National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for lighten energy loads

  1. LEDs and Specification for Parking Lots Lighten Energy Load | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safety Standards Implementation JulyTheKEY07-97# .AndyanEnergy

  2. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy December 4, 2012 - 12:06pm Addthis Lightweight...

  3. En.lighten | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, AlabamaETEC GmbH JumpEllenville, New York:Corporation Jump to:EmporiaEn.lighten Jump

  4. Lighten Your Load...productwatch Using Geofoams to Reduce Structural Design Loads from the Ground

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Horvath, John S.

    - and roof- 8 insulation material. You can now add to these myriad consumer and structural uses the fact gravity and seismic loads. Perhaps most importantly, EPS geofoam has proven to be cost effective for both thermal insulation plus one or more others) can be obtained from one geofoam product which enhances

  5. 8 Lighten the LoadTM Carbon Neutral Laundry Rooms Mac-Gray Campus Solutions recognizes that carbon offsetting is not without controversy, but also

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexandrova, Ivana

    and to invest in emerging technologies and proven ways of negating a carbon footprint. Of course, reducing48 8 Lighten the LoadTM Carbon Neutral Laundry Rooms Mac-Gray Campus Solutions recognizes that carbon offsetting is not without controversy, but also understands that offsetting is a viable short

  6. 54.5 MPG and Beyond: Materials Lighten the Load for Fuel Economy |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann JacksonDepartment| Department ofApplianceU.S.Department of Energy supposeDepartment of

  7. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aden, Nathaniel T.; Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David G.

    2009-07-01

    Urbanization has re-shaped China's economy, society, and energy system. Between 1990 and 2007 China added 290 million new urban residents, bringing the total urbanization rate to 45%. This population adjustment spurred energy demand for construction of new buildings and infrastructure, as well as additional residential use as rural biomass was replaced with urban commercial energy services. Primary energy demand grew at an average annual rate of 10% between 2000 and 2007. Urbanization's effect on energy demand was compounded by the boom in domestic infrastructure investment, and in the export trade following World Trade Organization (WTO) accession in 2001. Industry energy consumption was most directly affected by this acceleration. Whereas industry comprised 32% of 2007 U.S. energy use, it accounted for 75% of China's 2007 energy consumption. Five sub-sectors accounted for 78% of China's industry energy use in 2007: iron and steel, energy extraction and processing, chemicals, cement, and non-ferrous metals. Ferrous metals alone accounted for 25% of industry and 18% of total primary energy use. The rapid growth of heavy industry has led China to become by far the world's largest producer of steel, cement, aluminum, and other energy-intensive commodities. However, the energy efficiency of heavy industrial production continues to lag world best practice levels. This study uses scenario analysis to quantify the impact of urbanization and trade on industrial and residential energy consumption from 2000 to 2025. The BAU scenario assumed 67% urbanization, frozen export amounts of heavy industrial products, and achievement of world best practices by 2025. The China Lightens Up (CLU) scenario assumed 55% urbanization, zero net exports of heavy industrial products, and more aggressive efficiency improvements by 2025. The five dominant industry sub-sectors were modeled in both scenarios using a LEAP energy end-use accounting model. The results of this study show that a CLU-style development path would avoid 430 million tonnes coal-equivalent energy use by 2025. More than 60% of these energy savings would come from reduced activity and production levels. In carbon terms, this would amount to more than a billion-tonne reduction of energy-related carbon emissions compared with the BAU scenario in 2025, though the absolute level of emissions rises in both scenarios. Aside from the energy and carbon savings related to CLU scenario development, this study showed impending saturation effects in commercial construction, urban appliance ownership, and fertilizer application. The implication of these findings is that urbanization will have a direct impact on future energy use and emissions - policies to guide urban growth can play a central role in China's efforts to mitigate emissions growth.

  8. Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reich, Frederich R. (Richland, WA); Schwankoff, Albert R. (W. Richland, WA)

    1980-01-01

    A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

  9. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    The household energy transition in India and China. ? EnergyThe household energy transition in India and China. ? Energy

  10. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Energy Outlook. ? Japan Petroleum Energy Center, 2008. ?OurFigure 58). Japan Petroleum Energy Center, 2008. ?OurPrimary Energy Use by Fuel, 2000-2025 Petroleum Primary

  11. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    urban form development to reduce overall metabolic energy consumption, further aggressive increases in equipment energy efficiency

  12. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    al. 2008. ?World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values foral. , 2008, "World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values foral. , 2008, "World Best Practice Energy Intensity Values for

  13. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    and the corresponding primary energy form. Sown Area As aof consumption. In terms of primary energy sources, urbanits share of total primary energy consumption surged even

  14. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    consumption, further aggressive increases in equipment energy efficiency standards, implementation of renewable energy in cities (such as expanded solar

  15. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    if non-commercial biomass energy consumption is included,of non-commercial biomass energy sources such as firewood,However, non-commercial biomass energy consumption is often

  16. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Agency. 2008. ?2008 World Energy Outlook. ? Japan Petroleumbelow the 2008 World Energy Outlook‘s projection (FigureSource: IEA, 2008 World Energy Outlook; LBNL CLU Model. 4.2

  17. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    growth and of energy-intensive exports to 2025. Withinlevels and export activity, total energy use dips slightlydemand for energy-intensive Chinese exports as China‘s WTO

  18. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Energy Research Institute 2050 Model and projects that both urban and rural per capita floor spaceurban and rural total energy consumption per square meter of residential building spaceSpace Urban Rural square meters per person Source: NBS With increased residential floor space, changes in the energy

  19. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    66: China CO 2 Emissions in Global Context WEO '08 globalmt CO2 WEO '08 China CLU Source: IEA, 2008 World Energy

  20. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    attract foreign investment." Oil and Gas Journal 102 (1):attract foreign investment." Oil and Gas Journal 102 (1):Investment (EROEI) ratio, or the quotient of usable acquired energy from coal, oil and

  1. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    He, et. Al. 2005. ?Oil consumption and CO 2 emissions inMichael P. Walsh, 2005, ?Oil consumption and CO 2 emissionsoil and 2% electricity were also used for calculating energy consumption

  2. Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Lighting and Other Electric Loads Healthcare Energy: Spotlight on Lighting and Other Electric Loads Compact fluorescent, light-emitting diode, and energy-saving incandescent light...

  3. LIGHTEnUp Tool & Analysis Framework

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i nAand DOE Safety Standards Implementationfy 2015 June 2, 2015;Washers

  4. Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Energy performance of LEED® for new construction buildings,The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification Gwen FuertesGreen Building Council for LEED certification. The study

  5. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    LBNL-6034E Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads Dandan Zhu1 , Tianzhen Energy, the U.S.-China Clean Energy Research Center for Building Energy Efficiency, of the U;Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads A joint effort between Lawrence Berkeley

  6. Energy efficiency indicators for high electric-load buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aebischer, Bernard; Balmer, Markus A.; Kinney, Satkartar; Le Strat, Pascale; Shibata, Yoshiaki; Varone, Frederic

    2003-06-01

    Energy per unit of floor area is not an adequate indicator for energy efficiency in high electric-load buildings. For two activities, restaurants and computer centres, alternative indicators for energy efficiency are discussed.

  7. Disruption Energy Loads on Plasma Facing Components in JET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    /orotherMHD ITBhighbetaand/orotherMHD Eth(dis) div IR DISRUPTION HEAT LOADS: THERMAL & DIVERTOR ENERGY #12;EE Thermal energy) Thermal energy ~ 1.8 MJ Divertor energy ~ 0.8 MJ 45% of Eth to divertor Magnetic energy ~ 13 MJ Radiated energy ~ 8 MJ Neutral beams during NTM ~ 1 MJ 6 MJ not accounted (33%) #12;EE · Radiation follows thermal

  8. Energy Storage for Use in Load Frequency Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leitermann, Olivia

    Certain energy storage technologies are well-suited to the high-frequency, high-cycling operation which is required in provision of load frequency control (LFC). To limit the total stored energy capacity required while ...

  9. Addressing the Energy-Delay Tradeoff in Wireless Networks with Load-Proportional Energy Usage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sikdar, Biplab

    Addressing the Energy-Delay Tradeoff in Wireless Networks with Load-Proportional Energy Usage Jie and achieve load-proportional energy usage. These techniques slow down the operation of the hardware and thus the energy-delay tradeoff while achieving load-proportional energy usage in wireless networks. The proposed

  10. Optimizing Process Loads in Industrial Cogeneration Energy Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahner, D. J.; Babson, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    W OPTIMIZING PROCESS LOADS IN INDUSTRIAL COGENERAnON ENERGY SYSTEMS DJ. Ahner Manager, Generation Technology Power Tecbnologies, Inc. Schenectady, New York ABSTRACT Optimum dispatcb of energy supply systems can result in large savings... and industrial cogeneration are extended to solving this trigeneration problem where the optimum dispatch of the final load devices (i.e. compressors, fans, pumps, etc.) are an integral part of the total energy system optimization. An example industrial...

  11. En.lighten Country Lighting Assessments (CLAs) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LISTStar2-0057-EA Jump to:of theClimateElgin, Illinois:JVEmpire

  12. Potential Peak Load Reductions From Residential Energy Efficient Upgrades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meisegeier, D.; Howes, M.; King, D.; Hall, J.

    2002-01-01

    the potential peak load reductions from residential energy efficiency upgrades in hot and humid climates. First, a baseline scenario is established. Then, the demand and consumption impacts of individual upgrade measures are assessed. Several of these upgrades...

  13. Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajesh

    Energy Efficient Geographical Load Balancing via Dynamic Deferral of Workload Muhammad Abdullah to enhancements of the electrical grid raise the possibility of utilizing "cloud computing" for energy efficient computing. Energy efficiency in the cloud has been explored recently in [1], [2], [3], [4], [5]. While

  14. Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oren, Shmuel S.

    Supplying Renewable Energy to Deferrable Loads: Algorithms and Economic Analysis Anthony compares to price responsive demand in terms capacity gains and energy market revenues for renewable to renewable generation. I. INTRODUCTION Renewable power is emerging as a mainstream source of energy supply

  15. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home RoomPreservation of Fe(II)Geothermal EnergyRenewableCompanies PilotTeachesSandia Wind Energy

  16. Load Reduction, Demand Response and Energy Efficient Technologies and Strategies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Paul A.; Parker, Graham B.; Hatley, Darrel D.

    2008-11-19

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked by the DOE Office of Electricity (OE) to recommend load reduction and grid integration strategies, and identify additional demand response (energy efficiency/conservation opportunities) and strategies at the Forest City Housing (FCH) redevelopment at Pearl Harbor and the Marine Corps Base Hawaii (MCBH) at Kaneohe Bay. The goal was to provide FCH staff a path forward to manage their electricity load and thus reduce costs at these FCH family housing developments. The initial focus of the work was at the MCBH given the MCBH has a demand-ratchet tariff, relatively high demand (~18 MW) and a commensurate high blended electricity rate (26 cents/kWh). The peak demand for MCBH occurs in July-August. And, on average, family housing at MCBH contributes ~36% to the MCBH total energy consumption. Thus, a significant load reduction in family housing can have a considerable impact on the overall site load. Based on a site visit to the MCBH and meetings with MCBH installation, FCH, and Hawaiian Electric Company (HECO) staff, recommended actions (including a "smart grid" recommendation) that can be undertaken by FCH to manage and reduce peak-demand in family housing are made. Recommendations are also made to reduce overall energy consumption, and thus reduce demand in FCH family housing.

  17. Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    which have larger antennae, collect more light than the cells can use. The excess light energy is lost as heat. Paler green cells with shorter antennae use sunlight more...

  18. Fuel Cell Technologies Researcher Lightens Green Fuel Production |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative Fuelsof Energy Services »Information Resources » Fuel CellDepartment of

  19. Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office to cost-effectively generate representative MELs energy data for future studies, this study addressed

  20. Bet and Energy -From Load Forecasting to Demand Response in a Web of Things

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beigl, Michael

    Bet and Energy - From Load Forecasting to Demand Response in a Web of Things Yong Ding TECO (DSM) [7, 19]. Within DSM, mainly two principal activities i.e. load shifting (demand response programs) and load reduction (energy efficiency and conser- vation programs) can be realized [4]. 1.1 Demand Response

  1. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Exploring Ways to Lighten AMS Food and Beverage Department's Ecological Footprint

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the survey results and ideas with our AMS stakeholders, our group designed a marketing strategy to promote the current status of the subject matter of a project/report". #12;0 UBC Food System Project Scenario 2.................................................................................................p. 24 #12;2 UBC Food System Project Scenario 2: Exploring Ways to Lighten AMS Food and Beverage

  2. Renewable Energy Load Matching Software - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners *ReindustrializationEnergyWind Energy Wind Energy Solar

  3. Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    that low-energy or net zero energy goals can be met. LEEDtheir low-energy and net zero energy goals. Conclusion This

  4. Electrical Energy Conservation and Load Management - An Industrial User's Viewpoint 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    load management has been implemented already. Additional load management is possible; however, optimizing it will require close industry and electric utility company cooperation to develop new incentives and rate structures to make it economically...

  5. Warding Off Energy Vampires and Phantom Loads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE: Alternative FuelsofProgram: Report1538-1950Department ofIntroduction ofWHITEWarding Off Energy

  6. Deferrable Load Scheduling in a Stand-alone Power System with Renewable Energy Sources and a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Cheng-Shang

    Deferrable Load Scheduling in a Stand-alone Power System with Renewable Energy Sources.O.C. Email: lds@cs.nthu.edu.tw Abstract--Renewable energy resources are environmentally friendly and have in such a system is to effectively utilize renewable energy sources so that the loads can be served as quickly

  7. Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boutaba, Raouf

    Load-Balanced Routing Scheme for Energy-Efficient Wireless Sensor Networks Fatma Bouabdallah, Nizar. In this paper, we investigate the potential energy conservation achieved by balancing the traffic throughout, load balancing, performance analysis. I. INTRODUCTION In order to minimize the energy consumption

  8. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Low Load High Efficiency HVAC Webinar (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Below is the text version of the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home webinar, Low Load High Efficiency HVAC, presented in May 2014.

  9. Building America System Research Plan for Reduction of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in Zero Energy Homes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barley, C. D.; Haley, C.; Anderson, R.; Pratsch, L.

    2008-11-01

    This research plan describes the overall scope of system research that is needed to reduce miscellaneous electrical loads (MEL) in future net zero energy homes.

  10. Water Energy Load Profiling (WELP) Tool | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EA EISTJThinWarsaw, Poland: EnergyPage Edit HistoryWastes

  11. Abstract--In this paper, we study the tradeoff between two important traffic engineering objectives: load balance and energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krovi, Venkat

    : load balance and energy efficiency. Although traditional commonly used multi-objective optimization-objective optimization problems. Index Terms--Traffic Engineering; Load Balance; Energy Efficiency; Nash Bargaining between two important traffic engineering objectives: load balance and energy efficiency. Load balance

  12. Formulation of Prediction Algorithms for Management of Commercial and Industrial Energy Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Forrester, R. J.; Wepfer, W. J.

    1984-01-01

    to adjust control strategies to minimize overall energy costs. This paper describes the formulation of statistically-based energy load prediction algorithms. For many such applications multiple linear regression analysis is appropriate. Examination...

  13. Plug Load Energy Analysis: The Role of Plug Loads in LEED Certification

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuertes, Gwen; Schiavon, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    energy cost, and must remain unchanged in the design-case model unless an optional exceptional calculation

  14. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    in Bethesda, Maryland. merit08proc.pdf More Documents & Publications CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction CoolCab Test and Evaluation and CoolCalc HVAC Tool Development CoolCab...

  15. Energy-Agile Laptops: Demand Response of Mobile Plug Loads Using Sensor/Actuator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Energy-Agile Laptops: Demand Response of Mobile Plug Loads Using Sensor/Actuator Networks Nathan@me.berkeley.edu Abstract--This paper explores demand response techniques for managing mobile, distributed loads with on observed. Our first simulation study explores a classic demand response scenario in which a large number

  16. DELAR: Device/Energy/Load Aware Relaying in Heterogenous Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yanchao

    - newable energy sources. In DELAR the heterogeneity of nodal energy capabilities or device types, nodalDELAR: Device/Energy/Load Aware Relaying in Heterogenous Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Wei Liu Energy conservation is of great importance for mobile ad hoc networks in which most nodes are equipped

  17. Methods for detailed energy data collection of miscellaneous and electronic loads in a commercial office building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    and electronic loads (MELs) consume about 20% of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings, and this share Buildings account for 40% of the total primary energy con- sumption in the U.S., with 22% consumed-third of the primary energy used in U.S. buildings in the next 20 years [2]. MELs energy use is spread among many

  18. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Energy Management System ), External Interface, FMI ( Functional Mockup Interface ) Interoperability

  19. Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu , Huan

    Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage Huan Xu, Ufuk to the intermittency in the power output. These difficulties can be alleviated by effectively utilizing energy storage turbines, supplemented with energy storage. We use a simple storage model alongside a combination

  20. A Scalable Model for Energy Load Balancing in Large-scale Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Veciana, Gustavo

    A Scalable Model for Energy Load Balancing in Large-scale Sensor Networks Seung Jun Baek we consider how one might achieve more balanced energy burdens across the network by spreading sinks change their locations to balance the energy burdens incurred accross the network nodes [1

  1. Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zelikovsky, Alexander

    Energy Efficiency of Load Balancing in MANET Routing Protocols Sunsook Jung, Nisar Hundewale, Alex Zelikovsky Abstract This paper considers energy constrained routing pro- tocols and workload balancing techniques for improving MANET routing protocols and energy efficiency. We give new routing protocol

  2. Tackling the Load Uncertainty Challenges for Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    both users, by reducing their energy expenses, and utility companies, by improving the peak T Number of time slots a Nominal power of appliance a Ea Total required energy of appliance a a OperatingTackling the Load Uncertainty Challenges for Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid Pedram

  3. Load Scheduling and Power Trading in Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    Load Scheduling and Power Trading in Systems with High Penetration of Renewable Energy Resources with high penetration of renewable energy resources (RERs). We adopt approximate dynamic programming friendly renewable energy resources (RERs). Regulations have been passed to increase the pro- duction

  4. Residential Air Conditioner Direct Load Control "Energy Partners Program" 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cook, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    ) approach in which both demand- side and supply side resources are evaluated. HL&P also recognizes the contribution demand-side programs make to the company's long-term ability to provide reliable and reasonably priced electric service for its... effected, according to EPRI. Numerous large investor-owned electric utilities are presently offering residential load control programs with great success. Arkansas Power & Light, Duke Power Company, Florida Power Corporation, Florida Power t Light...

  5. Property:Geothermal/LoadFactor | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo,AltFuelVehicle2 Jump to: navigation, search This is aAnnualGenGwhYrLoadFactor Jump to:

  6. Irreversible Low Load Genetic Switches - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration would likeUniverseIMPACT EVALUATIONIntroducing theActivation by CytochromeIrreversible Low Load

  7. A Boiler Plant Energy Efficiency and Load Balancing Survey 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nutter, D. W.; Murphy, D. R.

    1997-01-01

    Daily energy use data was used to perform an energy efficiency survey of a medium-sized university boiler plant. The physical plant operates centralized mechanical plants to provide both chilled water and steam for building conditioning. Steam...

  8. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  9. Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Huan

    Load-shedding probabilities with hybrid renewable power generation and energy storage Huan Xu, Ufuk, and energy storage. costs [7], [8], [9]. Reference [10] uses a probabilistic model to predict the feasibility Topcu, Steven H. Low, Christopher R. Clarke, and K. Mani Chandy Abstract-- The integration of renewable

  10. Comparison of Building Energy Modeling Programs: Building Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhu, Dandan

    2014-01-01

    Shruti Kaserekar (2010). Solar gain and cooling loadcoefficient assumptions, the solar position calculation, andthe sky diffuse solar models. 2. DeST and EnergyPlus both

  11. Montana Total Maximum Daily Load Development Projects Wiki | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History ViewMayo, Maryland: Energy ResourcesDec(Pritchett,GroundwaterEnergy.10Open EnergyInformation

  12. UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Electrical Energy Conservation Opportunities for Plug Loads and Lighting in UBC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    UBC Social Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Electrical Energy Ecological Economic Development Studies (SEEDS) Student Report Electrical Energy Conservation Opportunities for plug loads and lighting in UBC Office Buildings Natalie Yao University of British Columbia Clean Energy

  13. Overview of Existing Literature On Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J.S.; Claridge, D.E

    2004-01-01

    on monitored data collected for PG&E and the California Energy Commission (CEC). Noren (1997) and Noren and Pyrko (1998a and b) described a typical load shape technique used with data collected from 13 schools and nine hotels in Sweden. Major sources of data... Literature on Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations (1093-RP) Bass Abushakra, Ph.D. Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE Member ASHRAE ABSTRACT This paper provides...

  14. Power Converter Topologies with Energy Recovery and Grid Power Limitation For Inductive Load Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossini, Stefano; Papastergiou, Konstantinos; Le Godec, Gilles; Retegui, Rogelio Garcia; Maestri, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This work investigates a grid interface for power supplies used in particle accelerators for cycling loads such as large electromagnets. Two topologies are discussed integrating magnetic energy recovery. For each topology, the associated energy management strategies are examined with the objective to control the grid current profile. A model is established for each of the proposed solutions and the simulation results are presented. A critical review of the investigated energy management solutions is attempted.

  15. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-04-01

    Provides an overview of evaluation, measurement, and verification approaches used to estimate the load impacts and effectiveness of energy efficiency programs.

  16. CoolCab Truck Thermal Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels|ProgramsLakeDepartment ofof Energy Test and

  17. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    as firewood, stalks and biogas continues to dominate ruralwith notable growth in biogas and stalks consumption (Consumption Firewood Stalks Biogas kgce per capita Source:

  18. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    shares of electricity and LPG. The subsequent divergent fuelrural households have only recently started using LPG. Whileresidents did not start using LPG until the mid-1990s, urban

  19. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    oil, coke, other Coal,oil and oil product, crude oil, otherCoal,oil and oil product, crude oil, other Steam,diseal,International Crude oil, oil products, NG, other Gas Fuel

  20. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    emissions were higher than rural in 1996 and 1997 but have since remained below rural when biomass combustion

  1. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    CO2 emissions per capita Urban Rural Commercial Only Source:Emissions in Global Context WEO '08 global mt CO2 WEO '08 China CLU Source:

  2. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Warner, Sven. 2007. "District Heating Possibilities withinWarner, Sven. 2007. "District Heating Possibilities withingas boiler boiler stove district heating heat pump air

  3. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    20% natural gas, 10% heavy oil and 2% electricity were alsothe natural gas and heavy oil shares remained relativelyof electricity, natural gas, heavy oil, coke and coal were

  4. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Change 31: 413 – 434. 2003. ?Styrene industry poised for anIn contrast, polystyrene and styrene have grown at a slowerPolyethylene Polypropylene Styrene Polystyrene Primary

  5. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    water heating space heating cooling floor area distributionwater heating space heating cooling floor area distributionfloor area in commercial building type n in m 2 , and space heating

  6. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    Power Generation69 Figure 59: Power Generation and Fuel Mix, 2000-70 Figure 60: Power Generation Capacity, 2000 -

  7. How Can China Lighten Up? Urbanization, Industrialization and Energy Demand Scenarios

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aden, Nathaniel T.

    2010-01-01

    coal, 20% natural gas, 10% heavy oil and 2% electricity wereof electricity, natural gas, heavy oil, coke and coal werethe natural gas and heavy oil shares remained relatively

  8. RLTec formerly ResponsiveLoad Limited | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX ECoop Inc Jump to:Newberg,Energy LLCALLETEREFU Elektronik GmbH JumpChina

  9. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i Framing DocumentUnits at Eight- Special Advisor, OfficeFactorsa

  10. Adjustable Speed Drive Part-Load Efficiency | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De p u t y A s sconveyance(EPACT)SpringDOE during

  11. enVerid Systems - HVAC Load Reduction | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.EnergyWooden Rooftops |.doc�8 I N S P

  12. A Dynamic Voltage Scaling Controller for Maximum Energy Saving Across Full Range of Load Conditions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ng, Wai Tung

    to an explosive increase in both power density and total power consumption in modem VLSI circuits. In order or low power mode, energy saving from dynamic voltage scaling (DVS) is limited due to very poor efficiency of the PWM DC/DC converter operating at light load conditions, resulting in shorter than expected

  13. Phase-Change Frame Walls (PCFWs) for Peak Demand Reduction, Load Shifting, Energy Conservation and Comfort 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina, M.; Stewart, R.

    2008-01-01

    of the wall via the high latent heats of the PCMs. The main goal of this study was to determine the feasibility of using PCFWs for peak air conditioning demand reduction, thermal load shifting, energy conservation, and thermal comfort. The results showed...

  14. Development of an Energy-Savings Calculation Methodology for Residential Miscellaneous Electric Loads: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendron, R.; Eastment, M.

    2006-08-01

    In order to meet whole-house energy savings targets beyond 50% in residential buildings, it will be essential that new technologies and systems approaches be developed to address miscellaneous electric loads (MELs). These MELs are comprised of the small and diverse collection of energy-consuming devices found in homes, including what are commonly known as plug loads (televisions, stereos, microwaves), along with all hard-wired loads that do not fit into other major end-use categories (doorbells, security systems, garage door openers). MELs present special challenges because their purchase and operation are largely under the control of the occupants. If no steps are taken to address MELs, they can constitute 40-50% of the remaining source energy use in homes that achieve 60-70% whole-house energy savings, and this percentage is likely to increase in the future as home electronics become even more sophisticated and their use becomes more widespread. Building America (BA), a U.S. Department of Energy research program that targets 50% energy savings by 2015 and 90% savings by 2025, has begun to identify and develop advanced solutions that can reduce MELs.

  15. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Holland, G.; Hanada, A.

    2014-01-01

    As part of its overall strategy to meet its energy goals, the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) partnered with the Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to rapidly demonstrate and deploy cost-effective renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies. This project was one of several demonstrations of new or underutilized commercial energy technologies. The common goal was to demonstrate and measure the performance and economic benefit of the system while monitoring any ancillary impacts to related standards of service and operation and maintenance (O&M) practices. In short, demonstrations at naval facilities simultaneously evaluate the benefits and compatibility of the technology with the U.S. Department of Defense (DOD) mission, and with NAVFAC's design, construction, operations, and maintenance practices, in particular. This project demonstrated the performance of commercially available advanced power strips (APSs) for plug load energy reductions in building A4 at Joint Base Pearl Harbor-Hickam (JBPHH), Hawaii.

  16. Part-Load Performance Characterization and Energy Savings Potential of the RTU Challenge Unit: Daikin Rebel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Weimin; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2013-09-30

    In 2011, the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building Technology Office (DOE’s BTO), with help from the Better Buildings Alliance (BBA) members, developed a specification for high performance rooftop air-conditioning units (RTU Challenge) with capacity ranges between 10 and 20 tons (DOE 2013). Daikin’s Rebel for the first rooftop unit system that was recognized by DOE in May 2012 as meeting the RTU Challenge specifications. This report documents the development of part-load performance curves and its use with EnergyPlus simulation tool to estimate the potential savings from use of Rebel compared to other standard options.

  17. Demand-Side and Supply-Side Load Management: Optimizing with Thermal Energy Storage (TES) for the Restructuring Energy Marketplace 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Andrepont, J. S.

    2002-01-01

    as an economical, peaking power enhancement for either peaking or base-load plants. 1t is applied to both new and existing CTs. TES is projected to have even greater value in future restructuring energy markets. INTRODUCTION AND BACKGROUND The current... totaling several millions of dollars (4,6). TES-based CTIC is advantageous as an economical, peaking power enhancement for either peaking or base-load plants. It is applied to both new and existing CTs. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDAnONS TES already...

  18. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  19. Large Hybrid Energy Systems for Making Low CO2 Load-Following Power and Synthetic Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert S. Cherry; Richard D. Boardman; Steven Aumeier

    2012-02-01

    Hybrid energy systems using nuclear heat sources can economically produce load-following electrical power by exploiting the surplus generation capacity available at night or seasonally to make synthetic fuel. Vehicle fuel is the only current energy use large enough to absorb all the energy capacity that might be diverted from the power industry, and its ease of storage obviates problems with discontinuous synfuel production. The potential benefits and challenges of synfuels integration are illustrated by the production of methanol from natural gas (as a source of carbon) using steam from a light water nuclear power reactor which is assumed to be available in accord with a year's worth of power demand data. Methanol's synthesis process is easily adapted to using 300 C heat from a light water reactor and this simple compound can be further processed into gasoline, biodiesel, or dimethyl ether, fuels which can be used with the current vehicle fleet. A supplemental feed to the methanol process of natural gas (for energy) allows operation at constant full rate when the nuclear heat is being used to produce electrical power. The higher capital costs of such a system are offset by a lower cost of heat and power production from a large base load type of plant and by reduced costs associated with much lower CO2 emissions. Other less tangible economic benefits of this and similar hybrid systems include better use of natural resource for fuels and greater energy services security from the domestic production of vehicle fuel.

  20. Evaluation on Cooling Energy Load with Varied Envelope Design for High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Tamimi, N.; Fadzil, S.

    2010-01-01

    With the development of the economy in the recent years, Malaysia is maintaining a high economic growth and therefore, its energy consumption increases dramatically. Residential buildings are characterized by being envelope-load dominated buildings...

  1. A test platform for measuring the energy efficiency of AC induction motors under various loading conditions and control schemes/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Granata, John A. (John Anthony)

    2012-01-01

    A test platform was developed to measure and compare the energy efficiency of an AC induction motor under steady-state and cyclical loading conditions while operating in both a constant speed mode and while performing speed ...

  2. Using measured equipment load profiles to 'right-size' HVACsystems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-06-29

    There is a general paucity of measured equipment load datafor laboratories and other complex buildings and designers often useestimates based on nameplate rated data or design assumptions from priorprojects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequentlyoverestimated, and load variation across laboratory spaces within abuilding is typically underestimated. This results in two design flaws.Firstly, the overestimation of peak equipment loads results in over-sizedHVAC systems, increasing initial construction costs as well as energy usedue to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. Secondly, HVAC systemsthat are designed without accurately accounting for equipment loadvariation across zones can significantly increase simultaneous heatingand cooling, particularly for systems that use zone reheat fortemperature control. Thus, when designing a laboratory HVAC system, theuse of measured equipment load data from a comparable laboratory willsupport right-sizing HVAC systems and optimizing their configuration tominimize simultaneous heating and cooling, saving initial constructioncosts as well as life-cycle energy costs.In this paper, we present datafrom recent studies to support the above thesis. We first presentmeasured equipment load data from two sources: time-series measurementsin several laboratory modules in a university research laboratorybuilding; and peak load data for several facilities recorded in anational energy benchmarking database. We then contrast this measureddata with estimated values that are typically used for sizing the HVACsystems in these facilities, highlighting the over-sizing problem. Next,we examine the load variation in the time series measurements and analyzethe impact of this variation on energy use, via parametric energysimulations. We then briefly discuss HVAC design solutions that minimizesimultaneous heating and cooling energy use.

  3. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, T.K.; Tomlinson, J.J.

    1996-03-26

    A method is described for energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt.% phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably ``fully charged``. In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboards that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degrees. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort. 7 figs.

  4. Method of energy load management using PCM for heating and cooling of buildings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stovall, Therese K. (Knoxville, TN); Tomlinson, John J. (Knoxville, TN)

    1996-01-01

    A method of energy load management for the heating and cooling of a building. The method involves utilizing a wallboard as a portion of the building, the wallboard containing about 5 to about 30 wt. % a phase change material such that melting of the phase change material occurs during a rise in temperature within the building to remove heat from the air, and a solidification of the phase change material occurs during a lowering of the temperature to dispense heat into the air. At the beginning of either of these cooling or heating cycles, the phase change material is preferably "fully charged". In preferred installations one type of wallboard is used on the interior surfaces of exterior walls, and another type as the surface on interior walls. The particular PCM is chosen for the desired wall and room temperature of these locations. In addition, load management is achieved by using PCM-containing wallboard that form cavities of the building such that the cavities can be used for the air handling duct and plenum system of the building. Enhanced load management is achieved by using a thermostat with reduced dead band of about the upper half of a normal dead band of over three degree. In some applications, air circulation at a rate greater than normal convection provides additional comfort.

  5. Effect of Large Scale Transmission Limitations on Renewable Energy Load Matching for Western U.S.: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diakov, V.; Short, W.; Gilchrist, B.

    2012-06-01

    Based on the available geographically dispersed data for the Western U.S. (excluding Alaska), we analyze to what extent the geographic diversity of these resources can offset their variability. Without energy storage and assuming unlimited energy flows between regions, wind and PV can meet up to 80% of loads in Western U.S. while less than 10% of the generated power is curtailed. Limiting hourly energy flows by the aggregated transmission line carrying capacities decreases the fraction of the load that can be met with wind and PV generation to approximately 70%.

  6. Load Management for Industry 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    categories: Thermal Energy Storage, Communication and Load Control, Interconnection and Operation of Power Systems, and Selective Load Promotions. The endeavors of the utility industry and Ohio Edison Company in three of the four categories are described...

  7. Analysis of Loads and Wind Energy Potential for Remote Power Stations in Alaska University of Massachusetts Amherst

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    Analysis of Loads and Wind Energy Potential for Remote Power Stations in Alaska Mia Devine@avec.org ABSTRACT This report addresses the potential of utilizing wind energy in remote communities of Alaska generators, including the potential for fuel spills and the emission of greenhouse gases and particulates

  8. Uraninum-233 Inventory in Oak Ridge Lightened with First Shipment of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OF APPLICABLEStatutoryin theNuclear EnergyPotomac RiverUpper EastMaterial from

  9. Load management strategy for Particle-In-Cell simulations in high energy physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beck, Arnaud; Derouillat, Julien

    2015-01-01

    In the wake of the intense effort made for the experimental CILEX project, numerical simulation campaigns have been carried out in order to finalize the design of the facility and to identify optimal laser and plasma parameters. These simulations bring, of course, important insight into the fundamental physics at play. As a by-product, they also characterize the quality of our theoretical and numerical models. By comparing the results given by different codes, it is possible to point out algorithmic limitations both in terms of physical accuracy and computational performances. In this paper we illustrate some of these limitations in the context of electron laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). The main limitation we identify in state-of-the-art Particle-In-Cell (PIC) codes is computational load imbalance. We propose an innovative algorithm to deal with this specific issue as well as milestones towards a modern, accurate high-performance PIC code for high energy physics.

  10. Tackling the Load Uncertainty Challenges for Energy Consumption Scheduling in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    real-time residential load management algorithm that takes into account load uncertainty in order estimates of the future load demand. Moreover, we consider real- time pricing combined with inclining block at time slot t t(·) Price function at time slot t mt Price parameter at time slot t nt Price parameter

  11. 2004 Conference on Information Sciences and Systems, Princeton University, March 1719, 2004 Monetary Cost and Energy Use Optimization in Divisible Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Robertazzi, Thomas G.

    Monetary Cost and Energy Use Optimization in Divisible Load Processing Mequanint A. Moges, Leonardo A -- In this paper divisible load scheduling theory is used to examine monetary cost and energy use optimization to each processor that will mini- mize the monetary cost or energy consumption of the network

  12. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 2, Book 1, Energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity to BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific and Northwest generating utility, (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources, and (3) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads. This analysis updates the 1992 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1992. This technical appendix provides utility-specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility (1) Electrical demand firm loads; (2) Generating resources; and (3) Contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1993, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here.

  13. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique features make this work a significant step forward toward the objective of incorporating of wind, solar, load, and other uncertainties into power system operations. Currently, uncertainties associated with wind and load forecasts, as well as uncertainties associated with random generator outages and unexpected disconnection of supply lines, are not taken into account in power grid operation. Thus, operators have little means to weigh the likelihood and magnitude of upcoming events of power imbalance. In this project, funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), a framework has been developed for incorporating uncertainties associated with wind and load forecast errors, unpredicted ramps, and forced generation disconnections into the energy management system (EMS) as well as generation dispatch and commitment applications. A new approach to evaluate the uncertainty ranges for the required generation performance envelope including balancing capacity, ramping capability, and ramp duration has been proposed. The approach includes three stages: forecast and actual data acquisition, statistical analysis of retrospective information, and prediction of future grid balancing requirements for specified time horizons and confidence levels. Assessment of the capacity and ramping requirements is performed using a specially developed probabilistic algorithm based on a histogram analysis, incorporating all sources of uncertainties of both continuous (wind and load forecast errors) and discrete (forced generator outages and start-up failures) nature. A new method called the “flying brick” technique has been developed to evaluate the look-ahead required generation performance envelope for the worst case scenario within a user-specified confidence level. A self-validation algorithm has been developed to validate the accuracy of the confidence intervals.

  14. Load cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, B.L.

    1998-12-15

    A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

  15. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, CARB monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  16. Solubility, Light Output and Energy Resolution Studies of Molybdenum-Loaded Liquid Scintillators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    V. M. Gehman; P. J. Doe; R. G. H. Robertson; D. I. Will; H. Ejiri; R. Hazama

    2010-09-03

    The search for neutrinoless double-beta decay is an important part of the global neutrino physics program. One double-beta decay isotope currently under investigation is 100Mo. In this article, we discuss the results of a feasibility study investigating the use of molybdenum-loaded liquid scintillator. A large, molybdenum-loaded liquid scintillator detector is one potential design for a low-background, internal-source neutrinoless double-beta decay search with 100Mo. The program outlined in this article included the selection of a solute containing molybdenum, a scintillating solvent and the evaluation of the mixture's performance as a radiation detector.

  17. Commercial Office Plug Load Energy Consumption Trends and the Role of Occupant Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. RetrievedSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. RetrievedSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Urban Land

  18. Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, H.Y. Iris

    2014-01-01

    LBNL-XXXXX Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous05CH11231. Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneousgenerate representative MELs energy data for future studies,

  19. Methods for Detailed Energy Data Collection of Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lanzisera, Steven

    2014-01-01

    Methods for Detailed Energy Data Collection of MiscellaneousMethods for Detailed Energy Data Collection of Miscellaneousmethod of collecting MELs energy data today. In the US, MELs

  20. Detailed Energy Data Collection for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads in a Commercial Office Building

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheung, H.Y. Iris

    2014-01-01

    Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Ed. : AmericanSummer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings in Asilomar,Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings Asilomar, CA,

  1. Commercial Office Plug Load Energy Consumption Trends and the Role of Occupant Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Priya

    2015-01-01

    ULI-Documents/TheBullittCenter.pdf U.S. Energy InformationCommercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey. Retrievedcommercial/ U.S. Energy Information Administration. (2014).

  2. Adaptive Energy Consumption Scheduling with Load Uncertainty for the Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    including must-run and controllable. Unlike most of the existing demand side management algorithms to as demand side management (DSM). Among different techniques con- sidered for DSM (e.g., voluntary load electricity price to the demand side, users pay what the electricity is worth at different times of day

  3. Technical Assistance to ISO's and Grid Operators For Loads Providing...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    & Publications Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Demand Response and Energy Storage Integration Study - Past Workshops Load Participation...

  4. Energy-Ecient Load and Store Reuse Jun Yang Rajiv Gupta

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gupta, Rajiv

    for reducing on-chip cache activity and hence the energy consumed by the cache. How- ever, taking advantage consume energy. To get an overall re- duction in energy consumed we must save more energy in the cache lead to reductions in energy consumed by the cache as well as improvements in executed instructions per

  5. Commercial Office Plug Load Energy Consumption Trends and the Role of Occupant Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gandhi, Priya

    2015-01-01

    to Zero: The 2014 Net Zero Energy Status Report Findings forThe next big hurdle for net zero energy building design.2013). PHOENIX’S FIRST NET-ZERO ENERGY OFFICE RETROFIT: A

  6. Solution of Air Conditioning Cooling Load Temperature for New Energy-Saving Walls 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, X.; Hong, J.; Deying, L.

    2006-01-01

    With the development of wall reforms, the production scale and engineering applications of energy savings are increasing daily. It is inevitable to aggressively extend production of new energy-saving walls. Based on the thermal instantaneous...

  7. Improving energy efficiency in a pharmaceutical manufacturing environment : analysis of EUI and cooling load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Haoyu

    2009-01-01

    Reducing energy consumption without compromising the quality of products and the comfort of occupants is important in maintaining the competence of a pharmaceutical company. An energy management tool is developed to monitor ...

  8. An Energy and Peak Loads Analysis of the TYC/TRC Building – Final Report 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1987-01-01

    temperatures, lighting levels, and requires a heat pump for heating, the total energy consumption has dropped by 44%. The major reduction in cooling energy is due to reduced heat gains from lights and also because of an increase in design cooling temperature.... The reduction of total heating energy is basically from the use of more efficient air handling systems, use of heat pump and decreasing the design heating temperature. For ASHRAE Standards the reduction in the energy required for lighting is 15%. The reduction...

  9. Flexible Loads in Future Energy Networks Jay Taneja, Ken Lutz, and David Culler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    data overlay of control and management. Numerous trends across the energy sector ­ among them monitoring and management of energy systems, and the explosion in avail- ability of competitive renewable as well as consumers. These policy and techno- logical trends point to a future grid where large supplies

  10. Breakout Session: Solar as a Base Load Power Source | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De pEnergy Industrialof Energy 7:30PM PDT Pacific A

  11. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Messenger, Mike; Bharvirkar, Ranjit; Golemboski, Bill; Goldman, Charles A.; Schiller, Steven R.

    2010-04-14

    Public and private funding for end-use energy efficiency actions is expected to increase significantly in the United States over the next decade. For example, Barbose et al (2009) estimate that spending on ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs in the U.S. could increase from $3.1 billion in 2008 to $7.5 and 12.4 billion by 2020 under their medium and high scenarios. This increase in spending could yield annual electric energy savings ranging from 0.58% - 0.93% of total U.S. retail sales in 2020, up from 0.34% of retail sales in 2008. Interest in and support for energy efficiency has broadened among national and state policymakers. Prominent examples include {approx}$18 billion in new funding for energy efficiency programs (e.g., State Energy Program, Weatherization, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation Block Grants) in the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Increased funding for energy efficiency should result in more benefits as well as more scrutiny of these results. As energy efficiency becomes a more prominent component of the U.S. national energy strategy and policies, assessing the effectiveness and energy saving impacts of energy efficiency programs is likely to become increasingly important for policymakers and private and public funders of efficiency actions. Thus, it is critical that evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) is carried out effectively and efficiently, which implies that: (1) Effective program evaluation, measurement, and verification (EM&V) methodologies and tools are available to key stakeholders (e.g., regulatory agencies, program administrators, consumers, and evaluation consultants); and (2) Capacity (people and infrastructure resources) is available to conduct EM&V activities and report results in ways that support program improvement and provide data that reliably compares achieved results against goals and similar programs in other jurisdictions (benchmarking). The National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (2007) presented commonly used definitions for EM&V in the context of energy efficiency programs: (1) Evaluation (E) - The performance of studies and activities aimed at determining the effects and effectiveness of EE programs; (2) Measurement and Verification (M&V) - Data collection, monitoring, and analysis associated with the calculation of gross energy and demand savings from individual measures, sites or projects. M&V can be a subset of program evaluation; and (3) Evaluation, Measurement, and Verification (EM&V) - This term is frequently seen in evaluation literature. EM&V is a catchall acronym for determining both the effectiveness of program designs and estimates of load impacts at the portfolio, program and project level. This report is a scoping study that assesses current practices and methods in the evaluation, measurement and verification (EM&V) of ratepayer-funded energy efficiency programs, with a focus on methods and practices currently used for determining whether projected (ex-ante) energy and demand savings have been achieved (ex-post). M&V practices for privately-funded energy efficiency projects (e.g., ESCO projects) or programs where the primary focus is greenhouse gas reductions were not part of the scope of this study. We identify and discuss key purposes and uses of current evaluations of end-use energy efficiency programs, methods used to evaluate these programs, processes used to determine those methods; and key issues that need to be addressed now and in the future, based on discussions with regulatory agencies, policymakers, program administrators, and evaluation practitioners in 14 states and national experts in the evaluation field. We also explore how EM&V may evolve in a future in which efficiency funding increases significantly, innovative mechanisms for rewarding program performance are adopted, the role of efficiency in greenhouse gas mitigation is more closely linked, and programs are increasingly funded from multiple sources often with multiple program administrators and in

  12. Compilation of Diversity Factors and Schedules for Energy and Cooling Load Calculations, ASHRAE Research Project 1093, Preliminary Report, Literature Review and Database Search 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, B.; Haberl, J. S.; Claridge, D. E.

    1999-01-01

    -05-01 COMPILATION OF DIVERSITY FACTORS AND SCHEDULES FOR ENERGY AND COOLING LOAD CALCULATIONS ASHRAE Research Project 1093 Preliminary Report LITERATURE REVIEW AND DATABASE SEARCH Bass Abushakra Jeff S. Haberl, Ph.D., P.E. David E. Claridge..., Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory Texas A&M University College Station, Texas, 77843-3581 May 1999 ASHRAE RP-1093 page i May 1999, Preliminary Report Energy...

  13. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    2009-01-01

    factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors for each shift... The purpose of this paper is to analyze operating hours of small and medium-sized manufacturing plants in the United States and develop ranges of load factors for use as diagnostic tools for effective energy management. Load factor is defined...

  14. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load 50% Energy Savings |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics JumpOpen Energy

  15. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load 50% Energy Savings |

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics JumpOpenOpen Energy

  16. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Miami High Plug Load 50% Energy Savings | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics JumpOpenOpenEnergy

  17. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Miami Low Plug Load 50% Energy Savings | Open

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomicsEnergy

  18. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  19. Demand-Side Load Scheduling Incentivized by Dynamic Energy Hadi Goudarzi, Safar Hatami, and Massoud Pedram

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    consumption-dependent pricing function for electricity consumption. Exact solutions (based on Branch and Bound to avoid blackouts. At the same time, the electrical power consumption is rising rapidly. Without a major growth in electrical energy consumption under worst- case demand conditions [1]. To avoid expending

  20. TRNSYS MODELING OF A HYBRID LIGHTING SYSTEM: BUILDING ENERGY LOADS AND CHROMATICITY ANALYSIS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisconsin at Madison, University of

    as a function of time based on horizontal radiation measurements. However, no methods are currently provided. These locations were selected to exemplify best and worst case results, respectively. Annual energy savings rods. 2. LUMINOUS EFFICIENCY AND EFFICACY The amount of illumination provided by a light source

  1. Cost-and Energy-Aware Load Distribution Across Data Centers , Ricardo Bianchini

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianchini, Ricardo

    , we seek to exploit data centers that pay different and perhaps variable electric- ity prices. In fact called "green") electricity to reduce "brown" energy consumption that is mostly produced by carbon centers with the best power efficiency, and then starts exploiting the data centers with the cheapest

  2. Energy Restriction Effects on Estrogen Status and the Skeletal Response to Loading 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Swift, Sibyl Nichole

    2011-10-21

    one determined which nutrient?s (calcium or energy) restriction (-40%) had the greatest negative effects on the skeletal integrity of exercising female rats and whether exercise (EX) could mitigate these deleterious changes. EnR caused detrimental... effects in many of the structural properties of bone; however EX attenuated losses in cancellous bone. iv Study two ascertained whether EX maintained cancellous bone mass in female rats subjected to graded EnR (-20 or -40%) and whether changes...

  3. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Miami High Plug Load Baseline | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics

  4. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Miami Low Plug Load Baseline | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit

  5. HVAC Right-Sizing Part 1: Calculating Loads | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum12,ExecutiveFinancing Programs |ReferencePower Suppliesof EnergyRight-Sizing

  6. Optimal energy-harvesting cycles for load-driven dielectric generators in plane strain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Springhetti; E. Bortot; G. deBotton; M. Gei

    2014-03-13

    The performances of energy harvesting generators based on dielectric elastomers are investigated. The configuration is of a thin dielectric film coated by stretchable electrodes at both sides. The film is first stretched, then charged and subsequently, afterwards it is released, and finally the charge is harvested at a higher electric potential. The amount of energy extracted by this cycle is bounded by the electric breakdown and the ultimate stretch ratio of the film as well as by structural instabilities due to loss of tension. To identify the optimal cycle that complies with these limits we formulate a constraint optimization problem and solve it with a dedicated solver for two typical classes of elastic dielectrics. As anticipated, we find that the performance of the generator depends critically on the ultimate stretch ratio of the film. However, more surprising is our finding of a universal limit on the dielectric strength of the film beyond which the optimal cycle is independent of this parameter. Thus, we reveal that, regardless of how large the dielectric strength of the material is, there is an upper bound on the amount of harvested energy that depends only on the ultimate stretch ratio. We conclude the work with detailed calculations of the optimal cycles for two commercially available elastic dielectrics.

  7. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago High Plug Load Baseline | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics JumpOpen

  8. General Merchandise 2009 TSD Chicago Low Plug Load Baseline | Open Energy

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QAsource History View New PagesSustainable UrbanKentucky: EnergyGateway Edit HistoryGearyAtomics JumpOpenOpen

  9. Reducing Plug Loads in Office Spaces: Hawaii and Guam Energy Improvement Technology Demonstration Project

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impactsand engineersAcquisition Office of Energy Efficiency

  10. Colorado - C.R.S. 42-4-502, Width of Load | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTIONRobertsdale, Alabama (Utility Company) JumpIowa:Colmar,EnergyInformationColorado - C.R.S.

  11. ZERH Webinar: Low Load HVAC and Zero Energy Ready Homes | Department of

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION J APPENDIX E LIST OFAMERICA'S FUTURE.EnergyWooden Rooftops | Department ofYucca

  12. Effects of Dye Loading Conditions on the Energy Conversion Efficiency of ZnO and TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cao, Guozhong

    light conversion efficiency of zinc oxide (ZnO) film electrodes in dye-sensitized solar cellsEffects of Dye Loading Conditions on the Energy Conversion Efficiency of ZnO and TiO2 Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Tammy P. Chou, Qifeng Zhang, and Guozhong Cao* Materials Science and Engineering, Uni

  13. NREL's Energy-Saving Technology for Air Conditioning Cuts Peak Power Loads Without Using Harmful Refrigerants (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2012-07-01

    This fact sheet describes how the DEVAP air conditioner was invented, explains how the technology works, and why it won an R&D 100 Award. Desiccant-enhanced evaporative (DEVAP) air-conditioning will provide superior comfort for commercial buildings in any climate at a small fraction of the electricity costs of conventional air-conditioning equipment, releasing far less carbon dioxide and cutting costly peak electrical demand by an estimated 80%. Air conditioning currently consumes about 15% of the electricity generated in the United States and is a major contributor to peak electrical demand on hot summer days, which can lead to escalating power costs, brownouts, and rolling blackouts. DEVAP employs an innovative combination of air-cooling technologies to reduce energy use by up to 81%. DEVAP also shifts most of the energy needs to thermal energy sources, reducing annual electricity use by up to 90%. In doing so, DEVAP is estimated to cut peak electrical demand by nearly 80% in all climates. Widespread use of this cooling cycle would dramatically cut peak electrical loads throughout the country, saving billions of dollars in investments and operating costs for our nation's electrical utilities. Water is already used as a refrigerant in evaporative coolers, a common and widely used energy-saving technology for arid regions. The technology cools incoming hot, dry air by evaporating water into it. The energy absorbed by the water as it evaporates, known as the latent heat of vaporization, cools the air while humidifying it. However, evaporative coolers only function when the air is dry, and they deliver humid air that can lower the comfort level for building occupants. And even many dry climates like Phoenix, Arizona, have a humid season when evaporative cooling won't work well. DEVAP extends the applicability of evaporative cooling by first using a liquid desiccant-a water-absorbing material-to dry the air. The dry air is then passed to an indirect evaporative cooling stage, in which the incoming air is in thermal contact with a moistened surface that evaporates the water into a separate air stream. As the evaporation cools the moistened surface, it draws heat from the incoming air without adding humidity to it. A number of cooling cycles have been developed that employ indirect evaporative cooling, but DEVAP achieves a superior efficiency relative to its technological siblings.

  14. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ENERGY CONVERSION, VOL. 17, NO. 3, SEPTEMBER 2002 1 A New Synthetic Loading for Large Induction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    and the source hydro has to provide only the total losses of the system, without seeing the excessive power Loading for Large Induction Machines With No Feedback Into the Power System Jafar Soltani, Member, IEEE of large induction machines is constrained by the limitations in the power-supply and loading equipment

  15. Assessment of Load and Energy Reduction Techniques (ALERT) Retrocommissioning Case Study of Two National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Sites 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luskay, L.; Haasl, T.; Schwab, J.; Beattie, D.

    2003-01-01

    are 231,924 kWh, 51,550 therms, and $28,920 annual energy savings. Implementation costs were estimated at $56,380, which would result in a 1.9 year average payback. It cost approximately $0.09 per square foot to perform the ALERT RCx assessment. Of the 33...

  16. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-01-01

    Buildings Energy Databook. U.S. Department of Energy, Officeof Energy EfficiencyRenewable Energy. http://buildingsdatabook.eere.energy.gov/.

  17. Buildings Stock Load Control 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

    2006-01-01

    , Shenzhen, China Building Commissioning for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol.VI-9-4 Buildings Stock Load Control Ms H. Amrani Joutey Mr H. Vaezi-Nejad Mr B. Clemonçon Mr F.Rosenstein PHD student Research engineer Research... electricity consumption and curtail peak demand but in local form: building by building. Few developments are carried out for multi sites management. Multi sites management is essential in crisis and/or peak periods (large energy demand in particular during...

  18. Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Nanosegregated Cathode Catalysts with Ultra-Low Platinum Loading Presented at the Department of Energy Fuel Cell...

  19. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Consortium for Energy Efficiency Energy efficiency (end-use,Weatherization, and Energy Efficiency and Conservation BlockInstitute for Energy Efficiency and the California Public

  20. Electrical and Production Load Factors 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, Tapajyoti

    2010-07-14

    Load factors are an important simplification of electrical energy use data and depend on the ratio of average demand to peak demand. Based on operating hours of a facility they serve as an important benchmarking tool for the industrial sector...

  1. Demand Response: Load Management Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01

    Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs V. Residential Discussion... Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off-peak period or from high-price periods...

  2. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Mike

    2010-01-01

    transportation) Energy Efficiency Resource Standard U.S. Energy Information Administration Evaluation, measurement,

  3. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    @compute.dtu.dk www.compute.dtu.dk M.Sc.-2013-87 #12;Summary (English) The Danish power production coming from energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present Thesis

  4. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  5. Using measured equipment load profiles to "right-size" HVAC systems and reduce energy use in laboratory buildings (Pt. 2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Paul; Greenberg, Steve; Frenze, David; Morehead, Michael; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2008-01-01

    Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings. ACEEE, Washington,Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings. ACEEE, Washington,Study of Energy Efficiency in Buildings. ACEEE, Washington,

  6. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-01-01

    and provide energy efficiency and building technologies toStudy on Energy Efficiency in Buildings. Pacific Grove,in improving energy efficiency in commercial buildings would

  7. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Mike

    2010-01-01

    the event a national energy efficiency resource standard wasin the event that energy efficiency resource standards wereCERES or separate Energy Efficiency Resource Standard (EERS)

  8. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Mike

    2010-01-01

    defined three alternative energy efficiency future scenariosunder alternative future scenarios for energy efficiency29  27   Table 19. Alternative future scenarios for energy

  9. Modeling and Forecasting Electric Daily Peak Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

    for the same data. Two methods are described for forecasting daily peak loads up to one week ahead through, including generator unit commitment, hydro-thermal coordination, short-term maintenance, fuel allocation forecasting accuracies. STLF forecasting covers the daily peak load, total daily energy, and daily load curve

  10. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-01-01

    6230E Smartenit. 2012. Smart Energy Wireless Metering Smartproddetail.asp? prod=ZigBee_Smart_Energy_Smart_Plug. U.S.2012. ConnectPort ® X2 for Smart Energy: ZigBee Smart Energy

  11. Building Technologies Office Load Control Strategies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    BTO researches and implements load control strategies, which support the Sustainable and Holistic IntegratioN of Energy storage and Solar PV (SHINES) FOA.

  12. Strategies for Controlling Plug Loads. A Tool for Reducing Plug Loads in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torcellini, Paul; Bonnema, Eric; Sheppy, Michael; Pless, Shanti

    2015-09-01

    Plug loads are often not considered as part of the energy savings measures in Commercial Buildings; however, they can account for up to 50% of the energy used in the building. These loads are numerous and often scattered throughout a building. Some of these loads are purchased by the owner and some designed into the building or the tenant finishes for a space. This document provides a strategy and a tool for minimizing these loads.

  13. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Mike

    2010-01-01

    of Ratepayer-Funded Energy Efficiency in the U.S. ,” LBNL-October. Consortium for Energy Efficiency 2009. “2008 AnnualThe 2008 State Energy Efficiency Scorecard. ” American

  14. Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghatikar, Girish

    2014-01-01

    Background The U.S. –India Energy Efficiency Technologydownloads/us-india-partnership- advance-clean-energy Singh,U.S. –India Partnership to Advance Clean Energy: A Progress

  15. Building Electricity Load Forecasting via Stacking Ensemble Learning Method with Moving Horizon Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burger, Eric M.; Moura, Scott J.

    2015-01-01

    K. W. Yau, “Predicting electricity energy con- sumption: Afor building-level electricity load forecasts,” Energy andannealing algorithms in electricity load forecasting,”

  16. Review of Evaluation, Measurement and Verification Approaches Used to Estimate the Load Impacts and Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Messenger, Mike

    2010-01-01

    energy efficiency measures; ? Average Savings at the end useante savings estimates for energy efficiency measures. Thesedeemed savings values for specific efficiency measures or

  17. The Study on Thermal Performance and Applicability of Energy-saving Wall Materials in Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zones 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ren, W.; Lan, M.; Hao, Y.

    2006-01-01

    . It is characteristic with exact geometrical dimension, nice shape, high strength and glazed surface. 2.3 Fly Ash Ceramsite Concrete Fly ash ceramsite is a kind of artificial lightweight aggregate with advantages of low density, high strength, sound insulation..., thermal insulation, and making construction deadweight down. Lightweight aggregate concrete made by fly ash ceramsite can lighten 25% of structure deadweight, save 5% of cement, have a good effect on energy efficiency and can be applied widely to all...

  18. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  19. Reducing Data Center Loads for a Large-Scale, Low-Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility (Book)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Lobato, C.; Van Geet, O.; Pless, S.; Donovan, K.; Powers, C.

    2011-12-01

    This publication detailing the design, implementation strategies, and continuous performance monitoring of NREL's Research Support Facility data center. Data centers are energy-intensive spaces that facilitate the transmission, receipt, processing, and storage of digital data. These spaces require redundancies in power and storage, as well as infrastructure, to cool computing equipment and manage the resulting waste heat (Tschudi, Xu, Sartor, and Stein, 2003). Data center spaces can consume more than 100 times the energy of standard office spaces (VanGeet 2011). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) reported that data centers used 61 billion kilowatt-hours (kWh) in 2006, which was 1.5% of the total electricity consumption in the U.S. (U.S. EPA, 2007). Worldwide, data centers now consume more energy annually than Sweden (New York Times, 2009). Given their high energy consumption and conventional operation practices, there is a potential for huge energy savings in data centers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is world renowned for its commitment to green building construction. In June 2010, the laboratory finished construction of a 220,000-square-foot (ft{sup 2}), LEED Platinum, Research Support Facility (RSF), which included a 1,900-ft{sup 2} data center. The RSF will expand to 360,000 ft{sup 2} with the opening of an additional wing December, 2011. The project's request for proposals (RFP) set a whole-building demand-side energy use requirement of a nominal 35 kBtu/ft{sup 2} per year. On-site renewable energy generation will offset the annual energy consumption. To support the RSF's energy goals, NREL's new data center was designed to minimize its energy footprint without compromising service quality. Several implementation challenges emerged during the design, construction, and first 11 months of operation of the RSF data center. This document highlights these challenges and describes in detail how NREL successfully overcame them. The IT settings and strategies outlined in this document have been used to significantly reduce data center energy requirements in the RSF; however, these can also be used in existing buildings and retrofits.

  20. EDR: An Energy-Aware Runtime Load Distribution System for Data-Intensive Applications in the Cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bo; Song, Shuaiwen; Bezakova, Ivona; Cameron, Kirk

    2013-09-23

    Data centers account for a growing percentage of US power consumption. Energy e_ciency is now a first-class design constraint for the data centers that support cloud services. Service providers must distribute their data e_ciently across multiple data centers. This includes creation of data replicas that provide multiple copies of data for e_cient access. However, selecting replicas to maximize performance while minimizing energy waste is an open problem. State of the art replica selection approaches either do not address energy, lack scalability and/or are vulnerable to crashes due to use of a centralized coordinator. Therefore, we propose, develop and evaluate a simple cost-oriented decentralized replica selection system named EDR, implemented with two distributed optimization algorithms

  1. Load Management and Houston Lighting and Power Co. 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Drawe, R. G.; Ramsay, I. M.

    1984-01-01

    Defining Load Management as influencing of customer loads in order to shift the time use of electric power and energy, encompasses a broad spectrum of activities at Houston Lighting & Power Company. This paper describes those activities by directing...

  2. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  3. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility: Preprint

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power Administration wouldMassR&D100 Winners * Impactsand engineersAcquisition Office of Energy

  4. Next Update: December 2011 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayDecade Year-0Decade Year-00 0 03ae.

  5. Next Update: October 2009 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayDecade Year-0Decade Year-00 07a .b1.

  6. Next Update: October 2010 Table 1. Net Energy For Load, Actual and Projected by North American Electric Reliability Corporation Region,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal, Nuclear,DecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MayDecade Year-0Decade Year-00

  7. Protecting Consumer Privacy from Electric Load Stephen McLaughlin Patrick McDaniel

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McDaniel, Patrick Drew

    isolation and recovery, and support for alternative energy sources, e.g., consumer generated wind and solar as Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM): Load monitoring Load profile Lighting Oven Heater ... Appliance

  8. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  9. An Energy and Peak Loads Analysis of the Texas Department of Health Building, Final Report, Prepared for the Energy Efficiency Division, Texas Public Utility Commission 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Katipamula, S.; O'Neal, D. L.

    1986-01-01

    The HVAC system accounts for 30 to 50 percent of a typical building's energy consumption; in hot & humid climates it is closer to the upper end of that range. Implementing effective energy saving measures for the building HVAC system can reduce...

  10. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  11. HLW Glass Waste Loadings

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview Vitrification - general background Joule...

  12. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  13. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  14. Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2013-01-01

    radiant heating and cooling systems, in: Proceedings ofInc, Altanta,GA, 2009. Cooling load differences betweensurface level 24-hour total cooling energy between radiant

  15. HVAC Loads in High-Performance Homes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, D.; Fang, X.; Winkler, J.

    2010-06-27

    This presentation was delivered at the ASHRAE 2010 Annual Summer Conference on June 27, 2010, and addresses humidity and AC loads in energy efficient houses.

  16. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Water Projects Generating Plants and Shiftable Generationfrom "base load" generating plants. ing" and saves energy.Cily flow PUfflj);ng - GeneratIng Plant San LUIS Reservo,,'

  17. Waste Loading Enhancements for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    WASTE LOADING ENHANCEMENTS FOR HANFORD LOW-ACTIVITY WASTE GLASSES Albert A. Kruger, Glass Scientist DOE-WTP Project Office Engineering Division US Department of Energy Richland,...

  18. Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Predicting the Response of Electricity Load to Climate Change Patrick Sullivan, Jesse Colman, and Eric Kalendra National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL...

  19. Building America Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings, Ithaca, New York (Fact Sheet), Clean Cities, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirleyEnergyTher i n c i p a l De pEnergy IndustrialofofBuilding Science

  20. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercialand Renewable Energy, Distributed Energy Program of the U.S.Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial

  1. A loaded thermoacoustic engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Olson, J.R.; Swift, G.W.

    1995-11-01

    Measurements and analysis of the performance of a thermoacoustic engine driving a dissipative load are presented. The effect of the load can be explained qualitatively using a simple low-amplitude approximation and quantitatively by invoking a more accurate low-amplitude numerical solution. The heater power {ital @};DQ and hot-end temperature {ital T}{sub {ital H}} are found to be simple functions of the load impedance and the unloaded values of {ital @};DQ and {ital T}{sub {ital H}}. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital Acoustical} {ital Society} {ital of} {ital America}.

  2. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop was held October 25-26, 2011, in Washington, DC. This U.S. Department of Energy workshop was attended by members of the electric power industry, researchers, and policy makers. The results of the workshop informed the Demand Response and Energy Storage Study.

  3. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  4. Skin lightening cream induced dermatitis and atrophy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bremmer, Matthew; Gardner, James; Driscoll, Marcia

    2011-01-01

    by the women of Bamako (Mali). Ann Dermatol Venereol. 1993;to our clinic in Bamako, Mali, with complaints of diffusefrom 25 percent in Bamako, Mali, [ 1 ] (where our patient

  5. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  6. Extracting Operating Modes from Building Electrical Load Data: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frank, S.; Polese, L. G.; Rader, E.; Sheppy, M.; Smith, J.

    2012-01-01

    Empirical techniques for characterizing electrical energy use now play a key role in reducing electricity consumption, particularly miscellaneous electrical loads, in buildings. Identifying device operating modes (mode extraction) creates a better understanding of both device and system behaviors. Using clustering to extract operating modes from electrical load data can provide valuable insights into device behavior and identify opportunities for energy savings. We present a fast and effective heuristic clustering method to identify and extract operating modes in electrical load data.

  7. Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apte, Joshua; Arasteh, Dariush

    2008-01-01

    Loads SHGC Window Solar Energy Consumption Cond InfiltrationLoads SHGC Window Solar Energy Consumption Cond InfiltrationLoads SHGC Window Solar Energy Consumption Cond Infiltration

  8. Optimal Real-time Dispatch for Integrated Energy Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Ryan Michael

    2007-01-01

    current and forecasted energy prices, energy demand, and DERarises in energy loads, energy prices and IES equipmentenergy loads, and energy prices, regulatory constraints on

  9. 2006 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-03-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book), which is published annually by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), establishes one of the planning bases for supplying electricity to customers. The White Book contains projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. The White Book also contains information obtained from formalized resource planning reports and data submittals including those from individual utilities, the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (Council), and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). The White Book is not an operational planning guide, nor is it used for determining BPA revenues, although the database that generates the data for the White Book analysis contributes to the development of BPA's inventory and ratemaking processes. Operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) is based on a set of criteria different from that used for resource planning decisions. Operational planning is dependent upon real-time or near-term knowledge of system conditions that include expectations of river flows and runoff, market opportunities, availability of reservoir storage, energy exchanges, and other factors affecting the dynamics of operating a power system. The load resource balance of both the Federal system and the region is determined by comparing resource availability to an expected level of total retail electricity consumption. Resources include projected energy capability plus contract purchases. Loads include a forecast of retail obligations plus contract obligations. Surplus energy is available when resources are greater than loads. This surplus energy could be marketed to increase revenues. Energy deficits occur when resources are less than loads. These energy deficits will be met by any combination of the following: better-than-critical water conditions, demand-side management and conservation programs, permanent loss of loads due to economic conditions or closures, additional contract purchases, and/or the addition of new generating resources. This study incorporates information on Pacific Northwest (PNW) regional retail loads, contract obligations, and contract resources. This loads and resources analysis simulates the operation of the power system in the PNW. The simulated hydro operation incorporates plant characteristics, streamflows, and non-power requirements from the current Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA). Additional resource capability estimates were provided by BPA, PNW Federal agency, public agency, cooperative, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation (USBR), and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers furnished through annual PNUCC data submittals for 2005 and/or direct submittals to BPA. The 2006 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary document of Federal system and PNW region loads and resources, and (2) a technical appendix which presents regional loads, grouped by major PNW utility categories, and detailed contract and resource information. The technical appendix is available only in electronic form. Individual customer information for marketer contracts is not detailed due to confidentiality agreements. The 2006 White Book analysis updates the 2004 White Book. This analysis shows projections of the Federal system and region's yearly average annual energy consumption and resource availability for the study period, OY 2007-2016. The study also presents projections of Federal system and region expected 1-hour monthly peak demand, monthly energy demand, monthly 1-hour peak generating capability, and monthly energy generation for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. BPA is investigating a new approach in capacity planning depicting the monthly Federal system 120-hour peak generating capability and 120-hour peak surplus/deficit for OY 2007, 2011, and 2016. This document analyzes the PNW's projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency;

  10. Adaptive load control of microgrids with non-dispatchable generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brokish, Kevin Martin

    2009-01-01

    Intelligent appliances have a great potential to provide energy storage and load shedding for power grids. Microgrids are simulated with high levels of wind energy penetration. Frequency-adaptive intelligent appliances are ...

  11. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  12. Load research manual. Volume 1. Load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  13. Measuring alignment of loading fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Scavone, Donald W. (Saratoga Springs, NY)

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method for measuring the alignment of a clevis and pin type loading fixture for compact tension specimens include a pair of substantially identical flat loading ligaments. Each loading ligament has two apertures for the reception of a respective pin of the loading fixture and a thickness less than one-half of a width of the clevis opening. The pair of loading ligaments are mounted in the clevis openings at respective sides thereof. The loading ligaments are then loaded by the pins of the loading fixture and the strain in each loading ligament is measured. By comparing the relative strain of each loading ligament, the alignment of the loading fixture is determined. Preferably, a suitable strain gage device is located at each longitudinal edge of a respective loading ligament equidistant from the two apertures in order to determine the strain thereat and hence the strain of each ligament. The loading ligaments are made substantially identical by jig grinding the loading ligaments as a matched set. Each loading ligament can also be individually calibrated prior to the measurement.

  14. Load Management Made Simple 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.

    1985-01-01

    Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

  15. Recovery Act. Advanced Load Identification and Management for Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Yi; Casey, Patrick; Du, Liang; He, Dawei

    2014-02-12

    In response to the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE)’s goal of achieving market ready, net-zero energy residential and commercial buildings by 2020 and 2025, Eaton partnered with the Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Georgia Institute of Technology to develop an intelligent load identification and management technology enabled by a novel “smart power strip” to provide critical intelligence and information to improve the capability and functionality of building load analysis and building power management systems. Buildings account for 41% of the energy consumption in the United States, significantly more than either transportation or industrial. Within the building sector, plug loads account for a significant portion of energy consumption. Plug load consumes 15-20% of building energy on average. As building managers implement aggressive energy conservation measures, the proportion of plug load energy can increase to as much as 50% of building energy leaving plug loads as the largest remaining single source of energy consumption. This project focused on addressing plug-in load control and management to further improve building energy efficiency accomplished through effective load identification. The execution of the project falls into the following three major aspects; An intelligent load modeling, identification and prediction technology was developed to automatically determine the type, energy consumption, power quality, operation status and performance status of plug-in loads, using electric waveforms at a power outlet level. This project demonstrated the effectiveness of the developed technology through a large set of plug-in loads measurements and testing; A novel “Smart Power Strip (SPS) / Receptacle” prototype was developed to act as a vehicle to demonstrate the feasibility of load identification technology as a low-cost, embedded solution; and Market environment for plug-in load control and management solutions, in particular, advanced power strips (APSs) was studied. The project evaluated the market potential for Smart Power Strips (SPSs) with load identification and the likely impact of a load identification feature on APS adoption and effectiveness. The project also identified other success factors required for widespread APS adoption and market acceptance. Even though the developed technology is applicable for both residential and commercial buildings, this project is focused on effective plug-in load control and management for commercial buildings, accomplished through effective load identification. The project has completed Smart Receptacle (SR) prototype development with integration of Load ID, Control/Management, WiFi communication, and Web Service. Twenty SR units were built, tested, and demonstrated in the Eaton lab; eight SR units were tested in the National Renewable Energy Lab (NREL) for one-month of field testing. Load ID algorithm testing for extended load sets was conducted within the Eaton facility and at local university campuses. This report is to summarize the major achievements, activities, and outcomes under the execution of the project.

  16. H. J. Sutherland, "Frequency Domain Analysis of the Fatigue Loads on Typical Wind Turbine Blades," J. of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 118, November, 1996,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ," J. of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of ASME, Vol. 118, November, 1996, pp. 204 Energy Technology Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 87107 ABSTRACT The fatigue analysis

  17. Coordination of Energy Efficiency and Demand Response

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles

    2010-01-01

    Energy Efficiency, Demand Response, and Peak Load Managementdemand response, and load management programs in the Ebefore they undertake load management and demand response

  18. ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -LiquidsAnnual",2014LNG Storageb. Historical Net Energy For Load,

  19. ,"Net Energy For Load (Annual)",,"Contiguous U.S. ","Eastern Power Grid",,,,,,,,"Texas Power Grid","Western Power Grid"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008 © OECD/IEA -LiquidsAnnual",2014LNG Storageb. Historical Net Energy For Load,7,

  20. A Dynamic Water-filling Method for Real-Time HVAC Load Control Based on Model Predictive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cai, Lin

    load potential. Existing work, such as [3], usually needs accurate long-term load and renewable energy between the fluctuation of non-renewable power generation and the limited demand response potential at users' side. By changing the elastic load w.r.t. both renewable energy generation and inelastic load

  1. Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wierman, Adam

    Distributed Frequency-Preserving Optimal Load Control Enrique Mallada Steven H. Low California prices to incentivize the users to adapt their consumption to the true cost of generation at the time to accept more readily a stochastically fluctuating energy source, such as wind or solar generation

  2. Right-Sizing Laboratory Equipment Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frenze, David; Greenberg, Steve; Mathew, Paul; Sartor, Dale; Starr, William

    2005-11-29

    Laboratory equipment such as autoclaves, glass washers, refrigerators, and computers account for a significant portion of the energy use in laboratories. However, because of the general lack of measured equipment load data for laboratories, designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' rated data, or design assumptions from prior projects. Consequently, peak equipment loads are frequently overestimated. This results in oversized HVAC systems, increased initial construction costs, and increased energy use due to inefficiencies at low part-load operation. This best-practice guide first presents the problem of over-sizing in typical practice, and then describes how best-practice strategies obtain better estimates of equipment loads and right-size HVAC systems, saving initial construction costs as well as life-cycle energy costs. This guide is one in a series created by the Laboratories for the 21st Century ('Labs21') program, a joint program of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy. Geared towards architects, engineers, and facilities managers, these guides provide information about technologies and practices to use in designing, constructing, and operating safe, sustainable, high-performance laboratories.

  3. California's Energy Future - The View to 2050

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01

    electric load balancing, including some combination of energy storage, smart grid, bio-electricity, load-following fossil generation

  4. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  5. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  6. Electrical Load Modeling and Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chassin, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Electricity consumer demand response and load control are playing an increasingly important role in the development of a smart grid. Smart grid load management technologies such as Grid FriendlyTM controls and real-time pricing are making their way into the conventional model of grid planning and operations. However, the behavior of load both affects, and is affected by load control strategies that are designed to support electric grid planning and operations. This chapter discussed the natural behavior of electric loads, how it interacts with various load control and demand response strategies, what the consequences are for new grid operation concepts and the computing issues these new technologies raise.

  7. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    1992-01-01

    TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs minimized. Because of the difficully..., oversizing is usually unwarranted and ultimately leads to ineffi-eiency and energy waste. This paper ex.amines methods to determine underloaded motor operdtion and presents an evaluation of the savings afforded by properly sizing of motors. MOTOR...

  8. Demand-Side Response from Industrial Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Starke, Michael R; Alkadi, Nasr E; Letto, Daryl; Johnson, Brandon; Dowling, Kevin; George, Raoule; Khan, Saqib

    2013-01-01

    Through a research study funded by the Department of Energy, Smart Grid solutions company ENBALA Power Networks along with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have geospatially quantified the potential flexibility within industrial loads to leverage their inherent process storage to help support the management of the electricity grid. The study found that there is an excess of 12 GW of demand-side load flexibility available in a select list of top industrial facilities in the United States. Future studies will expand on this quantity of flexibility as more in-depth analysis of different industries is conducted and demonstrations are completed.

  9. Interoperable and Secure Communication for Cyber Physical Systems in the Energy Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Eun Kyu

    2014-01-01

    Microgrid operation with power generation, load, and energy storage. . . . .Microgrid operation with power generation, load, and energy storage.

  10. Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

    2002-01-01

    A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

  11. Shot loading trainer analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, T.K.

    1995-02-15

    This document presents the results from the analysis of the shot loading trainer (SLT). This device will be used to test the procedure for installing shot into the annulus of the Project W-320 shipping container. To ensure that the shot is installed uniformly around the container, vibrators will be used to settle the shot. The SLT was analyzed to ensure that it would not jeopardize worker safety during operation. The results from the static analysis of the SLT under deadweight and vibrator operating loads show that the stresses in the SLT are below code allowables. The results from the modal analysis show that the natural frequencies of the SLT are far below the operating frequencies of the vibrators, provided the SLT is mounted on pneumatic tires. The SLT was also analyzed for wind, seismic, deadweight, and moving/transporting loads. Analysis of the SLT is in accordance with SDC-4.1 for safety class 3 structures (DOE-RL 1993) and the American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC) Manual of Steel Construction (AISC 1989).

  12. Exploiting Home Automation Protocols for Load Monitoring in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    @cs.williams.edu Abstract Monitoring and controlling electrical loads is crucial for demand-side energy management in smart their use in load monitoring. In this paper, we highlight challenges in de- signing AutoMeter, a system]: Miscella- neous; K.6.2 [Management of Computing and Informa- tion Systems]: Installation Management

  13. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01

    systems, estimates of energy consumption intensities of various building types are typically obtained from the Natural Gas Cogeneration

  14. Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity? 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Males, R.; Hassig, N.

    1981-01-01

    larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

  15. Multidimensional spectral load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendrickson, B.; Leland, R.

    1993-01-01

    We describe an algorithm for the static load balancing of scientific computations that generalizes and improves upon spectral bisection. Through a novel use of multiple eigenvectors, our new spectral algorithm can divide a computation into 4 or 8 pieces at once. These multidimensional spectral partitioning algorithms generate balanced partitions that have lower communication overhead and are less expensive to compute than those produced by spectral bisection. In addition, they automatically work to minimize message contention on a hypercube or mesh architecture. These spectral partitions are further improved by a multidimensional generalization of the Kernighan-Lin graph partitioning algorithm. Results on several computational grids are given and compared with other popular methods.

  16. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Daniel M. (Oliver Springs, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves on the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first.

  17. Variable loading roller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, D.M.

    1988-01-21

    An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

  18. Dynamic Controls for Energy Efficiency and Demand Response: Framework Concepts and a New Construction Study Case in New York

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann; Watson, David S.; Hughes, Glenn

    2006-01-01

    energy efficiency, peak load management and demand response.minimization); peak load management (for daily operations);Energy Efficiency, Daily Load Management and DR Demand-Side

  19. Load Management - An Industrial Perspective on This Developing Technology 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Delgado, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    primary focus is to reduce the energy demand component, the magnitude of energy use at any given time. Load Management can reduce a utility's operating and construction cost as well as conserve energy and scarce fuels. It can also significantly reduce...

  20. Advanced Reactors Transition Program Resource Loaded Schedule

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GANTT, D.A.

    2000-01-12

    The Advanced Reactors Transition (ART) Resource Loaded Schedule (RLS) provides a cost and schedule baseline for managing the project elements within the ART Program. The Fast Flux Test Facility (FETF) activities are delineated through the end of FY 2000, assuming continued standby. The Nuclear Energy (NE) Legacies and Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) activities are delineated through the end of the deactivation process. This revision reflects the 19 Oct 1999 baseline.

  1. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  2. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  3. Grid Integration of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 1: Load Availability Profiles and Constraints for the Western Interconnection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Olsen, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    is estimated. Keywords: Demand response, ancillary services,of Aggregated Demand Response, Part 1: Load Availabilityof Energy (DOE) Demand Response and Energy Storage

  4. Structural Safety and Reliability, Corotis et al. (eds), 2001 Swets & Zeitlinger, ISBN 90 5809 197 X Moment-based fatigue load models for wind energy systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    -moment model not to the stress ranges themselves, but to a power-law transformation of these that directly and with diameters over 65 meters are on the market, producing electricity for prices below $0.04/kWh in good wind exponentially. BTM Consult (a Danish wind energy consulting firm) reports that in 1998 2,600 MW of wind power

  5. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  6. Assessment of Methods to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionaliz...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    to Consolidate Iodine-Loaded Silver-Functionalized Silica Aerogel The U.S. Department of Energy is currently investigating alternative sorbents for the removal and immobilization...

  7. LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    , regression, artificial intelligence. 1. Introduction Accurate models for electric power load forecasting to make important decisions including decisions on pur- chasing and generating electric power, load for different operations within a utility company. The natures 269 #12;270 APPLIED MATHEMATICS FOR POWER SYSTEMS

  8. Load Management - A Better Way 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows...

  9. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  10. Polyethylene under tensile load: strain energy storage and breaking of linear and knotted alkanes probed by first-principles molecular dynamics calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Marco Saitta; Michael L. Klein

    1999-09-01

    The mechanical resistance of a polyethylene strand subject to tension and the way its properties are affected by the presence of a knot is studied using first-principles molecular dynamics calculations. The distribution of strain energy for the knotted chains has a well-defined shape that is very different from the one found in the linear case. The presence of a knot significantly weakens the chain in which it is tied. Chain rupture invariably occurs just outside the entrance to the knot, as is the case for a macroscopic rope.

  11. NREL Reduces Climate Control Loads in Electric Vehicles (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Research & Development, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformationJessework usesof EnergyY-12 NationalNO FEAR ActUsing

  12. Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-11-01

    Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

  13. Review of Residential Low-Load HVAC Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Scott A.; Thornton, Brian; Widder, Sarah H.

    2013-09-01

    In support of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Building America Program, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an investigation to inventory commercially available HVAC technologies that are being installed in low-load homes. The first step in this investigation was to conduct a review of published literature to identify low-load HVAC technologies available in the United States and abroad, and document the findings of existing case studies that have evaluated the performance of the identified technologies. This report presents the findings of the literature review, identifies gaps in the literature or technical understanding that must be addressed before low-load HVAC technologies can be fully evaluated, and introduces PNNL’s planned research and analysis for this project to address identified gaps and potential future work on residential low-load HVAC systems.

  14. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Banks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2012-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. MELs are a large percentage of total building energy loads. This report reviews methods for reducing MELs in Banks. Reducing MELs in a bank setting requires both local and corporate action. Corporate action centers on activities to prioritize and allocate the right resources to correct procurement and central control issues. Local action includes branch assessment or audits to identify specific loads and needs. The worksheet at the end of this guide can help with cataloging needed information and estimating savings potential. The following steps provide a guide to MEL reductions in Bank Branches. The general process has been adapted from a process developed for office buildings the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL, 2011).

  15. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    PV energy used for EV charging and reducing grid peak power7. Measured PV power and EV charging load Fig. 6. Chargingthe measured PV power and EV charging load. The actual grid

  16. Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Laughner, T; Morris, K

    2009-01-01

    As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

  17. Investigating the ability of various buildings in handling load shiftings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of residential buildings, several energy saving technologies exist. Therefore, when such buildings are renovated the ability of several renovating configurations to keep the inhab- itants in a comfortable situation during setting, between the users (inhabitants) and the energy provider who uses these load shifting periods

  18. Adaptive Load Forecasting Philip Anton de Saint-Aubain

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Denmark Informatics and Mathematical Modelling Building 321, DK-2800 Kongens Lyngby, Denmark Phone +45 with renewable energy. Renewable energy in Denmark is mostly based on wind power which is a highly fluctuating mathematical models for the heat load. Based on district heating consumption data from four houses in a small

  19. Transportation Electrification Load Development For a Renewable Future Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, Tony; Mai, Trieu; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW

    2010-09-30

    Electrification of the transportation sector offers the opportunity to significantly reduce petroleum consumption. The transportation sector accounts for 70% of US petroleum consumption. The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. In support of a recent US Department of Energy funded activity that analyzed a future generation scenario with high renewable energy technology contributions, a set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles were developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. These load profiles with their underlying assumptions will be presented in this paper. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Two market saturation scenarios of 30% of sales and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average {approx}6 kWh per day were considered. Results were generated for 3109 counties and were consolidated to 134 Power Control Areas (PCA) for the use NREL's's regional generation planning analysis tool ReEDS. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across 4 daily time slices under optimal control from the utility perspective. No other literature has addressed the potential flexibility in energy delivery to electric vehicles in connection with a regional power generation study. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios. EVS25 Copyright.

  20. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01

    e-mail. [8] Peak Load Management Alliance, “Principles ofTable 2. Energy Efficiency, Daily Load Management and Demandefficiency, (2) daily peak load management and (3) dynamic,

  1. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Automated Demand Response in Industrial Refrigerated Warehouses in California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2009-01-01

    energy efficiency, load management, and demand response caseenergy efficiency and load management purposes can often bein place controls for load management programs as well as

  2. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  3. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  4. Loading and conjugating cavity biostructures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hainfeld, J.F.

    1997-11-25

    Methods for the preparation and use of a biological delivery system are disclosed. The method of preparation includes the loading of a non-biological material into a biostructure having a load-bearing structure. The method also includes the removal of some of the biostructure`s contents and the loading of a non-biological material into the biostructure. The biostructure is biologically compatible with the host, and preferably is derived from the host, the host`s species or a related species. The loaded biostructure is used directly, or it can be targeted to specific cells, tissues and/or organs within a host. The targeted biostructure can be used to deliver the non-biological material to a specified tissue, organ or cell within a host for diagnostic, therapeutic or other purposes. 11 figs.

  5. Structural assessment of accident loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-05-28

    Structural assessments were made for specific accident loads for specific catch, receiver, and storage tanks. The evaluation herein represents level-of-effort order-of-magnitude estimates of limiting loads that would lead to collapse or rupture of the tank and unmitigated loss of confinement for the waste. Structural capacities were established using failure criteria. Compliance with codes such as ACI, ASCE, ASME, RCRA, UBC, WAC, and DOE Orders was `NOT` maintained. Normal code practice is to prevent failure with margins consistent with expected variations in loads and strengths and confidence in analysis techniques. The evaluation herein represent estimates of code limits without code load factors or code strength reduction factors, and loading beyond such a limit is considered as an onset of some failure mode. The exact nature of the failure mode and its relation to a safe condition is a judgment of the analyst. Consequently, these `RESULTS SHALL NOT BE USED TO ESTABLISH OPERATING OR SAFETY LOAD LIMITS FOR THESE TANKS`.

  6. ResPoNSe: modeling the wide variability of residential energy consumption.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peffer, Therese; Burke, William; Auslander, David

    2010-01-01

    Lutzenhiser, Loren. Load Management Standards Workshop onhttp://www.energy.ca.gov/load_management/documents/2008-07-

  7. Behavioural biometrics using electricity load profiles M. Bicego, F. Recchia, A. Farinelli

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bicego, Manuele

    . Following this trend, this paper investigates whether the electrical energy consumption of a user can consumption profile of a user (or load profile), i.e., the users' consumption of electrical energy over of fine-grained electrical consumption data and in an increasing interest in analysing users' load

  8. Real-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    -time so as to ease the incorporation of renewable energy into the grid, and so are recognized as priority deferrable loads in order to compensate for the random fluctuations of renewable energy. However, realizingReal-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation Lingwen Gan

  9. Real-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    of renewable energy into the grid, and so are recognized as priority areas for the future smart grid by both for the random fluctuations of renewable energy. However, realizing the potential of deferrable loads re- quiresReal-Time Deferrable Load Control: Handling the Uncertainties of Renewable Generation Lingwen Gan

  10. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01

    De- velopment of a Simplified Cooling Load Design Tool forand C. Benedek. 2007. “Cooling airflow design calculationscalculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor

  11. Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Laser Driven Dynamic Loading of Condensed Matter Advanced diagnostics of experiments covering many orders of magnitude in strain...

  12. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    controls on the load-side is growing. Driven by improved and widely available communications systems, load participation is becoming easier and more reliable; and there...

  13. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  14. Analyzing Design Heating Loads in Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arena, Lois

    2015-06-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) worked with the EcoVillage cohousing community in Ithaca, New York, on the Third Residential EcoVillage Experience neighborhood. This communityscale project consists of 40 housing units—15 apartments and 25 single-family residences. Units range in size from 450 ft2 to 1,664 ft2 and cost from $80,000 for a studio apartment to $235,000 for a three- or four-bedroom single-family home. For the research component of this project, CARB analyzed current heating system sizing methods for superinsulated homes in cold climates to determine if changes in building load calculation methodology should be recommended. Actual heating energy use was monitored and compared to results from the Air Conditioning Contractors of America’s Manual J8 (MJ8) and the Passive House Planning Package software. Results from that research indicate that MJ8 significantly oversizes heating systems for superinsulated homes and that thermal inertia and internal gains should be considered for more accurate load calculations.

  15. Transportation Electrification Load Development For A Renewable Future Analysis: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Mai, T.; Kintner-Meyer, M.

    2010-12-01

    The transition to electricity as a transportation fuel will create a new load for electricity generation. A set of regional hourly load profiles for electrified vehicles was developed for the 2010 to 2050 timeframe. The transportation electrical energy was determined using regional population forecast data, historical vehicle per capita data, and market penetration growth functions to determine the number of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) in each analysis region. Market saturation scenarios of 30% and 50% of sales of PEVs consuming on average approx. 6 kWh per day were considered. PEV aggregate load profiles from previous work were combined with vehicle population data to generate hourly loads on a regional basis. A transition from consumer-controlled charging toward utility-controlled charging was assumed such that by 2050 approximately 45% of the transportation energy demands could be delivered across four daily time slices under optimal control from the utility?s perspective. This electrified transportation analysis resulted in an estimate for both the flexible load and fixed load shapes on a regional basis that may evolve under two PEV market penetration scenarios.

  16. Laser ablation loading of a surface-electrode ion trap

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David R. Leibrandt; Robert J. Clark; Jaroslaw Labaziewicz; Paul Antohi; Waseem Bakr; Kenneth R. Brown; Isaac L. Chuang

    2007-06-22

    We demonstrate loading by laser ablation of $^{88}$Sr$^+$ ions into a mm-scale surface-electrode ion trap. The laser used for ablation is a pulsed, frequency-tripled Nd:YAG with pulse energies of 1-10 mJ and durations of 3-5 ns. An additional laser is not required to photoionize the ablated material. The efficiency and lifetime of several candidate materials for the laser ablation target are characterized by measuring the trapped ion fluorescence signal for a number of consecutive loads. Additionally, laser ablation is used to load traps with a trap depth (40 meV) below where electron impact ionization loading is typically successful ($\\gtrsim$ 500 meV).

  17. {Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, William Jerome

    2010-01-01

    modeling and control of load management. Further, withoutA profit-based load management using linear programming”.with applica- tions to load management assessment and load

  18. Staying FIT: Efficient Load Shedding Techniques for Distributed Stream Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . Bottlenecks slow down processing and network transmission, and cause delayed outputs. Load management has been. Common load management techniques include adaptive load distribution, admis- sion control, and load

  19. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency and Open Automated Demand Response in Wastewater Treatment Facilities in California -- Phase I Report

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01

    energy efficiency and load management case studies areenergy efficiency and load management purposes can often bein OpenADR and load management require facility operators to

  20. Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boucherie, Richard J.

    Noise Load Management at Amsterdam Airport Schiphol T.R. Meerburg , R.J. Boucherie , M.J.A.L. van objective is to guarantee safety, efficiency, and protection of the environment, that includes noise load contributes to the noise load at these points. If the cumulative load in an aviation year at an enforce- ment

  1. Plug-Load Control and Behavioral Change Research in GSA Office Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Cutler, D.; Sheppy, M.

    2012-10-01

    The U.S. General Services Administration (GSA) owns and leases over 354 million square feet (ft2) of space in over 9,600 buildings [1]. GSA is a leader among federal agencies in aggressively pursuing energy efficiency (EE) opportunities for its facilities and installing renewable energy (RE) systems to provide heating, cooling, and power to these facilities. According to several energy assessments of GSA's buildings conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), plug-loads account for approximately 21% of the total electricity consumed within a standard GSA Region 3 office building. This study aims to provide insight on how to effectively manage plug-load energy consumption and attain higher energy and cost savings for plug-loads. As GSA improves the efficiency of its building stock, plug-loads will become an even greater portion of its energy footprint.

  2. Sandia Energy - Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tower base side-to-side bending moment (kN-m) TwrBsMyt: Maximum tower base fore-aft bending moment (kN-m) TwrBsMzt: Maximum tower base yaw moment (kN-m) Use the link below to...

  3. net_energy_load_2003.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves AdjustmentsDecade Year-0 Year-1A.1. JanuaryNot3

  4. net_energy_load_2004.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves AdjustmentsDecade Year-0 Year-1A.1.

  5. net_energy_load_2005.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves AdjustmentsDecade Year-0 Year-1A.1.2005 and

  6. net_energy_load_2006.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves AdjustmentsDecade Year-0 Year-1A.1.2005 and1.

  7. net_energy_load_2010.xls

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry Natural Gas Reserves AdjustmentsDecade Year-0 Year-1A.1.2005 and1.1.

  8. Scaling the Web Load Testing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Menascé, Daniel A.

    Scaling the Web Load Testing of Web Sites D evelopers typically measure a Web appli- cation on a Web site's IT infrastructure are a function of the site's expect- ed traffic. Ideally, you want, you shouldn't upgrade your Web servers if customers experience most delays in the database server

  9. Cointegration of the Daily Electric Power System Load and the Weather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stefanov, Stefan Z

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the cointegration of the daily electric power system load and the weather by a field intelligent system. The daily load has been modelled by dynamic regressions. A "Daily Artificial Dispather" thermal intelligent system has been costructed. Time and energy tests have been obtained for this intelligent system. The improvement in the daily load forecast, achieved by this intelligent system, has been obtained. The predicted daily electricity price has been found.

  10. Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Electric Energy System #12;Coupling Wind Generation with Controllable Load and Storage: A Time the electric power industry and educating the next generation of power engineers. More information about PSERC will fundamentally alter the traditional generation technology mix. This will place a greater value on technologies

  11. Exploiting Home Automation Protocols for Load Monitoring in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Jeannie

    's efficiency.1 Smart grids are important due to a long-term upward trend in energy costs and a growing control for many years, and are be- ing widely deployed in early smart grid field trials. While HA General Terms Design, Measurement, Management Keywords Home Automation, Load Monitoring, Smart Grid 1

  12. Commercial Building Loads Providing Ancillary Services in PJM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacDonald, Jason; Kiliccote, Sila; Boch, Jim; Chen, Jonathan; Nawy, Robert

    2014-06-27

    The adoption of low carbon energy technologies such as variable renewable energy and electric vehicles, coupled with the efficacy of energy efficiency to reduce traditional base load has increased the uncertainty inherent in the net load shape. Handling this variability with slower, traditional resources leads to inefficient system dispatch, and in some cases may compromise reliability. Grid operators are looking to future energy technologies, such as automated demand response (DR), to provide capacity-based reliability services as the need for these services increase. While DR resources are expected to have the flexibility characteristics operators are looking for, demonstrations are necessary to build confidence in their capabilities. Additionally, building owners are uncertain of the monetary value and operational burden of providing these services. To address this, the present study demonstrates the ability of demand response resources providing two ancillary services in the PJM territory, synchronous reserve and regulation, using an OpenADR 2.0b signaling architecture. The loads under control include HVAC and lighting at a big box retail store and variable frequency fan loads. The study examines performance characteristics of the resource: the speed of response, communications latencies in the architecture, and accuracy of response. It also examines the frequency and duration of events and the value in the marketplace which can be used to examine if the opportunity is sufficient to entice building owners to participate.

  13. Maximizing Efficiency of Solar-Powered Systems by Load Matching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shinozuka, Masanobu

    energy. However, solar powered sys- tems must also consider the output level of the solar panel for power be counterproductive. Another problem that is of particular importance to solar pan- els is load matching. Solar panels is around 0.7­1.2, solar panels have a much larger Ri value as a function of the solar output and current

  14. Markovian Models for Electrical Load Prediction in Smart Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    Markovian Models for Electrical Load Prediction in Smart Buildings Muhammad Kumail Haider, Asad,13100004,ihsan.qazi}@lums.edu.pk Abstract. Developing energy consumption models for smart buildings is important develop parsimo- nious Markovian models of smart buildings for different periods in a day for predicting

  15. Design Considerations For Blast Loads In Pressure Vessels.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.); Nickell, Robert E.; Pepin, J. E. (Jason E.)

    2007-01-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA), conducts confined detonation experiments utilizing large, spherical, steel pressure vessels to contain the reaction products and hazardous materials from high-explosive (HE) events. Structural design and analysis considerations include: (a) Blast loading phase (i.e., impulsive loading); (b) Dynamic structural response; (c) Fragment (i.e., shrapnel) generation and penetration; (d) Ductile and non-ductile fracture; and (e) Design Criteria to ASME Code Sec. VIII, Div. 3, Impulsively Loaded Vessels. These vessels are designed for one-time-use only, efficiently utilizing the significant plastic energy absorption capability of ductile vessel materials. Alternatively, vessels may be designed for multiple-detonation events, in which case the material response is restricted to elastic or near-elastic range. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 10 Part 50 provides requirements for commercial nuclear reactor licensing; specifically dealing with accidental combustible gases in containment structures that might cause extreme loadings. The design philosophy contained herein may be applied to extreme loading events postulated to occur in nuclear reactor and non-nuclear systems or containments.

  16. Energy Proportionality for Disk Storage Using Replication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jinoh

    2010-01-01

    J. F. Naughton, “On energy management, load balancing andfor Energy Proportionality), for energy management in largeto enable ?exible energy management. Speci?cally, our method

  17. On evolution of Primary Cosmic Ray mass composition in the energy region $10^{14}-10^{16}$ eV

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yu. F. Novoseltsev; G. M. Vereshkov

    2013-11-16

    A new method of determining Primary Cosmic Ray mass composition is proposed. The method is based on quasi-localization of the integral equation for the Extensive Air Showers spectrum versus the total number of high energy muons ($E_\\mu \\geqslant 235$ GeV) and an expansion of the experimentally measured spectrum in spectra of five group of primary nuclei. The cosmic ray mass composition is established in the energy region $10^{14}-10^{16}$ eV. In the region $10^{15}-10^{16}$ eV our analysis points to a lightening of the mass composition from $p+\\alpha \\simeq 0.54,\\ \\langle \\ln A \\rangle \\simeq 1.97$ to $p+\\alpha \\simeq 0.69,\\ \\langle \\ln A \\rangle\\simeq 1.56$.

  18. Selling Random Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bitar, Eilyan Yamen

    2011-01-01

    High Wind Penetration Potential,” National Renewable Energyrenewable energy resources serving electrical loads. Wind and solar electric energy resources posses tremendous potential

  19. Specific heat loading in Nd:glass lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krupke, W.F.

    1985-08-07

    The specific thermal load parameter, chi, for xenon flashlamp-pumped Nd:glass gain media is written as a function of neodymium concentration, pump pulse duration, and energy extraction efficiency. The currently available data on radiative and nonradiative decay probabilities of several commercial Nd:glasses are used to calculate and graph specific thermal load parameter values. By factoring these results into performance scaling relationships for zig-zag and disk lasers, specific Nd:glasses can be selected for optimized laser performance.

  20. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  1. An MILP Formulation for Load-Side Demand Control Zhonghui Luo, Ratnesh Kumar*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    their operations prone to high demand charges. In fact, demand control has been used in residential power systemsAn MILP Formulation for Load-Side Demand Control Zhonghui Luo, Ratnesh Kumar* , Joseph Sottile linear programming formulation for load-side control of electrical energy demand. The formulation

  2. Ris-PhD-Report Advanced Load Alleviation for Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-PhD-Report Advanced Load Alleviation for Wind Turbines using Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps Title: Advanced Load Alleviation for Wind Turbines using Adaptive Trailing Edge Flaps: Sensoring. 2000 char.): The purpose of wind turbines and their predecessors the windmill, is to convert the energy

  3. Online Algorithms for Geographical Load Balancing Minghong Lin, Zhenhua Liu, Adam Wierman, Lachlan L. H. Andrew

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Low, Steven H.

    energy costs, both monetary and environmental, can be reduced by exploiting temporal variations and shifting processing to data centers located in regions where energy currently has low cost. Lightly loaded- duce cost can actually increase total energy usage: reducing the average price of energy shifts

  4. Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    forecast of 4) Calculate Hourly Load Allocation Factor s for each day for 2019 For use in RA analysis as a function ofthe load for electricity in the region as a function of cyclical, weather and economic variables

  5. Residential Load Management Program and Pilot 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...

  6. Active load control techniques for wind turbines.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    van Dam, C.P.; Berg, Dale E.; Johnson, Scott J.

    2008-07-01

    This report provides an overview on the current state of wind turbine control and introduces a number of active techniques that could be potentially used for control of wind turbine blades. The focus is on research regarding active flow control (AFC) as it applies to wind turbine performance and loads. The techniques and concepts described here are often described as 'smart structures' or 'smart rotor control'. This field is rapidly growing and there are numerous concepts currently being investigated around the world; some concepts already are focused on the wind energy industry and others are intended for use in other fields, but have the potential for wind turbine control. An AFC system can be broken into three categories: controls and sensors, actuators and devices, and the flow phenomena. This report focuses on the research involved with the actuators and devices and the generated flow phenomena caused by each device.

  7. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeffrey; Diamond, Rick; Iyer, Maithili; Payne, Christopher; Blumstein, Carl; Siderius, Hans-Paul

    2007-01-01

    and plug loads, total primary energy use has increased oversystem losses). Tracking primary energy, not site energy, isand affordability. Figure 1. Primary Energy Use in U.S.

  8. Towards a Sustainable Energy Balance: Progressive Efficiency and the Return of Energy Conservation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    and plug loads, total primary energy use has increased oversystem losses). Tracking primary energy, not site energy, isand affordability. Figure 1. Primary Energy Use in U.S.

  9. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  10. Wind induced torsional loads on structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    -level crosswind loading on a square cross-section building. Reinhold et al.4 instrumented a building model

  11. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  12. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  13. Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Instantaneous Offloading of Transient Web Server Load Vsevolod V. Panteleenko and Vincent W. Freeh A modern web-hosting site is designed to handle load that is sometimes an order of magnitude greater than and performance study of the web booster architecture, which reduces web server load during peak periods. A web

  14. Climate Change Impacts on Residential and Commercial Loads in the Western U.S. Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Taylor, Zachary T.; Jiang, Wei; Xie, YuLong; Leung, Lai R.; Correia, James; Wong, Pak C.; Mackey, Patrick S.; Paget, Maria L.

    2008-09-30

    This report presents a multi-disciplinary modeling approach to quickly quantify climate change impacts on energy consumption, peak load, and load composition of residential and commercial buildings. This research focuses on addressing the impact of temperature changes on the building cooling load in 10 major cities across the Western United States and Canada. Our results have shown that by the mid-century, building yearly energy consumption and peak load will increase in the Southwest. Moreover, the peak load months will spread out to not only the summer months but also spring and autumn months. The Pacific Northwest will experience more hot days in the summer months. The penetration of the air conditioning (a/c) system in this area is likely to increase significantly over the years. As a result, some locations in the Pacific Northwest may be shifted from winter peaking to summer peaking. Overall, the Western U.S. grid may see more simultaneous peaks across the North and South in summer months. Increased cooling load will result in a significant increase in the motor load, which consumes more reactive power and requires stronger voltage support from the grid. This study suggests an increasing need for the industry to implement new technology to increase the efficiency of temperature-sensitive loads and apply proper protection and control to prevent possible adverse impacts of a/c motor loads.

  15. Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2013-01-01

    Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.

  16. Integration of MHD load models with circuit representations the Z generator.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Christopher A.; Ampleford, David J.; Jones, Brent Manley; McBride, Ryan D.; Bailey, James E.; Jones, Michael C.; Gomez, Matthew Robert.; Cuneo, Michael Edward; Nakhleh, Charles; Stygar, William A.; Savage, Mark Edward; Wagoner, Timothy C.; Moore, James K.

    2013-03-01

    MHD models of imploding loads fielded on the Z accelerator are typically driven by reduced or simplified circuit representations of the generator. The performance of many of the imploding loads is critically dependent on the current and power delivered to them, so may be strongly influenced by the generators response to their implosion. Current losses diagnosed in the transmission lines approaching the load are further known to limit the energy delivery, while exhibiting some load dependence. Through comparing the convolute performance of a wide variety of short pulse Z loads we parameterize a convolute loss resistance applicable between different experiments. We incorporate this, and other current loss terms into a transmission line representation of the Z vacuum section. We then apply this model to study the current delivery to a wide variety of wire array and MagLif style liner loads.

  17. Estimation of Seismic Load Demand for a Wind Turbine in the Time Domain: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prowell, I.; Elgamal, A.; Uang, C.; Jonkman, J.

    2010-03-01

    Turbines installed in seismically active regions such as the Pacific Rim or the Mediterranean must consider loads induced by base shaking from an earthquake. To account for this earthquake risk, current International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) certification requirements provide a simplified method for calculating seismic loads which is intended to be conservative. Through the addition of capabilities, it is now possible to simulate earthquake loading of a wind turbine in conjunction other load sources such as wind and control system behavior using the FAST code. This paper presents a comparison of three earthquake loading scenarios of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine: idling; continued operation through an earthquake; and an emergency shutdown initiated by an earthquake. Using a set of 22 earthquake records, simulations are conducted for each load case. A summary of the resulting tower moment demand is presented to assess the influence of operational state on the resulting structural demand.

  18. 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, Technical Appendix: Volume 1.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1994-12-01

    The 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study establishes the Bonneville Power Administration`s (BPA) planning basis for supplying electricity t6 BPA customers. The Loads and Resources Study is presented in two documents: (1) this technical appendix detailing loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility; and (2) a summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources. This analysis updates the 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study Technical Appendix published in December 1993. This technical appendix provides utility specific information that BPA uses in its long-range planning. It incorporates the following for each utility: (1) electrical demand-firm loads; (2) generating resources; and (3) contracts both inside and outside the region. This document should be used in combination with the 1994 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1994, because much of the information in that document is not duplicated here. This BPA planning document incorporates Pacific Northwest generating resources and the 1994 medium load forecast prepared by BPA. Each utility`s forecasted future firm loads are subtracted from its existing resources to determine whether it will be surplus or deficit. If a utility`s resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which the utility can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if its firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet the utility`s load.

  19. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  20. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  1. INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR PASSIVE DIRECT GAIN HEATING SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    May 27-30, 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FOR12048 May 1981 INCREMENTAL COOLING LOAD DETERMINATION FORfor increases in the building cooling load resulting from

  2. Investigation of residential central air conditioning load shapes in NEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamachi LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris; Gumerman, Etan; Chan, Peter; Rosenquist, Greg; Osborn, Julie

    2002-01-01

    of Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMSof Residential Central Air Conditioning Load Shapes in NEMS

  3. Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maasoumy, Mehdi; Nuzzo, Pierluigi; Iandola, Forrest; Kamgarpour, Maryam; Sangiovanni-Vincentelli, Alberto; Tomlin, Claire

    2014-01-01

    Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Poweris to develop an optimal load management system based on thescheme where a high-level load management system receives as

  4. ELECTRICAL LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR THE CALIFORNIA WATER SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krieg, B.

    2010-01-01

    Development Commission. Load Management in California. Staffon the Challenge of Load Management, Conservation Paper No.for Electric Utility Load Management. New York, New York:

  5. EA-1131: Relocation of Neutron Tube Target Loading Operation, Los Alamos Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of the proposal to relocate the Neutron Tube Target Loading operations at the U.S. Department of Energy Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico from...

  6. Bismuth-Loaded Polymer Scintillators for Gamma Ray Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rupert, B L; Cherepy, N J; Sturm, B W; Sanner, R D; Dai, Z; Payne, S A

    2011-04-11

    We synthesize a series of polyvinylcarbazole monoliths containing varying loadings of triphenyl bismuth as a high-Z dopant and varying fluors, either organic or organometallic, in order to study their use as scintillators capable of gamma ray spectroscopy. A trend of increasing bismuth loading resulting in a better-resolved photopeak is observed. For PVK parts with no fluor or a standard organic fluor, diphenylanthracene, increasing bismuth loading results in decreasing light yield while with samples 1 or 3 % by weight of the spin-orbit coupling organometallic fluor FIrpic, which emits light from both singlet and triple excitons, show increasing light yield with increasing bismuth loading. Our best performing PVK/ BiPh{sub 3}/FIrpic scintillator with 40 wt % BiPh3 and 3 wt % FIrpic has an emission maximum of 500 nm, a light yield of {approx}30,000 photons/MeV, and energy resolution better than 7% FWHM at 662 keV. Replacing the Ir complex with an equal weight of diphenylanthracene produces a sample with a light yield of {approx}6,000 photons/MeV, with an emission maximum at 420 nm and energy resolution of 9% at 662 keV. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the BiPh{sub 3} forms small clusters of approximately 5 nm diameter.

  7. Estimated radiactive and shock loading of fusion reactor armor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, D C

    2008-11-25

    Inertial confinement fusion (ICF) is of interest as a source of neutrons for proliferation-resistant and high burn-up fission reactor designs. ICF is a transient process, each implosion leading to energy release over a short period, with a continuous series of ICF operations needed to drive the fission reactor. ICF yields energy in the form of MeV-range neutrons and ions, and thermal x-rays. These radiations, particularly the thermal x-rays, can deposit a pulse of energy in the wall of the ICF chamber, inducing loading by isochoric heating (i.e. at constant volume before the material can expand) or by ablation of material from the surface. The explosion of the hot ICF system, and the compression of any fill material in the chamber, may also result in direct mechanical loading by a blast wave (decaying shock) reaching the chamber wall. The chamber wall must be able to survive the repetitive loading events for long enough for the reactor to operate economically. It is thus necessary to understand the loading induced by ICF systems in possible chamber wall designs, and to predict the response and life time of the wall. Estimates are given for the loading induced in the wall armor of the fusion chamber caused by ablative thermal radiation from the fusion plasma and by the hydrodynamic shock. Taking a version of the LIFE design as an example, the ablation pressure was estimated to be {approx}0.6 GPa with an approximately exponential decay with time constant {approx}0.6 ns. Radiation hydrodynamics simulations suggested that ablation of the W armor should be negligible.

  8. Retail Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  9. Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Retail Buildings (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-06-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in retail spaces are poorly understood.

  10. Office Buildings: Assessing and Reducing Plug and Process Loads in Office Buildings (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-04-01

    Plug and process loads (PPLs) in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. PPLs are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the occupants. They use an increasingly large fraction of the building energy use pie because the number and variety of electrical devices have increased along with building system efficiency. Reducing PPLs is difficult because energy efficiency opportunities and the equipment needed to address PPL energy use in office spaces are poorly understood.

  11. Designing and Testing Contols to Mitigate Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A.D.; Stol, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads of wind turbines. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we show the design and simulation testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control design methods.

  12. Residential Variable-Capacity Heat Pumps Sized to Heating Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Munk, Jeffrey D.; Jackson, Roderick K.; Odukomaiya, Adewale; Gehl, Anthony C.

    2014-01-01

    Variable capacity heat pumps are an emerging technology offering significant energy savings potential and improved efficiency. With conventional single-speed systems, it is important to appropriately size heat pumps for the cooling load as over-sizing would result in cycling and insufficient latent capacity required for humidity control. These appropriately sized systems are often under-sized for the heating load and require inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat to meet the heating demand. Variable capacity heat pumps address these shortcomings by providing an opportunity to intentionally size systems for the dominant heating season load without adverse effects of cycling or insufficient dehumidification in the cooling season. This intentionally-sized system could result in significant energy savings in the heating season, as the need for inefficient supplemental electric resistance heat is drastically reduced. This is a continuation of a study evaluating the energy consumption of variable capacity heat pumps installed in two unoccupied research homes in Farragut, a suburb of Knoxville, Tennessee. In this particular study, space conditioning systems are intentionally sized for the heating season loads to provide an opportunity to understand and evaluate the impact this would have on electric resistance heat use and dehumidification. The results and conclusions drawn through this research are valid and specific for portions of the Southeastern and Midwestern United States falling in the mixed-humid climate zone. While other regions in the U.S. do not experience this type of climate, this work provides a basis for, and can help understand the implications of other climate zones on residential space conditioning energy consumption. The data presented here will provide a framework for fine tuning residential building EnergyPlus models that are being developed.

  13. Low cost electronic ultracapacitor interface technique to provide load leveling of a battery for pulsed load or motor traction drive applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    King, Robert Dean (Schenectady, NY); DeDoncker, Rik Wivina Anna Adelson (Malvern, PA)

    1998-01-01

    A battery load leveling arrangement for an electrically powered system in which battery loading is subject to intermittent high current loading utilizes a passive energy storage device and a diode connected in series with the storage device to conduct current from the storage device to the load when current demand forces a drop in battery voltage. A current limiting circuit is connected in parallel with the diode for recharging the passive energy storage device. The current limiting circuit functions to limit the average magnitude of recharge current supplied to the storage device. Various forms of current limiting circuits are disclosed, including a PTC resistor coupled in parallel with a fixed resistor. The current limit circuit may also include an SCR for switching regenerative braking current to the device when the system is connected to power an electric motor.

  14. Electro-mechanical energy conversion system having a permanent magnet machine with stator, resonant transfer link and energy converter controls

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skeist, S. Merrill; Baker, Richard H.

    2006-01-10

    An electro-mechanical energy conversion system coupled between an energy source and an energy load comprising an energy converter device including a permanent magnet induction machine coupled between the energy source and the energy load to convert the energy from the energy source and to transfer the converted energy to the energy load and an energy transfer multiplexer to control the flow of power or energy through the permanent magnetic induction machine.

  15. Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...

  16. Behavioral Perspectives on Home Energy Audits: The Role of Auditors, Labels, Reports, and Audit Tools on Homeowner Decision Making

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ingle, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    Loads  and  Appliance   Energy  Usage  Profiles  for  use  Energy  Usage  .  345  reliably  predict  actual  energy  usage.  However,  these  

  17. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  18. Engineering to Control Noise, Loading, and Optimal Operating Points

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mitchell R. Swartz

    2000-11-12

    Successful engineering of low-energy nuclear systems requires control of noise, loading, and optimum operating point (OOP) manifolds. The latter result from the biphasic system response of low-energy nuclear reaction (LENR)/cold fusion systems, and their ash production rate, to input electrical power. Knowledge of the optimal operating point manifold can improve the reproducibility and efficacy of these systems in several ways. Improved control of noise, loading, and peak production rates is available through the study, and use, of OOP manifolds. Engineering of systems toward the OOP-manifold drive-point peak may, with inclusion of geometric factors, permit more accurate uniform determinations of the calibrated activity of these materials/systems.

  19. Urban Microclimate, a Study of Energy Balance and Fluid Dynamics /

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yaghoobian, Neda

    2013-01-01

    and heating load validations against an intermediate floorand heating load validations against an intermediate floorcanopy floor surface impacts building energy use for heating

  20. Load research manual. Volume 2. Fundamentals of implementing load research procedures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brandenburg, L.; Clarkson, G.; Grund, Jr., C.; Leo, J.; Asbury, J.; Brandon-Brown, F.; Derderian, H.; Mueller, R.; Swaroop, R.

    1980-11-01

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. In Volumes 1 and 2, procedures are suggested for determining data requirements for load research, establishing the size and customer composition of a load survey sample, selecting and using equipment to record customer electricity usage, processing data tapes from the recording equipment, and analyzing the data. Statistical techniques used in customer sampling are discussed in detail. The costs of load research also are estimated, and ongoing load research programs at three utilities are described. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms.

  1. Extended-Time Demand Bids: A New Bidding Framework to Accommodate Time-Shiftable Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    , price bids, energy bids, day-ahead market, demand response, price competativeness, load synchronization bids e Energy component of a bid p Price component of a bid Start-time component of a bid End-time component of a bid i Bidder index t Hourly time index q Cleared energy in the market Cleared price

  2. Concept for a Hierarchical Load Control for Domestic Appliances in Smart Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Noé, Reinhold

    of white goods under circumstances of fluctuating electrical energy prices due to volatile generation on the Danish island Bornholm [1]. In 2011, the private households in Germany used 139.7 TWh of electrical electricity tariffs, being able to shift the load to times when e.g. the energy costs half the price, energy

  3. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  4. Electric Drive Vehicle Climate Control Load Reduction | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based|DepartmentStatementofApril 25,EVtheEnergy Climate Control Load

  5. Building Energy Monitoring and Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hong, Tianzhen

    2014-01-01

    factors (chilled water), and energy efficiency ratios. TotalEnergy Rate Solar Hot Water Energy Rate Domestric HW EnergyGas  Oil  Renewable energy  Water  Cooling and heating loads

  6. NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Los Angeles, University of

    GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG OCTOBER 1999 #12;DISCLAIMER Government or any agency thereof. #12;GA­A23223 NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK REACTORS by C.P.C. WONG by General Atomics IR&D Funds GA PROJECT 4437 OCTOBER 1999 #12;C.P.C. WONG NEUTRON WALL LOADING OF TOKAMAK

  7. Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mathew, Paul A.

    2007-09-12

    This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

  8. Energy Secretary Moniz Dedicates Clean Energy Research Center...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    and real grid load levels - helping increase reliability and efficiency as well as lower cost clean energy technologies. Find more information on the Energy Systems...

  9. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

  10. History of Load Participation in ERCOT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patterson, Mark

    2011-10-25

    Presentation on demand integration by ERCOT for a DOE Workshop. Covers history of load participation in ERCOT from 2002 to present.

  11. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in Switzerland (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Decentralized customerlevel under frequency...

  12. Load Participation in Ancillary Services Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, Brendan; O'Malley, Mark; Ma, Ookie; Cappers, Peter; Corbus, Dave; Kiliccote, Sila; Onar, Omer; Starke, Michael; Steinberg, Dan

    2011-10-25

    Developing load participation in ancillary services to the electric grid. Challenges: coordination among multiple entities, targeted R&D for market conditions and regulatory and policy environments.

  13. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    of individual appliances. For off-grid applications, solarinappropriate load for an off-grid solar system. Increasedsolar systems in general, and off-grid solar systems in

  14. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  15. Assessment of Industrial Load for Demand Response across Western Interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alkadi, Nasr E; Starke, Michael R; Ma, Ookie

    2013-11-01

    Demand response (DR) has the ability to both increase power grid reliability and potentially reduce operating system costs. Understanding the role of demand response in grid modeling has been difficult due to complex nature of the load characteristics compared to the modeled generation and the variation in load types. This is particularly true of industrial loads, where hundreds of different industries exist with varying availability for demand response. We present a framework considering industrial loads for the development of availability profiles that can provide more regional understanding and can be inserted into analysis software for further study. The developed framework utilizes a number of different informational resources, algorithms, and real-world measurements to perform a bottom-up approach in the development of a new database with representation of the potential demand response resource in the industrial sector across the U.S. This tool houses statistical values of energy and demand response (DR) potential by industrial plant and geospatially locates the information for aggregation for different territories without proprietary information. This report will discuss this framework and the analyzed quantities of demand response for Western Interconnect (WI) in support of evaluation of the cost production modeling with power grid modeling efforts of demand response.

  16. Riverland Energy Cooperative - Commercial and Industrial Energy...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    units, and agricultural equipment. All rebates except for the lighting rebates require load management control. Rebates also exist for home energy audits, implementation of...

  17. Castleton, Vermont: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Castleton, Vermont: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.6106223, -73.179832 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingserv...

  18. Energy Efficient Computer Use | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    off reduces building cooling loads. Sleep Mode and Power Management Features Many computers available today come with a sleep mode or power management feature. ENERGY STAR...

  19. Southbury, Connecticut: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Southbury, Connecticut: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 41.4814847, -73.2131693 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappin...

  20. Simulations of Lithium-Based Neutron Coincidence Counter for Gd-Loaded Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cowles, Christian C.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Siciliano, Edward R.

    2014-10-31

    The Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Safeguards and Security (NA-241) is supporting the project Lithium-Based Alternative Neutron Detection Technology Coincidence Counting for Gd-loaded Fuels at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the development of a lithium-based neutron coincidence counter for nondestructively assaying Gd loaded nuclear fuel. This report provides results from MCNP simulations of a lithium-based coincidence counter for the possible measurement of Gd-loaded nuclear fuel. A comparison of lithium-based simulations and UNCL-II simulations with and without Gd loaded fuel is provided. A lithium-based model, referred to as PLNS3A-R1, showed strong promise for assaying Gd loaded fuel.

  1. Analysis and Synthesis of Load Forecasting Data for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steckler, N.; Florita, A.; Zhang, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-11-01

    As renewable energy constitutes greater portions of the generation fleet, the importance of modeling uncertainty as part of integration studies also increases. In pursuit of optimal system operations, it is important to capture not only the definitive behavior of power plants, but also the risks associated with systemwide interactions. This research examines the dependence of load forecast errors on external predictor variables such as temperature, day type, and time of day. The analysis was utilized to create statistically relevant instances of sequential load forecasts with only a time series of historic, measured load available. The creation of such load forecasts relies on Bayesian techniques for informing and updating the model, thus providing a basis for networked and adaptive load forecast models in future operational applications.

  2. Considerations for Emerging Markets for Energy Savings Certificates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Barry

    2009-01-01

    energy efficiency or load management, has been proffered aspower (CHP), as well as load management and demand response.Conservation and Load Management (C&LM) fund administered by

  3. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  4. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  5. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, Steven R. (49 Williams Ave., West Valley, NY 14171)

    1990-01-01

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials.

  6. Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popovic, Zoya

    Harmonic Load Pull of High-Power Microwave Devices using Fundamental-Only Load Pull Tuners John-frequency load pull tuners. Harmonic impedance control at the virtual drain is accomplished through the use the dramatic impact of varying 2nd harmonic termination. A 3rd harmonic termination is added to satisfy

  7. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.

  8. Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCalley, James D.

    1 Generator Response to Load Variation The below table summarizes the way that load variation is allocated to generators in a power system. In these notes, we derive the proximity effect, the inertial, constant impedance loads, and the network reduced to generator internal nodes. This expression was: { }00

  9. Utilization of Heat Pump Water Heaters for Load Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boudreaux, Philip R; Jackson, Roderick K; Munk, Jeffrey D; Gehl, Anthony C; Lyne, Christopher T

    2014-01-01

    The Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters require residential electric storage water heaters with volumes larger than 55 gallons to have an energy factor greater than 2.0 after April 2015. While this standard will significantly increase the energy efficiency of water heaters, large electric storage water heaters that do not use heat pump technologies may no longer be available. Since utilities utilize conventional large-volume electric storage water heaters for thermal storage in demand response programs, there is a concern that the amended standard will significantly limit demand response capacity. To this end, Oak Ridge National Laboratory partnered with the Tennessee Valley Authority to investigate the load management capability of heat pump water heaters that meet or exceed the forthcoming water heater standard. Energy consumption reduction during peak periods was successfully demonstrated, while still meeting other performance criteria. However, to minimize energy consumption, it is important to design load management strategies that consider the home s hourly hot water demand so that the homeowner has sufficient hot water.

  10. From Packet to Power Switching: Digital Direct Load Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alizadeh, Mahnoosh; Thomas, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    At present, the power grid has tight control over its dispatchable generation capacity but a very coarse control on the demand. Energy consumers are shielded from making price-aware decisions, which degrades the efficiency of the market. This state of affairs tends to favor fossil fuel generation over renewable sources. Because of the technological difficulties of storing electric energy, the quest for mechanisms that would make the demand for electricity controllable on a day-to-day basis is gaining prominence. The goal of this paper is to provide one such mechanisms, which we call Digital Direct Load Scheduling (DDLS). DDLS is a direct load control mechanism in which we unbundle individual requests for energy and digitize them so that they can be automatically scheduled in a cellular architecture. Specifically, rather than storing energy or interrupting the job of appliances, we choose to hold requests for energy in queues and optimize the service time of individual appliances belonging to a broad class whi...

  11. Equilibrium Configurations of Cantilever under Terminal Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milan Batista

    2013-03-27

    The paper provides an exact analytical solution for equilibrium configurations of cantilever rod subject to inclined force and torque acting on its free end. The solution is given in terms of Jacobi elliptical functions and illustrated by several numerical examples and several graphical presentations of shapes of deformed cantilever. Possible forms of cantilever underlying elastica are discussed in details and various simple formulas are given for calculation of characteristic dimensions of elastica. For the case when cantilever is subject only to applied force four load conditions are discussed: follower load problem, load determination problem, conservative load problem and rotational load problem. For all the cases the formulas or effective procedure for solution is given.

  12. 1980 survey and evaluation of utility conservation, load management, and solar end-use projects. Volume 3: utility load management projects. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The results of the 1980 survey of electric utility-sponsored energy conservation, load management, and end-use solar energy conversion projects are described. The work is an expansion of a previous survey and evaluation and has been jointly sponsored by EPRI and DOE through the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. There are three volumes and a summary document. Each volume presents the results of an extensive survey to determine electric utility involvement in customer-side projects related to the particular technology (i.e., conservation, solar, or load management), selected descriptions of utility projects and results, and first-level technical and economic evaluations.

  13. High-Speed Shaft Bearing Loads Testing and Modeling in the NREL Gearbox Reliability Collaborative: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McNiff, B.; Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Sethuraman, L.

    2014-12-01

    Bearing failures in the high speed output stage of the gearbox are plaguing the wind turbine industry. Accordingly, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) has performed an experimental and theoretical investigation of loads within these bearings. The purpose of this paper is to describe the instrumentation, calibrations, data post-processing and initial results from this testing and modeling effort. Measured HSS torque, bending, and bearing loads are related to model predictions. Of additional interest is examining if the shaft measurements can be simply related to bearing load measurements, eliminating the need for invasive modifications of the bearing races for such instrumentation.

  14. Design Concepts for Power Distribution Equipment Serving Non-Linear Loads 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, G. W.

    1995-01-01

    foundation for building non-linear load power distribution system design guidelines for single-phase branch circuit wiring, three-phase equipment circuiting, panelboard circuit breakers, bus bars, and feeders, transformers, and power capacitors... or harmonic current overload, reduced energy consumption with lower operati g cost, and longer expected transformer life, regardle s of loading. Power Capacitors Power capacitors are installed on systems f? r voltage regulation and power factor correctio...

  15. ELEN$4511 POWER$SYSTEMS$ANALYSIS$FINALPROJECT! ! Electric!Vehicles!Charging!Load!Calculations!based!on! !

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lavaei, Javad

    !shifting!role!into!full!play.! ! In!my!project,!starting!from!the!development!status!and!trends!of!electric!vehicles,! analyze!developing!countries'!electric!charging!load!calculation!methods!under!the!charging!mode,!and! calculate!and!analyze!developing!countries'!future!electric!vehicle!charging!load.! ! Also,!in!my!project!the!reliability!and!energy!efficiency!of!power!system,!to! build!the!electric!cars!charging!model,!to!develop!appropriate!charging!strategies! for!users!and!to

  16. UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    was initially devised to function with user-sited PV installations to maximize demand reduction. An efficient load reduction (middle). By shedding load in response to PV output and load requirements the SLC load control (DLC) enhancement. The aggregate of direct load controlled customers constitute a reliable

  17. Synthesis of polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Benjamin J

    2014-10-07

    The synthesis of a polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy uses a one-step cure by applying an external stimulus to release the acid from the polyoxometalate and thereby catalyze the cure reaction of the epoxy resin. Such polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites afford the cured epoxy unique properties imparted by the intrinsic properties of the polyoxometalate. For example, polyoxometalate-loaded epoxy composites can be used as corrosion resistant epoxy coatings, for encapsulation of electronics with improved dielectric properties, and for structural applications with improved mechanical properties.

  18. 514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    their energy consumption and life-cycle cost. Accordingly, engi- neers must be able to place a high degree on computer implementation than annual energy calculation codes. For this reason system- atic validation514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are

  19. Scaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirchner, James W.

    approximate power law scaling with both the peak stream power and the cumulative stream energy of individual stream energy and ranged up to 0.57 m in the Erlenbach, broadly consistent with independent measurementsScaling relationships between bed load volumes, transport distances, and stream power in steep

  20. Short-Term Load Forecasting at the Local Level using Smart Meter Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tronci, Enrico

    ]; electric vehicle integration [8]; and microgrid and virtual power plant applications [7], [11]. In addition, forecast uncertainty, power demand. I. INTRODUCTION Short-Term Load Forecasting (STLF) is the forecasting is considered to be critical for power system operation, particularly for energy balancing, energy market

  1. An in-depth Analysis of Space Heating Energy Use in Office Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Hung-Wen

    2013-01-01

    load reduction for a net zero energy building, ACEEE Summergreen building or net zero energy building goals, which

  2. Using Whole-Building Electric Load Data in Continuous or Retro-Commissioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Price, Phillip N.; Mathieu, Johanna L.; Kiliccote, Sila; Piette, Mary Ann

    2011-07-01

    Whole-building electric load data can often reveal problems with building equipment or operations. In this paper, we present methods for analyzing 15-minute-interval electric load data. These methods allow building operators, energy managers, and commissioning agents to better understand a building's electricity consumption over time and to compare it to other buildings, helping them to 'ask the right questions' to discover opportunities for electricity waste elimination, energy efficiency, peak load management, and demand response. For example: Does the building use too much energy at night, or on hot days, or in the early evening? Knowing the answer to questions like these can help with retro-commissioning or continuous commissioning. The methods discussed here can also be used to assess how building energy performance varies with time. Comparing electric load before and after fixing equipment or changing operations can help verify that the fixes have the intended effect on energy consumption. Analysis methods discussed in this paper include: ways to graphically represent electric load data; the definition of various parameters that characterize facility electricity loads; and a regression-based electricity load model that accounts for both time of week and outdoor air temperature. The methods are illustrated by applying them to data from commercial buildings. We demonstrate the ability to recognize changes in building operation, and to quantify changes in energy performance. Some key findings are: 1) Plotting time series electric load data is useful for understanding electricity consumption patterns and changes to those patterns, but results may be misleading if data from different time intervals are not weather-normalized. 2) Parameter plots can highlight key features of electric load data and may be easier to interpret than plots of time series data themselves. 3) A time-of-week indicator variable (as compared to time-of-day and day-of-week indicator variables) improves the accuracy of regression models of electric load. 4) A piecewise linear and continuous outdoor air temperature dependence can be derived without the use of a change-point model (which would add complexity to the modeling algorithm) or assumptions about when structural changes occur (which could introduce inaccuracy). 5) A model that includes time-of-week and temperature dependence can be used for weather normalization and can determine whether the building is unusually temperature-sensitive, which can indicate problems with HVAC operation.

  3. Load apparatus and method for bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buescher, B.J. Jr.; Lloyd, W.R.; Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.

    1997-02-04

    A bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen load apparatus includes: (a) a body having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the first end comprising an externally threaded portion sized to be threadedly received within the test specimen threaded opening; (b) a longitudinal loading rod having first and second opposing longitudinal ends, the loading rod being slidably received in a longitudinal direction within the body internally through the externally threaded portion and slidably extending longitudinally outward of the body first longitudinal end; (c) a force sensitive transducer slidably received within the body and positioned to engage relative to the loading rod second longitudinal end; and (d) a loading bolt threadedly received relative to the body, the loading bolt having a bearing end surface and being positioned to bear against the transducer to forcibly sandwich the transducer between the loading bolt and loading rod. Also disclosed is a method of in situ determining applied force during crack propagation in a bolt-loaded compact tension test specimen. 6 figs.

  4. Final Project Report Load Modeling Transmission Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard; Bravo, Richard; Yinger, Robert; Chassin, Dave; Huang, Henry; Lu, Ning; Hiskens, Ian; Venkataramanan, Giri

    2012-03-31

    The research presented in this report primarily focuses on improving power system load models to better represent their impact on system behavior. The previous standard load model fails to capture the delayed voltage recovery events that are observed in the Southwest and elsewhere. These events are attributed to stalled air conditioner units after a fault. To gain a better understanding of their role in these events and to guide modeling efforts, typical air conditioner units were testing in laboratories. Using data obtained from these extensive tests, new load models were developed to match air conditioner behavior. An air conditioner model is incorporated in the new WECC composite load model. These models are used in dynamic studies of the West and can impact power transfer limits for California. Unit-level and systemlevel solutions are proposed as potential solutions to the delayed voltage recovery problem.

  5. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    model.   3.0 PV System Modeling Issues When modeling the PV systems in the electric  power electric grid.   4.0 Load Composition Data Tool 4.1. Introduction A power system model 

  6. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  7. Determining Electric Motor Load and Efficiency

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DETERMINING ELECTRIC MOTOR LOAD AND EFFICIENCY Most likely your operation's motors account for a large part of your monthly electric bill. Far too often motors are mismatched-or...

  8. S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

    2012-08-28

    The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

  9. Largest Ice-Bank Promotes Load Management 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brarmann, G. L.

    1983-01-01

    conservation measures were incorporated in the design of the new research facility, the ice-bank system has been the most cost-effective of the load management projects at Union Oil....

  10. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much to voltage and frequency  disturbances by offering a much disturbances is that modeling the voltage sensitivity of the load is far more important than the  frequency 

  11. Radiation load to the SNAP CCD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. V. Mokhov, I. L. Rakhno and S. I. Striganov

    2003-08-14

    Results of an express Monte Carlo analysis with the MARS14 code of radiation load to the CCD optical detectors in the Supernova Acceleration Project (SNAP) mission presented for realistic radiation environment over the satellite orbit.

  12. Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

    1988-01-01

    custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. For example, the Load Profile Viewer is a PC-based software program for reviewing and validating the end-use load data....

  13. Harmonic approaches to non-intrusive load diagnostics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fuller, Ashley E. (Ashley Eliot)

    2008-01-01

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) is a system that monitors, records and processes voltage and current measurements to establish the operating characteristics of individual loads on a load center from a single aggregate ...

  14. A three phase load flow algorithm for Shipboard Power Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medina-Calder?on, M?onica M

    2003-01-01

    -Seidel and/or Newton Raphson techniques, were primarily developed for transmission system analysis. Distribution load flow analysis must incorporate its unique characteristics such as unbalanced loads, distributed loads, radial network structure, and one...

  15. Steady state load models for power system analysis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cresswell, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The last full review of load models used for power system studies occurred in the 1980s. Since then, new types of loads have been introduced and system load mix has changed considerably. The examples of newly introduced ...

  16. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  17. DPC loading feasibility study report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dafoe, R.E.; Lopez, D.A.; Williams, K.L.

    1997-11-01

    Disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is mandated under a ``Settlement Agreement`` between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. This study investigates the feasibility of using the Dry Transfer Cell facility to package waste into Dual Purpose Canisters for interim storage at the adjacent Dry Storage System comprised of an interim storage pad with NUHOMS{reg_sign} storage modules. The wastes would then be road-ready for eventual disposal in a permanent repository. The operating period for these activities is expected to be from 2015 to 2035.

  18. Load cell having strain gauges of arbitrary location

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spletzer, Barry (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-13

    A load cell utilizes a plurality of strain gauges mounted upon the load cell body such that there are six independent load-strain relations. Load is determined by applying the inverse of a load-strain sensitivity matrix to a measured strain vector. The sensitivity matrix is determined by performing a multivariate regression technique on a set of known loads correlated to the resulting strains. Temperature compensation is achieved by configuring the strain gauges as co-located orthogonal pairs.

  19. Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) load and resource profiles.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, Lauren (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Skolnik, Edward G. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Marchionini, Brian (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC); Fall, Ndeye K. (Energetics, Inc., Washington, DC)

    2007-07-01

    In 1997, an international team interested in the development of Remote Area Power Supply (RAPS) systems for rural electrification projects around the world was organized by the International Lead Zinc Research Organization (ILZRO) with the support of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). The team focused on defining load and resource profiles for RAPS systems. They identified single family homes, small communities, and villages as candidates for RAPS applications, and defined several different size/power requirements for each. Based on renewable energy and resource data, the team devised a ''strawman'' series of load profiles. A RAPS system typically consists of a renewable and/or conventional generator, power conversion equipment, and a battery. The purpose of this report is to present data and information on insolation levels and load requirements for ''typical'' homes, small communities, and larger villages around the world in order to facilitate the development of robust design practices for RAPS systems, and especially for the storage battery component. These systems could have significant impact on areas of the world that would otherwise not be served by conventional electrical grids.

  20. An Energy-Based Approach to Power System Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caliskan, Sina Yamac

    2015-01-01

    loads, Electrical Power and Energy Systems, Vol. 8, Issue 1,equation, Electrical Power & Energy Systems, Vol. 3, No. 3,In contemporary power systems, energy flows from the

  1. Home Energy Score API User: United Illuminating Company and Eversource...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Eversource, administering conservation, and load management programs funded by the Connecticut Energy Efficiency Fund, are Home Energy Score Partners. Home Energy Solutions...

  2. Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management for larger waste packages. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Generic disposal concepts and thermal load management...

  3. Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Beam Loading by Distributed Injection of Electrons in a Plasma Wakefield Accelerator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Beam Loading by Distributed...

  4. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes This presentation was given at the...

  5. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    have been relaxed as third party load aggregators have developed and installed lower-cost communications equipment. These load aggregators targeted customers with small...

  6. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  7. Locality Aware Dynamic Load Management for Massively Multiplayer Games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amza, Cristiana

    Locality Aware Dynamic Load Management for Massively Multiplayer Games Jin Chen Department with a dynamic load management algorithm enables us to better handle transient crowding by adaptively dispersing

  8. The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol The Development of a Small Engine Based Accelerated Ash Loading Protocol Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan....

  9. Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Development of an Accelerated Ash-Loading Protocol for Diesel Particulate Filters Poster presentation at the 2007...

  10. Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Used Nuclear Fuel Loading and Structural Performance Under Normal Conditions of Transport - Modeling, Simulation and Experimental Integration RD&D Plan Used Nuclear Fuel Loading...

  11. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovoltaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard

    2005-05-03

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply.

  12. Tax Credits, Rebates & Savings | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Renewable Energy Standard Utilities subject to the RES must obtain renewable energy credits (RECs**) from eligible renewable resources to meet 15% of their retail electric load by...

  13. A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.

    1995-01-01

    The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

  14. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  15. Modality Effects on Cognitive Load and Performance in High-Load Information Presentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Theune, Mariët

    INTRODUCTION Intelligent human-computer interfaces are often multimodal, i.e. the human-computer communications into the modality planning procedure for systems that support high-load human-computer interaction. Author Keywords-load information presenta- tion scenario. Mainly based on modality-related psychology theories, we selected five

  16. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  17. Dimeric Drug Polymeric Nanoparticles with Exceptionally High Drug Loading and Quantitative Loading Efficiency

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cheng, Jianjun

    Dimeric Drug Polymeric Nanoparticles with Exceptionally High Drug Loading and Quantitative LoadingChampaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801, United States Key Laboratory of Smart Drug Delivery, Ministry of Education-molecule drugs in hydrophobic polymers or amphiphilic copolymers has been extensively used for preparing

  18. Price-Maker Economic Bidding in Two-Settlement Pool-Based Markets: The Case of Time-Shiftable Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    are found for the price and energy bids within a relatively short amount of computational time. A detailed bidding, price bids, energy bids, day-ahead market, real-time market, time-shiftable loads, demand to day-ahead market y Energy bid to real-time market p Price bid submitted to the day-ahead market

  19. Effects of incoming surface wind conditions on the wake characteristics and dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    . In addition to measuring dynamic wind loads acting on the model turbine by using a force-moment sensor, a high in the incoming ABL wind with higher turbulence intensity levels. The turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stress://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4904375] I. INTRODUCTION Wind energy, as a renewable energy source, has been playing a

  20. Building America Case Study: Advanced Boiler Load Monitoring Controllers, Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    PARR

    2014-09-01

    Beyond these initial system efficiency upgrades are an emerging class of Advanced Load Monitoring (ALM) aftermarket controllers that dynamically respond to the boiler load, with claims of 10% to 30% of fuel savings over a heating season. For hydronic boilers specifically, these devices perform load monitoring, with continuous measurement of supply and in some cases return water temperatures. Energy savings from these ALM controllers are derived from dynamic management of the boiler differential, where a microprocessor with memory of past boiler cycles prevents the boiler from firing for a period of time, to limit cycling losses and inefficient operation during perceived low load conditions. These differ from OTR controllers, which vary boiler setpoint temperatures with ambient conditions while maintaining a fixed differential. PARR installed and monitored the performance of one type of ALM controller, the M2G from Greffen Systems, at multifamily sites in the city of Chicago and its suburb Cary, IL, both with existing OTR control. Results show that energy savings depend on the degree to which boilers are over-sized for their load, represented by cycling rates. Also savings vary over the heating season with cycling rates, with greater savings observed in shoulder months. Over the monitoring period, over-sized boilers at one site showed reductions in cycling and energy consumption in line with prior laboratory studies, while less over-sized boilers at another site showed muted savings.

  1. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S.; Lobitz, Donald W.

    2003-01-07

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  2. Load attenuating passively adaptive wind turbine blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veers, Paul S. (Albuquerque, NM); Lobitz, Donald W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving wind turbine performance by alleviating loads and controlling the rotor. The invention employs the use of a passively adaptive blade that senses the wind velocity or rotational speed, and accordingly modifies its aerodynamic configuration. The invention exploits the load mitigation prospects of a blade that twists toward feather as it bends. The invention includes passively adaptive wind turbine rotors or blades with currently preferred power control features. The apparatus is a composite fiber horizontal axis wind-turbine blade, in which a substantial majority of fibers in the blade skin are inclined at angles of between 15 and 30 degrees to the axis of the blade, to produces passive adaptive aeroelastic tailoring (bend-twist coupling) to alleviate loading without unduly jeopardizing performance.

  3. Enhanced Magnetic Trap Loading for Atomic Strontium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Barker, D S; Pisenti, N C; Campbell, G K

    2015-01-01

    We report on a technique to improve the continuous loading of atomic strontium into a magnetic trap from a Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT). This is achieved by adding a depumping laser tuned to the 3P1 to 3S1 (688-nm) transition. The depumping laser increases atom number in the magnetic trap and subsequent cooling stages by up to 65 % for the bosonic isotopes and up to 30 % for the fermionic isotope of strontium. We optimize this trap loading strategy with respect to the 688-nm laser detuning, intensity, and beam size. To understand the results, we develop a one-dimensional rate equation model of the system, which is in good agreement with the data. We discuss the use of other transitions in strontium for accelerated trap loading and the application of the technique to other alkaline-earth-like atoms.

  4. PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    1 PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN Lance Manuel1 Paul S-4020 ABSTRACT International standards for wind turbine certification depend on finding long-term fatigue load loads. #12;2 INTRODUCTION Design constraints for wind turbine structures fall into either extreme load

  5. AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    AIAA-2001-0044 Extreme Load Estimation for Wind Turbines: Issues and Opportunities for Improved design load estimation procedures for wind turbines often do not accurately treat the statistical nature of loads. Current practice for wind turbine load analysis is reviewed. The authors

  6. "Load Management Systems for Component-based Middleware"

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murphy, John

    "Load Management Systems for Component-based Middleware" Octavian Ciuhandu, B.E. Masters Management Services Characteristics . . . . . 26 3.3.2 Load Management Services Classification . . . . . . 28 3.3.3 Load Management Services Requirements . . . . . 30 3.3.4 Load Management Services Components

  7. First law energy balance as a data screening tool 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shao, Xiaojie

    2006-08-16

    This thesis defines the Energy Balance Load ( BL E ) as the difference between the heating requirements plus the electric gains in the building and the cooling coil loads. It then applies a first law energy balance in ...

  8. BARYON LOADING OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS JETS MEDIATED BY NEUTRONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toma, K.; Takahara, F.

    2012-08-01

    Plasmas of geometrically thick, black hole (BH) accretion flows in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are generally collisionless for protons, and involve magnetic field turbulence. Under such conditions a fraction of protons can be accelerated stochastically and create relativistic neutrons via nuclear collisions. These neutrons can freely escape from the accretion flow and decay into protons in the dilute polar region above the rotating BH to form relativistic jets. We calculate geometric efficiencies of the neutron energy and mass injections into the polar region, and show that this process can deposit luminosity as high as L{sub j}{approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M-dot c{sup 2} and mass loading M-dot{sub j}{approx}6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -4} M-dot for the case of the BH mass M {approx} 10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }, where M-dot is the mass accretion rate. The terminal Lorentz factors of the jets are {Gamma} {approx} 3, and they may explain the AGN jets having low luminosities. For higher luminosity jets, which can be produced by additional energy inputs such as Poynting flux, the neutron decay still can be a dominant mass loading process, leading to, e.g., {Gamma} {approx} 50 for L{sub j,tot}{approx}3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -2} M-dot c{sup 2}.

  9. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L.; Ford, Justin R.; Spires, Shannon V.; Goldsmith, Steven Y.

    2015-10-27

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  10. Intelligent electrical outlet for collective load control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lentine, Anthony L; Ford, Justin R; Spires, Shannon V; Goldsmith, Steven Y

    2015-11-05

    Various technologies described herein pertain to an electrical outlet that autonomously manages loads in a microgrid. The electrical outlet can provide autonomous load control in response to variations in electrical power generation supply in the microgrid. The electrical outlet includes a receptacle, a sensor operably coupled to the receptacle, and an actuator configured to selectively actuate the receptacle. The sensor measures electrical parameters at the receptacle. Further, a processor autonomously controls the actuator based at least in part on the electrical parameters measured at the receptacle, electrical parameters from one or more disparate electrical outlets in the microgrid, and a supply of generated electric power in the microgrid at a given time.

  11. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auchter, B.; Cautley, D.; Ahl, D.; Earle, L.; Jin, X.

    2014-03-01

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to understanding how homes use energy. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, NREL researchers investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. This report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to 10 end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. NREL concludes that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  12. Control and Optimization Meet the Smart Power Grid: Scheduling of Power Demands for Optimal Energy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsopoulos, Iordanis

    technologies to enforce sensible use of energy through effective demand load management. We envision a scenario of effective management of power supply and demand loads. Load management is primarily employed by the power by transferring non-emergency power demands at off-peak-load times. Demand load management does not significantly

  13. Comments on the report "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913] by G.Levi, E.Foschi, T.Hartman, B.Höistad, R.Pettersson, L.Tegnér, H.Essén

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Göran Ericsson; Stephan Pomp

    2013-09-17

    In a recent report titled "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" and published on arXiv, G. Levi and co-workers put forth several claims concerning the operations and performance of the so-called E-Cat of inventor Andrea Rossi. We note first of all that the circumstances and people involved in the test make it far from being an independent one. We examine the claims put forth by the authors and note that in many cases they are not supported by the facts given in the report. We present results from thermal calculations showing that alternative explanations are possible were the authors seem to jump to conclusions fitting pre-conceived ideas. In general we find that much attention is drawn to trivialities, while important pieces of information and investigation are lacking and seem not to have been conducted or considered. We also note that the proposed claims would require new physics in not only one but several areas. Besides a cold-fusion like process without production of any radiation also extreme new material properties would be needed to explain what rather seems to be a problem of correct measurement. Therefore, it is clear to us that a truly independent and scientific investigation of the so called E-Cat device, convincingly demonstrating an "anomalous heat energy production" has not been presented in the arXiv report and is thus, to-date, still lacking.

  14. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts on Regional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-01-01

    of achieving 20% of energy resources with energy efficiencyEnergy Efficiency Resources2-3. Accounting for Energy Efficiency Resources in Load

  15. Distributed Energy Resource Optimization Using a Software as Service (SaaS) Approach at the University of California, Davis Campus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael, Stadler

    2011-01-01

    18 Energy Demand Forecast for Week-Aheadon the PI system. Energy Demand Forecast for Week-AheadOnly load Figure 18 Forecast Energy Demand and Energy Demand

  16. Renewable Energy Growth Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In 2014, Act H 7727 created the Renewable Energy Growth (REG) program with the goal to promote installation of grid connected renewable energy within the load zones of electric distribution...

  17. Estimating Renewable Energy Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Some renewable energy measures, such as daylighting, passive solar heating, and cooling load avoidance, do not add much to the cost of a building. However, renewable energy technologies typically...

  18. Monitoring and Characterization of Miscellaneous Electrical Loads in a Large Retail Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gentile-Polese, L.; Frank, S.; Sheppy, M.; Lobato, C.; Rader, E.; Smith, J.; Long, N.

    2014-02-01

    Buildings account for 40% of primary energy consumption in the United States (residential 22%; commercial 18%). Most (70% residential and 79% commercial) is used as electricity. Thus, almost 30% of U.S. primary energy is used to provide electricity to buildings. Plug loads play an increasingly critical role in reducing energy use in new buildings (because of their increased efficiency requirements), and in existing buildings (as a significant energy savings opportunity). If all installed commercial building miscellaneous electrical loads (CMELs) were replaced with energy-efficient equipment, a potential annual energy saving of 175 TWh, or 35% of the 504 TWh annual energy use devoted to MELs, could be achieved. This energy saving is equivalent to the annual energy production of 14 average-sized nuclear power plants. To meet DOE's long-term goals of reducing commercial building energy use and carbon emissions, the energy efficiency community must better understand the components and drivers of CMEL energy use, and develop effective reduction strategies. These goals can be facilitated through improved data collection and monitoring methodologies, and evaluation of CMELs energy-saving techniques.

  19. Northwood, New Hampshire: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Northwood, New Hampshire: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 43.194249, -71.1508969 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappi...

  20. Chilili, New Mexico: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Chilili, New Mexico: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 34.8894968, -106.2328016 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappings...

  1. Encore Energy Systems formerly Energy Vision International formerly...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    energy Product: Provider geothermal heat pumps primarily for heating and air conditioning. Coordinates: 43.781517, -89.571699 Show Map Loading map......

  2. Old Bridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Old Bridge, New Jersey: Energy Resources Jump to: navigation, search Equivalent URI DBpedia Coordinates 40.39295, -74.330035 Show Map Loading map... "minzoom":false,"mappingse...

  3. Method and apparatus for controlling current in inductive loads such as large diameter coils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Riveros, Carlos A. (3832 Harrison Ave., Brookfield, IL 60513)

    1981-01-01

    A method and apparatus for controlling electric current in loads that are essentially inductive, such that sparking and "ringing" current problems are reduced or eliminated. The circuit apparatus employs a pair of solid state switches (each of which switch may be an array of connected or parallel solid state switching devices such as transistors) and means for controlling those switches such that a power supply supplying two d.c. voltages (e.g. positive 150 volts d.c. and negative 150 volts d.c.) at low resistance may be connected across an essentially inductive load (e.g. a 6 gauge wire loop one hundred meters in diameter) alternatively and such that the first solid state switch is turned off and the second is turned on such that both are not on at the same time but the first turned on and the other on in less time than the inductive time constant (L/R) so that the load is essentially always presented with a low resistance path across its input. In this manner a steady AC current may be delivered to the load at a frequency desired. Shut-off problems are avoided by gradually shortening the period of switching to less than the time constant so that the maximum energy contained in the inductive load is reduced to approximately zero and dissipated in the inherent resistance. The invention circuit may be employed by adjusting the timing of switching to deliver a desired waveform (such as sinusoidal) to the load.

  4. Spring-loaded polymeric gel actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shahinpoor, M.

    1995-02-14

    Spring-loaded electrically controllable polymeric gel actuators are disclosed. The polymeric gels can be polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylic acid, or polyacrylamide, and are contained in an electrolytic solvent bath such as water plus acetone. The action of the gel is mechanically biased, allowing the expansive and contractile forces to be optimized for specific applications. 5 figs.

  5. DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bernal, Dionisio

    DAMAGE LOCALIZATION USING LOAD VECTORS Dionisio Bernal Associate Professor Department of Civil: A technique to localize damage in structures that can be treated as linear in the pre and post-damage state is presented. Central to the approach is the computation of a set of vectors, designated as Damage Locating

  6. Exploiting Emerging Data for Enhanced Load Modeling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Data for Enhanced Load Modeling Final Project Report Project Team Santiago Grijalva, Project Leader information about this project, contact Santiago Grijalva Van Leer E284 Georgia Tech 777 Atlantic Dr. N.W. E Kleitsch, American Transmission Company · Naim Logic, Salt River Project · Art Mander, Tri-State G

  7. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.

    1995-12-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a larger number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  8. An unconventional method for load balancing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A.; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F.

    1995-08-01

    A new method of load balancing is introduced based on the idea of dynamically relocating virtual processes corresponding to computations on an abstract system with a large number of processors. The algorithm introduced preserves the locality of nearest neighbor interactions and has been tested on simulated data and a molecular dynamics code.

  9. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, D.W.

    1984-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  10. 1995 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1995-12-01

    The study establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. The study presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, and serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts.

  11. Valve for fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA)

    1985-01-01

    A cyclone valve surrounds a wall opening through which cladding is projected. An axial valve inlet surrounds the cladding. Air is drawn through the inlet by a cyclone stream within the valve. An inflatable seal is included to physically engage a fuel pin subassembly during loading of fuel pellets.

  12. Spinning Reserve from Pump Load: A Technical Findings Report to the California Department of Water Resources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, BJ

    2005-05-06

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), at the request of the California Energy Commission and the U.S. Department of Energy, is investigating opportunities for electrical load to provide the ancillary service of spinning reserve to the electric grid. The load would provide this service by stopping for a short time when there is a contingency on the grid such as a transmission line or generator outage. There is a possibility that a significant portion of the California Independent System Operator's (CAISO's) spinning reserve requirement could be supplied from the California Department of Water Resources (CDWR) pumping load. Spinning reserve has never been supplied from load before, and rule changes would be needed to allow it. In this report, we are presenting technical findings on the possibility of supplying spinning reserve from pumping system load. In parallel, we are pursuing the needed rule changes with the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC), and the CAISO. NERC and FERC have agreed that they have no prohibition against supplying spinning reserve from load. The WECC Minimum Operability Reliability Criteria working group has agreed that the concept should be considered, and they are presently discussing the needed tariff and rule changes. Presently, spinning reserve is provided by generation that is actually spinning but is operating at low power levels and can be ramped up quickly to provide reserve power. In a sense, this is an inefficient and environmentally unfriendly way of providing reserves because it requires the generator to operate at a low power level that may be inefficient and may discharge more pollutants per kW than operating at rated power. It would be better if this generation capacity were in a position to bid into the energy market. Providing an additional supply of spinning reserve would tend to reduce prices for both reserves and the regular electric energy market. The CAISO is presently in the process of redesigning its market rules for ancillary services. The time is right to pursue this opportunity to supply spinning reserve from load. It is our hope that the CDWR will endorse this recommendation. ORNL will then work with FERC, NERC, WECC, and the CAISO to obtain the needed rule changes. This project would provide the CDWR with another option in the complex process of obtaining its energy at the lowest possible cost, while at the same time providing more flexibility to the ISO and relief to the energy market. After this project is implemented in California, we hope that the practice spreads across the nation, allowing much more flexibility in energy markets and increasing the availability of reserve services.

  13. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    generation Electric vehicle charging and electrolyzers Energy storage Building and industrial loads and demand response Smart grid sensing, automation, and microgrids...

  14. GE Energy Management Ancillary Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GE Energy Management Ancillary Services Definitions and Capability Study Part 2, Tasks 3-4, Final Online Wind Plants & Frequency Responsive Load Reserves

  15. Distribution Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    distributed generation Electric vehicle charging and electrolyzers Energy storage Building and industrial loads and demand response Smart grid sensing, automation, and...

  16. Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feinberg, Eugene A.

    of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

  17. Design and Evaluation of an Energy Agile Computing Andrew Krioukov

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    the demand of energy agile loads to the supply of renewable power sources is fun- damentally a distributed, culler, randy}@eecs.berkeley.edu Abstract Variable, intermittent renewable sources of energy are being to substantially increase the renewable penetration limit by introducing energy agile loads: loads on the electric

  18. Model Predictive Control for Energy Efficient Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Yudong

    2012-01-01

    components that use energy, and thermal energy load. When aLearning Control for Thermal Energy Storage Systems”. In:to validate the energy savings and thermal comfort. Also the

  19. IEEE Energy2030 Atlanta, Georgia, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ratnasamy, Sylvia

    (IPS), and can consist of loads, energy sources, and energy storage. The desired result of the proposed architecture is to produce a grid network designed for distributed renewable energy, prevalent energy storage

  20. Load controller and method to enhance effective capacity of a photovotaic power supply using a dynamically determined expected peak loading

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard (Delmar, NY)

    2003-04-01

    A load controller and method are provided for maximizing effective capacity of a non-controllable, renewable power supply coupled to a variable electrical load also coupled to a conventional power grid. Effective capacity is enhanced by monitoring power output of the renewable supply and loading, and comparing the loading against the power output and a load adjustment threshold determined from an expected peak loading. A value for a load adjustment parameter is calculated by subtracting the renewable supply output and the load adjustment parameter from the current load. This value is then employed to control the variable load in an amount proportional to the value of the load control parameter when the parameter is within a predefined range. By so controlling the load, the effective capacity of the non-controllable, renewable power supply is increased without any attempt at operational feedback control of the renewable supply. The expected peak loading of the variable load can be dynamically determined within a defined time interval with reference to variations in the variable load.

  1. Load balanced and Efficient Hierarchical Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanovic, Aleksandar

    Load balanced and Efficient Hierarchical Data-Centric Storage in Sensor Networks Yao Zhao, Yan Chen on scalable, energy-aware data-centric storage. Data-centric storage is typically achieved by hashing a high for sensor networks, most schemes do not provide a node address space that is amenable to the needs of data-centric

  2. Studies on activated carbon capacitor materials loaded with different amounts of ruthenium oxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Popov, Branko N.

    as electrochemical capacitors in high-power applications [1]. The energy storage mechanism here is based on fast of Electrochemical Engineering, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 loadings of RuO2 on carbon have been synthesized by an electroless deposition process. Increase in RuO2

  3. SPATIAL AND DIRECTIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF CRACKS IN SILICON PV MODULES AFTER UNIFORM MECHANICAL LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarah Kajari-Schröder, Iris Kunze, Ulrich Eitner and Marc Köntges Institute for Solar Energy Research photovoltaic modules are subjected to a variety of mechanical loads. During the manufacturing of the module, materials with different thermal expansion coefficients are bonded (e.g. soldering, lamination). This leads

  4. Aalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schaltz, Erik

    the charging patterns of EV batteries, thus prolonging their lifetime and increasing the drivers' comfort levelAalborg Universitet Flexible Local Load Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Controller for Fast ElectricVehicle Charging Station Supplemented with Flywheel Energy Storage System

  5. Active Aerodynamic Blade Distributed Flap Control Design Procedure for Load Reduction on the UpWind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    vector vmax maximum sensor output vector Technical Staff, Energy Systems Analysis/Wind and Water Power 5MW Wind Turbine David G. Wilson , Brian R. Resor , Dale E. Berg Sandia National Laboratories, P that is employed for distributed control system design for large wind turbine load reduction applications

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Calculating Design Heating Loads for Superinsulated Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Designing a superinsulated home has many benefits including improved comfort, reduced exterior noise penetration, lower energy bills, and the ability to withstand power and fuel outages under much more comfortable conditions than a typical home. Extremely low heating and cooling loads equate to much smaller HVAC equipment than conventionally required. Sizing the mechanical system to these much lower loads reduces first costs and the size of the distribution system needed. While these homes aren't necessarily constructed with excessive mass in the form of concrete floors and walls, the amount of insulation and the increase in the thickness of the building envelope can lead to a mass effect, resulting in the structures ability to store much more heat than a code built home. This results in a very low thermal inertia making the building much less sensitive to drastic temperature swings thereby decreasing the peak heating load demand. Alternative methods that take this inertia into account along with solar and internal gains result in smaller more appropriate design loads than those calculated using Manual J version 8. During the winter of 2013/2014, the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings team monitored the energy use of three homes in climate zone 6 in an attempt to evaluate the accuracy of two different mechanical system sizing methods for low load homes. Based on the results, it is recommended that internal and solar gains be included and some credit for thermal inertia be used in sizing calculations for superinsulated homes.

  7. Oncor Energy Efficiency Programs 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betts, C.

    2014-01-01

    -11-04 CATEE 2014: Clean Air Through Efficiency Conference, Dallas, Texas Nov. 18-20 2012 – 2015 Energy Efficiency Goals Year Demand Goal MW Energy Goal MWh Basis 2012 53.1 93,031 25% of Average Load Growth 2013 54.6 95,659 30% of Average Load Growth 2014... 68.1 119,311 30% of Average Load Growth 2015* 87.0 152,424 30% of Average Load Growth • The Demand Goal is based on a five year rolling average of actual demand growth, provided by Oncor Revenue Forecasting • Goal calculations take credit for 7...

  8. Ancillary-service details: regulation, load following, and generator response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirst, E.; Kirby, B.

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this report is to examine empirically these intrahour and interhour load changes and the responses of a utility`s generating resources to those load changes. We analyze data, primarily from one control area, to see how it maintains ACE close to zero in an effort to meet the A1 and A2 criteria. Overall, we estimate that load following costs US electric utilities over one billion dollars a year. We first test alternative ways to identify trends over multihour periods using both regression analysis and rolling averages. Then, we consider several metrics for intrahour load following. Next we examine characteristics of load following for different time-averaging periods and compare the dynamics of loads and load following generation across these time periods. Finally, we consider the contribution of each load to the total load following requirements of the control area.

  9. Phase change based cooling for high burst mode heat loads with temperature regulation above the phase change temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    The United States of America as represented by the United States Department of Energy (Washington, DC)

    2009-12-15

    An apparatus and method for transferring thermal energy from a heat load is disclosed. In particular, use of a phase change material and specific flow designs enables cooling with temperature regulation well above the fusion temperature of the phase change material for medium and high heat loads from devices operated intermittently (in burst mode). Exemplary heat loads include burst mode lasers and laser diodes, flight avionics, and high power space instruments. Thermal energy is transferred from the heat load to liquid phase change material from a phase change material reservoir. The liquid phase change material is split into two flows. Thermal energy is transferred from the first flow via a phase change material heat sink. The second flow bypasses the phase change material heat sink and joins with liquid phase change material exiting from the phase change material heat sink. The combined liquid phase change material is returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. The ratio of bypass flow to flow into the phase change material heat sink can be varied to adjust the temperature of the liquid phase change material returned to the liquid phase change material reservoir. Varying the flowrate and temperature of the liquid phase change material presented to the heat load determines the magnitude of thermal energy transferred from the heat load.

  10. Using Process Load Cell Information for IAEA Safeguards at Enrichment Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laughter, Mark D; Whitaker, J Michael; Howell, John

    2010-01-01

    Uranium enrichment service providers are expanding existing enrichment plants and constructing new facilities to meet demands resulting from the shutdown of gaseous diffusion plants, the completion of the U.S.-Russia highly enriched uranium downblending program, and the projected global renaissance in nuclear power. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) conducts verification inspections at safeguarded facilities to provide assurance that signatory States comply with their treaty obligations to use nuclear materials only for peaceful purposes. Continuous, unattended monitoring of load cells in UF{sub 6} feed/withdrawal stations can provide safeguards-relevant process information to make existing safeguards approaches more efficient and effective and enable novel safeguards concepts such as information-driven inspections. The IAEA has indicated that process load cell monitoring will play a central role in future safeguards approaches for large-scale gas centrifuge enrichment plants. This presentation will discuss previous work and future plans related to continuous load cell monitoring, including: (1) algorithms for automated analysis of load cell data, including filtering methods to determine significant weights and eliminate irrelevant impulses; (2) development of metrics for declaration verification and off-normal operation detection ('cylinder counting,' near-real-time mass balancing, F/P/T ratios, etc.); (3) requirements to specify what potentially sensitive data is safeguards relevant, at what point the IAEA gains on-site custody of the data, and what portion of that data can be transmitted off-site; (4) authentication, secure on-site storage, and secure transmission of load cell data; (5) data processing and remote monitoring schemes to control access to sensitive and proprietary information; (6) integration of process load cell data in a layered safeguards approach with cross-check verification; (7) process mock-ups constructed to provide simulated load cell data; (8) hardware and software implementation for process load cell data collection; (9) costs associated with unattended monitoring of load cells (for both operator and inspector) weighed against the potential benefits of having access to such data; (10) results from field tests of load cell data collection systems in operating facilities; and (11) use of unattended load cell data to increase efficiency of on-site inspection schedules and activities.

  11. Summary of Market Opportunities for Electric Vehicles and Dispatchable Load in Electrolyzers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, Paul; Eichman, Joshua; Markel, Tony; Ma, Ookie

    2015-05-19

    Electric vehicles (EVs) and electrolyzers are potentially significant sources of new electric loads. Both are flexible in that the amount of electricity consumed can be varied in response to a variety of factors including the cost of electricity. Because both EVs and electrolyzers can control the timing of electricity purchases, they can minimize energy costs by timing the purchases of energy to periods of lowest costs.

  12. WHEN TELECOMMUNICATION NETWORKS MEET ENERGY GRIDS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rossi, Michele

    -19, Seville, Spain, 2015. Scenario: 50 residential units, 30% of them are DGs (solar panels are 10m2 per unit compensation 7 #12;Solar Powered BS Solar Panel Energy Manager Load Battery Solar-powered BS Energy Grid energy Scenario · Solar-powered BS model · Energy source & storage · Power demand model (load) · Price signal (day

  13. 1996 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1996-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study (White Book) is published annually by BPA and establishes the planning basis for supplying electricity to customers. It serves a dual purpose. First, the White Book presents projections of regional and Federal system load and resource capabilities, along with relevant definitions and explanations. Second, the White Book serves as a benchmark for annual BPA determinations made pursuant to the 1981 regional power sales contracts. Specifically, BPA uses the information in the White Book for determining the notice required when customers request to increase or decrease the amount of power purchased from BPA. Aside from these purposes, the White Book is used for input to BPA`s resource planning process. The White Book compiles information obtained from several formalized resource planning reports and data submittals, including those from the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) and the Pacific Northwest Utilities Conference Committee (PNUCC). 11 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Wave loads on offshore wind turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yu, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2015-01-01

    Ocean energy is one of the most important sources of alternative energy and offshore floating wind turbines are considered viable and economical means of harnessing ocean energy. The accurate prediction of nonlinear ...

  15. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    of Electrical Power and Energy  Systems, vol.  24, pp.  337–of Electrical Power and Energy Systems, vol. 24, pp. 337–that injects energy into power system may provide  more 

  16. Characterization, Modeling, and Energy Harvesting of Phase Transformations in Ferroelectric Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Wen

    2015-01-01

    and C. M. Percival, "Electric Energy Generation by ShockDevonshire Free Energy Density under Stress and Electric5. Frequency and Electric Load Impedance Effects on Energy

  17. Demand Responsive and Energy Efficient Control Technologies and Strategies in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Piette, Mary Ann; Kiliccote, Sila

    2006-01-01

    Study in Energy Efficiency in Buildings August Nationalelectric loads in buildings: energy efficiency (for steady-and Energy Efficiency Options Using Commercial Building

  18. A High-Fidelity Energy Monitoring and Feedback Architecture for Reducing Electrical Consumption in Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiang, Xiaofan

    2010-01-01

    Home Profile- based wireless energy monitoring solutions.meter for energy monitoring of wireless sensor networks atand evaluation of a wireless plug-load energy meter - ACme -

  19. Comments on the report "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913] by G.Levi, E.Foschi, T.Hartman, B.H\\"oistad, R.Pettersson, L.Tegn\\'er, H.Ess\\'en

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ericsson, Göran

    2013-01-01

    In a recent report titled "Indications of anomalous heat energy production in a reactor device containing hydrogen loaded nickel powder" [arXiv:1305.3913], G. Levi and co-workers put forth several claims concerning the operations and performance of the so-called E-Cat of Andrea Rossi. We note first of all that the circumstances and people involved in the test make if far from being an independent one. We examine the claims put forth by the authors and note that in many cases they are not supported by the facts given in the report. The authors seem to jump to conclusions fitting pre-conceived ideas where alternative explanations are possible. In general we find that much attention is drawn to trivialities while important pieces of information and investigation are lacking and seem not to have been conducted or considered. These are characteristics more typically found in pseudo-scientific texts and have no place in a technical/scientific report on this level. We also note that the proposed claims would require...

  20. Electricity pricing for conservation and load shifting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orans, Ren; Woo, C.K.; Horii, Brian; Chait, Michele; DeBenedictis, Andrew

    2010-04-15

    The electricity industry is facing the challenge of increasing costs of reliably meeting demand growth and fully complying with legislative renewable portfolio standards and greenhouse gas reduction targets. However, an electric utility's existing tariffs often don't have rates that increase with consumption volume or vary by time of use, thus not fully exploiting the potential benefits from customer conservation and load shifting. (author)

  1. Metal loading and reactivity of Zeolite Y 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sa?enz, Marc Gerard

    1988-01-01

    V) are transi- tion metal oxides or sulfides on an alumina support. These catalysts were not specifically developed for hydrodenitrogenaiion but were adopted from hydrocracking or hydrodesul- furization (HDS) processes. HDN is more difficult than HDS; thus... No. ;&778365, "Hydrocracking and Hydrodenitrogenation of Shale Oil" (7). The patent disclosed a class of catalysi. s based on large pore zeolites loaded v;ith transition metals. The zeolite based catalysts were preferred over the traditional alumina...

  2. Loading Relativistic Maxwell Distributions in Particle Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zenitani, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Numerical algorithms to load relativistic Maxwell distributions in particle-in-cell (PIC) and Monte-Carlo simulations are presented. For stationary relativistic Maxwellian, the inverse transform method and the Sobol algorithm are reviewed. To boost particles to obtain relativistic shifted-Maxwellian, two rejection methods are proposed in a physically transparent manner. Their acceptance efficiencies are ${\\approx}50\\%$ for generic cases and $100\\%$ for symmetric distributions. They can be combined with arbitrary base algorithms.

  3. Batch load anaerobic digestion of dairy manure 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egg, Richard P

    1979-01-01

    and medium size dairy operations unless the pro- cess can be made more efficient or some other economic benefit can be derived from the manure. A recent study indicated that a batch load process might be more efficient in waste stabilization and biogas... rate of biogas production was 0. 69 liters biogas/liter digester/ day. This volumetric biogas production increased with increasing influent total solids concentration. Influent concentration had little effect on other biogas production parameters...

  4. Industrial-Load-Shaping: The Practice of and Prospects for Utility/Industry Cooperation to Manage Peak Electricity Demand 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bules, D. J.; Rubin, D. E.; Maniates, M. F.

    1986-01-01

    -LOAD-SHAPI1IG: TIlE PRACTICE OF AND PROSPECTS FOR UTILITY/INDUSTRY COOPERATION TO MAUGE PEAK ELECTRICITY DEMAND Donald J. BuIes and David E. Rubin Consultants, Pacific Gas and Electric Company San Francisco, California Michael F. Maniates Energy... and Resources Group, University of California Berkeley, California ABSTRACT Load-management programs designed to reduce demand for electricity during peak periods are becoming increasingly important to electric utilities. For a gf'owing number...

  5. NWTC Researchers Field-Test Advanced Control Turbine Systems to Increase Performance, Decrease Structural Loading of Wind Turbines and Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) are studying component controls, including new advanced actuators and sensors, for both conventional turbines as well as wind plants. This research will help develop innovative control strategies that reduce aerodynamic structural loads and improve performance. Structural loads can cause damage that increase maintenance costs and shorten the life of a turbine or wind plant.

  6. Abstract--In this paper, a hierarchical control scheme is pro-posed for enhancement of Sensitive Load Bus (SLB) voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    ) are often connected to the utility grid or microgrid through a power-electronic interface converter. Microgrid is a local grid consisting of DGs, energy storage systems and dispersed loads which may operate Load Bus (SLB) voltage quality in microgrids. The control structure consists of primary and secondary

  7. Interactions between Energy Efficiency Programs funded under the Recovery Act and Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    renewable energy/energy efficiency programs in the future.renewable energy/energy efficiency programs in the future.future. Resource-efficient loading order – On-site renewable energy

  8. Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available Transmission Reliability "Load as a Resource" Peer Review Materials Now Available September 25, 2014 - 11:43am Addthis OE's...

  9. Assessing and Reducing Miscellaneous Electric Loads (MELs) in Lodging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rauch, Emily M.

    2011-09-01

    Miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) are the loads outside of a building's core functions of heating, ventilating, air conditioning, lighting, and water heating. This report reviews methods to reduce MELs in lodging.

  10. Calculation of Extreme Wave Loads on Coastal Highway Bridges 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meng, Bo

    2010-01-14

    Coastal bridges are exposed to severe wave, current and wind forces during a hurricane. Most coastal bridges are not designed to resist wave loads in such extreme situations, and there are no existing analytical methods to calculate wave loads...

  11. Crack coalescence in rock-like material under cycling loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ko, Tae Young, 1973-

    2005-01-01

    A total of 170 tests (68 tests for monotonic loading, 102 tests for cyclic loading) have been performed to investigate crack initiation, propagation and coalescence. The specimens have two pre-existing flaws which are ...

  12. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  13. Demand-response (DR) programs, in which facilities reduce their electric loads in response to a utility signal, represent a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Issue Demand-response (DR) programs, in which facilities reduce their electric loads (Figure 1). The testing covered four Lighting the Way to Demand ResponseLighting the Way to Demand Response California Energy Commission's Public Interest Energy Research Program Technical Brief PIER

  14. On Myosin II dynamics in the presence of external loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Buonocore; L. Caputo; Y. Ishii; E. Pirozzi; T. Yanagida; L. M. Ricciardi

    2005-04-18

    We address the controversial hot question concerning the validity of the loose coupling versus the lever-arm theories in the actomyosin dynamics by re-interpreting and extending the phenomenological washboard potential model proposed by some of us in a previous paper. In this new model a Brownian motion harnessing thermal energy is assumed to co-exist with the deterministic swing of the lever-arm, to yield an excellent fit of the set of data obtained by some of us on the sliding of Myosin II heads on immobilized actin filaments under various load conditions. Our theoretical arguments are complemented by accurate numerical simulations, and the robustness of the model is tested via different choices of parameters and potential profiles.

  15. Titanium tritide radioisotope heat source development : palladium-coated titanium hydriding kinetics and tritium loading tests.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Shugard, Andrew D.; Walters, R. Tom

    2012-01-01

    We have found that a 180 nm palladium coating enables titanium to be loaded with hydrogen isotopes without the typical 400-500 C vacuum activation step. The hydriding kinetics of Pd coated Ti can be described by the Mintz-Bloch adherent film model, where the rate of hydrogen absorption is controlled by diffusion through an adherent metal-hydride layer. Hydriding rate constants of Pd coated and vacuum activated Ti were found to be very similar. In addition, deuterium/tritium loading experiments were done on stacks of Pd coated Ti foil in a representative-size radioisotope heat source vessel. The experiments demonstrated that such a vessel could be loaded completely, at temperatures below 300 C, in less than 10 hours, using existing department-of-energy tritium handling infrastructure.

  16. Impact of Paint Color on Rest Period Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lustbader, J.; Kreutzer, C.; Jeffers, M.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Brontz, P.; Olson, K.; Ohlinger, J.

    2014-02-01

    Cab climate conditioning is one of the primary reasons for operating the main engine in a long-haul truck during driver rest periods. In the United States, sleeper cab trucks use approximately 667 million gallons of fuel annually for rest period idling. The U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) CoolCab Project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that minimize engine idling and fuel use while maintaining occupant comfort. Heat transfer to the vehicle interior from opaque exterior surfaces is one of the major heat pathways that contribute to air conditioning loads during long-haul truck daytime rest period idling. To quantify the impact of paint color and the opportunity for advanced paints, NREL collaborated with Volvo Group North America, PPG Industries, and Dometic Environmental Corporation. Initial screening simulations using CoolCalc, NREL's rapid HVAC load estimation tool, showed promising air-conditioning load reductions due to paint color selection. Tests conducted at NREL's Vehicle Testing and Integration Facility using long-haul truck cab sections, 'test bucks,' showed a 31.1% of maximum possible reduction in rise over ambient temperature and a 20.8% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use by switching from black to white paint. Additionally, changing from blue to an advanced color-matched solar reflective blue paint resulted in a 7.3% reduction in daily electric air conditioning energy use for weather conditions tested in Colorado. National-level modeling results using weather data from major U.S. cities indicated that the increase in heating loads due to lighter paint colors is much smaller than the reduction in cooling loads.

  17. Testing Controls to Mitigate Fatigue Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2009-01-01

    Wind turbines are complex, nonlinear, dynamic systems forced by aerodynamic, gravitational, centrifugal, and gyroscopic loads. The aerodynamics of wind turbines is nonlinear, unsteady, and complex. Turbine rotors are subjected to a complicated three-dimensional (3D) turbulent wind inflow field with imbedded coherent vortices that drive fatigue loads and reduce lifetime. Design of control algorithms for wind turbines must account for multiple control objectives. Future large multi-megawatt turbines must be designed with lighter weight structures, using active controls to mitigate fatigue loads, maximize energy capture, and add active damping to maintain stability for these dynamically active structures operating in a complex environment. Researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory are designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. This paper describes testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control methods. The controller uses independent blade pitch to regulate the turbine's speed in Region 3, mitigate the effects of shear across the rotor disk, and add active damping to the tower's first fore-aft bending mode. Additionally, a separate generator torque control loop is designed to add active damping to the tower's first side-side mode and the first drivetraintorsion mode. This paper discusses preliminary implementation and field tests of this controller in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Also included are preliminary comparisons of the performance of this controller to results from a typical baseline Proportional-Integral-Derivative controller designed with just Region 3 speed regulation as the goal.

  18. I. Introduction Equivalent loading of induction machines are

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Szabados, Barna

    phase synchronous machine. If the synchronous machine had a rotor with two windings with a spacial phaseI. Introduction Equivalent loading of induction machines are used to test machines for temperature loading tests, lead to the conclusion that synthetic loading is a viable simple test for large machines

  19. Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Extreme Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data,itiscommontoeithercarry out extensive simulation studies or undertake a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind here is to estimate extreme loads for an offshore wind turbine for which the environmental and load

  20. AIAA980057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    AIAA­98­0057 RELATING TURBULENCE TO WIND TURBINE BLADE LOADS: PARAMETRIC STUDY WITH MULTIPLE that is most useful in estimating fatigue loads on wind turbine blades. The histograms of rainflow counted for flapwise loads on three horizontal axis wind tur­ bines(HAWTs). In the case of two of these turbines