect (known as Program Case rates); and (2) a set for the same period taking into account the five assumptions listed in section 7(b)(2) (known as 7(b)(2) Case rates). Certain specified costs allocated pursuant to section 7(g) of the Northwest Power Act are subtracted from the Program Case rates. Next, each nominal rate is discounted to the beginning of the test period of the relevant rate case. The discounted Program Case rates are averaged, as are the 7(b)(2) Case rates. Both averages are rounded to the nearest tenth of a mill for comparison. If the average of the Program Case rates is greater than the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates, the rate test triggers. The difference between the average of the Program Case rates and the average of the 7(b)(2) Case rates determines the amount to be reallocated from the 7(b)(2) Customers to other BPA loads in the rate test period. The purpose of this Study is to describe the application of the ''Section 7(b)(2) Implementation Methodology (Implementation Methodology)'' and the results of such application. The accompanying Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-FS-BPA-06A, contains the documentation of the computer models and data used to perform the 7(b)(2) rate test. This Study is organized into three major sections. The first section provides an introduction to the study, as well as a summary of the section ''7(b)(2) Legal Interpretation and Implementation Methodology''. The second section describes the methodology used in conducting the rate test. It provides a discussion of the calculations performed to project the two sets of power rates that are compared in the rate test. The third section presents a summary of the results of the rate test for the WP-07 Final Rate Proposal.

  7. Deficiencies of Lighting Codes and Ordinances in Controlling Light Pollution from Parking Lot Lighting Installations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Royal, Emily

    2012-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this research was to identify the main causes of light pollution from parking lot electric lighting installations and highlight the deficiencies of lighting ordinances in preventing light pollution. Using an industry-accepted lighting...

  8. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael

    2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  9. OpenGL Lighting 13. OpenGL Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDowell, Perry

    OpenGL Lighting 13. OpenGL Lighting · Overview of Lighting in OpenGL In order for lighting to have an effect in OpenGL, two things are required: A light An object to be lit Lights can be set to any color determine how they reflect the light which hits them. The color(s) of an object is determined

  10. Adaptive Street Lighting Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This two-part DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium webinar focused on LED street lighting equipped with adaptive control components. In Part I, presenters Amy Olay of the City of...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Solid-State Lighting Science EFRC On November 11, 2010, in Welcome History of Incandescence History of LEDs Grand Challenges Our EFRC SSLS-EFRC Contacts News Publications...

  12. Light emitting device comprising phosphorescent materials for white light generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Mark E.; Dapkus, P. Daniel

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates to phosphors for energy downconversion of high energy light to generate a broadband light spectrum, which emit light of different emission wavelengths.

  13. Averaging cross section data so we can fit it

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). NNDC

    2014-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The 56Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).

  14. Estimate of average freeze-out volume in multifragmentation events

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piantelli, S; Borderie, B; Bougault, R; Chbihi, A; Dayras, R; Durand, D; Frankland, J D; Galíchet, E; Guinet, D; Lanzalone, G; Lautesse, P; Le Neindre, N; López, O; Pârlog, M; Rivet, M F; Rosato, E; Tamain, B; Vient, E; Vigilante, M; Volant, C; Wieleczko, J P

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An estimate of the average freeze-out volume for multifragmentation events is presented. Values of volumes are obtained by means of a simulation using the experimental charged product partitions measured by the 4pi multidetector INDRA for 129Xe central collisions on Sn at 32 AMeV incident energy. The input parameters of the simulation are tuned by means of the comparison between the experimental and simulated velocity (or energy) spectra of particles and fragments.

  15. Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting Host: Francis Rubinstein Demand Response Research Center demand responsive lighting systems ­ Importance of dimming ­ New wireless controls technologies · Advanced Demand Responsive Lighting (commenced March 2007) #12;Objectives · Provide up-to-date information

  16. Light Rail Transit Strengthening

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Light Rail Transit Improving mobility Easing congestion Strengthening our communities Central Corridor Communicating to the Public During Major Construction May 25, 2011 #12;2 Light Rail Transit;Light Rail Transit Central Corridor Route and Stations 3 · 18 new stations · 9.8 miles of new double

  17. High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messerly, M J

    2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.

  18. Determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cacciapouti, R.J.; Lam, G.M.; Theriault, P.A.; Delmolino, P.M.

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pressurized water reactors maintain records of the assembly average burnup for each fuel assembly at the plant. The reactor records are currently used by commercial reactor operators and vendors for (a) special nuclear accountability, (b) placement of spent fuel in storage pools, and (c) dry storage cask design and analysis. A burnup credit methodology has been submitted to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by the US Department of Energy. In order to support this application, utilities are requested to provide burnup uncertainty as part of their reactor records. The collected burnup data are used for the development of a plant correction to the cask vendor supplied burnup credit loading curve. The objective of this work is to identify a feasible methodology for determining the 95/95 uncertainty in the assembly average burnup. Reactor records are based on the core neutronic analysis coupled with measured in-core detector data. The uncertainty of particular burnup records depends mainly on the uncertainty associated with the methods used to develop the records. The methodology adopted for this analysis utilizes current neutronic codes for the determination of the uncertainty in assembly average burnup.

  19. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Carroll, Susan

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  20. Chlorite Dissolution Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carroll, Susan

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Spreadsheets provides measured chlorite rate data from 100 to 300C at elevated CO2. Spreadsheet includes derived rate equation.

  1. The Interest Rate Conundrum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craine, Roger; Martin, Vance L.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Flows and US Interest Rates,” NBER Working Paper No 12560. [Working Paper # 2008 -03 The Interest Rate Conundrum Roger

  2. On the advantages of using green light to study fluorescence yield changes in leaves

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , at variance with the commonly used set-ups, uses of a weakly absorbed light source (light-emitting diodes. Although the exciting light is weakly absorbed, the possibility to tune the intensity of the light emitting diodes allows one to reach photochemical rates ranging from 104 s- 1 to 0.25 s- 1 rendering

  3. Heavy-light quarks interactions in QCD vacuum

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mirzayusuf Musakhanov

    2015-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    QCD vacuum instantons induce very strong interactions between light quarks, which generate large dynamical light quark mass M for initially almost massless quarks and can bound these quarks to produce almost massless pions in accordance with the spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry (S\\chiSB). On the other hand, the QCD vacuum instantons generate heavy-light quark interactions terms, which are responsible for the effects of S\\chiSB in a heavy-light quark system. Summing the re-scattering series that lead to the total light quark propagator and making few further steps, we get the fermionized representation of low-frequencies light quark determinant in the presence of the quark sources, which is relevant for our problems. The next important step in the line of this strategy is to derive the equation and calculate the heavy quark propagator in the instanton media and in the presence of light quarks. This one provide finally the heavy and N_f light quarks interaction term. As an example, we derive heavy quark-light mesons interaction term for the N_f=2 case. If we take the average instanton size \\rho=0.35 fm, and average inter-instanton distance R=0.856 fm from our previous estimates, we obtain at LO on 1/N_c expansion dynamical light quark mass M = 570 MeV and instanton media contribution to heavy quark mass \\Delta M=148 MeV. These factors define the coupling between heavy and light quarks and, certainly, between heavy quarks and light mesons. We will apply this approach to heavy quark and heavy-light quark systems.

  4. Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal immersion (b). The degradation using immersion is mostly caused by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ribak, Erez

    Fig. 3. Averaged PSF of a whole eye without immersion (a), compared to average eye with corneal of the complete eye was calculated by the averaged Zernike coefficients measured on 532 eyes. All PSFs were). The PSFs were calculated by averaging Zernike coefficients measured from 228 eyes. Both PSFs were

  5. Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loughry, Jim

    Heart Physiology Lab Part 1: Pulse Rate Measure your pulse in each of the following conditions (in in the class. You may use Table 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this, if you wish. Once you have all of the class averages for each measurement. You may use Graph 1 in the Heart Physiology Worksheet for this

  6. Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand-blasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes for lighting applications by sand@ust.hk Abstract: Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by scattering the light is one of the effective methods for large-area lighting applications. In this paper, we present a very simple and cost

  7. Photonic crystal light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fleming, James G. (Albuquerque, NM); Lin, Shawn-Yu (Albuquerque, NM); Bur, James A. (Corrales, NM)

    2004-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  8. Demonstration Assessment of Light Emitting Diode (LED) Commercial Garage Lights In the Providence Portland Medical Center, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ton, My K.; Richman, Eric E.; Gilbride, Theresa L.

    2008-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

    This U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Demonstration project studied the applicability of light-emitting diode (LED) luminaires for commercial parking garage applications. High-pressure sodium (HPS) area luminaires were replaced with new LED area luminaires. The project was supported under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Solid State Lighting Program. Other participants in the demonstration project included Providence Portland Medical Center in Portland, Oregon, the Energy Trust of Oregon, and Lighting Sciences Group (LSG) Inc. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted the measurements and analysis of the results. PNNL manages GATEWAY demonstrations for DOE and represents their perspective in the conduct of the work. Quantitative and qualitative measurements of light and electrical power were taken at the site for both HPS and LED light sources. Economic costs were estimated and garage users’ responses to the new light sources were gauged with a survey. Six LED luminaires were installed in the below-ground parking level A, replacing six existing 150W HPS lamps spread out over two rows of parking spaces. Illuminance measurements were taken at floor level approximately every 4 ft on a 60-ft x 40-ft grid to measure light output of these LED luminaires which were termed the “Version 1” luminaires. PNNL conducted power measurements of the circuit in the garage to which the 6 luminaires were connected and determined that they drew an average of 82 W per lamp. An improved LED luminaire, Version 2, was installed in Level B of the parking garage. Illuminance measurements were not made of this second luminaire on site due to higher traffic conditions, but photometric measurements of this lamp and Version 1 were made in an independent testing laboratory and power usage for Version 2 was also measured. Version 1 was found to produce 3600 lumens and Version 2 was found to produce 4700 lumens of light and to consume 78 Watts. Maximum and minimum light levels were measured for the HPS and LED Version 1 luminaires and projected for the Version 2 luminaires. Maximum light levels were 23.51 foot candles, 20.54 fc, and 26.7 fc respectively and minimum light levels were 1.49 fc, 1.45 fc, and 1.88 fc. These results indicate very similar or even slightly higher light levels produced by the LED lamps, despite the higher lumen output of the HPS lamp. The LED lamps provide higher luminaire efficacy because all of the light is directed down and out. None of it is “lost” in the fixture. Also the HPS luminaire had poorly designed optics and a plastic covering that tended to get dirty and cracked, further decreasing the realized light output.[is this an accurate way to say this?] Consumer perceptions of the Version 2 LED were collected via a written survey form given to maintenance and security personnel. More than half felt the LED luminaires provided more light than the HPS lamps and a majority expressed a preference for the new lamps when viewing the relamped area through a security camera. Respondents commented that the LED luminaires were less glary, created less shadows, had a positive impact on visibility, and improved the overall appearance of the area. PNNL conducted an economic analysis and found that the Version 1 lamp produced annual energy savings of 955 kWh and energy cost savings of $76.39 per lamp at electricity rates of 6.5 cents per kWh and $105.03 at 11 cents per kWh. PNNL found that the Version 2 lamp produced annual energy savings of 991 kWh and energy cost savings of $79.26 per lamp at electricity rates of 6.5 cents per kWh and $108.98 at 11 cents per kWh. PNNL also calculated simple payback and found that Version 1 showed paybacks of 5.4 yrs at 6.5c/kWh and 4.1 yrs at 11c/kWh while Version 2 showed paybacks of 5.2 yrs at 6.5c/kWh and 3.9 yrs at 11c/kWh.

  9. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Corral; M. J. Page; F. J. Carrera; X. Barcons; S. Mateos; J. Ebrero; M. Krumpe; A. Schwope; J. A. Tedds; M. G. Watson

    2008-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, and a significance for the detection of any feature over an underlying continuum was derived. We detect with a 99.9% significance an unresolved Fe K-alpha emission line around 6.4 keV with an EW ~ 90 eV, but we find no compelling evidence of any significant broad relativistic emission line in the final average spectrum. Deviations from a power law around the narrow line are best represented by a reflection component arising from cold or low-ionization material. We estimate an upper limit for the EW of any relativistic line of 400 eV at a 3 sigma confidence level. We also marginally detect the so-called Iwasawa-Taniguchi effect on the EW for the unresolved emission line, which appears weaker for higher luminosity AGN.

  10. Table 14a. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricity

  11. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average Electricityb.

  12. Table 14b. Average Electricity Prices, Projected vs. Actual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro IndustriesTownDells,1Stocks Nov-14 Dec-14TableConferenceInstalled:a. Average

  13. Table 17. Average Price of U.S. Coke Exports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910. Average3.5.6.7.

  14. Table 19. Average Price of U.S. Coal Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average Price

  15. Table 22. Average Price of U.S. Coke Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for On-Highway4,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,Decade Year-0E (2001) -heating oilAll Tables133,477 133,5910.9. Average1.2.

  16. Foundations and Light Compass Foundations and Light Compass

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Jennifer L.

    Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Foundations and Light Compass Case Study Jennifer L. WongQuantitative Sensor--centric Designcentric Design Light CompassLight Compass ­­ Models and Abstractions Contaminant Transport Marine Microorganisms Ecosystems, Biocomplexity What is a Light Compass?What is a Light

  17. Lighting and Surfaces 11.1 Introduction to Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, John P.

    Chapter 11 Lighting and Surfaces 11.1 Introduction to Lighting Three-dimensional surfaces can react to light, and how computer graphics simulates this. There are three species of light (or "illumination models"): 1. Intrinsic (self-emitting) 2. Ambient light (sometimes called "diffuse light") 3

  18. Arnold Schwarzenegger LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Project Summaries ELEMENT 2: ADVANCE LIGHTING TECHNOLOGIES PROJECT 2.1 LIGHT EMITTING DIODE (LED light emitting diodes (LED) technology for general lighting applications by developing a task lamp

  19. Measuring Degradation Rates Without Irradiance Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pulver, S.; Cormode, D.; Cronin, A.; Jordan, D.; Kurtz, S.; Smith, R.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method to report PV system degradation rates without using irradiance data is demonstrated. First, a set of relative degradation rates are determined by comparing daily AC final yields from a group of PV systems relative to the average final yield of all the PV systems. Then, the difference between relative and absolute degradation rates is found from a statistical analysis. This approach is verified by comparing to methods that utilize irradiance data. This approach is significant because PV systems are often deployed without irradiance sensors, so the analysis method described here may enable measurements of degradation using data that were previously thought to be unsuitable for degradation studies.

  20. Plasma dynamics and a significant error of macroscopic averaging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marek A. Szalek

    2005-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods of macroscopic averaging used to derive the macroscopic Maxwell equations from electron theory are methodologically incorrect and lead in some cases to a substantial error. For instance, these methods do not take into account the existence of a macroscopic electromagnetic field EB, HB generated by carriers of electric charge moving in a thin layer adjacent to the boundary of the physical region containing these carriers. If this boundary is impenetrable for charged particles, then in its immediate vicinity all carriers are accelerated towards the inside of the region. The existence of the privileged direction of acceleration results in the generation of the macroscopic field EB, HB. The contributions to this field from individual accelerated particles are described with a sufficient accuracy by the Lienard-Wiechert formulas. In some cases the intensity of the field EB, HB is significant not only for deuteron plasma prepared for a controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction but also for electron plasma in conductors at room temperatures. The corrected procedures of macroscopic averaging will induce some changes in the present form of plasma dynamics equations. The modified equations will help to design improved systems of plasma confinement.

  1. Average Fe K-alpha emission from distant AGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Corral, A; Carrera, F J; Barcons, X; Mateos, S; Ebrero, J; Krumpe, M; Schwope, A; Tedds, J A; Watson, M G

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most important parameters in the XRB (X-ray background) synthesis models is the average efficiency of accretion onto SMBH (super-massive black holes). This can be inferred from the shape of broad relativistic Fe lines seen in X-ray spectra of AGN (active galactic nuclei). Several studies have tried to measure the mean Fe emission properties of AGN at different depths with very different results. We compute the mean Fe emission from a large and representative sample of AGN X-ray spectra up to redshift ~ 3.5. We developed a method of computing the rest-frame X-ray average spectrum and applied it to a large sample (more than 600 objects) of type 1 AGN from two complementary medium sensitivity surveys based on XMM-Newton data, the AXIS and XWAS samples. This method makes use of medium-to-low quality spectra without needing to fit complex models to the individual spectra but with computing a mean spectrum for the whole sample. Extensive quality tests were performed by comparing real to simulated data, a...

  2. Energy Efficiency Through Lighting Upgrades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kara Berst; Maria Howeth

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lighting upgrades including neon to LED, incandescent to CFL's and T-12 to T-8 and T-5's were completed through this grant. A total of 16 Chickasaw nation facilities decreased their carbon footprint because of these grant funds. Calculations used were based on comparing the energy usage from the previous year�¢����s average and the current energy usage. For facilities without a full year's set of energy bills, the month after installation was compared to the same month from the previous year. Overall, the effect the lighting change-outs had for the gaming centers and casinos far exceeded expectations. For the Madill Gaming Center; both an interior and exterior upgrade was performed which resulted in a 31% decrease in energy consumption. This same reduction was seen in every facility that participated in the grant. Just by simply changing out light bulbs to newer energy efficient equivalents, a decrease in energy usage can be achieved and this was validated by the return on investment seen at Chickasaw Nation facilities. Along with the technical project tasks were awareness sessions presented at Chickasaw Head Starts. The positive message of environmental stewardship was passed down to head start students and passed along to Chickasaw employees. Excitement was created in those that learned what they could do to help reduce their energy bills and many followed through and took the idea home. For a fairy low cost, the general public can also use this technique to lower their energy consumption both at home and at work. Although the idea behind the project was somewhat simple, true benefits have been gained through environmental awareness and reductions of energy costs.

  3. High efficiency incandescent lighting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bermel, Peter; Ilic, Ognjen; Chan, Walker R.; Musabeyoglu, Ahmet; Cukierman, Aviv Ruben; Harradon, Michael Robert; Celanovic, Ivan; Soljacic, Marin

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Incandescent lighting structure. The structure includes a thermal emitter that can, but does not have to, include a first photonic crystal on its surface to tailor thermal emission coupled to, in a high-view-factor geometry, a second photonic filter selected to reflect infrared radiation back to the emitter while passing visible light. This structure is highly efficient as compared to standard incandescent light bulbs.

  4. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    BNL

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS), hosted by Associate Laboratory Director for Light Sources, Stephen Dierker. The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviolet, and x-ray light for basic and applied research in physics, chemistry, medicine, geophysics, environmental, and materials sciences.

  5. LED Lighting Retrofit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw-Meadow, N.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ? Municipal Street Lighting Consortium ? American Public Power Association (APPA) ? Demonstration in Energy Efficiency Development (DEED) ? Source of funding and database of completed LED roadway projects 6 Rules of the Road ESL-KT-11-11-57 CATEE 2011..., 2011 ? 9 Solar-Assisted LED Case Study LaQuinta Hotel, Cedar Park, Texas ? Utilizes 18 - ActiveLED Solar-Assisted Parking Lot Lights ? Utilizes ?power management? to extend battery life while handling light output ? Reduces load which reduces PV...

  6. Edmund G. Brown Jr. LIGHTING CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edmund G. Brown Jr. Governor LIGHTING CALIFORNIA'S FUTURE: SMART LIGHT-EMITTING DIODE LIGHTING's Future: Smart LightEmitting Diode Lighting in Residential Fans. California Energy Commission, PIER

  7. BCP Annual Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 BCP Annual Rate Process (FY 2016 Base Charge & Rate) Informal Process Rate Activity Schedule (doc) Informal Customer Meeting Thursday March 11, 2015 at 10:30 A.M. Conf Rms 3&4...

  8. Comparing Light Bulbs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this exercise, students will use a light to demonstrate the difference between being energy-efficient and energy-wasteful, and learn what energy efficiency means.

  9. Total Light Management

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers total light management, and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

  10. Lighting Technology Panel

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation covers the Lighting Technology Panel for the Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting, held on November 18-19, 2009. 

  11. Hybrid Solar Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maxey, L Curt [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid solar lighting systems focus highly concentrated sunlight into a fiber optic bundle to provide sunlight in rooms without windows or conventional skylights.

  12. Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    into the market. On the market side, DOE works closely with drivers, heat sinks, and optics. LEDs must be carefully energy efficiency program partners, lighting professionals,...

  13. Research Rate Liaison Rate for outside academic &

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilchrist, James F.

    as of 12/9/13 External Rate Spark Plasma Sintering ) Spark Plasma Sintering > 24 hrs 2 8 Vacuum Hot Press

  14. Columbia Water and Light- Commercial Super Saver Loans

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water and Light (CWL) provides Commercial Super Saver Loans, which allow C&I rate customers to replace a furnace along with a new central air conditioner or heat pump with an...

  15. Central Electric Cooperative- Non-Residential Lighting Rebate

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Central Electric Cooperative offers a commercial lighting system improvement incentive for any customer not on a residential utility rate. To use the program and learn how much the rebates can...

  16. 2012 Transmission Rate Schedules

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2014 Transmission, Ancillary, and Control Area Service Rate Schedules and General Rate Schedule Provisions (FY 2014-2015) October 2013 United States Department of Energy...

  17. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10012014 - 03312015 Mid-Year Change (if applicable) 10012014 - 09302015 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 70,091,227 CV-F13...

  18. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the FY Mid-Year Change 10012013 - 03312014 04012014 - 09302014 Power Rates Annual Revenue Requirement Rate Schedule Power Revenue Requirement 73,441,557...

  19. 2004 Rate Adjustments

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Transmission and Ancillary Services Federal Register Notice -- Rate Order WAPA-141: Notice of Extension of Formula Rates for Transmission and Ancillary Services If you have any...

  20. WAPA-169 Rate Order

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    69 Rate Order Western is proposing adjustments to the Salt Lake City Area Integrated Projects firm power rate and the Colorado River Storage Project Transmission and ancillary...

  1. Multiple System Rate Process

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    DSW Multiple System Transmission Rate Process Federal Register Notice Withdrawing Rate Proposal (PDF) Formal Process Extension Federal Register Notice (PDF) Customer Savisngs Under...

  2. Measurement strategies for estimating long-term average wind speeds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Houston, S.; Wegley, H.L.

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The uncertainty and bias in estimates of long-term average wind speeds inherent in continuous and intermittent measurement strategies are examined by simulating the application of the strategies to 40 data sets. Continuous strategies have smaller uncertainties for fixed duration measurement programs, but intermittent strategies make more efficient use of instruments and have smaller uncertainties for a fixed amount of instrument use. Continuous strategies tend to give biased estimates of the long-term annual mean speed unless an integral number of years' data is collected or the measurement program exceeds 3 years in duration. Intermittent strategies with three or more month-long measurement periods per year do not show any tendency toward bias.

  3. Relating productivity to visibility and lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clear, R.; Berman, S.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of determining the appropriate light levels for visual tasks is a cost-benefit problem. Existing light level recommendations seriously underweight the importance of economic factors. Furthermore, the relative importance of the visibility factors in determining the optimal light levels appears inconsistent with the importance of these factors in determining visibility and visual performance. It is shown that calculations based on acuities give a lower limit of 100 to 200 lux for cost-effective light levels for office tasks. Upper limits are calculated from correlations of task performance to visibility levels. Visibility levels become progressively insensitive to luminance as luminance increases. Average power densities above 100 watts/m/sup 2/ are cost-effective only when visibility is very low. However, there is a 3-to-10 times larger increase in benefits from improving contrast or contrast sensitivity than from using more than 10 watts/m/sup 2/. Contrast or contrast sensitivity can be improved by using forms with larger print, using xerographic copy instead of carbon or mimeo, making sure office workers have the right eyeglasses, or even by transferring workers with visual problems to less visually demanding tasks. Once these changes are made it is no longer cost-effective to use more than 10 watts/m/sup 2/. This conclusion raises serious questions about recommendations that lead to greater than about 10 watts/m/sup 2/ of installed lighting for general office work.

  4. MA 15910 Lesson 11 Notes (Calculus part of text) Section 3.3 Rates ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Charlotte M

    2014-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    (Calculus part of text) Section 3.3 Rates of Change. Average Rate of Change. Suppose Mary kept a record of the total distance she traveled on a trip in ½ hour

  5. High average power magnetic modulator for metal vapor lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA); Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A three-stage magnetic modulator utilizing magnetic pulse compression designed to provide a 60 kV pulse to a copper vapor laser at a 4.5 kHz repetition rate is disclosed. This modulator operates at 34 kW input power. The circuit includes a step up auto transformer and utilizes a rod and plate stack construction technique to achieve a high packing factor.

  6. Reducing home lighting expenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aimone, M.A.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ways to reduce lighting expenses are summarized. These include: turning off lights when not in use; keeping fixtures and lamps clean; replacing lamps with more efficient types; using three-way bulbs; use of daylighting; buying fewer lamps and reducing lamp wattage; consider repainting rooms; replacing recessed fixtures with tracklighting; and using efficient lamps for outdoor use. (MCW)

  7. Explosively pumped laser light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM); Michelotti, Roy A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A single shot laser pumped by detonation of an explosive in a shell casing. The shock wave from detonation of the explosive causes a rare gas to luminesce. The high intensity light from the gas enters a lasing medium, which thereafter outputs a pulse of laser light to disable optical sensors and personnel.

  8. Light intensity compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rushford, Michael C. (Livermore, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a system for recording images having vastly differing light intensities over the face of the image, a light intensity compressor is provided that utilizes the properties of twisted nematic liquid crystals to compress the image intensity. A photoconductor or photodiode material that is responsive to the wavelength of radiation being recorded is placed adjacent a layer of twisted nematic liquid crystal material. An electric potential applied to a pair of electrodes that are disposed outside of the liquid crystal/photoconductor arrangement to provide an electric field in the vicinity of the liquid crystal material. The electrodes are substantially transparent to the form of radiation being recorded. A pair of crossed polarizers are provided on opposite sides of the liquid crystal. The front polarizer linearly polarizes the light, while the back polarizer cooperates with the front polarizer and the liquid crystal material to compress the intensity of a viewed scene. Light incident upon the intensity compressor activates the photoconductor in proportion to the intensity of the light, thereby varying the field applied to the liquid crystal. The increased field causes the liquid crystal to have less of a twisting effect on the incident linearly polarized light, which will cause an increased percentage of the light to be absorbed by the back polarizer. The intensity of an image may be compressed by forming an image on the light intensity compressor.

  9. Light pulse in {Lambda}-type cold-atom gases

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei Ran; Deng Youjin; Chen Shuai; Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei [Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at Microscale and Department of Modern Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Zhao Bo [Institute for Theoretical physics, University of Innsbruck, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information of the Austrian Academy of Science, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the behavior of the light pulse in {Lambda}-type cold-atom gases with two counter-propagating control lights with equal strength by directly simulating the dynamic equations and exploring the dispersion relation. Our analysis shows that, depending on the length L{sub 0} of the stored wave packet and the decay rate {gamma} of ground-spin coherence, the recreated light can behave differently. For long L{sub 0} and/or large {gamma}, a stationary light pulse is produced, while two propagating light pulses appear for short L{sub 0} and/or small {gamma}. In the {gamma}{yields}0 limit, the light always splits into two propagating pulses for a sufficiently long time. This scenario agrees with a recent experiment [Y.-W. Lin et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 213601 (2009)] where two propagating light pulses are generated in laser-cooled cold-atom ensembles.

  10. UWB multi-burst transmit driver for averaging receivers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dallum, Gregory E

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A multi-burst transmitter for ultra-wideband (UWB) communication systems generates a sequence of precisely spaced RF bursts from a single trigger event. There are two oscillators in the transmitter circuit, a gated burst rate oscillator and a gated RF burst or RF power output oscillator. The burst rate oscillator produces a relatively low frequency, i.e., MHz, square wave output for a selected transmit cycle, and drives the RF burst oscillator, which produces RF bursts of much higher frequency, i.e., GHz, during the transmit cycle. The frequency of the burst rate oscillator sets the spacing of the RF burst packets. The first oscillator output passes through a bias driver to the second oscillator. The bias driver conditions, e.g., level shifts, the signal from the first oscillator for input into the second oscillator, and also controls the length of each RF burst. A trigger pulse actuates a timing circuit, formed of a flip-flop and associated reset time delay circuit, that controls the operation of the first oscillator, i.e., how long it oscillates (which defines the transmit cycle).

  11. Lighting affects appearance LightSource emits photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 LightSource emits photons Photons travel in a straight line). And then some reach the eye/camera. #12;3 Reflectance Model how objects reflect light. Model light sources Algorithms for computing Shading: computing intensities within polygons Determine what light strikes what

  12. VIRTUAL LIGHT: DIGITALLY-GENERATED LIGHTING FOR VIDEO CONFERENCING APPLICATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Kathleen

    VIRTUAL LIGHT: DIGITALLY-GENERATED LIGHTING FOR VIDEO CONFERENCING APPLICATIONS Andrea Basso method to improve the lighting conditions of a real scene or video sequence. In particular we concentrate on modifying real light sources intensities and inserting virtual lights into a real scene viewed from a fixed

  13. Medium term municipal solid waste generation prediction by autoregressive integrated moving average

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Younes, Mohammad K.; Nopiah, Z. M.; Basri, Noor Ezlin A.; Basri, Hassan [Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Generally, solid waste handling and management are performed by municipality or local authority. In most of developing countries, local authorities suffer from serious solid waste management (SWM) problems and insufficient data and strategic planning. Thus it is important to develop robust solid waste generation forecasting model. It helps to proper manage the generated solid waste and to develop future plan based on relatively accurate figures. In Malaysia, solid waste generation rate increases rapidly due to the population growth and new consumption trends that characterize the modern life style. This paper aims to develop monthly solid waste forecasting model using Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA), such model is applicable even though there is lack of data and will help the municipality properly establish the annual service plan. The results show that ARIMA (6,1,0) model predicts monthly municipal solid waste generation with root mean square error equals to 0.0952 and the model forecast residuals are within accepted 95% confident interval.

  14. DOE Light Truck Clean Diesel (LTCD) Program Final Caterpillar Public Report Light Truck Clean Diesel Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric Fluga

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Department of Energy and Caterpillar entered a Cooperative Agreement to develop compression ignition engine technology suitable for the light truck/SUV market. Caterpillar, in collaboration with a suitable commercialization partner, developed a new Compression Ignition Direct Injection (CIDI) engine technology to dramatically improve the emissions and performance of light truck engines. The overall program objective was to demonstrate engine prototypes by 2004, with an order of magnitude emission reduction while meeting challenging fuel consumption goals. Program emphasis was placed on developing and incorporating cutting edge technologies that could remove the current impediments to commercialization of CIDI power sources in light truck applications. The major obstacle to commercialization is emissions regulations with secondary concerns of driveability and NVH (noise, vibration and harshness). The target emissions levels were 0.05 g/mile NOx and 0.01 g/mile PM to be compliant with the EPA Tier 2 fleet average requirements of 0.07 g/mile and the CARB LEV 2 of 0.05 g/mile for NOx, both have a PM requirement of 0.01 g/mile. The program team developed a combustion process that fundamentally shifted the classic NOx vs. PM behavior of CIDI engines. The NOx vs. PM shift was accomplished with a form of Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). The HCCI concept centers on appropriate mixing of air and fuel in the compression process and controlling the inception and rate of combustion through various means such as variable valve timing, inlet charge temperature and pressure control. Caterpillar has adapted an existing Caterpillar design of a single injector that: (1) creates the appropriate fuel and air mixture for HCCI, (2) is capable of a more conventional injection to overcome the low power density problems of current HCCI implementations, (3) provides a mixed mode where both the HCCI and conventional combustion are functioning in the same combustion cycle. Figure 1 illustrates the mixed mode injection system. Under the LTCD program Caterpillar developed a mixed mode injector for a multi-cylinder engine system. The mixed mode injection system represents a critical enabling technology for the implementation of HCCI. In addition, Caterpillar implemented variable valve system technology and air system technology on the multi-cylinder engine platform. The valve and air system technology were critical to system control. Caterpillar developed the combustion system to achieve a 93% reduction in NOx emissions. The resulting NOx emissions were 0.12 gm/mile NOx. The demonstrated emissions level meets the stringent Tier 2 Bin 8 requirement without NOx aftertreatment! However, combustion development alone was not adequate to meet the program goal of 0.05gm/mile NOx. To meet the program goals, an additional 60% NOx reduction technology will be required. Caterpillar evaluated a number of NOx reduction technologies to quantify and understand the NOx reduction potential and system performance implications. The NOx adsorber was the most attractive NOx aftertreatment option based on fuel consumption and NOx reduction potential. In spite of the breakthrough technology development conducted under the LTCD program there remains many significant challenges associated with the technology configuration. For HCCI, additional effort is needed to develop a robust control strategy, reduce the hydrocarbon emissions at light load condition, and develop a more production viable fuel system. Furthermore, the NOx adsorber suffers from cost, packaging, and durability challenges that must be addressed.

  15. Nuclear reaction rates and the primordial nucleosynthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abhishek Mishra; D. N. Basu

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theoretical predictions of the primordial abundances of elements in the big-bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) are dominated by uncertainties in the input nuclear reaction rates. We investigate the effect of modifying these reaction rates on light element abundance yields in BBN by replacing the thirty-five reaction rates out of the existing eighty-eight. We have studied these yields as functions of evolution time or temperature. We find that using these new reaction rates results in only a little increase in helium mass fraction over that obtained previously in BBN calculations. This allows insights into the role of the nuclear reaction rates in the setting of the neutron-to-proton ratio during the BBN epoch. We observe that even with considerable nuclear physics uncertainties, most of these nuclear reactions have minimal effect on the standard BBN abundance yields of $^6$Li and $^7$Li.

  16. Dosimetry in Mammography: Average Glandular Dose Based on Homogeneous Phantom

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benevides, Luis A. [Naval Sea Systems Command,1333 Isaac Hull Avenue, Washington Navy Yard, DC 20376 (United States); Hintenlang, David E. [University of Florida, 202 Nuclear Sciences Center, P.O. Box 1183, Gainesville Florida 32611 (United States)

    2011-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate that a clinical dosimetry protocol that utilizes a dosimetric breast phantom series based on population anthropometric measurements can reliably predict the average glandular dose (AGD) imparted to the patient during a routine screening mammogram. AGD was calculated using entrance skin exposure and dose conversion factors based on fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness, mammography unit parameters and modifying parameters for homogeneous phantom (phantom factor), compressed breast lateral dimensions (volume factor) and anatomical features (anatomical factor). The patient fibroglandular content was evaluated using a calibrated modified breast tissue equivalent homogeneous phantom series (BRTES-MOD) designed from anthropomorphic measurements of a screening mammography population and whose elemental composition was referenced to International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements Report 44 and 46 tissues. The patient fibroglandular content, compressed breast thickness along with unit parameters and spectrum half-value layer were used to derive the currently used dose conversion factor (DgN). The study showed that the use of a homogeneous phantom, patient compressed breast lateral dimensions and patient anatomical features can affect AGD by as much as 12%, 3% and 1%, respectively. The protocol was found to be superior to existing methodologies. The clinical dosimetry protocol developed in this study can reliably predict the AGD imparted to an individual patient during a routine screening mammogram.

  17. Long-term average performance benefits of parabolic trough improvements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.; Gaul, H.W.; Kearney, D.; Rabl, A.

    1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved parabolic trough concentrating collectors will result from better design, improved fabrication techniques, and the development and utilization of improved materials. The difficulty of achieving these improvements varies as does their potential for increasing parabolic trough performance. The purpose of this analysis is to quantify the relative merit of various technology advancements in improving the long-term average performance of parabolic trough concentrating collectors. The performance benefits of improvements are determined as a function of operating temperature for north-south, east-west, and polar mounted parabolic troughs. The results are presented graphically to allow a quick determination of the performance merits of particular improvements. Substantial annual energy gains are shown to be attainable. Of the improvements evaluated, the development of stable back-silvered glass reflective surfaces offers the largest performance gain for operating temperatures below 150/sup 0/C. Above 150/sup 0/C, the development of trough receivers that can maintain a vacuum is the most significant potential improvement. The reduction of concentrator slope errors also has a substantial performance benefit at high operating temperatures.

  18. Ensemble bayesian model averaging using markov chain Monte Carlo sampling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vrugt, Jasper A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Diks, Cees G H [NON LANL; Clark, Martyn P [NON LANL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bayesian model averaging (BMA) has recently been proposed as a statistical method to calibrate forecast ensembles from numerical weather models. Successful implementation of BMA however, requires accurate estimates of the weights and variances of the individual competing models in the ensemble. In their seminal paper (Raftery etal. Mon Weather Rev 133: 1155-1174, 2(05)) has recommended the Expectation-Maximization (EM) algorithm for BMA model training, even though global convergence of this algorithm cannot be guaranteed. In this paper, we compare the performance of the EM algorithm and the recently developed Differential Evolution Adaptive Metropolis (DREAM) Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm for estimating the BMA weights and variances. Simulation experiments using 48-hour ensemble data of surface temperature and multi-model stream-flow forecasts show that both methods produce similar results, and that their performance is unaffected by the length of the training data set. However, MCMC simulation with DREAM is capable of efficiently handling a wide variety of BMA predictive distributions, and provides useful information about the uncertainty associated with the estimated BMA weights and variances.

  19. Limit of light coupling into solar cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naqavi, A; Ballif, C; Scharf, T; Herzig, H P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce a limit for the strength of coupling light into the modes of solar cells. This limit depends on both a cell's thickness and its modal properties. For a cell with refractive index n and thickness d, we obtain a maximal coupling rate of 2c*sqrt(n^2-1)/d where c is speed of light. Our method can be used in the design of solar cells and in calculating their efficiency limits; besides, it can be applied to a broad variety of resonant phenomena and devices.

  20. Greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste characterization. Appendix E-5: Impact of the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuite, P.; Tuite, K.; Harris, G. [Waste Management Group, Inc., Peekskill, NY (United States)

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report evaluates the effects of concentration averaging practices on the disposal of greater-than-Class C low-level radioactive waste (GTCC LLW) generated by the nuclear utility industry and sealed sources. Using estimates of the number of waste components that individually exceed Class C limits, this report calculates the proportion that would be classified as GTCC LLW after applying concentration averaging; this proportion is called the concentration averaging factor. The report uses the guidance outlined in the 1993 Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging, as well as waste disposal experience at nuclear utilities, to calculate the concentration averaging factors for nuclear utility wastes. The report uses the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position and the criteria from the Barnwell, South Carolina, LLW disposal site to calculate concentration averaging factors for sealed sources. The report addresses three waste groups: activated metals from light water reactors, process wastes from light-water reactors, and sealed sources. For each waste group, three concentration averaging cases are considered: high, base, and low. The base case, which is the most likely case to occur, assumes using the specific guidance given in the 1993 NRC draft Branch Technical Position on concentration averaging. To project future GTCC LLW generation, each waste category is assigned a concentration averaging factor for the high, base, and low cases.

  1. Lakeview Light and Power- Commercial Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Lakeview Light and Power offers a commercial lighting rebate program. Rebates apply to the installation of energy efficient lighting retrofits in non-residential buildings. The rebate program is...

  2. Green Light Pulse Oximeter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scharf, John Edward (Oldsmar, FL)

    1998-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A reflectance pulse oximeter that determines oxygen saturation of hemoglobin using two sources of electromagnetic radiation in the green optical region, which provides the maximum reflectance pulsation spectrum. The use of green light allows placement of an oximetry probe at central body sites (e.g., wrist, thigh, abdomen, forehead, scalp, and back). Preferably, the two green light sources alternately emit light at 560 nm and 577 nm, respectively, which gives the biggest difference in hemoglobin extinction coefficients between deoxyhemoglobin, RHb, and oxyhemoglobin, HbO.sub.2.

  3. White light velocity interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erskine, D.J.

    1999-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a technique that allows the use of broadband and incoherent illumination. Although denoted white light velocimetry, this principle can be applied to any wave phenomenon. For the first time, powerful, compact or inexpensive sources can be used for remote target velocimetry. These include flash and arc lamps, light from detonations, pulsed lasers, chirped frequency lasers, and lasers operating simultaneously in several wavelengths. The technique is demonstrated with white light from an incandescent source to measure a target moving at 16 m/s. 41 figs.

  4. High Efficiency, Illumination Quality OLEDs for Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joseph Shiang; James Cella; Kelly Chichak; Anil Duggal; Kevin Janora; Chris Heller; Gautam Parthasarathy; Jeffery Youmans; Joseph Shiang

    2008-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of the program was to demonstrate a 45 lumen per watt white light device based upon the use of multiple emission colors through the use of solution processing. This performance level is a dramatic extension of the team's previous 15 LPW large area illumination device. The fundamental material system was based upon commercial polymer materials. The team was largely able to achieve these goals, and was able to deliver to DOE a 90 lumen illumination source that had an average performance of 34 LPW a 1000 cd/m{sup 2} with peak performances near 40LPW. The average color temperature is 3200K and the calculated CRI 85. The device operated at a brightness of approximately 1000cd/m{sup 2}. The use of multiple emission colors particularly red and blue, provided additional degrees of design flexibility in achieving white light, but also required the use of a multilayered structure to separate the different recombination zones and prevent interconversion of blue emission to red emission. The use of commercial materials had the advantage that improvements by the chemical manufacturers in charge transport efficiency, operating life and material purity could be rapidly incorporated without the expenditure of additional effort. The program was designed to take maximum advantage of the known characteristics of these material and proceeded in seven steps. (1) Identify the most promising materials, (2) assemble them into multi-layer structures to control excitation and transport within the OLED, (3) identify materials development needs that would optimize performance within multilayer structures, (4) build a prototype that demonstrates the potential entitlement of the novel multilayer OLED architecture (5) integrate all of the developments to find the single best materials set to implement the novel multilayer architecture, (6) further optimize the best materials set, (7) make a large area high illumination quality white OLED. A photo of the final deliverable is shown. In 2003, a large area, OLED based illumination source was demonstrated that could provide light with a quality, quantity, and efficiency on par with what can be achieved with traditional light sources. The demonstration source was made by tiling together 16 separate 6-inch x 6-inch blue-emitting OLEDs. The efficiency, total lumen output, and lifetime of the OLED based illumination source were the same as what would be achieved with an 80 watt incandescent bulb. The devices had an average efficacy of 15 LPW and used solution-processed OLEDs. The individual 6-inch x 6-inch devices incorporated three technology strategies developed specifically for OLED lighting -- downconversion for white light generation, scattering for outcoupling efficiency enhancement, and a scalable monolithic series architecture to enable large area devices. The downconversion approach consists of optically coupling a blue-emitting OLED to a set of luminescent layers. The layers are chosen to absorb the blue OLED emission and then luminescence with high efficiency at longer wavelengths. The composition and number of layers are chosen so that the unabsorbed blue emission and the longer wavelength re-emission combine to make white light. A downconversion approach has the advantage of allowing a wide variety of colors to be made from a limited set of blue emitters. In addition, one does not have to carefully tune the emission wavelength of the individual electro-luminescent species within the OLED device in order to achieve white light. The downconversion architecture used to develop the 15LPW large area light source consisted of a polymer-based blue-emitting OLED and three downconversion layers. Two of the layers utilized perylene based dyes from BASF AG of Germany with high quantum efficiency (>98%) and one of the layers consisted of inorganic phosphor particles (Y(Gd)AG:Ce) with a quantum efficiency of {approx}85%. By independently varying the optical density of the downconversion layers, the overall emission spectrum could be adjusted to maximize performance for lighting (e.g. blackbody temp

  5. Nonlocal effective-average-action approach to crystalline phantom membranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hasselmann, N. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Heisenbergstrasse 1, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Braghin, F. L. [International Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, 59072-970, Natal, RN (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Goias, P. B. 131, Campus II, 74001-970, Goiania, GO (Brazil)

    2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the properties of crystalline phantom membranes, at the crumpling transition and in the flat phase, using a nonperturbative renormalization group approach. We avoid a derivative expansion of the effective average action and instead analyze the full momentum dependence of the elastic coupling functions. This leads to a more accurate determination of the critical exponents and further yields the full momentum dependence of the correlation functions of the in-plane and out-of-plane fluctuation. The flow equations are solved numerically for D=2 dimensional membranes embedded in a d=3 dimensional space. Within our approach we find a crumpling transition of second order which is characterized by an anomalous exponent {eta}{sub c}{approx_equal}0.63(8) and the thermal exponent {nu}{approx_equal}0.69. Near the crumpling transition the order parameter of the flat phase vanishes with a critical exponent {beta}{approx_equal}0.22. The flat phase anomalous dimension is {eta}{sub f}{approx_equal}0.85 and the Poisson's ratio inside the flat phase is found to be {sigma}{sub f}{approx_equal}-1/3. At the crumpling transition we find a much larger negative value of the Poisson's ratio {sigma}{sub c}{approx_equal}-0.71(5). We discuss further in detail the different regimes of the momentum dependent fluctuations, both in the flat phase and in the vicinity of the crumpling transition, and extract the crossover momentum scales which separate them.

  6. Clementine Observations of the Zodiacal Light and the Dust Content of the Inner Solar System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hahn, Joseph M.

    Clementine Observations of the Zodiacal Light and the Dust Content of the Inner Solar System Joseph Road 1, Houston, TX 77058 Bonnie Cooper Oceaneering Space Systems, 16665 Space Center Boulevard solar radii to the orbit of Venus. The averaged ecliptic surface brightness of the zodiacal light falls

  7. Sandia Energy - (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting: Science...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the third and upcoming revolution (illumination). Topics cover the basics of light-emitting diode (LED) operation; a 200-year history of lighting technology; the importance of...

  8. Sandia National Laboratories: (Lighting and) Solid-State Lighting...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the third and upcoming revolution (illumination). Topics cover the basics of light-emitting diode (LED) operation; a 200-year history of lighting technology; the importance of...

  9. Columbia Water and Light- HVAC and Lighting Efficiency Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water and Light (CWL) offers rebates to its commercial and industrial customers for the purchase of high efficiency HVAC installations and efficient lighting. Incentives for certain...

  10. Reading Municipal Light Department- Business Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reading Municipal Light Department (RMLD) offers incentives for non-residential customers to install energy efficient lights and sensors in existing facilities. In addition to rebates for the...

  11. Peninsula Light Company- Commercial Efficient Lighting Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Peninsula Light Company (PLC) offers a rebate program for commercial customers who wish to upgrade to energy efficient lighting. Participating customers must be served by PLC commercial service....

  12. Light Duty Combustion Research: Advanced Light-Duty Combustion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    duty Diesel Combustion Research Advanced Light-Duty Combustion Experiments Paul Miles Sandia National Laboratories Light-Duty Combustion Modeling Rolf Reitz University of Wisconsin...

  13. Fuel Economy of the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The U.S. fleet of light-duty vehicles consists of cars and light trucks, including minivans, sport utility vehicles (SUVs) and trucks with gross vehicle weight less than 8,500 pounds. The fuel economy of light-duty vehicles is regulated by the (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) CAFE standards set by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration. Currently, the CAFE standard is 27.5 miles per gallon (mpg) for cars and 20.7 mpg for light trucks. The most recent increase in the CAFE standard for cars was in 1990, and the most recent increase in the CAFE standard for light trucks was in 1996.

  14. Efficient Light Sources Today

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, A. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper reviews new lamp and lighting technology in terms of application and economic impact. Included are the latest advances in High Intensity Discharge systems, energy saving fluorescent lamps and ballasts, and the new state of the art high...

  15. Natural lighting and skylights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Evans, Benjamin Hampton

    1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    outlined herein, the feasibility of using scale models for studying skylights is also an established fact. The method of analysis by models can be a valuable tool to any designer who is concerned about day-lighting....

  16. National Synchrotron Light Source

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A tour of Brookhaven's National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the world's most widely used scientific research facilities, hosting more than 2,500 guest researchers each year. The NSLS provides intense beams of infrared, ultraviole

  17. Light Vector Mesons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander Milov

    2008-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This article reviews the current status of experimental results obtained in the measurement of light vector mesons produced in proton-proton and heavy ion collisions at different energies. The review is focused on two phenomena related to the light vector mesons; the modification of the spectral shape in search of Chiral symmetry restoration and suppression of the meson production in heavy ion collisions. The experimental results show that the spectral shape of light vector mesons are modified compared to the parameters measured in vacuum. The nature and the magnitude of the modification depends on the energy density of the media in which they are produced. The suppression patterns of light vector mesons are different from the measurements of other mesons and baryons. The mechanisms responsible for the suppression of the mesons are not yet understood. Systematic comparison of existing experimental results points to the missing data which may help to resolve the problem.

  18. Light & Engineering Svetotekhnika Vol. 16, No. 2, pp. 5-24, 2008 No. 2, 2008, pp. 4-11

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Arne

    that allow them to compete with fluo- rescent lighting for off-grid applications in the de- veloping world evaluation of a number of commercially available off-grid WLED lighting systems (lights plus batteries plus popularity of off-grid WLED lighting, the rate at which new products are being introduced, and the inception

  19. Light and Plants Plants use light to photosynthesize. Name two places that light can come from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koptur, Suzanne

    Light and Plants Plants use light to photosynthesize. Name two places that light can come from: 1 (CO2, a gas) from the air and turn it into SUGARS (food). This process is powered by energy from light plants) for energy. Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) is a combination of red light and blue

  20. Recovery Act: Energy Efficiency of Data Networks through Rate Adaptation (EEDNRA) - Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Andrews; Spyridon Antonakopoulos; Steve Fortune; Andrea Francini; Lisa Zhang

    2011-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    This Concept Definition Study focused on developing a scientific understanding of methods to reduce energy consumption in data networks using rate adaptation. Rate adaptation is a collection of techniques that reduce energy consumption when traffic is light, and only require full energy when traffic is at full provisioned capacity. Rate adaptation is a very promising technique for saving energy: modern data networks are typically operated at average rates well below capacity, but network equipment has not yet been designed to incorporate rate adaptation. The Study concerns packet-switching equipment, routers and switches; such equipment forms the backbone of the modern Internet. The focus of the study is on algorithms and protocols that can be implemented in software or firmware to exploit hardware power-control mechanisms. Hardware power-control mechanisms are widely used in the computer industry, and are beginning to be available for networking equipment as well. Network equipment has different performance requirements than computer equipment because of the very fast rate of packet arrival; hence novel power-control algorithms are required for networking. This study resulted in five published papers, one internal report, and two patent applications, documented below. The specific technical accomplishments are the following: • A model for the power consumption of switching equipment used in service-provider telecommunication networks as a function of operating state, and measured power-consumption values for typical current equipment. • An algorithm for use in a router that adapts packet processing rate and hence power consumption to traffic load while maintaining performance guarantees on delay and throughput. • An algorithm that performs network-wide traffic routing with the objective of minimizing energy consumption, assuming that routers have less-than-ideal rate adaptivity. • An estimate of the potential energy savings in service-provider networks using feasibly-implementable rate adaptivity. • A buffer-management algorithm that is designed to reduce the size of router buffers, and hence energy consumed. • A packet-scheduling algorithm designed to minimize packet-processing energy requirements. Additional research is recommended in at least two areas: further exploration of rate-adaptation in network switching equipment, including incorporation of rate-adaptation in actual hardware, allowing experimentation in operational networks; and development of control protocols that allow parts of networks to be shut down while minimizing disruption to traffic flow in the network. The research is an integral part of a large effort within Bell Laboratories, Alcatel-Lucent, aimed at dramatic improvements in the energy efficiency of telecommunication networks. This Study did not explicitly consider any commercialization opportunities.

  1. Light and Energy -Daylight measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Light and Energy - Daylight measurements #12;Light and Energy - Daylight measurements Authors: Jens;3 Title Light and Energy Subtitle Daylight measurements Authors Jens Christoffersen, Ásta Logadóttir ........................................................................................................ 5 Daylight quantity

  2. Light as a Healing Mechanism

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lingampalli, Nithya

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S. (1991). Meridians conduct light. Moskow: Raum and Zeit.the bod’ys absorption of light. Explore, 9(2), doi: https://01). The healing use of light and color. Health Care Design

  3. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yuan, Thomas; Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald

    2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  4. Solid state lighting component

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keller, Bernd; Ibbetson, James; Tarsa, Eric; Negley, Gerald; Yuan, Thomas

    2012-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An LED component comprising an array of LED chips mounted on a planar surface of a submount with the LED chips capable of emitting light in response to an electrical signal. The LED chips comprise respective groups emitting at different colors of light, with each of the groups interconnected in a series circuit. A lens is included over the LED chips. Other embodiments can comprise thermal spreading structures included integral to the submount and arranged to dissipate heat from the LED chips.

  5. Historical river flow rates for dose calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlton, W.H.

    1991-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Annual average river flow rates are required input to the LADTAP Computer Code for calculating offsite doses from liquid releases of radioactive materials to the Savannah River. The source of information on annual river flow rates used in dose calculations varies, depending on whether calculations are for retrospective releases or prospective releases. Examples of these types of releases are: Retrospective - releases from routine operations (annual environmental reports) and short term release incidents that have occurred. Prospective - releases that might be expected in the future from routine or abnormal operation of existing or new facilities (EIS`s, EID`S, SAR`S, etc.). This memorandum provides historical flow rates at the downstream gauging station at Highway 301 for use in retrospective dose calculations and derives flow rate data for the Beaufort-Jasper and Port Wentworth water treatment plants.

  6. July 18, 2012 Using QECBs for Street Lighting Upgrades

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    lighting technologies (e.g. light-emitting diodes, induction lighting) can reduce street light energy

  7. Tycho Brahe's supernova: light from centuries past

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pilar Ruiz-Lapuente

    2003-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The light curve of SN 1572 is described in the terms used nowadays to characterize SNeIa. By assembling the records of the observations done in 1572--74 and evaluating their uncertainties, it is possible to recover the light curve and the color evolution of this supernova. It is found that, within the SNe Ia family, the event should have been a SNIa with a normal rate of decline, its stretch factor being {\\it s} $\\sim$ 0.9. Visual light curve near maximum, late--time decline and the color evolution sustain this conclusion. After correcting for extinction, the luminosity of this supernova is found to be M$_{V}$ $=$ --19.58 --5 log (D/3.5 kpc) $\\pm$ 0.42.

  8. Tycho Brahe's supernova: light from centuries past

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruiz-Lapuente, P

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The light curve of SN 1572 is described in the terms used nowadays to characterize SNeIa. By assembling the records of the observations done in 1572--74 and evaluating their uncertainties, it is possible to recover the light curve and the color evolution of this supernova. It is found that, within the SNe Ia family, the event should have been a SNIa with a normal rate of decline, its stretch factor being {\\it s} $\\sim$ 0.9. Visual light curve near maximum, late--time decline and the color evolution sustain this conclusion. After correcting for extinction, the luminosity of this supernova is found to be M$_{V}$ $=$ --19.58 --5 log (D/3.5 kpc) $\\pm$ 0.42.

  9. Efficient Spectral Broadening in the 100-W Average Power Regime Using Gas Filled Kagome HC-PCF and Pulse Compression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Emaury, Florian; Debord, Benoit; Ghosh, Debashri; Diebold, Andreas; Gerome, Frederic; Suedmeyer, Thomas; Benabid, Fetah; Keller, Ursula

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present nonlinear pulse compression of a high-power SESAM-modelocked thin-disk laser (TDL) using an Ar-filled hypocycloid-core Kagome Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber (HC-PCF). The output of the modelocked Yb:YAG TDL with 127 W average power, a pulse repetition rate of 7 MHz, and a pulse duration of 740 fs was spectrally broadened 16-fold while propagating in a Kagome HC-PCF containing 13 bar of static Argon gas. Subsequent compression tests performed using 8.4% of the full available power resulted in a pulse duration as short as 88 fs using the spectrally broadened output from the fiber. Compressing the full transmitted power through the fiber (118 W) could lead to a compressed output of >100 W of average power and >100 MW of peak power with an average power compression efficiency of 88%. This simple laser system with only one ultrafast laser oscillator and a simple single-pass fiber pulse compressor, generating both high peak power >100 MW and sub-100-fs pulses at megahertz repetition rate, is very int...

  10. Sandia National Laboratories: White Light Creation Architectures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Light Creation Architectures White Light Creation Architectures Overview of SSL White Light Creation Architectures The entire spectral range of visible light can be...

  11. Sandia National Laboratories: Lighting Developments to 2030

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ClimateLighting Developments to 2030 Lighting Developments to 2030 videobanner Lighting Technologies, Costs, and Energy Demand: Global Developments to 2030 V iew Slides: Lighting...

  12. Interior Light Level Measurements Appendix F -Interior Light Level Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Appendix F ­ Interior Light Level Measurements #12;F.1 Appendix F - Interior Light Level. A potential concern is that a lower VT glazing may increase electric lighting use to compensate for lost qualify and quantify a representative loss of daylighting, and therefore electric lighting use

  13. Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wornell, Gregory W.

    Quasi light fields: extending the light field to coherent radiation Anthony Accardi1,2 and Gregory light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of coherent image formation that strikes a balance between the utility of the light field

  14. Lighting affects appearance LightSource emits photons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobs, David

    1 Lighting affects appearance #12;2 LightSource emits photons Photons travel in a straight line). And then some reach the eye/camera. #12;3 Basic fact: Light is linear Double intensity of sources, double photons reaching eye. Turn on two lights, and photons reaching eye are same as sum of number when each

  15. Smart Lighting: A Second Wave in Solid State Lighting?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    Smart Lighting: A Second Wave in Solid State Lighting? OIDA Conference on Green Photonics Bob Karlicek Director, Smart Lighting Engineering Research Center Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute June 2010 #12;2 Outline · The First Wave of Solid State Lighting · Complex Dynamics in the Supply Chain · What

  16. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antonio Enea Romano

    2007-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  17. LTB universes as alternatives to dark energy: does positive averaged acceleration imply positive cosmic acceleration?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romano, A E

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that positive averaged acceleration obtained in LTB models through spatial averaging can require integration over a region beyond the event horizon of the central observer. We provide an example of a LTB model with positive averaged acceleration in which the luminosity distance does not contain information about the entire spatially averaged region, making the averaged acceleration unobservable. Since the cosmic acceleration is obtained from fitting the observed luminosity distance to a FRW model we conclude that in general a positive averaged acceleration in LTB models does not imply a positive FRW cosmic acceleration.

  18. Intraclass Price Elasticity & Electric Rate Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gresham, K. E.

    INTRACLASS PRICE ELASTICITY &ELECTRIC RATE DESIGN KEVIN E. GRESHAM Senior Research Analyst Houston Lighting & Power Company Houston, Texas ABSTRACT PRICE ELASTICITY Electric ~ate design relies on cost incur rance for pricing and pricing... industries are already affecting electric utilities. Cogeneration is one example of competition which effects electric utilities. Utilities now have a competing source of generation which often causes load and revenue losses. Competition has specifically...

  19. Sneaky light stop

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eifert, Till; Nachman, Benjamin

    2015-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light supersymmetric top quark partner (stop) with a mass nearly degenerate with that of the standard model (SM) top quark can evade direct searches. The precise measurement of SM top properties such as the cross-section has been suggested to give a handle for this ‘stealth stop’ scenario. We present an estimate of the potential impact a light stop may have on top quark mass measurements. The results indicate that certain light stop models may induce a bias of up to a few GeV, and that this effect can hide the shift in, and hence sensitivity from, cross-section measurements. Duemore »to the different initial states, the size of the bias is slightly different between the LHC and the Tevatron. The studies make some simplifying assumptions for the top quark measurement technique, and are based on truth-level samples.« less

  20. Pupillary efficient lighting system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA); Jewett, Don L. (Mill Valley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lighting system having at least two independent lighting subsystems each with a different ratio of scotopic illumination to photopic illumination. The radiant energy in the visible region of the spectrum of the lighting subsystems can be adjusted relative to each other so that the total scotopic illumination of the combined system and the total photopic illumination of the combined system can be varied independently. The dilation or contraction of the pupil of an eye is controlled by the level of scotopic illumination and because the scotopic and photopic illumination can be separately controlled, the system allows the pupil size to be varied independently of the level of photopic illumination. Hence, the vision process can be improved for a given level of photopic illumination.

  1. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  2. Light harvesting arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindsey, Jonathan S. (Raleigh, NC)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A light harvesting array useful for the manufacture of devices such as solar cells comprises: (a) a first substrate comprising a first electrode; and (b) a layer of light harvesting rods electrically coupled to the first electrode, each of the light harvesting rods comprising a polymer of Formula I: X.sup.1.paren open-st.X.sup.m+1).sub.m (I) wherein m is at least 1, and may be from two, three or four to 20 or more; X.sup.1 is a charge separation group (and preferably a porphyrinic macrocycle, which may be one ligand of a double-decker sandwich compound) having an excited-state of energy equal to or lower than that of X.sup.2, and X.sup.2 through X.sup.m+1 are chromophores (and again are preferably porphyrinic macrocycles).

  3. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 4 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. 130.1 (a) Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. 130.1 (b) Multi-level Controls: Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light level for each

  4. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 3 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. 130.1 (a) Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. 130.1 (b) Multi-level Controls: "Dimmability." Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light

  5. MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    MANDATORY MEASURES INDOOR LIGHTING CONTROLS (Reference: Sub-Chapter 4, Section 130.1) #12;SECTION 5 MANDATORY LIGHTING CONTROLS 1. Area Controls: Manual controls that control lighting in each area separately 2. Multi-level Controls: Allow occupants to choose the appropriate light level for each area 3. Shut

  6. LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    SECTION 3 LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology 2. Sources & luminaires 3. Controls #12;SECTION 3SECTION 3 DISCUSSION: COMMON LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY 1. What are the definitions of the following lighting terms? 2. Do you use these terms in professional practice? 3. What other lighting terminology do you use

  7. LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Davis, University of

    LIGHTING 101 1. Common terminology 2. Sources and luminaires 3. Controls #12;SECTION 2 DISCUSSION: COMMON LIGHTING TERMINOLOGY 1. What are the definitions of the following lighting terms? 2. Do you use these terms in professional practice? 3. What other lighting terminology do you use on the job? SLIDE 14

  8. Radioluminescent lighting technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The glow-in-the-dark stereotype that characterizes the popular image of nuclear materials is not accidental. When the French scientist, Henri Becquerel, first discovered radioactivity in 1896, he was interested in luminescence. Radioluminescence, the production of light from a mixture of energetic and passive materials, is probably the oldest practical application of the unstable nucleus. Tritium-based radioluminescent lighting, in spite of the biologically favorable character of the gaseous tritium isotope, was included in the general tightening of environmental and safety regulations. Tritium light manufacturers would have to meet two fundamental conditions: (1) The benefit clearly outweighed the risk, to the extent that even the perceived risk of a skeptical public would be overcome. (2) The need was significant enough that the customer/user would be willing and able to afford the cost of regulation that was imposed both in the manufacture, use and eventual disposal of nuclear materials. In 1981, researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory were investigating larger radioluminescent applications using byproduct nuclear material such as krypton-85, as well as tritium. By 1982, it appeared that large source, (100 Curies or more) tritium gas tube, lights might be useful for marking runways and drop zones for military operations and perhaps even special civilian aviation applications. The successful development of this idea depended on making the light bright enough and demonstrating that large gas tube sources could be used and maintained safely in the environment. This successful DOE program is now in the process of being completed and closed-out. Working closely with the tritium light industry, State governments and other Federal agencies, the basic program goals have been achieved. This is a detailed report of what they have learned, proven, and discovered. 91 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs. (JF)

  9. Standing crop dynamics under simulated short-duration grazing at four stocking rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Casco, Jose Francisco

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature (4 C ) for the years 1981 and 1982 and the 30-year average for the period 1951-1982, from Easterwood Airport, College Station, Texas. 17 Table 3. Grazing cycles, dates, days grazed, number of animals used, and average weight for a simulated... variable occurred when stocking rate increased. c) No changes in the mean response variable occurred across grazing cycles. LITERATURE REVIEW Stocking Rate and Animal Relationships Stocking rate has been defined as the accumulative forage demand per...

  10. Fact #638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    8: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to Family Earnings Fact 638: August 30, 2010 Average Expenditure for a New Car Declines in Relation to...

  11. Rate Schedule CPP-2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CPP-2 (Supersedes Schedule CPP-1) UNITED STATES DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY WESTERN AREA POWER ADMINISTRATION CENTRAL VALLEY PROJECT SCHEDULE OF RATES FOR CUSTOM PRODUCT POWER Effective:...

  12. LCC Guidance Rates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Notepad text file provides the LCC guidance rates in a numbered format for the various regions throughout the U.S.

  13. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charges or credits associated with the creation, termination, or modification to any tariff, contract, or rate schedule accepted or approved by the Federal Energy Regulatory...

  14. Residential Solar Valuation Rates

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Residential Solar Valuation Rates Karl R. Rbago Rbago Energy LLC 1 The Ideal Residential Solar Tariff Fair to the utility and non-solar customers Fair compensation to...

  15. S86 JUNE 2006| above-average precipitation totals for the year, caus-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, but below average for June in Bulgaria. Rainfall totals in April and June

  16. Jitter Studies for a 2.4 GeV Light Source Accelerator Using LiTrack

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Penn, Gregory E

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S2E simulations on jitter for European XFEL project,”Jitter Studies for a 2.4 GeV Light Source Accelerator Usingpeak current, and energy chirp. Jitter in average energy is

  17. Windows and lighting program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    More than 30% of all energy use in buildings is attributable to two sources: windows and lighting. Together they account for annual consumer energy expenditures of more than $50 billion. Each affects not only energy use by other major building systems, but also comfort and productivity -- factors that influence building economics far more than does direct energy consumption alone. Windows play a unique role in the building envelope, physically separating the conditioned space from the world outside without sacrificing vital visual contact. Throughout the indoor environment, lighting systems facilitate a variety of tasks associated with a wide range of visual requirements while defining the luminous qualities of the indoor environment. Windows and lighting are thus essential components of any comprehensive building science program. Despite important achievements in reducing building energy consumption over the past decade, significant additional savings are still possible. These will come from two complementary strategies: (1) improve building designs so that they effectively apply existing technologies and extend the market penetration of these technologies; and (2) develop advanced technologies that increase the savings potential of each application. Both the Windows and Daylighting Group and the Lighting System Research Group have made substantial contributions in each of these areas, and continue to do so through the ongoing research summarized here. 23 refs., 16 figs.

  18. AIRPORT LIGHTING Session Highlights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Administration advisory circulars, available online at www.faa.gov or by mail at the following address: Federal Aviation Administration, Airports 800 Independence Ave. S.W. Washington, D.C. 20591 To qualify for federal AND NAVIGATIONAL AIDS A complete list of federal regulations for airfield lighting is located in Federal Aviation

  19. Tokyo Street Lights

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hacker, Randi; Tsutsui, William

    2008-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

    that you have only 17, no 16, no 15 seconds left to get to the other side before the light changes and the impatient American drivers put the pedal to the metal and it's road kill time. Talk about stress! In Tokyo, crossing the street is a leisurely...

  20. Sweetness and light 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Craig, Katie

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    1. Sweetness and Light. A novel. Judi lives in a nice, clean house with her seventeen year old stepson, who won’t talk to her in anything but monosyllables. His father, Nelson, and she are struggling to relate to each ...

  1. Power Rate Cases (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  2. Power Rates Announcements (pbl/rates)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah Project OfficePower Electronics Power Electronics PowerPowerRates

  3. Superposed Coherent and Squeezed Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fesseha Kassahun

    2012-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    We first calculate the mean photon number and quadrature variance of superposed coherent and squeezed light, following a procedure of analysis based on combining the Hamiltonians and using the usual definition for the quadrature variance of superposed light beams. This procedure of analysis leads to physically unjustifiable mean photon number of the coherent light and quadrature variance of the superposed light. We then determine both of these properties employing a procedure of analysis based on superposing the Q functions and applying a slightly modified definition for the quadrature variance of a pair of superposed light beams. We find the expected mean photon number of the coherent light and the quadrature variance of the superposed light. Moreover, the quadrature squeezing of the superposed output light turns out to be equal to that of the superposed cavity light.

  4. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, Robert C. (Santa Fe, NM); Quigley, Gerard P. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm.sup.2 emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm.sup.2 at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing.

  5. Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sze, R.C.; Quigley, G.P.

    1996-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Large area, surface discharge pumped, vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) light source is disclosed. A contamination-free VUV light source having a 225 cm{sup 2} emission area in the 240-340 nm region of the electromagnetic spectrum with an average output power in this band of about 2 J/cm{sup 2} at a wall-plug efficiency of approximately 5% is described. Only ceramics and metal parts are employed in this surface discharge source. Because of the contamination-free, high photon energy and flux, and short pulse characteristics of the source, it is suitable for semiconductor and flat panel display material processing. 3 figs.

  6. Hybrid Solar Lighting Provides Energy Savings and Reduces Waste Heat

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapsa, Melissa Voss [ORNL; Maxey, L Curt [ORNL; Earl, Dennis Duncan [ORNL; Beshears, David L [ORNL; Ward, Christina D [ORNL; Parks, James Edgar [ORNL

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Artificial lighting is the largest component of electricity use in commercial U.S. buildings. Hybrid solar lighting (HSL) provides an exciting new means of reducing energy consumption while also delivering significant ancillary benefits associated with natural lighting in buildings. As more than half of all federal facilities are in the Sunbelt region (defined as having an average direct solar radiation of greater than 4 kWh/m2/day) and as more than half of all square footage available in federal buildings is also in the Sunbelt, HSL is an excellent technology fit for federal facilities. The HSL technology uses a rooftop, 4-ft-wide dish and secondary mirror that track the sun throughout the day (Fig. 1). The collector system focuses the sunlight onto 127 optical fibers. The fibers serve as flexible light pipes and are connected to hybrid light fixtures that have special diffusion rods that spread out the light in all directions. One collector powers about eight hybrid light fixtures-which can illuminate about 1,000 square feet. The system tracks at 0.1 accuracy, required by the two-mirror geometry to keep the focused beam on the fiber bundle. When sunlight is plentiful, the optical fibers in the luminaires provide all or most of the light needed in an area. During times of little or no sunlight, a sensor controls the intensity of the artificial lamps to maintain a desired illumination level. Unlike conventional electric lamps, the natural light produces little to no waste heat and is cool to the touch. This is because the system's solar collector removes the infrared light-the part of the spectrum that generates a lot of the heat in conventional bulbs-from the sunlight.

  7. Michigan Technological University FRESHMAN-COHORT GRADUATION RATES All Students Student-Athletes #

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -Athletes # 2005-06 Graduation Rate 65% 76% Four-Class Average 65% 67% Student-Athlete Academic Success Rate 83% 1. Graduation-Rates Data a. All Students Freshman Rate Men 2005-06 4-Class N % N % Am. Ind./AN *** *** 31 45 Freshman Rate Women 2005-06 4-Class N % N % *** *** 15 53 4 50 12 50 *** *** 21 57 4 75 8 75

  8. Transformations in Lighting: The Ninth Annual Solid-State Lighting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in DOE's "Transformations in Lighting" Solid-State Lighting (SSL) R&D Workshop. DOE SSL Portfolio Manager James Brodrick kicked off Day 1 by observing that although LED...

  9. Solid State Lighting Program (Falcon)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meeks, Steven

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Over the past two years, KLA-Tencor and partners successfully developed and deployed software and hardware tools that increase product yield for High Brightness LED (HBLED) manufacturing and reduce product development and factory ramp times. This report summarizes our development effort and details of how the results of the Solid State Light Program (Falcon) have started to help HBLED manufacturers optimize process control by enabling them to flag and correct identified killer defect conditions at any point of origin in the process manufacturing flow. This constitutes a quantum leap in yield management over current practice. Current practice consists of die dispositioning which is just rejection of bad die at end of process based upon probe tests, loosely assisted by optical in-line monitoring for gross process deficiencies. For the first time, and as a result of our Solid State Lighting Program, our LED manufacturing partners have obtained the software and hardware tools that optimize individual process steps to control killer defects at the point in the processes where they originate. Products developed during our two year program enable optimized inspection strategies for many product lines to minimize cost and maximize yield. The Solid State Lighting Program was structured in three phases: i) the development of advanced imaging modes that achieve clear separation between LED defect types, improves signal to noise and scan rates, and minimizes nuisance defects for both front end and back end inspection tools, ii) the creation of defect source analysis (DSA) software that connect the defect maps from back-end and front-end HBLED manufacturing tools to permit the automatic overlay and traceability of defects between tools and process steps, suppress nuisance defects, and identify the origin of killer defects with process step and conditions, and iii) working with partners (Philips Lumileds) on product wafers, obtain a detailed statistical correlation of automated defect and DSA map overlay to failed die identified using end product probe test results. Results from our two year effort have led to “automated end-to-end defect detection” with full defect traceability and the ability to unambiguously correlate device killer defects to optically detected features and their point of origin within the process. Success of the program can be measured by yield improvements at our partner’s facilities and new product orders.

  10. 2010FirmRateAdj

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Firm Power Rates & Rate Schedules The Pick-Sloan Missouri Basin Program--Eastern Division: Firm Electric Service Pick Sloan Missouri River -Eastern Division Rates Effective...

  11. Light cone matrix product

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hastings, Matthew B [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how to combine the light-cone and matrix product algorithms to simulate quantum systems far from equilibrium for long times. For the case of the XXZ spin chain at {Delta} = 0.5, we simulate to a time of {approx} 22.5. While part of the long simulation time is due to the use of the light-cone method, we also describe a modification of the infinite time-evolving bond decimation algorithm with improved numerical stability, and we describe how to incorporate symmetry into this algorithm. While statistical sampling error means that we are not yet able to make a definite statement, the behavior of the simulation at long times indicates the appearance of either 'revivals' in the order parameter as predicted by Hastings and Levitov (e-print arXiv:0806.4283) or of a distinct shoulder in the decay of the order parameter.

  12. The Advanced Light Source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, A.

    1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a national user facility currently under construction at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL), is a third-generation synchrotron light source designed to produce extremely bright beams of synchrotron radiation in the energy range from a few eV to 10 keV. The design is based on a 1--1.9-GeV electron storage ring (optimized at 1.5 GeV), and utilizes special magnets, known as undulators and wigglers (collectively referred to as insertion devices), to generate the radiation. The facility is scheduled to begin operating in April 1993. In this paper we describe the progress in the design, construction, and commissioning of the accelerator systems, insertion devices, and beamlines. Companion presentations at this conference give more detail of specific components in the ALS, and describe the activities towards establishing an exciting user program. 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  14. Fusion pumped light source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pappas, Daniel S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus is provided for generating energy in the form of light radiation. A fusion reactor is provided for generating a long, or continuous, pulse of high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux is coupled directly with the lasing medium. The lasing medium includes a first component selected from Group O of the periodic table of the elements and having a high inelastic scattering cross section. Gamma radiation from the inelastic scattering reactions interacts with the first component to excite the first component, which decays by photon emission at a first output wavelength. The first output wavelength may be shifted to a second output wavelength using a second liquid component responsive to the first output wavelength. The light outputs may be converted to a coherent laser output by incorporating conventional optics adjacent the laser medium.

  15. Noisy quadrature of squeezed light and laser cooling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. M. Saxena; A. Agarwal

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The laser cooling of atoms is a result of the combined effect of doppler shift, light shift and polarization gradient. These are basically undesirable phenomena. However, they combine gainfully in realizing laser cooling and trapping of the atoms. In this paper we discuss the laser cooling of atoms in the presence of the squeezed light with the decay of atomic dipole moment into noisy quadrature. We show that the higher decay rate of the atomic dipole moment into the noisy quadrature, which is also an undesirable effect, may contribute in realizing larger cooling force vis-a-vis normal laser light.

  16. Solar light bulb

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.A.

    1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for generating light directly using solar energy is provided herein. It includes a concentrator and accumulator for the sun's rays to generate a concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. A distributor shaft is provided for distributing the beam of visible solar radiation. A fork is provided in the distributor shaft to define a plurality of branch lines, each provided with a mirror at the intersection to direct the beam down the respective branch line to permit parallel fractions of the beam to be reflected off the respective mirrors and to pass down the respective branch line. A solar bulb is provided including a double walled upper bulbous portion including the inlet from the branch line and a pair of heat outlet tubes, and a double walled lower bulbous portion, the upper portion thereof being divergently reflective, with the lower portion having walls which are either transparent or translucent to provide greater light diffusion, and the space between the two walls being maintained under vacuum to provide heat insulation values. A structure is provided within the solar bulb for the absorption and radiation of the concentrated beam of visible solar radiation. Preferably structure is provided connected to the solar bulb to draw in outside air in the summer to direct it past the solar bulb and to air vent hot air produced at the solar bulb to the outside, thereby providing light with minimal heat in the summer. The same structure is operated in the winter to draw in household air to direct it past the solar bulb and to recirculate such heated air produced at the solar bulb to the house, thereby providing light and heat in the winter.

  17. <RatesMiscInfo>

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rates & Repayment Services Power Reporting MISCELLANEOUS REPORTING Power Supply Report October 2014 (59kb pdf) September 2014 (58kb pdf) August 2014 (47kb pdf) July 2014 (57kb pdf)...

  18. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Regulation and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 4.56 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  19. Effective Rate Period

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Frequency Response DollarsKW-month 3.98 4.17 CV-RFS4 Spinning Reserve The formula rate for spinning reserve service is the price consistent with the California...

  20. On Thermonuclear Reaction Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. J. Haubold; A. M. Mathai

    1996-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Nuclear reactions govern major aspects of the chemical evolution od galaxies and stars. Analytic study of the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals is attempted here. Exact expressions for the reaction rates and reaction probability integrals for nuclear reactions in the case of nonresonant, modified nonresonant, screened nonresonant and resonant cases are given. These are expressed in terms of H-functions, G-functions and in computable series forms. Computational aspects are also discussed.

  1. Turbo-Charged Lighting Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Clark, W. H. II

    TURBO-CHARGED LIGHTING DESIGN William H. Clark II Design Engineer O'Connell Robertson & Assoc Austin/ Texas ABSTRACT The task of the lighting designer has become very complex, involving thousands of choices for fixture types and hundreds...

  2. Energy Star Lighting Verification Program (Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conan O'Rourke; Yutao Zhou

    2006-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Program for the Evaluation and Analysis of Residential Lighting (PEARL) is a watchdog program. It was created in response to complaints received by utility program managers about the performance of certain Energy Star lighting products being promoted within their service territories and the lack of a self-policing mechanism within the lighting industry that would ensure the reliability of these products and their compliance with ENERGY STAR specifications. To remedy these problems, PEARL purchases and tests products that are available to the consumers in the marketplace. The Lighting Research Center (LRC) tests the selected products against the corresponding Energy Star specifications. This report includes the experimental procedure and data results of Cycle Three and Cycle Four of PEARL program during the period of April 2003 to October 2003, along with the description of apparatus used, equipment calibration process, experimental methodology, and research findings from the testing. The parameter tested for Cycle three is lumen maintenance at 40% rated life, and parameters tested for Cycle Four are all parameters required in Energy Star specifications except lumen maintenance at 40% rated life.

  3. Webinar: Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Video recording of the Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar, Fuel Cell Mobile Lighting, originally presented on November 13, 2012.

  4. Faster than Light Quantum Communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Y. Shiekh

    2008-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Faster than light communication might be possible using the collapse of the quantum wave-function without any accompanying paradoxes.

  5. QCD Jet Rates with the Inclusive Generalized kt Algorithms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erik Gerwick; Ben Gripaios; Steffen Schumann; Bryan Webber

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We derive generating functions, valid to next-to-double logarithmic accuracy, for QCD jet rates according to the inclusive forms of the kt, Cambridge/Aachen and anti-kt algorithms, which are equivalent at this level of accuracy. We compare the analytical results with jet rates and average jet multiplicities from the SHERPA event generator, and study the transition between Poisson-like and staircase-like behaviour of jet ratios.

  6. STATE OF CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    STATE OF CALIFORNIA RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING CEC-CF-6R-LTG-01 (Revised 08/09) CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION INSTALLATION CERTIFICATE CF-6R-LTG-01 Residential Lighting (Page 1 of 6) Site Address: Enforcement Agency: Permit Number: 2008 Residential Compliance Forms August 2009 1. Kitchen Lighting Does project

  7. Arnold Schwarzenegger, LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ;#12;Prepared By: Lighting Research Center Andrew Bierman, Project Lead Troy, New York 12180 Managed ByArnold Schwarzenegger, Governor LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM PROJECT 3.2 ENERGY EFFICIENT LOAD- SHEDDING LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY Prepared For: California Energy Commission Public Interest Energy Research

  8. Slow-light solitons revisited

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. V. Rybin; I. P. Vadeiko; A. R. Bishop

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate propagation of slow-light solitons in atomic media described by the nonlinear $\\Lambda$-model. Under a physical assumption, appropriate to the slow light propagation, we reduce the $\\Lambda$-scheme to a simplified nonlinear model, which is also relevant to 2D dilatonic gravity. Exact solutions describing various regimes of stopping slow-light solitons can then be readily derived.

  9. Plan averaging for multicriteria navigation of sliding window IMRT and VMAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craft, David, E-mail: dcraft@partners.org; Papp, Dávid; Unkelbach, Jan [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To describe a method for combining sliding window plans [intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) or volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT)] for use in treatment plan averaging, which is needed for Pareto surface navigation based multicriteria treatment planning. Methods: The authors show that by taking an appropriately defined average of leaf trajectories of sliding window plans, the authors obtain a sliding window plan whose fluence map is the exact average of the fluence maps corresponding to the initial plans. In the case of static-beam IMRT, this also implies that the dose distribution of the averaged plan is the exact dosimetric average of the initial plans. In VMAT delivery, the dose distribution of the averaged plan is a close approximation of the dosimetric average of the initial plans. Results: The authors demonstrate the method on three Pareto optimal VMAT plans created for a demanding paraspinal case, where the tumor surrounds the spinal cord. The results show that the leaf averaged plans yield dose distributions that approximate the dosimetric averages of the precomputed Pareto optimal plans well. Conclusions: The proposed method enables the navigation of deliverable Pareto optimal plans directly, i.e., interactive multicriteria exploration of deliverable sliding window IMRT and VMAT plans, eliminating the need for a sequencing step after navigation and hence the dose degradation that is caused by such a sequencing step.

  10. High-average-power, diode-pumped solid state lasers for energy and industrial applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1994-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Progress at LLNL in the development high-average-power diode-pumped solid state lasers is summarized, including the development of enabling technologies.

  11. E-Print Network 3.0 - area average temperature Sample Search...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Fisheries Sciences Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology 24 The Greenhouse Effect Temperature Equilibrium Summary: - it is neither heating nor cooling on average....

  12. Comparison of the Phenomena of Light Refraction and Gravitational Bending

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robert J. Buenker

    2009-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The properties of light in the presence of electromagnetic and gravitational fields are compared. Once one takes account of the fact that clock rates vary with distance from a massive object, it is argued that in an absolute sense light frequencies remain constant in both interactions. It is also pointed out that the criterion used by Einstein for the angle of curvature of light rays passing close to the sun is not their actual trajectory but rather Huygens' Principle. The latter only requires that the speed of light vary with distance from a gravitational source in order to produce a measurable effect. As a result, the observed displacement of star images during solar eclipses can be explained on the basis of a rotation of the wave front of light without assuming that individual photons are actually deflected by the sun. A calculation reported by Schiff in 1960 based on the assumption that light travels in a straight line for all local observers obtains the same closed expression for the angle of displacement of star images as in Einstein's original work, in support of this interpretation. Since light is believed to follow a straight-line trajectory within any given homogeneous transparent medium, it is argued that light refraction and gravitational bending have more in common than is generally realized.

  13. Replacement of Lighting Fixtures with LED Energy Efficient Lights at the Parking Facility, Milwaukee, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Brien

    2012-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Forest County Potawatomi Community (FCPC or Tribe) owns a six-story parking facility adjacent to its Potawatomi Bingo Casino (the Casino) in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, as well as a valet parking facility under the Casino (collectively, the Parking Facility). The Parking Facility contained 205-watt metal halide-type lights that, for security reasons, operated 24 hours per day, 7 days per week. Starting on August 30, 2010, the Tribe replaced these fixtures with 1,760 state-of-the-art, energy efficient 55-Watt LED lights. This project resulted in an immediate average reduction in monthly peak demand of 238 kW over the fourth quarter of 2010. The average reduction in monthly peak demand from October 1 through December 31, 2010 translates into a forecast annual electrical energy reduction of approximately 1,995,000 kWh or 47.3% of the pre-project demand. This project was technically effective, economically feasible, and beneficial to the public not only in terms of long term energy efficiency and associated emissions reductions, but also in the short-term jobs provided for the S.E. Wisconsin region. The project was implemented, from approval by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to completion, in less than 6 months. The project utilized off-the-shelf proven technologies that were fabricated locally and installed by local trade contractors.

  14. Simpler Achievable Rate Regions for Multiaccess with Finite Blocklength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lemmon, Michael

    with blocklengths as low as several hundred symbols, classical information theoretic setups consider block- lengths be encoded at a rate approaching a first order statistic (the channel average mutual information). Delay approaching infinity. Building upon information spectrum concepts and recent work on channel dispersion, we

  15. Sandia National Laboratories: efficient LED lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting Solid state lighting (SSL), which uses light-emitting diodes (LEDs), has the potential to be 10 times more energy...

  16. Sandia National Laboratories: Light Creation Materials

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    TechnologiesLight Creation Materials Light Creation Materials Overview of SSL Light Creation Materials Different families of inorganic semiconductor materials can...

  17. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piselli, Kathy

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Artificial Night Lighting Catherine Rich and Travisof artificial night lighting. This book provides editedage of modern urban lighting was ushered in. Coincidentally,

  18. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lighting Developments to 2030 On July 30, 2012, in Lighting Technologies, Costs, and Energy Demand: Global Developments to 2030 View Slides: Lighting Technologies, Costs, and...

  19. LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    REFERENCES Task Report to Lighting Systems Research,Berkeley Laboratory, "Lighting Control System Market1980). Task Report to Lighting Systems Research, Lawrence

  20. Demand Responsive Lighting: A Scoping Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubinstein, Francis; Kiliccote, Sila

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 3.0 Previous Experience with Demand Responsive Lighting11 4.3. Prevalence of Lighting13 4.4. Impact of Title 24 on Lighting

  1. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    A Rational View of LM-79 Reports, IES Files, and Product Variation Gary Steinberg, GE Lighting Solutions Solid-State Street Lighting: Calculating Light Loss Factors Dana Beckwith,...

  2. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    National Association of Energy Services Companies Calculating Light Loss Factors for Solid-State Lighting Systems Chad Stalker, Philips Lumileds Lighting Intro to MSSLC's...

  3. Light propagation and Imaging in Indefinite Metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yao, Jie

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    photolithography by polarized light,” Applied PhysicsZhang, “Imaging visible light using anisotropic metamaterialcross-sectional review of the light propagation of TE mode (

  4. Advances in Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tumber, A. J.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    colour rendition. The quartz-halogen incandescent lam s operate at higher temperatures, and have a somewhat higher efficacy, but they are rarely used except for special applicati ns. 3-2 High Intensity Discharge Lamps. Mercury is the grandfather... of the H.I.D. lamps. Its blue-green light, has been used almost exclusively for streetlighti and, often with colour-improving phospho it is still being used in industrial and commercial applications. Reactor-type ballasted mercury lamps can now...

  5. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Naomi J.; Koltai, Rita; McGowan, Terry

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This GATEWAY report discusses the problems of pedestrian lighting that occur with all technologies with a focus on the unique optical options and opportunities offered by LEDs through the findings from two pedestrian-focused projects, one at Stanford University in California, and one at the Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. Incorporating user feedback this report reviews the tradeoffs that must be weighed among visual comfort, color, visibility, efficacy and other factors to stimulate discussion among specifiers, users, energy specialists, and in industry in hopes that new approaches, metrics, and standards can be developed to support pedestrian-focused communities, while reducing energy use.

  6. Lighting Test Facilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHigh SchoolIn12electron 9 5Let us countLighting Sign In About

  7. Lighting | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual SiteofEvaluatingGroup |Jilin ZhongdiantouLichuan City Yujiang River ValleyLighting

  8. Evaluation of Methods to Increase Light Under Ferry Terminals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blanton, Susan L.; Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.; Diefenderfer, Heida L.; Southard, John A.

    2002-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    To address concerns of resource agencies about the potential impacts of ferry terminal expansion on valuable habitat functions and resource use of nearshore areas, the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in partnership with the Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT), conducted field trials with off-the-shelf products that promote light passage through dock structures. These products included a SunTunnel, deck prisms, and a metal halide greenhouse light. Light measurements (photosynthetically active radiation, PAR) were also recorded beneath glass blocks and a metal grating installed at Clinton Ferry Terminal on Whidbey Island, WA. A review of other studies measuring the effects of dock shading and alternate dock materials was conducted. PAR measurements from this study were related to minimum requirements for eelgrass Zostera marina photosynthesis and to the known maximum photosynthetic ?saturation? rate for Z. marina. We also related PAR measurements to what we know about light effects on juvenile salmonid feeding and passage under overwater structures. Of the light technologies tested, the metal halide light, SunTunnel, glass blocks, and grating potentially provide enough light for eelgrass growth underneath a ferry terminal with similar construction to the Clinton Ferry Terminal. All of these technologies would potentially provide adequate light under conditions where eelgrass is located at its upper depth limit and a dock is close to the water surface. Light levels needed to allow fish to feed and to form schools are low (~ 1-2 mmol/m2/s), and much less than those required for photosynthesis. Our research indicates that installing any of the tested light products would likely maintain light levels under the dock above those required for active feeding by juvenile salmonids.

  9. Energy Recovery Linacs for Light Source Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Neil

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy Recovery Linacs are being considered for applications in present and future light sources. ERLs take advantage of the continuous operation of superconducting rf cavities to accelerate high average current beams with low losses. The electrons can be directed through bends, undulators, and wigglers for high brightness x ray production. They are then decelerated to low energy, recovering power so as to minimize the required rf drive and electrical draw. When this approach is coupled with advanced continuous wave injectors, very high power, ultra-short electron pulse trains of very high brightness can be achieved. This paper will review the status of worldwide programs and discuss the technology challenges to provide such beams for photon production.

  10. High-strain-rate nanoindentation behavior of fine-grained magnesium alloys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Somekawa, Hidetoshi

    The effects of temperature and alloying elements on deformation in the high-strain-rate regime were investigated by testing fine-grained magnesium alloys with an average grain size of 2 ? 3 ?m by a nanoindentation technique. ...

  11. Residential electricity rates for the United States for Solcost Data Bank cities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, L. E.

    1981-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electricity rates are given for selected cities in each state, first of the Southern Solar Energy Center region and then of the rest of the US, for an average residence that uses 1000 kWh a month. (LEW)

  12. Variational bounds on the energy dissipation rate in body-forced shear flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petrov, Nikola

    , the bulk (space and time averaged) dissipation rate per unit mass is proportional to the power required applied to many flows driven by boundary conditions, including shear flows and a variety of thermal

  13. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yonit Hochberg; Yue Zhao; Kathryn M. Zurek

    2015-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  14. Superconducting Detectors for Super Light Dark Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hochberg, Yonit; Zurek, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose and study a new class of of superconducting detectors which are sensitive to O(meV) electron recoils from dark matter-electron scattering. Such devices could detect dark matter as light as the warm dark matter limit, mX > keV. We compute the rate of dark matter scattering off free electrons in a (superconducting) metal, including the relevant Pauli blocking factors. We demonstrate that classes of dark matter consistent with all astrophysical and terrestrial constraints could be detected by such detectors with a moderate size exposure.

  15. Varon Lighting Group LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are beingZealand Jump to:Ezfeedflag JumpID-fTri Global EnergyUtility Rate Home >VairexAlstyne,WindVaron Lighting

  16. Proposed Revisions to Light Truck Fuel Economy Standard (released in AEO2006)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In August 2005, the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) published proposed reforms to the structure of CAFE standards for light trucks and increases in light truck Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards for model years 2008 through 201. Under the proposed new structure, NHTSA would establish minimum fuel economy levels for six size categories defined by the vehicle footprint (wheelbase multiplied by track width), as summarized in Table 3. For model years 2008 through 2010, the new CAFE standards would provide manufacturers the option of complying with either the standards defined for each individual footprint category or a proposed average light truck fleet standard of 22.5 miles per gallon in 2008, 23.1 miles per gallon in 2009, and 23.5 miles per gallon in 2010. All light truck manufacturers would be required to meet an overall standard based on sales within each individual footprint category after model year 2010.

  17. GRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    .00 = __________ TOTALS: _________ __________ CREDITS QUALITY PTS. Divide total credits into total quality pointsGRADE NUMBER OF CREDITS FACTOR QUALITY POINTS HOW TO COMPUTE A GRADE POINT AVERAGE A _________ x 4 and the result is the grade point average (GPA). QUALITY PTS. = GPA ____________ = CREDITS

  18. Characterization of the optimal trajectories for the averaged dynamics associated to singularly perturbed control systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    trajectory of the averaged system. Key words: Optimal control, Singular perturbations, occupational measures is to study singularly perturbed control systems. Firstly, we provide linearized formulation version and sufficient conditions in order to identify the optimal trajectory of the averaged system. Linear programming

  19. Tradeoffs and Average-Case Equilibria in Selfish Routing Martin Hoefer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reiterer, Harald

    the expected price of anarchy of the game for various social cost functions. For total latency social cost cost in polyno- mial time. Furthermore, our analyses of the expected prices are average-case analyses, 2007 Abstract We consider the price of selfish routing in terms of tradeoffs and from an average

  20. A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stone, J. V.

    A spatiotemporal auto-regressive moving average model for solar radiation C.A. Glasbey and D 1). Solar radiation, averaged over ten minute intervals, was recorded at each site for two years otherwise there are too many parameters to be estimated. As we wish to simulate solar radiation on a network

  1. Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nei, Masatoshi

    Variances of the Average Numbers of Nucleotide Substitutions Within and Between Populations the variances of nucleotide diversity within pop- ulations and of nucleotide divergence between populations of the extent of DNA polymorphism is nucleotide diversity (z), which is defined as the average number of either

  2. Volume-averaged macroscopic equation for fluid flow in moving porous media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Liang; Guo, Zhaoli; Mi, Jianchun

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation are two main models used for creeping fluid flows inside moving permeable particles. For these two models, the time derivative and the nonlinear convective terms of fluid velocity are neglected in the momentum equation. In this paper, a new momentum equation including these two terms are rigorously derived from the pore-scale microscopic equations by the volume-averaging method, which can reduces to Darcy's law and the Brinkman equation under creeping flow conditions. Using the lattice Boltzmann equation method, the macroscopic equations are solved for the problem of a porous circular cylinder moving along the centerline of a channel. Galilean invariance of the equations are investigated both with the intrinsic phase averaged velocity and the phase averaged velocity. The results demonstrate that the commonly used phase averaged velocity cannot serve as the superficial velocity, while the intrinsic phase averaged velocity should be chosen for porous particulate systems.

  3. Posters | Posters --721 Exploring lighting cultures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Posters | Posters -- 721 Exploring lighting cultures Beyond light and emotions Vincent LAGANIER 1 , Jasmine van der POL 2 1. Lighting Applications Services (LiAS), Philips Lighting, France vincent.laganier@philips.com 2

  4. LIGHTING CONTROLS: SURVEY OF MARKET POTENTIAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verderber, R.R.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Floors Floor Area Lighting Power Density Light Output Lampenergy den- sity and power density for lighting to 3.5 kWh/Lighting Level (Lumens/Watt) (Footcandles) Power Density (

  5. Low-Pressure Sodium Lighting Basics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low-pressure sodium lighting provides more energy-efficient outdoor lighting than high-intensity discharge lighting, but it has very poor color rendition. Typical applications include highway and security lighting, where color is not important.

  6. On the feasibility of determining slant-range visibility by using measurements of scattered light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcomb, Fred Richard

    1972-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to vary according to the pollution sources; this prevented the use of average values of the scattering parameters. A one- light source, two-detector instrument which operated on a forward scattering angle was simulated in the numerical model... was developed that simulated the one- light source, two-detector instrument operating in the model atmospheres. The horizontal (surface) visual range and visual range of seven layers in the model atmospheres were computed. The value of the slant...

  7. Flow Rate Measurements Using Flow-Induced Pipe Vibration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. P. Evans; Jonathan D. Blotter; Alan G. Stephens

    2004-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper focuses on the possibility of a non-intrusive, low cost, flow rate measurement technique. The technique is based on signal noise from an accelerometer attached to the surface of the pipe. The signal noise is defined as the standard deviation of the frequency averaged time series signal. Experimental results are presented that indicate a nearly quadratic relationship between the signal noise and mass flow rate in the pipe. It is also shown that the signal noise - flow rate relationship is dependant on the pipe material and diameter.

  8. Radioluminescent lighting for Alaskan runway lighting and marking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, G.A.; Leonard, L.E.

    1985-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Alaska and other far northern areas have special logistical, environmental, and economic problems that make radioluminescent (RL) lighting applications, especially in the area of airport lighting, an attractive alternative to electrical systems and flare pots. Tests and demonstrations of prototype systems conducted in Alaska over the past two years have proved the basic technological worth of RL airport lighting systems for civilian and military use. If regulatory issues and other factors identified during these tests can be favorably resolved and if the system and its components can be refined through production engineering, attractive applications for RL airfield lighting systems in Alaska and other remote locations could result.

  9. Energy Savings Estimates of Light Emitting Diodes in Niche Lighting...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in Niche Lighting Applications Prepared for: Building Technologies Program Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy U.S. Department of Energy Prepared by: Navigant...

  10. Modeling light scattering from diesel soot particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hull, Patricia; Shepherd, Ian; Hunt, Arlon

    2002-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The Mie model is widely used to analyze light scattering from particulate aerosols. The Diesel Particle Scatterometer (DPS), for example, determines the size and optical properties of diesel exhaust particles that are characterized by measuring three angle-dependent elements of the Mueller scattering matrix. These elements are then fitted using Mie calculations with a Levenburg-Marquardt optimization program. This approach has achieved good fits for most experimental data. However, in many cases, the predicted real and imaginary parts of the index of refraction were less than that for solid carbon. To understand this result and explain the experimental data, we present an assessment of the Mie model by use of a light scattering model based on the coupled dipole approximation. The results indicate that the Mie calculation can be used to determine the largest dimension of irregularly shaped particles at sizes characteristic of Diesel soot and, for particles of known refractive index, tables can be constructed to determine the average porosity of the particles from the predicted index of refraction.

  11. Thermoelectrically Pumped Light-Emitting Diodes Operating above Unity Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Parthiban

    A heated semiconductor light-emitting diode at low forward bias voltage Vrates of both radiative and nonradiative recombination ...

  12. Muon capture rates within the projected QRPA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Danilo Sande Santos; Arturo R. Samana; Francisco Krmpoti?; Alejandro J. Dimarco

    2012-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The conservation of the number of particles within the QRPA plays an important role in the evaluation muon capture rates in all light nuclei with A \\precsim 30 . The violation of the CVC by the Coulomb field in this mass region is of minor importance, but this effect could be quite relevant for medium and heavy nuclei studied previously. The extreme sensitivity of the muon capture rates on the 'pp' coupling strength in nuclei with large neutron excess when described within the QRPA is pointed out. We reckon that the comparison between theory and data for the inclusive muon capture is not a fully satisfactory test on the nuclear model that is used. The exclusive muon transitions are much more robust for such a purpose.

  13. Thermal dilepton rates from quenched lattice QCD

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. -T. Ding; A. Francis; O. Kaczmarek; F. Karsch; E. Laermann; S. Mukherjee; M. Müller; W. Soeldner

    2013-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We present new lattice results on the continuum extrapolation of the vector current correlation function. Lattice calculations have been carried out in the deconfined phase at a temperature of 1.1 Tc, extending our previous results at 1.45 Tc, utilizing quenched non-perturbatively clover-improved Wilson fermions and light quark masses. A systematic analysis on multiple lattice spacings allows to perform the continuum limit of the correlation function and to extract spectral properties in the continuum limit. Our current analysis suggests the results for the electrical conductivity are proportional to the temperature and the thermal dilepton rates in the quark gluon plasma are comparable for both temperatures. Preliminary results of the continuum extrapolated correlation function at finite momenta, which relates to thermal photon rates, are also presented.

  14. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alstone, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    as a point of comparison with LED lighting product embodieda fairer comparison between off- grid LED lighting and other

  15. Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls - 2015 Peer Review Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships: Advanced Lighting Controls - 2015 Peer Review...

  16. Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects Overcoming Common Pitfalls: Energy Efficient Lighting Projects Transcript Presentation More Documents & Publications...

  17. Light Meson Distribution Amplitudes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Arthur; P. A. Boyle; D. Brömmel; M. A. Donnellan; J. M. Flynn; A. Jüttner; H. Pedroso de Lima; T. D. Rae; C. T. Sachrajda; B. Samways

    2010-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We calculated the first two moments of the light-cone distribution amplitudes for the pseudoscalar mesons ($\\pi$ and $K$) and the longitudinally polarised vector mesons ($\\rho$, $K^*$ and $\\phi$) as part of the UKQCD and RBC collaborations' $N_f=2+1$ domain-wall fermion phenomenology programme. These quantities were obtained with a good precision and, in particular, the expected effects of $SU(3)$-flavour symmetry breaking were observed. Operators were renormalised non-perturbatively and extrapolations to the physical point were made, guided by leading order chiral perturbation theory. The main results presented are for two volumes, $16^3\\times 32$ and $24^3\\times 64$, with a common lattice spacing. Preliminary results for a lattice with a finer lattice spacing, $32^3\\times64$, are discussed and a first look is taken at the use of twisted boundary conditions to extract distribution amplitudes.

  18. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R.D.; Goldner, R.B.

    1989-12-26T23:59:59.000Z

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity are disclosed. 1 fig.

  19. Energy and lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, S.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in research for new types of lighting with increased efficacies (lumens/watt) are discussed in the following areas: (1) high-frequency, solid-state ballasts, (2) isotopic enhancement of mercury isotopes, (3) magnetic augmentation, (4) electrodeless, ultra-high frequency, (5) tuned phosphors, (6) two-photon phosphors, (7) heat mirrors, and (3) advanced control circuits to take advantage of daylight and occupancy. As of 1985, improvements in efficacy have been accomplished on an economic basis to save energy for (1) high-frequency ballasts (25%), (2) isotopic enhancement (5%), and (8) advanced control circuits (up to 50%). Most of these advances depend on a deeper understanding of the weakly ionized plasma as a radiating and diffusing medium. 3 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Light modulating device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA); Goldner, Ronald B. (Lexington, MA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In a device for transmitting light, means for controlling the transmissivity of the device, including a ceramic, reversibly electrochromic, crystalline element having a highly reflective state when injected with electrons and charge compensating ions and a highly transmissive state when the electrons and ions are removed, the crystalline element being characterized as having a reflectivity of at least 50% in the reflective state and not greater than 10% in the transmissive state, and means for modulating the crystalline element between the reflective and transmissive states by injecting ions into the crystalline element in response to an applied electrical current of a first polarity and removing the ions in response to an applied electrical current of a second polarity.

  1. Ultrafast Magnetic Light

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Makarov, Sergey V; Krasnok, Alexander E; Belov, Pavel A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a novel concept for efficient dynamic tuning of optical properties of a high refractive index subwavelength nanoparticle with a magnetic Mie-type resonance by means of femtosecond laser radiation. This concept is based on ultrafast generation of electron-hole plasma within such nanoparticle, drastically changing its transient dielectric permittivity. This allows to manipulate by both electric and magnetic nanoparticle responses, resulting in dramatic changes of its extinction cross section and scattering diagram. Specifically, we demonstrate the effect of ultrafast switching-on a Huygens source in the vicinity of the magnetic dipole resonance. This approach enables to design ultrafast and compact optical switchers and modulators based on the "ultrafast magnetic light" concept.

  2. Automatic Mechetronic Wheel Light Device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Khan, Mohammed John Fitzgerald (Silver Spring, MD)

    2004-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A wheel lighting device for illuminating a wheel of a vehicle to increase safety and enhance aesthetics. The device produces the appearance of a "ring of light" on a vehicle's wheels as the vehicle moves. The "ring of light" can automatically change in color and/or brightness according to a vehicle's speed, acceleration, jerk, selection of transmission gears, and/or engine speed. The device provides auxiliary indicator lights by producing light in conjunction with a vehicle's turn signals, hazard lights, alarm systems, and etc. The device comprises a combination of mechanical and electronic components and can be placed on the outer or inner surface of a wheel or made integral to a wheel or wheel cover. The device can be configured for all vehicle types, and is electrically powered by a vehicle's electrical system and/or battery.

  3. Rotational rate sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A rate sensor for angular/rotational acceleration includes a housing defining a fluid cavity essentially completely filled with an electrolyte fluid. Within the housing, such as a toroid, ions in the fluid are swept during movement from an excitation electrode toward one of two output electrodes to provide a signal for directional rotation. One or more ground electrodes within the housing serve to neutralize ions, thus preventing any effect at the other output electrode.

  4. Previous Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergy InnovationRecentPreviouspower-rates

  5. Previous Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What's Possible forPortsmouth/Paducah ProjectPRE-AWARDenergyEnergytransmission-rates Sign In About |

  6. anticorrelation light yield: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for Light Engineering Websites Summary: Smart lighting: New Roles for Light in the Solid State Lighting World Robert F. Karlicek, Jr as the largest supplier of LED Lighting...

  7. LED Lighting Off the Grid

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    D. & Kammen, D. M. Decentralized energy systems for clean electricity access. Nature Climate Change accepted, in press, (2015). Off-Grid Status Quo : Fuel Based Lighting...

  8. Pedestrian-Friendly Nighttime Lighting

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This November 19, 2013 webinar presented issues and considerations related to pedestrian-friendly nighttime lighting, such as color rendering, safety, and adaptation. When it comes to outdoor...

  9. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  10. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  11. Utility lighting summit proves illuminating

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Utility-lighting-summit-proves-illuminating Sign In About | Careers | Contact | Investors | bpa.gov Search News & Us Expand News & Us Projects & Initiatives Expand Projects...

  12. Linac Coherent Light Source Overview

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Take an animated tour of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS). Follow the laser pulse from the injector gun all the way through to the Far Experimental Hall.

  13. Lighting with Paint FABIO PELLACINI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pellacini, Fabio

    Lighting with Paint FABIO PELLACINI Dartmouth College and FRANK BATTAGLIA, R. KEITH MORLEY, animation, rendering, optimization, painting ACM Reference Format: Pellacini, F., Battaglia, F., Morley, R

  14. Arnold Schwarzenegger LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Institute; David Shiller, Environmental Protection Agency. Program Advisory Committee: Ron Lewis Corporation; Don Aumann, California Lighting Technology Center; Holly Larsen, Larsen Communications

  15. Improved performance of high average power semiconductor arrays for applications in diode pumped solid state lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beach, R.; Emanuel, M.; Benett, W.; Freitas, B.; Ciarlo, D.; Carlson, N.; Sutton, S.; Skidmore, J.; Solarz, R.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The average power performance capability of semiconductor diode laser arrays has improved dramatically over the past several years. These performance improvements, combined with cost reductions pursued by LLNL and others in the fabrication and packaging of diode lasers, have continued to reduce the price per average watt of laser diode radiation. Presently, we are at the point where the manufacturers of commercial high average power solid state laser systems used in material processing applications can now seriously consider the replacement of their flashlamp pumps with laser diode pump sources. Additionally, a low cost technique developed and demonstrated at LLNL for optically conditioning the output radiation of diode laser arrays has enabled a new and scalable average power diode-end-pumping architecture that can be simply implemented in diode pumped solid state laser systems (DPSSL`s). This development allows the high average power DPSSL designer to look beyond the Nd ion for the first time. Along with high average power DPSSL`s which are appropriate for material processing applications, low and intermediate average power DPSSL`s are now realizable at low enough costs to be attractive for use in many medical, electronic, and lithographic applications.

  16. Advanced Light Source control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Magyary, S.; Chin, M.; Cork, C.; Fahmie, M.; Lancaster, H.; Molinari, P.; Ritchie, A.; Robb, A.; Timossi, C.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Advanced Light Source (ALS) is a third generation 1--2 GeV synchrotron radiation source designed to provide ports for 60 beamlines. It uses a 50 MeV electron linac and 1.5 GeV, 1 Hz, booster synchrotron for injection into a 1--2 GeV storage ring. Interesting control problems are created because of the need for dynamic closed beam orbit control to eliminate interaction between the ring tuning requirements and to minimize orbit shifts due to ground vibrations. The extremely signal sensitive nature of the experiments requires special attention to the sources of electrical noise. These requirements have led to a control system design which emphasizes connectivity at the accelerator equipment end and a large I/O bandwidth for closed loop system response. Not overlooked are user friendliness, operator response time, modeling, and expert system provisions. Portable consoles are used for local operation of machine equipment. Our solution is a massively parallel system with >120 Mbits/sec I/O bandwidth and >1500 Mips computing power. At the equipment level connections are made using over 600 powerful Intelligent Local Controllers (ILC-s) mounted in 3U size Eurocard slots using fiber-optic cables between rack locations. In the control room, personal computers control and display all machine variables at a 10 Hz rate including the scope signals which are collected though the control system. Commercially available software and industry standards are used extensively. Particular attention is paid to reliability, maintainability and upgradeability. 10 refs., 11 figs.

  17. Two-photon decay of light scalars: a comparison of tetraquark and quarkonium assignments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Francesco Giacosa

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Two-photon decays of light scalar mesons are discussed within the quarkonium and tetraquark asignements: in both cases the decay rate of the sigma resonances turns out to be smaller than 1 keV.

  18. Averaged Energy Inequalities for Non-Minimally Coupled Classical Scalar Fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz W. Osterbrink

    2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

    The stress-energy tensor for the non-minimally coupled scalar field is known not to satisfy the pointwise energy conditions, even on the classical level. We show, however, that local averages of the classical stress-energy tensor satisfy certain inequalities and give bounds for averages along causal geodesics. It is shown that in vacuum background spacetimes, ANEC and AWEC are satisfied. Furthermore we use our result to show that in the classical situation we have an analogue to the so called quantum interest conjecture. These results lay the foundations for averaged energy inequalities for the quantised non-minimally coupled fields.

  19. Light-by-Light Scattering Effect in Light-Cone Supergraphs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Renata Kallosh; Pierre Ramond

    2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We give a relatively simple explanation of the light-cone supergraph prediction for the UV properties of the maximally supersymmetric theories. It is based on the existence of a dynamical supersymmetry which is not manifest in the light-cone supergraphs. It suggests that N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory is UV finite and N=8 supergravity is UV finite at least until 7 loops whereas the $n$-point amplitudes have no UV divergences at least until $L=n+3$. Here we show that this prediction can be deduced from the properties of light-cone supergraphs analogous to the light-by-light scattering effect in QED. A technical aspect of the argument relies on the observation that the dynamical supersymmetry action is, in fact, a compensating field-dependent gauge transformation required for the retaining the light-cone gauge condition $A_+=0$.

  20. Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapling growth in response to light and nitrogen availability in a southern New England forest, the availability of light and nitrogen (N) limits the rate of woody plant growth in the forest understory and N to the availability of these resources could affect the species composition of forest communities. While many studies

  1. Current Power Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign In About |

  2. Current Transmission Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power Administration would likeConstitution4 Department ofDepartmentPower-Rates Sign

  3. [FIXED RATE GUARANTEED OBLIGATIONS]

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov You are being directedAnnual Siteof Energy 2, 2015Visiting Strong,Women @JoinEnergy ZEROFIXED RATE GUARANTEED

  4. Settlement PF Exchange Rates

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our Instagram Secretary Moniz9 SeptemberSetting the Stage for the Next SolarRate

  5. Building Profits and Goodwill in the Wood Product Industry with Time-Of-Use Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyd, W. K.

    utilities across the U.S. are searching for alternatives to building generating plants. One of the alternatives used by Carolina Power & Light Company is Time-of-Use Rates. These rates give monetary incentives to customers who change their electrical... nationally known wood pro ducts manufacturer with a 235-employee plywood plant located in Moncure, North Carolina. The plant receives electric ser vice from Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L), an investor-owned electric utility serving over 825...

  6. Light oil yield improvement project at Granite City Division Coke/By-Product Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holloran, R.A. [National Steel Corp., Granite City, IL (United States). Granite City Div.

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Light oil removal from coke oven gas is a process that has long been proven and utilized throughout many North American Coke/By-Products Plants. The procedures, processes, and equipment requirements to maximize light oil recovery at the Granite City By-Products Plant will be discussed. The Light Oil Yield Improvement Project initially began in July, 1993 and was well into the final phase by February, 1994. Problem solving techniques, along with utilizing proven theoretical recovery standards were applied in this project. Process equipment improvements and implementation of Operator/Maintenance Standard Practices resulted in an average yield increase of 0.4 Gals./NTDC by the end of 1993.

  7. The averaging process in permeability estimation from well-test data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oliver, D.S. (Saudi Aramco (SA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Permeability estimates from the pressure derivative or the slope of the semilog plot usually are considered to be averages of some large ill-defined reservoir volume. This paper presents results of a study of the averaging process, including identification of the region of the reservoir that influences permeability estimates, and a specification of the relative contribution of the permeability of various regions to the estimate of average permeability. The diffusion equation for the pressure response of a well situated in an infinite reservoir where permeability is an arbitrary function of position was solved for the case of small variations from a mean value. Permeability estimates from the slope of the plot of pressure vs. the logarithm of drawdown time are shown to be weighted averages of the permeabilities within an inner and outer radius of investigation.

  8. average power diode-pumped: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    are required for numerous applications such as UV generation for lithography and pumping by a fiber- coupled diode bar1 generated 7-ps pulses with 4.5-W average power and...

  9. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stroahaber, James; Kolomenskii, A; Schuessler, Hans

    2010-07-06T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call...

  10. Social comparison test using women's subjective and physiological reactivity to thin and average size models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamez, Jeannine Paola

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The current study examined the subjective and physiological reactivity to body image stimuli among females engaging in a social comparison task. Study I was conducted to select images of thin and average size models and neutral objects for Study...

  11. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  12. Variation in the annual average radon concentration measured in homes in Mesa County, Colorado

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rood, A.S.; George, J.L.; Langner, G.H. Jr.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to examine the variability in the annual average indoor radon concentration. The TMC has been collecting annual average radon data for the past 5 years in 33 residential structures in Mesa County, Colorado. This report is an interim report that presents the data collected up to the present. Currently, the plans are to continue this study in the future. 62 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  13. Experiments with a time-dependent, zonally averaged, seasonal, enery balance climatic model 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thompson, Starley Lee

    1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EXPERIMENTS WITH A TI&E-DEPENDENT, ZONALLY AVERAGED, SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the decree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology EXPERIMENTS WITH A TIME DEPENDENT~ ZONALLY AVERAGED~ SEASONAL, ENERGY BALANCE CLIMATIC MODEL A Thesis by STARLEY LEE THOMPSON Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee...

  14. Nongeneralizability of Tsallis Entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages under pseudo-additivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ambedkar Dukkipati; M. Narsimha Murty; Shalabh Bhatnagar

    2005-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    As additivity is a characteristic property of the classical information measure, Shannon entropy, pseudo-additivity is a characteristic property of Tsallis entropy. Renyi generalized Shannon entropy by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, by imposing additivity as a constraint.In this paper we show that there exists no generalization for Tsallis entropy, by means of Kolmogorov-Nagumo averages, which preserves the pseudo-additivity.

  15. Average over energy effect of parity nonconservation in neutron scattering on heavy nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O. P. Sushkov

    1996-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Using semiclassical approximation we consider parity nonconservation (PNC) averaged over compound resonances. We demonstrate that the result of the averaging crucially depends on the properties of residual strong nucleon-nucleon interaction. Natural way to elucidate this problem is to investigate experimentally PNC spin rotation with nonmonachromatic neutron beam: $E \\sim \\Delta E \\sim 1MeV$. Value of the effect can reach $\\psi \\sim 10^{-5}-10^{-4}$ per mean free path.

  16. 100 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS I, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2005 Simultaneous Peak and Average Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohanty, Saraju P.

    power, power fluctuation, average power and total energy are equally design constraints. In this work by the average power (energy). The increase in energy and average power consumption, increases the energy bill (£¥¤§¦¨¦© ¡ ). As the energy (average power) consumption increases, it necessitates the increase in generation which in turn

  17. Energy Management Through Innovative Rates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Williams, M. L.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of energy efficiency in the industrial sector and specific rate design alternatives for doing so....

  18. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1986, the average retail gasoline price dropped from $1.17Figure 4 Average US Retail Gasoline Price (excluding taxes)of the average retail price of gasoline, with a 4.0 cent per

  19. Ultra-thin ohmic contacts for p-type nitride light emitting devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Raffetto, Mark (Raleigh, NC); Bharathan, Jayesh (Cary, NC); Haberern, Kevin (Cary, NC); Bergmann, Michael (Chapel Hill, NC); Emerson, David (Chapel Hill, NC); Ibbetson, James (Santa Barbara, CA); Li, Ting (Ventura, CA)

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiconductor based Light Emitting Device (LED) can include a p-type nitride layer and a metal ohmic contact, on the p-type nitride layer. The metal ohmic contact can have an average thickness of less than about 25 .ANG. and a specific contact resistivity less than about 10.sup.-3 ohm-cm.sup.2.

  20. Light beam range finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A "laser tape measure" for measuring distance which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%.

  1. Light beam range finder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A ``laser tape measure`` for measuring distance is disclosed which includes a transmitter such as a laser diode which transmits a sequence of electromagnetic pulses in response to a transmit timing signal. A receiver samples reflections from objects within the field of the sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses with controlled timing, in response to a receive timing signal. The receiver generates a sample signal in response to the samples which indicates distance to the object causing the reflections. The timing circuit supplies the transmit timing signal to the transmitter and supplies the receive timing signal to the receiver. The receive timing signal causes the receiver to sample the reflection such that the time between transmission of pulses in the sequence in sampling by the receiver sweeps over a range of delays. The transmit timing signal causes the transmitter to transmit the sequence of electromagnetic pulses at a pulse repetition rate, and the received timing signal sweeps over the range of delays in a sweep cycle such that reflections are sampled at the pulse repetition rate and with different delays in the range of delays, such that the sample signal represents received reflections in equivalent time. The receiver according to one aspect of the invention includes an avalanche photodiode and a sampling gate coupled to the photodiode which is responsive to the received timing signal. The transmitter includes a laser diode which supplies a sequence of visible electromagnetic pulses. A bright spot projected on to the target clearly indicates the point that is being measured, and the user can read the range to that point with precision of better than 0.1%. 7 figs.

  2. OLED lighting devices having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krummacher, Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE); Antoniadis, Homer (Mountain View, CA)

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  3. Device structure for OLED light device having multi element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Antoniadis; Homer (Mountain View, CA), Krummacher; Benjamin Claus (Regensburg, DE)

    2008-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus such as a light source has a multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer disposed over a transparent layer of the light source and on the exterior of said light source. The multi-element light extraction and luminescence conversion layer includes a plurality of light extraction elements and a plurality of luminescence conversion elements. The light extraction elements diffuses the light from the light source while luminescence conversion elements absorbs a first spectrum of light from said light source and emits a second spectrum of light.

  4. Estimation of Human Energy Expenditure Using Inertial Sensors and Heart Rate Sensor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu?trek, Mitja

    Estimation of Human Energy Expenditure Using Inertial Sensors and Heart Rate Sensor Bozidara, we tested a combination of thigh inertial sensor with hart rate monitor, usually worn by athletes and availability and ease of development. Average smart phone has a rather powerful processing unit. It comes

  5. Method for optical pumping of thin laser media at high average power

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA); Beach, Raymond J. (Livermore, CA); Honea, Eric C. (Sunol, CA); Payne, Stephen A. (Castro Valley, CA)

    2004-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin, planar laser material is bonded to a light guide of an index-matched material forming a composite disk. Diode array or other pump light is introduced into the composite disk through the edges of the disk. Pump light trapped within the composite disk depletes as it multi-passes the laser medium before reaching an opposing edge of the disk. The resulting compound optical structure efficiently delivers concentrated pump light and to a laser medium of minimum thickness. The external face of the laser medium is used for cooling. A high performance cooler attached to the external face of the laser medium rejects heat. Laser beam extraction is parallel to the heat flux to minimize optical distortions.

  6. Charge and fluence lifetime measurements of a dc high voltage GaAs photogun at high average current

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. Grames, R. Suleiman, P.A. Adderley, J. Clark, J. Hansknecht, D. Machie, M. Poelker, M.L. Stutzman

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    GaAs-based dc high voltage photoguns used at accelerators with extensive user programs must exhibit long photocathode operating lifetime. Achieving this goal represents a significant challenge for proposed high average current facilities that must operate at tens of milliamperes or more. This paper describes techniques to maintain good vacuum while delivering beam, and techniques that minimize the ill effects of ion bombardment, the dominant mechanism that reduces photocathode yield of a GaAs-based dc high voltage photogun. Experimental results presented here demonstrate enhanced lifetime at high beam currents by: (a) operating with the drive laser beam positioned away from the electrostatic center of the photocathode, (b) limiting the photocathode active area to eliminate photoemission from regions of the photocathode that do not support efficient beam delivery, (c) using a large drive laser beam to distribute ion damage over a larger area, and (d) by applying a relatively low bias voltage to the anode to repel ions created within the downstream beam line. A combination of these techniques provided the best total charge extracted lifetimes in excess of 1000 C at dc beam currents up to 9.5 mA, using green light illumination of bulk GaAs inside a 100 kV photogun.

  7. Variable-Rate State Gasoline Taxes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ang-Olson, Jeffrey; Wachs, Martin; Taylor, Brian D.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1986, the average retail gasoline price dropped from $I 17of the average retail price of gasoline, with a 4 oe per

  8. Copyright 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Estimate of the Mutation Rate per Nucleotide in Humans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean, Matthew D.

    Copyright © 2000 by the Genetics Society of America Estimate of the Mutation Rate per Nucleotide. We investigated the rate and pattern of mutations at the nucleotide level by comparing pseudogenes in humans and chimpanzees to (i) provide an estimate of the average mutation rate per nucleotide, (ii

  9. Commercial Lighting Solutions, Webtool Peer Review Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, Carol C.; Meyer, Tracy A.

    2009-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Commercial Lighting Solutions (CLS) project directly supports the U.S. Department of Energy’s Commercial Building Energy Alliance efforts to design high performance buildings. CLS creates energy efficient best practice lighting designs for widespread use, and they are made available to users via an interactive webtool that both educates and guides the end user through the application of the Lighting Solutions. This report summarizes the peer review of the beta version of the CLS webtool, which contains retail box lighting solutions. The methodology for the peer review process included data collection (stakeholder input), analysis of the comments, and organization of the input into categories for prioritization of the comments against a set of criteria. Based on this process, recommendations were developed about which feedback should be addressed for the release of version 1.0 of the webtool at the Lightfair conference in New York City in May 2009. Due to the volume of data (~500 comments) the methodology for addressing the peer review comments was central to the success of the ultimate goal of improving the tool. The comments were first imported into a master spreadsheet, and then grouped and organized in several layers. Solutions to each comment were then rated by importance and feasibility to determine the practicality of resolving the concerns of the commenter in the short-term or long-term. The rating system was used as an analytical tool, but the results were viewed thoughtfully to ensure that they were not the sole the factor in determining which comments were recommended for near-term resolution. The report provides a list of the top ten most significant and relevant improvements that will be made within the webtool for version 1.0 as well as appendices containing the short-term priorities in additional detail. Peer review comments that are considered high priority by the reviewers and the CLS team but cannot be completed for Version 1.0 are listed as long-term recommendations.

  10. Merger and Ring Galaxy Formation Rates at z<=2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. D'Onghia; M. Mapelli; B. Moore

    2008-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare the observed merger rate of galaxies over cosmic time and the frequency of collisional ring galaxies (CRGs), with analytic models and halo merger and collision rates from a large cosmological simulation. In the Lambda cold dark matter (LCDM) model we find that the cosmic {\\it merger fraction} does not evolve strongly between 0.2rate since z~1 might not be tied to a disappearing population of major mergers. Halos hosting massive galaxies undergo on average ~2 mergers from z~2 up to present day, reflecting the late assembly time for the massive systems and the related downsizing problem. The cosmic {\\it merger rate} declines with redshift: at the present time it is a factor of 10 lower than at z~2, in reasonable agreement with the current available data. The rate of CRG formation derived from the interactions between halo progenitors up to z=2 is found to be a good tracer of the cosmic merger rate. In the LCDM model the rate of CRGs as well as the merger rate do not scale as (1+z)^m, as suggested by previous models. Our predictions of cosmic merger and CRG rates may be applied to forthcoming surveys such as GOODS and zCOSMOS.

  11. Induction Lighting: An Old Lighting Technology Made New Again...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    25 years if operated 10 hours a day. The technology, however, is far from new. Nikola Tesla demonstrated induction lighting in the late 1890s around the same time that his rival,...

  12. Using QECBs for Street Lighting Upgrades: Lighting the Way to...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Summarizes how the City of San Diego leveraged 13.1 million in qualified energy conservation bonds to increase the size of a street lighting upgrade project. Author: Lawrence...

  13. Quasi light fields: Extending the light field to coherent radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Accardi, Anthony J.

    Imaging technologies such as dynamic viewpoint generation are engineered for incoherent radiation using the traditional light field, and for coherent radiation using electromagnetic field theory. We present a model of ...

  14. 46th Street Pilot Street Lighting Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    Street to 48th Street) as standard high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting comparison corridor #12;The over time #12;Initial Lighting Comparison #12;Lighting Project Location #12;Street Light Layout 3046th Street Pilot Street Lighting Project A Joint Venture: Hennepin County & City of Minneapolis

  15. Projection screen having reduced ambient light scattering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sweatt, William C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for improving the contrast between incident projected light and ambient light reflected from a projection screen are described. The efficiency of the projection screen for reflection of the projected light remains high, while permitting the projection screen to be utilized in a brightly lighted room. Light power requirements from the projection system utilized may be reduced.

  16. Identifying Lights with their Switches Jayadev Misra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Jayadev

    Identifying Lights with their Switches Jayadev Misra 09/07/2012 Problem Description Given are N switches and N lights where each switch controls exactly one light and each light is controlled by exactly of selecting some number of switches and turning them on, and, presumably, noting the lights that come

  17. Inorganic volumetric light source excited by ultraviolet light

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reed, S.; Walko, R.J.; Ashley, C.S.; Brinker, C.J.

    1994-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates to a composition for the volumetric generation of radiation. The composition comprises a porous substrate loaded with a component capable of emitting radiation upon interaction with an exciting radiation. Preferably, the composition is an aerogel substrate loaded with a component, e.g., a phosphor, capable of interacting with exciting radiation of a first energy, e.g., ultraviolet light, to produce radiation of a second energy, e.g., visible light. 4 figures.

  18. Saturable absorption and 'slow light'

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adrian C Selden

    2006-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative evaluation of some recent 'slow light' experiments based on coherent population oscillations (CPO) shows that they can be more simply interpreted as saturable absorption phenomena. Therefore they do not provide an unambiguous demonstration of 'slow light'. Indeed a limiting condition on the spectral bandwidth is not generally satisfied, such that the requirements for burning a narrow spectral hole in the homogeneously broadened absorption line are not met. Some definitive tests of 'slow light' phenomena are suggested, derived from analysis of phase shift and pulse delay for a saturable absorber

  19. Absolute Magnitude Distribution And Light Curves Of Gamma-Ray Burst Supernovae

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dean Richardson

    2008-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

    Photometry data were collected from the literature and analyzed for supernovae that are thought to have a gamma-ray burst association. There are several gamma-ray burst afterglow light curves that appear to have a supernova component. For these light curves, the supernova component was extracted and analyzed. A supernova light curve model was used to help determine the peak absolute magnitudes as well as estimates for the kinetic energy, ejected mass and nickel mass in the explosion. The peak absolute magnitudes are, on average, brighter than those of similar supernovae (stripped-envelope supernovae) that do not have a gamma-ray burst association, but this can easily be due to a selection effect. However, the kinetic energies and ejected masses were found to be considerably higher, on average, than those of similar supernovae without a gamma-ray burst association.

  20. National Utility Rate Database: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ong, S.; McKeel, R.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    When modeling solar energy technologies and other distributed energy systems, using high-quality expansive electricity rates is essential. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed a utility rate platform for entering, storing, updating, and accessing a large collection of utility rates from around the United States. This utility rate platform lives on the Open Energy Information (OpenEI) website, OpenEI.org, allowing the data to be programmatically accessed from a web browser, using an application programming interface (API). The semantic-based utility rate platform currently has record of 1,885 utility rates and covers over 85% of the electricity consumption in the United States.

  1. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase efficiently phosphorylates serine 15 of cardiac myosin regulatory light chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Josephson, Matthew P.; Sikkink, Laura A. [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Penheiter, Alan R. [Molecular Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)] [Molecular Medicine Program, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Burghardt, Thomas P., E-mail: burghardt@mayo.edu [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Department of Physiology and Biomedical Engineering, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States); Ajtai, Katalin [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)] [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN 55905 (United States)

    2011-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) is phosphorylated at S15. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It is a widely believed that MYL2 is a poor substrate for smMLCK. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In fact, smMLCK efficiently and rapidly phosphorylates S15 in MYL2. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phosphorylation kinetics measured by novel fluorescence method without radioactivity. -- Abstract: Specific phosphorylation of the human ventricular cardiac myosin regulatory light chain (MYL2) modifies the protein at S15. This modification affects MYL2 secondary structure and modulates the Ca{sup 2+} sensitivity of contraction in cardiac tissue. Smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase (smMLCK) is a ubiquitous kinase prevalent in uterus and present in other contracting tissues including cardiac muscle. The recombinant 130 kDa (short) smMLCK phosphorylated S15 in MYL2 in vitro. Specific modification of S15 was verified using the direct detection of the phospho group on S15 with mass spectrometry. SmMLCK also specifically phosphorylated myosin regulatory light chain S15 in porcine ventricular myosin and chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin (S20 in smooth muscle) but failed to phosphorylate the myosin regulatory light chain in rabbit skeletal myosin. Phosphorylation kinetics, measured using a novel fluorescence method eliminating the use of radioactive isotopes, indicates similar Michaelis-Menten V{sub max} and K{sub M} for regulatory light chain S15 phosphorylation rates in MYL2, porcine ventricular myosin, and chicken gizzard myosin. These data demonstrate that smMLCK is a specific and efficient kinase for the in vitro phosphorylation of MYL2, cardiac, and smooth muscle myosin. Whether smMLCK plays a role in cardiac muscle regulation or response to a disease causing stimulus is unclear but it should be considered a potentially significant kinase in cardiac tissue on the basis of its specificity, kinetics, and tissue expression.

  2. High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paul T. Fini; Shuji Nakamura

    2005-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this final technical progress report we summarize research accomplished during Department of Energy contract DE-FC26-01NT41203, entitled ''High-Efficiency Nitride-Based Solid-State Lighting''. Two teams, from the University of California at Santa Barbara (Principle Investigator: Dr. Shuji Nakamura) and the Lighting Research Center at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (led by Dr. N. Narendran), pursued the goals of this contract from thin film growth, characterization, and packaging/luminaire design standpoints. The UCSB team initially pursued the development of blue gallium nitride (GaN)-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers, as well as ultraviolet GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). In Year 2, the emphasis shifted to resonant-cavity light emitting diodes, also known as micro-cavity LEDs when extremely thin device cavities are fabricated. These devices have very directional emission and higher light extraction efficiency than conventional LEDs. Via the optimization of thin-film growth and refinement of device processing, we decreased the total cavity thickness to less than 1 {micro}m, such that micro-cavity effects were clearly observed and a light extraction efficiency of over 10% was reached. We also began the development of photonic crystals for increased light extraction, in particular for so-called ''guided modes'' which would otherwise propagate laterally in the device and be re-absorbed. Finally, we pursued the growth of smooth, high-quality nonpolar a-plane and m-plane GaN films, as well as blue light emitting diodes on these novel films. Initial nonpolar LEDs showed the expected behavior of negligible peak wavelength shift with increasing drive current. M-plane LEDs in particular show promise, as unpackaged devices had unsaturated optical output power of {approx} 3 mW at 200 mA drive current. The LRC's tasks were aimed at developing the subcomponents necessary for packaging UCSB's light emitting diodes, and packaging them to produce a white light fixture. During the third and final year of the project, the LRC team investigated alternate packaging methods for the white LED device to achieve at least 25 percent more luminous efficacy than traditional white LEDs; conducted optical ray-tracing analyses and human factors studies to determine the best form factor for the white light source under development, in terms of high luminous efficacy and greater acceptance by subjects; and developed a new die encapsulant using silicone-epoxy resins that showed less yellowing and slower degradation. At the conclusion of this project, the LRC demonstrated a new packaging method, called scattered photon extraction (SPE), that produced an average luminous flux and corresponding average efficacy of 90.7 lm and 36.3 lm/W, respectively, compared with 56.5 lm and 22.6 lm/W for a similar commercial white LED package. At low currents, the SPE package emitted white light with an efficacy of over 80 lm/W and had chromaticity values very close to the blackbody locus. The SPE package showed an overall improvement of 61% for this particular comparison, exceeding the LRC's third-year goal of 25% improvement.

  3. A fluctuational electrodynamics model for the optimization of light-extraction efficiency in thin-film light-emitting diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heikkilä, Oskari, E-mail: oskari.heikkila@aalto.fi; Oksanen, Jani; Tulkki, Jukka [Department of Biomedical Engineering and Computational Science, Aalto University, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The rapid development of thin film light-emitting diodes (LEDs) has enabled the enhancement of the light extraction beyond geometrical limits but more quantitative understanding of the underlying optical processes is required to fully optimize the extraction. We present first-principle calculations of the light extraction efficiency and optical energy flow in thin-film LEDs. The presented model generalizes the methods of fluctuational electrodynamics to excited semiconductors and simultaneously accounts for wave optical effects, e.g., interference and near-field coupling as well as the internal absorption of the light-emitting material in determining the rate of light emission and internal dissipation in the optical cavity formed by a planar LED. The calculations show that in structures with a metallic mirror, the emissivity of the active region can approach unity at selected wavelengths, even when the nominal emissivity of the active region is only moderate. However, the results also show that near-field coupling of emission from the active region to the mirror can provide a substantial non-radiative loss channel reducing the maximum light extraction efficiency to 0.67 in our example setup. These losses can be partly compensated by the efficient photon recycling enabled by thick active regions that quench emission to confined modes and thereby reduce parasitic absorption.

  4. Light emission patterns from stadium-shaped semiconductor microcavity lasers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Susumu Shinohara; Takehiro Fukushima; Takahisa Harayama

    2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We study light emission patterns from stadium-shaped semiconductor (GaAs) microcavity lasers theoretically and experimentally. Performing systematic wave calculations for passive cavity modes, we demonstrate that the averaging by low-loss modes, such as those realized in multi-mode lasing, generates an emission pattern in good agreement with the ray model's prediction. In addition, we show that the dependence of experimental far-field emission patterns on the aspect ratio of the stadium cavity is well reproduced by the ray model.

  5. Next Generation Light Source Workshops

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Next Generation Light Source Workshops A series of workshops will be held in late August with the goal of refining the scientific drivers for the facility and translating the...

  6. Columbia Water & Light- Solar Rebates

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Columbia Water & Light electric customers are eligible for a $400 rebate for the purchase of a new solar water heater. To apply for this rebate, a customer submits a pre-approval application to...

  7. Arnold Schwarzenegger LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ; James Bryan, Arden Realty; Peter Ngai, Peerless; David Malman, Architectural Lighting Design; Ron Lewis) ; Terry McGowan, ALA; Adriana Valencia (CPUC alternate). Program Advisory Committee: Ron Lewis; Holly Larsen, Larsen Communications. Please cite this repor

  8. Arnold Schwarzenegger LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Design Group; Bill Daiber, WFD Associates. Program Advisory Committee: Ron Lewis, Department of Energy Buchan, Sacramento Municipal Utility District. Editorial assistance: Holly Larsen, Larsen Communications Lighting Technology Center; Holly Larsen, Larsen Communications. Please cite

  9. Arnold Schwarzenegger LIGHTING RESEARCH PROGRAM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the contribution of the below individuals: Program Advisory Committee: Ron Lewis, Department of Energy; Jerry Mills Lighting Technology Center; Holly Larsen, Larsen Communications. Please cite this report as follows

  10. Light Duty Vehicle CNG Tanks

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Light Duty Vehicle CNG Tanks Dane A. Boysen, PhD Program Director Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy, US DOE dane.boysen@doe.gov Fiber Reinforced Polymer Composite...

  11. Chaotic motion at the emergence of the time averaged energy decay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cesar Manchein; Jane Rosa; Marcus W. Beims

    2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A system plus environment conservative model is used to characterize the nonlinear dynamics when the time averaged energy for the system particle starts to decay. The system particle dynamics is regular for low values of the $N$ environment oscillators and becomes chaotic in the interval $13\\le N\\le15$, where the system time averaged energy starts to decay. To characterize the nonlinear motion we estimate the Lyapunov exponent (LE), determine the power spectrum and the Kaplan-Yorke dimension. For much larger values of $N$ the energy of the system particle is completely transferred to the environment and the corresponding LEs decrease. Numerical evidences show the connection between the variations of the {\\it amplitude} of the particles energy time oscillation with the time averaged energy decay and trapped trajectories.

  12. Reconstruction of ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in N dimensions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Strohaber, J.; Kolomenskii, A. A.; Schuessler, H. A. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an analytical inversion technique, which can be used to recover ionization probabilities from spatially averaged data in an N-dimensional detection scheme. The solution is given as a power series in intensity. For this reason, we call this technique a multiphoton expansion (MPE). The MPE formalism was verified with an exactly solvable inversion problem in two dimensions, and probabilities in the postsaturation region, where the intensity-selective scanning approach breaks down, were recovered. In three dimensions, ionization probabilities of Xe were successfully recovered with MPE from simulated (using the Ammosov-Delone-Krainov tunneling theory) ion yields. Finally, we tested our approach with intensity-resolved benzene-ion yields, which show a resonant multiphoton ionization process. By applying MPE to this data (which were artificially averaged), the resonant structure was recovered, which suggests that the resonance in benzene may have been observed in spatially averaged data taken elsewhere.

  13. Experimental Estimation of Average Fidelity of a Clifford Gate on a 7-qubit Quantum Processor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dawei Lu; Hang Li; Denis-Alexandre Trottier; Jun Li; Aharon Brodutch; Anthony P. Krismanich; Ahmad Ghavami; Gary I. Dmitrienko; Guilu Long; Jonathan Baugh; Raymond Laflamme

    2014-11-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum gates in experiment are inherently prone to errors that need to be characterized before they can be corrected. Full characterization via quantum process tomography is impractical and often unnecessary. For most practical purposes, it is enough to estimate more general quantities such as the average fidelity. Here we use a unitary 2-design and twirling protocol for efficiently estimating the average fidelity of Clifford gates, to certify a 7-qubit entangling gate in a nuclear magnetic resonance quantum processor. Compared with more than $10^8$ experiments required by full process tomography, we conducted 1656 experiments to satisfy a statistical confidence level of 99%. The average fidelity of this Clifford gate in experiment is 55.1%, and rises to 87.5% if the infidelity due to decoherence is removed. The entire protocol of certifying Clifford gates is efficient and scalable, and can easily be extended to any general quantum information processor with minor modifications.

  14. Novel phosphors for solid state lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Furman, Joshua D

    2010-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Solid state white light emitting diode lighting devices outperform conventional light sources in terms of lifetime, durability, and lumens per watt. However, the capital contribution is still to high to encourage widespread adoption. Furthermore...

  15. Toward ZnO Light Emitting Diode

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jianlin

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    applications such as light emitting diodes (LEDs) and laser009 "Toward ZnO Light Emitting Diode" Jianlin Liu July 2008Title: “Toward ZnO Light Emitting Diode” Sponsor: UC Energy

  16. CAMPUS INFRASTRUCTURE & SERVICES CIS-Standard-Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Viglas, Anastasios

    ...........................................................................................................5 5.6 Light fittings and lux performance requirements for various University space types.....5 5...........................................................................12 5.8 EXTERIOR LIGHTING.......................................................................................................12 5.8.2 Exterior Light Poles, Fixings and Wiring

  17. EECBG Success Story: Lighting Retrofit Improving Visibility,...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New LED lighting fixtures (right) emit a whiter light than existing high-pressure sodium cobra head streetlights (left) and don't spill light onto nearby houses. | Photos courtesy...

  18. Embodied Energy and Off-Grid Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alstone, Peter

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Self-reported Impacts of LED Lighting Technology Comparedto Fuel-based Lighting on Night Market Business Prosperity28, no. 4, pp. 533-546. Lighting Africa (prepared by Dalberg

  19. LIGHT SCATTERING STUDIES OF SILICA AEROGELS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hunt, A.J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    van de Hulst, H.C. , Light Scattering by Small Particles,A New Polarization-Modulated Light Scattering Instrument,"and interpretation of light scattering effects in aerogels.

  20. Advanced Light Source Activity Report 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamura Ed., Lori S.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    upgrade on the Advanced Light Source," Nucl. Instrum. Meth.n photoemission at the Advanced Light Source," Radiât. Phys.high-pressure studies at the Advanced Light Source w i t h a

  1. Beyond the Replacement Paradigm: Smart Lighting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salama, Khaled

    Switches · Smart Building & Grid Interfaces · Efficient full spectrum LEDs without droop · Versatile, low - Visible Light Communications Integration of smart fixtures, networked sensors and control systemsBeyond the Replacement Paradigm: Smart Lighting Robert F. Karlicek, Jr. Director, Smart Lighting

  2. Lumental : web-based tunable lighting control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Harrison King

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dynamically adjusting the light spectrum of spectrum-tunable light fixtures promises significant energy savings over binary or incremental dimming control. To enable this level of controllability, lighting must evolve from ...

  3. A Successful Cool Storage Rate 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's ...

  4. A Successful Cool Storage Rate

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahrens, A. C.; Sobey, T. M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Houston Lighting & Power (HL&P) initiated design and development of its commercial cool storage program as part of an integrated resource planning process with a targeted 225 MW of demand reduction through DSM. Houston's extensive commercial air...

  5. MID-IR LUMINOSITIES AND UV/OPTICAL STAR FORMATION RATES AT z < 1.4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Salim, Samir; Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Michael Rich, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Charlot, Stephane [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Lee, Janice C. [Carnegie Observatories, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Schiminovich, David [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Perez-Gonzalez, Pablo G. [Departamento de AstrofIsica, Facultad de CC. FIsicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Noeske, Kai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Papovich, Casey; Weiner, Benjamin J. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Faber, S. M. [University of California Observatories/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Ivison, Rob J. [UK Astronomy Technology Centre, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Frayer, David T. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, California Institute of Technology 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Walton, Josiah M. [University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Chary, Ranga-Ram [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology 220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Bundy, Kevin [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)], E-mail: samir@noao.edu

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultraviolet (UV) nonionizing continuum and mid-infrared (IR) emission constitute the basis of two widely used star formation (SF) indicators at intermediate and high redshifts. We study 2430 galaxies with z < 1.4 in the Extended Groth Strip with deep MIPS 24 {mu}m observations from FIDEL, spectroscopy from DEEP2, and UV, optical, and near-IR photometry from the AEGIS. The data are coupled with dust-reddened stellar population models and Bayesian spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting to estimate dust-corrected star formation rates (SFRs). In order to probe the dust heating from stellar populations of various ages, the derived SFRs were averaged over various timescales-from 100 Myr for 'current' SFR (corresponding to young stars) to 1-3 Gyr for long-timescale SFRs (corresponding to the light-weighted age of the dominant stellar populations). These SED-based UV/optical SFRs are compared to total IR luminosities extrapolated from 24 {mu}m observations, corresponding to 10-18 {mu}m rest frame. The total IR luminosities are in the range of normal star-forming galaxies and luminous IR galaxies (10{sup 10}-10{sup 12} L{sub sun}). We show that the IR luminosity can be estimated from the UV and optical photometry to within a factor of 2, implying that most z < 1.4 galaxies are not optically thick. We find that for the blue, actively star-forming galaxies the correlation between the IR luminosity and the UV/optical SFR shows a decrease in scatter when going from shorter to longer SFR-averaging timescales. We interpret this as the greater role of intermediate age stellar populations in heating the dust than what is typically assumed. Equivalently, we observe that the IR luminosity is better correlated with dust-corrected optical luminosity than with dust-corrected UV light. We find that this holds over the entire redshift range. Many so-called green valley galaxies are simply dust-obscured actively star-forming galaxies. However, there exist 24 {mu}m detected galaxies, some with L{sub IR}>10{sup 11} L{sub sun}, yet with little current SF. For them a reasonable amount of dust absorption of stellar light (but presumably higher than in nearby early-type galaxies) is sufficient to produce the observed levels of IR, which includes a large contribution from intermediate and old stellar populations. In our sample, which contains very few ultraluminous IR galaxies, optical and X-ray active galactic nuclei do not contribute on average more than {approx}50% to the mid-IR luminosity, and we see no evidence for a large population of 'IR excess' galaxies.

  6. Comparison of average and point capillary pressure-saturation functions determined by steady-state centrifugation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cropper, Clark [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Perfect, Edmund [ORNL; van den Berg, Dr. Elmer [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Mayes, Melanie [ORNL

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The capillary pressure-saturation function can be determined from centrifuge drainage experiments. In soil physics, the data resulting from such experiments are usually analyzed by the 'averaging method.' In this approach, average relative saturation, , is expressed as a function of average capillary pressure, <{psi}>, i.e., (<{psi}>). In contrast, the capillary pressure-saturation function at a physical point, i.e., S({psi}), has been extracted from similar experiments in petrophysics using the 'integral method.' The purpose of this study was to introduce the integral method applied to centrifuge experiments to a soil physics audience and to compare S({psi}) and (<{psi}>) functions, as parameterized by the Brooks-Corey and van Genuchten equations, for 18 samples drawn from a range of porous media (i.e., Berea sandstone, glass beads, and Hanford sediments). Steady-state centrifuge experiments were performed on preconsolidated samples with a URC-628 Ultra-Rock Core centrifuge. The angular velocity and outflow data sets were then analyzed using both the averaging and integral methods. The results show that the averaging method smoothes out the drainage process, yielding less steep capillary pressure-saturation functions relative to the corresponding point-based curves. Maximum deviations in saturation between the two methods ranged from 0.08 to 0.28 and generally occurred at low suctions. These discrepancies can lead to inaccurate predictions of other hydraulic properties such as the relative permeability function. Therefore, we strongly recommend use of the integral method instead of the averaging method when determining the capillary pressure-saturation function by steady-state centrifugation. This method can be successfully implemented using either the van Genuchten or Brooks-Corey functions, although the latter provides a more physically precise description of air entry at a physical point.

  7. Upper Great Plains Rates information

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ancillary Services Rate Data (2.4mb pdf) Transmission and Ancillary Services 2011 Rate True-up Calculation (3.4mb pdf) Power Reporting Miscellaneous Information If you have any...

  8. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  9. Lighting and GeometryLighting and Geometry Prof. Michael Misha Kazhdan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fröhlich, Peter

    Lighting and GeometryLighting and Geometry Prof. Michael Misha Kazhdan misha· The viewer · The lights N Viewer · The lights · The geometry · The surface properties N L2 V Viewer L1Outline · Surface Properties (Review) · Lighting· Lighting · Geometry· Geometry #12;Surface Properties (Review

  10. Is Light-Tree Structure Optimal for Multicast Routing in Sparse Light Splitting WDM Networks?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Is Light-Tree Structure Optimal for Multicast Routing in Sparse Light Splitting WDM Networks? Fen session in sparse light splitting Wavelength Divi- sion Multiplexing (WDM) networks, a light as possible. Different from a light- tree, a light-hierarchy accepts cycles, which are used to traverse

  11. New Laser's "First Light" Shatters Record | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Jefferson National Accelerator Facility have delivered first light from their Free Electron Laser (FEL). Only 2 years after ground was broken for the FEL, infrared light of more...

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    light, which could also impact so-called smart (or higher functionality) lighting, another . Among InGaN ... Research Challenge 3: Competing Radiative and...

  13. Indianapolis Power & Light- Business Energy Incentives Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Indiana Power and Light Business (IPL) Energy Incentives Program assists commercial and industrial customers with reducing energy consumption through three common types of equipment: lighting,...

  14. Municipal Consortium LED Street Lighting Workshop Presentations...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Controls Norma Isahakian, City of Los Angeles Bureau of Street Lighting San Jose's "Smart" LED Streetlights: Controlled Amy Olay, City of San Jose Adaptive Lighting Controls...

  15. OTEC- Commercial Lighting Retrofit Rebate Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Oregon Trail Electric Consumers Cooperative (OTEC) offers a commercial lighting retrofit program that provides rebates for commercial businesses that change existing lighting to more energy...

  16. Fifth-Generation Free-Electron Laser Light Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pellegrini, Claudio (UCLA) [UCLA

    2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

    During the past few years, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) have demonstrated the outstanding capability of free-electron lasers (FELs) as sources of coherent radiation in the soft and hard x-ray region. The high intensity, tens of GW, short pulses (few to less than 100 femtoseconds, and the unique transverse coherence properties are opening a new window to study the structure and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. The LCLS, FLASH, and the other FELs now under construction are only the beginning of the development of these light sources. The next generations will reach new levels of performance: terawatt, atto-second, ultra-small line-width, high repetition rate, full longitudinal and transverse coherence. These future developments and the R&D needed to successfully build and operate the next generation of FEL light sources will be discussed.

  17. Weathering rates of marble in laboratory and outdoor conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yerrapragada, S.S.; Chirra, S.R.; Jaynes, J.H.; Bandyopadhyay, J.K.; Gauri, K.L. [Univ of Louisville, KY (United States); Li, S. [Metro Services Lab., Louisville, KY (United States)

    1996-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the modern urban atmosphere SO{sub 2} and NO{sub 2} attack calcite (CaCO{sub 3}) in marble exposed at rain-sheltered surfaces creating largely gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}{center_dot}2H{sub 2}O) crusts that eventually exfoliate. In combination with CO{sub 2} these gases erode the marble at unsheltered surfaces. the authors report the development of mathematical models to predict the rate of growth of crust and the rate of surface recession. To determine the rate of growth of crust the kinetic rate constant, diffusion rate, and the order of reaction were determined by the application of the shrinking-core model applied to data generated in laboratory experiments. Based on these parameters /and average ambient levels of 10 parts per billion (ppb) SO{sub 2} and 25 ppb NO{sub 2} in Louisville, Ky., the rate of crust formation for this metro area was calculated to be 1.8 {micro}m in the first year. However, the rate of recession was modeled from data obtained by exposing marble slabs to rainfalls. A surface recession of 15 {micro}m/yr was calculated. The models predicted well the rate of growth of crust observed at several sites in Louisville and the predicted surface recession compared well with values reported in the literature.

  18. THE LUMINA PROJECT http://light.lbl.gov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Arne

    components for the LED lights. #12;2 Introduction Solid-state lighting based on light emitting diode (LED

  19. Oscillating light wall above a sunspot light bridge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Shuhong; Jiang, Fayu; Xiang, Yongyuan

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With the high tempo-spatial \\emph{Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph} 1330 {\\AA} images, we find that many bright structures are rooted in the light bridge of NOAA 12192, forming a \\emph{light wall}. The light wall is brighter than the surrounding areas, and the wall top is much brighter than the wall body. The New Vacuum Solar Telescope H$\\alpha$ and the \\emph{Solar Dynamics Observatory} 171 {\\AA} and 131 {\\AA} images are also used to study the light wall properties. In 1330 {\\AA}, 171 {\\AA}, and 131 {\\AA}, the top of the wall has a higher emission, while in the H$\\alpha$ line, the wall top emission is very low. The wall body corresponds to bright areas in 1330 {\\AA} and dark areas in the other lines. The top of the light wall moves upward and downward successively, performing oscillations in height. The deprojected mean height, amplitude, oscillation velocity, and the dominant period are determined to be 3.6 Mm, 0.9 Mm, 15.4 km s$^{-1}$, and 3.9 min, respectively. We interpret the oscillations of the lig...

  20. SUPERNOVA LIGHT CURVES POWERED BY FALLBACK ACCRETION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dexter, Jason; Kasen, Daniel, E-mail: jdexter@berkeley.edu [Departments of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2013-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Some fraction of the material ejected in a core collapse supernova explosion may remain bound to the compact remnant, and eventually turn around and fall back. We show that the late time ({approx}>days) power potentially associated with the accretion of this 'fallback' material could significantly affect the optical light curve, in some cases producing super-luminous or otherwise peculiar supernovae. We use spherically symmetric hydrodynamical models to estimate the accretion rate at late times for a range of progenitor masses and radii and explosion energies. The accretion rate onto the proto-neutron star or black hole decreases as M-dot {proportional_to}t{sup -5/3} at late times, but its normalization can be significantly enhanced at low explosion energies, in very massive stars, or if a strong reverse shock wave forms at the helium/hydrogen interface in the progenitor. If the resulting super-Eddington accretion drives an outflow which thermalizes in the outgoing ejecta, the supernova debris will be re-energized at a time when photons can diffuse out efficiently. The resulting light curves are different and more diverse than previous fallback supernova models which ignored the input of accretion power and produced short-lived, dim transients. The possible outcomes when fallback accretion power is significant include super-luminous ({approx}> 10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1}) Type II events of both short and long durations, as well as luminous Type I events from compact stars that may have experienced significant mass loss. Accretion power may unbind the remaining infalling material, causing a sudden decrease in the brightness of some long duration Type II events. This scenario may be relevant for explaining some of the recently discovered classes of peculiar and rare supernovae.